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Sample records for daily temperature ranges

  1. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-08

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  2. Latitudinal variation in the response of tidepool copepods to mean and daily range in temperature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Brian C; Shurin, Jonathan B

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the evolutionary potential of organisms to adapt to a changing climate, and the fitness consequences of temperature fluctuations, are critical to forecasting the future of biodiversity. Geographic variation among populations in life history response to temperature mean and variability offers one view of the potential for local adaptation to broaden the thermal niche. We used laboratory growth experiments to examine the effects of temperatures between 13 degrees C and 30 degrees C on five life history traits and the intrinsic rate of increase for 15 Tigriopus californicus populations distributed over 17 degrees of latitude. Different life history stages showed distinct latitudinal shifts in thermal response, while the temperature of peak population growth consistently declined with increasing latitude. In addition, high-latitude populations grew faster at optimal temperatures but showed steeper fitness declines at high temperature. To test geographic population variation in response to the amplitude of daily thermal fluctuations, we grew three northern and three southern populations and manipulated nightly low and daily high temperatures. We found the lowest fitness overall in the treatment with the highest mean temperature, and the treatment with the greatest variability showed high fitness despite an 80C greater daily range. Population responses to daily thermal variability were unrelated to latitude of origin. Our results indicate that trade-offs between adaptation to high vs. low temperature, and between growth and maturation vs. survival and fecundity, govern local adaptation along the latitudinal gradient. They also indicate that, T. californicus populations can maintain fitness over a wide range of daily variability but are more sensitive to small changes in the mean temperature.

  3. Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.

    2009-07-01

    This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric temperature fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates temperature variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of temperature time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.

  4. Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.

    2009-02-01

    This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric temperature fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates temperature variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of temperature time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.

  5. Diurnal Temperature Range in Relation to Daily Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunquan; Yu, Chuanhua; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Lan; Cui, Fangfang

    2017-08-08

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator associated with global climate change, and has been linked with mortality and morbidity in previous studies. To date, however, little evidence has been available regarding the association of DTR with years of life lost (YLL). This study aimed to evaluate the DTR-related burden on both YLL and mortality. We collected individual records of all registered deaths and daily meteorological data in Wuhan, central China, between 2009 and 2012. For the whole population, every 1 °C increase in DTR at a lag of 0-1 days was associated with an increase of 0.65% (95% CI: 0.08-1.23) and 1.42 years (-0.88-3.72) for mortality and YLL due to non-accidental deaths, respectively. Relatively stronger DTR-mortality/YLL associations were found for cardiovascular deaths. Subgroup analyses (stratified by gender, age, and education level) showed that females, the elderly (75+ years old), and those with higher education attainment (7+ years) suffered more significantly from both increased YLL and mortality due to large DTR. Our study added additional evidence that short-term exposure to large DTR was associated with increased burden of premature death using both mortality incidence and YLL.

  6. Warmer daily temperatures since 1951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Days and nights have indeed become warmer over the past 60 years, a new study finds. Although several observation-based studies have shown that daily average temperatures as well as daily maximum and minimum temperatures have increased over the past few decades, controversy has remained as to how the observed trends in extreme and average temperatures are related to each other: Are the warming trends in extreme temperatures a result of a shifting mean climate, or have temperatures become more variable? Using a global observational data set of daily temperatures, Donat and Alexander compared the probability distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over two 30-year periods, 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The authors show that the maximum and minimum daily temperatures all over the globe have significantly shifted toward higher values during the latter period. They further show that the distributions have become skewed toward the hotter part of the distribution; changes are greater for daily minimum (nighttime) temperatures than for the daily maximum (daytime) temperatures. The authors conclude that the distribution of global daily temperatures has indeed become “more extreme” compared to the middle of the twentieth century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL052459, 2012)

  7. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  8. Effect of daily temperature range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM10 exposures.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological investigations regarding temperature influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of daily temperature range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that temperature range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between temperature variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of daily temperature range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM10 exposures

    PubMed Central

    Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations regarding temperature influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of daily temperature range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that temperature range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between temperature variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. PMID:26164202

  10. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  11. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air temperatures [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be

  12. Variability in range cow mineral use is associated with season and daily high temperature in Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate assessment of mineral nutrition in range cattle is complicated by seasonal changes in diet mineral concentrations, shifting requirements and a lack of knowledge of seasonal mineral intake variability. This study was designed to evaluate variation in herd mineral intake, and individual cow m...

  13. Seasonal microbial and nutrient responses during a 5-year reduction in the daily temperature range of soil in a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Natasja C; Dhungana, Nirmala; Tissue, David T; Zak, John C

    2016-01-01

    High daily temperature range of soil (DTRsoil) negatively affects soil microbial biomass and activity, but its interaction with seasonal soil moisture in regulating ecosystem function remains unclear. For our 5-year field study in the Chihuahuan Desert, we suspended shade cloth 15 cm above the soil surface to reduce daytime temperature and increase nighttime soil temperature compared to unshaded plots, thereby reducing DTRsoil (by 5 ºC at 0.2 cm depth) without altering mean temperatures. Microbial biomass production was primarily regulated by seasonal precipitation with the magnitude of the response dependent on DTRsoil. Reduced DTRsoil more consistently increased microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN; +38%) than microbial biomass carbon (MBC) with treatment responses being similar in spring and summer. Soil respiration depended primarily on soil moisture with responses to reduced DTRsoil evident only in wetter summer soils (+53%) and not in dry spring soils. Reduced DTRsoil had no effect on concentrations of dissolved organic C, soil organic matter (SOM), nor soil inorganic N (extractable NO3 (-)-N + NH4 (+)-N). Higher MBN without changes in soil inorganic N suggests faster N cycling rates or alternate sources of N. If N cycling rates increased without a change to external N inputs (atmospheric N deposition or N fixation), then productivity in this desert system, which is N-poor and low in SOM, could be negatively impacted with continued decreases in daily temperature range. Thus, the future N balance in arid ecosystems, under conditions of lower DTR, seems linked to future precipitation regimes through N deposition and regulation of soil heat load dynamics.

  14. Does diurnal temperature range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of daily data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the temperature impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) on suicide mortality. Daily temperature and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant (P<0.01) correlation between the springtime DTR maxima and suicide rates for males. No similar association could be found for females. These results provide evidence that a higher springtime DTR could be linked statistically to a higher seasonal suicide rate each spring, whereas the exact timing of the DTR peak did not associate with the seasonal suicide rate. A possible mechanism behind the springtime association between the DTR and suicides originates from brown adipose tissue (BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.

  15. Does diurnal temperature range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of daily data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the temperature impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) on suicide mortality. Daily temperature and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant ( P < 0.01) correlation between the springtime DTR maxima and suicide rates for males. No similar association could be found for females. These results provide evidence that a higher springtime DTR could be linked statistically to a higher seasonal suicide rate each spring, whereas the exact timing of the DTR peak did not associate with the seasonal suicide rate. A possible mechanism behind the springtime association between the DTR and suicides originates from brown adipose tissue (BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.

  16. On the asymmetry of the urban daily air temperature cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yuguo; Wang, Yi; Yang, Xinyan

    2017-06-01

    The asymmetry phenomenon in daily temperature cycle refers to the smaller and decreasing diurnal temperature range, which resulted from much faster rise of the daily minimum temperature than that of the maximum temperature. The asymmetry is known to have occurred in greater magnitude in cities than rural sites. Spatially, the diurnal temperature range is much smaller in urban areas than in the surrounding rural areas. Temporally, the urban diurnal temperature range decreases much faster than that in the rural areas. Here, we demonstrate a new approach in understanding the spatial and temporal asymmetries in the urban daily air temperature cycle. Both asymmetries can be explained by a simple combination of a reduction in amplitudes with a rise in mean temperature, which are governed by difference factors. Our study provides new insights that increase our understanding of the mechanisms of urban warming.

  17. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  18. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  19. Statistical Analysis of daily mean temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Data of daily mean temperatures recorded at the Kennedy Center during the period of 1957-1977 were analyzed to forecast daily mean temperatures and their thirty-day moving averages for a period of ten to fifteen days in a given month. Since it is found that the standard deviation is linear in the mean, a logarithmic transformation of the data is used for finding an integrated moving average process IMA by the Box-Jenkins aproach. The first differences of the transformed data seem to fit a moving average model with parameter value 2, MA(2). The consideration of seasonality factor makes the fit worse.

  20. Characteristics of Daily and Extreme Temperatures over Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsal, B. R.; Zhang, X.; Vincent, L. A.; Hogg, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that, since 1900, mean annual temperature over southern Canada has increased by an average of 0.9°C, with the largest warming during winter and early spring. Every season was associated with greater increases in minimum temperature as opposed to maximum, thus resulting in a significant decrease in the daily temperature range (DTR). The second half of the twentieth century was associated with significant winter and spring warming in the south and west, and cooling in the northeast. However, no significant changes in DTR were observed during this period. This investigation goes beyond the annual/seasonal scales by examining trends and variability in daily minimum and maximum temperature with particular emphasis on extremes. Using recently updated, homogenized daily data, spatial and temporal characteristics of daily and extreme temperature-related variables are analyzed on a seasonal basis for the periods of 1900-98 (southern Canada), and 1950-98 (the entire country). From 1900 to 1998, the majority of southern Canada shows significantly increasing trends to the lower and higher percentiles of the daily minimum and maximum temperature distribution. The findings translate into fewer days with extreme low temperature during winter, spring, and summer and more days with extreme high temperature during winter and spring. No consistent trends are found for the higher percentiles of summer daily maximum temperature, indicating little change to the number of extreme hot summer days. Over the southwest, increases are larger to the left-hand side of the daily minimum and maximum temperature distribution, resulting in significant decreases to the intraseasonal standard deviation of daily temperature. The 1950-98 results are somewhat different from the entire century, especially, during winter and spring. This result includes significant increases to the low and high percentiles over the west, and decreases over the east. This analysis reveals that

  1. On estimating total daily evapotranspiration from remote surface temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.; Buffum, Martha J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for calculating daily evapotranspiration from the daily surface energy budget using remotely sensed surface temperature and several meteorological variables is presented. Vaules of the coefficients are determined from simulations with a one-dimensional boundary layer model with vegetation cover. Model constants are obtained for vegetation and bare soil at two air temperature and wind speed levels over a range of surface roughness and wind speeds. A different means of estimating the daily evapotranspiration based on the time rate of increase of surface temperature during the morning is also considered. Both the equations using our model-derived constants and field measurements are evaluated, and a discussion of sources of error in the use of the formulation is given.

  2. Urban impact on the daily cycle of air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yuguo

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and preventing urban warming is vital in urban climate research, but the main anthropogenic factors behind the phenomenon are very complex. Previous studies mostly focused on the urban heat island and larger warming trend of mean temperature, neglected the basic periodic variations of the climate. The daily and annual cycles of the surface air temperature are the two fundamental climate variations. A typical temperature cycle has three characteristics; mean, amplitude and phase. We hypothesize that an analysis of the changes in the characteristics of the whole daily and annual temperature cycles, including not only the mean temperature and temperature ranges (amplitudes), but also the maximum, minimum temperatures and the phases, can provide more information concerning the urban warming. Through a detailed analysis of long-term observations in Hong Kong, we found that the daily phase has shifted a total of 1.77 hours later over the last 130 years (1.36 hours per century) in the urban area of Hong Kong as represented by the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) data. The annual phase change in HKO reflects the phenomenon that globally observed annual phase advances or seasons onset earlier. Similar results are revealed by studying 670 long-term stations worldwide. The average daily phase delay in the identified large city stations is 3 times larger than that observed in the rural stations. Such a daily phase delay phenomenon can be explained by the increase in effective daily thermal storage in cities due to human-made structures; the change in annual thermal storage is much smaller. The results can help determine the extent of the urban impact on different temperature cycles, and provide more information on how human activities impact on the climate.

  3. Statistical Modeling of Daily Stream Temperature for Mitigating Fish Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Water allocations in the Central Valley Project (CVP) of California require the consideration of short- and long-term needs of many socioeconomic factors including, but not limited to, agriculture, urban use, flood mitigation/control, and environmental concerns. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) ensures that the decision-making process provides sufficient water to limit the impact on protected species, such as salmon, in the Sacramento River Valley. Current decision support tools in the CVP were deemed inadequate by the National Marine Fisheries Service due to the limited temporal resolution of forecasts for monthly stream temperature and fish mortality. Finer scale temporal resolution is necessary to account for the stream temperature variations critical to salmon survival and reproduction. In addition, complementary, long-range tools are needed for monthly and seasonal management of water resources. We will present a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework of maximum daily stream temperatures and related attributes, such as: daily stream temperature range, exceedance/non-exceedance of critical threshold temperatures, and the number of hours of exceedance. A suite of predictors that impact stream temperatures are included in the models, including current and prior day values of streamflow, water temperatures of upstream releases from Shasta Dam, air temperature, and precipitation. Monthly models are developed for each stream temperature attribute at the Balls Ferry gauge, an EPA compliance point for meeting temperature criteria. The statistical framework is also coupled with seasonal climate forecasts using a stochastic weather generator to provide ensembles of stream temperature scenarios that can be used for seasonal scale water allocation planning and decisions. Short-term weather forecasts can also be used in the framework to provide near-term scenarios useful for making water release decisions on a daily basis. The framework can be easily translated to other

  4. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  5. [Body temperature measurement in daily practice].

    PubMed

    Sermet-Gaudelus, I; Chadelat, I; Lenoir, G

    2005-08-01

    The use of rectal mercury thermometer has long been the standard method for measurement of body temperature. The restriction of mercury use since 1996 has led to development of other devices. The liquid crystal strip thermometer held against the forehead has a low sensitivity. The single-use chemical thermometer measures oral temperature. Its accuracy must be evaluated. Infrared ear thermometers are routinely used because it is convenient and fast to use. However, numerous studies have shown that it does not show sufficient correlation with rectal temperature, leading to the risk to miss cases of true fever. Rectal temperature remains the gold standard in case of fever. Rectal temperature measurement with an electronic device is well correlated with the glass mercury standard. Galistan thermometer accuracy must be evaluated because of sterilization of the whole device, which is not the case for the electronic thermometer. A pediatric study is necessary to evaluate the performance of this device in comparison with the electronic thermometer.

  6. Influence of lunar phase on daily global temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.; Cerveny, R.S.

    1995-03-10

    A newly available data set of daily satellite-derived, lower-tropospheric global temperature anomalies provides an opportunity to assess the influence of lunar phase on planetary temperature. These results reveal a statistically significant 0.02 K modulation between new moon and full moon, with the warmest daily global temperatures over a synodic month coincident with the occurrence of the full moon. Spectral analysis of the daily temperature record confirms the presence of a periodicity that matches the lunar synodic (29-53-day) cycle. The precision of the satellite-based daily temperature record allows verification that the moon exerts a discernible influence on the short-term, global temperature record. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Han; Deng, Xinwei; Kim, Dong-Yun; Smith, Eric P.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature. A good predictive model for daily maximum temperature is required because daily maximum temperature is an important measure for predicting survival of temperature sensitive fish. To appropriately model the strong relationship between water and air temperatures at a daily time step, it is important to incorporate information related to the time of the year into the modeling. In this work, a time-varying coefficient model is used to study the relationship between air temperature and water temperature. The time-varying coefficient model enables dynamic modeling of the relationship, and can be used to understand how the air-water temperature relationship varies over time. The proposed model is applied to 10 streams in Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia using daily maximum temperatures. It provides a better fit and better predictions than those produced by a simple linear regression model or a nonlinear logistic model.

  8. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  9. Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model

    Treesearch

    Han Li; Xinwei Deng; Dong-Yum Kim; Eric P. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature...

  10. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Linkages between longer term warming of the climate, related changes in the cryosphere, and destabilisation of high mountain rockwalls have been documented in several studies. Although understanding is far from complete, a range of physical processes related to longer term warming are understood to have an effect on slope stability. More recently, some attention has turned to the possible influence of much shorter periods of extremely warm temperatures, as a contributing factor, or even trigger of slope failures. So far, studies have not extended beyond highlighting one or a few individual events, and no common approach to quantifying the 'extremity' of the prevailing temperatures has been used. In the current study, we integrate established practices used in the climatology community in the analyses of climate extremes, together with an inventory of ca. 20 recent rock failures (1987 - 2010) in the central European Alps, to assess temporal relationships between daily air temperature extremes and rock failure occurrence. Using data from three high elevation recording sites across Switzerland, we focus on daily maximum temperatures in the 4 weeks immediately prior to each rockfall occurrence, where an extremely warm day is defined as exceeding the 95th percentile during the climatological reference period of 1971 - 2000. The 95th percentile is calculated in a 21 day moving window, so that extreme temperatures are considered relative to the time of year, and not on an annual basis. In addition, rock failures from the Southern Alps of New Zealand are analysed, although high elevation climate data are limited from this region. Results from the European Alps show that a majority of recent slope failures have been preceded by one or more extreme, unseasonably warm days, most notably in the week immediately prior to the failure. For example, for 9 slope failures in the Valais - Mt Blanc region (based on Grand St Bernhard climate data), 6 were proceeded by extremely warm

  11. Estimation of Daily Stream Temperatures in a Mountain River Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Benjankar, R. M.; Isaak, D.; Wenger, S.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature plays an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, water and spawning habitat quality, growth of fish populations are functions of stream temperature. Therefore, accurate estimates of daily stream temperatures can provide beneficial information for water resource managers and decision makers. Here, we develop a model for precise daily water temperature estimates that is applicable even in places lacking various meteorological and hydrological data. The water temperature model in this study is a piecewise model that considers both linear and non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables including maximum and minimum temperature (meteorological derivers) and precipitation (hydrological deriver). We demonstrated the model in the Boise River Basin, in central Idaho, USA. The hydrology of this basin is snow-dominated and complex due to the mountainous terrain. We predicted daily stream temperature at 34 sites using 12 weather and Snowtel stations for deriving variables. Results of the stream temperature model indicate average Root Mean Square Error of 1.28 degree of Celsius along with average 0.91 of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for all stations. Comparison of the results of this study to Mohseni et al.'s model (1998), which is widely applied in water temperature studies, shows better performance of the model presented in this study. Our approach can be used to provide historical reconstructions of daily stream temperatures or projections of stream temperatures under climate change scenarios in any location with at least one year of daily stream temperature observations and with contemporaneous regional air temperature and precipitation data.

  12. Discontinuous daily temperatures in the WATCH forcing data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Henning; Kruschke, Tim; Dobler, Andreas; Fischer, Madlen; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    The WATCH forcing data sets have been created to support the use of hydrological and land surface models for the assessment of the water cycle within climate change studies. They are based on ECMWF reanalysis products (ERA-40 or ERA-Interim) with temperature (among other variables) adjusted such that their monthly means match the monthly temperature data set from the Climatic Research Unit. To this end, daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures within one calendar month have been subjected to a correction involving monthly means of the respective month. As these corrections can be largely different for adjacent months this procedure is potentially leading to unplausible differences in daily temperatures across the boundaries of calendar months. We analyze day-to-day temperature fluctuations within and across months and find that across months differences are significantly larger, mostly in the tropics and frigid zones. Average across-months differences in daily mean temperature are typically between 10% to 40% larger than their corresponding average within-months temperature differences. However, regions with differences up to 200% can be found in the tropical Africa. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the same regions but in a less sever way.

  13. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950-2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  14. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-22

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  15. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-01

    The Markov chain's first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  16. Daily rhythms of activity and temperature of Macaca nemestrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Sickles, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity and temperature rhythms of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) maintained in LD 16:8 at 25 C in specially designed restraint chairs have been examined. Activity was monitored via a sensor that was attached to the restraint chair. Temperature was monitored at the axilla, ankle and ear. All variables showed prominent day-night variations, and except for ankle temperature, had highest values during the daytime. These results show that the regulation of the daily rhythm of body temperature involves anatomical sites that are utilized in a temporally distinct fashion.

  17. A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.

  18. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, Herbert; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Nutt, William E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof.

  19. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, H.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Nutt, W.E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof. 6 figures.

  20. Homogenization of daily Spanish temperatures using SNHT and HOM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, E.; Rodrigo, F. S.; Fernández-Montes, S.; Luna, M. Y.; Rasilla, D.; Sigró, J.; Brunet, M.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, in connection with the need to improve our knowledge about climatic extremes, the homogenization community has focused on the adjustment of daily climatological data. The Spanish funded projects EXPICA (Spanish grant CGL2007-65546-C03) and its coordinated project CAFIDEXPI (Spanish grant CGL2007-65546-C03-02) is devoted to analyze changes in extremes over the Iberian Peninsula, thus needing daily homogeneous data suitable for such purposes. As daily resolution would increase the problems encountered by homogenizers to apply the different detection/correction methods, a widely used approach (as demonstrated by the survey conducted in the framework of the Working Group I of the COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach-HOME) is to combine a detection approach based on lower resolution data (monthly, seasonal, annual) and a correction method specifically designed for daily data. In this work, we present the results of the homogenization of a subset of 28 daily temperature stations, centered around the Iberian Peninsula, which were subsequently used to derive a basic climatology for the above mentioned projects. All stations are almost complete for the 1971-2000 reference period and many of them go back to the 19th century. The procedure detects potential breaks applying the SNHT test to annual and quarterly data, using additional support station as references and the limited available metadata. Daily adjustments were calculated using the HOM method and covering the longest possible period (variable for each station), allowed by available, well correlated, overlapping data. Trends before and after homogenization were assessed by calculating a set of climate change indices.

  1. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  2. New developments on the homogenization of Canadian daily temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lucie A.; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2010-05-01

    Long-term and homogenized surface air temperature datasets had been prepared for the analysis of climate trends in Canada (Vincent and Gullett 1999). Non-climatic steps due to instruments relocation/changes and changes in observing procedures were identified in the annual mean of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures using a technique based on regression models (Vincent 1998). Monthly adjustments were derived from the regression models and daily adjustments were obtained from an interpolation procedure using the monthly adjustments (Vincent et al. 2002). Recently, new statistical tests have been developed to improve the power of detecting changepoints in climatological data time series. The penalized maximal t (PMT) test (Wang et al. 2007) and the penalized maximal F (PMF) test (Wang 2008b) were developed to take into account the position of each changepoint in order to minimize the effect of unequal and small sample size. A software package RHtestsV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) has also been developed to implement these tests to homogenize climate data series. A recursive procedure was developed to estimate the annual cycle, linear trend, and lag-1 autocorrelation of the base series in tandem, so that the effect of lag-1 autocorrelation is accounted for in the tests. A Quantile Matching (QM) algorithm (Wang 2009) was also developed for adjusting Gaussian daily data so that the empirical distributions of all segments of the detrended series match each other. The RHtestsV3 package was used to prepare a second generation of homogenized temperatures in Canada. Both the PMT test and the PMF test were applied to detect shifts in monthly mean temperature series. Reference series was used in conducting a PMT test. Whenever possible, the main causes of the shifts were retrieved through historical evidence such as the station inspection reports. Finally, the QM algorithm was used to adjust the daily temperature series for the artificial shifts identified from the respective

  3. Seasonal changes in daily torpor patterns of free-ranging female and male Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    PubMed

    Dietz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2006-03-01

    Daily torpor can provide significant energy and water savings in bats during cold ambient temperatures and food scarcity. However, it may reduce rates of foetal and juvenile development. Therefore, reproductive females should optimize development by minimizing times in torpor. To test this hypothesis, the use of torpor by female and male free-ranging Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) during reproduction (gestation, lactation, and post-lactation period) was investigated in 1998 and 1999. Temperature-sensitive radio transmitters were attached to the bats to measure skin temperature. Simultaneously, ambient temperature was recorded. While both sexes became torpid during daytime, male bats used daily torpor (>6 degrees C below individual active temperature) significantly more often during reproductive period (mean: 78.4 % of day time in May and 43 % in June) than females. Female bats went into daily torpor, particularly in late summer when juveniles were weaned (mean: 66.6 % of daytime). Lowest skin temperatures occurred in a female bat with 21.0 degrees C during post-lactation. Skin temperatures of male bats fluctuated from 16.8 degrees C in torpor to 37.2 degrees C during times of activity. There was a significant effect of reproductive period on skin temperature in females whereas mean ambient temperature had no significant effect. However, mean ambient temperature affected mean skin temperatures in males. Our findings indicate that female Daubenton's bats adopt their thermoregulatory behaviour in particular to optimize the juvenile development.

  4. Observations of Daily Temperature Patterns in the Southern Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, R.W.; Jenter, H.L.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor affecting key hydrological and ecological processes within the subtropical wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Comprehensive measurements are being made to quantify the temporal and spatial variability of the water-temperature regime. Data collected in 2000 at a location near the central flow pathway of the ecosystem showed both daily repetitive cycles and dynamic fluctuations in response to meteorological forces. Time-series data collected at spatial intervals throughout the water column, in the air, and in the underlying plant-litter layer revealed the dynamic nature of the temperature structure, e.g., uniformly well-mixed periods, stratified conditions, inversions, changing vertical gradients, and other characteristics important to understanding ecosystem processes.

  5. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  6. US daily temperature records past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Adams-Smith, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Observed temperature extremes over the continental United States can be represented by the ratio of daily record high temperatures to daily record low minimum temperatures, and this ratio has increased to a value of about 2 to 1, averaged over the first decade of the 21st century, albeit with large interannual variability. Two different versions of a global coupled climate model (CCSM4), as well as 23 other coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, show larger values of this ratio than observations, mainly as a result of greater numbers of record highs since the 1980s compared with observations. This is partly because of the “warm 1930s” in the observations, which made it more difficult to set record highs later in the century, and partly because of a trend toward less rainfall and reduced evapotranspiration in the model versions compared with observations. We compute future projections of this ratio on the basis of its estimated dependence on mean temperature increase, which we find robustly at play in both observations and simulations. The use of this relation also has the advantage of removing dependence of a projection on a specific scenario. An empirical projection of the ratio of record highs to record lows is obtained from the nonlinear relationship in observations from 1930 to 2015, thus correcting downward the likely biased future projections of the model. For example, for a 3 °C warming in US temperatures, the ratio of record highs to lows is projected to be ∼15 ± 8 compared to the present average ratio of just over 2. PMID:27872294

  7. US daily temperature records past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Meehl, Gerald A; Tebaldi, Claudia; Adams-Smith, Dennis

    2016-12-06

    Observed temperature extremes over the continental United States can be represented by the ratio of daily record high temperatures to daily record low minimum temperatures, and this ratio has increased to a value of about 2 to 1, averaged over the first decade of the 21st century, albeit with large interannual variability. Two different versions of a global coupled climate model (CCSM4), as well as 23 other coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, show larger values of this ratio than observations, mainly as a result of greater numbers of record highs since the 1980s compared with observations. This is partly because of the "warm 1930s" in the observations, which made it more difficult to set record highs later in the century, and partly because of a trend toward less rainfall and reduced evapotranspiration in the model versions compared with observations. We compute future projections of this ratio on the basis of its estimated dependence on mean temperature increase, which we find robustly at play in both observations and simulations. The use of this relation also has the advantage of removing dependence of a projection on a specific scenario. An empirical projection of the ratio of record highs to record lows is obtained from the nonlinear relationship in observations from 1930 to 2015, thus correcting downward the likely biased future projections of the model. For example, for a 3 °C warming in US temperatures, the ratio of record highs to lows is projected to be ∼15 ± 8 compared to the present average ratio of just over 2.

  8. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  9. Benchmarking the performance of daily temperature homogenisation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor; Jolliffe, Ian; Willett, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This work explores the creation of realistic synthetic data and its use as a benchmark for comparing the performance of different homogenisation algorithms on daily temperature data. Four different regions in the United States have been selected and three different inhomogeneity scenarios explored for each region. These benchmark datasets are beneficial as, unlike in the real world, the underlying truth is known a priori, thus allowing definite statements to be made about the performance of the algorithms run on them. Performance can be assessed in terms of the ability of algorithms to detect changepoints and also their ability to correctly remove inhomogeneities. The focus is on daily data, thus presenting new challenges in comparison to monthly data and pushing the boundaries of previous studies. The aims of this work are to evaluate and compare the performance of various homogenisation algorithms, aiding their improvement and enabling a quantification of the uncertainty remaining in the data even after they have been homogenised. An important outcome is also to evaluate how realistic the created benchmarks are. It is essential that any weaknesses in the benchmarks are taken into account when judging algorithm performance against them. This information in turn will help to improve future versions of the benchmarks. I intend to present a summary of this work including the method of benchmark creation, details of the algorithms run and some preliminary results. This work forms a three year PhD and feeds into the larger project of the International Surface Temperature Initiative which is working on a global scale and with monthly instead of daily data.

  10. Trends in Observed Summer Daily Temperature Maximum Across Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Arvidson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing are expected to increase the tendency for longer and stronger heat waves in summer. We examine if there is a trend in the observed daytime extreme temperature (Tmax) during summer between 1900-2014 at select high quality stations (n=9) across Colorado. We compile daily observations of Tmax and other variables during summer (JJA), and derive and analyze trends in five different extreme metrics from this data that include the maximum five-day Tmax average, warm spell duration index, and the number of days when Tmax exceeds the 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentile conditions. We find that the 1930s and 2000s in Colorado had some outstandingly hot years, when we also find exceptionally high count of summer Tmax extremes. Five out of the nine stations show increases in extreme temperature indicators in the more recent decades. The variability in trends in the daily summer Tmax extremes across the nine stations correspond with the mean annual warming trends at those stations. We also find that wetter summers have much smaller instances of Tmax extremes as compared to drier summers.

  11. Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data for 518 Russian Meteorological Stations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bulygina, O. N. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre; Razuvaev, V. N. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, many climate datasets have been exchanged directly between the principal climate data centers of the United States (NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)) and the former-USSR/Russia (All-Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center (RIHMI-WDC)). This data exchange has its roots in a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment (Tatusko 1990). CDIAC has partnered with NCDC and RIHMI-WDC since the early 1990s to help make former-USSR climate datasets available to the public. The first former-USSR daily temperature and precipitation dataset released by CDIAC was initially created within the framework of the international cooperation between RIHMI-WDC and CDIAC and was published by CDIAC as NDP-040, consisting of data from 223 stations over the former USSR whose data were published in USSR Meteorological Monthly (Part 1: Daily Data). The database presented here consists of records from 518 Russian stations (excluding the former-USSR stations outside the Russian territory contained in NDP-040), for the most part extending through 2010. Records not extending through 2010 result from stations having closed or else their data were not published in Meteorological Monthly of CIS Stations (Part 1: Daily Data). The database was created from the digital media of the State Data Holding. The station inventory was arrived at using (a) the list of Roshydromet stations that are included in the Global Climate Observation Network (this list was approved by the Head of Roshydromet on 25 March 2004) and (b) the list of Roshydromet benchmark meteorological stations prepared by V.I. Kodratyuk, Head of the Department at Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory.

  12. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  13. How do GCMs represent daily maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    patterns. The results indicate that models are able to reproduce the full range of summer and winter maximum and minimum temperature values, although the inter-model dispersion is high. Most models reproduce fairly well the differences between daily summer and daily winter temperature distributions, however GCMs tend to smooth the extreme values. The largest differences are found for winter minimum temperature values.

  14. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  15. Time intervals for estimating pronghorn and coyote home ranges and daily movements

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T.D. ); Laundre', J.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors compared estimates of home range and daily movement for radio-tagged pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) and coyotes (Canis latrans) based on subsamples of data collected at short time intervals during nonconsecutive 24-hour sampling sessions. Home-range size, calculated by either the minimum area method or the linked-cell grid method, and daily distance traveled were underestimated when sampling intervals were based on statistically independent data. Autocorrelated data provided a better estimate of true home-range sizes than independent data for all sampling intervals. Estimates of daily movement based on sampling intervals > 4 hours for pronghorns and >3 hours for coyotes were not correlated with the actual distance traveled. These relationships suggest that restricting sampling effort to statistically independent time intervals sacrifices biologically significant information.

  16. Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kalpesh; Deo, Makaranad Chintamani

    2017-02-01

    Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs. A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. With this in mind, we propose the use of wavelet neural networks (WNNs) for prediction of daily SST values. The prediction of daily SST values was carried out using WNN over 5 days into the future at six different locations in the Indian Ocean. First, the accuracy of site-specific SST values predicted by a numerical model, ROMS, was assessed against the in situ records. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0.18 to 0.32 °C for a 5-day-ahead forecast. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

  17. Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kalpesh; Deo, Makaranad Chintamani

    2017-04-01

    Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs. A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. With this in mind, we propose the use of wavelet neural networks (WNNs) for prediction of daily SST values. The prediction of daily SST values was carried out using WNN over 5 days into the future at six different locations in the Indian Ocean. First, the accuracy of site-specific SST values predicted by a numerical model, ROMS, was assessed against the in situ records. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0.18 to 0.32 °C for a 5-day-ahead forecast. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

  18. Effects of daily fluctuating temperatures on the Drosophila-Leptopilina boulardi parasitoid association.

    PubMed

    Delava, Emilie; Fleury, Frédéric; Gibert, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoid insects, which maintain intimate and long-term relationships with their arthropod hosts, constitute an association of ectothermic organisms that is particularly sensitive to temperature variations. Because temperature shows pronounced natural daily fluctuations, we examined if experiments based on a constant temperature range can mask the real effects of the thermal regime on host-parasitoid interactions. The effects of two fluctuating thermal regimes on several developmental parameters of the Drosophila larval parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi were analyzed in this study. Regime 1 included a range of 16-23-16°C and regime 2 included a range of 16-21-26-21-16°C (mean temperature 20.1°C) compared to a 20.1°C constant temperature. Under an average temperature of 20.1°C, which corresponds to a cold condition of L. boulardi development, we showed that the success of parasitism is significantly higher under a fluctuating temperature regime than at constant temperature. A fluctuating regime also correlated with a reduced development time of the parasitoids. In contrast, the thermal regime did not affect the ability of Drosophila to resist parasitoid infestation. Finally, we demonstrated that daily temperature fluctuation prevented the entry into diapause for this species, which is normally observed at a constant temperature of 21°C. Overall, the results reveal that constant temperature experiments can produce misleading results, highlighting the need to study the thermal biology of organisms under fluctuating regimes that reflect natural conditions as closely as possible. This is particularly a major issue in host-parasitoid associations, which constitute a good model to understand the effect of climate warming on interacting species.

  19. Extended temperature range ACPS thruster investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blubaugh, A. L.; Schoenman, L.

    1974-01-01

    The successful hot fire demonstration of a pulsing liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen attitude control propulsion system thruster is described. The test was the result of research to develop a simple, lightweight, and high performance reaction control system without the traditional requirements for extensive periods of engine thermal conditioning, or the use of complex equipment to convert both liquid propellants to gas prior to delivery to the engine. Significant departures from conventional injector design practice were employed to achieve an operable design. The work discussed includes thermal and injector manifold priming analyses, subscale injector chilldown tests, and 168 full scale and 550 N (1250 lbF) rocket engine tests. Ignition experiments, at propellant temperatures ranging from cryogenic to ambient, led to the generation of a universal spark ignition system which can reliably ignite an engine when supplied with liquid, two phase, or gaseous propellants. Electrical power requirements for spark igniter are very low.

  20. Prey availability affects daily torpor by free-ranging Australian owlet-nightjars (Aegotheles cristatus).

    PubMed

    Doucette, Lisa I; Brigham, R Mark; Pavey, Chris R; Geiser, Fritz

    2012-06-01

    Food availability, ambient temperatures (T(a)), and prevailing weather conditions have long been presumed to influence torpor use. To a large extent, this is based on measurements in the laboratory of animals placed on restricted diets and kept at low T (a). Information on the determinants of torpor employment in the field is limited. We assessed winter torpor by insectivorous, free-ranging Australian owlet-nightjars (Aegotheles cristatus; 22 birds, 834 bird-days over six winters). Birds in three habitats were investigated to test whether torpor use is affected by annual T(a), rainfall, and arthropod abundance. Owlet-nightjars entered daily torpor regularly at all sites. Torpor frequency, depth and bout duration were greatest during two periods with lower arthropod abundance, providing rare evidence of the link between food availability and torpor patterns of wild birds. Temporal organization of torpor was similar among sites, and nocturnal torpor was more frequent than previously reported. Our findings quantitatively demonstrate that reduced food resources affect torpor usage independently from T(a), and support the view that food availability is a primary ecological determinant of torpor use in the wild.

  1. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data (1871-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.R.

    2002-10-28

    This document describes a database containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amount, snowfall amount, and snow depth from 1062 observing stations across the contiguous US. This database is an expansion and update of the original 138-station database previously released by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as CDIAC numeric data package NDP-042. These 1062 stations are a subset of the 1221-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), a monthly database compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) that has been widely used in analyzing US climate. Data from 1050 of these daily records extend into the 1990s, while 990 of these extend through 1997. Most station records are essentially complete for at least 40 years; the latest beginning year of record is 1948. Records from 158 stations begin prior to 1900, with that of Charleston, South Carolina beginning the earliest (1871). The daily resolution of these data makes them extremely valuable for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ''event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. The data are also valuable in areas such as regional climate model validation and climate change impact assessment. This database is available free of charge from CDIAC as a numeric data package (NDP).

  2. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  3. Trend of monthly temperature and daily extreme temperature during 1951-2012 in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caloiero, Tommaso

    2017-07-01

    Among several variables affecting climate change and climate variability, temperature plays a crucial role in the process because its variations in monthly and extreme values can impact on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. In this study, an analysis of temperature data has been performed over 22 series observed in New Zealand. In particular, to detect possible trends in the time series, the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test was first applied at monthly scale and then to several indices of extreme daily temperatures computed since 1951. The results showed a positive trend in both the maximum and the minimum temperatures, in particular, in the autumn-winter period. This increase has been evaluated faster in maximum temperature than in minimum one. The trend analysis of the temperature indices suggests that there has been an increase in the frequency and intensity of hot extremes, while most of the cold extremes showed a downward tendency.

  4. High-resolution daily gridded data sets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Sven; Krähenmann, Stefan; Bissolli, Peter

    2016-10-01

    New high-resolution data sets for near-surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D data set (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data. By spatial interpolation of these station observations, grid data in a resolution of 0.044° (≈ 5km) on a rotated grid with virtual North Pole at 39.25° N, 162° W are derived. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al.(2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are used for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA-Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Variance explained by the regression ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 K and 1-1.5 ms-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters

  5. High-resolution daily gridded datasets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, S.; Krähenmann, S.; Bissolli, P.

    2015-08-01

    New high-resolution datasets for near surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are hourly SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D dataset (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data and various kinds of inhomogeneities. Grids in a resolution of 0.044° (5 km) are derived by spatial interpolation of these station data into the CORDEX area. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al. (2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are chosen for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Explained variance ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 °C and 1-1.5 m s-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters and daily mean wind speed, respectively. The datasets presented in this article are published at http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_CDC/DECREG0110v1.

  6. The association between diurnal temperature range and childhood bacillary dysentery.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li-ying; Zhao, Ke-fu; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Xu; Yang, Hui-hui; Li, Ke-sheng; Xu, Zhi-wei; Su, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have found that mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures were associated with bacillary dysentery (BD). However, little is known about whether the within-day variation of temperature has any impact on bacillary dysentery. The current study aimed to identify the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and BD in Hefei, China. Daily data on BD counts among children aged 0-14 years from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012 were retrieved from Hefei Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Daily data on ambient temperature and relative humidity covering the same period were collected from the Hefei Bureau of Meteorology. A Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used in the analysis after controlling the effects of season, long-term trends, mean temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed that there existed a statistically significant relationship between DTR and childhood BD. The DTR effect on childhood bacillary dysentery increased when DTR was over 8 °C. And it was greatest at 1-day lag, with an 8% (95% CI = 2.9-13.4%) increase of BD cases per 5 °C increment of DTR. Male children and children aged 0-5 years appeared to be more vulnerable to the DTR effect. The data indicate that large DTR may increase the incidence of childhood BD. Caregivers and health practitioners should be made aware of the potential threat posed by large DTR. Therefore, DTR should be taken into consideration when making targeted health policies and programs to protect children from being harmed by climate impacts.

  7. The association between diurnal temperature range and childhood bacillary dysentery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Li-ying; Zhao, Ke-fu; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Xu; Yang, Hui-hui; Li, Ke-sheng; Xu, Zhi-wei; Su, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have found that mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures were associated with bacillary dysentery (BD). However, little is known about whether the within-day variation of temperature has any impact on bacillary dysentery. The current study aimed to identify the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and BD in Hefei, China. Daily data on BD counts among children aged 0-14 years from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012 were retrieved from Hefei Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Daily data on ambient temperature and relative humidity covering the same period were collected from the Hefei Bureau of Meteorology. A Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used in the analysis after controlling the effects of season, long-term trends, mean temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed that there existed a statistically significant relationship between DTR and childhood BD. The DTR effect on childhood bacillary dysentery increased when DTR was over 8 °C. And it was greatest at 1-day lag, with an 8 % (95 % CI = 2.9-13.4 %) increase of BD cases per 5 °C increment of DTR. Male children and children aged 0-5 years appeared to be more vulnerable to the DTR effect. The data indicate that large DTR may increase the incidence of childhood BD. Caregivers and health practitioners should be made aware of the potential threat posed by large DTR. Therefore, DTR should be taken into consideration when making targeted health policies and programs to protect children from being harmed by climate impacts.

  8. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines

    PubMed Central

    Cober, Elroy R.; Curtis, Daniel F.; Stewart, Douglas W.; Morrison, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R2 = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE) = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R2 = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode). The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. PMID:27135515

  9. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change.

    PubMed

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-13

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species.

  10. Forecasting daily emergency department visits using calendar variables and ambient temperature readings.

    PubMed

    Marcilio, Izabel; Hajat, Shakoor; Gouveia, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to develop different models to forecast the daily number of patients seeking emergency department (ED) care in a general hospital according to calendar variables and ambient temperature readings and to compare the models in terms of forecasting accuracy. The authors developed and tested six different models of ED patient visits using total daily counts of patient visits to an ED in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010. The first 33 months of the data set were used to develop the ED patient visits forecasting models (the training set), leaving the last 3 months to measure each model's forecasting accuracy by the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Forecasting models were developed using three different time-series analysis methods: generalized linear models (GLM), generalized estimating equations (GEE), and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA). For each method, models were explored with and without the effect of mean daily temperature as a predictive variable. The daily mean number of ED visits was 389, ranging from 166 to 613. Data showed a weekly seasonal distribution, with highest patient volumes on Mondays and lowest patient volumes on weekends. There was little variation in daily visits by month. GLM and GEE models showed better forecasting accuracy than SARIMA models. For instance, the MAPEs from GLM models and GEE models at the first month of forecasting (October 2012) were 11.5 and 10.8% (models with and without control for the temperature effect, respectively), while the MAPEs from SARIMA models were 12.8 and 11.7%. For all models, controlling for the effect of temperature resulted in worse or similar forecasting ability than models with calendar variables alone, and forecasting accuracy was better for the short-term horizon (7 days in advance) than for the longer term (30 days in advance). This study indicates that time-series models can be developed to provide forecasts of daily ED patient

  11. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  12. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  13. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place.

