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Sample records for daily temperature ranges

  1. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-08

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  2. Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.

    2009-07-01

    This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric temperature fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates temperature variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of temperature time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.

  3. Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.

    2009-02-01

    This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric temperature fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates temperature variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of temperature time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.

  4. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  5. Effect of daily temperature range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM10 exposures

    PubMed Central

    Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations regarding temperature influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of daily temperature range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that temperature range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between temperature variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. PMID:26164202

  6. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  7. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air temperatures [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be

  8. Seasonal microbial and nutrient responses during a 5-year reduction in the daily temperature range of soil in a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Natasja C; Dhungana, Nirmala; Tissue, David T; Zak, John C

    2016-01-01

    High daily temperature range of soil (DTRsoil) negatively affects soil microbial biomass and activity, but its interaction with seasonal soil moisture in regulating ecosystem function remains unclear. For our 5-year field study in the Chihuahuan Desert, we suspended shade cloth 15 cm above the soil surface to reduce daytime temperature and increase nighttime soil temperature compared to unshaded plots, thereby reducing DTRsoil (by 5 ºC at 0.2 cm depth) without altering mean temperatures. Microbial biomass production was primarily regulated by seasonal precipitation with the magnitude of the response dependent on DTRsoil. Reduced DTRsoil more consistently increased microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN; +38%) than microbial biomass carbon (MBC) with treatment responses being similar in spring and summer. Soil respiration depended primarily on soil moisture with responses to reduced DTRsoil evident only in wetter summer soils (+53%) and not in dry spring soils. Reduced DTRsoil had no effect on concentrations of dissolved organic C, soil organic matter (SOM), nor soil inorganic N (extractable NO3 (-)-N + NH4 (+)-N). Higher MBN without changes in soil inorganic N suggests faster N cycling rates or alternate sources of N. If N cycling rates increased without a change to external N inputs (atmospheric N deposition or N fixation), then productivity in this desert system, which is N-poor and low in SOM, could be negatively impacted with continued decreases in daily temperature range. Thus, the future N balance in arid ecosystems, under conditions of lower DTR, seems linked to future precipitation regimes through N deposition and regulation of soil heat load dynamics.

  9. Does diurnal temperature range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of daily data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the temperature impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) on suicide mortality. Daily temperature and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant ( P < 0.01) correlation between the springtime DTR maxima and suicide rates for males. No similar association could be found for females. These results provide evidence that a higher springtime DTR could be linked statistically to a higher seasonal suicide rate each spring, whereas the exact timing of the DTR peak did not associate with the seasonal suicide rate. A possible mechanism behind the springtime association between the DTR and suicides originates from brown adipose tissue (BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.

  10. Does diurnal temperature range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of daily data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the temperature impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) on suicide mortality. Daily temperature and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant (P<0.01) correlation between the springtime DTR maxima and suicide rates for males. No similar association could be found for females. These results provide evidence that a higher springtime DTR could be linked statistically to a higher seasonal suicide rate each spring, whereas the exact timing of the DTR peak did not associate with the seasonal suicide rate. A possible mechanism behind the springtime association between the DTR and suicides originates from brown adipose tissue (BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.

  11. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  12. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  13. Statistical Modeling of Daily Stream Temperature for Mitigating Fish Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Water allocations in the Central Valley Project (CVP) of California require the consideration of short- and long-term needs of many socioeconomic factors including, but not limited to, agriculture, urban use, flood mitigation/control, and environmental concerns. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) ensures that the decision-making process provides sufficient water to limit the impact on protected species, such as salmon, in the Sacramento River Valley. Current decision support tools in the CVP were deemed inadequate by the National Marine Fisheries Service due to the limited temporal resolution of forecasts for monthly stream temperature and fish mortality. Finer scale temporal resolution is necessary to account for the stream temperature variations critical to salmon survival and reproduction. In addition, complementary, long-range tools are needed for monthly and seasonal management of water resources. We will present a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework of maximum daily stream temperatures and related attributes, such as: daily stream temperature range, exceedance/non-exceedance of critical threshold temperatures, and the number of hours of exceedance. A suite of predictors that impact stream temperatures are included in the models, including current and prior day values of streamflow, water temperatures of upstream releases from Shasta Dam, air temperature, and precipitation. Monthly models are developed for each stream temperature attribute at the Balls Ferry gauge, an EPA compliance point for meeting temperature criteria. The statistical framework is also coupled with seasonal climate forecasts using a stochastic weather generator to provide ensembles of stream temperature scenarios that can be used for seasonal scale water allocation planning and decisions. Short-term weather forecasts can also be used in the framework to provide near-term scenarios useful for making water release decisions on a daily basis. The framework can be easily translated to other

  14. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  15. [Body temperature measurement in daily practice].

    PubMed

    Sermet-Gaudelus, I; Chadelat, I; Lenoir, G

    2005-08-01

    The use of rectal mercury thermometer has long been the standard method for measurement of body temperature. The restriction of mercury use since 1996 has led to development of other devices. The liquid crystal strip thermometer held against the forehead has a low sensitivity. The single-use chemical thermometer measures oral temperature. Its accuracy must be evaluated. Infrared ear thermometers are routinely used because it is convenient and fast to use. However, numerous studies have shown that it does not show sufficient correlation with rectal temperature, leading to the risk to miss cases of true fever. Rectal temperature remains the gold standard in case of fever. Rectal temperature measurement with an electronic device is well correlated with the glass mercury standard. Galistan thermometer accuracy must be evaluated because of sterilization of the whole device, which is not the case for the electronic thermometer. A pediatric study is necessary to evaluate the performance of this device in comparison with the electronic thermometer.

  16. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  17. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Linkages between longer term warming of the climate, related changes in the cryosphere, and destabilisation of high mountain rockwalls have been documented in several studies. Although understanding is far from complete, a range of physical processes related to longer term warming are understood to have an effect on slope stability. More recently, some attention has turned to the possible influence of much shorter periods of extremely warm temperatures, as a contributing factor, or even trigger of slope failures. So far, studies have not extended beyond highlighting one or a few individual events, and no common approach to quantifying the 'extremity' of the prevailing temperatures has been used. In the current study, we integrate established practices used in the climatology community in the analyses of climate extremes, together with an inventory of ca. 20 recent rock failures (1987 - 2010) in the central European Alps, to assess temporal relationships between daily air temperature extremes and rock failure occurrence. Using data from three high elevation recording sites across Switzerland, we focus on daily maximum temperatures in the 4 weeks immediately prior to each rockfall occurrence, where an extremely warm day is defined as exceeding the 95th percentile during the climatological reference period of 1971 - 2000. The 95th percentile is calculated in a 21 day moving window, so that extreme temperatures are considered relative to the time of year, and not on an annual basis. In addition, rock failures from the Southern Alps of New Zealand are analysed, although high elevation climate data are limited from this region. Results from the European Alps show that a majority of recent slope failures have been preceded by one or more extreme, unseasonably warm days, most notably in the week immediately prior to the failure. For example, for 9 slope failures in the Valais - Mt Blanc region (based on Grand St Bernhard climate data), 6 were proceeded by extremely warm

  18. Estimation of Daily Stream Temperatures in a Mountain River Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Benjankar, R. M.; Isaak, D.; Wenger, S.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature plays an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, water and spawning habitat quality, growth of fish populations are functions of stream temperature. Therefore, accurate estimates of daily stream temperatures can provide beneficial information for water resource managers and decision makers. Here, we develop a model for precise daily water temperature estimates that is applicable even in places lacking various meteorological and hydrological data. The water temperature model in this study is a piecewise model that considers both linear and non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables including maximum and minimum temperature (meteorological derivers) and precipitation (hydrological deriver). We demonstrated the model in the Boise River Basin, in central Idaho, USA. The hydrology of this basin is snow-dominated and complex due to the mountainous terrain. We predicted daily stream temperature at 34 sites using 12 weather and Snowtel stations for deriving variables. Results of the stream temperature model indicate average Root Mean Square Error of 1.28 degree of Celsius along with average 0.91 of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for all stations. Comparison of the results of this study to Mohseni et al.'s model (1998), which is widely applied in water temperature studies, shows better performance of the model presented in this study. Our approach can be used to provide historical reconstructions of daily stream temperatures or projections of stream temperatures under climate change scenarios in any location with at least one year of daily stream temperature observations and with contemporaneous regional air temperature and precipitation data.

  19. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950-2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  20. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-01

    The Markov chain's first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  1. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-22

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  2. A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.