  14. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part I: maximum temperatures in summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of summer maximum temperatures is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, summer maximum daily temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent heat-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict heat-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that high temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily maximum temperatures during summer over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the summer forecast period of 1 June - 30 September, 2007. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated maximum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme heat episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  15. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  16. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  17. Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitations extremes in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filahi, S.; Tanarhte, M.; Mouhir, L.; El Morhit, M.; Tramblay, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of Morocco's climate extreme trends during the last four decades. Indices were computed based on a daily temperature and precipitation using a consistent approach recommended by the ETCCDI. Trends in these indices were calculated at 20 stations from 1970 to 2012. Twelve indices were considered to detect trends in temperature. A large number of stations have significant trends and confirm an increase in temperature, showing increased warming during spring and summer seasons. The results also show a decrease in the number of cold days and nights and an increase in the number of warm days and nights. Increasing trends have also been found in the absolute warmest and coldest temperatures of the year. A clear increase is detected for warm nights and diurnal temperature range. Eight indices for precipitation were also analyzed, but the trends for these precipitation indices are much less significant than for temperature indices and show more mixed spatial patterns of change. Heavy precipitation events do not exhibit significant trends except at a few locations, in the north and central parts of Morocco, with a general tendency towards drier conditions. The correlation between these climate indices and the large-scale atmospheric circulations indices such as the NAO, MO, and WEMO were also analyzed. Results show a stronger relationship with these climatic indices for the precipitation indices compared to the temperature indices. The correlations are more significant in the Atlantic regions, but they remain moderate at the whole country scale.

  18. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  19. A comparison of climatological observing windows and their impact on detecting daily temperature extrema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žaknić-Ćatović, Ana; Gough, William A.

    2017-02-01

    Climatological observing window (COW) is defined as a time frame over which continuous or extreme air temperature measurements are collected. A 24-h time interval, ending at 00UTC or shifted to end at 06UTC, has been associated with difficulties in characterizing daily temperature extrema. A fixed 24-h COW used to obtain the temperature minima leads to potential misidentification due to fragmentation of "nighttime" into two subsequent nighttime periods due to the time discretization interval. The correct identification of air temperature extrema is achievable using a COW that identifies daily minimum over a single nighttime period and maximum over a single daytime period, as determined by sunrise and sunset. Due to a common absence of hourly air temperature observations, the accuracy of the mean temperature estimation is dependent on the accuracy of determination of diurnal air temperature extrema. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to examine the impact of the COW on detecting daily air temperature extrema. The timing of the 24-h observing window occasionally affects the determination of daily extrema through a mischaracterization of the diurnal minima and by extension can lead to errors in determining daily mean temperature. Hourly air temperature data for the time period from year 1987 to 2014, obtained from Toronto Buttonville Municipal Airport weather station, were used in analysis of COW impacts on detection of daily temperature extrema and calculation of annual temperature averages based on such extrema.

  20. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  1. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with inlet...

  2. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with inlet...

  3. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with inlet...

  4. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with inlet...

  5. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with inlet...

  6. Entrainment of the circadian clock by daily ambient temperature cycles in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    El Allali, Khalid; Achaâban, Mohamed R; Bothorel, Béatrice; Piro, Mohamed; Bouâouda, Hanan; El Allouchi, Morad; Ouassat, Mohammed; Malan, André; Pévet, Paul

    2013-06-01

    In mammals the light-dark (LD) cycle is known to be the major cue to synchronize the circadian clock. In arid and desert areas, the camel (Camelus dromedarius) is exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Since wide oscillations of ambient temperature (Ta) are a major factor in this environment, we wondered whether cyclic Ta fluctuations might contribute to synchronization of circadian rhythms. The rhythm of body temperature (Tb) was selected as output of the circadian clock. After having verified that Tb is synchronized by the LD and free runs in continuous darkness (DD), we submitted the animals to daily cycles of Ta in LL and in DD. In both cases, the Tb rhythm was entrained to the cycle of Ta. On a 12-h phase shift of the Ta cycle, the mean phase shift of the Tb cycle ranged from a few hours in LD (1 h by cosinor, 4 h from curve peaks) to 7-8 h in LL and 12 h in DD. These results may reflect either true synchronization of the central clock by Ta daily cycles or possibly a passive effect of Ta on Tb. To resolve the ambiguity, melatonin rhythmicity was used as another output of the clock. In DD melatonin rhythms were also entrained by the Ta cycle, proving that the daily Ta cycle is able to entrain the circadian clock of the camel similar to photoperiod. By contrast, in the presence of a LD cycle the rhythm of melatonin was modified by the Ta cycle in only 2 (or 3) of 7 camels: in these specific conditions a systematic effect of Ta on the clock could not be evidenced. In conclusion, depending on the experimental conditions (DD vs. LD), the daily Ta cycle can either act as a zeitgeber or not.

  7. Observations of a "weekend effect" in diurnal temperature range.

    PubMed

    Forster, Piers M de F; Solomon, Susan

    2003-09-30

    Using surface measurements of maximum and minimum temperatures from the Global Daily Climatological Network data set, we find evidence of a weekly cycle in diurnal temperature range (DTR) for many stations in the United States, Mexico, Japan, and China. The "weekend effect," which we define as the average DTR for Saturday through Monday minus the average DTR for Wednesday through Friday, can be as large as 0.5 K, similar to the magnitude of observed long-term trends in DTR. This weekend effect has a distinct large-scale pattern that has changed only slightly over time, but its sign is not the same in all locations. The station procedures and the statistical robustness of both the individual station data and the patterns of DTR differences are thoroughly examined. We conclude that the weekend effect is a real short time scale and large spatial scale geophysical phenomenon, which is necessarily human in origin. We thus provide strong evidence of an anthropogenic link to DTR, an important climate indicator. Several possible anthropogenic mechanisms are discussed; we speculate that aerosol-cloud interactions are the most likely cause of this weekend effect, but we do not rule out others.

  8. Water temperature impacts water consumption by range cattle in winter.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M K; Muscha, J M; Mulliniks, J T; Roberts, A J

    2016-10-01

    Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, and both may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in the temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinking water would have increased in situ NDF and OM disappearances and a more stable rumen temperature, drink more water, and lose less BW during the winter. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, ruminal extrusa (93.1% DM, 90.2% OM, 81.1% NDF [DM], and 4.9% CP [DM]) were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 in vitro incubation temperatures. In 2 independent trials, temperatures evaluated were 39, 37, or 35°C (trial 1) and 39, 33, or 31°C (trial 2). In Exp. 2, 4 pregnant rumen cannulated cows grazing in January were fitted with Kahne (KB1000) temperature continuous recording boluses for 22 d. Two grazed in a paddock provided cold water (8.2°C) and 2 in a paddock provided warm water (31.1°C). Two in situ trials were conducted placing 6 in situ bags containing 2 g of winter range ruminal extrusa in each of the 4 ruminally cannulated cows and incubating bags for 72 h for measurement of NDF disappearance. In Exp. 3, 6 paddocks ( = 3/water treatment) were grazed by 10 to 13 pregnant crossbred Angus cows from December through February across 3 yr from 2009 to 2012. Water intake per paddock was measured daily and ambient temperature was recorded. Motion-activated cameras were used to determine the time of day water was consumed and the number of cow appearances at water. In Exp. 1, rate and total gas production ( < 0.05) and NDF disappearance ( < 0.001) at 48 h was reduced by each incubation temperature below 39°C. In Exp. 2, ruminal temperature for cows supplied with warm water dropped below 38°C 1.5% of the time whereas ruminal temperature for cows provided cold water dropped below 38°C 9.4% of the time ( < 0.01). Drinking water temperature did not alter in

  9. Effects of repeated surgical stress on daily changes of body core temperature in mice.

    PubMed

    Kanizsai, P; Vámos, Z; Solymár, M; Garami, A; Szelényi, Z

    2010-06-01

    Daily body core temperature rhythm has been known to become blunted for several days following intra-abdominal implantation of biotelemetry transmitters in small rodents and about a week is required for re-establishment of stable body core temperature oscillation. In the present study carried out on mice it was found that a repetition of the same minor surgical intervention (laparotomy) several days apart could speed up the stabilization of body temperature oscillations. Melatonin supplied with the drinking water continuously was found to speed up the return of stable daily body temperature rhythm further on consecutive laparotomies, while daily injections of methylprednisolone resulted in some delay in the development of stable body core temperature oscillations. It is concluded that in C57BL/6 mice possessing low plasma levels of melatonin exhibit an adaptive response to repeated stresses influencing the dynamics of daily body temperature rhythm.

  10. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  11. Climate change uncertainty for daily minimum and maximum temperatures: a model inter-comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P

    2006-11-09

    Several impacts of climate change may depend more on changes in mean daily minimum (T{sub min}) or maximum (T{sub max}) temperatures than daily averages. To evaluate uncertainties in these variables, we compared projections of T{sub min} and T{sub max} changes by 2046-2065 for 12 climate models under an A2 emission scenario. Average modeled changes in T{sub max} were slightly lower in most locations than T{sub min}, consistent with historical trends exhibiting a reduction in diurnal temperature ranges. However, while average changes in T{sub min} and T{sub max} were similar, the inter-model variability of T{sub min} and T{sub max} projections exhibited substantial differences. For example, inter-model standard deviations of June-August T{sub max} changes were more than 50% greater than for T{sub min} throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia. Model differences in cloud changes, which exert relatively greater influence on T{sub max} during summer and T{sub min} during winter, were identified as the main source of uncertainty disparities. These results highlight the importance of considering separately projections for T{sub max} and T{sub min} when assessing climate change impacts, even in cases where average projected changes are similar. In addition, impacts that are most sensitive to summertime T{sub min} or wintertime T{sub max} may be more predictable than suggested by analyses using only projections of daily average temperatures.

  12. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The device...

  13. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The device...

  14. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The device...

  15. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The device...

  16. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The device...

  17. Daily rifapentine for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. A randomized, dose-ranging trial.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Susan E; Savic, Radojka M; Goldberg, Stefan; Stout, Jason E; Schluger, Neil; Muzanyi, Grace; Johnson, John L; Nahid, Payam; Hecker, Emily J; Heilig, Charles M; Bozeman, Lorna; Feng, Pei-Jean I; Moro, Ruth N; MacKenzie, William; Dooley, Kelly E; Nuermberger, Eric L; Vernon, Andrew; Weiner, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Rifapentine has potent activity in mouse models of tuberculosis chemotherapy but its optimal dose and exposure in humans are unknown. We conducted a randomized, partially blinded dose-ranging study to determine tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of daily rifapentine for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were assigned rifapentine 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg or rifampin 10 mg/kg daily for 8 weeks (intensive phase), with isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. The primary tolerability end point was treatment discontinuation. The primary efficacy end point was negative sputum cultures at completion of intensive phase. A total of 334 participants were enrolled. At completion of intensive phase, cultures on solid media were negative in 81.3% of participants in the rifampin group versus 92.5% (P = 0.097), 89.4% (P = 0.29), and 94.7% (P = 0.049) in the rifapentine 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg groups. Liquid cultures were negative in 56.3% (rifampin group) versus 74.6% (P = 0.042), 69.7% (P = 0.16), and 82.5% (P = 0.004), respectively. Compared with the rifampin group, the proportion negative at the end of intensive phase was higher among rifapentine recipients who had high rifapentine areas under the concentration-time curve. Percentages of participants discontinuing assigned treatment for reasons other than microbiologic ineligibility were similar across groups (rifampin, 8.2%; rifapentine 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg, 3.4, 2.5, and 7.4%, respectively). Daily rifapentine was well-tolerated and safe. High rifapentine exposures were associated with high levels of sputum sterilization at completion of intensive phase. Further studies are warranted to determine if regimens that deliver high rifapentine exposures can shorten treatment duration to less than 6 months. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00694629).

  18. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  19. Physiological responses of ectotherms to daily temperature variation.

    PubMed

    Kern, Pippa; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2015-10-01

    Daily thermal fluctuations (DTFs) impact the capacity of ectotherms to maintain performance and energetic demands because of thermodynamic effects on physiological processes. Mechanisms that reduce the thermal sensitivity of physiological traits may buffer ectotherms from the consequences of DTFs. Species that experience varying degrees of DTFs in their environments may differ in their responses to thermally variable conditions, if thermal performance curves reflect environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that in response to DTFs, tadpoles from habitats characterised by small DTFs would show greater plasticity in the thermal sensitivity of physiological processes than tadpoles from environments characterised by large DTFs. We tested the thermal sensitivity of physiological traits in tadpoles of three species that differ naturally in their exposure to DTFs, raised in control (24°C) and DTF treatments (20-30°C and 18-38°C). DTFs reduced growth in all species. Development of tadpoles experiencing DTFs was increased for tadpoles from highly thermally variable habitats (∼15%), and slower in tadpoles from less thermally variable habitats (∼30%). In general, tadpoles were unable to alter the thermal sensitivity of physiological processes, although DTFs induced plasticity in metabolic enzyme activity in all species, although to a greater extent in species from less thermally variable environments. DTFs increased upper thermal limits in all species (between 0.89 and 1.6°C). Our results suggest that the impact of increased thermal variability may favour some species while others are negatively impacted. Species that cannot compensate for increased variability by buffering growth and development will probably be most affected. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Daily oscillations of skin temperature in military personnel using thermography.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Sillero-Quintana, M; Piñonosa Cano, S; Moreira, D G; Brito, C J; Fernandes, A A; Pussieldi, G A; Marins, J C B

    2016-10-01

    The human body makes many physiological adjustments throughout the day, including adjustments to body temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine oscillations in the skin temperature (Tsk-1-Tsk-25) at 25 body regions of interest (ROIs) over 1 day using infrared thermography. Tsk values of 31 male (age 22.9±3.0 years) Brazilian Air Force members were evaluated from five thermograms collected at 7, 11, 15, 19 and 23 h (Tsk7,11,15,19,23) by a Fluke imager. We applied one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures for the different times of the day and Tukey's post hoc test to determine significant Tsk differences between ROIs (α=0.05), and the cosinor analysis was used to determine the midline estimating statistic of rhythm, amplitude and acrophase of Tsk during the 24 h period. The anterior hands showed the greatest Tsk variations throughout the day. In the lower limbs, scapula, abdomen, chest and lower back, Tsk-11, Tsk-15, Tsk-19 and Tsk-23 were significantly different (p<0.05) from Tsk-7. The lowest Tsk values were obtained in the early morning, with increases in the afternoon and levelling after 15:00. The Tsk at all ROIs and the averaged Tsk showed oscillations throughout the day, with the lowest values in the early morning (07:00). Temperature fluctuations depended on the specific ROI, with thermal stabilisation in some regions in the afternoon and a central upward trend throughout the day in the hands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Body temperature daily rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Kinahan, A A; Inge-moller, R; Bateman, P W; Kotze, A; Scantlebury, M

    2007-11-23

    The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body temperature (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the T(b) daily rhythms in savanna elephants. Our results showed that elephants had lower mean T(b) values (36.2 +/- 0.49 degrees C) than smaller ungulates inhabiting similar environments but did not have larger or smaller amplitudes of T(b) variation (0.40 +/- 0.12 degrees C), as would be predicted by their exposure to large fluctuations in ambient temperature or their large size. No difference was found between the daily T(b) rhythms measured under different conditions of water stress. Peak T(b)'s occurred late in the evening (22:10) which is generally later than in other large mammals ranging in similar environmental conditions.

  2. Trends and variability of daily and extreme temperature and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Tannecia; Vincent, Lucie; Allen, Theodore; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric; McLean, Natalie

    2013-04-01

    A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface temperature and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air temperature at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum temperatures (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum temperatures (+0.95°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal temperature range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 7% fewer cool days and 10% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low temperatures by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986-2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land temperature variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea temperatures.

  3. Trends and variability of daily and extreme temperature and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.

    2013-05-01

    A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface temperature and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air temperature at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum temperatures (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum temperatures (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal temperature range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low temperatures by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land temperature variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea temperatures.

  4. Impact of Multiple Daily Clinical Pharmacist-Enforced Assessments on Time in Target Sedation Range.

    PubMed

    Lizza, Bryan D; Jagow, Benjamin; Hensler, David; Cooper, Craig J; Short, Elizabeth J; Maas, Matthew B; Naidech, Andrew M; Wunderink, Richard G

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of a single daily assessment by a clinical pharmacist to improve adherence with a sedation protocol is associated with reduced duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS). We test the feasibility of incorporating a clinical pharmacist into more frequent sedation assessments and observed whether there are any potential differences in the sedatives administered. Prospective, quasi-experimental, pilot study of patients admitted to the medical ICU. Patients were included in the analysis if ≥18 years of age within the first 24 hours of initiation of mechanical ventilation. Our primary intent was to test the clinical feasibility surrounding more frequent sedation assessments by a clinical pharmacist by evaluating potential differences in time in target sedation range and sedative administration. Exploratory efficacy end points included time in target sedation range (0 to -2) using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) and sedative exposure. Patients were assigned to receive either 3 assessments with a clinical pharmacist per day (intervention) or a single assessment by a clinical pharmacist per day (standard of care). During the assessments, clinical pharmacists participated in the RASS administration and made dosing adjustments according to an established sedation protocol. Seventeen patients were enrolled (n = 6 intervention group, n = 11 standard of care). Duration of mechanical ventilation was similar in the 2 groups (intervention 100.0 hours [52.5-197.5] vs control 76.0 hours [46.0-201.0], P = .95), but patients in the intervention group exhibited a greater percentage time in the target RASS range (intervention 76.0% [53.7-81.5%] vs control 45.2% [35.3-67.0], P = .11) that was not statistically significant. Patients in the intervention group received less fentanyl per day (820.9 µg [227.3-1579.4] vs 1997 µg [1648.2-2477.2], P = .02) than in the control group. Incorporating a clinical pharmacist into

  5. Simulation of mosquitoes population dynamic based on rainfall and average daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayani, H.; Seprianus, Nuraini, N.; Arum, J.

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposed rainfall and average daily temperature approximation functions using least square method with trigonometry polynomial. Error value from this method is better than Fast Fourier Transform method. This approximation is used to accommodate climatic factors into deterministic model of mosquitoes population by constructing a carrying capacity function which contains rainfall and average daily temperature functions. We develop a mathematical model for mosquitoes population dynamic which formulated by Yang et al (2010) with dynamic parameter of a daily rainfall as well as temperature on that model. Two fixed points, trivial and non-trivial, are obtained when constant entomological parameters assumed. Basic offspring number, Q0 as mosquitoes reproduction parameter is constructed. Non-trivial fixed point is stable if and only if Q0 > 1. Numerical simulation shown the dynamics of mosquitoes population significantly affected by rainfall and average daily temperature function.

  6. Metabolism and temperature regulation during daily torpor in the smallest primate, the pygmy mouse lemur (Microcebus myoxinus) in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Schmid, J; Ruf, T; Heldmaier, G

    2000-02-01

    Thermoregulation, energetics and patterns of torpor in the pygmy mouse lemur, Microcebus myoxinus, were investigated under natural conditions of photoperiod and temperature in the Kirindy/CFPF Forest in western Madagascar. M. myoxinus entered torpor spontaneously during the cool dry season. Torpor only occurred on a daily basis and torpor bout duration was on average 9.6 h, and ranged from 4.6 h to 19.2 h. Metabolic rates during torpor were reduced to about 86% of the normothermic value. Minimum body temperature during daily torpor was 6.8 degrees C at an ambient temperature of 6.3 degrees C. Entry into torpor occurred randomly between 2000 and 0620 hours, whereas arousals from torpor were clustered around 1300 hours within a narrow time window of less than 4 h. Arousal from torpor was a two-step process with a first passive climb of body temperature to a mean of 27 degrees C, carried by the daily increase of ambient temperature when oxygen consumption remained more or less constant, followed by a second active increase of oxygen consumption to further raise the body temperature to normothermic values. In conclusion, daily body temperature rhythms in M. myoxinus further reduce the energetic costs of daily torpor seen in other species: they extend to unusually low body temperatures and consequently low metabolic rates in torpor, and they employ passive warming to reduce the energetic costs of arousal. Thus, these energy-conserving adaptations may represent an important energetic aid to the pygmy mouse lemur and help to promote their individual fitness.

  7. Meteorology (Temperature)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Air Temperature (° C)   Daily Temperature Range (° C) Difference between the average daily maximum ... The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is above 18° C.   Heating Degree Days below 18° C ...

  8. Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data for 223 Former-USSR Stations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Razuvaev, V. N. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre; Apasova, E. B. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre; Martuganov, R. A. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre

    1990-01-01

    The stations in this dataset are considered by RIHMI to comprise one of the best networks suitable for temperature and precipitation monitoring over the the former-USSR. Factors involved in choosing these 223 stations included length or record, amount of missing data, and achieving reasonably good geographic coverage. There are indeed many more stations with daily data over this part of the world, and hundreds more station records are available through NOAA's Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCND) database. The 223 stations comprising this database are included in GHCND, but different data processing, updating, and quality assurance methods/checks mean that the agreement between records will vary depending on the station. The relative quality and accuracy of the common station records in the two databases also cannot be easily assessed. As of this writing, most of the common stations contained in the GHCND have more recent records, but not necessarily records starting as early as the records available here. This database contains four variables: daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature, and daily total precipitation (liquid equivalent). Temperature were taken three times a day from 1881-1935, four times a day from 1936-65, and eight times a day since 1966. Daily mean temperature is defined as the average of all observations for each calendar day. Daily maximum/minimum temperatures are derived from maximum/minimum thermometer measurements. See the measurement description file for further details. Daily precipitation totals are also available (to the nearest tenth of a millimeter) for each station. Throughout the record, daily precipitation is defined as the total amount of precipitation recorded during a 24-h period, snowfall being converted to a liquid total by melting the snow in the gauge. From 1936 on, rain gauges were checked several times each day; the cumulative total of all observations during a calendar day was presumably used as the

  9. Range of Motion Requirements for Upper-Limb Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Gates, Deanna H; Walters, Lisa Smurr; Cowley, Jeffrey; Wilken, Jason M; Resnik, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the range of motion (ROM) required for eight upper-extremity activities of daily living (ADLs) in healthy participants. Fifteen right-handed participants completed several bimanual and unilateral basic ADLs while joint kinematics were monitored using a motion capture system. Peak motions of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist were quantified for each task. To complete all activities tested, participants needed a minimum ROM of -65°/0°/105° for humeral plane angle (horizontal abduction-adduction), 0°-108° for humeral elevation, -55°/0°/79° for humeral rotation, 0°-121° for elbow flexion, -53°/0°/13° for forearm rotation, -40°/0°/38° for wrist flexion-extension, and -28°/0°/38° for wrist ulnar-radial deviation. Peak trunk ROM was 23° lean, 32° axial rotation, and 59° flexion-extension. Full upper-limb kinematics were calculated for several ADLs. This methodology can be used in future studies as a basis for developing normative databases of upper-extremity motions and evaluating pathology in populations. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Range of Motion Requirements for Upper-Limb Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Lisa Smurr; Cowley, Jeffrey; Wilken, Jason M.; Resnik, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We quantified the range of motion (ROM) required for eight upper-extremity activities of daily living (ADLs) in healthy participants. METHOD. Fifteen right-handed participants completed several bimanual and unilateral basic ADLs while joint kinematics were monitored using a motion capture system. Peak motions of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist were quantified for each task. RESULTS. To complete all activities tested, participants needed a minimum ROM of −65°/0°/105° for humeral plane angle (horizontal abduction–adduction), 0°–108° for humeral elevation, −55°/0°/79° for humeral rotation, 0°–121° for elbow flexion, −53°/0°/13° for forearm rotation, −40°/0°/38° for wrist flexion–extension, and −28°/0°/38° for wrist ulnar–radial deviation. Peak trunk ROM was 23° lean, 32° axial rotation, and 59° flexion–extension. CONCLUSION. Full upper-limb kinematics were calculated for several ADLs. This methodology can be used in future studies as a basis for developing normative databases of upper-extremity motions and evaluating pathology in populations. PMID:26709433

  11. Estimation of daily mean air temperature from satellite derived radiometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) at JSC utilizes satellite derived estimates of daily mean air temperature (DMAT) to monitor the effect of temperature on screwworm populations. The performance of the SEDS screwworm growth potential predictions depends in large part upon the accuracy of the DMAT estimates.

  12. Estimation of body temperature rhythm based on heart activity parameters in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sooyoung Sim; Heenam Yoon; Hosuk Ryou; Kwangsuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature contains valuable health related information such as circadian rhythm and menstruation cycle. Also, it was discovered from previous studies that body temperature rhythm in daily life is related with sleep disorders and cognitive performances. However, monitoring body temperature with existing devices during daily life is not easy because they are invasive, intrusive, or expensive. Therefore, the technology which can accurately and nonintrusively monitor body temperature is required. In this study, we developed body temperature estimation model based on heart rate and heart rate variability parameters. Although this work was inspired by previous research, we originally identified that the model can be applied to body temperature monitoring in daily life. Also, we could find out that normalized Mean heart rate (nMHR) and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability showed better performance than other parameters. Although we should validate the model with more number of subjects and consider additional algorithms to decrease the accumulated estimation error, we could verify the usefulness of this approach. Through this study, we expect that we would be able to monitor core body temperature and circadian rhythm from simple heart rate monitor. Then, we can obtain various health related information derived from daily body temperature rhythm.

  13. The circadian body temperature rhythm in the elderly: effect of single daily melatonin dosing.

    PubMed

    Gubin, D G; Gubin, G D; Waterhouse, J; Weinert, D

    2006-01-01

    The present study is part of a more extensive investigation dedicated to the study and treatment of age-dependent changes/disturbances in the circadian system in humans. It was performed in the Tyumen Elderly Veteran House and included 97 subjects of both genders, ranging from 63 to 91 yrs of age. They lived a self-chosen sleep-wake regimen to suit their personal convenience. The experiment lasted 3 wks. After 1 control week, part of the group (n=63) received 1.5 mg melatonin (Melaxen) daily at 22:30 h for 2 wks. The other 34 subjects were given placebo. Axillary temperature was measured using calibrated mercury thermometers at 03:00, 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, and 23:00 h each of the first and third week. Specially trained personnel took the measurements, avoiding disturbing the sleep of the subjects. To evaluate age-dependent changes, data obtained under similar conditions on 58 young adults (both genders, 17 to 39 yrs of age) were used. Rhythm characteristics were estimated by means of cosinor analyses, and intra- and inter-individual variability by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In both age groups, the body temperature underwent daily changes. The MESOR (36.38+/-0.19 degrees C vs. 36.17+/-0.21 degrees C) and circadian amplitude (0.33+/-0.01 degrees C vs. 0.26+/-0.01 degrees C) were slightly decreased in the elderly compared to the young adult subjects (p<0.001). The mean circadian acrophase was similar in both age groups (17.19+/-1.66 vs. 16.93+/-3.08 h). However, the inter-individual differences were higher in the older group, with individual values varying between 10:00 and 23:00 h. It was mainly this phase variability that caused a decrease in the inter-daily rhythm stability and lower group amplitude. With melatonin treatment, the MESOR was lower by 0.1 degrees C and the amplitude increased to 0.34+/-0.01 degrees C, a similar value to that found in young adults. This was probably due to the increase of the inter-daily rhythm stability. The mean acrophase

  14. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  15. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we are developing an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project: 1. providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; 2. identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; 3. estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; 4. using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  16. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.; Rayner, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we are developing an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project, i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  17. A Time Series Analysis of Associations between Daily Temperature and Crime Events in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Schinasi, Leah H; Hamra, Ghassan B

    2017-07-07

    Urban crime may be an important but overlooked public health impact of rising ambient temperatures. We conducted a time series analysis of associations between temperature and crimes in Philadelphia, PA, for years 2006-2015. We obtained daily crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department, and hourly temperature and dew point data from the National Centers for Environmental Information. We calculated the mean daily heat index and daily deviations from each year's seasonal mean heat index value. We used generalized additive models with a quasi-Poisson distribution, adjusted for day of the week, public holiday, and long-term trends and seasonality, to estimate relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals. We found that the strongest associations were with violent crime and disorderly conduct. For example, relative to the median of the distribution of mean daily heat index values, the rate of violent crimes was 9% (95% CI 6-12%) higher when the mean daily heat index was at the 99th percentile of the distribution. There was a positive, linear relationship between deviations of the daily mean heat index from the seasonal mean and rates of violent crime and disorderly conduct, especially in cold months. Overall, these analyses suggest that disorderly conduct and violent crimes are highest when temperatures are comfortable, especially during cold months. This work provides important information regarding the temporal patterns of crime activity.

  18. Fine-Resolution Satellite-Based Daily Sea Surface Temperatures over the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    MODAS with latitudinal extent limited to ±80. Note that only the RTG product includes SST in the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov . The plot masks SST...Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean A. B. Kara1 and C. N. Barron1 Received 18 November 2006; revised...13 February 2007; accepted 27 February 2007; published 22 May 2007. [1] The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface

  19. A predictive model relating daily fluctuations in summer temperatures and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Fouillet, Anne; Rey, Grégoire; Jougla, Eric; Frayssinet, Philippe; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Hémon, Denis

    2007-06-19

    In the context of climate change, an efficient alert system to prevent the risk associated with summer heat is necessary. The authors' objective was to describe the temperature-mortality relationship in France over a 29-year period and to define and validate a combination of temperature factors enabling optimum prediction of the daily fluctuations in summer mortality. The study addressed the daily mortality rates of subjects aged over 55 years, in France as a whole, from 1975 to 2003. The daily minimum and maximum temperatures consisted in the average values recorded by 97 meteorological stations. For each day, a cumulative variable for the maximum temperature over the preceding 10 days was defined. The mortality rate was modelled using a Poisson regression with over-dispersion and a first-order autoregressive structure and with control for long-term and within-summer seasonal trends. The lag effects of temperature were accounted for by including the preceding 5 days. A "backward" method was used to select the most significant climatic variables. The predictive performance of the model was assessed by comparing the observed and predicted daily mortality rates on a validation period (summer 2003), which was distinct from the calibration period (1975-2002) used to estimate the model. The temperature indicators explained 76% of the total over-dispersion. The greater part of the daily fluctuations in mortality was explained by the interaction between minimum and maximum temperatures, for a day t and the day preceding it. The prediction of mortality during extreme events was greatly improved by including the cumulative variables for maximum temperature, in interaction with the maximum temperatures. The correlation between the observed and estimated mortality ratios was 0.88 in the final model. Although France is a large country with geographic heterogeneity in both mortality and temperatures, a strong correlation between the daily fluctuations in mortality and the

  20. Effects of temperature seasonality on tundra vegetation productivity using a daily vegetation dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Erler, A.; Frazier, J.; Bhatt, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the seasonality of air temperature will elicit interacting effects on the dynamics of snow cover, nutrient availability, vegetation growth, and other ecosystem properties and processes in arctic tundra. Simulation models often do not have the fine temporal resolution necessary to develop theory and propose hypotheses for the effects of daily and weekly timescale changes on ecosystem dynamics. We therefore developed a daily version of an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model (ArcVeg) to simulate how changes in the seasonality of air temperatures influences the dynamics of vegetation growth and carbon sequestration across regions of arctic tundra. High temporal-resolution air and soil temperature data collected from field sites across the five arctic tundra bioclimate subzones were used to develop a daily weather generator operable for sites throughout the arctic tundra. Empirical relationships between temperature and soil nitrogen were used to generate daily dynamics of soil nitrogen availability, which drive the daily uptake of nitrogen and growth among twelve tundra plant functional types. Seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and remotely sensed land surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) GIMMS 3g dataset were used to investigate constraints on the start of the growing season, although there was no indication of any spatially consistent temperature or day-length controls on greening onset. Because of the exponential nature of the relationship between soil temperature and nitrogen mineralization, temperature changes during the peak of the growing season had greater effects on vegetation productivity than changes earlier in the growing season. However, early season changes in temperature had a greater effect on the relative productivities of different plant functional types, with potential influences on species composition.

  1. Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems.

    PubMed

    Teles, Tarcísio N; Gupta, Shamik; Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Casetti, Lapo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature inversions occur in nature, e.g., in the solar corona and in interstellar molecular clouds: Somewhat counterintuitively, denser parts of the system are colder than dilute ones. We propose a simple and appealing way to spontaneously generate temperature inversions in systems with long-range interactions, by preparing them in inhomogeneous thermal equilibrium states and then applying an impulsive perturbation. In similar situations, short-range systems would typically relax to another thermal equilibrium, with a uniform temperature profile. By contrast, in long-range systems, the interplay between wave-particle interaction and spatial inhomogeneity drives the system to nonequilibrium stationary states that generically exhibit temperature inversion. We demonstrate this mechanism in a simple mean-field model and in a two-dimensional self-gravitating system. Our work underlines the crucial role the range of interparticle interaction plays in determining the nature of steady states out of thermal equilibrium.

  2. [Association between temperature and daily mortality in Guangzhou, 2006-2009: a time-series study].

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing-hua; Zhang, Yong-hui; Ma, Wen-jun; Xu, Yan-jun; Xu, Xiao-jun; Cai, Qiu-mao; Pan, Bo; Zeng, Si-qing

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between temperature and daily mortality from June 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009 in Guangzhou. Time series approach was used to estimate the impact of temperature on the rates of total and cause-specific daily mortality. We fitted generalized additive Poisson regression using non-parametric smooth functions to control for the long-term time trend, day of week, air pollution and other weather variables. A slight sloping U-like relationship between the total mortality and temperature was found, with an optimum average temperature (temperature with lowest mortality risk) value of 19.7°C in Guangzhou. For temperature above the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality increased by 3.0% (RR=1.030, 95%CI: 1.011-1.050) for each increase of degree in Celsius. For average temperature below the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality and diseases of circulatory system had a 3.3% (RR=0.967, 95%CI: 0.936-0.997) decrease and a 3.6% (RR=0.964, 95%CI: 0.935-0.994) increase, for each degree of Celsius increase, respectively. Our findings showed that the temperature had an impact on the daily mortality in Guangzhou. Countermeasures needed to be taken to reduce the temperature related mortality.

  3. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size.

    PubMed

    Woolway, R Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Maberly, Stephen C; French, Jon R; Livingstone, David M; Monteith, Donald T; Simpson, Gavin L; Thackeray, Stephen J; Andersen, Mikkel R; Battarbee, Richard W; DeGasperi, Curtis L; Evans, Christopher D; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C; Rusak, James A; Ryves, David B; Scott, Daniel R; Shilland, Ewan M; Smyth, Robyn L; Staehr, Peter A; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored.

  4. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size

    PubMed Central

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Jones, Ian D.; Maberly, Stephen C.; French, Jon R.; Livingstone, David M.; Monteith, Donald T.; Simpson, Gavin L.; Thackeray, Stephen J.; Andersen, Mikkel R.; Battarbee, Richard W.; DeGasperi, Curtis L.; Evans, Christopher D.; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P.; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C.; Rusak, James A.; Ryves, David B.; Scott, Daniel R.; Shilland, Ewan M.; Smyth, Robyn L.; Staehr, Peter A.; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored. PMID:27023200

  5. Testing the daily PRISM air temperature model on semiarid mountain slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Scotty; Daly, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Studies in mountainous terrain related to ecology and hydrology often use interpolated climate products because of a lack of local observations. One data set frequently used to develop plot-to-watershed-scale climatologies is PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) temperature. Benefits of this approach include geographically weighted station observations and topographic positioning modifiers, which become important factors for predicting temperature in complex topography. Because of the paucity of long-term climate records in mountain environments, validation of PRISM algorithms across diverse regions remains challenging, with end users instead relying on atmospheric relationships derived in sometimes distant geographic settings. Presented here are results from testing observations of daily temperature maximum (TMAX) and minimum (TMIN) on 16 sites in the Walker Basin, California-Nevada, located on open woodland slopes ranging from 1967 to 3111 m in elevation. Individual site mean absolute error varied from 1.1 to 3.7°C with better performance observed during summertime as opposed to winter. We observed a consistent cool bias in TMIN for all seasons across all sites, with cool bias in TMAX varying with season. Model error for TMIN was associated with elevation, whereas model error for TMAX was associated with topographic radiative indices (solar exposure and heat loading). These results demonstrate that temperature conditions across mountain woodland slopes are more heterogeneous than interpolated models (such as PRISM) predict, that drivers of these differences are complex and localized in nature, and that scientific application of atmospheric/climate models in mountains requires additional attention to model assumptions and source data.

  6. Braze alloy holds bonding strength over wide temperature range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Copper-based quaternary alloys of the solid solution type is used for vacuum furnace brazing of large stainless steel components at a maximum temperature of 1975 deg F. The alloy has high bonding strength and good ductility over a temperature range extending from the cryogenic region to approximately 800 deg F.

  7. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  8. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  9. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  10. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  11. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  12. Daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence in Guangzhou, China: a time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Wan, Yue; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Few previous studies have examined the association between temperature and renal colic in developing regions, especially in China, the largest developing country in the world. We collected daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for renal colic from Guangzhou Emergency Center from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. We used a distributed-lag nonlinear model in addition to the over-dispersed generalized additive model to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence after controlling for seasonality, humidity, public holidays, and day of the week. We identified 3158 EADs for renal colic during the study period. This exposure-response curve was almost flat when the temperature was low and moderate and elevated when the temperature increased over 21 °C. For heat-related effects, the significant risk occurred on the concurrent day and diminished until lag day 7. The cumulative relative risk of hot temperatures (90th percentile) and extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) over lag days 0-7 was 1.92 (95 % confidence interval, 1.21, 3.05) and 2.45 (95 % confidence interval, 1.50, 3.99) compared with the reference temperature of 21 °C. This time-series analysis in Guangzhou, China, suggested a nonlinear and lagged association between high outdoor temperatures and daily EADs for renal colic. Our findings might have important public health significance to prevent renal colic.

  13. Daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence in Guangzhou, China: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Wan, Yue; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Few previous studies have examined the association between temperature and renal colic in developing regions, especially in China, the largest developing country in the world. We collected daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for renal colic from Guangzhou Emergency Center from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. We used a distributed-lag nonlinear model in addition to the over-dispersed generalized additive model to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence after controlling for seasonality, humidity, public holidays, and day of the week. We identified 3158 EADs for renal colic during the study period. This exposure-response curve was almost flat when the temperature was low and moderate and elevated when the temperature increased over 21 °C. For heat-related effects, the significant risk occurred on the concurrent day and diminished until lag day 7. The cumulative relative risk of hot temperatures (90th percentile) and extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) over lag days 0-7 was 1.92 (95 % confidence interval, 1.21, 3.05) and 2.45 (95 % confidence interval, 1.50, 3.99) compared with the reference temperature of 21 °C. This time-series analysis in Guangzhou, China, suggested a nonlinear and lagged association between high outdoor temperatures and daily EADs for renal colic. Our findings might have important public health significance to prevent renal colic.

  14. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Semiconductor power devices are typically rated for operation below 150 C. Little data is known for power semiconductors over 150 C. In most cases, the device is derated to zero operating power at 175 C. At the high temperature end of the temperature range, the intrinsic carrier concentration increases to equal the doping concentration level and the silicon behaves as an intrinsic semiconductor. The increase in intrinsic carrier concentration results in a shift of the Fermi level toward mid-bandgap at elevated temperatures. This produces a shift in devices characteristics as a function of temperature. By increasing the doping concentration higher operating temperatures can be achieved. This technique was used to fabricate low power analog and digital devices in silicon with junction operating temperatures in excess of 300 C. Additional temperature effects include increased p-n junction leakage with increasing temperature, resulting in increased resistivity. The temperature dependency of physical properties results in variations in device characteristics. These must be quantified and understood in order to develop extended temperature range operation.

  15. [The effect of daily exposure to low hardening temperature on plant vital activity].

    PubMed

    Markovskaia, E F; Sysoeva, M I; Sherudilo, E G

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological responses of plants to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature was studied under chamber and field conditions. Experiments were carried out on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), marigolds (Tagetes L.), and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants. The obtained data demonstrated a similar pattern of response in all studied plant species to different variants of exposure to low hardening temperature. The main features of plant response to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature include: a higher rate of increase in cold tolerance (cf. two- or threefold increase relative to constant low hardening temperature) that peaked on day 5 (cf. day 2 at constant low hardening temperature) and was maintained for 2 weeks (cf. 3-4 days at constant low hardening temperature); a simultaneous increase in heat tolerance (cf. twofold relative to constant low hardening temperature) maintained over a long period (cf. only in the beginning of the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a sharp drop in the subsequent cold tolerance after plant incubation in the dark (cf. a very low decrease in cold tolerance following the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a combination of high cold tolerance and high photochemical activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (cf. a low non-photochemical quenching at constant low hardening temperature); and the capacity to rapidly increase cold tolerance in response to repeated short-term exposures to low hardening temperature in plants grown outdoors (cf. a gradual increase after repeated exposure to constant low hardening temperature). Possible methods underlying the plant response to daily short-term exposure to low temperature are proposed.

  16. Spatiotemporal variations in the difference between satellite-observed daily maximum land surface temperature and station-based daily maximum near-surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xu; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Yao, Yitong; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Kaicun; Piao, Shilong

    2017-02-01

    There is an increasing demand to integrate land surface temperature (LST) into climate research due to its global coverage, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of its distinctive characteristics compared to near-surface air temperature (Tair). Using satellite observations and in situ station-based data sets, we conducted a global-scale assessment of the spatial and seasonal variations in the difference between daily maximum LST and daily maximum Tair (δT, LST - Tair) during 2003-2014. Spatially, LST is generally higher than Tair over arid and sparsely vegetated regions in the middle-low latitudes, but LST is lower than Tair in tropical rainforests due to strong evaporative cooling, and in the high-latitude regions due to snow-induced radiative cooling. Seasonally, δT is negative in tropical regions throughout the year, while it displays a pronounced seasonality in both the midlatitudes and boreal regions. The seasonality in the midlatitudes is a result of the asynchronous responses of LST and Tair to the seasonal cycle of radiation and vegetation abundance, whereas in the boreal regions, seasonality is mainly caused by the change in snow cover. Our study identified substantial spatial heterogeneity and seasonality in δT, as well as its determinant environmental drivers, and thus provides a useful reference for monitoring near-surface air temperature changes using remote sensing, particularly in remote regions.

  17. Faraday isolator stably operating in a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, E. A.; Voitovich, A. V.; Palashov, O. V.

    2016-03-01

    A method of stabilizing Faraday isolator characteristics at varying temperatures is proposed in this letter. The method is based on the use of a magnetic system with an inhomogeneous magnetic field and a magneto-optical element holder made of a material with a high value of thermal expansion coefficient. Changing the rotation angle of the polarization plane of radiation caused by the temperature variation of the magneto-optical element and the temperature dependence of its Verdet constant is compensated by its shifting in the magnetic field. The developed device demonstrates an isolation ratio of more than 40 dB at a temperature range of 25 °C. Estimates show the possibility of providing an isolation ratio of more than 45 dB in a temperature range of 60 °C.

  18. [Temperature range for growth of the Antarctic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Romanovaskaia, V A; Tashirev, A B; Gladka, G B; Tashireva, A A

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of a temperature range for growth of microorganisms isolated at various temperatures (1-5 degrees C or 30 degrees C) from biotopes of the Antarctic region (soil, grass Deschampcia antarctica, grass Colobanthus, a green moss, crustose black lichens and encrustation biofilm on vertical rocks) is made. From 40 to 70% of the investigated Antarctic microorganisms, irrespective of temperature conditions of their isolation, were capable of growing in a wide temperature range (from 1 degrees C to 30 degrees C), i.e. they are psychrotolerant. In selective conditions (1 degrees C or 5 degrees C) the psychrophilic Antarctic bacteria and yeast are isolated which grew in the range from 1 degrees C to 20 degrees C and did not grow at 30 degrees C. At the same time, among the Antarctic microorganisms isolated in nonselective conditions (at 30 degrees C), almost 50% are capable of growing at the lowest temperature (5 degrees C), and a smaller number of strains--at 1 degrees C. However with a decrease of cultivation temperature the growth lag-phase of the Antarctic bacteria increased. Thus the level of the final biomass of the investigated strains did not depend on cultivation temperature. When comparing the temperature range of growth of the mesophilic Antarctic bacteria and collection strains of the same species isolated more than 10 years ago from the region with a temperate climate, the psychrotolerant forms were also revealed among the latter. So, it is shown that the investigated Antarctic bacteria can exist in the temperature range characteristic of terrestrial biotopes of the Antarctic Region (from 1 degrees C to 10 degrees C).

  19. Improved Wide Operating Temperature Range of Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2013-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range (-60 to +60 C) to satisfy the requirements of various applications including landers, rovers, penetrators, CEV, CLV, etc. This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. The Department of Energy (DoE) has identified a number of technical barriers associated with the development of Liion rechargeable batteries for PHEVs. For this reason, DoE has interest in the development of advanced electrolytes that will improve performance over a wide range of temperatures, and lead to long life characteristics (5,000 cycles over a 10-year life span). There is also interest in improving the high-voltage stability of these candidate electrolyte systems to enable the operation of up to 5 V with high specific energy cathode materials. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. In addition, the low-temperature performance typically deteriorates rapidly upon being exposed to high temperatures. A number of electrolyte formulations were developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl propionate (MP)-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalate borate) (LiBOB), which have previously been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. These MP-based electrolytes with additives have been shown to have improved performance in experiments with MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 cells.

  20. Kinetics of the Daily Rate of Photosynthesis at Low Temperatures for two Conifers 1

    PubMed Central

    Pharis, R. P.; Hellmers, H.; Schuurmans, E.

    1967-01-01

    The daily course of photosynthesis at low temperatures in 2 coniferous species, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, were studied using controlled environment facilities. After having been grown at a 23° day, and 19° night for a year, seedlings were acclimatized for 4 months to either a 3°, 7° or 11° day all under 1200 ft-c of light and followed by a 16-hour night at 3°. Measurement of photosynthesis at 1200 ft-c revealed 3 separate responses. First, the rapidity at which the plants attained their maximum photosynthesis when the lights were turned on depended upon the species, the current temperature, and the previous temperature condition to which the plants had become acclimatized. The warmer the day temperature the sooner the daily maximum was reached. Second, fluctuations in the rate of photosynthesis during the day varied with the species and the day temperature. Photosynthesis in both fir and pine kept at an 11° day and pines kept at a 7° day attained a daily peak rate followed by a decline. This decline occurred even though temperature and light were kept constant, the CO2 level was returned to 320 ppm from 290 ppm, and the plants were kept well watered. At a 3° day neither species showed this decline. Third, a plant transferred to another temperature acquired a new stable daily photosynthetic pattern. The number of days required for stabilization depended upon the previous temperature history of the plant. The adjustment rate was faster when the temperature was raised than when it was lowered. PMID:16656533

  1. Kinetics of the Daily Rate of Photosynthesis at Low Temperatures for two Conifers.

    PubMed

    Pharis, R P; Hellmers, H; Schuurmans, E

    1967-04-01

    The daily course of photosynthesis at low temperatures in 2 coniferous species, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, were studied using controlled environment facilities. After having been grown at a 23 degrees day, and 19 degrees night for a year, seedlings were acclimatized for 4 months to either a 3 degrees , 7 degrees or 11 degrees day all under 1200 ft-c of light and followed by a 16-hour night at 3 degrees . Measurement of photosynthesis at 1200 ft-c revealed 3 separate responses. First, the rapidity at which the plants attained their maximum photosynthesis when the lights were turned on depended upon the species, the current temperature, and the previous temperature condition to which the plants had become acclimatized. The warmer the day temperature the sooner the daily maximum was reached. Second, fluctuations in the rate of photosynthesis during the day varied with the species and the day temperature. Photosynthesis in both fir and pine kept at an 11 degrees day and pines kept at a 7 degrees day attained a daily peak rate followed by a decline. This decline occurred even though temperature and light were kept constant, the CO(2) level was returned to 320 ppm from 290 ppm, and the plants were kept well watered. At a 3 degrees day neither species showed this decline. Third, a plant transferred to another temperature acquired a new stable daily photosynthetic pattern. The number of days required for stabilization depended upon the previous temperature history of the plant. The adjustment rate was faster when the temperature was raised than when it was lowered.

  2. Nylon coil actuator operating temperature range and stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kianzad, Soheil; Pandit, Milind; Bahi, Addie; Rafie Ravandi, Ali; Ko, Frank; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    Components in automotive and aerospace applications require a wide temperature range of operation. Newly discovered thermally active Baughman muscle potentially provides affordable and viable solutions for driving mechanical devices by heating them from room temperature, but little is known about their operation below room temperature. We study the mechanical behavior of nylon coil actuators by testing elastic modulus and by investigating tensile stroke as a function of temperature. Loads that range from 35 MPa to 155 MPa were applied. For the nylon used and the coiling conditions, active thermal contraction totals 19.5 % when the temperature is raised from -40 °C to 160 °C. The thermal contraction observed from -40 °C to 20°C is only ~2 %, whereas between 100 and 160 °C the contraction is 10 %. A marked increase in thermal contraction is occurs in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (~ 45°C). The elastic modulus drops as temperature increases, from ~155 MPa at - 40 °C to 35 MPa at 200 °C. Interestingly the drop in active contraction with increasing load is small and much less than might be expected given the temperature dependence of modulus.

  3. Normal functional range of motion of the cervical spine during 15 activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Biswas, Debdut; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2010-02-01

    Prospective clinical study. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify normal cervical range of motion (ROM) and compare these results to those used to perform 15 simulated activities of daily living (ADLs) in asymptomatic subjects. Previous studies looking at cervical ROM during ADLs have been limited and used measuring devices that do not record continuous motion. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify normal cervical ROM and compare these results with those used to perform 15 simulated ADLs in asymptomatic subjects. A noninvasive electrogoniometer and torsiometer were used to measure the ROM of the cervical spine. The accuracy and reliability of the devices were confirmed by comparing the ROM values acquired from dynamic flexion/extension and lateral bending radiographs to those provided by the device, which was activated while the radiographs were obtained. Intraobserver reliability was established by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient for repeated measurements on the same subjects by 1 investigator on consecutive days. These tools were employed in a clinical laboratory setting to evaluate the full active ROM of the cervical spines (ie, flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) of 60 asymptomatic subjects (30 females and 30 males; age, 20 to 75 y) as well as to assess the functional ROM required to complete 15 simulated ADLs. When compared with radiographic measurements, the electrogoniometer was found to be accurate within 2.3+/-2.2 degrees (mean+/-SD) and the intraobserver reliabilities for measuring the full active and functional ROM were both excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96 and 0.92, respectively). The absolute ROM and percentage of full active cervical spinal ROM used during the 15 ADLs was 13 to 32 degrees and 15% to 32% (median, 20 degrees/19%) for flexion/extension, 9 to 21 degrees and 11% to 27% (14 degrees/18%) for lateral bending, and 13 to 57 degrees and 12% to 92% (18 degrees/19

  4. The daily rhythm of body temperature, heart and respiratory rate in newborn dogs.

    PubMed

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2010-08-01

    We asked whether, during the postnatal period, the daily patterns of body temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR) and breathing frequency (f) begin and develop in synchrony. To this end, measurements of HR, f and Tb were performed weekly, on two consecutive days, for the first two postnatal months on puppies of three breeds of dogs (Rottweiler, Cocker Spaniel and Carlino dogs) with very different birth weights and postnatal growth patterns. Ambient conditions and feeding habits were constant for all puppies. The results indicated that (1) the 24-h average Tb increased and average HR and f decreased with growth, (2) the daily rhythms in Tb were apparent by 4 weeks, irrespective of the puppy's growth pattern, (3) the daily rhythm of Tb in the puppy was not necessarily following that of the mother; in fact, it could anticipate it. (4) The daily rhythms in HR and f were not apparent for the whole study period. We conclude that in neonatal dogs the onset of the daily rhythms of Tb has no obvious relationship with body size or rate of growth and is not cued by the maternal Tb rhythm. The daily rhythms of HR and f do not appear before 2 months of age. Hence, they are not in synchrony with those of Tb.

  5. Climate variability of heat waves and their associated diurnal temperature range variations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueh, M.-T.; Lin, C.-Y.; Chuang, Y.-J.; Sheng, Y.-F.; Chien, Y.-Y.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates heat waves in Taiwan and their maintenance mechanism, based upon observations and dynamically downscaled simulations. A 95th percentile threshold is used for identifying hot extremes over a period of consecutive days. Heat waves are forecast to become more severe in the future projection. Daily minimum temperatures are generally high and diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) are relatively large. The daily minimum temperature serves as the primary control in the variation in DTR during heat waves. An apparent increase in the daily minimum temperature suggests elevated heat stress at nighttime during future heat waves. Heat waves in Taiwan are associated with abnormal warming and drying atmospheric conditions under the control of an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high. The surrounding waters serve as a vast moisture source to suppress the drying magnitude in the surface layer as the temperature rises, thereby ensuring a high humidity level during the hot spell. The subsidence and adiabatic warming above can trap the warm and humid air in the surface layer, leading to positive feedback to the abnormally hot surface condition. The associated warming and drying atmospheric conditions cover certain spatial extents, suggesting that the extreme situation identified here is not confined to just an island-wide hot spell; the abnormal hot weather can take place across a broad geographical area.

  6. Influence of temperature on daily locomotor activity in the crab Uca pugilator

    PubMed Central

    Dunster, Gideon P.; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Aguzzi, Jacopo; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.

    2017-01-01

    Animals living in the intertidal zone are exposed to prominent temperature changes. To cope with the energetic demands of environmental thermal challenges, ectotherms rely mainly on behavioral responses, which may change depending on the time of the day and seasonally. Here, we analyze how temperature shapes crabs’ behavior at 2 different times of the year and show that a transition from constant cold (13.5°C) to constant warm (17.5°C) water temperature leads to increased locomotor activity levels throughout the day in fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) collected during the summer. In contrast, the same transition in environmental temperature leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the daily locomotor activity rhythm in crabs collected during the winter. In other words, colder temperatures during the cold season favor a more prominent diurnal behavior. We interpret this winter-summer difference in the response of daily locomotor activity to temperature changes within the framework of the circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis, which predicts that a less favorable energetic balance would promote a more diurnal activity pattern. During the winter, when the energetic balance is likely less favorable, crabs would save energy by being more active during the expected high-temperature phase of the day—light phase—and less during the expected low-temperature phase of the day—dark phase. Our results suggest that endogenous rhythms in intertidal ectotherms generate adaptive behavioral programs to cope with thermoregulatory demands of the intertidal habitat. PMID:28445533

  7. Influence of temperature on daily locomotor activity in the crab Uca pugilator.

    PubMed

    Mat, Audrey M; Dunster, Gideon P; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Aguzzi, Jacopo; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2017-01-01

    Animals living in the intertidal zone are exposed to prominent temperature changes. To cope with the energetic demands of environmental thermal challenges, ectotherms rely mainly on behavioral responses, which may change depending on the time of the day and seasonally. Here, we analyze how temperature shapes crabs' behavior at 2 different times of the year and show that a transition from constant cold (13.5°C) to constant warm (17.5°C) water temperature leads to increased locomotor activity levels throughout the day in fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) collected during the summer. In contrast, the same transition in environmental temperature leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the daily locomotor activity rhythm in crabs collected during the winter. In other words, colder temperatures during the cold season favor a more prominent diurnal behavior. We interpret this winter-summer difference in the response of daily locomotor activity to temperature changes within the framework of the circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis, which predicts that a less favorable energetic balance would promote a more diurnal activity pattern. During the winter, when the energetic balance is likely less favorable, crabs would save energy by being more active during the expected high-temperature phase of the day-light phase-and less during the expected low-temperature phase of the day-dark phase. Our results suggest that endogenous rhythms in intertidal ectotherms generate adaptive behavioral programs to cope with thermoregulatory demands of the intertidal habitat.

  8. Nicotine-induced perturbations on heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity daily rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, A L; Gantenbein, M; Bruguerolle, B

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nicotine on the daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in unrestrained rats by use of implanted radiotelemetry transmitters. The study was divided into three seven-day periods: a control period, a treatment period and a recovery period. The control period was used for baseline measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. During the treatment period three rats received nicotine (1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) at 0900 h. Three rats received saline under the same experimental conditions. Heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were continuously monitored and plotted every 10 min. During the three periods a power spectrum analysis was used to determine the dominant period of rhythmicity. If daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were detected, the characteristics of these rhythms, i.e. the mesors, amplitudes and acrophases, were determined by cosinor analysis, expressed as means +/- s.e.m. and compared by analysis of variance. Nicotine did not suppress daily rhythmicity but induced decreases of amplitudes and phase-advances of acrophases for heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. These perturbations might result from the effects of nicotine on the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the hypothalamic clock that co-ordinates biological rhythms.

  9. Post-processing GCM daily rainfall and temperature forecasts for applications in water management and agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepen, Andrew; Wang, Qj; Everingham, Yvette; Zhao, Tongtiegang

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble time series forecasts of rainfall and temperature up to six months ahead are sought for applications in water management and agricultural production. Raw GCM forecasts are generally not suitable for direct use in hydrological models or agricultural production simulators and must be post-processed first, to ensure they are reliable, as skilful as possible, and have realistic temporal patterns. In this study, we test two post-processing approaches to produce daily forecasts for cropping regions and water supply catchments in Australia. In the first approach, we apply the calibration, bridging and merging (CBaM) method to produce statistically reliable monthly forecasts based on GCM outputs of rainfall, temperature and sea surface temperatures. We then disaggregate the monthly forecasts to obtain realistic daily time series forecasts that can be used as inputs to crop and hydrological models. In the second approach, we develop a method for directly post-processing daily GCM forecasts using a Bayesian joint probability (BJP) model. We demonstrate and evaluate the two approaches through a case study for the Tully sugar region in north-eastern Australia. The daily post-processed forecasts will benefit applications in streamflow forecasting and crop yield forecasting.

  10. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  11. Trends in extreme daily temperatures and humidex index in the United Arab Emirates over 1948-2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. W.; Ouarda, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with the analysis of the characteristics of extreme temperature events in the Middle East, using NCEP reanalysis gridded data, for the summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) seasons. Trends in the occurrences of three types of heat spells during 1948-2014 are studied by both Linear Regression (LR) and Mann-Kendall (MK) test. Changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) are also investigated. To better understand the effects of heat spells on public health, the Humidex, a combination index of ambient temperature and relative humidity, is also used. Using percentile threshold, temperature (Humidex) Type-A and Type-B heat spells are defined respectively by daily maximum and minimum temperature (Humidex). Type-C heat spells are defined as the joint occurrence of Type-A and Type-B heat spells at the same time. In the Middle East, it is found that no coherent trend in temperature Type-A heat spells is observed. However, the occurrences of temperature Type-B and C heat spells have consistently increased since 1948. For Humidex heat spells, coherently increased activities of all three types of heat spells are observed in the area. During the summer, the magnitude of the positive trends in Humidex heat spells are generally stronger than temperature heat spells. More than half of the locations in the area show significantly negative DTR trends in the summer, but the trends vary according to the region in the winter. Annual mean temperature has increased an average by 0.5°C, but it is mainly associated with the daily minimum temperature which has warmed up by 0.84°C.Daily maximum temperature showed no significant trends. The warming is hence stronger in minimum temperatures than in maximum temperatures resulting in a decrease in DTR by 0.16 °C per decade. This study indicates hence that the UAE has not become hotter, but it has become less cold during 1948 to 2014.

  12. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Nelms, R. Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1994-01-01

    Silicon based power devices can be used at 200 C. The device measurements made during this program show a predictable shift in device parameters with increasing temperature. No catastrophic or abrupt changes occurred in the parameters over the temperature range. As expected, the most dramatic change was the increase in leakage currents with increasing temperature. At 200 C the leakage current was in the milliAmp range but was still several orders of magnitude lower than the on-state current capabilities of the devices under test. This increase must be considered in the design of circuits using power transistors at elevated temperature. Three circuit topologies have been prototyped using MOSFET's and IGBT's. The circuits were designed using zero current or zero voltage switching techniques to eliminate or minimize hard switching of the power transistors. These circuits have functioned properly over the temperature range. One thousand hour life data have been collected for two power supplies with no failures and no significant change in operating efficiency. While additional reliability testing should be conducted, the feasibility of designing soft switched circuits for operation at 200 C has been successfully demonstrated.

  13. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus).

    PubMed

    Everts, Lammina G; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Hut, Roelof A; Hoffmann, Ilse E; Millesi, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state. Aboveground activity started on average 3.9 h (SD 0.6 h, n = 37 days) after civil twilight at dawn and ended on average 3.2 h (SD 0.9 h, n = 37 days) before civil twilight at dusk. Between onset and offset of activity, 54% was spent aboveground, of which 73% was spent foraging. Activity patterns were influenced by photoperiod, rainfall, and by reproductive state. During mating, reproductively active males started activity earlier than females and reproductively inactive males. For females, time spent foraging was high during lactation. The midpoint of daily activity was at 12:16 h (SD 0.37 h, n = 37 days). Activity patterns of European ground squirrels thus appear robustly positioned in the middle of the photoperiod.

  14. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day−1, 768 kJ day−1, and 1,935 kJ day−1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day−1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16–192 μg day−1.

  15. Clarifying the role of fire heat and daily temperature fluctuations as germination cues for Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Blanes, M. Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims This study aims to determine the role that both direct effects of fire and subsequent daily temperature fluctuations play in the seed bank dynamics of obligate seeders from the Mediterranean Basin. The short yet high soil temperatures experienced due to passage of fire are conflated with the lower, but longer, temperatures experienced by daily fluctuations which occur after removing vegetation. These germination cues are able to break seed dormancy, but it is difficult to assess their specific level of influence because they occur consecutively after summer fires, just before the flush of germination in the wet season (autumn). Methods By applying experimental fires, seed treatments were imposed that combined fire exposure/non-fire exposure with exposure to microhabitats under a gradient of disturbance (i.e. gaps opened by fire, mechanical brushing and intact vegetation). The seeds used were representative of the main families of obligate seeders (Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus and Rosmarinus officinalis). Specifically, an assessment was made of (1) the proportion of seeds killed by fire, (2) seedling emergence under field conditions and (3) seeds which remained ungerminated in soil. Key Results For the three species studied, the factors that most influenced seedling emergence and seeds remaining ungerminated were microhabitats with higher temperature fluctuations after fire (gaps opened by fire and brushing treatments). The direct effect of fire decreased the seedling emergence of U. parviflorus and reduced the proportion of seeds of R. officinalis remaining ungerminated. Conclusions The relevance of depleting vegetation (and subsequent daily temperature fluctuation in summer) suggests that studies focusing on lower temperature thresholds for breaking seed dormancy are required. This fact also supports the hypothesis that the seeding capacity in Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders may have evolved as a response to a wide range of

  16. Effects of fluctuating daily temperatures at critical thermal extremes on Aedes aegypti life-history traits.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Lauren B; Armijos, M Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The effect of temperature on insect biology is well understood under constant temperature conditions, but less so under more natural, fluctuating conditions. A fluctuating temperature profile around a mean of 26°C can alter Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue viruses as well as numerous life-history traits, however, the effect of fluctuations on mosquitoes at critical thermal limits is unknown. We investigated the effects of large and small daily temperature fluctuations at low (16°C) and high (35-37°C) mean temperatures, after we identified these temperatures as being thresholds for immature development and/or adult reproduction under constant temperature conditions. We found that temperature effects on larval development time, larval survival and adult reproduction depend on the combination of mean temperature and magnitude of fluctuations. Importantly, observed degree-day estimates for mosquito development under fluctuating temperature profiles depart significantly (around 10-20%) from that predicted by constant temperatures of the same mean. At low mean temperatures, fluctuations reduce the thermal energy required to reach pupation relative to constant temperature, whereas at high mean temperatures additional thermal energy is required to complete development. A stage-structured model based on these empirical data predicts that fluctuations can significantly affect the intrinsic growth rate of mosquito populations. Our results indicate that by using constant temperatures, one could under- or over-estimate values for numerous life-history traits compared to more natural field conditions dependent upon the mean temperature. This complexity may in turn reduce the accuracy of population dynamics modeling and downstream applications for mosquito surveillance and disease prevention.

  17. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  18. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  19. A stage structured mosquito model incorporating effects of precipitation and daily temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2016-12-21

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong province in 2014 was the most serious outbreak ever recorded in China. Given the known positive correlation between the abundance of mosquitoes and the number of dengue fever cases, a stage structured mosquito model was developed to investigate the cause of the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 and its implications for outbreaks of the disease. Data on the Breteau index (number of containers positive for larvae per 100 premises investigated), temperature and precipitation were used for model fitting. The egg laying rate, the development rate and the mortality rates of immatures and adults were obtained from the estimated parameters. Moreover, effects of daily fluctuations of temperature on these parameters were obtained and the effects of temperature and precipitation were analyzed by simulations. Our results indicated that the abundance of mosquitoes depended not only on the total annual precipitation but also on the distribution of the precipitation. The daily mean temperature had a nonlinear relationship with the abundance of mosquitoes, and large diurnal temperature differences can reduce the abundance of mosquitoes. In addition, effects of increasing precipitation and temperature were interdependent. Our findings suggest that the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 was mainly caused by the distribution of the precipitation. In the perspective of mosquito control, our results reveal that it is better to clear water early and spray insecticide between April and August in case of limited resources.

  20. Interaction of Mean Temperature and Daily Fluctuation Influences Dengue Incidence in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2015-01-01

    Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation), population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control.

  1. Interaction of Mean Temperature and Daily Fluctuation Influences Dengue Incidence in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2015-01-01

    Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation), population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control. PMID:26161895

  2. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  3. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  4. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  5. Increased risk of muscle tears below physiological temperature ranges

    PubMed Central

    Scott, E. E. F.; Hamilton, D. F.; Wallace, R. J.; Muir, A. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Temperature is known to influence muscle physiology, with the velocity of shortening, relaxation and propagation all increasing with temperature. Scant data are available, however, regarding thermal influences on energy required to induce muscle damage. Methods Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were harvested from 36 male rat limbs and exposed to increasing impact energy in a mechanical test rig. Muscle temperature was varied in 5°C increments, from 17°C to 42°C (to encompass the in vivo range). The energy causing non-recoverable deformation was recorded for each temperature. A measure of tissue elasticity was determined via accelerometer data, smoothed by low-pass fifth order Butterworth filter (10 kHz). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance was accepted at p = 0.05. Results The energy required to induce muscle failure was significantly lower at muscle temperatures of 17°C to 32°C compared with muscle at core temperature, i.e., 37°C (p < 0.01). During low-energy impacts there were no differences in muscle elasticity between cold and warm muscles (p = 0.18). Differences in elasticity were, however, seen at higher impact energies (p < 0.02). Conclusion Our findings are of particular clinical relevance, as when muscle temperature drops below 32°C, less energy is required to cause muscle tears. Muscle temperatures of 32°C are reported in ambient conditions, suggesting that it would be beneficial, particularly in colder environments, to ensure that peripheral muscle temperature is raised close to core levels prior to high-velocity exercise. Thus, this work stresses the importance of not only ensuring that the muscle groups are well stretched, but also that all muscle groups are warmed to core temperature in pre-exercise routines. Cite this article: Professor A. H. R. W. Simpson. Increased risk of muscle tears below physiological temperature ranges. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:61–65. DOI: 10

  6. High accuracy magnetic field sensors with wide operation temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'evskii, I. S.; Vinichenko, A. N.; Rubakin, D. I.; Bolshakova, I. A.; Kargin, N. I.

    2016-10-01

    n+InAs(Si) epitaxial thin films heavily doped by silicon and Hall effect magnetic field sensors based on this structures have been fabricated and studied. We have demonstrated the successful formation of highly doped InAs thin films (∼100 nm) with the different intermediate layer arrangement and appropriate electron mobility values. Hall sensors performance parameters have been measured in wide temperature range. Obtained sensitivity varied from 1 to 40 Ω/T, while the best linearity and lower temperature coefficient have been found in the higher doped samples with lower electron mobility. We attribute this to the electron system degeneracy and decreased phonon contribution to electron mobility and resistance.

  7. Amplifier circuit operable over a wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Ronald D.; Cannon, William L.

    1979-01-01

    An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide temperature range from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with temperature.

  8. The effects of ambient temperature and heatwaves on daily Campylobacter cases in Adelaide, Australia, 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, A; Giles, L C; Zhang, Y; Koehler, A P; Hiller, J E; Bi, P

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. is a commonly reported food-borne disease with major consequences for morbidity. In conjunction with predicted increases in temperature, proliferation in the survival of microorganisms in hotter environments is expected. This is likely to lead, in turn, to an increase in contamination of food and water and a rise in numbers of cases of infectious gastroenteritis. This study assessed the relationship of Campylobacter spp. with temperature and heatwaves, in Adelaide, South Australia. We estimated the effect of (i) maximum temperature and (ii) heatwaves on daily Campylobacter cases during the warm seasons (1 October to 31 March) from 1990 to 2012 using Poisson regression models. There was no evidence of a substantive effect of maximum temperature per 1 °C rise (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·995, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0·993-0·997) nor heatwaves (IRR 0·906, 95% CI 0·800-1·026) on Campylobacter cases. In relation to heatwave intensity, which is the daily maximum temperature during a heatwave, notifications decreased by 19% within a temperature range of 39-40·9 °C (IRR 0·811, 95% CI 0·692-0·952). We found little evidence of an increase in risk and lack of association between Campylobacter cases and temperature or heatwaves in the warm seasons. Heatwave intensity may play a role in that notifications decreased with higher temperatures. Further examination of the role of behavioural and environmental factors in an effort to reduce the risk of increased Campylobacter cases is warranted.

  9. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  10. Fluorescence temperature sensing on rotating samples in the cryogenic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, F.; Devillers, R.

    1999-07-01

    A surface temperature measurement technique for rotating samples is proposed. It is based on the concept of fluorescence thermometry. The fluorescent and phosphorescent phenomena have been applied in thermometry for ambient and high-temperature measurement but not the cryogenic domain, which is explored using thermocouple- or platinum resistor-based thermometers. However, thermal behavior of Yb2+ ions in fluoride matrices seems to be interesting for thermometry in the range 20-120 K. We present here a remote sensing method which uses fluorescence behavior of Yb2+ ion-doped fluoride crystals. The fluorescence decay time of such crystals is related to its temperature. Since we developed a specific sol-gel process (OrMoSils) to make strongly adherent fluorescent layers, we applied the fluorescence thermometry method for rotating object surface temperature measurement. The main application is the monitoring of surface temperature of the ball bearing or turbopump axis in liquid propulsion rocket engines. Our method is presented and discussed, and we give some experimental results. An accurate calibration of the decay time of CaF2:Yb2+ versus temperature is also given.

  11. Setup for magnetoelectric measurement in a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuila, S.; Sweta, K.; Sahoo, M. R.; Barik, A.; Vishwakarma, P. N.

    2017-05-01

    An experimental setup is designed and developed to measure magnetoelectric (ME) voltage, following the dynamic method. Excitation magnetic field of frequency 220Hz and amplitude of 20Oe is employed to induce the ME voltage which in turn is measured using the lock-in technique. Field dependence of the ME voltage is also measured in the magnetic field ranging -10kOe to +10kOe. In this setup the measurement can be carried out in the temperature range 400K to 125K using the combination of heater and liquid nitrogen. Calibration of the setup is done using Cr2O3 as standard. After calibration, a test measurement is done on BiFeO3; a well know ME material. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of ME voltage measurement on polycrystalline BiFeO3 is carried out. Theoretically predicted linear behavior of ME in case of BiFeO3, is well reproduced here.

  12. A long range dependent model with nonlinear innovations for simulating daily river flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elek, P.; Márkus, L.

    2004-04-01

    We present the analysis aimed at the estimation of flood risks of Tisza River in Hungary on the basis of daily river discharge data registered in the last 100 years. The deseasonalised series has skewed and leptokurtic distribution and various methods suggest that it possesses substantial long memory. This motivates the attempt to fit a fractional ARIMA model with non-Gaussian innovations as a first step. Synthetic streamflow series can then be generated from the bootstrapped innovations. However, there remains a significant difference between the empirical and the synthetic density functions as well as the quantiles. This brings attention to the fact that the innovations are not independent, both their squares and absolute values are autocorrelated. Furthermore, the innovations display non-seasonal periods of high and low variances. This behaviour is characteristic to generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH) models. However, when innovations are simulated as GARCH processes, the quantiles and extremes of the discharge series are heavily overestimated. Therefore we suggest to fit a smooth transition GARCH-process to the innovations. In a standard GARCH model the dependence of the variance on the lagged innovation is quadratic whereas in our proposed model it is a bounded function. While preserving long memory and eliminating the correlation from both the generating noise and from its square, the new model is superior to the previously mentioned ones in approximating the probability density, the high quantiles and the extremal behaviour of the empirical river flows.

  13. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum daily

  14. Increasing Minimum Daily Temperatures Are Associated with Enhanced Pesticide Use in Cultivated Soybean along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Mid-Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Ziska, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999–2013) from −28.6°C (Minnesota) to −5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977–2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising

  15. Temperature range of the liquid-glass transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Darmaev, M. V.; Sanditov, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that the currently used method for calculating the temperature range of δ T g in the glass transition equation qτ g = δ T g as the difference δ T g = ( T 12- T 13) results in overestimated values, which is explained by the assumption of a constant activation energy of glass transition in deriving the calculation equation ( T 12 and T 13 are the temperatures corresponding to the logarithmic viscosity values of logη = 12 and logη = 13). The methods for the evaluation of δ T g using the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation and the model of delocalized atoms are considered, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with the product qτ g ( q is the cooling rate of the melt and τ g is the structural relaxation time at the glass transition temperature). The calculation of τ g for inorganic glasses and amorphous organic polymers is proposed.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Baozhen, Li; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    2001-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  17. Modelling of monovacancy diffusion in W over wide temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Bukonte, L. Ahlgren, T.; Heinola, K.

    2014-03-28

    The diffusion of monovacancies in tungsten is studied computationally over a wide temperature range from 1300 K until the melting point of the material. Our modelling is based on Molecular Dynamics technique and Density Functional Theory. The monovacancy migration barriers are calculated using nudged elastic band method for nearest and next-nearest neighbour monovacancy jumps. The diffusion pre-exponential factor for monovacancy diffusion is found to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than commonly used in computational studies, resulting in attempt frequency of the order 10{sup 15} Hz. Multiple nearest neighbour jumps of monovacancy are found to play an important role in the contribution to the total diffusion coefficient, especially at temperatures above 2/3 of T{sub m}, resulting in an upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. The probabilities for different nearest neighbour jumps for monovacancy in W are calculated at different temperatures.

  18. Glenohumeral translations during range-of-motion movements, activities of daily living, and sports activities in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Fabien; Raison, Maxime; Lundberg, Arne; Arndt, Anton; Allard, Paul; Begon, Mickaël

    2015-11-01

    Glenohumeral translations have been mainly investigated during static poses while shoulder rehabilitation exercises, activities of daily living, and sports activities are dynamic. Our objective was to assess glenohumeral translations during shoulder rehabilitation exercises, activities of daily living, and sports activities to provide a preliminary analysis of glenohumeral arthrokinematics in a broad range of dynamic tasks. Glenohumeral translations were computed from trajectories of markers fitted to intracortical pins inserted into the scapula and the humerus. Two participants (P1 and P2) performed full range-of-motion movements including maximum arm elevations and internal-external rotations rehabilitation exercises, six activities of daily living, and five sports activities. During range-of-motion movements, maximum upward translation was 7.5mm (P1) and 4.7mm (P2). Upward translation during elevations was smaller with the arm internally (3.6mm (P1) and 2.9mm (P2)) than neutrally (4.2mm (P1) and 3.7mm (P2)) and externally rotated (4.3mm (P1) and 4.3mm (P2)). For activities of daily living and sports activities, only anterior translation during reach axilla for P1 and upward translation during ball throwing for P2 were larger than the translation measured during range-of-motion movements (108% and 114%, respectively). While previous electromyography-based studies recommended external rotation during arm elevation to minimize upward translation, measures of glenohumeral translations suggest that internal rotation may be better. Similar amplitude of translation during ROM movement and sports activities suggests that large excursions of the humeral head may be caused not only by fast movements, but also by large amplitude movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wide temperature range electronic device with lead attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A electronic device including lead attachment structure which permits operation of the devices over a wide temperature range is reported. The device comprises a core conductor having a thin coating of metal thereon whereby only a limited amount of coating material is available to form an alloy which bonds the core conductor to the device electrode, the electrode composition thus being affected only in the region adjacent to the lead.

  20. Estimating daily air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau by dynamically integrating MODIS LST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Fan; Ye, Ming; Che, Tao; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) data have been used to estimate air temperatures because of the sparseness of station measurements in remote mountainous areas. Due to the availability and accuracy of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data, the use of a single term or a fixed combination of terms (e.g., Terra/Aqua night and Terra/Aqua day), as used in previous estimation methods, provides only limited practical application. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy may be affected by different combinations and variable data quality among the MODIS LST terms and models. This study presents a method that dynamically integrates the available LST terms to estimate the daily mean air temperature and simultaneously considers model selection, data quality, and estimation accuracy. The results indicate that the differences in model performance are related to the combinations of LST terms and their data quality. The spatially averaged cloud cover of 14% for the developed product between 2003 and 2010 is much lower than the 35-54% for single LST terms. The average cross-validation root-mean-square difference values are approximately 2°C. This study identifies the best LST combinations and statistical models and provides an efficient method for daily air temperature estimation with low cloud blockage over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The developed data set and the method proposed in this study can help alleviate the problem of sparse air temperature data over the TP.