  3. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  4. New developments on the homogenization of Canadian daily temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lucie A.; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2010-05-01

    Long-term and homogenized surface air temperature datasets had been prepared for the analysis of climate trends in Canada (Vincent and Gullett 1999). Non-climatic steps due to instruments relocation/changes and changes in observing procedures were identified in the annual mean of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures using a technique based on regression models (Vincent 1998). Monthly adjustments were derived from the regression models and daily adjustments were obtained from an interpolation procedure using the monthly adjustments (Vincent et al. 2002). Recently, new statistical tests have been developed to improve the power of detecting changepoints in climatological data time series. The penalized maximal t (PMT) test (Wang et al. 2007) and the penalized maximal F (PMF) test (Wang 2008b) were developed to take into account the position of each changepoint in order to minimize the effect of unequal and small sample size. A software package RHtestsV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) has also been developed to implement these tests to homogenize climate data series. A recursive procedure was developed to estimate the annual cycle, linear trend, and lag-1 autocorrelation of the base series in tandem, so that the effect of lag-1 autocorrelation is accounted for in the tests. A Quantile Matching (QM) algorithm (Wang 2009) was also developed for adjusting Gaussian daily data so that the empirical distributions of all segments of the detrended series match each other. The RHtestsV3 package was used to prepare a second generation of homogenized temperatures in Canada. Both the PMT test and the PMF test were applied to detect shifts in monthly mean temperature series. Reference series was used in conducting a PMT test. Whenever possible, the main causes of the shifts were retrieved through historical evidence such as the station inspection reports. Finally, the QM algorithm was used to adjust the daily temperature series for the artificial shifts identified from the respective

  5. Seasonal changes in daily torpor patterns of free-ranging female and male Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    PubMed

    Dietz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2006-03-01

    Daily torpor can provide significant energy and water savings in bats during cold ambient temperatures and food scarcity. However, it may reduce rates of foetal and juvenile development. Therefore, reproductive females should optimize development by minimizing times in torpor. To test this hypothesis, the use of torpor by female and male free-ranging Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) during reproduction (gestation, lactation, and post-lactation period) was investigated in 1998 and 1999. Temperature-sensitive radio transmitters were attached to the bats to measure skin temperature. Simultaneously, ambient temperature was recorded. While both sexes became torpid during daytime, male bats used daily torpor (>6 degrees C below individual active temperature) significantly more often during reproductive period (mean: 78.4 % of day time in May and 43 % in June) than females. Female bats went into daily torpor, particularly in late summer when juveniles were weaned (mean: 66.6 % of daytime). Lowest skin temperatures occurred in a female bat with 21.0 degrees C during post-lactation. Skin temperatures of male bats fluctuated from 16.8 degrees C in torpor to 37.2 degrees C during times of activity. There was a significant effect of reproductive period on skin temperature in females whereas mean ambient temperature had no significant effect. However, mean ambient temperature affected mean skin temperatures in males. Our findings indicate that female Daubenton's bats adopt their thermoregulatory behaviour in particular to optimize the juvenile development.

  6. Observations of Daily Temperature Patterns in the Southern Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, R.W.; Jenter, H.L.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor affecting key hydrological and ecological processes within the subtropical wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Comprehensive measurements are being made to quantify the temporal and spatial variability of the water-temperature regime. Data collected in 2000 at a location near the central flow pathway of the ecosystem showed both daily repetitive cycles and dynamic fluctuations in response to meteorological forces. Time-series data collected at spatial intervals throughout the water column, in the air, and in the underlying plant-litter layer revealed the dynamic nature of the temperature structure, e.g., uniformly well-mixed periods, stratified conditions, inversions, changing vertical gradients, and other characteristics important to understanding ecosystem processes.

  7. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  8. Benchmarking the performance of daily temperature homogenisation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor; Jolliffe, Ian; Willett, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This work explores the creation of realistic synthetic data and its use as a benchmark for comparing the performance of different homogenisation algorithms on daily temperature data. Four different regions in the United States have been selected and three different inhomogeneity scenarios explored for each region. These benchmark datasets are beneficial as, unlike in the real world, the underlying truth is known a priori, thus allowing definite statements to be made about the performance of the algorithms run on them. Performance can be assessed in terms of the ability of algorithms to detect changepoints and also their ability to correctly remove inhomogeneities. The focus is on daily data, thus presenting new challenges in comparison to monthly data and pushing the boundaries of previous studies. The aims of this work are to evaluate and compare the performance of various homogenisation algorithms, aiding their improvement and enabling a quantification of the uncertainty remaining in the data even after they have been homogenised. An important outcome is also to evaluate how realistic the created benchmarks are. It is essential that any weaknesses in the benchmarks are taken into account when judging algorithm performance against them. This information in turn will help to improve future versions of the benchmarks. I intend to present a summary of this work including the method of benchmark creation, details of the algorithms run and some preliminary results. This work forms a three year PhD and feeds into the larger project of the International Surface Temperature Initiative which is working on a global scale and with monthly instead of daily data.

  9. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, Herbert; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Nutt, William E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof.

  10. Wide temperature range seal for demountable joints

    DOEpatents

    Sixsmith, H.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Nutt, W.E.

    1991-07-23

    The present invention is directed to a seal for demountable joints operating over a wide temperature range down to liquid helium temperatures. The seal has anti-extrusion guards which prevent extrusion of the soft ductile sealant material, which may be indium or an alloy thereof. 6 figures.

  11. Trends in Observed Summer Daily Temperature Maximum Across Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Arvidson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing are expected to increase the tendency for longer and stronger heat waves in summer. We examine if there is a trend in the observed daytime extreme temperature (Tmax) during summer between 1900-2014 at select high quality stations (n=9) across Colorado. We compile daily observations of Tmax and other variables during summer (JJA), and derive and analyze trends in five different extreme metrics from this data that include the maximum five-day Tmax average, warm spell duration index, and the number of days when Tmax exceeds the 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentile conditions. We find that the 1930s and 2000s in Colorado had some outstandingly hot years, when we also find exceptionally high count of summer Tmax extremes. Five out of the nine stations show increases in extreme temperature indicators in the more recent decades. The variability in trends in the daily summer Tmax extremes across the nine stations correspond with the mean annual warming trends at those stations. We also find that wetter summers have much smaller instances of Tmax extremes as compared to drier summers.

  12. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  13. How do GCMs represent daily maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    patterns. The results indicate that models are able to reproduce the full range of summer and winter maximum and minimum temperature values, although the inter-model dispersion is high. Most models reproduce fairly well the differences between daily summer and daily winter temperature distributions, however GCMs tend to smooth the extreme values. The largest differences are found for winter minimum temperature values.

  14. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  15. Time intervals for estimating pronghorn and coyote home ranges and daily movements

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T.D. ); Laundre', J.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors compared estimates of home range and daily movement for radio-tagged pronghorns (Antilocapra americana) and coyotes (Canis latrans) based on subsamples of data collected at short time intervals during nonconsecutive 24-hour sampling sessions. Home-range size, calculated by either the minimum area method or the linked-cell grid method, and daily distance traveled were underestimated when sampling intervals were based on statistically independent data. Autocorrelated data provided a better estimate of true home-range sizes than independent data for all sampling intervals. Estimates of daily movement based on sampling intervals > 4 hours for pronghorns and >3 hours for coyotes were not correlated with the actual distance traveled. These relationships suggest that restricting sampling effort to statistically independent time intervals sacrifices biologically significant information.

  16. Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kalpesh; Deo, Makaranad Chintamani

    2017-02-01

    Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs. A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. With this in mind, we propose the use of wavelet neural networks (WNNs) for prediction of daily SST values. The prediction of daily SST values was carried out using WNN over 5 days into the future at six different locations in the Indian Ocean. First, the accuracy of site-specific SST values predicted by a numerical model, ROMS, was assessed against the in situ records. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0.18 to 0.32 °C for a 5-day-ahead forecast. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

  17. Effects of daily fluctuating temperatures on the Drosophila-Leptopilina boulardi parasitoid association.

    PubMed

    Delava, Emilie; Fleury, Frédéric; Gibert, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoid insects, which maintain intimate and long-term relationships with their arthropod hosts, constitute an association of ectothermic organisms that is particularly sensitive to temperature variations. Because temperature shows pronounced natural daily fluctuations, we examined if experiments based on a constant temperature range can mask the real effects of the thermal regime on host-parasitoid interactions. The effects of two fluctuating thermal regimes on several developmental parameters of the Drosophila larval parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi were analyzed in this study. Regime 1 included a range of 16-23-16°C and regime 2 included a range of 16-21-26-21-16°C (mean temperature 20.1°C) compared to a 20.1°C constant temperature. Under an average temperature of 20.1°C, which corresponds to a cold condition of L. boulardi development, we showed that the success of parasitism is significantly higher under a fluctuating temperature regime than at constant temperature. A fluctuating regime also correlated with a reduced development time of the parasitoids. In contrast, the thermal regime did not affect the ability of Drosophila to resist parasitoid infestation. Finally, we demonstrated that daily temperature fluctuation prevented the entry into diapause for this species, which is normally observed at a constant temperature of 21°C. Overall, the results reveal that constant temperature experiments can produce misleading results, highlighting the need to study the thermal biology of organisms under fluctuating regimes that reflect natural conditions as closely as possible. This is particularly a major issue in host-parasitoid associations, which constitute a good model to understand the effect of climate warming on interacting species.

  18. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  19. Prey availability affects daily torpor by free-ranging Australian owlet-nightjars (Aegotheles cristatus).

    PubMed

    Doucette, Lisa I; Brigham, R Mark; Pavey, Chris R; Geiser, Fritz

    2012-06-01

    Food availability, ambient temperatures (T(a)), and prevailing weather conditions have long been presumed to influence torpor use. To a large extent, this is based on measurements in the laboratory of animals placed on restricted diets and kept at low T (a). Information on the determinants of torpor employment in the field is limited. We assessed winter torpor by insectivorous, free-ranging Australian owlet-nightjars (Aegotheles cristatus; 22 birds, 834 bird-days over six winters). Birds in three habitats were investigated to test whether torpor use is affected by annual T(a), rainfall, and arthropod abundance. Owlet-nightjars entered daily torpor regularly at all sites. Torpor frequency, depth and bout duration were greatest during two periods with lower arthropod abundance, providing rare evidence of the link between food availability and torpor patterns of wild birds. Temporal organization of torpor was similar among sites, and nocturnal torpor was more frequent than previously reported. Our findings quantitatively demonstrate that reduced food resources affect torpor usage independently from T(a), and support the view that food availability is a primary ecological determinant of torpor use in the wild.

  20. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data (1871-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.R.

    2002-10-28

    This document describes a database containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amount, snowfall amount, and snow depth from 1062 observing stations across the contiguous US. This database is an expansion and update of the original 138-station database previously released by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as CDIAC numeric data package NDP-042. These 1062 stations are a subset of the 1221-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), a monthly database compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) that has been widely used in analyzing US climate. Data from 1050 of these daily records extend into the 1990s, while 990 of these extend through 1997. Most station records are essentially complete for at least 40 years; the latest beginning year of record is 1948. Records from 158 stations begin prior to 1900, with that of Charleston, South Carolina beginning the earliest (1871). The daily resolution of these data makes them extremely valuable for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ''event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. The data are also valuable in areas such as regional climate model validation and climate change impact assessment. This database is available free of charge from CDIAC as a numeric data package (NDP).

  1. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  2. High-resolution daily gridded data sets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Sven; Krähenmann, Stefan; Bissolli, Peter

    2016-10-01

    New high-resolution data sets for near-surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D data set (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data. By spatial interpolation of these station observations, grid data in a resolution of 0.044° (≈ 5km) on a rotated grid with virtual North Pole at 39.25° N, 162° W are derived. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al.(2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are used for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA-Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Variance explained by the regression ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 K and 1-1.5 ms-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters

  3. High-resolution daily gridded datasets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, S.; Krähenmann, S.; Bissolli, P.

    2015-08-01

    New high-resolution datasets for near surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are hourly SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D dataset (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data and various kinds of inhomogeneities. Grids in a resolution of 0.044° (5 km) are derived by spatial interpolation of these station data into the CORDEX area. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al. (2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are chosen for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Explained variance ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 °C and 1-1.5 m s-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters and daily mean wind speed, respectively. The datasets presented in this article are published at http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_CDC/DECREG0110v1.

  4. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines

    PubMed Central

    Cober, Elroy R.; Curtis, Daniel F.; Stewart, Douglas W.; Morrison, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R2 = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE) = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R2 = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode). The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. PMID:27135515

  5. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place.

  6. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  7. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  8. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  9. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  10. Extended temperature range ACPS thruster investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blubaugh, A. L.; Schoenman, L.

    1974-01-01

    The successful hot fire demonstration of a pulsing liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen attitude control propulsion system thruster is described. The test was the result of research to develop a simple, lightweight, and high performance reaction control system without the traditional requirements for extensive periods of engine thermal conditioning, or the use of complex equipment to convert both liquid propellants to gas prior to delivery to the engine. Significant departures from conventional injector design practice were employed to achieve an operable design. The work discussed includes thermal and injector manifold priming analyses, subscale injector chilldown tests, and 168 full scale and 550 N (1250 lbF) rocket engine tests. Ignition experiments, at propellant temperatures ranging from cryogenic to ambient, led to the generation of a universal spark ignition system which can reliably ignite an engine when supplied with liquid, two phase, or gaseous propellants. Electrical power requirements for spark igniter are very low.

  11. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part I: maximum temperatures in summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of summer maximum temperatures is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, summer maximum daily temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent heat-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict heat-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that high temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily maximum temperatures during summer over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the summer forecast period of 1 June - 30 September, 2007. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated maximum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme heat episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  12. The association between diurnal temperature range and childhood bacillary dysentery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Li-ying; Zhao, Ke-fu; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Xu; Yang, Hui-hui; Li, Ke-sheng; Xu, Zhi-wei; Su, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have found that mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures were associated with bacillary dysentery (BD). However, little is known about whether the within-day variation of temperature has any impact on bacillary dysentery. The current study aimed to identify the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and BD in Hefei, China. Daily data on BD counts among children aged 0-14 years from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012 were retrieved from Hefei Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Daily data on ambient temperature and relative humidity covering the same period were collected from the Hefei Bureau of Meteorology. A Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used in the analysis after controlling the effects of season, long-term trends, mean temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed that there existed a statistically significant relationship between DTR and childhood BD. The DTR effect on childhood bacillary dysentery increased when DTR was over 8 °C. And it was greatest at 1-day lag, with an 8 % (95 % CI = 2.9-13.4 %) increase of BD cases per 5 °C increment of DTR. Male children and children aged 0-5 years appeared to be more vulnerable to the DTR effect. The data indicate that large DTR may increase the incidence of childhood BD. Caregivers and health practitioners should be made aware of the potential threat posed by large DTR. Therefore, DTR should be taken into consideration when making targeted health policies and programs to protect children from being harmed by climate impacts.

  13. The association between diurnal temperature range and childhood bacillary dysentery.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li-ying; Zhao, Ke-fu; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Xu; Yang, Hui-hui; Li, Ke-sheng; Xu, Zhi-wei; Su, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have found that mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures were associated with bacillary dysentery (BD). However, little is known about whether the within-day variation of temperature has any impact on bacillary dysentery. The current study aimed to identify the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and BD in Hefei, China. Daily data on BD counts among children aged 0-14 years from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012 were retrieved from Hefei Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Daily data on ambient temperature and relative humidity covering the same period were collected from the Hefei Bureau of Meteorology. A Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used in the analysis after controlling the effects of season, long-term trends, mean temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed that there existed a statistically significant relationship between DTR and childhood BD. The DTR effect on childhood bacillary dysentery increased when DTR was over 8 °C. And it was greatest at 1-day lag, with an 8% (95% CI = 2.9-13.4%) increase of BD cases per 5 °C increment of DTR. Male children and children aged 0-5 years appeared to be more vulnerable to the DTR effect. The data indicate that large DTR may increase the incidence of childhood BD. Caregivers and health practitioners should be made aware of the potential threat posed by large DTR. Therefore, DTR should be taken into consideration when making targeted health policies and programs to protect children from being harmed by climate impacts.

  14. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change.

    PubMed

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-13

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species.

  15. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  16. A comparison of climatological observing windows and their impact on detecting daily temperature extrema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žaknić-Ćatović, Ana; Gough, William A.

    2017-02-01

    Climatological observing window (COW) is defined as a time frame over which continuous or extreme air temperature measurements are collected. A 24-h time interval, ending at 00UTC or shifted to end at 06UTC, has been associated with difficulties in characterizing daily temperature extrema. A fixed 24-h COW used to obtain the temperature minima leads to potential misidentification due to fragmentation of "nighttime" into two subsequent nighttime periods due to the time discretization interval. The correct identification of air temperature extrema is achievable using a COW that identifies daily minimum over a single nighttime period and maximum over a single daytime period, as determined by sunrise and sunset. Due to a common absence of hourly air temperature observations, the accuracy of the mean temperature estimation is dependent on the accuracy of determination of diurnal air temperature extrema. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to examine the impact of the COW on detecting daily air temperature extrema. The timing of the 24-h observing window occasionally affects the determination of daily extrema through a mischaracterization of the diurnal minima and by extension can lead to errors in determining daily mean temperature. Hourly air temperature data for the time period from year 1987 to 2014, obtained from Toronto Buttonville Municipal Airport weather station, were used in analysis of COW impacts on detection of daily temperature extrema and calculation of annual temperature averages based on such extrema.

  17. Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitations extremes in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filahi, S.; Tanarhte, M.; Mouhir, L.; El Morhit, M.; Tramblay, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of Morocco's climate extreme trends during the last four decades. Indices were computed based on a daily temperature and precipitation using a consistent approach recommended by the ETCCDI. Trends in these indices were calculated at 20 stations from 1970 to 2012. Twelve indices were considered to detect trends in temperature. A large number of stations have significant trends and confirm an increase in temperature, showing increased warming during spring and summer seasons. The results also show a decrease in the number of cold days and nights and an increase in the number of warm days and nights. Increasing trends have also been found in the absolute warmest and coldest temperatures of the year. A clear increase is detected for warm nights and diurnal temperature range. Eight indices for precipitation were also analyzed, but the trends for these precipitation indices are much less significant than for temperature indices and show more mixed spatial patterns of change. Heavy precipitation events do not exhibit significant trends except at a few locations, in the north and central parts of Morocco, with a general tendency towards drier conditions. The correlation between these climate indices and the large-scale atmospheric circulations indices such as the NAO, MO, and WEMO were also analyzed. Results show a stronger relationship with these climatic indices for the precipitation indices compared to the temperature indices. The correlations are more significant in the Atlantic regions, but they remain moderate at the whole country scale.

  18. Entrainment of the circadian clock by daily ambient temperature cycles in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    El Allali, Khalid; Achaâban, Mohamed R; Bothorel, Béatrice; Piro, Mohamed; Bouâouda, Hanan; El Allouchi, Morad; Ouassat, Mohammed; Malan, André; Pévet, Paul

    2013-06-01

    In mammals the light-dark (LD) cycle is known to be the major cue to synchronize the circadian clock. In arid and desert areas, the camel (Camelus dromedarius) is exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Since wide oscillations of ambient temperature (Ta) are a major factor in this environment, we wondered whether cyclic Ta fluctuations might contribute to synchronization of circadian rhythms. The rhythm of body temperature (Tb) was selected as output of the circadian clock. After having verified that Tb is synchronized by the LD and free runs in continuous darkness (DD), we submitted the animals to daily cycles of Ta in LL and in DD. In both cases, the Tb rhythm was entrained to the cycle of Ta. On a 12-h phase shift of the Ta cycle, the mean phase shift of the Tb cycle ranged from a few hours in LD (1 h by cosinor, 4 h from curve peaks) to 7-8 h in LL and 12 h in DD. These results may reflect either true synchronization of the central clock by Ta daily cycles or possibly a passive effect of Ta on Tb. To resolve the ambiguity, melatonin rhythmicity was used as another output of the clock. In DD melatonin rhythms were also entrained by the Ta cycle, proving that the daily Ta cycle is able to entrain the circadian clock of the camel similar to photoperiod. By contrast, in the presence of a LD cycle the rhythm of melatonin was modified by the Ta cycle in only 2 (or 3) of 7 camels: in these specific conditions a systematic effect of Ta on the clock could not be evidenced. In conclusion, depending on the experimental conditions (DD vs. LD), the daily Ta cycle can either act as a zeitgeber or not.

  19. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  20. Climate change uncertainty for daily minimum and maximum temperatures: a model inter-comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P

    2006-11-09

    Several impacts of climate change may depend more on changes in mean daily minimum (T{sub min}) or maximum (T{sub max}) temperatures than daily averages. To evaluate uncertainties in these variables, we compared projections of T{sub min} and T{sub max} changes by 2046-2065 for 12 climate models under an A2 emission scenario. Average modeled changes in T{sub max} were slightly lower in most locations than T{sub min}, consistent with historical trends exhibiting a reduction in diurnal temperature ranges. However, while average changes in T{sub min} and T{sub max} were similar, the inter-model variability of T{sub min} and T{sub max} projections exhibited substantial differences. For example, inter-model standard deviations of June-August T{sub max} changes were more than 50% greater than for T{sub min} throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia. Model differences in cloud changes, which exert relatively greater influence on T{sub max} during summer and T{sub min} during winter, were identified as the main source of uncertainty disparities. These results highlight the importance of considering separately projections for T{sub max} and T{sub min} when assessing climate change impacts, even in cases where average projected changes are similar. In addition, impacts that are most sensitive to summertime T{sub min} or wintertime T{sub max} may be more predictable than suggested by analyses using only projections of daily average temperatures.

  1. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  2. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  3. Body temperature daily rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Kinahan, A A; Inge-moller, R; Bateman, P W; Kotze, A; Scantlebury, M

    2007-11-23

    The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body temperature (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the T(b) daily rhythms in savanna elephants. Our results showed that elephants had lower mean T(b) values (36.2 +/- 0.49 degrees C) than smaller ungulates inhabiting similar environments but did not have larger or smaller amplitudes of T(b) variation (0.40 +/- 0.12 degrees C), as would be predicted by their exposure to large fluctuations in ambient temperature or their large size. No difference was found between the daily T(b) rhythms measured under different conditions of water stress. Peak T(b)'s occurred late in the evening (22:10) which is generally later than in other large mammals ranging in similar environmental conditions.

  4. Trends and variability of daily and extreme temperature and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Tannecia; Vincent, Lucie; Allen, Theodore; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric; McLean, Natalie

    2013-04-01

    A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface temperature and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air temperature at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum temperatures (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum temperatures (+0.95°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal temperature range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 7% fewer cool days and 10% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low temperatures by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986-2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land temperature variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea temperatures.

  5. Trends and variability of daily and extreme temperature and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.

    2013-05-01

    A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface temperature and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air temperature at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum temperatures (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum temperatures (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal temperature range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low temperatures by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land temperature variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea temperatures.

  6. Observations of a "weekend effect" in diurnal temperature range.

    PubMed

    Forster, Piers M de F; Solomon, Susan

    2003-09-30

    Using surface measurements of maximum and minimum temperatures from the Global Daily Climatological Network data set, we find evidence of a weekly cycle in diurnal temperature range (DTR) for many stations in the United States, Mexico, Japan, and China. The "weekend effect," which we define as the average DTR for Saturday through Monday minus the average DTR for Wednesday through Friday, can be as large as 0.5 K, similar to the magnitude of observed long-term trends in DTR. This weekend effect has a distinct large-scale pattern that has changed only slightly over time, but its sign is not the same in all locations. The station procedures and the statistical robustness of both the individual station data and the patterns of DTR differences are thoroughly examined. We conclude that the weekend effect is a real short time scale and large spatial scale geophysical phenomenon, which is necessarily human in origin. We thus provide strong evidence of an anthropogenic link to DTR, an important climate indicator. Several possible anthropogenic mechanisms are discussed; we speculate that aerosol-cloud interactions are the most likely cause of this weekend effect, but we do not rule out others.

  7. Metabolism and temperature regulation during daily torpor in the smallest primate, the pygmy mouse lemur (Microcebus myoxinus) in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Schmid, J; Ruf, T; Heldmaier, G

    2000-02-01

    Thermoregulation, energetics and patterns of torpor in the pygmy mouse lemur, Microcebus myoxinus, were investigated under natural conditions of photoperiod and temperature in the Kirindy/CFPF Forest in western Madagascar. M. myoxinus entered torpor spontaneously during the cool dry season. Torpor only occurred on a daily basis and torpor bout duration was on average 9.6 h, and ranged from 4.6 h to 19.2 h. Metabolic rates during torpor were reduced to about 86% of the normothermic value. Minimum body temperature during daily torpor was 6.8 degrees C at an ambient temperature of 6.3 degrees C. Entry into torpor occurred randomly between 2000 and 0620 hours, whereas arousals from torpor were clustered around 1300 hours within a narrow time window of less than 4 h. Arousal from torpor was a two-step process with a first passive climb of body temperature to a mean of 27 degrees C, carried by the daily increase of ambient temperature when oxygen consumption remained more or less constant, followed by a second active increase of oxygen consumption to further raise the body temperature to normothermic values. In conclusion, daily body temperature rhythms in M. myoxinus further reduce the energetic costs of daily torpor seen in other species: they extend to unusually low body temperatures and consequently low metabolic rates in torpor, and they employ passive warming to reduce the energetic costs of arousal. Thus, these energy-conserving adaptations may represent an important energetic aid to the pygmy mouse lemur and help to promote their individual fitness.

  8. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  9. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  10. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  11. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  12. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  13. Range of Motion Requirements for Upper-Limb Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Lisa Smurr; Cowley, Jeffrey; Wilken, Jason M.; Resnik, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We quantified the range of motion (ROM) required for eight upper-extremity activities of daily living (ADLs) in healthy participants. METHOD. Fifteen right-handed participants completed several bimanual and unilateral basic ADLs while joint kinematics were monitored using a motion capture system. Peak motions of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist were quantified for each task. RESULTS. To complete all activities tested, participants needed a minimum ROM of −65°/0°/105° for humeral plane angle (horizontal abduction–adduction), 0°–108° for humeral elevation, −55°/0°/79° for humeral rotation, 0°–121° for elbow flexion, −53°/0°/13° for forearm rotation, −40°/0°/38° for wrist flexion–extension, and −28°/0°/38° for wrist ulnar–radial deviation. Peak trunk ROM was 23° lean, 32° axial rotation, and 59° flexion–extension. CONCLUSION. Full upper-limb kinematics were calculated for several ADLs. This methodology can be used in future studies as a basis for developing normative databases of upper-extremity motions and evaluating pathology in populations. PMID:26709433

  14. The circadian body temperature rhythm in the elderly: effect of single daily melatonin dosing.

    PubMed

    Gubin, D G; Gubin, G D; Waterhouse, J; Weinert, D

    2006-01-01

    The present study is part of a more extensive investigation dedicated to the study and treatment of age-dependent changes/disturbances in the circadian system in humans. It was performed in the Tyumen Elderly Veteran House and included 97 subjects of both genders, ranging from 63 to 91 yrs of age. They lived a self-chosen sleep-wake regimen to suit their personal convenience. The experiment lasted 3 wks. After 1 control week, part of