  1. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like changes in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether changing land use has led to detectable changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed changes of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic changes to changing land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28837902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28837902"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum, maximum, and mean near surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using hybrid satellite models across Israel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenfeld, Adar; Dorman, Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai</p> <p>2017-08-21</p> <p>Meteorological stations measure air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) accurately with high temporal resolution, but usually suffer from limited spatial resolution due to their sparse distribution across rural, undeveloped or less populated areas. Remote sensing satellite-based measurements provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) data in high spatial and temporal resolution and can improve the estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta. In this study we developed spatiotemporally resolved models which allow us to predict three <span class="hlt">daily</span> parameters: Ta Max (day time), 24h mean, and Ta Min (night time) on a fine 1km grid across the state of Israel. We used and compared both the Aqua and Terra MODIS satellites. We used linear mixed effect models, IDW (inverse distance weighted) interpolations and thin plate splines (using a smooth nonparametric function of longitude and latitude) to first calibrate between Ts and Ta in those locations where we have available data for both and used that calibration to fill in neighboring cells without surface monitors or missing Ts. Out-of-sample ten-fold cross validation (CV) was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with and without available Ts observations for both Aqua and Terra (CV Aqua R(2) results for min 0.966, mean 0.986, and max 0.967; CV Terra R(2) results for min 0.965, mean 0.987, and max 0.968). Our research shows that <span class="hlt">daily</span> min, mean and max Ta can be reliably predicted using <span class="hlt">daily</span> MODIS Ts data even across Israel, with high accuracy even for days without Ta or Ts data. These predictions can be used as three separate Ta exposures in epidemiology studies for better diurnal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.waterrights.utah.gov/cgi-bin/docview.exe?Folder=TP21-1-370&Title=Basic+Data+Report+19','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://www.waterrights.utah.gov/cgi-bin/docview.exe?Folder=TP21-1-370&Title=Basic+Data+Report+19"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> water-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for Utah streams, 1944-68</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Whitaker, G.L.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is an important and sometimes critical factor for many uses of water. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> affects the usefulness of the water for recreation, fish and wildlife propagation, industrial cooling, food processing, and manufacturing. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> also affects the ability of the water to accommodate biologic and vegetative types of life.The purpose of this report is to summarize in tabular form the water- <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data that have been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis for streams in Utah. A few stream sites near the boundaries of Utah in neighboring States have been included. These sites are on streams which either flow out of or into Utah, and they may provide information of value in studies dealing with water quality in the State.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A"><span>Multisite multivariate modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Canadian Prairie Provinces using generalized linear models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asong, Zilefac E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework, a multisite stochastic modelling approach is developed using <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is modeled using a two-stage normal-heteroscedastic model by fitting mean and variance components separately. Likewise, precipitation occurrence and conditional precipitation intensity processes are modeled separately. The relationship between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is accounted for by using transformations of precipitation as covariates to predict <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields. Large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are used to calibrate these models for the 1971-2000 period. Validation of the developed models is performed on both pre- and post-calibration period data. Results of the study indicate that the developed models are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields, such as inter-site and inter-variable correlation structure, and systematic regional variations present in observed sequences. A number of simulated weather statistics <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from seasonal means to characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes and some of the commonly used climate indices are also found to be in close agreement with those derived from observed data. This GLM-based modelling approach will be developed further for multisite statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model outputs to explore climate variability and change in this region of Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446212"><span>Part 2. Association of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Wuhan, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Fewer studies have been published on the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to all natural causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the association between air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to all natural causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and <span class="hlt">ranges</span> are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432"><span>Effect of constant and fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> melatonin production by eyecups from Rana perezi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valenciano, A I; Alonso-Gómez, A L; Alonso-Bedate, M; Delgado, M J</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>We analysed the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in relation to constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on day/night melatonin synthesis in frog eyecups in culture. Eyecups were cultured for 24 h under 12L:12D photoperiod and two thermal regimes, constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25, 15 and 5 degrees C) and thermoperiod (WL/CD, thermophase coinciding with photophase and cryophase coinciding with scotophase; and CL/WD, cryophase coinciding with photophase and thermophase coinciding with scotophase). A negative correlation between ocular serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for both diurnal and nocturnal activities has been observed. This effect of increased ocular activity at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more pronounced than the well-known stimulatory effect of darkness, and it does not depend on the photoperiod phase. The lack of interactions between the phase of photoperiod and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicates that the effects of both factors are independent. Night-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the key factor in determining the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the Rana perezi retina. However, daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can not counteract the inhibitory effect of light on ocular melatonin synthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4346C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4346C"><span>Statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and subdaily stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: Application to the Methow River Basin, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caldwell, R. J.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Bountry, J.; Lai, Y.; Elsner, M. M.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Management of water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Columbia River Basin (Washington) is critical because water projects have substantially altered the habitat of Endangered Species Act listed species, such as salmon, throughout the basin. This is most important in tributaries to the Columbia, such as the Methow River, where the spawning and rearing life stages of these cold water fishes occurs. Climate change projections generally predict increasing air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the western United States, with less confidence regarding shifts in precipitation. As air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise, we anticipate a corresponding increase in water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which may alter the timing and availability of habitat for fish reproduction and growth. To assess the impact of future climate change in the Methow River, we couple historical climate and future climate projections with a statistical modeling framework to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. A K-nearest neighbor algorithm is also employed to: (i) adjust the climate projections for biases compared to the observed record and (ii) provide a reference for performing spatiotemporal disaggregation in future hydraulic modeling of stream habitat. The statistical models indicate the primary drivers of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stream flow and show reasonable skill in predictability. When compared to the historical reference time period of 1916-2006, we conclude that increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected to occur at each subsequent time horizon representative of the year 2020, 2040, and 2080, with an increase of 0.8 ± 1.9°C by the year 2080.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr42W1....3B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr42W1....3B"><span>Contribution of Modis Satellite Image to Estimate the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in the Casablanca City, Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahi, Hicham; Rhinane, Hassan; Bensalmia, Ahmed</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is considered to be an essential variable for the study and analysis of meteorological regimes and chronics. However, the implementation of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> monitoring of this variable is very difficult to achieve. It requires sufficient of measurements stations density, meteorological parks and favourable logistics. The present work aims to establish relationship between day and night land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from MODIS data and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acquired between [2011-20112] and provided by the Department of National Meteorology [DMN] of Casablanca, Morocco. The results of the statistical analysis show significant interdependence during night observations with correlation coefficient of R2=0.921 and Root Mean Square Error RMSE=1.503 for Tmin while the physical magnitude estimated from daytime MODIS observation shows a relatively coarse error with R2=0.775 and RMSE=2.037 for Tmax. A method based on Gaussian process regression was applied to compute the spatial distribution of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from MODIS throughout the city of Casablanca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1378974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1378974"><span>Attributing Historical Changes in Probabilities of Record-Breaking <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extreme Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shiogama, Hideo; Imada, Yukiko; Mori, Masato; Mizuta, Ryo; Stone, Dáithí; Yoshida, Kohei; Arakawa, Osamu; Ikeda, Mikiko; Takahashi, Chiharu; Arai, Miki; Ishii, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide</p> <p>2016-08-07</p> <p>Here, we describe two unprecedented large (100-member), longterm (61-year) ensembles based on MRI-AGCM3.2, which were driven by historical and non-warming climate forcing. These ensembles comprise the "Database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF)". We compare these ensembles to large ensembles based on another climate model, as well as to observed data, to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on historical changes in the numbers of record-breaking events, including: the annual coldest <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn), the annual warmest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx) and the annual most intense <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation event (Rx1day). These two climate model ensembles indicate that human activity has already had statistically significant impacts on the number of record-breaking extreme events worldwide mainly in the Northern Hemisphere land. Specifically, human activities have altered the likelihood that a wider area globally would suffer record-breaking TNn, TXx and Rx1day events than that observed over the 2001- 2010 period by a factor of at least 0.6, 5.4 and 1.3, respectively. However, we also find that the estimated spatial patterns and amplitudes of anthropogenic impacts on the probabilities of record-breaking events are sensitive to the climate model and/or natural-world boundary conditions used in the attribution studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1378974-attributing-historical-changes-probabilities-record-breaking-daily-temperature-precipitation-extreme-events','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1378974-attributing-historical-changes-probabilities-record-breaking-daily-temperature-precipitation-extreme-events"><span>Attributing Historical Changes in Probabilities of Record-Breaking <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extreme Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Shiogama, Hideo; Imada, Yukiko; Mori, Masato; ...</p> <p>2016-08-07</p> <p>Here, we describe two unprecedented large (100-member), longterm (61-year) ensembles based on MRI-AGCM3.2, which were driven by historical and non-warming climate forcing. These ensembles comprise the "Database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF)". We compare these ensembles to large ensembles based on another climate model, as well as to observed data, to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on historical changes in the numbers of record-breaking events, including: the annual coldest <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn), the annual warmest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx) and the annual most intense <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation event (Rx1day). These two climate model ensembles indicatemore » that human activity has already had statistically significant impacts on the number of record-breaking extreme events worldwide mainly in the Northern Hemisphere land. Specifically, human activities have altered the likelihood that a wider area globally would suffer record-breaking TNn, TXx and Rx1day events than that observed over the 2001- 2010 period by a factor of at least 0.6, 5.4 and 1.3, respectively. However, we also find that the estimated spatial patterns and amplitudes of anthropogenic impacts on the probabilities of record-breaking events are sensitive to the climate model and/or natural-world boundary conditions used in the attribution studies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28470122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28470122"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cycles in Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in a Songbird Change with Photoperiod and Are Weakly Circadian.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawson, Alistair</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Although it is well known that body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) is higher during the day in diurnal birds than at night, no data are available regarding exactly how Tb varies during a 24-h period, how this differs under different photoperiods, and how it responds to a change in photoperiod. This study used implanted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> loggers in starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris) to address these questions. The duration of elevated Tb was directly related to photoperiod, but the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle was significantly greater under shorter photoperiods. Under all photoperiods, Tb started to increase before dawn and continued to increase after dawn; there was no sudden change associated with dawn. In contrast, Tb decreased immediately and rapidly at dusk (significantly by 15 min). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in Tb rapidly adjusted to a change in photoperiod. Following an acute increase in photoperiod, Tb increased immediately at the new earlier dawn but did not decrease until the new later dusk. Following a decrease in photoperiod, Tb did not increase after the time of the missed dawn; it only increased after the new later dawn. It decreased at the new earlier dusk. Following transfer to constant darkness, there was a moderate increase in Tb around the missed dawn, but then Tb gradually decreased before the missed dusk to lower values than during the previous night. The results suggest that the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in Tb is weakly circadian and may be entrained by dusk rather than dawn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960038336&hterms=temperature+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtemperature%2Bnear%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960038336&hterms=temperature+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtemperature%2Bnear%2Bwater"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-dependent <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of precipitable water in special sensor microwave/imager observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gutowski, William J.; Lindemulder, Elizabeth A.; Jovaag, Kari</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We use retrievals of atmospheric precipitable water from satellite microwave observations and analyses of near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to examine the relationship between these two fields on <span class="hlt">daily</span> and longer time scales. The retrieval technique producing the data used here is most effective over the open ocean, so the analysis focuses on the southern hemisphere's extratropics, which have an extensive ocean surface. For both the total and the eddy precipitable water fields, there is a close correspondence between local variations in the precipitable water and near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The correspondence appears particularly strong for synoptic and planetary scale transient eddies. More specifically, the results support a typical modeling assumption that transient eddy moisture fields are proportional to transient eddy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields under the assumption f constant relative humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H43C1438S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H43C1438S"><span>A Novel Method for Simulating Stochastic Simulations of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> at Multiple Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, K.; Strong, C.; Rassoul-Agha, F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A parametric stochastic weather generator (SWG) is introduced that simulates trended, nonstationary precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values directly, circumventing the conventional approach of adding simulated standardized anomalies of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to a prescribed cyclostationary mean. The model mean makes autocorrelated transitions between wet- and dry-state values, and its parameters are determined by optimizing harmonic and trend terms. If the stochastic ("noise") term is assumed to have constant amplitude, analytical results are available via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and are equivalent to least squares estimation (LSE). Where observations motivate a seasonally-varying noise coefficient, MLE becomes nonlinear, and we formulate an analytical solution via LSE. For illustration, the SWG is shown to produce realistic representations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at multiple sites, which for the study includes the eastern Great Basin in Northern Utah.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605046"><span>A <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based model for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are readily available around the world, the models based on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are available in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvX...4a1040B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvX...4a1040B"><span>Short-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlations in Magnetite above the Verwey <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bosak, Alexey; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Hoesch, Moritz; Piekarz, Przemysław; Le Tacon, Mathieu; Krisch, Michael; Kozłowski, Andrzej; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Parlinski, Krzysztof</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Magnetite, Fe3O4, is the first magnetic material discovered and utilized by mankind in Ancient Greece, yet it still attracts attention due to its puzzling properties. This is largely due to the quest for a full and coherent understanding of the Verwey transition that occurs at TV=124 K and is associated with a drop of electric conductivity and a complex structural phase transition. A recent detailed analysis of the structure, based on single crystal diffraction, suggests that the electron localization pattern contains linear three-Fe-site units, the so-called trimerons. Here, we show that whatever the electron localization pattern is, it partially survives up to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as short-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlations in the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> cubic phase, easily discernible by diffuse scattering. Additionally, ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that characteristic features in these diffuse scattering patterns can be correlated with the Fermi surface topology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H12B..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H12B..02W"><span>From Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> to Lake Evaporation on a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Time Step: A New Empirical Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Welch, C.; Holmes, T. L.; Stadnyk, T. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Lake evaporation is a key component of the water balance in much of Canada due to the vast surface area covered by open water. Hence, incorporating this flux effectively into hydrological simulation frameworks is essential to effective water management. Inclusion has historically been limited by the intensive data required to apply the energy budget methods previously demonstrated to most effectively capture the timing and volume of the evaporative flux. Widespread, consistent, lake water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and net radiation data are not available across much of Canada, particularly the sparsely populated boreal shield. We present a method to estimate lake evaporation on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step that consists of a series of empirical equations applicable to lakes of widely varying morphologies. Specifically, estimation methods that require the single meteorological variable of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are presented for lake water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, net radiation, and heat flux. The methods were developed using measured data collected at two small Boreal shield lakes, Lake Winnipeg North and South basins, and Lake Superior in 2008 and 2009. The mean average error (MAE) of the lake water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates is generally 1.5°C, and the MAE of the heat flux method is 50 W m-2. The simulated values are combined to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake evaporation using the Priestley-Taylor method. Heat storage within the lake is tracked and limits the potential heat flux from a lake. Five-day running averages compare well to measured evaporation at the two small shield lakes (Bowen Ratio Energy Balance) and adequately to Lake Superior (eddy covariance). In addition to air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the method requires a mean depth for each lake. The method demonstrably improves the timing and volume of evaporative flux in comparison to existing evaporation methods that depend only on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The method will be further tested in a semi-distributed hydrological model to assess the cumulative effects across a lake</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod on <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. Methods We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). Results L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Conclusions Herein, we showed that light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJBm...53...17L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJBm...53...17L"><span>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Wen-Miin; Liu, Wen-Pin; Kuo, Hsien-Wen</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) and emergency room (ER) admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in an ER in Taichung City, Taiwan. The design was a longitudinal study in which DTR was related to COPD admissions to the ER of the city’s largest hospital. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ER admissions for COPD and ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were collected from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2002. There was a significant negative association between the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ER admissions for COPD ( r = -0.95). However, a significant positive association between DTR and COPD admissions was found ( r = 0.90). Using the Poisson regression model after adjusting for the effects of air pollutants and the day of the week, COPD admissions to the ER increased by 14% when DTR was over 9.6°C. COPD patients must be made aware of the increased risk posed by large DTR. Hospitals and ERs should take into account the increased demand of specific facilities during periods of large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957609','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957609"><span>Changes in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> and national cereal yields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobell, D</p> <p>2007-04-26</p> <p>Models of yield responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change have often considered only changes in average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide <span class="hlt">ranges</span> that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hocking, Daniel J.; O’Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O’Donnell, Matthew J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019969','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019969"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dodson, R.; Marks, D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Two methods are investigated for interpolating <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equations to convert measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and elevations to sea-level potential <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The potential <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L"><span>Spatial modeling of the highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Korea via max-stable processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Youngsaeng; Yoon, Sanghoo; Murshed, Md. Sharwar; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, ChunHo; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jeong-Soo</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>This paper examines the annual highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DMT) in Korea by using data from 56 weather stations and employing spatial extreme modeling. Our approach is based on max-stable processes (MSP) with Schlather’s characterization. We divide the country into four regions for a better model fit and identify the best model for each region. We show that regional MSP modeling is more suitable than MSP modeling for the entire region and the pointwise generalized extreme value distribution approach. The advantage of spatial extreme modeling is that more precise and robust return levels and some indices of the highest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be obtained for observation stations and for locations with no observed data, and so help to determine the effects and assessment of vulnerability as well as to downscale extreme events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4905910','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4905910"><span>Factors affecting the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk <span class="hlt">daily</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matsui, Nobumasa; Shoji, Morio; Kitagawa, Takashi; Terada, Shigeru</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Increased plantar pressure during walking is a risk factor for foot ulcers because of reduced <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints. However, the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the factors affecting the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk <span class="hlt">daily</span>. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy feet of 35 patients receiving hemodialysis therapy were examined. Measurements included the passive <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, and flexion and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. [Results] Hemodialysis duration was not associated with ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Diabetes duration was significantly associated with limited ankle joint mobility. Finally, blood hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and age were associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion. [Conclusion] The present study identified age, diabetes, and decreased physical activity, but not hemodialysis duration, to be risk factors for limited joint mobility of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27313371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313371"><span>Factors affecting the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsui, Nobumasa; Shoji, Morio; Kitagawa, Takashi; Terada, Shigeru</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Increased plantar pressure during walking is a risk factor for foot ulcers because of reduced <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints. However, the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the factors affecting the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk <span class="hlt">daily</span>. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy feet of 35 patients receiving hemodialysis therapy were examined. Measurements included the passive <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, and flexion and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. [Results] Hemodialysis duration was not associated with ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Diabetes duration was significantly associated with limited ankle joint mobility. Finally, blood hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and age were associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion. [Conclusion] The present study identified age, diabetes, and decreased physical activity, but not hemodialysis duration, to be risk factors for limited joint mobility of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CG....105...10S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CG....105...10S"><span>Reconstructing <span class="hlt">daily</span> clear-sky land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for cloudy regions from MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Liang; Chen, Zhongxin; Gao, Feng; Anderson, Martha; Song, Lisheng; Wang, Limin; Hu, Bo; Yang, Yun</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) is a critical parameter in environmental studies and resource management. The MODIS LST data product has been widely used in various studies, such as drought monitoring, evapotranspiration mapping, soil moisture estimation and forest fire detection. However, cloud contamination affects thermal band observations and will lead to inconsistent LST results. In this study, we present a new Remotely Sensed <span class="hlt">DAily</span> land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> reconstruction (RSDAST) model that recovers clear sky LST for pixels covered by cloud using only clear-sky neighboring pixels from nearby dates. The reconstructed LST was validated using the original LST pixels. Model shows high accuracy for reconstructing one masked pixel with R2 of 0.995, bias of -0.02 K and RMSE of 0.51 K. Extended spatial reconstruction results show a better accuracy for flat areas with R2 of 0.72‒0.89, bias of -0.02-0.21 K, and RMSE of 0.92-1.16 K, and for mountain areas with R2 of 0.81-0.89, bias of -0.35-1.52 K, and RMSE of 1.42‒2.24 K. The reconstructed areas show spatial and temporal patterns that are consistent with the clear neighbor areas. In the reconstructed LST and NDVI triangle feature space which is controlled by soil moisture, LST values distributed reasonably and correspond well to the real soil moisture conditions. Our approach shows great potential for reconstructing clear sky LST under cloudy conditions and provides consistent <span class="hlt">daily</span> LST which are critical for <span class="hlt">daily</span> drought monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3338621','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3338621"><span>Seasonal Patterns of Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms in Group-Living Cape Ground Squirrels Xerus inauris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E.; Waterman, Jane M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta). We measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta provided the greatest explanatory power for mean Tb whereas sunrise had greatest power for Tb acrophase. There were significant changes in mean Tb and Tb acrophase over time with mean Tb increasing and Tb acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in Tb, sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which Tb remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to ‘offload’ heat. In addition, greater Tb amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their Ta-Tb gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on Tb with a lower and less variable Tb in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile Tb which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable environment. PMID:22558324</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MAR.A5004H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MAR.A5004H"><span>Microcalorimetry: Wide <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span>, High Field, Small Sample Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hellman, Frances</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>We have used Si micromachining techniques to fabricate devices for measuring specific heat or other calorimetric signals from microgram-quantity samples over a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 1 to 900K in magnetic fields to date up to 8T. The devices are based on a relatively robust silicon nitride membrane with thin film heaters and thermometers. Different types of thermometers are used for different purposes and in different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. These devices are particularly useful for thin film samples (typically 200-400 nm thick at present) deposited directly onto the membrane through a Si micromachined evaporation mask. They have also been used for small single crystal samples attached by conducting grease or solder, and for powder samples dissolved in a solvent and dropped onto devices. The measurement technique used (relaxation method) is particularly suited to high field measurements because the thermal conductance can be measured once in zero field and is field independent, while the time constant of the relaxation does not depend on thermometer calibration. Present development efforts include designs which show promise for time-resolved calorimetry measurements of biological samples in small amounts of water. Samples measured to date include amorphous magnetic thin films (a-TbFe2 and giant negative magnetoresistance a-Gd-Si alloys), empty and filled fullerenes (C_60, K_3C_60, C_82, La@C_82, C_84, and Sc_2@C_84), single crystal manganites (La_1-xSr_xMnO_3), antiferromagnetic multilayers (NiO/CoO, NiO/MgO, and CoO/MgO), and nanoparticle magnetic materials (CoO in a Ag matrix).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571674"><span>[Interpolation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by using geographically weighted regression-Kriging].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guo-feng; Yang, Li-rong; Qu, Ming-kai; Chen, Hui-lin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the input variable of numerous models in agriculture, hydrology, climate, and ecology. Currently, in study areas where the terrain is complex, methods taking into account correlation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and environment variables and autocorrelation of regression residual (e.g., regression Kriging, RK) are mainly adopted to interpolate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, such methods are based on the global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression technique, without taking into account the spatial nonstationary relationship of environment variables. Geographically weighted regression-Kriging (GWRK) is a kind of method that takes into account spatial nonstationarity relationship of environment variables and spatial autocorrelation of regression residuals of environment variables. In this study, according to the results of correlation and stepwise regression analysis, RK1 (covariates only included altitude), GWRK1 (covariates only included altitude), RK2 (covariates included latitude, altitude and closest distance to the seaside) and GWRK2 (co-variates included altitude and closest distance to the seaside) were compared to predict the spatial distribution of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on Hainan Island on December 18, 2013. The prediction accuracy was assessed using the maximum positive error, maximum negative error, mean absolute error and root mean squared error based on the 80 validation sites. The results showed that GWRK1's four assessment indices were all closest to 0. The fact that RK2 and GWRK2 were worse than RK1 and GWRK1 implied that correlation among covariates reduced model performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B"><span>Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Few sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z"><span>On the use of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to calculate the extended spring indices phenological models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zurita-Milla, Raul; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Batarseh, Sana; Ault, Toby; Schwartz, Mark D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Models that predict the timing of recurrent biological events play an important role in supporting the systematic study of phenological changes at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. One set of such models are the extended Spring indices (SI-x). These models predicts a suite of phenological metrics ("first leaf" and "first bloom," "last freeze" and the "damage index") from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data and geographic location (to model the duration of the day). The SI-x models were calibrated using historical phenological and weather observations from the continental US. In particular, the models relied on first leaf and first bloom observations for lilac and honeysuckle and on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values from a number of weather stations located near to the sites where phenological observations were made. In this work, we study the use of DAYMET (http://daymet.ornl.gov/) to calculate the SI-x models over the continental USA. DAYMET offers <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values for the period 1980 to 2012. Using an automatic downloader, we downloaded complete DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series for the over 1100 geographic locations where historical lilac observations were made. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values were parsed and, using the recently available MATLAB code, the SI-x indices were calculated. Subsequently, the predicted first leaf and first bloom dates were compared with historical lilac observations. The RMSE between predicted and observed lilac leaf/bloom dates was calculated after identifying data from the same geographic location and year. Results were satisfactory for the lilac observations in the Eastern US (e.g. the RMSE for the blooming date was of about 5 days). However, the correspondence between the observed and predicted lilac values in the West was rather week (e.g. RMSE for the blooming date of about 22 days). This might indicate that DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data in this region of the US might contain larger uncertainties due to a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3461P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3461P"><span>Monthly analysis of indices based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Serbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Putnikovic, Suzana; Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The following climate indices were analyzed: frost days (FD), cold nights (TN10p), warm nights (TN90p), minimum value of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn), and tropical nights (TR). Monthly analysis was performed for indices based on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at eight stations in Serbia during the period 1950-2009. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine whether the trends were statistically significant. It was found that the trends of FD and TN10p were negative for all the months except for November and December. The significant negative trend of TN10p during the period 1950-2009 was recorded in March, May, August, September and October. There was a positive trend of TN90p, TR for all months and TNn except for October, November and December. The significant positive trend of TN90p was observed in March, May, during the summer months and October, while for TR in July and August, i.e., in the two hottest months. The negative minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly of about -5.7 °C in February 1956 was obtained for the negative values of the East Atlantic index (EAI) and North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAOI). The positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly of about 3.0 °C in November 2009 was recorded for the positive value of the EAI and small negative value of the NAOI. Hence, the negative/positive anomalies prevailed for the negative/positive values of the EAI. In order to investigate the impact of the low-frequency large-scale variability pattern on the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, EAI was compared through a correlation analysis with the time series of the climate indices. It was found that the monthly coefficient of correlation between the EAI and climate indices was negative for FD and TN10p, and positive one for TN90p and TR. The highest monthly correlation was found for FD and TN90p in February and for TN10p and TR in August. Since the highest correlation in value of about 0.7 is obtained in February, it could be concluded that the EA can explain about 50% of the total</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> grids for Austria since 1961—concept, creation and applicability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiebl, Johann; Frei, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Current interest into past climate change and its potential role for changes in the environment call for spatially distributed climate datasets of high temporal resolution and extending over several decades. To foster such research, we present a new gridded dataset of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> covering Austria at 1-km resolution and extending back till 1961 at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time resolution. To account for the complex and highly variable thermal distributions in this high-mountain region, we adapt and employ a recently published interpolation method that estimates nonlinear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with altitude and accounts for the non-Euclidean spatial representativity of station measurements. The spatial analysis builds upon 150 station series in and around Austria (homogenised where available), all of which extend over or were gap-filled to cover the entire study period. The restriction to (almost) complete records shall avoid long-term inconsistencies from changes in the station network. Systematic leave-one-out cross-validation reveals interpolation errors (mean absolute error) of about 1 °C. Errors are relatively larger for minimum compared to maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, for the interior of the Alps compared to the flatland and for winter compared to summer. Visual comparisons suggest that valley-scale inversions and föhn are more realistically captured in the new compared to existing datasets. The usefulness of the presented dataset (SPARTACUS) is illustrated in preliminary analyses of long-term trends in climate impact indices. These reveal spatially variable and eventually considerable changes in the thermal climate in Austria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W"><span>The influence of topographic setting and weather type on the correlation between elevation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures in mountainous terrain in the Canadian Rocky Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Wendy; Marshall, Shawn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates for hydrological and ecological studies in mountainous regions are often based on lapse rate adjustments using sparse low elevation measurements. These measurements may not be representative of the area where estimates are required. This study examines the effects varying topographic settings under different weather types have on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship. The Foothills Climate Array study recorded hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 2004 and 2010 at ˜230 weather stations over an area of approximately 24 000 km2 in the Canadian Rocky mountains, extending to the Canadian prairies. 132 sites are considered mountain sites, comprising a <span class="hlt">range</span> of elevation values, surface types and varied terrain morphology. Correlations are calculated between all station pairs for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, grouped by weather type for the 2006 data. Topographic and surface type characteristics - horizontal and vertical separation, height above valley bottom, slope aspect and angle and land surface type - for the 10 highest correlated neighbours for each site are examined as a means of determining which of these measures drives a similar behavior in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results indicate a weak <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation correlation coefficient is -0.31 for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, varying from weaker than -0.2 for weather types where cold air pooling is a common occurrence to stronger than -0.6 for cool wet weather days. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have an average correlation coefficient of -0.78, but the correlation weakens to -0.4 for cold weather events. There is a nonlinear maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship, with weak correlations below 2000 m and stronger correlations at higher elevations. Choosing sites with similar topographic settings does strengthen the correlation coefficient, but the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship remains weak due to large day to day</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...42D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...42D"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.128..983D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.128..983D"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357"><span>Influence of repeated <span class="hlt">daily</span> menthol exposure on human <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation and perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillis, D Jason; Weston, Neil; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A single exposure to menthol can, depending on concentration, enhance both cool sensations and encourage body heat storage. This study tested whether there is an habituation in either response after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures. Twenty-two participants were assigned to one of three spray groups: Control (CON; n=6), 0.05% L-menthol (M(0.05%); n=8), and 0.2% L-menthol (M(0.2%); n=8). On Monday (20°C, 50% rh) participants were sprayed with 100 mL of solution and undertook 40 min of cycling at 45% of their peak power (Ex1), from Tuesday to Thursday (30°C, 50% rh) they were sprayed twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> whilst resting (R1 to R6), Friday was a repeat of Monday (Ex2). Thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort, perceived exertion, irritation, rectal and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tsk), skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were monitored. A two-way ANOVA (alpha=0.05) compared responses from the beginning (Ex1, R1) and end (Ex2, R5) of the testing week. M(0.2%) induced significantly (P<0.05) cooler TS at the beginning of the week (Ex1, R1) compared to the end (Ex2, R5), indicating habituation of TS; this was not observed in M(0.05%). No other perceptual or physiological responses habituated. 0.2% Menthol caused a heat storage response, mediated by vasoconstriction, at the beginning and end of the week, suggesting the habituation of TS occurred in a pathway specific to sensation. In summary, the cooling influence of 0.2% menthol habituates after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures, but with no habituation in heat storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100397"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlations of Global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) derived from 1870-2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively long-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller long-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839764"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlations of Global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) derived from 1870–2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively long-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller long-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities. PMID:27100397</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M"><span>Ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability from in-situ and satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST variability on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical variability. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA Glob<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> project which aims at applying surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in models in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S"><span>Transient 21st Century Changes in <span class="hlt">Daily</span>-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A key question for policy and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We therefore use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment driven by the A1B emission scenario to investigate the transient changes in the frequency, duration and magnitude of six <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale hot and cold extreme indices throughout the 21st century in the United States. We evaluate these changes within a time of emergence framework and calculate the emergence of a permanent exceedence above the colder part of the current (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and further analyze whether a new norm, with the distribution centered on the current distribution's maxima/minima, emerges. We find that hot extremes will permanently exceed the current distribution's colder half in large parts of the U.S. during the 21st century, along with the emergence of a new hot extremes norm. The changes are particularly robust for tropical nights in the Eastern U.S. and for the exceedence of the 95th <span class="hlt">daily-maximum-temperature</span> percentile in the West and the Northeast. Conversely, no widespread emergence for a permanent exceedence or a new norm is found for cold extremes, with the exception of cold spell duration and frost day frequency. Accordingly, our analysis implies unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S. by the mid century under increase radiative forcing, as well as cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at least occasionally as long and as severe as in the current climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713450X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713450X"><span>Carbon nanotube dry adhesives with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced adhesion over a large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Ming; Du, Feng; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ajit; Dai, Liming</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Conventional adhesives show a decrease in the adhesion force with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to thermally induced viscoelastic thinning and/or structural decomposition. Here, we report the counter-intuitive behaviour of carbon nanotube (CNT) dry adhesives that show a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced adhesion strength by over six-fold up to 143 N cm-2 (4 mm × 4 mm), among the strongest pure CNT dry adhesives, over a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from -196 to 1,000 °C. This unusual adhesion behaviour leads to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced electrical and thermal transports, enabling the CNT dry adhesive for efficient electrical and thermal management when being used as a conductive double-sided sticky tape. With its intrinsic thermal stability, our CNT adhesive sustains many <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transition cycles over a wide operation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. We discover that a `nano-interlock' adhesion mechanism is responsible for the adhesion behaviour, which could be applied to the development of various dry CNT adhesives with novel features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116088','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116088"><span>Carbon nanotube dry adhesives with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced adhesion over a large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Ming; Du, Feng; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ajit; Dai, Liming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Conventional adhesives show a decrease in the adhesion force with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to thermally induced viscoelastic thinning and/or structural decomposition. Here, we report the counter-intuitive behaviour of carbon nanotube (CNT) dry adhesives that show a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced adhesion strength by over six-fold up to 143 N cm−2 (4 mm × 4 mm), among the strongest pure CNT dry adhesives, over a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from −196 to 1,000 °C. This unusual adhesion behaviour leads to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced electrical and thermal transports, enabling the CNT dry adhesive for efficient electrical and thermal management when being used as a conductive double-sided sticky tape. With its intrinsic thermal stability, our CNT adhesive sustains many <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transition cycles over a wide operation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. We discover that a ‘nano-interlock' adhesion mechanism is responsible for the adhesion behaviour, which could be applied to the development of various dry CNT adhesives with novel features. PMID:27849052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28343565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28343565"><span>Thermal tolerance and preferred <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of juvenile meagre acclimated to four <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kır, Mehmet; Sunar, Murat Can; Altındağ, Barış Can</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The present study reports the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerance, estimated using dynamic and static methodologies, and preferred <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, based on oxygen consumption rate (OCR), of juvenile meagre (Argyrosomus regius) (Asso, 1801) (3.4±0.9g) after 30 days of acclimation at 18, 22, 26 and 30°C. Meagre has dynamic and static thermal tolerance zones of 551°C(2) and 460°C(2), respectively and is a low resistance fish species, with a resistance zone area of 87°C(2). The OCR of juvenile meagre at the above acclimation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was 370, 410, 618 and 642mgh(-1)kg(-)(1), respectively, and is significantly different (P<0.0001, n=20). The fact that OCR increases by rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and gradually decreases after 26°C indicates that the preferred <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of juvenile meagre is between 26 and 30°C. Our study suggests that meagre is unable to respond to low and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation in aquaculture facilities or its natural habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V"><span>Observed trends in indices of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for the countries of the western Indian Ocean, 1961-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, L. A.; Aguilar, E.; Saindou, M.; Hassane, A. F.; Jumaux, G.; Roy, D.; Booneeady, P.; Virasami, R.; Randriamarolaza, L. Y. A.; Faniriantsoa, F. R.; Amelie, V.; Seeward, H.; Montfraix, B.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A workshop on climate change indices was held at the Mauritius Meteorological Services in October 2009 to produce the first analysis of climate trends for the countries of the western Indian Ocean. Scientists brought their long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for a careful assessment of data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices. This paper reports on the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices for 1961-2008. The results indicate a definitive warming of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Annual means of the daytime and nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased at a similar rate, leading to no discernible change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Significant increasing trends were found in the frequency of warm days and warm nights, while decreasing trends were observed in the frequency of cold days and cold nights. Moreover, it seems that the warm extremes have changed more than the cold extremes in the western Indian Ocean region. Trends in precipitation indices are generally weak and show less spatial coherence. Regionally, a significant decrease was found in the annual total rainfall for the past 48 years. The results also show some increase in consecutive dry days, no change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity and consecutive wet days, and a decrease in extreme precipitation events. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> indices are highly correlated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the region, whereas weak correlations are found with the precipitation indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324"><span>Seasonal patterns of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in group-living Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W; Bennett, Nigel C; Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E; Waterman, Jane M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(a)). We measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(a) provided the greatest explanatory power for mean T(b) whereas sunrise had greatest power for T(b) acrophase. There were significant changes in mean T(b) and T(b) acrophase over time with mean T(b) increasing and T(b) acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in T(b), sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which T(b) remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to 'offload' heat. In addition, greater T(b) amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their T(a)-T(b) gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on T(b) with a lower and less variable T(b) in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile T(b) which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pulido, Jose E.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Landis, J. Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: High ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Methods: Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005–2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure–response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, in most cases RRs increased for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ≤ 3 days. Conclusions: In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using wavelet regression, ANN, GEP and empirical models: A comparative study of selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharifi, Sayed Saber; Rezaverdinejad, Vahid; Nourani, Vahid</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Although the sunshine-based models generally have a better performance than <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based models for estimating solar radiation, the limited availability of sunshine duration records makes the development of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based methods inevitable. This paper presents a comparative study between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Wavelet Regression (WR) and 5 selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based empirical models for estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation. A new combination of inputs including four readily accessible parameters have been employed: <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean clearness index (KT), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (ΔT), theoretical sunshine duration (N) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra). Ten statistical indicators in a form of GPI (Global Performance Indicator) is used to ascertain the suitability of the models. The performance of selected models across the <span class="hlt">range</span> of solar radiation values, was depicted by the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. Comparing these plots makes it evident that ANNs can cover a broader <span class="hlt">range</span> of solar radiation values. The results shown indicate that the performance of ANN model was clearly superior to the other models. The findings also demonstrated that WR model performed well and presented high accuracy in estimations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904"><span>Polar microwave brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Nimbus-7 SMMR: Time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly maps from 1978 to 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.; Zwally, H. Jay</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gridded maps (October 25, 1978 through August 15, 1987) were generated from all ten channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer orbital data. This unique data set can be utilized in a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of applications including heat flux, ocean circulation, ice edge productivity, and climate studies. Two sets of data in polar stereographic format are created for the Arctic region: one with a grid size of about 30 km on a 293 by 293 array similar to that previously utilized for the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer, while the other has a grid size of about 25 km on a 448 by 304 array identical to what is now being used for the DMSP Scanning Multichannel Microwave Imager. Data generated for the Antaractic region are mapped using the 293 by 293 grid only. The general technique for mapping, and a quality assessment of the data set are presented. Monthly and yearly averages are also generated from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and sample geophysical ice images and products derived from the data are given. Contour plots of monthly ice concentrations derived from the data for October 1978 through August 1987 are presented to demonstrate spatial and temporal detail which this data set can offer, and to show potential research applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19660000055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19660000055"><span>Hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace has increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Caves, R. M.; Gresslin, C. H.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>Improved hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace operates at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 5,350 deg F. The furnace heats up from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 4,750 deg F in 30 seconds and cools down to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in 2 minutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12011862G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12011862G"><span>Toward <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate scenarios for Canadian Arctic coastal zones with more realistic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation interdependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gennaretti, Fabio; Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Grenier, Patrick</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The interdependence between climatic variables should be taken into account when developing climate scenarios. For example, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation interdependence in the Arctic is strong and impacts on other physical characteristics, such as the extent and duration of snow cover. However, this interdependence is often misrepresented in climate simulations. Here we use two two-dimensional (2-D) methods for statistically adjusting climate model simulations to develop plausible local <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmean) and precipitation (Pr) scenarios. The first 2-D method is based on empirical quantile mapping (2Dqm) and the second on parametric copula models (2Dcopula). Both methods are improved here by forcing the preservation of the modeled long-term warming trend and by using moving windows to obtain an adjustment specific to each day of the year. These methods were applied to a representative ensemble of 13 global climate model simulations at 26 Canadian Arctic coastal sites and tested using an innovative cross-validation approach. Intervariable dependence was evaluated using correlation coefficients and empirical copula density plots. Results show that these 2-D methods, especially 2Dqm, adjust individual distributions of climatic time series as adequately as one common one-dimensional method (1Dqm) does. Furthermore, although 2Dqm outperforms the other methods in reproducing the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation interdependence over the calibration period, both 2Dqm and 2Dcopula perform similarly over the validation periods. For cases where <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation interdependence is important (e.g., characterizing extreme events and the extent and duration of snow cover), both 2-D methods are good options for producing plausible local climate scenarios in Canadian Arctic coastal zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266078"><span>[Comparative study of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum exposure to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during hot summer days in 3 Japanese cities].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kabuto, Michinori; Honda, Yasushi; Todoriki, Hidemi</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Health risk assessment and developing measures to deal with global warming (including increased heat waves) have become urgent global issues. In the present study, we measured the personally exposed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tp) during summer among residents in major Japanese cities to investigate the relation to <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), which is generally been used as an index of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure in epidemiological studies. Personal exposures to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tp) were measured for a week with portable monitors (HOBO H8 Loggers, Onset Computer Corporation) for 194 subjects (101 males and 93 females, aged 21-82 years) in 3 cities, i.e., Sapporo, Tokyo and Naha (Okinawa), from July to September, 2003 (73 days). Even on days with a Tmax of 30-35 degrees C, associated with significantly increased risk of mortality in Tokyo, neither average Tp for 7-19 o'clock nor the value for 13-15 o'clock appeared to rise beyond 30 degrees C in Tokyo and 31 degrees C in Naha. It was, thus, apparent that Tp's are generally controlled to not exceed these values at least during daytime, suggesting that they could be regarded as a threshold for heat stress tolerance. On the other hand, although average Tp's for night time (0-7 o'clock) were also found to be asymptomatic at 29 degrees C in Tokyo and 30 degrees C in Naha, they were generally too high to be free from heat stress including sleep disturbance in both cities as indicated in our questionnaire study. For both cities, in days with the Tmax above 30 degrees C, the average Tmin was 26 degrees C, while average and minimum Tp's during the night time were 28 degrees C and 27 degrees C, respectively. The correlation coefficients with Tmax were generally low; 0.35 for average Tp during daytime, 0.42 for Tmin and 0.27 and 0.19 for average and minimum night time Tp, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813125R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813125R"><span>The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, <span class="hlt">daily</span> information on surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rayner, Nick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Day-to-day variations in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements are not available everywhere. A global <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements and retrievals of surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D"><span>Impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16718468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16718468"><span>Impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO(2) concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23377036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23377036"><span>Global climate change: impact of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on mortality in Guangzhou, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Jun; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Ou, Chun-Quan; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Zhou, Qin; Shen, Gi-Chuan; Chen, Ping-Yan; Guo, Yuming</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator associated with global climate change, but little is known about the effects of DTR on mortality. We examined the effects of DTR on cause-/age-/education-specific mortality in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in China during 2003-2010. A quasi-Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the effects of DTR, after controlling for <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, air pollutants, season and day of the week. A 1 °C increase in DTR at lag 0-4 days was associated with a 0.47% (95% confidence interval: 0.01%-0.93%) increase in non-accidental mortality. Stroke mortality was most sensitive to DTR. Female, the elderly and those with low education were more susceptible to DTR than male, the youth and those with high education, respectively. Our findings suggest that vulnerable subpopulations should pay more attention to protect themselves from unstable <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1104890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1104890"><span>Reduced diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T<sub>min</sub>) has increased faster than <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T<sub>max</sub>) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact T<sub>min</sub> occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in T<sub>min</sub> than T<sub>max</sub>, using precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls to create realistic diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with gradual day-night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions and elevated early morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn T<sub>min</sub>=ambient +5ºC, afternoon T<sub>max</sub>= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, rather than changes in T<sub>min</sub>/T<sub>max</sub>, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1104890-reduced-diurnal-temperature-range-does-change-warming-impacts-ecosystem-carbon-balance-mediterranean-grassland-mesocosms','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1104890-reduced-diurnal-temperature-range-does-change-warming-impacts-ecosystem-carbon-balance-mediterranean-grassland-mesocosms"><span>Reduced diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) has increased faster than <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We reportmore » on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls to create realistic diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with gradual day-night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions and elevated early morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L"><span>An empirical method for estimating probability density functions of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lussana, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The presented work focuses on the investigation of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (TN) and maximum (TX) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability density functions (PDFs) with the intent of both characterising a region and detecting extreme values. The empirical PDFs estimation procedure has been realised using the most recent years of gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis fields available at ARPA Lombardia, in Northern Italy. The spatial interpolation is based on an implementation of Optimal Interpolation using observations from a dense surface network of automated weather stations. An effort has been made to identify both the time period and the spatial areas with a stable data density otherwise the elaboration could be influenced by the unsettled station distribution. The PDF used in this study is based on the Gaussian distribution, nevertheless it is designed to have an asymmetrical (skewed) shape in order to enable distinction between warming and cooling events. Once properly defined the occurrence of extreme events, it is possible to straightforwardly deliver to the users the information on a local-scale in a concise way, such as: TX extremely cold/hot or TN extremely cold/hot.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S"><span>Transient twenty-first century changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068"><span>Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The variability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed by the China Meteorological Administ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58..103H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58..103H"><span>Spring leaf phenology and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in a temperate maple forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hanes, Jonathan M.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Spring leaf phenology in temperate climates is intricately related to numerous aspects of the lower atmosphere [e.g., surface energy balance, carbon flux, humidity, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR)]. To further develop and improve the accuracy of ecosystem and climate models, additional investigations of the specific nature of the relationships between spring leaf phenology and various ecosystem and climate processes are required in different environments. This study used visual observations of maple leaf phenology, below-canopy light intensities, and micrometeorological data collected during the spring seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010 to examine the potential influence of leaf phenology on a seasonal transition in the trend of the DTR. The timing of a reversal in the DTR trend occurred near the time when the leaves were unfolding and expanding. The results suggest that the spring decline in the DTR can be attributed primarily to the effect of canopy closure on <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These findings improve our understanding of the relationship between leaf phenology and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in temperate maple forests during the spring. They also demonstrate the necessity of incorporating accurate phenological data into ecosystem and climate models and warrant a careful examination of the extent to which canopy phenology is currently incorporated into existing models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23150087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23150087"><span>Spring leaf phenology and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in a temperate maple forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanes, Jonathan M</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Spring leaf phenology in temperate climates is intricately related to numerous aspects of the lower atmosphere [e.g., surface energy balance, carbon flux, humidity, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR)]. To further develop and improve the accuracy of ecosystem and climate models, additional investigations of the specific nature of the relationships between spring leaf phenology and various ecosystem and climate processes are required in different environments. This study used visual observations of maple leaf phenology, below-canopy light intensities, and micrometeorological data collected during the spring seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010 to examine the potential influence of leaf phenology on a seasonal transition in the trend of the DTR. The timing of a reversal in the DTR trend occurred near the time when the leaves were unfolding and expanding. The results suggest that the spring decline in the DTR can be attributed primarily to the effect of canopy closure on <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These findings improve our understanding of the relationship between leaf phenology and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in temperate maple forests during the spring. They also demonstrate the necessity of incorporating accurate phenological data into ecosystem and climate models and warrant a careful examination of the extent to which canopy phenology is currently incorporated into existing models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566202','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566202"><span>Lagged Effect of Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> on Mortality in a Subtropical Megacity of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Tao; Rutherford, Shannon; Xu, Yanjun; Xu, Xiaojun; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Chu, Cordia; Ma, Wenjun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Many studies have found extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can increase the risk of mortality. However, it is not clear whether extreme diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) is associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> disease-specific mortality, and how season might modify any association. Objectives To better understand the acute effect of DTR on mortality and identify whether season is a modifier of the DTR effect. Methods The distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was applied to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of DTR on deaths (non-accidental mortality (NAD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease (RD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBD)) in the full year, the cold season and the warm season. Results A non-linear relationship was consistently found between extreme DTR and mortality. Immediate effects of extreme low DTR on all types of mortality were stronger than those of extreme high DTR in the full year. The cumulative effects of extreme DTRs increased with the increment of lag days for all types of mortality in cold season, and they were greater for extreme high DTRs than those of extreme low DTRs. In hot season, the cumulative effects for extreme low DTRs increased with the increment of lag days, but for extreme high DTR they reached maxima at a lag of 13 days for all types of mortality except for CBD(at lag6 days), and then decreased. Conclusions Our findings suggest that extreme DTR is an independent risk factor of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality, and season is a modifier of the association of DTR with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality. PMID:23405130</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615588Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615588Y"><span>APHRODITE <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset: Development, QC, Homogenization and Spatial Correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yatagai, Akiyo; Zhao, Tianbao</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded precipitation dataset for the period 1951-2007 was created by collecting and analyzing rain-gauge observation data across Asia through the activities of the Asian Precipitation - Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE) of water resources project. They are available at http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/precip/. Utilization of station data is ideal for analyses of climatic trends, especially for those of extreme events. However, there was an increasing demand for accurate high-resolution gauge-based precipitation analyses. Rain-gauge based products are sometimes used for assessing trends of climate models or that of river runoff through driving hydrological models, because they are convenient and long records. On the other hand, some information is lost during the gridding process. Hence, in-house results of testing interpolation scheme, quality control and homogenization may give important information for the users. We will present such results as well as our quality control (QC) in the APHRODITE project activities. Before gridding, 14 objective QC steps were applied to the rain-gauge data, which mainly includes position checking, duplicate data checking and inhomogeneity and spatiotemporal isolation etc. Details are described in Hamada et al. (2011). For Chinese data, basic QC steps such as duplicate checking and position checking have been made by the local meteorological agency. Hence we made homogenization test and spatial correlation analyses separately. For 756 Chinese <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stations, we applied Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) developed by Szentimrey (1999, 2008). The results show this statistical method we used has a good performance to detect the discontinuities in climate series caused by station relocation, instrument change etc. regardless of the absence of metadata. Through the homogenization, most of discontinuities existed in original <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data can be removed, and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862828"><span>A model to approximate lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records and its application in risk assessment for the establishment of fish diseases in the UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thrush, M A; Peeler, E J</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Ambient water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a key factor controlling the distribution and impact of disease in fish populations, and optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> have been characterised for the establishment of a number important aquatic diseases exotic to the UK. This study presents a simple regression method to approximate <span class="hlt">daily</span> average surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in lakes of 0.5-15 ha in size across the UK using 5 km(2) gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> average air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provided by the UK Meteorological Office. A Geographic information system (GIS) is used to present thematic maps of relative risk scores established for each grid cell based on the mean number of days per year that water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> satisfied optimal criteria for the establishment of two economically important pathogens of cyprinid fish (koi herpesvirus (KHV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV)) and the distribution and density of fish populations susceptible to these viruses. High-density susceptible populations broadly overlap the areas where the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are optimal for KHV (central and south-east England); however, few fish populations occur in areas where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are most likely to result in the establishment of spring viremia of carp (SVC) (namely northern England and Scotland). The highest grid-cell risk scores for KHV and SVC were 7 and 6, respectively, out of a maximum score of 14. The proportion of grid cells containing susceptible populations with risk scores of 5 or more was 37% and 5% for KHV and SVC, respectively. This work demonstrates a risk-based approach to inform surveillance for exotic pathogens in aquatic animal health management, allowing efficient use of resources directed towards higher risk animals and geographic areas for early disease detection. The methodology could be used to examine the change in distribution of high-risk areas for both exotic and endemic fish diseases under different climate change scenarios. © 2012 Crown copyright Reproduced with the permission</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..247D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..247D"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using MODIS data in southern Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Didari, Shohreh; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh; Khanbilvardi, Reza</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LSAT) is a key variable in agricultural, climatological, hydrological, and environmental studies. Many of their processes are affected by LSAT at about 5 cm from the ground surface (LSAT5cm). Most of the previous studies tried to find statistical models to estimate LSAT at 2 m height (LSAT2m) which is considered as a standardized height, and there is not enough study for LSAT5cm estimation models. Accurate measurements of LSAT5cm are generally acquired from meteorological stations, which are sparse in remote areas. Nonetheless, remote sensing data by providing rather extensive spatial coverage can complement the spatiotemporal shortcomings of meteorological stations. The main objective of this study was to find a statistical model from the previous day to accurately estimate spatial <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum LSAT5cm, which is very important in agricultural frost, in Fars province in southern Iran. Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) data were obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra satellites at daytime and nighttime periods with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. These data along with geometric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevation information were used in a stepwise linear model to estimate minimum LSAT5cm during 2003-2011. The results revealed that utilization of MODIS Aqua nighttime data of previous day provides the most applicable and accurate model. According to the validation results, the accuracy of the proposed model was suitable during 2012 (root mean square difference (RMSD) = 3.07 °C, {R}_{adj}^2 = 87 %). The model underestimated (overestimated) high (low) minimum LSAT5cm. The accuracy of estimation in the winter time was found to be lower than the other seasons (RMSD = 3.55 °C), and in summer and winter, the errors were larger than in the remaining seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> and maximum ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> (ADT) and the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P < 0.01) for all traits. Narrower <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of ADT3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, and PDL (P < 0.01), while higher PEAK3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, PDL, and LBA (P < 0.001). To reduce the risk of reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their <span class="hlt">temperature</span> management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25009122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25009122"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and clinical kidney stone presentation in five U.S. metropolitan areas: a time-series analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tasian, Gregory E; Pulido, Jose E; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S; Horton, Benjamin P; Landis, J Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>High ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Our objective was to estimate associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005-2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, in most cases RRs increased for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ≤ 3 days. In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an adverse effect of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on nephrolithiasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930064540&hterms=ac+voltage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dac%2Bvoltage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930064540&hterms=ac+voltage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dac%2Bvoltage"><span>Optical fiber voltage sensors for broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rose, A. H.; Day, G. W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We describe the development of an optical fiber ac voltage sensor for aircraft and spacecraft applications. Among the most difficult specifications to meet for this application is a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability of +/- 1 percent from -65 C to +125 C. This stability requires a careful selection of materials, components, and optical configuration with further compensation using an optical-fiber <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor located near the sensing element. The sensor is a polarimetric design, based on the linear electro-optic effect in bulk Bi4Ge3O12. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor is also polarimetric, based on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the birefringence of bulk SiO2. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor output is used to automatically adjust the calibration of the instrument.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S"><span>Observed Trends in Indices of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA247667','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA247667"><span>The <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of a Large Dynamic <span class="hlt">Range</span> Photodetector Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>to achieve a logarithmic steady state response. This paper analyzes the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the circuit operation and presents experimental results demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28608809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28608809"><span><span class="hlt">Ranging</span> Consistency Based on <span class="hlt">Ranging</span>-Compensated <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Sensing Sensor for Inter-Satellite Link of Navigation Constellation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meng, Zhijun; Yang, Jun; Guo, Xiye; Zhou, Yongbin</p> <p>2017-06-13</p> <p>Global Navigation Satellite System performance can be significantly enhanced by introducing inter-satellite links (ISLs) in navigation constellation. The improvement in position, velocity, and time accuracy as well as the realization of autonomous functions requires ISL distance measurement data as the original input. To build a high-performance ISL, the <span class="hlt">ranging</span> consistency among navigation satellites is an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, we focus on the variation in the <span class="hlt">ranging</span> delay caused by the sensitivity of the ISL payload equipment to the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in space and propose a simple and low-power <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensing <span class="hlt">ranging</span> compensation sensor suitable for onboard equipment. The experimental results show that, after the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensing <span class="hlt">ranging</span> compensation of the ISL payload equipment, the <span class="hlt">ranging</span> consistency becomes less than 0.2 ns when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change is 90 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5492682','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5492682"><span><span class="hlt">Ranging</span> Consistency Based on <span class="hlt">Ranging</span>-Compensated <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Sensing Sensor for Inter-Satellite Link of Navigation Constellation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meng, Zhijun; Yang, Jun; Guo, Xiye; Zhou, Yongbin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Global Navigation Satellite System performance can be significantly enhanced by introducing inter-satellite links (ISLs) in navigation constellation. The improvement in position, velocity, and time accuracy as well as the realization of autonomous functions requires ISL distance measurement data as the original input. To build a high-performance ISL, the <span class="hlt">ranging</span> consistency among navigation satellites is an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, we focus on the variation in the <span class="hlt">ranging</span> delay caused by the sensitivity of the ISL payload equipment to the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in space and propose a simple and low-power <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensing <span class="hlt">ranging</span> compensation sensor suitable for onboard equipment. The experimental results show that, after the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensing <span class="hlt">ranging</span> compensation of the ISL payload equipment, the <span class="hlt">ranging</span> consistency becomes less than 0.2 ns when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change is 90 °C. PMID:28608809</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm...61..407K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm...61..407K"><span>Influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on incidence of cardiac arrhythmias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jayeun; Kim, Ho</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We investigated the association between ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) and the exacerbation of arrhythmia symptoms, using data from 31,629 arrhythmia-related emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul, Korea. Linear regression analyses with allowances for over-dispersion were applied to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and ED visits, adjusted for various environmental factors. The effects were expressed as percentage changes in the risk of arrhythmia-related ED visits up to 5 days later, with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), per 1 °C increase in DTR and 1 °C decrease in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The overall risk of ED visits increased by 1.06 % (95 % CI 0.39 %, 1.73 %) for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and by 1.84 % (0.34, 3.37 %) for DTR. A season-specific effect was detected for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during both fall (1.18 % [0.01, 2.37 %]) and winter (0.87 % [0.07, 1.67 %]), and for DTR during spring (3.76 % [0.34, 7.29 %]). Females were more vulnerable, with 1.57 % [0.56, 2.59 %] and 3.84 % [1.53, 6.20 %] for the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DTR, respectively. An age-specific effect was detected for DTR, with 3.13 % [0.95, 5.36 %] for age ≥ 65 years, while a greater increased risk with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease was observed among those aged <65 (1.08 % [0.17, 2.00 %]) than among those aged ≥65 (1.02 % [0.06, 1.99 %]). Cardiac arrest was inversely related with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1.61 % [0.46, 2.79 %]), while other cardiac arrhythmias depended more on the change in DTR (4.72 % [0.37, 9.26 %]). These findings provide evidence that low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevated DTR influence the occurrence of arrhythmia exacerbations or symptoms, suggesting a possible strategy for reducing risk by encouraging vulnerable populations to minimize exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp...99K"><span>Influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on incidence of cardiac arrhythmias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jayeun; Kim, Ho</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We investigated the association between ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) and the exacerbation of arrhythmia symptoms, using data from 31,629 arrhythmia-related emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul, Korea. Linear regression analyses with allowances for over-dispersion were applied to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and ED visits, adjusted for various environmental factors. The effects were expressed as percentage changes in the risk of arrhythmia-related ED visits up to 5 days later, with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), per 1 °C increase in DTR and 1 °C decrease in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The overall risk of ED visits increased by 1.06 % (95 % CI 0.39 %, 1.73 %) for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and by 1.84 % (0.34, 3.37 %) for DTR. A season-specific effect was detected for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during both fall (1.18 % [0.01, 2.37 %]) and winter (0.87 % [0.07, 1.67 %]), and for DTR during spring (3.76 % [0.34, 7.29 %]). Females were more vulnerable, with 1.57 % [0.56, 2.59 %] and 3.84 % [1.53, 6.20 %] for the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DTR, respectively. An age-specific effect was detected for DTR, with 3.13 % [0.95, 5.36 %] for age ≥ 65 years, while a greater increased risk with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease was observed among those aged <65 (1.08 % [0.17, 2.00 %]) than among those aged ≥65 (1.02 % [0.06, 1.99 %]). Cardiac arrest was inversely related with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1.61 % [0.46, 2.79 %]), while other cardiac arrhythmias depended more on the change in DTR (4.72 % [0.37, 9.26 %]). These findings provide evidence that low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevated DTR influence the occurrence of arrhythmia exacerbations or symptoms, suggesting a possible strategy for reducing risk by encouraging vulnerable populations to minimize exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A"><span>A physics-based correction model for homogenizing sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auchmann, R.; BröNnimann, S.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A new physics-based technique for correcting inhomogeneities present in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records is proposed. The approach accounts for changes in the sensor-shield characteristics that affect the energy balance dependent on ambient weather conditions (radiation, wind). An empirical model is formulated that reflects the main atmospheric processes and can be used in the correction step of a homogenization procedure. The model accounts for short- and long-wave radiation fluxes (including a snow cover component for albedo calculation) of a measurement system, such as a radiation shield. One part of the flux is further modulated by ventilation. The model requires only cloud cover and wind speed for each day, but detailed site-specific information is necessary. The final model has three free parameters, one of which is a constant offset. The three parameters can be determined, e.g., using the mean offsets for three observation times. The model is developed using the example of the change from the Wild screen to the Stevenson screen in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record of Basel, Switzerland, in 1966. It is evaluated based on parallel measurements of both systems during a sub-period at this location, which were discovered during the writing of this paper. The model can be used in the correction step of homogenization to distribute a known mean step-size to every single measurement, thus providing a reasonable alternative correction procedure for high-resolution historical climate series. It also constitutes an error model, which may be applied, e.g., in data assimilation approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25492855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25492855"><span>Hip <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion during <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities in patients with posterior pelvic tilt from supine to standing position.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamura, Satoru; Miki, Hidenobu; Tsuda, Kosuke; Takao, Masaki; Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Naoki; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Sugano, Nobuhiko</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In most patients with hip disorders, the anterior pelvic plane (APP) sagittal tilt does not change from supine to standing position. However, in some patients, APP sagittal tilt changes more than 10° posteriorly from supine to standing position. The purpose of this study was to both examine APP sagittal tilt and investigate the hip flexion and extension <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion (ROM) required during <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities in these atypical patients. Patient-specific 4-dimensional (4D) motion analysis was performed for 50 hips from 44 patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. All patients divided into two categories, such as atypical patients for whom the pelvis tilted more than 10° posteriorly from supine to standing position preoperatively (19 hips from 18 patients) and the remaining typical patients (31 hips from 26 patients). The required hip flexion and extension angles did not differ significantly between atypical patients and typical patients. In conclusion, the hip flexion ROM during deep bending activities and hip extension ROM during extension activities required in those atypical patients with pelvic tilt more than 10° backward from supine to standing position did not shift in the direction of extension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T"><span>Merging <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from multiple satellites using a Bayesian maximum entropy method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Shaolei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Di; Li, Ziwei</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) is an important variable for understanding interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. SST fusion is crucial for acquiring SST products of high spatial resolution and coverage. This study introduces a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method for blending <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSTs from multiple satellite sensors. A new spatiotemporal covariance model of an SST field is built to integrate not only single-day SSTs but also time-adjacent SSTs. In addition, AVHRR 30-year SST climatology data are introduced as soft data at the estimation points to improve the accuracy of blended results within the BME framework. The merged SSTs, with a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 24 hours, are produced in the Western Pacific Ocean region to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed methodology. Comparisons with in situ drifting buoy observations show that the merged SSTs are accurate and the bias and root-mean-square errors for the comparison are 0.15°C and 0.72°C, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495"><span>R-vine models for spatial time series with an application to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erhardt, Tobias Michael; Czado, Claudia; Schepsmeier, Ulf</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We introduce an extension of R-vine copula models to allow for spatial dependencies and model based prediction at unobserved locations. The proposed spatial R-vine model combines the flexibility of vine copulas with the classical geostatistical idea of modeling spatial dependencies using the distances between the variable locations. In particular, the model is able to capture non-Gaussian spatial dependencies. To develop and illustrate our approach, we consider <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data observed at 54 monitoring stations in Germany. We identify relationships between the vine copula parameters and the station distances and exploit these in order to reduce the huge number of parameters needed to parametrize a 54-dimensional R-vine model fitted to the data. The new distance based model parametrization results in a distinct reduction in the number of parameters and makes parameter estimation and prediction at unobserved locations feasible. The prediction capabilities are validated using adequate scoring techniques, showing a better performance of the spatial R-vine copula model compared to a Gaussian spatial model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23H1669B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23H1669B"><span>Spatial and Temporal Stream <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Response to Contemporary Forest Harvesting in the Oregon Coast <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bladon, K. D.; Cook, N. A.; Light, J. T.; Segura, C.; Teply, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Historical research at the Alsea Watershed Study (1958-1973), in the Oregon Coast <span class="hlt">Range</span>, demonstrated that clear-cut harvesting, with complete removal of riparian vegetation, can result in large and dramatic changes in mean <span class="hlt">daily</span>, maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span>, diurnal variation, and annual patterns in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts). This previous research was instrumental in the addition of regulations in the Oregon Forest Practices Act of 1971, necessitating retention of streamside vegetation (riparian management zones) in harvest units to maintain water quality and aquatic habitat. Due to the ecological importance of Ts, preventing or mitigating changes in the thermal regime following land use activities, such as forest harvesting, is a primary focus of contemporary forest watershed management. The Alsea Watershed Study Revisited (2006-Present) has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the Ts responses to contemporary forest harvesting practices and compare these with the impacts from the 1960's harvest. In general, Ts increases from late spring through about mid-July, with peak Ts occuring between about mid-July and mid-August, after which Ts decreases into the fall. During the pre-harvest period (2006-2008; n=244) the June to September mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum Ts was 13.0°C in Flynn Creek (control) and 12.0°C in Needle Branch (harvested). In the post-harvest period (2010-2012; n=240) the June to September mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum Ts was 12.4°C in Flynn Creek (control) and 12.0°C in Needle Branch (harvested). Similarly, the difference (Flynn Ck - Needle Branch) in 7 day moving mean of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum Ts decreased from the pre-harvest (1.0°C) to the post-harvest (0.3°C) period, which was principally driven by a decrease in Ts in the control catchment. Longitudinal sampling of Ts within Needle Branch indicated a cooling trend such that the slight increases in post-harvest Ts weren't detectable in downstream, unharvested stream reaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53D1238Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53D1238Z"><span>Using Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> to Examine the Climatology of Solar Energy Potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zercher, C. N.; Hanrahan, J.; Murphy, S. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The potential for annual solar energy production largely depends on the amount of incoming shortwave radiation which is dependent on cloud cover. Due to natural large-scale climate variability, long-term cloud cover can vary substantially, therefore modifying the total energy that can be produced by solar cells in individual locations. Under anthropogenic climate change, future precipitation is expected to significantly deviate from observed values, therefore suggesting that cloud cover, and thus solar energy potential, will also change. The expected changes are both positive and negative depending on geographic region and can be highly spatially variable, particularly in regions of complex terrain. Because of the short-term availability of observed radiation and cloud cover data, it is difficult to study the historical climatology of solar energy potential, thus making future projections uncertain. Research has shown that another readily available climate variable, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, correlates well with <span class="hlt">daily</span> averaged shortwave radiation values during months of minimal/no snow cover, and can thus serve as a proxy for shortwave radiation during the warm season throughout the period of record. In the present study, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> is shown to be an excellent predictor of shortwave radiation around the state of Vermont, independent of latitude and elevation. Monte Carlo significance testing is also used to examine recent trends in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24933403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24933403"><span>Wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> testing with ROTEM coagulation analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kander, Thomas; Brokopp, Jens; Friberg, Hans; Schött, Ulf</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Mild induced hypothermia is used for neuroprotection in patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-dependent effects on rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)) assays with EXTEM(®), FIBTEM(®), or APTEM(®) in cardiac arrest patients have not previously been studied. Ten patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who underwent induced hypothermia were studied during stable hypothermia at 33°C. ROTEM <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on EXTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays were studied at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> set between 30°C and 42°C. Citrated whole blood test tubes were incubated in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-adjusted heating blocks and then investigated at respective <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-adjusted ROTEM. The following variables were determined: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, and maximum clot firmness (MCF). The results from hypo- and hyperthermia samples were compared with the samples incubated at 37°C using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. CT-EXTEM(®) and CT-APTEM(®) were prolonged by hypothermia at 30°C (p<0.01 for both) and 33°C (p<0.05 for both). Hyperthermia at 42°C shortened CT-EXTEM (p<0.05) and CT-APTEM (p<0.01). CFT-EXTEM(®) and CFT-APTEM(®) were markedly prolonged by hypothermia at 30°C, 33°C, and 35°C (p<0.01 for all except CFT-EXTEM, 35°C [p<0.05]). The α-angle-EXTEM was markedly decreased at 30°C, 33°C, and 35°C (p<0.01) but increased at 40°C (p<0.05) and 42°C (p<0.01); α-angle-APTEM showed similar results. MCF was unchanged at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for all tests. ROTEM (EXTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays) revealed a hypocoagulative response to in vitro-applied hypothermia in the blood of cardiac arrest patients reflected in the prolonged clot initiation and decreased clot propagation. Hyperthermia showed the opposite effects. Clot firmness was not affected by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915717P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915717P"><span>Analysing the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity differences between downtown and suburban environment in Budapest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pongracz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Dezso, Zsuzsanna; Dian, Csenge; Incze, Dora; Kurcsics, Mate</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>, continuous 3-day-long <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity measurements were recorded during 4-6 July 2016. Moreover, new measuring instruments were used during this summer measurements with more accurate sensors and data loggers. After the summer measuring campaign the whole measurement program continued in autumn (6 days starting at 14 pm Thursdays and lasting 24 hours). Thus, summer and autumn <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles can be compared in the different types of the urban environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859"><span>High-frequency <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in China and its relationship to large-scale circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Fu-Ting; Fu, Congbin; Qian, Yun; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shu-Yu</p> <p>2016-04-18</p> <p>Two measures of intra-seasonal variability, indicated respectively by standard deviations (SD) and day-to-day (DTD) fluctuations denoted by absolute differences between adjacent 2-day periods, as well as their relationships with large-scale circulation patterns were investigated in China during 1962–2008 on the basis of homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from 549 local stations and reanalysis data. Our results show that both the SD and DTD of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin) in summer as well as the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter have been decreasing, while the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) variability in summer is fluctuating more, especially over southern China. In summer, an attribution analysis indicates that the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and high-level East Asian Subtropical Jet stream (EASJ) are positively correlated with both SD and DTD, but the correlation coefficients are generally greater with the SD than with the DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tmax. In contrast, the location of the EASJ shows the opposite correlation pattern, with intensity regarding the correlation with both SD and DTD. In winter, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is negatively correlated with both the SD and DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but its intra-seasonal variability exhibits good agreement with the SD of the Tmin. The Siberian High acts differently with respect to the SD and DTD of the Tmin, demonstrating a regionally consistent positive correlation with the SD. Overall, the large-scale circulation can well explain the intra-seasonal SD, but DTD fluctuations may be more local and impacted by local conditions, such as changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> itself, the land surface, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070023431','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070023431"><span>Gap/silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Extended <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A two-junction solar cell has a bottom solar cell junction of crystalline silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. A three (or more) junction solar cell has bottom solar cell junctions of silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. The resulting solar cells exhibit improved extended <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324194','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324194"><span>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts water consumption by <span class="hlt">range</span> cattle in winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, which may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinkin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..214L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..214L"><span>Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part II: radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobit, P.; López Pérez, L.; Lhomme, J. P.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We propose a new model to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> global radiation from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> measurements. This model combines that of Majumdar et al. (Sol Energy 13(4):383-394, 1972) to estimate clear sky radiation with a Gompertz function to estimate the relation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> and cloud transmittance. Model parameters are estimated from historical weather data: maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and, if available, relative humidity; no other calibration is required. The model was parametrized and validated using 788 weather stations in Mexico. When calibrated using historical humidity data, <span class="hlt">daily</span> global radiation was estimated with a mean root mean square error of 3.06 MJ m-2 day-1. The model performed well in all situations, except for a few stations around the Gulf of Mexico and in mountain areas. When using estimated humidity, the root mean square error of prediction was only slightly degraded (3.07 MJ m-2 day-1). Possible theoretical basis and applicability of this model to other environments are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..215L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..215L"><span>Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part III: reference evapotranspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobit, P.; Gómez Tagle, A.; Bautista, F.; Lhomme, J. P.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We evaluated two methods to estimate evapotranspiration (ETo) from minimal weather records (<span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) in Mexico: a modified reduced set FAO-Penman-Monteith method (Allen et al. 1998, Rome, Italy) and the Hargreaves and Samani (Appl Eng Agric 1(2): 96-99, 1985) method. In the reduced set method, the FAO-Penman-Monteith equation was applied with vapor pressure and radiation estimated from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data using two new models (see first and second articles in this series): mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as the average of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrected for a constant bias and constant wind speed. The Hargreaves-Samani method combines two empirical relationships: one between diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> ΔT and shortwave radiation Rs, and another one between average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the ratio ETo/Rs: both relationships were evaluated and calibrated for Mexico. After performing a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of different approximations on the estimation of Rs and ETo, several model combinations were tested to predict ETo from <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone. The quality of fit of these models was evaluated on 786 weather stations covering most of the territory of Mexico. The best method was found to be a combination of the FAO-Penman-Monteith reduced set equation with the new radiation estimation and vapor pressure model. As an alternative, a recalibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23823575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23823575"><span>Active cervical and lumbar <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion during performance of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living in healthy young adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cobian, Daniel G; Daehn, Nicole S; Anderson, Paul A; Heiderscheit, Bryan C</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p>Observational cohort design. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the maximum, cumulative, and average cervical and lumbar spine motion required to perform common activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADLs). Previous studies have measured the maximum cervical and lumbar excursions during ADLs, but none have used a motion capture system to allow for noninvasive continuous motion monitoring. Ten healthy, young adults performed 16 ADLs while 3-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Cervical and lumbar rigid body kinematic models were created and scaled to each subject to calculate angular motion. Cervical and lumbar mean active <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion (ROM) and total excursion for flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were calculated. The majority of activities used 20% to 40% of maximum available cervical ROM and 40% to 60% of maximum available lumbar ROM. Activities that required concurrent cervical and lumbar spine motion, such as washing in the shower, picking an object up from the floor, and clearing the table, had the greatest motion totals. These activities typically required rates of excursion greater than 10° per second. This is the first investigation to report cumulative spine motion totals associated with the performance of common ADLs. These results provide a preliminary cervical and lumbar spine motion profile in healthy, young adults. The relationship between traditional end ROM measurements and function is not well defined. In agreement with previous research, this investigation concludes that only a small percentage of available ROM is used in performing most activities. Thus, determining the total wear related to common activities may help us to better understand and address spine-related impairments. N/A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010704"><span>Silicon device performance measurements to support <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Cosby, Melvin; Johnson, R. Wayne; Nelms, R. Mark; Askew, Ray</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Characterization results of a MOS controlled thyristor (MCTA60P60) are presented. This device is rated for 60A and for an anode to cathode voltage of -600 V. As discussed in the last report, the MCT failed during 500 V leakage tests at 200 C. In contrast to the BJT (bipolar junction transistor), MOSFET, and IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) devices tested, the breakdown voltage of the MCT decreases significantly with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930007812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930007812"><span>Silicon device performance measurements to support <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Testing of the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-controlled thyristor (MCT) has uncovered a failure mechanism at elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The failure appears to be due to breakdown of the gate oxide. Further testing is underway to verify the failure mode. Higher current level inverters were built to demonstrate 200 C operation of the N-MOSFET's and insulated-gate-bipolar transistors (IGBT's) and for life testing. One MOSFET failed early in testing. The origin of this failure is being studied. No IGBT's have failed. A prototype 28-to-42 V converter was built and is being tested at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The control loop is being finalized. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> stable, high value (10 micro-F) capacitors appear to be the limiting factor in the design at this time. In this application, the efficiency will be lower for the IGBT version due to the large V sub(cesat) (3.5-4 V) compared to the input voltage of 28 V. The MOSFET version should have higher efficiency; however, the MOSFET does not appear to be as robust at 200 C. Both versions are built for comparison.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R"><span>Use of Sharpened Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Evapotranspiration Estimation over Irrigated Crops in Arid Lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosas Aguilar, J.; McCabe, M. F.; Houborg, R.; Gao, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Satellite remote sensing provides data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Land-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. This study applies the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which sharpens the 1 km thermal data down to the resolution of the optical data (250-500 m) based on functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. The DMS approach adopted here has been enhanced/refined for application over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The sharpened LST data is input to an integrated modeling system that uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of evapotranspiration. Results are evaluated against available flux tower observations over irrigated maize near Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Successful monitoring of field-scale changes in surface fluxes are of importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly monitored. Gao, F.; Kustas, W.P.; Anderson, M.C. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 3287-3319.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5955G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5955G"><span>Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Yinghui</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The variability of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes has been the focus of attention during the past several decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Using <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (TN), maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TX) and precipitation from 143 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), a suite of extreme climate indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, which has rarely been applied in this region, were computed and analyzed during 1960-2012. The results show widespread significant changes in all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices associated with warming in the YRB during 1960-2012. On the whole, cold-related indices, i.e., cold nights, cold days, frost days, icing days and cold spell duration index significantly decreased by -3.45, -1.03, -3.04, -0.42 and -1.6 days/decade, respectively. In contrast, warm-related indices such as warm nights, warm days, summer days, tropical nights and warm spell duration index significantly increased by 2.95, 1.71, 2.16, 1.05 and 0.73 days/decade. Minimum TN, maximum TN, minimum TX and maximum TX increased significantly by 0.42, 0.18, 0.19 and 0.14 °C/decade. Because of a faster increase in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) exhibited a significant decreasing trend of -0.09 °C/decade for the whole YRB during 1960-2012. Geographically, stations in the eastern Tibet Plateau and northeastern YRB showed stronger trends in almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. Time series analysis indicated that the YRB was dominated by a general cooling trend before the mid-1980s, but a warming trend afterwards. For precipitation, simple <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity index, very wet day precipitation, extremely wet day precipitation, extremely heavy precipitation days, maximum 1-day precipitation, maximum 5-day precipitation and maximum consecutive dry days all increased significantly during 1960-2012. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011"><span>Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and average <span class="hlt">daily</span> gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gain (ADG) and Tympanic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..92..145L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..92..145L"><span>A general model for estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and site geographic parameters in Southwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs using routinely measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...163.1069A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...163.1069A"><span>Zero-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Fluctuations in Short-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Spin Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arguin, L.-P.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.; Wehr, J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We consider the energy difference restricted to a finite volume for certain pairs of incongruent ground states (if they exist) in the d-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass at zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We prove that the variance of this quantity with respect to the couplings grows proportionally to the volume in any d ≥ 2. An essential aspect of our result is the use of the excitation metastate. As an illustration of potential applications, we use this result to restrict the possible structure of spin glass ground states in two dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C"><span>The creation of future <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded datasets of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a spatial weather generator, Cyprus 2020-2050</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Pashiardis, Stelios; Lange, Manfred</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets are essential for natural resource management and the analysis of climate changes and their effects. This study aimed to create gridded datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, for the future (2020-2050). The horizontal resolution of the developed datasets is 1 x 1 km2, covering the area under control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study is divided into two parts. The first consists of the evaluation of the performance of different interpolation techniques for <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1980-2010) for the creation of the gridded datasets. Rainfall data recorded at 145 stations and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 34 stations were used. For precipitation, inverse distance weighting (IDW) performs best for local events, while a combination of step-wise geographically weighted regression and IDW proves to be the best method for large scale events. For minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a combination of step-wise linear multiple regression and thin plate splines is recognized as the best method. Six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the A1B SRES emission scenario from the EU ENSEMBLE project database were selected as sources for future climate projections. The RCMs were evaluated for their capacity to simulate Cyprus climatology for the period 1980-2010. Data for the period 2020-2050 from the three best performing RCMs were downscaled, using the change factors approach, at the location of observational stations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> time series were created with a stochastic rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator. The RainSim V3 software (Burton et al., 2008) was used to generate spatial-temporal coherent rainfall fields. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator was developed in R and modeled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a weakly stationary process with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and standard deviation conditioned on the wet and dry state of the day (Richardson, 1981). Finally gridded datasets depicting projected future climate conditions were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.1969H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.1969H"><span>Comparing the skill of different reanalyses and their ensembles as predictors for <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a glaciated mountain (Peru)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hofer, Marlis; Marzeion, Ben; Mölg, Thomas</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>It is well known from previous research that significant differences exist amongst reanalysis products from different institutions. Here, we compare the skill of NCEP-R (reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NCEP), ERA-int (the European Centre of Medium-<span class="hlt">range</span> Weather Forecasts Interim), JCDAS (the Japanese Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System reanalyses), MERRA (the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), CFSR (the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis by the NCEP), and ensembles thereof as predictors for <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a high-altitude glaciated mountain site in Peru. We employ a skill estimation method especially suited for short-term, high-resolution time series. First, the predictors are preprocessed using simple linear regression models calibrated individually for each calendar month. Then, cross-validation under consideration of persistence in the time series is performed. This way, the skill of the reanalyses with focus on intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability is quantified. The most important findings are: (1) ERA-int, CFSR, and MERRA show considerably higher skill than NCEP-R and JCDAS; (2) differences in skill appear especially during dry and intermediate seasons in the Cordillera Blanca; (3) the optimum horizontal scales largely vary between the different reanalyses, and horizontal grid resolutions of the reanalyses are poor indicators of this optimum scale; and (4) using reanalysis ensembles efficiently improves the performance of individual reanalyses.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=208739','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=208739"><span>Observations of a “weekend effect” in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Forster, Piers M. de F.; Solomon, Susan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Using surface measurements of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the Global <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Climatological Network data set, we find evidence of a weekly cycle in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) for many stations in the United States, Mexico, Japan, and China. The “weekend effect,” which we define as the average DTR for Saturday through Monday minus the average DTR for Wednesday through Friday, can be as large as 0.5 K, similar to the magnitude of observed long-term trends in DTR. This weekend effect has a distinct large-scale pattern that has changed only slightly over time, but its sign is not the same in all locations. The station procedures and the statistical robustness of both the individual station data and the patterns of DTR differences are thoroughly examined. We conclude that the weekend effect is a real short time scale and large spatial scale geophysical phenomenon, which is necessarily human in origin. We thus provide strong evidence of an anthropogenic link to DTR, an important climate indicator. Several possible anthropogenic mechanisms are discussed; we speculate that aerosol-cloud interactions are the most likely cause of this weekend effect, but we do not rule out others. PMID:14500787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24567696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24567696"><span>Effects of bilateral passive <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion exercise on the function of upper extremities and activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living in patients with acute stroke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yaelim; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] To evaluate the effects of early passive <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion exercise on the function of upper extremities and activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living in patients with acute stroke. [Methods] A total of 37 patients with acute stroke in intensive care units, were assigned to the experimental group (n=19) and control group (n=18). The experimental group performed passive <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion exercise twice a day, for 4 weeks, immediately after a pretest; the patients in the control group performed the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion exercise in the same manner for 2 weeks beginning 2 weeks after the pretest. The functions of upper extremities (edema, <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion), manual function, and activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living of both groups were measured before and at four weeks after the intervention. [Results] The experimental group showed a significant decrease in the edema of upper extremities compared with the control group. It also showed a significant increase in the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion, function of upper extremities, and the activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Passive <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion exercise in the early stage can improve the function of upper extremities and activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living in patients with acute stroke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38101','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38101"><span>Empirical downscaling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at very fine resolutions in complex terrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Zachary A. Holden; John T. Abatzoglou; Charles H. Luce; L. Scott Baggett</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Available air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> models do not adequately account for the influence of terrain on nocturnal air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. An empirical model for night time air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was developed using a network of one hundred and forty inexpensive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors deployed across the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana. A principle component analysis (PCA) on minimum...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oscillation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increased suspended sediment on growth and smolting in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shrimpton, J.M.; Zydlewski, J.D.; Heath, J.W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation and increased suspended sediment concentration on growth and smolting in juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish were ponded on February 26; each treatment group had three replicates of 250 fish. Mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the entire experiment were 12.3????C for all tanks with a total of 1348 and 1341 degree days for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oscillating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tanks, respectively. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> fluctuation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averaged 7.5????C in the variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> groups and less than 1????C for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group. Starting on April 5, bentonite clay was added each day to tanks as a pulse event to achieve a suspended sediment concentration of 200??mg l- 1; clay cleared from the tanks within approximately 8??h. Fish were sampled at approximately two??week intervals from ponding until mid-June. On the last sample date, June 12, a single gill arch was removed and fixed for histological examination of gill morphology. By early May, significant differences were seen in size between the groups; control > <span class="hlt">temperature</span> = sediment > (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ?? sediment). This relationship was consistent throughout the experiment except for the last sample date when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group had a mean weight significantly greater than the sediment group. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was not affected by <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations, but groups subjected to increased suspended sediment had significantly lower enzyme activities compared to controls. Mean cell size for gill chloride cells did not differ between groups. Plasma cortisol increased significantly during the spring, but there were no significant differences between groups. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27525668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27525668"><span>Effects of long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transported air pollution from vegetation fires on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kollanus, Virpi; Tiittanen, Pekka; Niemi, Jarkko V; Lanki, Timo</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from vegetation fires can be transported over long distances and may cause significant air pollution episodes far from the fires. However, epidemiological evidence on health effects of vegetation-fire originated air pollution is limited, particularly for mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. We examined association between short-term exposure to long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transported PM2.5 from vegetation fires and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Days significantly affected by smoke from vegetation fires between 2001 and 2010 were identified using air quality measurements at an urban background and a regional background monitoring station, and modelled data on surface concentrations of vegetation-fire smoke. Associations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 concentration and health outcomes on i) smoke-affected days and ii) all other days (i.e. non-smoke days) were analysed using Poisson time series regression. All statistical models were adjusted for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity, influenza, pollen, and public holidays. On smoke-affected days, 10µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a borderline statistically significant increase in cardiovascular mortality among total population at a lag of three days (12.4%, 95% CI -0.2% to 26.5%), and among the elderly (≥65 years) following same-day exposure (13.8%, 95% CI -0.6% to 30.4%) and at a lag of three days (11.8%, 95% CI -2.2% to 27.7%). Smoke day PM2.5 was not associated with non-accidental mortality or hospital admissions due to cardiovascular causes. However, there was an indication of a positive association with hospital admissions due to respiratory causes among the elderly, and admissions due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma among the total population. In contrast, on non-smoke days PM2.5 was generally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19741765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19741765"><span>Cascaded optical isolator configuration having high-isolation characteristics over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wavelength <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shiraishi, K; Kawakami, S</p> <p>1987-07-01</p> <p>A new configuration of a cascaded optical isolator with high isolation over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wavelength is proposed. The configuration consists of two unit isolators, each of which is optimized for a different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wavelength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28468072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28468072"><span>[Impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality a multivariable Meta-analysis from 12 counties of Hubei province, China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y Q; Yu, C H; Bao, J Z</p> <p>2017-04-10</p> <p>Objective: To assess the acute effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality in 12 counties across Hubei province, China. Methods: Data related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality from stroke and meteorology in 12 counties across Hubei province during 2009-2012, were gathered. Distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was first used, to estimate the county-specific associations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cold spells, heat waves and stroke mortality. Multivariate Meta-analysis was then applied to pool the community-specific relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stroke mortality (exposure-response relationship) as well as both cold- and- heat-associated risks on mortality at different lag days (lag-response relationship). Results: During 2009-2012, a total population of 6.7 million was included in this study with 42 739 persons died of stroke. An average of 2.7 (from 0.5 to 6.0) stroke deaths occurred <span class="hlt">daily</span> in each county, with annual average mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as 16.6 ℃ (from 14.7 ℃ to 17.4 ℃) during the study period. An inverse J-shaped association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stroke mortality was observed at the provincial level. Pooled mortality effect of cold spells showed a 2-3-day delay and lasted about 10 days, while effect of heat waves appeared acute but attenuated within a few days. The mortality risks on cold-spell days <span class="hlt">ranged</span> from 0.968 to 1.523 in 12 counties at lag 3-14, with pooled effect as 1.180 (95%CI:1.043-1.336). The pooled mortality risk (<span class="hlt">ranged</span> from 0.675 to 2.066) on heat-wave days at lag 0-2 was 1.114 (95%CI: 1.012-1.227). Conclusions: An inverse J-shaped association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stroke mortality was observed in Hubei province, China. Both cold spells and heat waves were associated with increased stroke mortality, while different lag patterns were observed in the mortality effects of heat waves and cold spells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19687288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19687288"><span>Acclimation to heat during incubation: 4. Blood hormones and metabolites in broilers exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yalçin, S; Bruggeman, V; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Cabuk, M; Siegel, P B</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The objective of the present experiment was to study the effects of parental age and heat acclimation of embryos on blood metabolites and hormones of broilers exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cyclic ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from d 21 to 42. Eggs obtained from 32 (younger), 42 (middle-aged), and 65 wk (older) breeders were divided into 2 groups. One group of eggs was incubated at control incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ITCONT), whereas the second group was heat-acclimated at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h/d from d 10 to 18 of incubation (ITHA). Chicks were reared at standard brooding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 1 to 21 d. From d 21 to 42, half of broilers/incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/parental age was kept as the control (ATCONT), whereas the other half was exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cyclic heat treatment (ATHIGH) to impose a stress response. There was a reduction in plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels in ITHA broilers. On d 28, plasma T3 levels were similar regardless of parental age of eggs incubated at ITCONT, whereas ITHA resulted in lower levels of T3 in broilers from 65 wk parents. At the same age, ATHIGH reduced plasma triglycerides with the effect greater for ITHA than ITCONT broilers. Plasma uric acid was also lower for ITHA than ITCONT broilers for the offspring of 65 wk parents on d 28. There was an increase in plasma creatine kinase activity on d 42 in ATHIGH broilers regardless of parental age and incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Plasma corticosterone was consistently lower for the ITHA than ITCONT treatment, being significant on d 21 and 42. It was concluded that these changes in blood metabolites and hormones may enhance the thermoregulatory ability of ITHA broilers when exposed posthatch to <span class="hlt">daily</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A11B0083C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A11B0083C"><span>A Statistical Resampling Technique for Conditioning Simulated <span class="hlt">Daily</span> European Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on the North Atlantic Oscillation Index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, B. I.; Mann, M.; Smith, T.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>We describe a technique for simulating the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on <span class="hlt">daily</span> winter surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the European sector. The approach itself is general enough that it could easily beÿ applied to other climate variables (e.g., <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation) and indices (e.g., the Southern Oscillation Index). The technique employs a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to represent the spatial structure in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field, by retaining only the leading, statistically significant empirical eigenvectors, and modeling any residual variance as spatially-uncorrelated noise. The associated principal components time series and noise residuals are modeled as AR(1) autoregressive processes. For those principal component time series which exhibit a statistically significant seasonal relationship with the NAO index, the parameters of the AR(1) model (mean, innovation variance, and lag-one autocorrelation) are then conditioned on the phase (high, neutral, or low) of the NAO. This process allows for realistic simulations of synoptic-scale surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over Europe as it is influence by the NAO index.ÿ Use of these simulations for the investigation of climate change scenarios,ÿ with applications to changing phenological patterns, will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K"><span>Evaluation of Downscaled CMIP5 Model Skill in Simulating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Over the Southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keellings, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Downscaled CMIP5 climate projections of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the Downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections archive are examined regionally over the southeastern U.S. Three measures of model skill (means-based, distribution-based, extreme-based) are utilized to assess the ability of 15 downscaled models to simulate <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations. A new test is proposed to determine statistical significance of the probability density function based skill measures. Skill scores are found to be generally high for all three measures throughout the study region, but lower scores are present in coastal and mountainous areas. Application of the significance test shows that while the skill scores may be high they are not significantly higher than could be expected at random in some areas. The distribution-based skill scores are not significant in much of Florida and the Appalachians. The extreme-based skill scores are not significant in more than 90% of the region for all models investigated. The findings suggest that although the downscaled models have simulated observed means well and are a good match to the entire distribution of observations, they are not simulating the occurrence of extreme (above 90th percentile) maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23B1142R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23B1142R"><span>Predicting Snow-To-Rain Transitions Across The Western U.S.: When Is <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sufficient?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajagopal, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The phase of precipitation at the land surface is critical for determining the timing and amount of water available for hydrological and ecological systems. Natural variability in precipitation phase due to elevation, micro-climate, and storm characteristics make it a challenge to predict phase. In addition, regional warming is expected to move the snow-rain elevation higher in the future, which has the potential to alter water availability. Despite this, there are few techniques for direct observation of precipitation phase and many predictive techniques apply simple <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds (i.e. 0 degree Celsius) to determine spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we asked two questions: 1) what is the optimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for predicting snow-rain transitions in the mountains of the Western U.S.? and 2) what errors in precipitation phase estimation are associated with common <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds? We use 502 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations with data from 2004 to 2014 to determine rain versus snow using a combination of precipitation, snow depth, and SWE observations. From the observations, we determined that <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a better predictor of rain and snow events than average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from -2.0 to 3 C, with an average of 0.3 C across ecoregions. The Northern Basin and Northern Cascades with lower average elevations had higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds and the Southern Rockies with highest elevations had the lowest thresholds. Developing a relationship based on station elevation improved the RMSE by 12%, whereas using an optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> developed for each station improved the RMSE by 34% on average. While using optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds reduce error in prediction, they do not eliminate misclassification of rain-show transitions. These results highlight a current weakness in our ability to predict the effects of regional warming that could have uneven impacts on water and ecological resource management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810049646&hterms=commercial+radio+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcommercial%2Bradio%2Bsystems','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810049646&hterms=commercial+radio+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcommercial%2Bradio%2Bsystems"><span>Heart rate, multiple body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, long-<span class="hlt">range</span> and long-life telemetry system for free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> animals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-<span class="hlt">range</span>, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at multiple locations from free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium <span class="hlt">range</span> transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-<span class="hlt">range</span> tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810049646&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBody%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810049646&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBody%2Btemperature"><span>Heart rate, multiple body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, long-<span class="hlt">range</span> and long-life telemetry system for free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> animals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-<span class="hlt">range</span>, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at multiple locations from free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium <span class="hlt">range</span> transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-<span class="hlt">range</span> tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/06/d04/tm6d4.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/06/d04/tm6d4.pdf"><span>Documentation of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> module—An enhancement to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sanders, Michael J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Regan, R. Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight</p> <p>2017-09-15</p> <p>A module for simulation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a network of stream segments has been developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This new module is based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> model, a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport model. The new module is integrated in PRMS. Stream-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulation is activated by selection of the appropriate input flags in the PRMS Control File and by providing the necessary additional inputs in standard PRMS input files.This report includes a comprehensive discussion of the methods relevant to the stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> calculations and detailed instructions for model input preparation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...92T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...92T"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region derived from the BaltAn65+ reanalysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toll, Velle; Post, Piia</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> 2-m <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region for the time period of 1965-2005 is studied based on data from the BaltAn65 + high resolution atmospheric reanalysis. Moreover, the ability of regional reanalysis to capture extremes is analysed by comparing the reanalysis data to gridded observations. The shortcomings in the simulation of the minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the northern part of the region and in the simulation of the extreme precipitation over the Scandinavian mountains in the BaltAn65+ reanalysis data are detected and analysed. Temporal trends in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region, with the largest increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in winter, are detected based on both gridded observations and the BaltAn65+ reanalysis data. However, the reanalysis is not able to capture all of the regional trends in the extremes in the observations due to the shortcomings in the simulation of the extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6939E..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6939E..03H"><span>High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> IR-imager with wide dynamic <span class="hlt">range</span> for industrial process control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffmann, Uwe; Hofmann, G.; Wassilew, D.; Heß, N.; Zimmerhackl, M.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>State of the art IR-Imager in the near infrared spectral <span class="hlt">range</span> for monitoring high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in industrial applications are characterized by a number of small measurement <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. Scenes with a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contrast require several measures switching between these <span class="hlt">ranges</span> and result in pictures with under <span class="hlt">range</span> and saturated parts. A newly developed high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> IR-Imager with a spectral <span class="hlt">range</span> in the near infrared provides a wide dynamic <span class="hlt">range</span> by utilizing specialized signal processing. A continuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement <span class="hlt">range</span> from 600°C up to 1500°C is realized with a resolution of 640x480 points and a measuring frequency of 25Hz. Each resulting image contains the full dynamic <span class="hlt">range</span> and is transmitted via a Fast Ethernet interface in real time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESSDD...8.1021B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESSDD...8.1021B"><span>CPLFD-GDPT5: high-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset for two largest Polish river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezowski, T.; Szcześniak, M.; Kardel, I.; Michałowski, R.; Okruszko, T.; Mezghani, A.; Piniewski, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The CHASE-PL Forcing Data-Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations from Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), ECAD and NOAA-NCDC (Slovak, Ukrainian and Belarus stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of Vistula and Odra basin and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in time from about 100 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 300 for precipitation in 1950 up to about 180 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 700 for precipitation in 1990. The precipitation dataset was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were: kriging with elevation as external drift for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross-validation revealed low root mean squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 0.88 for maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Vistula and Odra basins. Link to the dataset: <a href="http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07" target=_blank>http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESSD....8..127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESSD....8..127B"><span>CPLFD-GDPT5: High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set for two largest Polish river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezowski, Tomasz; Szcześniak, Mateusz; Kardel, Ignacy; Michałowski, Robert; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Piniewski, Mikołaj</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland) Forcing Data-Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation & <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), and European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECAD) and National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration-National Climatic Data Center (NOAA-NCDC) (Slovak, Ukrainian, and Belarusian stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of the Vistula and Oder basins and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in time from about 100 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 300 for precipitation in the 1950s up to about 180 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 700 for precipitation in the 1990s. The precipitation data set was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were kriging with elevation as external drift for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross validation revealed low root-mean-squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively, and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 0.88 for maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..225L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..225L"><span>Fractal structure and predictive strategy of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> residuals at Fabra Observatory (NE Spain, years 1917-2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A compilation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded at the Fabra Observatory (Catalonia, NE Spain) since 1917 up to 2005 has permitted an exhaustive analysis of the fractal behaviour of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> residuals, DTR, defined as the difference between the observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average value. The lacunarity characterises the lag distribution on the residual series for several thresholds. Hurst, H, and Hausdorff, Ha, exponents, together with the exponent β of the decaying power law, describing the evolution of power spectral density with frequency, permit to characterise the persistence, antipersistence or randomness of the residual series. The self-affine character of DTR series is verified, and additionally, they are simulated by means of fractional Gaussian noise, fGn. The reconstruction theorem leads to the quantification of the complexity (correlation dimension, μ*, and Kolmogorov entropy, κ) and predictive instability (Lyapunov exponents, λ, and Kaplan-Yorke dimension, D KY) of the residual series. All fractal parameters are computed for consecutive and independent segments of 5-year lengths. This strategy permits to obtain a high enough number of fractal parameter samples to estimate time trends, including their statistical significance. Comparisons are made between results of predictive algorithms based on fGn models and an autoregressive autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) process, with the latter leading to slightly better results than the former. Several dynamic atmospheric mechanisms and local effects, such as local topography and vicinity to the Mediterranean coast, are proposed to explain the complex and instable predictability of DTR series. The memory of the physical system (Kolmogorov entropy) would be attributed to the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.129.1227K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.129.1227K"><span>Spatial and temporal variation in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in summer and winter seasons over India (1969-2012)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Naresh; Jaswal, A. K.; Mohapatra, M.; Kore, P. A.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Spatial and temporal variations in summer and winter extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices are studied by using <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> data from 227 surface meteorological stations well distributed over India for the period 1969-2012. For this purpose, time series for six extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices namely, hot days (HD), very hot days (VHD), extremely hot days (EHD), cold nights (CN), very cold nights (VCN), and extremely cold nights (ECN) are calculated for all the stations. In addition, time series for mean extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices of summer and winter seasons are also analyzed. Study reveals high variability in spatial distribution of threshold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices over the country. In general, increasing trends are observed in summer hot days indices and decreasing trends in winter cold night indices over most parts of the country. The results obtained in this study indicate warming in summer maximum and winter minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over India. Averaged over India, trends in summer hot days indices HD, VHD, and EHD are significantly increasing (+1.0, +0.64, and +0.32 days/decade, respectively) and winter cold night indices CN, VCN, and ECN are significantly decreasing (-0.93, -0.47, and -0.15 days/decade, respectively). Also, it is observed that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is higher along the west coast for summer and east coast for winter.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28432370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28432370"><span>The Threshold <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Lag Effects on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Excess Mortality in Harbin, China: A Time Series Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Hanlu; Lan, Li; Yang, Chao; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Yashuang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A large number of studies have reported the relationship between ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality. However, few studies have focused on the effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on cardio-cerebrovascular diseases mortality (CCVDM) and their acute events (ACCVDM). To assess the threshold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and time lag effects on <span class="hlt">daily</span> excess mortality in Harbin, China. A generalized additive model (GAM) with a Poisson distribution was used to investigate the relative risk of mortality for each 1 °C increase above the threshold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and their time lag effects in Harbin, China. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold was 26 °C in Harbin. Heat effects were immediate and lasted for 0-6 and 0-4 days for CCVDM and ACCVDM, respectively. The acute cardiovascular disease mortality (ACVDM) seemed to be more sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than cardiovascular disease mortality (CVDM) with higher death risk and shorter time lag effects. The lag effects lasted longer for cerebrovascular disease mortality (CBDM) than CVDM; so did ACBDM compared to ACVDM. Hot <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased CCVDM and ACCVDM in Harbin, China. Public health intervention strategies for hot <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> adaptation should be concerned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N"><span>Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira</p> <p></p> <p>This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL). Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05) of 0.25 (SD 0.61) °C in the morning and 0.24 (SD 0.50) °C in the afternoon. Differences between oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer and winter tended to be greater in subjects with low ADL scores, even when their room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was well-controlled. In conclusion, the oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly are lower in winter than summer, particularly in physically inactive people. It appears that those with low levels of ADL are more vulnerable to large changes in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.9208S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.9208S"><span>Combined impacts of land cover changes and large-scale forcing on Southern California summer <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sequera, Pedro; González, Jorge E.; McDonald, Kyle; Bornstein, Robert; Comarazamy, Daniel</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>California near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are influenced by large-scale, regional and local factors. In that sense, a numerical model experiment was carried out to analyze the contribution of large-scale (changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions) and regional (increased urbanization) factors on the observed California South Coast Air Basin regional summer <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> warming pattern from 1950 to 2013. The simulations were performed with past (1950-1954) and present (2009-2013) land cover and climate conditions. The past land cover was derived from historical digital maps, and the present land cover was updated with high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. Results show that both factors contribute to the total change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Changes due to large-scale climate conditions dominate in coastal (due to warming sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) and nonurban regions, while changes due to urbanization have an impact mainly in urban areas, especially inland where large-scale warming weakens. Increased urbanization has also reduced sea-breeze intensity due to changes in surface roughness. The model was able to reproduce the regional observed warming pattern, as it incorporates urban heat island effects, otherwise underestimated by large-scale climate change only.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5404D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5404D"><span>Use of a Weather Generator for analysis of projections of future <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its validation with climate change indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Piazza, A.; Cordano, E.; Eccel, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The issue of climate change detection is considered a major challenge. In particular, high temporal resolution climate change scenarios are required in the evaluation of the effects of climate change on agricultural management (crop suitability, yields, risk assessment, etc.) energy production and water management. In this work, a "Weather Generator" technique was used for downscaling climate change scenarios for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. An R package (RMAWGEN, Cordano and Eccel, 2011 - available on http://cran.r-project.org) was developed aiming to generate synthetic <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather conditions by using the theory of vectorial auto-regressive models (VAR). The VAR model was chosen for its ability in maintaining the temporal and spatial correlations among variables. In particular, observed time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are transformed into "new" normally-distributed variable time series which are used to calibrate the parameters of a VAR model by using ordinary least square methods. Therefore the implemented algorithm, applied to monthly mean climatic values downscaled by Global Climate Model predictions, can generate several stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> scenarios where the statistical consistency among series is saved. Further details are present in RMAWGEN documentation. An application is presented here by using a dataset with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series recorded in 41 different sites of Trentino region for the period 1958-2010. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> time series were pre-processed to fill missing values (by a site-specific calibrated Inverse Distance Weighting algorithm, corrected with elevation) and to remove inhomogeneities. Several climatic indices were taken into account, useful for several impact assessment applications, and their time trends within the time series were analyzed. The indices go from the more classical ones, as annual mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, seasonal mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and their anomalies (from the reference period 1961-1990) to the climate change indices</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397999','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397999"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Scheduled High Fat Meals Moderately Entrain Behavioral Anticipatory Activity, Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, and Hypothalamic c-Fos Activation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gallardo, Christian M.; Gunapala, Keith M.; King, Oliver D.; Steele, Andrew D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA), is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, <span class="hlt">daily</span> timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet <span class="hlt">daily</span> meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903). In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> revealed a moderate preprandial increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> fatty palatable meal. PMID:22815954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44584','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44584"><span>Determination of plant growth rate and growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from measurement of physiological parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>R. S. Criddle; B. N. Smith; L. D. Hansen; J. N. Church</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Many factors influence species <span class="hlt">range</span> and diversity, but <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability are always major global determinants, irrespective of local constraints. On a global scale, the <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of many taxa have been observed to increase and their diversity decrease with increasing latitude. On a local scale, gradients in species distribution are observable with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858"><span>Differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Ordovás, J M; Smith, C E; Nicolás, F; Garaulet, M</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The circadian rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity patterns. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) (mean ± SEM). Skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373"><span>GSOD Based <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Global Mean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Xuan Shi, Dali Wang</p> <p>2014-05-05</p> <p>This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=Potatoes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPotatoes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=Potatoes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPotatoes"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T W; Bennett, S M; Cao, W</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526"><span>Control of Continuous Irradiation Injury on Potatoes with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Cycling 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Bennett, Susan M.; Cao, Weixing</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18°C and fluctuating 22°C/14°C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18°C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:11537703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20396893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20396893"><span>Winter body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> Cape ground squirrel, Xerus inauris: no evidence for torpor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, Wendy A; O'Riain, M Justin; Hetem, Robyn S; Fuller, Andrea; Fick, Linda G</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris, Sciuridae) living in their natural environment during winter has not yet been investigated. In this study we measured abdominal T(b) of eight free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> Cape ground squirrels over 27 consecutive days during the austral winter. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(b) was relatively stable at 37.0 ± 0.2°C (<span class="hlt">range</span> 33.4 to 40.2°C) despite a marked variation in globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(g)) (<span class="hlt">range</span> -7 to 37°C). Lactating females (n = 2) consistently had a significantly higher mean T (b) (0.7°C) than non-lactating females (n = 3) and males. There was a pronounced nychthemeral rhythm with a mean active phase T(b) of 38.1 ± 0.1°C and a mean inactive phase T(b) of 36.3 ± 0.3°C for non-lactating individuals. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of T(b) rhythm was 3.8 ± 0.2°C. T(b) during the active phase closely followed T(g) and mean active phase T(b) was significantly correlated with mean active phase T(g) (r(2) = 0.3-0.9; P < 0.01). There was no evidence for <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor or pronounced hypothermia during the inactive phase, and mean minimum inactive phase T(b) was 35.7 ± 0.3°C for non-lactating individuals. Several alternatives (including nocturnal huddling, an aseasonal breeding pattern and abundant winter food resources) as to why Cape ground squirrels do not employ nocturnal hypothermia are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T"><span>Error Correction of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Simulations in Europe and the Effects on Climate Change Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Heinrich, G.; Regional; Local Climate Modeling; Analysis Research Group</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>State-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) have shown their capability to reproduce mesoscale and even finer climate variability satisfactorily. However, considerable differences between model results and observational data remain, due to scale discrepancies and model errors. This limits the direct utilization of RCM results in climate change impact studies. Besides continuous climate model improvement, empirical-statistical post-processing approaches (model output statistics) offer an immediate pathway to mitigate these model problems and to provide better input data for climate change impact assessments. Among various statistical approaches, quantile mapping (QM) represents one powerful non-parametric technique to post-process RCM outputs. In this study, results from a transient regional climate simulation (period: 1951 to 2050; general circulation model: HadCM3; emission scenario: A1B; RCM: CLM) with horizontal grid spacing of 25 km is error corrected for entire Europe based on the E-OBS European <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded observational dataset (http://ensembles-eu.org). Firstly, the performance of QM for correcting <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for long-term simulations is evaluated in a decadal cross-validation framework between 1961 and 2000 and the error characteristics are discussed. In the case of precipitation amount a frequency adaptation tool is presented which deals with rare situations where the probability for non-precipitation days is lower in the observations than in the model. Secondly, the issue of generating new extremes in future scenarios is raised. For this purpose, the ERA-40 reanalysis driven hindcast is used to assure best possible temporal correlation between observations and model output. The hindcast is split such that the independent validation period contains observed extremes outside the <span class="hlt">range</span> of the calibration period. Two extrapolation schemes at the tails of the calibrated correction functions are tested and compared to the simple</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050"><span>Water quality and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle affect biofilm formation in drip irrigation devices revealed by optical coherence tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Jueying; Horn, Harald; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona; Katz, Sagi; Wagner, Michael</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Drip irrigation is a water-saving technology. To date, little is known about how biofilm forms in drippers of irrigation systems. In this study, the internal dripper geometry was recreated in 3-D printed microfluidic devices (MFDs). To mimic the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in (semi-) arid areas, experiments were conducted in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled box between 20 and 50°C. MFDs were either fed with two different treated wastewater (TWW) or synthetic wastewater. Biofilm formation was monitored non-invasively and in situ by optical coherence tomography (OCT). 3-D OCT datasets reveal the major fouling position and illustrate that biofilm development was influenced by fluid dynamics. Biofilm volumetric coverage of the labyrinth up to 60% did not reduce the discharge rate, whereas a further increase to 80% reduced the discharge rate by 50%. Moreover, the biofilm formation rate was significantly inhibited in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle independent of the cultivation medium used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...67B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...67B"><span>Recent trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over southern Montenegro (1951-2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burić, D.; Luković, J.; Ducić, V.; Dragojlović, J.; Doderović, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Montenegro so far has been poorly investigated in terms of climate extremes. The aim of this paper was to analyse the extreme ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in the Mediterranean region of Montenegro for the period of 1951-2010. Four stations in the coastal area of Montenegro have been analysed: Herceg Novi, Ulcinj, Budva and Bar. Two periods (before 1980 and after 1980) were separately investigated in this study due to a well-known climate shift that occurred in the late 1970s. Seven indices of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes have been chosen. The trend was analysed using a Mann-Kendall non-parametric test, while the slope was estimated using Sen's slope estimator. A negative trend has been calculated for cold nights and cold days at almost all stations. The most significant positive trends were obtained for warm conditions. The two separately investigated periods have shown contrasting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.5181B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.5181B"><span>Recent trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over southern Montenegro (1951-2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burić, D.; Luković, J.; Ducić, V.; Dragojlović, J.; Doderović, M.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Montenegro so far has been poorly investigated in terms of climate extremes. The aim of this paper was to analyse the extreme ETCCD <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in the Mediterranean region of Montenegro for the period of 1951-2010. Four stations in the coastal area of Montenegro have been analysed: Herceg Novi, Ulcinj, Budva and Bar. Two periods (before 1980 and after 1980) were separately investigated in this study due to a well known climate shift that occurred in the late 1970's. Seven indices of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes have been chosen. The trend was analysed using a Man-Kendall non parametric test while the slope was estimated using Sen's slope estimator. A negative trend has been calculated for cold nights and cold days at almost all stations. The most significant positive trends were obtained for warm conditions. Two separately investigated periods have shown contrasting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717080"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: A statistical modeling study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1km×1km) <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts-Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R(2) of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R(2) of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376°C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996"><span>The effect of physical exercise on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piccione, Giuseppe; Grasso, Fortunata; Fazio, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses. Blood samples from 12 Thoroughbred horses, six sedentary animals and six athletes (studied both before and after a period of inactivity) were collected at 4h intervals for 48h via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded every 4h for 48h with a rectal probe. Platelet aggregation was measured with an aggregometer. Collagen was used to test the aggregation of the plasma samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by single cosinor method. Cosinor analysis identified the periodic parameters and their acrophases (expressed in hours) during the 2 days of monitoring. On each single day, there was a highly significant effect of time in all the horses, with P values <0.05. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rhythms were unaffected by exercise. Platelet aggregation in exercising horses differed from the sedentary horses, and this difference disappeared after a 2-week period of rest. The results could be interpreted as indicating that physical exercise has an influence on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation in horses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761507','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761507"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: a statistical modeling study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1 km × 1 km) <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts to Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R2 of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R2 of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376 °C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. PMID:26717080</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N"><span>Bias correction of global and regional simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia using quantile mapping method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A trend preserving quantile mapping (QM) method was applied to adjust the biases of the global and regional climate models (GCM and RCMs) simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia regions based on APHRODITE dataset. Output from four different RCMs as well as their driving GCM in CORDEX-EA archive were corrected to examine the added value of RCMs dynamical downscaling in the context of bias adjustment. The result shows that the RCM biases are comparable to that of the GCM biases. In some instances, RCMs amplified the GCM biases. Generally, QM method substantially improves the biases for both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, the bias adjustment method works better for surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and less so for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. The large inter-models variability is reduced remarkably after bias adjustment. Overall, study indicates no strong evident that RCMs downscaling as an immediate step before bias correction provides additional improvement to the sub-regional climate compared to the correction directly carried out on their forcing GCM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950019127','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950019127"><span>Alternate method for achieving <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in the -160 to +90 Celcius <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Kenneth R. (Inventor)</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A single-pass method for accurate and precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in the -160 to +90 C <span class="hlt">range</span> is discussed. The method exhibited minimal set-point overshoot during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions. Control to +/-2 C with transitions between set-points of 7 C per minute were achieved. The method uses commercially available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controllers and a gaseous nitrogen/liquid nitrogen mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spikes caused by liquid nitrogen pulsing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109w1902B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109w1902B"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> coefficients of crystalline-quartz elastic constants over the cryogenic <span class="hlt">range</span> [4 K, 15 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bon, Jérémy; Galliou, Serge; Bourquin, Roger</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This paper brings out the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficients of synthetic-quartz elastic constants at liquid helium <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The method is based on the relationship between the resonance frequencies of a quartz acoustic cavity and the elastic constants of the material. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficients of the elastic constants are extracted from experimental frequency-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected within the very useful cryogenic <span class="hlt">range</span> [4 K-15 K] from a set of resonators of various cut angles, because of the anisotropy of quartz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0859R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0859R"><span>Glacier Melt Detection in Complex Terrain Using New AMSR-E Calibrated Enhanced <span class="hlt">Daily</span> EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (CETB) Earth System Data Record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramage, J. M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Hardman, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Passive microwave (PM) 18 GHz and 36 GHz horizontally- and vertically-polarized brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tb) channels from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) have been important sources of information about snow melt status in glacial environments, particularly at high latitudes. PM data are sensitive to the changes in near-surface liquid water that accompany melt onset, melt intensification, and refreezing. Overpasses are frequent enough that in most areas multiple (2-8) observations per day are possible, yielding the potential for determining the dynamic state of the snow pack during transition seasons. AMSR-E Tb data have been used effectively to determine melt onset and melt intensification using <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tb and diurnal amplitude variation (DAV) thresholds. Due to mixed pixels in historically coarse spatial resolution Tb data, melt analysis has been impractical in ice-marginal zones where pixels may be only fractionally snow/ice covered, and in areas where the glacier is near large bodies of water: even small regions of open water in a pixel severely impact the microwave signal. We use the new enhanced-resolution Calibrated Passive Microwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (CETB) Earth System Data Record product's twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> obserations to test and update existing snow melt algorithms by determining appropriate melt thresholds for both Tb and DAV for the CETB 18 and 36 GHz channels. We use the enhanced resolution data to evaluate melt characteristics along glacier margins and melt transition zones during the melt seasons in locations spanning a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of melt scenarios, including the Patagonian Andes, the Alaskan Coast <span class="hlt">Range</span>, and the Russian High Arctic icecaps. We quantify how improvement of spatial resolution from the original 12.5 - 25 km-scale pixels to the enhanced resolution of 3.125 - 6.25 km improves the ability to evaluate melt timing across boundaries and transition zones in diverse glacial environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16520258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16520258"><span>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidence of acute heart failure is correlated with low minimal night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: cold immersion pulmonary edema revisited?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Milo-Cotter, Olga; Setter, Ilan; Uriel, Nir; Kaluski, Edo; Vered, Zvi; Golik, Ahuva; Cotter, Gad</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Previous studies suggested a higher incidence of acute heart failure (AHF) during cold months in regions with cold climate. We examined the <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidence of AHF by same-day trough <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a warmer region. All admissions for AHF (340 patients) to a city hospital, providing the sole emergency medical care to a geographical region of approximately 500,000 people were recorded. Patients were followed through admission and for 6 months after discharge. Low minimal trough <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was associated with an increase in the same-day AHF incidence. Lowest tercile trough night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were associated with higher AHF incidence (3.5 +/- 2.1 versus 2.4 +/- 1.6, events/24 hours, P = .012). This association was mainly from increased AHF events in nights with the predetermined trough <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of <7 degrees C (4 +/- 2.1 versus 2.5 +/- 1.7, events/24 hours, P = .0013). This association persisted even after excluding the coldest consecutive 30 days from the analysis. Humidity was not associated with increased AHF event rate. In a post-hoc analysis we have observed doubling of 6-month mortality in patients admitted with AHF during days with lower trough night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, despite no apparent worse baseline characteristics or disease severity at admission. AHF rate is increased during days with lower trough night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. If confirmed, these results may have implications on issues related to climate control in houses of the elderly or patients susceptible to heart failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329121','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329121"><span>Reconstructing <span class="hlt">daily</span> clear-sky land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for cloudy regions from MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) is a critical parameter in environmental studies and resource management. The MODIS LST data product has been widely used in various studies, such as drought monitoring, evapotranspiration mapping, soil moisture estimation and forest fire detection. However, cloud cont...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090027758','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090027758"><span>Wide-<span class="hlt">Range</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensors with High-Level Pulse Train Output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Two types of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors have been developed for wide-<span class="hlt">range</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications. The two sensors measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">range</span> of -190 to +200 C and utilize a thin-film platinum RTD (resistance <span class="hlt">temperature</span> detector) as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensing element. Other parts used in the fabrication of these sensors include NPO (negative-positive- zero) type ceramic capacitors for timing, thermally-stable film or wirewound resistors, and high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> circuit boards and solder. The first type of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor is a relaxation oscillator circuit using an SOI (silicon-on-insulator) operational amplifier as a comparator. The output is a pulse train with a period that is roughly proportional to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> being measured. The voltage level of the pulse train is high-level, for example 10 V. The high-level output makes the sensor less sensitive to noise or electromagnetic interference. The output can be read by a frequency or period meter and then converted into a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reading. The second type of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor is made up of various types of multivibrator circuits using an SOI type 555 timer and the passive components mentioned above. Three configurations have been developed that were based on the technique of charging and discharging a capacitor through a resistive element to create a train of pulses governed by the capacitor-resistor time constant. Both types of sensors, which operated successfully over the wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, have potential use in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments including jet engines and space exploration missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008584&hterms=Resilience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DResilience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008584&hterms=Resilience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DResilience"><span>Performance of Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Electrolytes in Quallion Prototype Li-Ion Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Tomcsi, M. R.; Nagata, M.; Visco, V.; Tsukamoto, H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>For a number of applications, there is a continued interest in the development of rechargeable lithium-based batteries that can effectively operate over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (i.e., -40 to +70 deg C). These applications include powering future planetary rovers for NASA, enabling the next generation of automotive batteries for DOE, and supporting many DOD applications. Li-ion technology has been demonstrated to have good performance over a reasonably wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> with many systems; however, there is still a desire to improve the low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rate capacity as well as the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resilience. In the current study, we would like to present recent results obtained with prototype Li-Ion cells (manufactured by Quallion, LLC) which include various wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrolytes developed by both JPL and Quallion. To demonstrate the viability of the technology, a number of performance tests were carried out, including: (a) discharge rate characterization over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (down to -60 deg C) using various rates (up to 20C rates), (b) discharge rate characterization at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> charging, (c) variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (-40 to +70 deg C), and (d) cycling at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (50 deg C). As will be discussed, impressive rate capability was observed at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with many systems, as well as good resilience to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling. To augment the performance testing on the prototype cells, a number of experimental three electrodes cells were fabricated (including Li reference electrodes) to allow the determination of the lithium kinetics of the respective electrodes and interfacial properties as a function of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008584&hterms=resilience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dresilience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008584&hterms=resilience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dresilience"><span>Performance of Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Electrolytes in Quallion Prototype Li-Ion Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Tomcsi, M. R.; Nagata, M.; Visco, V.; Tsukamoto, H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>For a number of applications, there is a continued interest in the development of rechargeable lithium-based batteries that can effectively operate over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (i.e., -40 to +70 deg C). These applications include powering future planetary rovers for NASA, enabling the next generation of automotive batteries for DOE, and supporting many DOD applications. Li-ion technology has been demonstrated to have good performance over a reasonably wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> with many systems; however, there is still a desire to improve the low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rate capacity as well as the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resilience. In the current study, we would like to present recent results obtained with prototype Li-Ion cells (manufactured by Quallion, LLC) which include various wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrolytes developed by both JPL and Quallion. To demonstrate the viability of the technology, a number of performance tests were carried out, including: (a) discharge rate characterization over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (down to -60 deg C) using various rates (up to 20C rates), (b) discharge rate characterization at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> charging, (c) variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (-40 to +70 deg C), and (d) cycling at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (50 deg C). As will be discussed, impressive rate capability was observed at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with many systems, as well as good resilience to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling. To augment the performance testing on the prototype cells, a number of experimental three electrodes cells were fabricated (including Li reference electrodes) to allow the determination of the lithium kinetics of the respective electrodes and interfacial properties as a function of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..1211549E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..1211549E"><span>Combining satellite observations to develop a <span class="hlt">daily</span> global soil moisture product for a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enenkel, M.; Reimer, C.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Pfeil, I.; Parinussa, R.; De Jeu, R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from nine different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI processing chain for <span class="hlt">daily</span> global updates via satellite-derived near real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced SCATterometer on-board the MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases, and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new "CCI NRT" dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.8. An initial validation with 40 in-situ observations in France, Kenya, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT dataset is getting ready for operational use, supporting applications such as drought and flood monitoring, weather forecasting or agricultural applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, not the circadian clock, regulate growth rate in Brachypodium distachyon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A; Cole, Benjamin J; Whitney, Ian P; MacKinnon, Kirk J-M; Kay, Steve A; Hazen, Samuel P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. Changes in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light changes, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced changes in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no change in growth rate under conditions of constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not change in response to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate changes in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C"><span>Trends and periodicity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, and the nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases faster than the daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230465"><span>The impact of seasonality in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on thermal tolerance and elevational <span class="hlt">range</span> size.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sheldon, Kimberly S; Tewksbury, Joshua J</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation can influence physiology, biogeography, and life history, with large consequences for ecology, evolution, and the impacts of climate change. Based on the seasonality hypothesis, greater annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation at high latitudes should result in greater thermal tolerance and, consequently, larger elevational <span class="hlt">ranges</span> in temperate compared to tropical species. Despite the mechanistic nature of this hypothesis, most research has used latitude as a proxy for seasonality, failing to directly examine the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation on physiology and <span class="hlt">range</span> size. We used phylogenetically matched beetles from locations spanning 60 degrees of latitude to explore links between seasonality, physiology and elevational <span class="hlt">range</span>. Thermal tolerance increased with seasonality across all beetle groups, but realized seasonality (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation restricted to the months species are active) was a better predictor of thermal tolerance than was annual seasonality. Additionally, beetles with greater thermal tolerance had larger elevational <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. Our results support a mechanistic framework linking variation in realized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to physiology and distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503715"><span>'Optimal thermal <span class="hlt">range</span>' in ectotherms: Defining criteria for tests of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-size-rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Kiełbasa, Anna; Sobczyk, Mateusz</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Thermal performance curves for population growth rate r (a measure of fitness) were estimated over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for three species: Coleps hirtus (Protista), Lecane inermis (Rotifera) and Aeolosoma hemprichi (Oligochaeta). We measured individual body size and examined if predictions for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-size rule (TSR) were valid for different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. All three organisms investigated follow the TSR, but only over a specific <span class="hlt">range</span> between minimal and optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while maintenance at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> beyond this <span class="hlt">range</span> showed the opposite pattern in these taxa. We consider minimal and optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to be species-specific, and moreover delineate a physiological <span class="hlt">range</span> outside of which an ectotherm is constrained against displaying size plasticity in response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This thermal <span class="hlt">range</span> concept has important implications for general size-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> studies. Furthermore, the concept of 'operating thermal conditions' may provide a new approach to (i) defining criteria required for investigating and interpreting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects, and (ii) providing a novel interpretation for many cases in which species do not conform to the TSR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality among the elderly: a meta-analysis and systematic review of epidemiological evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ye, Xiaofang; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The impact of climate change on the health of vulnerable groups such as the elderly has been of increasing concern. However, to date there has been no meta-analysis of current literature relating to the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations upon mortality amongst the elderly. We synthesised risk estimates of the overall impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on elderly mortality across different continents. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed to identify papers published up to December 2010. Selection criteria including suitable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicators, endpoints, study-designs and identification of threshold were used. A two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model was performed to summarise the percent increase in mortality with a 1°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase (or decrease) with 95% confidence intervals in hot (or cold) days, with lagged effects also measured. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria and almost 13 million elderly deaths were included in this meta-analysis. In total, there was a 2-5% increase for a 1°C increment during hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals, and a 1-2 % increase in all-cause mortality for a 1°C decrease during cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals. Lags of up to 9 days in exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals were substantially associated with all-cause mortality, but no substantial lagged effects were observed for hot intervals. Thus, both hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> substantially increased mortality among the elderly, but the magnitude of heat-related effects seemed to be larger than that of cold effects within a global context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6291865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6291865"><span>The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 475 to 825 degrees centigrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allen, T.H.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> independent. In the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41A1063L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41A1063L"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation in a Weather@home Superensemble for the Western United States: Model Performance and Projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, S.; Rupp, D. E.; Mote, P.; Massey, N.; Allen, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Making credible projections of future changes in extreme events has been challenging because it requires not only running climate models at high resolution to faithfully reproduce impact-relevant extreme events, but also ensemble sizes on the order of 10³ and greater to obtain reliable statistics on the intensity and frequency of extreme events. Due to sparsity of high-resolution data, most studies have used fitted analytical probability distributions to produce statistics for extreme events, which in itself has limitations and uncertainties. Here we present results of a superensemble of simulations generated by weather@home, a citizen science computing platform, where Western United States climate was simulated for the recent past (1985-2014) and future (2030-2059) using a coupled regional/global model (HadRM3P/HadAM3P) at 25-km resolution. The very large number of simulations permits the detection of robust spatial patterns of anthropogenically forced change, amidst the "noise" of natural variability, in extremes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. We investigate to what extent extreme events change in frequency and intensity, relative to changes in the means. Also, the physical mechanisms underlying such changes are explored. We also compare projected <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation from weather@home with those from regional/global coupled model parings from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), whereby statistics (e.g. 20-year, 50-year, etc., return values) are estimated from fitted extreme value distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016107','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016107"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of Thin Film Spiral Inductors on Alumina Over a <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> of 25 to 475 C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present an analysis of inductors on an Alumina substrate over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 25 to 475 C. Five sets of inductors, each set consisting of a 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and a 4.5 turn inductor with different line width and spacing, were measured on a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probe station from 10 MHz to 30 GHz. From these measured characteristics, it is shown that the inductance is nearly independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for low frequencies compared to the self resonant frequency, the parasitic capacitances are independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the resistance varies nearly linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These characteristics result in the self resonant frequency decreasing by only a few percent as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased from 25 to 475 C, but the maximum quality factor decreases by a factor of 2 to 3. These observations based on measured data are confirmed through 2D simulations using Sonnet software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..569R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..569R"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reference Evapotranspiration using <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Based Models and Remotely Sensed Data over Indian River Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>R, Shwetha H.; D, Nagesh Kumar</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is the most significant component of the hydrological budget. Accurate quantification of ETo is vital for proper water management, efficient agricultural activities, irrigation planning and irrigation scheduling. FAO Penman Montieth (FAO-PM) is the widely accepted and used method for the ETo estimation under all climatic conditions, but needs numerous inputs which are difficult to acquire in developing countries. In such conditions, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based models such as Hargreaves-Samani (HS) equation and Penman Montieth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (PMT) can be used, where only maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are required. Spatial interpolation of meteorological parameters to calculate spatial variation of ETo results in inaccurate estimations at lowly densed weather stations. Hence, there is a necessity of simple and easy method to estimate spatial distribution of ETo. In this regard, remotely sensed data provides viable alternative approach to obtain continuous spatio-temporal ETo. In this study, we used <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based ETo models with remotely sensed LST data to estimate spatio-temporal variation of ETo. Day and night LST (MYD11A1) data of the year 2010 for the Cauvery basin on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis were obtained from MODIS sensor of Aqua satellite. Firstly, day and night land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (LST) with HS and PMT methods were applied to estimate ETo. Secondly, maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were estimated from day and night LST respectively using simple linear regression and these air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were used to estimate ETo. Estimated results were validated with the ETo calculated using meteorological data obtained from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) by applying standard FAO-PM. The preliminary results revealed that, HS method with LST overestimated ETo in the study region. Statistical analysis showed PMT method with both LST and air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> performed better than the HS method. These two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based methods are often used for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770012620','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770012620"><span>Soil moisture sensing with aircraft observations of the diurnal <span class="hlt">range</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmugge, T. J.; Blanchard, B.; Anderson, A.; Wang, V.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Aircraft observations of the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were made by measurements of the thermal emission in the 8-14 micrometers band over agricultural fields around Phoenix, Arizona. The diurnal <span class="hlt">range</span> of these surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were well correlated with the ground measurement of soil moisture in the 0-2 cm layer. The surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations for vegetated fields were found to be within 1 or 2 C of the ambient air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicating no moisture stress. These results indicate that for clear atmospheric conditions remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a reliable indicator of soil moisture conditions and crop status.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20476812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20476812"><span>The direction and <span class="hlt">range</span> of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change influences yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallup, Andrew C; Miller, Michael L; Clark, Anne B</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Comparative research suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior in homeotherms. Our previous experiments revealed that yawning increased in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) as ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was raised toward body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (22-->34 degrees C). In this study, we identify the <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that triggers yawning to rule out the possible effect of changing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in any <span class="hlt">range</span>. To corroborate its thermoregulatory function, we also related the incidence of yawning to other avian thermoregulatory behaviors in budgerigars (e.g., panting, wing venting). In a repeated measures design, 16 budgerigars were exposed to 4 separate 10-min periods of changing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: (a) low-increasing (23-->27 degrees C), (b) high-increasing (27-->33 degrees C), (c) high-decreasing (34-->28 degrees C), and (d) low-decreasing (28-->24 degrees C). Birds yawned significantly more during the high-increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, and yawning was positively correlated with ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across trials. Yawning was also positively correlated with other thermoregulatory behaviors. This research clarifies the previously demonstrated relationship between yawning rate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by providing evidence that the physiological trigger for yawning is related to increasing body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rather than the detection of changing external <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a <span class="hlt">range</span> of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements at the nearest weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a <span class="hlt">range</span> of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from the equatorial region (10°N) to the Arctic (64°N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor, airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our results suggest that, depending on the measure, season, and location, outdoor weather measurements can be reliably used to represent indoor exposures and that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor exposure than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, absolute measures of water vapor should be examined in conjunction with other measures (e.g. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity) in studies of the effect of weather and climate on human health. PMID:26054827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448518"><span>Serial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring and comparison of rectal and muscle <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in immobilized free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>vdB Morkel, Peter; Miller, Michele; Jago, Mark; Radcliffe, Robin W; du Preez, Pierre; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Sefton, Jennifer; Taft, Arthur; Nydam, Daryl; Gleed, Robin D</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Control of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is critical to a successful anesthetic outcome, particularly during field immobilization of wild animals. Hyperthermia associated with exertion can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening complications such as organ damage (including myopathy) and death. Methods for monitoring core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> must accurately reflect the physiologic status of the animal in order for interventions to be effective. The goal of this preliminary study was to compare serial rectal and muscle <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in field-immobilized black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and evaluate a possible association. Twenty-four free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> black rhinoceros were immobilized between February and March of 2010 in Ethosha National Park, Namibia. Pairwise comparisons showed a correlation of 0.73 (95% CI; 0.70-0.75) between rectal and muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. Results from a multivariable model indicate that muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> readings were, on average, 0.46 degrees C (95% CI; 0.36-0.57 degrees C) higher than rectal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> while adjusting for repeated measurements on the same rhinoceros, effect of duration of immobilization, and effect of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on rhinoceroses' <span class="hlt">temperature</span> readings. As immobilization time increased, muscle and rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values within an individual rhinoceros tended to equilibrate. The overall <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> decreased by an average of 0.00059 degrees C/min (95% CI; -0.0047 to -0.0035 degrees C/min; P = 0.779). As the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at time of immobilization increased by 1 degree C, the average rhinoceros <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased by 0.09 degrees C (95% CI; 0.06-0.11 degrees C, P < 0.0001). Higher body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> creates a potential for cellular damage leading to complications that include myopathy. Methods for monitoring rectal, muscle, and ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> should be incorporated into anesthetic monitoring protocols for large ungulates, particularly under field conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=275294','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=275294"><span>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> compression hastens berry development and modifies flavonoid partitioning in grapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> during the day and night are known to influence grape berry metabolism and resulting composition. In this study, the flavonoid composition of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot berries was investigated as a function of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR). The DTR was compressed by c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33136','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33136"><span>Summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in the headwater streams of the Oregon coast <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Liz Dent; Danielle Vick; Kyle Abraham; Stephen Schoenholtz; Sherri Johnson</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Cool summertime stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important component of high-quality aquatic habitat in Oregon coastal streams. Within the Oregon Coast <span class="hlt">Range</span>, small headwater streams make up a majority of the stream network, yet little information is available on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns and the longitudinal variability for these streams. In this paper we describe preharvest...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814427B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814427B"><span>Statistical downscaling of sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (6-hour) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Romania, by means of artificial neural networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cǎrbunaru, Felicia</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The role of statistical downscaling is to model the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and climatic variables on a regional and sub-regional scale, making use of the predictions of future circulation generated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) in order to capture the effects of climate change on smaller areas. The study presents a statistical downscaling model based on a neural network-based approach, by means of multi-layer perceptron networks. Sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data series from 81 meteorological stations over Romania, with full data records are used as predictands. As large-scale predictor, the NCEP/NCAD air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 850 hPa over the domain 20-30E / 40-50N was used, at a spatial resolution of 2.5×2.5 degrees. The period 1961-1990 was used for calibration, while the validation was realized over the 1991-2010 interval. Further, in order to estimate future changes in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 850 hPa corresponding to the IPCC A1B scenario was extracted from the CNCM33 model (Meteo-France) and used as predictor. This work has been realized within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22938524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22938524"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, physiology and behavior limit the <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacobson, Elliott R; Barker, David G; Barker, Tracy M; Mauldin, Richard; Avery, Michael L; Engeman, Richard; Secor, Stephen</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A well-established population of Burmese pythons resides in the Everglades of southern Florida. Prompted in part by a report that identified much of southern USA as suitable habitat for expansion or establishment of the Burmese python, we examined the plausibility of this snake to survive winters at sites north of the Everglades. We integrated <span class="hlt">daily</span> low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded from October to February from 2005-2011 at Homestead, Orlando and Gainesville, Florida; and Aiken, South Carolina, with minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> projected for python digestion (16 °C), activity (5 °C) and survival (0 °C). Mean low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> decreased northward from Homestead to Aiken and the number of days of freezing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased northward. Digestion was impaired or inhibited for 2 months in the Everglades and up to at least 5 months in Aiken, and activity was increasingly limited northward during these months. Reports of overwinter survivorship document that a single bout of low and freezing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> results in python death. The capacity for Burmese pythons to successfully overwinter in more temperate regions of the USA is seemingly prohibited because they lack the behaviors to seek refuge from, and the physiology to tolerate, cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. As tropical Southeast Asia is the source of the Everglades Burmese pythons, we predict it is unlikely that they will be able to successfully expand to or colonize more temperate areas of Florida and adjoining states due to their lack of behavioral and physiological traits to seek refuge from cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ESSD....9..293B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ESSD....9..293B"><span>The global SMOS Level 3 <span class="hlt">daily</span> soil moisture and brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mialon, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.; Cabot, François; Richaume, Philippe; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Mahmoodi, Ali; Tarot, Stéphane; Parrens, Marie; Al-Yaari, Amen; Pellarin, Thierry; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO) surface soil moisture (SM) and angle-binned brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TB) products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD) compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD) using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO) retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM) are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> products are delivered using an open licence and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJBm...50..121O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJBm...50..121O"><span>Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Marie S.; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0 14 years) and the elderly (ages ≥65 years). Predictors included mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [cold (10 11°C) for both cities and heat (35 36°C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each city (15°C in Mexico City, 25°C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15912362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15912362"><span>Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Marie S; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0-14 years) and the elderly (ages >or=65 years). Predictors included mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [cold (10-11 degrees C) for both cities and heat (35-36 degrees C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each city (15 degrees C in Mexico City, 25 degrees C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998"><span>Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on grizzly bear habitat selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pigeon, Karine E; Cardinal, Etienne; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Côté, Steeve D</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>To fulfill their needs, animals are constantly making trade-offs among limiting factors. Although there is growing evidence about the impact of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection in mammals, the role of environmental conditions and thermoregulation on apex predators is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection patterns of grizzly bears in the managed landscape of Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bear habitat selection followed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal pattern that was influenced by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with adult males showing stronger responses than females to warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Cutblocks aged 0-20 years provided an abundance of forage but were on average 6 °C warmer than mature conifer stands and 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks. When ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased, the relative change (odds ratio) in the probability of selection for 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks decreased during the hottest part of the day and increased during cooler periods, especially for males. Concurrently, the probability of selection for 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks increased on warmer days. Following plant phenology, the odds of selecting 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks also increased from early to late summer while the odds of selecting 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks decreased. Our results demonstrate that ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and therefore thermal requirements, play a significant role in habitat selection patterns and behaviour of grizzly bears. In a changing climate, large mammals may increasingly need to adjust spatial and temporal selection patterns in response to thermal constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28649592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28649592"><span>Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mahvi, Amir Hossein</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river) was in the <span class="hlt">range</span> mg/l 0.28-10.23. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> received per 2 l of drinking water is in the <span class="hlt">range</span> mg/l 0.7-16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901"><span>Variation in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): does water limitation drive heterothermy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, a variability in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> beyond the limits of homeothermy, has been advanced as a key adaptation of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) to their arid-zone life. We measured body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using implanted data loggers, for a 1-year period, in five oryx free-living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, during hot months compared to cooler months, not only were maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher (41.1 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.1°C, P = 0.0002) but minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also were lower (36.1 ± 0.3 vs. 36.8 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.04), resulting in a larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm (5.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.0007), while mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose by only 0.4°C. The maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm reached 7.7°C for two of our oryx during the hot-dry period, the largest amplitude ever recorded for a large mammal. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability was influenced not only by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but also water availability, with oryx displaying larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitudes of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm during warm-dry months compared to warm-wet months (3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3°C, P = 0.005), even though ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were the same. Free-living Arabian oryx therefore employ heterothermy greater than that recorded in any other large mammal, but water limitation, rather than high ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, seems to be the primary driver of this heterothermy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12695988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12695988"><span>The influence of environment, sex, and innate timing mechanisms on body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lehmer, Erin M; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Van Horne, Beatrice</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Mechanisms that influence body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in black-tailed prairie dogs are not well understood. Previous research on both free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> and laboratory populations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) has suggested that reductions in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and food and water deprivation are the primary factors that stimulate torpor in this species. In other species, however, torpor has been shown to be influenced by a multitude of factors, including innate circadian and circannual timing mechanisms, energy status, and reproductive behaviors. Our objective was to clarify the influence of weather, sex, and intrinsic timing mechanisms on the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> black-tailed prairie dogs. We monitored body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of eight adult (>1 yr) prairie dogs from November 1999 to June 2000. Prairie dogs showed distinct <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns, which reflected changes in ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that occurred during these periods. These patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal heterothermy suggest that body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs may be driven by an innate timing mechanism. All prairie dogs entered torpor intermittently throughout winter and spring. Torpor bouts appeared to be influenced by precipitation and reductions in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our results also suggest that reproductive behaviors and circadian timing may influence torpor in this species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798364"><span>Associations of day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Although the impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality and morbidity have been documented, few studies have investigated whether day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) are independent risk factors for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design This was a prospective, population-based, observational study. Methods We obtained all OHCA data from 2005-2013 from six major prefectures in Japan: Hokkaido, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, and Osaka. We used a quasi-Poisson regression analysis with a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the associations of day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and DTR with OHCA for each prefecture. Results In total, 271,698 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were reported during the study period. There was a significant increase in the risk of OHCA associated with cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in five prefectures, with relative risks (RRs) <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.649) in Hokkaido to 3.893 (95% CI 1.713-8.845) in Kyoto. DTR was adversely associated with OHCA on hot days in Aichi (RR 1.158; 95% CI 1.028-1.304) and on cold days in Tokyo (RR 1.030; 95% CI 1.000-1.060), Kanagawa (RR 1.042; 95% CI 1.005-1.082), Kyoto (RR 1.060; 95% CI 1.001-1.122), and Osaka (RR 1.050; 95% CI 1.014-1.088), whereas there was no significant association between day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and OHCA. Conclusion We found that associations between day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and DTR and OHCA were generally small compared with the association with mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our findings suggest that preventative measures for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related OHCA may be more effective when focused on mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DTR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11810215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11810215"><span>Brain and arterial blood <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> oryx ( Oryx gazella).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We used implanted miniature data loggers to measure brain and arterial blood <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> every 5 min for up to 15 days in four free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> oryx ( Oryx gazella) in their natural habitat. Globe <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeded 45 degrees C and average peak radiant heat load was 800 W.m(-2). Arterial blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibited a moderate amplitude nychthemeral rhythm of 1.8+/-0.3 degrees C (mean +/-SD). The amplitude of the nychthemeral rhythm was not influenced by variations in ambient heat load. Average brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exceeded carotid arterial blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by 0.29 degrees C but there was a <span class="hlt">range</span> of body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over which the brain could be up to 0.4 degrees C cooler or 0.5 degrees C warmer than arterial blood. At high body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (>39.5 degrees C) at rest, three of the animals tended to maintain the brain cooler than arterial blood. During exercise the brain was always warmer than arterial blood. The slope of the regression line relating brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to carotid blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was less than one. At short time scales of 5-20 min, brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied significantly more than did carotid blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We attribute part of the variability in brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to transient stress responses and the influence of sympathetic activation attenuating selective brain cooling. We conclude that, contrary to the widely cited postulate, the carotid rete does not protect the brain during hyperthermia. Oryx also do not show adaptive heterothermy and, over short time intervals, have a brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> more variable than carotid blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JLTP..187..573C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JLTP..187..573C"><span>High Q value Quartz Tuning Fork in Vacuum as a Potential Thermometer in Millikelvin <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Človečko, M.; Grajcar, M.; Kupka, M.; Neilinger, P.; Rehák, M.; Skyba, P.; Vavrek, F.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The results of a newly developed pulse-demodulation (P-D) technique introduced to determine the resonant characteristics of a high Q value quartz tuning forks in vacuum and millikelvin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> are presented. Applying P-D technique to a standard 32 kHz quartz tuning fork with extremely low excitation energy of the order of a few femtojoules, we were able to measure the resonance frequency of the fork's decay signal with resolution better than 10 μ Hz. Using this highly sensitive measurement technique, we found a continuous and reproducible <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the tuning fork's resonance frequency in the millikelvin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. The observed dependence suggests a potential application for the quartz tuning forks to be used as thermometers in the millikelvin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. We also discuss the physical origin of the observed phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17958442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17958442"><span>Cell separator operation within <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> to minimize effects on Chinese hamster ovary cell perfusion culture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drouin, Hans; Ritter, Joachim B; Gorenflo, Volker M; Bowen, Bruce D; Piret, James M</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A cell retention device that provides reliable high-separation efficiency with minimal negative effects on the cell culture is essential for robust perfusion culture processes. External separation devices generally expose cells to periodic variations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, most commonly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 37 degrees C, while the cells are outside the bioreactor. To examine this phenomenon, aliquots of approximately 5% of a CHO cell culture were exposed to 60 s cyclic variations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulating an acoustic separator environment. It was found that, for average exposure <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 31.5 and 38.5 degrees C, there were no significant impacts on the rates of growth, glucose consumption, or t-PA production, defining an acceptable <span class="hlt">range</span> of operating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These results were subsequently confirmed in perfusion culture experiments for average exposure <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 31.6 and 38.1 degrees C. A 2(5-1) central composite factorial design experiment was then performed to systematically evaluate the effects of different operating variables on the inlet and outlet <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of a 10L acoustic separator. The power input, ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as well as the perfusion and recycle flow rates significantly influenced the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while the cell concentration did not. An empirical model was developed that predicted the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes between the inlet and the outlet of the acoustic separator within +/-0.5 degrees C. A series of perfusion experiments determined the <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of the significant operational settings that maintained the acoustic separator inlet and outlet <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within the acceptable <span class="hlt">range</span>. For example, these objectives were always met by using the manufacturer-recommended operational settings as long as the recirculation flow rate was maintained above 15 L day(-1) and the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was near 22 degrees C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..360W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..360W"><span>Evaluation of simulated climatological diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in CMIP5 models from the perspective of planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Nan; Zhou, Liming; Dai, Yongjiu</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This study examines the effects of modeled planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing on the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle climatology over land in 20 CMIP5 models with AMIP simulations. When compared with observations, the magnitude of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) is systematically underestimated over almost all land areas due to a widespread warm bias of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) and mostly a cold bias of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax). Analyses of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble means suggest that the biases of the simulated PBL mixing could very likely contribute to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> biases. For the regions with the cold bias in Tmax, the daytime PBL mixing is generally underestimated. The consequent more dry air entrainment from the free atmosphere could help maintain the surface humidity gradient, and thus produce more surface evaporation and potentially lower the Tmax. The opposite situation holds true for the regions with the warm bias of Tmax. This mechanism could be particularly applicable to the regions with moderate and wet climate conditions where surface evaporation depends more on the surface humidity gradient, but less on the available soil moisture. For the widespread warm bias of Tmin, the widely-recognized overestimated PBL mixing at nighttime should play a dominant role by transferring more heat from the atmosphere to the near-surface to warm the Tmin. Further analyses using the high resolution CFMIP2 output also support the CMIP5 results about the connections of the biases between the simulated turbulent mixing and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle. The large inter-model variations of the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle primarily appear over the arid and semi-arid regions and boreal arctic regions where the model differences in the PBL turbulence mixing could make equally significant contributions to the inter-model variations of DTR, Tmax and Tmin compared to the model differences in surface radiative processes. These results</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49....1W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49....1W"><span>Evaluation of simulated climatological diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in CMIP5 models from the perspective of planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Nan; Zhou, Liming; Dai, Yongjiu</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>This study examines the effects of modeled planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing on the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle climatology over land in 20 CMIP5 models with AMIP simulations. When compared with observations, the magnitude of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) is systematically underestimated over almost all land areas due to a widespread warm bias of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) and mostly a cold bias of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax). Analyses of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble means suggest that the biases of the simulated PBL mixing could very likely contribute to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> biases. For the regions with the cold bias in Tmax, the daytime PBL mixing is generally underestimated. The consequent more dry air entrainment from the free atmosphere could help maintain the surface humidity gradient, and thus produce more surface evaporation and potentially lower the Tmax. The opposite situation holds true for the regions with the warm bias of Tmax. This mechanism could be particularly applicable to the regions with moderate and wet climate conditions where surface evaporation depends more on the surface humidity gradient, but less on the available soil moisture. For the widespread warm bias of Tmin, the widely-recognized overestimated PBL mixing at nighttime should play a dominant role by transferring more heat from the atmosphere to the near-surface to warm the Tmin. Further analyses using the high resolution CFMIP2 output also support the CMIP5 results about the connections of the biases between the simulated turbulent mixing and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle. The large inter-model variations of the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle primarily appear over the arid and semi-arid regions and boreal arctic regions where the model differences in the PBL turbulence mixing could make equally significant contributions to the inter-model variations of DTR, Tmax and Tmin compared to the model differences in surface radiative processes. These results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3653820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3653820"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of DTF compared with effects of constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66 hours of development in 12 different constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects over the distribution of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments at the same average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. At an average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF <span class="hlt">range</span> and thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10323E..4RN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10323E..4RN"><span>Ultra-sensitive wide dynamic <span class="hlt">range</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor based on in-fiber Lyot interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikbakht, Hamed; Poorghdiri Isfahani, Mohamad Hosein; Latifi, Hamid</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>An in-fiber Lyot interferometer for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement is presented. The sensor utilizes high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependence of the birefringence in Panda polarization maintaining fibers to achieve high resolution in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation modulates the phase difference between the polarization modes propagating in different modes of the Panda fiber. The Lyot interferometer produces a spectrum which varies with the phase difference. Therefore, by monitoring this spectrum a high resolution of 0.003°C was achieved. A fiber Bragg grating is added to the setup to expand its dynamic <span class="hlt">range</span>. This sensor does not need complicated fabrication process and can be implemented in many applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120014363&hterms=battery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbattery','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120014363&hterms=battery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dbattery"><span>Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120014363&hterms=battery+uses&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbattery%2Buses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120014363&hterms=battery+uses&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbattery%2Buses"><span>Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A"><span>Trends in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Extreme <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Indices for the Countries of the Western Indian Ocean, 1975-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguilar, Enric; Vincent, Lucie A.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In the framework of the project "Renforcement des Capacités des Pays de la COI dans le Domaine de l'Adaptation au Changement Climatique (ACCLIMATE)" (Comission de l'Ocean Indien, COI), a workshop on homogenization of climate data and climate change indices analysis was held in Mauritius in October 2009, using the successful format prepared by the CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices. Scientists from the five countries in Western Indian Ocean brought <span class="hlt">daily</span> climatological data from their region for a meticulous assessment of the data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices which can be used for analyses of changes in climate extremes. Although the period of analysis is very short, it represents a seminal step for the compilation of longer data set and allows us to examine the evolution of climate extremes in the area during the time period identified as the decades where anthropogenic warming es larger than natural forcings. This study first presents some results of the homogeneity assessment using the software package RHtestV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) which has been developed for the detection of changepoints in climatological datasets. Indices based on homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitations were also prepared for the analysis of trends at more than 50 stations across the region. The results show an increase in the percentage of warm days and warm nights over 1975-2008 while changes in extreme precipitations are not as consistent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18651755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18651755"><span>Dual fluorescence sensor for trace oxygen and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with unmatched <span class="hlt">range</span> and sensitivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baleizão, Carlos; Nagl, Stefan; Schäferling, Michael; Berberan-Santos, Mário N; Wolfbeis, Otto S</p> <p>2008-08-15</p> <p>An optical dual sensor for oxygen and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is presented that is highly oxygen sensitive and covers a broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Dual sensing is based on luminescence lifetime measurements. The novel sensor contains two luminescent compounds incorporated into polymer films. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive dye (ruthenium tris-1,10-phenanthroline) has a highly <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent luminescence and is incorporated in poly(acrylonitrile) to avoid cross-sensitivity to oxygen. Fullerene C70 was used as the oxygen-sensitive probe owing to its strong thermally activated delayed fluorescence at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that is extremely oxygen sensitive. The cross-sensitivity of C70 to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is accounted for by means of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor. C70 is incorporated into a highly oxygen-permeable polymer, either ethyl cellulose or organosilica. The two luminescent probes have different emission spectra and decay times, and their emissions can be discriminated using both parameters. Spatially resolved sensing is achieved by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging. The response times of the sensor to oxygen are short. The dual sensor exhibits a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation <span class="hlt">range</span> between at least 0 and 120 degrees C, and detection limits for oxygen in the ppbv <span class="hlt">range</span>, operating for oxygen concentrations up to at least 50 ppmv. These <span class="hlt">ranges</span> outperform all dual oxygen and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors reported so far. The dual sensor presented in this study is especially appropriate for measurements under extreme conditions such as high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and ultralow oxygen levels. This dual sensor is a key step forward in a number of scientifically or commercially important applications including food packaging, for monitoring of hyperthermophilic microorganisms, in space technology, and safety and security applications in terms of detection of oxygen leaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19038825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19038825"><span>Acclimation to heat during incubation: 3. Body weight, cloacal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and blood acid-base balance in broilers exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yalçin, S; Cabuk, M; Bruggeman, V; Babacanoglu, E; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Siegel, P B</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of parental age and heat acclimation during incubation on BW, cloacal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and blood acid-base balance in fast-growing broilers exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cyclic high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 21 to 42 d posthatch. Eggs obtained from 32- (younger), 42- (middle-aged), and 65-wk-old (older) breeders were divided into 2 groups. One group of eggs was incubated at the control incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (IT(CONT)) and the second group was heat acclimated at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h/d from d 10 to 18 of incubation (IT(HA)). Chicks were reared at standard brooding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from d 1 to 21. From d 21 to 42, half of the broilers per incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and parental age were kept as controls (AT(CONT)) and the other half were exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cyclic heat treatment (AT(HIGH)) to impose a stress response. The reduction in BW at AT(HIGH) was more pronounced for progeny from older compared with younger parents. However, this reduction in BW was more or less abolished for broilers from eggs incubated at IT(HIGH), implying an increased tolerance to heat stress. Compared with IT(CONT,) IT(HA) reduced BW of broilers from 32- and 42-wk-old parents while having no effect on those from 65-wk-old parents when reared at AT(CONT). Higher blood pH, and lower partial pressure CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) at AT(HIGH) were associated with greater cloacal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> throughout the heat stress from d 21 to 42. Increases in cloacal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by AT(HIGH) were greater for IT(CONT) than for IT(HA) broilers. The AT(HIGH) and IT(HA) broilers had lesser blood partial pressure CO(2) concentrations than AT(CONT) and IT(CONT), respectively. Although at AT(HIGH), blood HCO(3)(-) was lower for broilers from all parental ages, it was more pronounced for those from 65-wk-old parents. It is concluded that these changes in blood acid-base balance reflected adaptive responses to heat stress, and incubating eggs at IT(HA) improved thermotolerance of fast</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6941E..13A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6941E..13A"><span>Measurement of effective <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of fire service thermal imaging cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amon, Francine; Bryner, Nelson</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The use of thermal imaging cameras (TIC) by the fire service is increasing as fire fighters become more aware of the value of these tools. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is currently developing a consensus standard for design and performance requirements of TIC as used by the fire service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology facilitates this process by providing recommendations for science-based performance metrics and test methods to the NFPA technical committee charged with the development of this standard. A suite of imaging performance metrics and test methods, based on the harsh operating environment and limitations of use particular to the fire service, has been proposed for inclusion in the standard. The Effective <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> (ETR) measures the <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that a TIC can view while still providing useful information to the user. Specifically, extreme heat in the field of view tends to inhibit a TIC's ability to discern surfaces having intermediate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, such as victims and fire fighters. The ETR measures the contrast of a target having alternating 25 °C and 30 °C bars while an increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> is imposed on other surfaces in the field of view. The ETR also indicates the thermal conditions that trigger a shift in integration time common to TIC employing microbolometer sensors. The reported values for this imaging performance metric are the hot surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> within which the TIC provides adequate bar contrast, and the hot surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at which the TIC shifts integration time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000IJCli..20..231P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000IJCli..20..231P"><span>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in the Arctic and its relation to hemispheric and Arctic circulation patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Przybylak, Rajmund</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>The changes of atmospheric circulation patterns in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Arctic for the period 1939-1990 were investigated. For this purpose, the seasonal and annual frequencies of occurrence of W, E and C macrotypes according to the Vangengeim-Girs typology and groups of synoptic processes in the Arctic (A, B, W, G, D and K) according to the Dydina classification have been computed.Spatial and seasonal patterns of the mean diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) in the Arctic are presented, based on the data from 33 Arctic stations for the period 1951-1990.The relationships between the DTR in the Arctic and the atmospheric circulation changes in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Arctic have been investigated. The seasonal mean DTR for each macrotype of circulation and group of circulation was calculated using <span class="hlt">daily</span> data from ten Arctic stations for the period 1951-1990. These stations represent all climatic regions and subregions identified by the authors of Atlas Arktiki (1985. Glavnoye Upravlenye Geodeziy i Kartografiy, Moskva, p. 204). In addition, the correlation coefficients between DTR in the Arctic and both the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) and the Zonal Index (ZI) have been computed. Statistically significant changes of atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere (mainly in low and moderate latitudes) since the mid-1970s, which are also reported by other researchers, have been confirmed. In the Arctic, the atmospheric circulation has also undergone changes in recent decades; however, these changes are significantly smaller. Both the annual and the seasonal mean DTR values have been found to be the highest in the centre of the southernmost parts of the Canadian and Russian Arctic and the lowest in the Norwegian Arctic. Based on the seasonal means, four types of annual course of the DTR in the Arctic have been identified. The results pertaining to the relationship between DTR and atmospheric circulation provide some evidence that, in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L"><span>Comparison of two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum/mean/minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in China during 1960-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Cao, Lijuan; Zhu, Yani; Yan, Zhongwei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tm), and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) series in China have recently been developed. One is CHTM3.0, based on the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) method, and includes 753 stations for the period 1960-2013. The other is CHHTD1.0, based on the Relative Homogenization test (RHtest), and includes 2419 stations over the period 1951-2011. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tmax/Tm/Tmin series at 751 stations, which are in both datasets, are chosen and compared against the raw dataset, with regard to the number of breakpoints, long-term climate trends, and their geographical patterns. The results indicate that some robust break points associated with relocations can be detected, the inhomogeneities are removed by both the MASH and RHtest method, and the data quality is improved in both homogenized datasets. However, the differences between CHTM3.0 and CHHTD1.0 are notable. By and large, in CHHTD1.0, the break points detected are fewer, but the adjustments for inhomogeneities and the resultant changes of linear trend estimates are larger. In contrast, CHTM3.0 provides more reasonable geographical patterns of long-term climate trends over the region. The reasons for the differences between the datasets include: (1) different algorithms for creating reference series for adjusting the candidate series—more neighboring stations used in MASH and hence larger-scale regional signals retained; (2) different algorithms for calculating the adjustments—larger adjustments in RHtest in general, partly due to the individual local reference information used; and (3) different rules for judging inhomogeneity—all detected break points are adjusted in CHTM3.0, based on MASH, while a number of break points detected via RHtest but without supporting metadata are overlooked in CHHTD1.0. The present results suggest that CHTM3.0 is more suitable for analyses of large-scale climate change in China, while CHHTD1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B23A0354P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B23A0354P"><span>Impacts of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on ecosystem carbon balance: an experimental test in grassland mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, C. L.; Gregg, J. W.; Wilson, J. K.; Pangle, L. A.; Bailey, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Although extensive research has determined ecosystem responses to equal increases in day and night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, current <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases have generally been asymmetrical, with increases in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) exceeding increases in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), or vice versa, depending on location. We conducted an ecosystem warming experiment in a perennial grassland to determine the effects of asymmetrically elevated diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles using precision climate-controlled sunlit environmental chambers. Asymmetrically warmed chambers (+5/+2°C, Tmin/Tmax) were compared with symmetrically warmed (+3.5°C continuously) and control chambers (ambient). We tested three alternative hypotheses comparing the carbon balance under symmetric (SYM) and asymmetric (ASYM) warming: H1) SYM < ASYM, due either to a shorter growing season in the SYM treatment from lower Tmin, or to higher respiratory costs from higher Tmax; H2) SYM > ASYM, because warmer nights in the ASYM treatment increase respiration more then photosynthesis, reducing plant growth; H3) SYM = ASYM, due to a combination of effects. Results from the third growing season support H3, that carbon balance is the same under the two elevated diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles. During the early part of the growing season, asymmetric warming resulted in higher nighttime respiratory losses than symmetric warming, but these greater loses were compensated by increased early morning photosynthesis. As a result, carbon balance was not different in the two warming treatments at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time steps. Furthermore, declines in soil moisture over the growing season may have important modulating impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of carbon fluxes. As soils dried, carbon fluxes became less sensitive to diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, and more similar in the symmetric and asymmetric treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSR....77....1R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSR....77....1R"><span>Increasing sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical <span class="hlt">range</span> of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution <span class="hlt">range</span> of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and <span class="hlt">range</span> of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution <span class="hlt">ranges</span> were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or changes on their distributional <span class="hlt">range</span> or abundance, along the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution <span class="hlt">range</span> while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110024035','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110024035"><span>Analysis of the Dryden Wet Bulb GLobe <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Algorithm for White Sands Missile <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>LaQuay, Ryan Matthew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In locations where workforce is exposed to high relative humidity and light winds, heat stress is a significant concern. Such is the case at the White Sands Missile <span class="hlt">Range</span> in New Mexico. Heat stress is depicted by the wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is the official measurement used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is measured by an instrument which was designed to be portable and needing routine maintenance. As an alternative form for measuring the wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, algorithms have been created to calculate the wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from basic meteorological observations. The algorithms are location dependent; therefore a specific algorithm is usually not suitable for multiple locations. Due to climatology similarities, the algorithm developed for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center was applied to data from the White Sands Missile <span class="hlt">Range</span>. A study was performed that compared a wet bulb globe instrument to data from two Surface Atmospheric Measurement Systems that was applied to the Dryden wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> algorithm. The period of study was from June to September of2009, with focus being applied from 0900 to 1800, local time. Analysis showed that the algorithm worked well, with a few exceptions. The algorithm becomes less accurate to the measurement when the dew point <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is over 10 Celsius. Cloud cover also has a significant effect on the measured wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The algorithm does not show red and black heat stress flags well due to shorter time scales of such events. The results of this study show that it is plausible that the Dryden Flight Research wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> algorithm is compatible with the White Sands Missile <span class="hlt">Range</span>, except for when there are increased dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cloud cover or precipitation. During such occasions, the wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> instrument would be the preferred method of measurement. Out of the 30</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140001963&hterms=battery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbattery','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140001963&hterms=battery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbattery"><span>Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140001963&hterms=battery+uses&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbattery%2Buses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140001963&hterms=battery+uses&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbattery%2Buses"><span>Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090007954','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090007954"><span>Astable Oscillator Circuits using Silicon-on-Insulator Timer Chip for Wide <span class="hlt">Range</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Culley, Dennis; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Two astable oscillator circuits were constructed using a new silicon-on-insulator (SOI) 555 timer chip for potential use as a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor in harsh environments encompassing jet engine and space mission applications. The two circuits, which differed slightly in configuration, were evaluated between -190 and 200 C. The output of each circuit was made to produce a stream of rectangular pulses whose frequency was proportional to the sensed <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The preliminary results indicated that both circuits performed relatively well over the entire test <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. In addition, after the circuits were subjected to limited thermal cycling over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of -190 to 200 C, the performance of either circuit did not experience any significant change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..27..281M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..27..281M"><span>Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito</p> <p></p> <p>In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> because its lower limit usable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was about -18°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5527809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5527809"><span>Implications of the corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in the prediction of laser thermal damage. [Monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mikesell, G.W. Jr.; Schepler, K.L.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Corneal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the rhesus monkeys have been measured under conditions that may exist during laser experiments. The minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> found for all experimental conditions were 29.54/sup 0/C and 39.16/sup 0/C, respectively, a <span class="hlt">range</span> of 9.62/sup 0/C. A computer model of thermal damage due to laser irradiation was used to determine the effect varying initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could have on corneal damage thresholds (ED50's). The <span class="hlt">range</span> of 9.62/sup 0/C found in monkeys for all experimental conditions corresponded to a 39% difference in threshold power. The dependence of damage thresholds on initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could be an important factor to consider when basing laser safety standards on damage threshold data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1722v0008C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1722v0008C"><span>Broadening of mesophase <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase <span class="hlt">range</span> for application in industry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637046"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and locomotor activity indicate different adaptive strategies to cold exposure in adult and aged mouse lemurs acclimated to a summer-like photoperiod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terrien, Jeremy; Zizzari, Philippe; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> variations in core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tc) within the normothermic <span class="hlt">range</span> imply thermoregulatory processes that are essential for optimal function and survival. Higher susceptibility towards cold exposure in older animals suggests that these processes are disturbed with age. In the mouse lemur, a long-day breeder, we tested whether aging affected circadian rhythmicity of Tc, locomotor activity (LA), and energy balance under long-day conditions when exposed to cold. Adult (N = 7) and aged (N = 5) mouse lemurs acclimated to LD14/10 were exposed to 10-day periods at 25 and 12 degrees C. Tc and LA rhythms were recorded by telemetry, and caloric intake (CI), body mass changes, and plasma IGF-1 were measured. During exposure to 25 degrees C, both adult and aged mouse lemurs exhibited strong <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in Tc. Aged animals exhibited lower levels of nocturnal LA and nocturnal and diurnal Tc levels in comparison to adults. Body mass and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged with aging. Under cold exposure, torpor bout occurrence was never observed whatever the age category. Adult and aged mouse lemurs maintained their Tc in the normothermic <span class="hlt">range</span> and a positive energy balance. All animals exhibited increase in CI and decrease in IGF-1 in response to cold. The decrease in IGF-1 was delayed in aged mouse lemurs compared to adults. Moreover, both adult and aged animals responded to cold exposure by increasing their diurnal LA compared to those under Ta = 25 degrees C. However, aged animals exhibited a strong decrease in nocturnal LA and Tc, whereas cold effects were only slight in adults. The temporal organization and amplitude of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> phase of low Tc were particularly well preserved under cold exposure in both age groups. Sexually active mouse lemurs exposed to cold thus seemed to prevent torpor exhibition and temporal disorganization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Tc, even during aging. However, although energy balance was not impaired with age in mouse lemurs after cold exposure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18j3051G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18j3051G"><span>Surprises from quenches in long-<span class="hlt">range</span>-interacting systems: <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion and cooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, Shamik; Casetti, Lapo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>What happens when one of the parameters governing the dynamics of a long-<span class="hlt">range</span> interacting system of particles in thermal equilibrium is abruptly changed (quenched) to a different value? While a short-<span class="hlt">range</span> system, under the same conditions, will relax in time to a new thermal equilibrium with a uniform <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the system, a long-<span class="hlt">range</span> system shows a fast relaxation to a non-equilibrium quasistationary state (QSS). The lifetime of such an off-equilibrium state diverges with the system size, and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is non-uniform across the system. Quite surprisingly, the density profile in the QSS obtained after the quench is anticorrelated with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile in space, thus exhibiting the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion: denser regions are colder than sparser ones. We illustrate with extensive molecular dynamics simulations the ubiquity of this scenario in a prototypical long-<span class="hlt">range</span> interacting system subject to a variety of quenching protocols, and in a model that mimics an experimental setup of atoms interacting with light in an optical cavity. We further demonstrate how a procedure of iterative quenching combined with filtering out the high-energy particles in the system may be employed to cool the system. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> inversion is observed in nature in some astrophysical settings; our results imply that such a phenomenon should be observable, and could even be exploitable to advantage, also in controlled laboratory experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771"><span>Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Acomys russatus: the response to chemical signals released by Acomys cahirinus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fluxman, S; Haim, A</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Two species of spiny mice of the genus Acomys--the golden spiny A. russatus and the common spiny A. cahirinus--are sympatric in the arid and hot parts of the Rift Valley in Israel. The coexistence of these two species is due to exclusion of A. russatus mice by A. cahirinus mice from nocturnal activity. The aim of this research was to study if odor signals released by A. cahirinus mice can play a role in the exclusion of A. russatus mice. A. russatus mice with an implanted transmitter recording body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) were kept alone in a metabolic chamber under constant conditions of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (27 degrees C) and photoperiod (12 h light:12 h dark). After 5 days of recording, chemical signals from an A. cahirinus mouse were added through the air tube going into the metabolic chamber of the A. russatus mice. This treatment caused a shift of approximately 2 h in Tb <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of the naive tested A. russatus mice, whereas no shift was observed in A. russatus mice that had been kept in the same room with the A. cahirinus mouse before measurements. These results strongly support the idea that chemical signals released by A. cahirinus mice can entrain the Tb rhythms of A. russatus mice. Therefore, it may be assumed that the exclusion of A. russatus mice from nocturnal activity by A. cahirinus mice could be achieved through the odor released by the latter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9630J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9630J"><span>Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a cross-scale information transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability has been observed in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/761273','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/761273"><span>Increased medium-<span class="hlt">range</span> order in amorphous silicon with increased substrate <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Voyles, P. M.; Gerbi, J. E.; Treacy, M. M. J.; Gibson, J. M.; Aberlson, J. R.</p> <p>2000-08-15</p> <p>Using fluctuation electron microscopy, the authors have measured the medium-<span class="hlt">range</span> order of magnetron sputtered silicon thin films as a function of substrate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the amorphous to polycrystalline regimes. They find a smooth increase in the medium-<span class="hlt">range</span> order of the samples, which they interpret in the context of the paracrystalline structural model as an increase in the size of and/or volume fraction occupied by the paracrystalline grains. These data are counter to the long-standing belief that there is a sharp transition between amorphous and polycrystalline structures as a function of substrate <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27826308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27826308"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Shifts for Three European Tree Species over the Last 10,000 Years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheddadi, Rachid; Araújo, Miguel B; Maiorano, Luigi; Edwards, Mary; Guisan, Antoine; Carré, Matthieu; Chevalier, Manuel; Pearman, Peter B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We quantified the degree to which the relationship between the geographic distribution of three major European tree species, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies and January <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tjan) has remained stable over the past 10,000 years. We used an extended data-set of fossil pollen records over Europe to reconstruct spatial variation in Tjan values for each 1000-year time slice between 10,000 and 3000 years BP (before present). We evaluated the relationships between the occurrences of the three species at each time slice and the spatially interpolated Tjan values, and compared these to their modern <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. Our results reveal that F. sylvatica and P. abies experienced Tjan <span class="hlt">ranges</span> during the Holocene that differ from those of the present, while A. alba occurred over a Tjan <span class="hlt">range</span> that is comparable to its modern one. Our data suggest the need for re-evaluation of the assumption of stable climate tolerances at a scale of several thousand years. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> instability in our observed data independently validates similar results based exclusively on modeled Holocene <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our study complements previous studies that used modeled data by identifying variation in frequencies of occurrence of populations within the limits of suitable climate. However, substantial changes that were observed in the realized thermal niches over the Holocene tend to suggest that predicting future species distributions should not solely be based on modern realized niches, and needs to account for the past variation in the climate variables that drive species <span class="hlt">ranges</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5078669','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5078669"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Shifts for Three European Tree Species over the Last 10,000 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cheddadi, Rachid; Araújo, Miguel B.; Maiorano, Luigi; Edwards, Mary; Guisan, Antoine; Carré, Matthieu; Chevalier, Manuel; Pearman, Peter B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We quantified the degree to which the relationship between the geographic distribution of three major European tree species, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies and January <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tjan) has remained stable over the past 10,000 years. We used an extended data-set of fossil pollen records over Europe to reconstruct spatial variation in Tjan values for each 1000-year time slice between 10,000 and 3000 years BP (before present). We evaluated the relationships between the occurrences of the three species at each time slice and the spatially interpolated Tjan values, and compared these to their modern <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. Our results reveal that F. sylvatica and P. abies experienced Tjan <span class="hlt">ranges</span> during the Holocene that differ from those of the present, while A. alba occurred over a Tjan <span class="hlt">range</span> that is comparable to its modern one. Our data suggest the need for re-evaluation of the assumption of stable climate tolerances at a scale of several thousand years. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> instability in our observed data independently validates similar results based exclusively on modeled Holocene <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our study complements previous studies that used modeled data by identifying variation in frequencies of occurrence of populations within the limits of suitable climate. However, substantial changes that were observed in the realized thermal niches over the Holocene tend to suggest that predicting future species distributions should not solely be based on modern realized niches, and needs to account for the past variation in the climate variables that drive species <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. PMID:27826308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LTP....38..227L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LTP....38..227L"><span>Micromechanical properties of C70 single crystals in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 77-350 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lubenets, S. V.; Natsik, V. D.; Fomenko, L. S.; Rusakova, A. V.; Osipyan, Yu. A.; Orlov, V. I.; Sidorov, N. S.; Izotov, A. N.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Hexagonal single crystals of C70 down to 1-2 mm in size were grown, which allowed the investigation of their low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> mechanical properties for the first time. Morphology, microplasticity anisotropy, and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of Vickers microhardness HV (T) of the C70 crystals involving all known phase transitions were studied with the aid of optical microscopy and microindentation in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 77-350 K. The association of the features of HV (T) dependence with orientation phase transformations was analyzed. It is suggested that microplasticity anisotropy of the C70 crystals correlates with the active slip systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27109165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27109165"><span>Equatorial <span class="hlt">range</span> limits of an intertidal ectotherm are more linked to water than air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seabra, Rui; Wethey, David S; Santos, António M; Gomes, Filipa; Lima, Fernando P</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>As climate change is expected to impose increasing thermal stress on intertidal organisms, understanding the mechanisms by which body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> translate into major biogeographic patterns is of paramount importance. We exposed individuals of the limpet Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, to realistic experimental treatments aimed at disentangling the contribution of water and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the buildup of thermal stress. Treatments were designed based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected at the microhabitat level, from 15 shores along the Atlantic European coast spanning nearly 20° of latitude. Cardiac activity data indicated that thermal stress levels in P. vulgata are directly linked to elevated water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while high air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is only stressful if water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is also high. In addition, the analysis of the link between population densities and thermal regimes at the studied locations suggests that the occurrence of elevated water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may represent a threshold P. vulgata is unable to tolerate. By combining projected <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold identified, we show that climate change will likely result in the westward expansion of the historical distribution gap in the Bay of Biscay (southwest France), and northward contraction of the southern <span class="hlt">range</span> limit in south Portugal. These findings suggest that even a minor relaxing of the upwelling off northwest Iberia could lead to a dramatic increase in thermal stress, with major consequences for the structure and functioning of the intertidal communities along Iberian rocky shores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...638675P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...638675P"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extends the <span class="hlt">Range</span> of Size Discrimination of Nonionic Polymers by a Biological Nanopore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piguet, Fabien; Ouldali, Hadjer; Discala, Françoise; Breton, Marie-France; Behrends, Jan C.; Pelta, Juan; Oukhaled, Abdelghani</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We explore the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the interaction of polydisperse mixtures of nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers of different average molar masses with the biological nanopore α-hemolysin. In contrast with what has been previously observed with various nanopores and analytes, we find that, for PEGs larger than a threshold molar mass (2000 g/mol, PEG 2000), increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases the duration of the PEG/nanopore interaction. In the case of PEG 3400 the duration increases by up to a factor of 100 when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 5 °C to 45 °C. Importantly, we find that increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extends the polymer size <span class="hlt">range</span> of application of nanopore-based single-molecule mass spectrometry (Np-SMMS)-type size discrimination. Indeed, in the case of PEG 3400, discrimination of individual molecular species of different monomer number is impossible at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but is achieved when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is raised to 45 °C. We interpret our observations as the consequence of a decrease of PEG solubility and a collapse of PEG molecules with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In addition to expanding the <span class="hlt">range</span> of application of Np-SMMS to larger nonionic polymers, our findings highlight the crucial role of the polymer solubility for the nanopore detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5141499','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5141499"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extends the <span class="hlt">Range</span> of Size Discrimination of Nonionic Polymers by a Biological Nanopore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Piguet, Fabien; Ouldali, Hadjer; Discala, Françoise; Breton, Marie-France; Behrends, Jan C.; Pelta, Juan; Oukhaled, Abdelghani</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We explore the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the interaction of polydisperse mixtures of nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers of different average molar masses with the biological nanopore α-hemolysin. In contrast with what has been previously observed with various nanopores and analytes, we find that, for PEGs larger than a threshold molar mass (2000 g/mol, PEG 2000), increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases the duration of the PEG/nanopore interaction. In the case of PEG 3400 the duration increases by up to a factor of 100 when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 5 °C to 45 °C. Importantly, we find that increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extends the polymer size <span class="hlt">range</span> of application of nanopore-based single-molecule mass spectrometry (Np-SMMS)-type size discrimination. Indeed, in the case of PEG 3400, discrimination of individual molecular species of different monomer number is impossible at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but is achieved when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is raised to 45 °C. We interpret our observations as the consequence of a decrease of PEG solubility and a collapse of PEG molecules with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In addition to expanding the <span class="hlt">range</span> of application of Np-SMMS to larger nonionic polymers, our findings highlight the crucial role of the polymer solubility for the nanopore detection. PMID:27924860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5002035','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5002035"><span>The correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Colombo district, Sri Lanka 2005–2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ehelepola, N. D. B.; Ariyaratne, Kusalika</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Meteorological factors affect dengue transmission. Mechanisms of the way in which different diurnal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">ranging</span> around different mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, influence dengue transmission were published after 2011. Objective We endeavored to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> (DTRs) in Colombo district, Sri Lanka, and to explore the possibilities of using our findings to improve control of dengue. Design We calculated the weekly dengue incidence in Colombo during 2005–2014, after data on all of the reported dengue patients and estimated mid-year populations were collected. We obtained <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from two Colombo weather stations, averaged, and converted them into weekly data. Weekly averages of DTR versus dengue incidence graphs were plotted and correlations observed. The count of days per week with a DTR of >7.5°C and <7.5°C were also calculated. Wavelet time series analysis was performed to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and DTR. Results We obtained a negative correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR>7.5°C with an 8-week lag period, and a positive correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR<7.5°C, also with an 8-week lag. Conclusions Large DTRs were negatively correlated with dengue transmission in Colombo district. We propose to take advantage of that in local dengue control efforts. Our results agree with previous studies on the topic and with a mathematical model of relative vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Global warming and declining DTR are likely to favor a rise of dengue, and we suggest a simple method to mitigate this. PMID:27566717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613"><span>Strong impacts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the green-up date and summer greenness of the Tibetan Plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Fu, Yongshuo H; Wang, Shiping; Cong, Nan; Janssens, Ivan A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding vegetation responses to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) helps in elucidating the land-atmosphere energy exchange, which affects air mass movement over and around the TP. Although the TP is one of the world's most sensitive regions in terms of climatic warming, little is known about how the vegetation responds. Here, we focus on how spring phenology and summertime greenness respond to the asymmetric warming, that is, stronger warming during nighttime than during daytime. Using both in situ and satellite observations, we found that vegetation green-up date showed a stronger negative partial correlation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin ) than with maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax ) before the growing season ('preseason' henceforth). Summer vegetation greenness was strongly positively correlated with summer Tmin , but negatively with Tmax . A 1-K increase in preseason Tmin advanced green-up date by 4 days (P < 0.05) and in summer enhanced greenness by 3.6% relative to the mean greenness during 2000-2004 (P < 0.01). In contrast, increases in preseason Tmax did not advance green-up date (P > 0.10) and higher summer Tmax even reduced greenness by 2.6% K(-1) (P < 0.05). The stimulating effects of increasing Tmin were likely caused by reduced low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> constraints, and the apparent negative effects of higher Tmax on greenness were probably due to the accompanying decline in water availability. The dominant enhancing effect of nighttime warming indicates that climatic warming will probably have stronger impact on TP ecosystems than on apparently similar Arctic ecosystems where vegetation is controlled mainly by Tmax . Our results are crucial for future improvements of dynamic vegetation models embedded in the Earth System Models which are being used to describe the behavior of the Asian monsoon. The results are significant because the state of the vegetation on the TP plays an important role in steering the monsoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.4601Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.4601Y"><span>Rapid poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of tropical reef corals in response to rising sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamano, Hiroya; Sugihara, Kaoru; Nomura, Keiichi</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> caused by climatic warming may cause poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts and/or expansions in species distribution. Tropical reef corals (hereafter corals) are some of the world's most important species, being not only primary producers, but also habitat-forming species, and thus fundamental ecosystem modification is expected according to changes in their distribution. Although most studies of climate change effects on corals have focused on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced coral bleaching in tropical areas, poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts and/or expansions may also occur in temperate areas. We show the first large-scale evidence of the poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of modern corals, based on 80 years of national records from the temperate areas of Japan, where century-long measurements of in situ sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have shown statistically significant rises. Four major coral species categories, including two key species for reef formation in tropical areas, showed poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> expansions since the 1930s, whereas no species demonstrated southward <span class="hlt">range</span> shrinkage or local extinction. The speed of these expansions reached up to 14 km/year, which is far greater than that for other species. Our results, in combination with recent findings suggesting <span class="hlt">range</span> expansions of tropical coral-reef associated organisms, strongly suggest that rapid, fundamental modifications of temperate coastal ecosystems could be in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108"><span>Depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is specific for liver and correlates with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kutschke, Maria; Grimpo, Kirsten; Kastl, Anja; Schneider, Sandra; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation to save energy. Increasing evidence suggests depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster but tissue-specificity and relation to torpor depth is unknown. We first confirmed a previous study by Brown and colleagues reporting on the depressed substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor. Next, we show that mitochondrial respiration is not depressed in kidneys, skeletal muscle and heart. In liver mitochondria, we found that state 3 and state 4 respirations correlate with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting inhibition related to torpor depth and to metabolic rate. We conclude that molecular events leading to depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor are specific to liver and linked to a decrease in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Different tissue-specificity of mitochondrial depression may assist to compare and identify the molecular nature of mitochondrial alterations during torpor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000346','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000346"><span>Thermodynamic properties of saturated liquid parahydrogen charted for important <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mc Carty, R. D.; Roder, H. M.</p> <p>1967-01-01</p> <p>Six entropy diagrams for parahydrogen in or near the saturated liquid state cover the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 29.16 degrees to 42.48 degrees R with pressures to 100 psia and mixtures of the liquid and vapor phases to 0.003 quality. The diagrams are printed in color, are 19 by 30 inches in size, and are suitable for wall mounting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......184L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......184L"><span>Development of ceramic lithium-electrolyte based carbon dioxide sensors for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from ambient to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Inhee</p> <p></p> <p>Solid-state electrochemical CO2 gas sensors composed of an electrolyte and two porous electrodes have been used extensively in the automobile and bio-chemical industry. Based on the field of application, the working <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the sensor <span class="hlt">ranges</span> from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 600°C. Two potentiometric CO2 sensors that work at different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> were developed in this work. A potentiometric CO2 gas sensor with Li3PO 4 electrolyte and BaCO3 coated Li2CO3 sensing electrode was developed and the sensing electrode was characterized in order to understand its sensing mechanism under humid conditions. This potentiometric CO2 sensor showed humidity-interference-free sensing response for high CO2 concentrations (5˜25%) at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T > 400°C). In addition, the sensor showed good reproducibility and long-term stability under humid conditions. In the sensing electrode, the BaCO 3 layer improved the resistance against humidity as a chemical barrier, while the inner Li2CO3 layer was responsible for the CO2 sensing. However, the sensor in which the eutectic layer covered the entire sensing electrode showed good sensing behavior under dry and humid conditions. Lately, low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> CO2 sensors have been attracting attention due to their low power consumption and easy sensor miniaturization, since a heater is unnecessary. We have developed a low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> CO2 sensor based on lithium lanthanum titanate (LLT) electrolyte in dry conditions that requires further improvement. Lithium lanthanum titanate (LLT) electrolytes were prepared by a conventional solid-state method. The impedance of the LLT electrolyte was measured over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 300 to 473 K and the frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> of 5 Hz and 13 MHz. Activation energies for the Li ionic conduction for grain boundary and grain were estimated to be 0.47 and 0.31 eV, respectively. It was found that LLT is a good ionic conductor at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a good candidate as an electrolyte for low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21509960','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21509960"><span>Electrical Transport Over Wide <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> In Doped And Undoped Polypyrrole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taunk, Manish; Chand, Subhash</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Polypyrrole was synthesized by chemical oxidation method by varying oxidant to monomer molar ratio for the optimization of electrical conductivity without using any external dopant. The conductivity in doped polypyrrole reached up to a maximum value of 7.2 S/cm. Neutralization of doped polypyrrole was done with aqueous ammonium hydroxide and three orders of reduced conductivity was obtained in neutral polypyrrole. Doping and neutralization of polypyrrole samples was supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Doped and undoped samples of polypyrrole were then electrically characterized over wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 10-300 K. Stronger and weak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of conductivity was revealed by undoped and doped polypyrrole samples respectively. An effort has been made to explore the electrical transport in doped and undoped polypyrrole by charge transport models. The experimental data obeys Kivelson's hopping model in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 60-300 K and fluctuation assisted tunneling was dominant conduction mechanism below 80 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPS...193..944H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPS...193..944H"><span>Wide-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> operation supercapacitors from nanostructured activated carbon fabric</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Kaihsuan; Masarapu, Charan; Ko, Tsehao; Wei, Bingqing</p> <p></p> <p>Electrochemical power sources that offer high energy and power densities and, can also withstand a harsh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> have become extremely desirable in applications <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from civilian portable electronic devices to military weapons. In this report, we demonstrated a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> withstanding supercapacitor which can be operated from 100 °C to -40 °C within a voltage window from -2 V to 2 V. The performance of the supercapacitor coin cells, assembled with nanostructured activated carbon fabric (ACF) as the electrode material and 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF 4) in polypropylene carbonate (PC) solution as the electrolyte, was systematically studied within the set <span class="hlt">temperature</span> window. The ACF supercapacitor yielded ideal rectangular shapes in cyclic voltammograms within 0-100 °C with an average mass capacitance of 90 F g -1 and, 60 F g -1 at -25 °C. The capacitance was still over 20 F g -1 at the extremely low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of -40 °C. Another exciting feature of the ACF supercapacitors was that they resumed their room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> capacitance when cooled from 100 °C and defrosted from -40 °C, demonstrating an excellent repeatability and stability. The charge-discharge behavior of the ACF supercapacitors showed long-cycle stability at extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These high electrochemical performances make this type of supercapacitors very promising in many practical applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTSM.129..444T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTSM.129..444T"><span>Wide Pressure <span class="hlt">Range</span> Measurement due to the Exchange of Heater Driving of the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Difference Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takashima, Noriaki; Kimura, Mitsuteru</p> <p></p> <p>We have extended measurable pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> of the thin film Pirani vacuum sensor that is still sensitive above 1×105 Pa (1 atmosphere). In our thin film Pirani vacuum sensor, our proposed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference sensor of the short circuit Seebeck-current detection type thermocouple is used in order to get extremely high sensitivity, especially both in very low pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> and in higher pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> than 1×104 Pa. In our new pressure sensor the cantilever type sensing region, in which a microheater and two thermocouples are formed to measure the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference, is adopted. Therefore, we can use the null method to measure very small pressure accurately in the high vacuum <span class="hlt">range</span> (low pressure <span class="hlt">range</span>). On the other hand in the higher pressure than 1×104 Pa., we could expand the pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> by adoption of the vibration of the sensing cantilever based on the sudden heating due to the exchange of heater driving. We have achieved much wider measurable pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> over 8 digits by use of our new simple thin film Pirani vacuum sensor than that of the traditional one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...109j6103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...109j6103S"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and frequency characteristics of low-loss MnZn ferrite in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Ke; Lan, Zhongwen; Yu, Zhong; Xu, Zhiyong; Jiang, Xiaona; Wang, Zihui; Liu, Zhi; Luo, Ming</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A low-loss Mn0.7Zn0.24Fe2.06O4 ferrite has been prepared by a solid-state reaction method. The MnZn ferrite has a high initial permeability, μi (3097), a high saturation induction, Bs (526 mT), a high Curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tc (220 °C), and a low core loss, PL (≤ 415 kW/m3) in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25-120 °C) and frequency (10-100 kHz) <span class="hlt">range</span>. As the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, an initial decrease followed by a subsequent increase of hysteresis loss, Ph, and eddy current loss, Pe is observed. Both Ph and Pe increase with increasing frequency. When f ≥ 300 kHz, a residual loss, Pr, appears. Pe increases with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and frequency. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and frequency dependence of Ph can be explained by irreversible domain wall movements, Pe by the skin effect, and Pr by domain wall resonance, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8497E..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8497E..07L"><span>Competition of linearly polarized modes in fibers with Bragg gratings over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyuksyutov, Sergei; Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Floyd, Bertram; Abeywickrema, Ujitha; Fedin, Igor</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) embedded in conventional fibers may serve as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> and withstand <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> around 1200 K. A variety of linearly polarized (LP) modes for the wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm may be sustained in fibers with and without FBGs. The composition of the LP modes and their competition is instrumental for understanding physics of thermo-optics and thermal expansion effects in silica-based fibers. The first objective of this work was to model mathematically the competition between LP modes and modal distribution using the solutions of Bessel equations for the fibers with and without the gratings. Computer generated modes were constructed and the cut-off V-numbers (and Eigen values W and U) were determined. Theoretical results then were compared with experimental observations of LP modes for two separate <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: 77- 300 K and 300-1200 K. To study the formation of LP modes over the first <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, liquid nitrogen was used to cool down the fiber and a thermocouple was used to monitor the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the fiber. Real time recording of the modal structure was performed using digital imaging and data acquisition instrumentation. To study LP modes between 300- 1200 K, the fibers were inserted into a tube furnace with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control. The wavelength of the infrared radiation was reflected by a FBG and detected by an optical spectrum analyzer. Radiation at the visible wavelength propagated through the fibers, and transmitted visible light was collected, analyzed and recorded with a CCD camera to monitor distribution of the LP modes in the samples with and without the FBGs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006420','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006420"><span>An alternate method for achieving <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in the -130 C to 75 C <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Thermal vacuum testing often requires <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C <span class="hlt">range</span>. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling <span class="hlt">temperature</span> excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in the -130 C to 75 C <span class="hlt">range</span> while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410440"><span>Dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and densities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zaghloul, Mofreh R.</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>We investigate the dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and densities. The partition functions for molecular and atomic species are evaluated, in a statistical-mechanically consistent way, implementing recent developments in the literature and taking high-density effects into account. A new chemical model (free energy function) is introduced in which the fluid is considered as a mixture of diatomic molecules, atoms, ions, and free electrons. Intensive short <span class="hlt">range</span> hard core repulsion is taken into account together with partial degeneracy of free electrons and Coulomb interactions among charged particles. Samples of computational results are presented as a set of isotherms for the degree of ionization, dissociated fraction of molecules, pressure, and specific internal energy for a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of densities and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Predictions from the present model calculations show an improved and sensible physical behavior compared to other results in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Cryo...49..615M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Cryo...49..615M"><span>Fixed-gain CMOS differential amplifiers with no external feedback for a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michal, Vratislav; Klisnick, Geoffroy; Sou, Gérard; Redon, Michel; Kreisler, Alain J.; Dégardin, Annick F.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We present original CMOS amplifiers designed for the DC to 10 MHz frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> and operating in the 70-380 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Aimed applications concern readout circuitry to be associated with THz bolometric pixels (either high- Tc superconducting or uncooled semiconducting), which require accuracy, low noise and low power consumption. Two designs are described that both exhibit high fixed-gain (40 dB) in a feedback-free architecture, which is based on a new low-transconductance composite transistor for an accurate control of this gain. Both amplifiers have been realized in a regular 0.35 μm CMOS process and tested in the 4.2-380 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, exhibiting good agreement between designed and measured characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.370...81Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.370...81Z"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-dependent Goos-Hänchen shift in the terahertz <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zang, Mengdi; He, Ting; Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Liang; Shen, Jingling</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this work, an observation of Goos-Hänchen shift in the terahertz <span class="hlt">range</span> on a metal surface with a change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is reported. A s-polarized terahertz wave incident at 45° onto an aluminum surface produces a positive GH shift that increases with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We used an interference method by observing the change of interference fringes of two THz beams to verify the existence of the GH shift and indirectly measured the quantity of it. Based on experimental data and theoretical analysis, the increase of GH shift on the aluminum surface as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 23 °C and 101 °C has been obtained. Considering the effect of the thermal expansion, the maximum variation of GH shift is 267.2 μm with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changing 78 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70191254','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70191254"><span>Raman spectroscopic characterization of CH4 density over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shang, Linbo; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, Robert; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The positions of the CH4 Raman ν1 symmetric stretching bands were measured in a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (from −180 °C to 350 °C) and density (up to 0.45 g/cm3) using high-pressure optical cell and fused silica capillary capsule. The results show that the Raman band shift is a function of both methane density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; the band shifts to lower wavenumbers as the density increases and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreases. An equation representing the observed relationship among the CH4 ν1 band position, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and density can be used to calculate the density in natural or synthetic CH4-bearing inclusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254160"><span>Communication: Anomalous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> order in phosphonium ionic liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hettige, Jeevapani J.; Kashyap, Hemant K.; Margulis, Claudio J.</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>In a recent article by the Castner and Margulis groups [Faraday Discuss. 154, 133 (2012)], we described in detail the structure of the tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquid as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using X-ray scattering, and theoretical partitions of the computationally derived structure function. Interestingly, and as opposed to the case in most other ionic-liquids, the first sharp diffraction peak or prepeak appears to increase in intensity as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. This phenomenon is counter intuitive as one would expect that intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> order fades as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases. This Communication shows that a loss of hydrophobic tail organization at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is counterbalanced by better organization of polar components giving rise to the increase in intensity of the prepeak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161494"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation between neighbouring days on <span class="hlt">daily</span> hospital visits for childhood asthma: a time-series analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, K; Ni, H; Yang, Z; Wang, Y; Ding, S; Wen, L; Yang, H; Cheng, J; Su, H</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>To identify the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation between neighbouring days (TVN) and hospital visits for childhood asthma in age- and sex-specific groups. An ecological design was used to explore the effect of TVN on hospital visits for childhood asthma. A Poisson generalised linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to analyse the association between TVN and hospital visits for childhood asthma. All hospital visits for childhood asthma from June 2010 to July 2013 were included (n = 17,022). <span class="hlt">Daily</span> climate data were obtained from Hefei Meteorological Bureau. A significant correlation was found between TVN and hospital visits for childhood asthma in age- and sex-specific groups. For different gender groups, the effect of TVN on childhood asthma was the greatest at 3 and 5 days lag for males and females. For different age groups, the effect of TVN on childhood asthma was the greatest at 1 and 5 days lag for 0-4 years and 5-14 years children, respectively. A 1 °C increase in TVN was associated with a 4.2% (95% confidence interval 0.9-7.6%) increase in hospital visits for childhood asthma. TVN is associated with hospital visits for childhood asthma. Once the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change rapidly, guardians will be urged to pay more attention to their children's health, which may reduce the morbidity of childhood asthma. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.3754O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.3754O"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> estimates of the migrating tide and zonal mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere derived from SABER data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortland, David A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Satellites provide a global view of the structure in the fields that they measure. In the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, the dominant features in these fields at low zonal wave number are contained in the zonal mean, quasi-stationary planetary waves, and tide components. Due to the nature of the satellite sampling pattern, stationary, diurnal, and semidiurnal components are aliased and spectral methods are typically unable to separate the aliased waves over short time periods. This paper presents a data processing scheme that is able to recover the <span class="hlt">daily</span> structure of these waves and the zonal mean state. The method is validated by using simulated data constructed from a mechanistic model, and then applied to Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. The migrating diurnal tide extracted from SABER <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for 2009 has a seasonal variability with peak amplitude (20 K at 95 km) in February and March and minimum amplitude (less than 5 K at 95 km) in early June and early December. Higher frequency variability includes a change in vertical structure and amplitude during the major stratospheric warming in January. The migrating semidiurnal tide extracted from SABER has variability on a monthly time scale during January through March, minimum amplitude in April, and largest steady amplitudes from May through September. Modeling experiments were performed that show that much of the variability on seasonal time scales in the migrating tides is due to changes in the mean flow structure and the superposition of the tidal responses to water vapor heating in the troposphere and ozone heating in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.120...87T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.120...87T"><span>Effects of climate change on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cloudiness in the Shikoku region: a statistical downscaling model approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tatsumi, Kenichi; Oizumi, Tsutao; Yamashiki, Yosuke</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we present a detailed analysis of the effect of changes in cloudiness (CLD) between a future period (2071-2099) and the base period (1961-1990) on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN) and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX) in the same period for the Shikoku region, Japan. This analysis was performed using climate data obtained with the use of the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). We calibrated the SDSM using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis dataset for the SDSM input and <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and CLD from 10 surface data points (SDP) in Shikoku. Subsequently, we validated the SDSM outputs, specifically, TMIN, TMAX, and CLD, obtained with the use of the NCEP reanalysis dataset and general circulation model (GCM) data against the SDP. The GCM data used in the validation procedure were those from the Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios and from the third generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) for the SRES A2 and A1B scenarios. Finally, the validated SDSM was run to study the effect of future changes in CLD on TMIN and TMAX. Our analysis showed that (1) the negative linear fit between changes in TMAX and those in CLD was statistically significant in winter while the relationship between the two changes was not evident in summer, (2) the dependency of future changes in TMAX and TMIN on future changes in CLD were more evident in winter than in other seasons with the present SDSM, (3) the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) decreased in the southern part of Shikoku in summer in all the SDSM projections while DTR increased in the northern part of Shikoku in the same season in these projections, (4) the dependencies of changes in DTR on changes in CLD were unclear in summer and winter. Results of the SDSM simulations performed for climate change scenarios such as those from this study contribute to local-scale agricultural and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T"><span>A Hybrid Framework to Bias Correct and Empirically Downscale <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, P.; Abraham, Z.; Winkler, J. A.; Perdinan, P.; Zhong, S. S.; Liszewska, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Bias correction and statistical downscaling are widely used approaches for postprocessing climate simulations generated by global and/or regional climate models. The skills of these approaches are typically assessed in terms of their ability to reproduce historical climate conditions as well as the plausibility and consistency of the derived statistical indicators needed by end users. Current bias correction and downscaling approaches often do not adequately satisfy the two criteria of accurate prediction and unbiased estimation. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid regression framework was developed to both minimize prediction errors and preserve the distributional characteristics of climate observations. Specifically, the framework couples the loss functions of standard (linear or nonlinear) regression methods with a regularization term that penalizes for discrepancies between the predicted and observed distributions. The proposed framework can also be extended to generate physically-consistent outputs across multiple response variables, and to incorporate both reanalysis-driven and GCM-driven RCM outputs into a unified learning framework. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated using <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Program (NARCCAP) . The accuracy of the framework is comparable to standard regression methods, but, unlike the standard regression methods, the proposed framework is able to preserve many of the distribution properties of the response variables, akin to bias correction approaches such as quantile mapping and bivariate geometric quantile mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671586"><span>Effects of regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on electric vehicle efficiency, <span class="hlt">range</span>, and emissions in the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuksel, Tugce; Michalek, Jeremy J</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>We characterize the effect of regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences on battery electric vehicle (BEV) efficiency, <span class="hlt">range</span>, and use-phase power plant CO2 emissions in the U.S. The efficiency of a BEV varies with ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to battery efficiency and cabin climate control. We find that annual energy consumption of BEVs can increase by an average of 15% in the Upper Midwest or in the Southwest compared to the Pacific Coast due to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from BEVs vary primarily with marginal regional grid mix, which has three times the GHG intensity in the Upper Midwest as on the Pacific Coast. However, even within a grid region, BEV emissions vary by up to 22% due to spatial and temporal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation and its implications for vehicle efficiency and charging duration and timing. Cold climate regions also encounter days with substantial reduction in EV <span class="hlt">range</span>: the average <span class="hlt">range</span> of a Nissan Leaf on the coldest day of the year drops from 70 miles on the Pacific Coast to less than 45 miles in the Upper Midwest. These regional differences are large enough to affect adoption patterns and energy and environmental implications of BEVs relative to alternatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJBm...57..597L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJBm...57..597L"><span>Effect of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>While diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> during the day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13...93T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13...93T"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variability in the Iberian <span class="hlt">Range</span> since 1602 inferred from tree-ring records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tejedor, Ernesto; Ángel Saz, Miguel; María Cuadrat, José; Esper, Jan; de Luis, Martín</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Tree rings are an important proxy to understand the natural drivers of climate variability in the Mediterranean Basin and hence to improve future climate scenarios in a vulnerable region. Here, we compile 316 tree-ring width series from 11 conifer sites in the western Iberian <span class="hlt">Range</span>. We apply a new standardization method based on the trunk basal area instead of the tree cambial age to develop a regional chronology which preserves high- to low-frequency variability. A new reconstruction for the 1602-2012 period correlates at -0.78 with observational September <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with a cumulative mean of the 21 previous months over the 1945-2012 calibration period. The new IR2Tmax reconstruction is spatially representative for the Iberian Peninsula and captures the full <span class="hlt">range</span> of past Iberian <span class="hlt">Range</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. Reconstructed long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations match reasonably well with solar irradiance changes since warm and cold phases correspond with high and low solar activity, respectively. In addition, some annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> downturns coincide with volcanic eruptions with a 3-year lag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJT....34.1110N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJT....34.1110N"><span>Experimental Investigation of Soil Thermal Conductivity Over a Wide <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikolaev, Ivan V.; Leong, Wey H.; Rosen, Marc A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The results are reported of an experimental investigation of the soil thermal conductivity over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, for various water contents and two soil types. The results are particularly important in predictions of underground heat transfer, which require a quantitative understanding of the coupled dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on texture, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and water content. In the research, comprehensive sets of thermal conductivity for Ottawa sand (coarse soil) and Richmond Hill fine sandy loam (medium soil) are experimentally obtained using the guarded hot-plate method, for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from 2° C to 92° C and water contents varying from complete dryness to full saturation. For both soils, the thermal conductivity is observed to vary in three stages with respect to increasing water content: a very minor increase as water content increases to the permanent wilting point, a steep increase as water content further increases to field capacity, and a minor increase (for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> less than 72° C) or decrease for (<span class="hlt">temperatures</span> greater than 72° C) when the field capacity is exceeded. Then, on the basis of gathered datasets, a similar Ke(Sr,T) form of the soil thermal conductivity model by Tarnawski et al. is used to empirically fit the data. The resulted correlations fit the data well with their overall root-relative-mean-square percentage errors of 4.7 % and 6.1 % for Ottawa sand and Richmond Hill fine sandy loam, respectively, and are suitable for most engineering applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110010220','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110010220"><span>Stability of a Crystal Oscillator, Type Si530, Inside and Beyond its Specified Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Data acquisition and control systems depend on timing signals for proper operation and required accuracy. These clocked signals are typically provided by some form of an oscillator set to produce a repetitive, defined signal at a given frequency. Crystal oscillators are commonly used because they are less expensive, smaller, and more reliable than other types of oscillators. Because of the inherent characteristics of the crystal, the oscillators exhibit excellent frequency stability within the specified <span class="hlt">range</span> of operational <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In some cases, however, some compensation techniques are adopted to further improve the thermal stability of a crystal oscillator. Very limited data exist on the performance and reliability of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) crystal oscillators at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> beyond the manufacturer's specified operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. This information is very crucial if any of these parts were to be used in circuits designed for use in space exploration missions where extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> swings and thermal cycling are encountered. This report presents the results of the work obtained on the operation of Silicon Laboratories crystal oscillator, type Si530, under specified and extreme ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50c5303Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50c5303Y"><span>Thermal stimulated current response in cupric oxide single crystal thin films over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Kungan; Wu, Shuxiang; Yu, Fengmei; Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yunjia; Meng, Meng; Wang, Gaili; Zhang, Yueli; Li, Shuwei</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Cupric oxide single crystal thin films (~26 nm) were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction show that the thin films are 2  ×  2 reconstructed with an in-plane compression and out-of-plane stretching. A thermal stimulated current measurement indicates that the electric polarization response is shown in the special 2D cupric oxide single crystal thin film over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 130 K to near-room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We infer that the abnormal electric response involves the changing of phase transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> induced by structure distortion, the spin frustration and the magnetic fluctuation effect of a short-<span class="hlt">range</span> magnetic order, or the combined action of both of the two factors mentioned above. This work suggests a promising clue for finding new room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> single phase multiferroics or tuning phase transition <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5011777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5011777"><span>An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tobo, Yutaka</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of −25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above −30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (about −30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. PMID:27596247</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632930T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632930T"><span>An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tobo, Yutaka</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of -25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above -30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (about -30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhSS...55..821B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhSS...55..821B"><span>Thermal and physical properties of sodium niobate ceramics over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bondarev, V. S.; Kartashev, A. V.; Gorev, M. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Pogorel'tsev, E. I.; Molokeev, M. S.; Raevskaya, S. I.; Suzdalev, D. V.; Raevskii, I. P.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependences of the heat capacity C p ( T) and thermal expansion coefficient α( T) of NaNbO3 ceramic samples have been investigated in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 2 to 800 K. In addition to the anomalies associated with the known phase transitions at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> T 6 ≈ 265 K, T 5 ≈ 638 K, T 4 ≈ 760 K, and T 3 ≈ 793 K, anomalies in the behavior of C p ( T) and α( T) have been observed near T 5″ ≈ 500 K and T 5' ≈ 600 K. It has been found that all the observed structural transformations, according to the values of the entropy change, are not related to the ordering of structural elements. It has been shown that, with an increase in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the unit cell volume during the phase transitions near 265, 515, 604, and 638 K decreases. The specific features of the transition to the phase R3 c have been examined. Two possible scenarios of the sequence of phase transformations in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> between T 5 and T 6 have been analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27596247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27596247"><span>An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tobo, Yutaka</p> <p>2016-09-06</p> <p>Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of -25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above -30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (about -30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18699676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18699676"><span>A compound carbon thermometer for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 0.3-100 K.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adolf, A; Djerassi, H; Leszczyszyn, J</p> <p>1979-09-01</p> <p>A compound carbon thermometer consisting of an abreast connection of a carbon Speer resistor and a carbon Allen-Bradley resistor was tested in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interval 0.3-100 K, an interval which generally requires two independent resistors to be covered. The characteristics, sensitivity, and analytical handling of the resistance versus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are discussed and compared with the corresponding behavior of other thermometers. The satisfactory performance of the compound carbon device contributes to the extension of wide-<span class="hlt">range</span> thermometry to 0.3 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5576856','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5576856"><span>Living on the edge: <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, seasonal and annual body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns of Arabian oryx in Saudi Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lutermann, H.; Bennett, N. C.; Bertelsen, M. F.; Mohammed, O. B.; Manger, P. R.; Scantlebury, M.; Ismael, K.; Alagaili, A. N.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, the ability to allow body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) to fluctuate, has been proposed as an adaptive mechanism that enables large ungulates to cope with the high environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and lack of free water experienced in arid environments. By storing heat during the daytime and dissipating it during the night, arid-adapted ungulates may reduce evaporative water loss and conserve water. Adaptive heterothermy in large ungulates should be particularly pronounced in hot environments with severely limited access to free water. In the current study we investigated the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ambient, Ta and soil, Ts) and water stress on the Tb of wild, free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in two different sites in Saudi Arabia, Mahazat as-Sayd (MS) and Uruq Bani Ma’arid (UBM). Using implanted data loggers wet took continuous Tb readings every 10 minutes for an entire calendar year and determined the Tb amplitude as well as the heterothermy index (HI). Both differed significantly between sites but contrary to our expectations they were greater in MS despite its lower environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and higher rainfall. This may be partially attributable to a higher activity in an unfamiliar environment for translocated animals in UBM. As expected Tb amplitude and HI were greatest during summer. Only minor sex differences were apparent that may be attributable to sex-specific investment into reproduction (e.g. male-male competition) during rut. Our results suggest that the degree of heterothermy is not only driven by extrinsic factors (e.g. environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and water availability), but may also be affected by intrinsic factors (e.g. sex and/or behaviour). PMID:28854247</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28854247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28854247"><span>Living on the edge: <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, seasonal and annual body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns of Arabian oryx in Saudi Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Streicher, S; Lutermann, H; Bennett, N C; Bertelsen, M F; Mohammed, O B; Manger, P R; Scantlebury, M; Ismael, K; Alagaili, A N</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, the ability to allow body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) to fluctuate, has been proposed as an adaptive mechanism that enables large ungulates to cope with the high environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and lack of free water experienced in arid environments. By storing heat during the daytime and dissipating it during the night, arid-adapted ungulates may reduce evaporative water loss and conserve water. Adaptive heterothermy in large ungulates should be particularly pronounced in hot environments with severely limited access to free water. In the current study we investigated the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ambient, Ta and soil, Ts) and water stress on the Tb of wild, free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in two different sites in Saudi Arabia, Mahazat as-Sayd (MS) and Uruq Bani Ma'arid (UBM). Using implanted data loggers wet took continuous Tb readings every 10 minutes for an entire calendar year and determined the Tb amplitude as well as the heterothermy index (HI). Both differed significantly between sites but contrary to our expectations they were greater in MS despite its lower environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and higher rainfall. This may be partially attributable to a higher activity in an unfamiliar environment for translocated animals in UBM. As expected Tb amplitude and HI were greatest during summer. Only minor sex differences were apparent that may be attributable to sex-specific investment into reproduction (e.g. male-male competition) during rut. Our results suggest that the degree of heterothermy is not only driven by extrinsic factors (e.g. environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and water availability), but may also be affected by intrinsic factors (e.g. sex and/or behaviour).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889"><span>Synergistic effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations and matching light-dark cycle enhances population growth and synchronizes oviposition behavior in a soil arthropod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liefting, Maartje; Cosijn, Jarno; Ellers, Jacintha</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rather than a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime. The benefit of fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations with light and dark phases e.g. to anticipate the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Such synergistic effects have primarily been studied in the light of activity patterns and gene expression, but have not yet been shown to extend to population dynamics and aspects of individual fitness like oviposition behavior. We therefore explored possible synergistic effects on life history traits of the springtail Orchesella cincta. We first test the primary effect of ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations of different amplitudes on population growth and total population mass. The slowest population growth was observed in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime treatment and the highest population growth in the regime with high amplitude fluctuations. In a second experiment, population growth and oviposition rhythm were measured under four different regimes; a constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime, thermoperiod only, photoperiod only and thermoperiod and photoperiod aligned as under natural conditions. The regime in which thermoperiod was aligned with photoperiod resulted in a higher population growth than could be realized by either factor alone. Also, significantly fewer eggs were laid in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/light regime than in the other three regimes, strongly suggesting that this regime is stressful to O. cincta. Additionally, the fraction of eggs laid at night was highest in the regime with the combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light cycle. In conclusion, our results show that under these experimental</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001IJBm...45..143F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001IJBm...45..143F"><span>Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of environmental conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiala, D.; Lomas, K. J.; Stohrer, M.</p> <p></p> <p>A mathematical model for predicting human thermal and regulatory responses in cold, cool, neutral, warm, and hot environments has been developed and validated. The multi-segmental passive system, which models the dynamic heat transport within the body and the heat exchange between body parts and the environment, is discussed elsewhere. This paper is concerned with the development of the active system, which simulates the regulatory responses of shivering, sweating, and peripheral vasomotion of unacclimatised subjects. Following a comprehensive literature review, 26 independent experiments were selected that were designed to provoke each of these responses in different circumstances. Regression analysis revealed that skin and head core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affect regulatory responses in a non-linear fashion. A further signal, i.e. the rate of change of the mean skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> weighted by the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> error signal, was identified as governing the dynamics of thermoregulatory processes in the cold. Verification and validation work was carried out using experimental data obtained from 90 exposures covering a <span class="hlt">range</span> of steady and transient ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 5°C and 50°C and exercise intensities between 46 W/m2 and 600 W/m2. Good general agreement with measured data was obtained for regulatory responses, internal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and the mean and local skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of unacclimatised humans for the whole spectrum of climatic conditions and for different activity levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...342..241B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...342..241B"><span>A lithium-ion capacitor model working on a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barcellona, S.; Piegari, L.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Energy storage systems are spreading both in stationary and transport applications. Among innovative storage devices, lithium ion capacitors (LiCs) are very interesting. They combine the advantages of both traditional electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium ion batteries (LiBs). The behavior of this device is much more similar to ELDCs than to batteries. For this reason, several models developed for traditional ELDCs were extended to LiCs. Anyway, at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> LiCs behavior is quite different from ELDCs and it is more similar to a LiB. Consequently, EDLC models works fine at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but give worse results at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This paper proposes a new electric model that, overcoming this issue, is a valid solution in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Based on only five parameters, depending on polarization voltage and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the proposed model is very simple to be implemented. Its accuracy is verified through experimental tests. From the reported results, it is also shown that, at very low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the dependence of the resistance from the current has to be taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11209884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11209884"><span>Feeding behaviour of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> penguins determined by oesophageal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charrassin, J B; Kato, A; Handrich, Y; Sato, K; Naito, Y; Ancel, A; Bost, C A; Gauthier-Clerc, M; Ropert-Coudert, Y; Le Maho, Y</p> <p>2001-01-22</p> <p>Sea birds play a major role in marine food webs, and it is important to determine when and how much they feed at sea. A major advance has been made by using the drop in stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> after ingestion of ectothermic prey. This method is less sensitive when birds eat small prey or when the stomach is full. Moreover, in diving birds, independently of food ingestion, there are fluctuations in the lower abdominal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the dives. Using oesophageal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we present here a new method for detecting the timing of prey ingestion in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> sea birds, and, to our knowledge, report the first data obtained on king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). In birds ashore, which were hand-fed 2-15 g pieces of fish, all meal ingestions were detected with a sensor in the upper oesophagus. Detection was poorer with sensors at increasing distances from the beak. At sea, slow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops in the upper oesophagus and stomach characterized a diving effect per se. For the upper oesophagus only, abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations were superimposed, therefore indicating prey ingestions. We determined the depths at which these occurred. Combining the changes in oesophageal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of marine predators with their diving pattern opens new perspectives for understanding their foraging strategy, and, after validation with concurrent applications of classical techniques of prey survey, for assessing the distribution of their prey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011WRR....47.1501G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011WRR....47.1501G"><span>Stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change detection for state and private forests in the Oregon Coast <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Groom, Jeremiah D.; Dent, Liz; Madsen, Lisa J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Oregon's forested coastal watersheds support important cold-water fisheries of salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) as well as forestry-dependent local economies. Riparian timber harvest restrictions in Oregon and elsewhere are designed to protect stream habitat characteristics while enabling upland timber harvest. We present an assessment of riparian leave tree rule effectiveness at protecting streams from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases in the Oregon Coast <span class="hlt">Range</span>. We evaluated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to timber harvest at 33 privately owned and state forest sites with Oregon's water quality <span class="hlt">temperature</span> antidegradation standard, the Protecting Cold Water (PCW) criterion. At each site we evaluated stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns before and after harvest upstream, within, and downstream of harvest units. We developed a method for detecting stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change between years that adhered as closely as possible to Oregon's water quality rule language. The procedure provided an exceedance history across sites that allowed us to quantify background and treatment (timber harvest) PCW exceedance rates. For streams adjacent to harvested areas on privately owned lands, preharvest to postharvest year comparisons exhibited a 40% probability of exceedance. Sites managed according to the more stringent state forest riparian standards did not exhibit exceedance rates that differed from preharvest, control, or downstream rates (5%). These results will inform policy discussion regarding the sufficiency of Oregon's forest practices regulation at protecting stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The analysis process itself may assist other states and countries in developing and evaluating their forest management and water quality antidegradation regulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086975"><span>Factors affecting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation and habitat use in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> diamondback terrapins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akins, C D; Ruder, C D; Price, S J; Harden, L A; Gibbons, J W; Dorcas, M E</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Measuring the thermal conditions of aquatic reptiles with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataloggers is a cost-effective way to study their behavior and habitat use. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dataloggers are a particularly useful and informative approach to studying organisms such as the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) that inhabits a dynamic environment often inaccessible to researchers. We used carapace-mounted dataloggers to measure hourly carapace <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tc) of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> terrapins in South Carolina from October 2007 to 2008 to examine the effects of month, sex, creek site, and tide on Tc and to determine the effects of month, sex, and time of day on terrapin basking frequency. Simultaneous measurements of environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Te; shallow mud, deep mud, water) allowed us to make inferences about terrapin microhabitat use. Terrapin Tc differed significantly among months and creek and between sexes. Terrapin microhabitat use also varied monthly, with shallow mud <span class="hlt">temperature</span> being the best predictor of Tc November-March and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> being the best predictor of Tc April-October. Terrapins basked most frequently in spring and fall and males basked more frequently than females. Our study contributes to a fuller understanding of terrapin thermal biology and provides support for using dataloggers to investigate behavior and habitat use of aquatic ectotherms inhabiting dynamic environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586931"><span>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> oxygen-oxygen correlations in liquid water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schlesinger, Daniel; Wikfeldt, K Thor; Skinner, Lawrie B; Benmore, Chris J; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G M</p> <p>2016-08-28</p> <p>We analyze the recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution functions from experimental high-precision x-ray diffraction data of bulk water by Skinner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)] with particular focus on the intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> where small, but significant, correlations are found out to 17 Å. The second peak in the pair-distribution function at 4.5 Å is connected to tetrahedral coordination and was shown by Skinner et al. to change behavior with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of minimum isothermal compressibility. Here we show that this is associated also with a peak growing at 11 Å which strongly indicates a collective character of fluctuations leading to the enhanced compressibility at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We note that the peak at ∼13.2 Å exhibits a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence similar to that of the density with a maximum close to 277 K or 4 °C. We analyze simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model in the same manner and find excellent agreement between simulations and experiment albeit with a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift of ∼20 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1306686-temperature-dependence-intermediate-range-oxygen-oxygen-correlations-liquid-water','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1306686-temperature-dependence-intermediate-range-oxygen-oxygen-correlations-liquid-water"><span>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> oxygen-oxygen correlations in liquid water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Schlesinger, Daniel; Wikfeldt, K. Thor; Skinner, Lawrie B.; ...</p> <p>2016-08-25</p> <p>Here, we analyze the recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution functions from experimental high-precision x-ray diffraction data of bulk water by Skinner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)] with particular focus on the intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> where small, but significant, correlations are found out to 17 Å. The second peak in the pair-distribution function at 4.5 Å is connected to tetrahedral coordination and was shown by Skinner et al. to change behavior with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of minimum isothermal compressibility. Here we show that this is associated also with a peak growing at 11 Å which strongly indicates amore » collective character of fluctuations leading to the enhanced compressibility at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We note that the peak at ~13.2 Å exhibits a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence similar to that of the density with a maximum close to 277 K or 4 °C. We analyze simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model in the same manner and find excellent agreement between simulations and experiment albeit with a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift of ~20 K.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11594634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11594634"><span>Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of environmental conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fiala, D; Lomas, K J; Stohrer, M</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>A mathematical model for predicting human thermal and regulatory responses in cold, cool, neutral, warm, and hot environments has been developed and validated. The multi-segmental passive system, which models the dynamic heat transport within the body and the heat exchange between body parts and the environment, is discussed elsewhere. This paper is concerned with the development of the active system, which simulates the regulatory responses of shivering, sweating, and peripheral vasomotion of unacclimatised subjects. Following a comprehensive literature review, 26 independent experiments were selected that were designed to provoke each of these responses in different circumstances. Regression analysis revealed that skin and head core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affect regulatory responses in a nonlinear fashion. A further signal, i.e. the rate of change of the mean skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> weighted by the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> error signal, was identified as governing the dynamics of thermoregulatory processes in the cold. Verification and validation work was carried out using experimental data obtained from 90 exposures covering a <span class="hlt">range</span> of steady and transient ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 5 degrees C and 50 degrees C and exercise intensities between 46 W/m2 and 600 W/m2. Good general agreement with measured data was obtained for regulatory responses, internal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and the mean and local skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of unacclimatised humans for the whole spectrum of climatic conditions and for different activity levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145h4503S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145h4503S"><span>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> oxygen-oxygen correlations in liquid water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schlesinger, Daniel; Wikfeldt, K. Thor; Skinner, Lawrie B.; Benmore, Chris J.; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G. M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We analyze the recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent oxygen-oxygen pair-distribution functions from experimental high-precision x-ray diffraction data of bulk water by Skinner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214507 (2014)] with particular focus on the intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> where small, but significant, correlations are found out to 17 Å. The second peak in the pair-distribution function at 4.5 Å is connected to tetrahedral coordination and was shown by Skinner et al. to change behavior with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of minimum isothermal compressibility. Here we show that this is associated also with a peak growing at 11 Å which strongly indicates a collective character of fluctuations leading to the enhanced compressibility at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We note that the peak at ˜13.2 Å exhibits a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence similar to that of the density with a maximum close to 277 K or 4 °C. We analyze simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model in the same manner and find excellent agreement between simulations and experiment albeit with a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift of ˜20 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000115878&hterms=sound+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000115878&hterms=sound+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Btemperature"><span>Optical Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air Over the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> 300-650 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hart, Roger C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Using laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), the speed of sound in room air (1 atm) is measured over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 300-650 K. Since the LITA apparatus maintains a fixed sound wavelength as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is varied, this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> simultaneously corresponds to a sound frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> of 10-15 MHz. The data are compared to a published model and typically agree within 0.1%-0.4% at each of 21 <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000115878&hterms=sound+speed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Bspeed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000115878&hterms=sound+speed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Bspeed"><span>Optical Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air Over the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> 300-650 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hart, Roger C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Using laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), the speed of sound in room air (1 atm) is measured over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 300-650 K. Since the LITA apparatus maintains a fixed sound wavelength as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is varied, this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> simultaneously corresponds to a sound frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> of 10-15 MHz. The data are compared to a published model and typically agree within 0.1%-0.4% at each of 21 <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22628653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22628653"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-dependent alterations in host use drive rapid <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion in a butterfly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pateman, Rachel M; Hill, Jane K; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard; Thomas, Chris D</p> <p>2012-05-25</p> <p>Responses of species to climate change are extremely variable, perhaps because of climate-related changes to interactions among species. We show that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related changes in the dependence of the butterfly Aricia agestis on different larval host plants have facilitated rapid <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion. Historically, the butterfly was largely restricted to a single plant species, Helianthemum nummularium, but recent warmer conditions have enabled the butterfly to increasingly use the more widespread plant species Geranium molle. This has resulted in a substantial increase in available habitat and rapid <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion by the butterfly (79 kilometers northward in Britain in 20 years). Interactions among species are often seen as constraints on species' responses to climate change, but we show that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent changes to interspecific interactions can also facilitate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015108','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015108"><span>Two-phase working fluids for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 50 to 350 deg, phase 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Several two phase heat transfer fluids were tested in aluminum and carbon steel reflux capsules for over 25,000 hours at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 300 C. Several fluids showed very good stability and would be useful for long duration heat transfer applications over the <span class="hlt">range</span> 100 to 350 C. Instrumentation for the measurement of surface tension and viscosity were constructed for use with heat transfer fluids over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 0 to 300 C and with pressures from 0 to 10 atmospheres. The surface tension measuring device constructed requires less than a 1.0 cc sample and displays an accuracy of about 5 percent in preliminary tests, while the viscometer constructed for this program requires a 0.05 cc sample and shows an accuracy of about 5 percent in initial tests.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick=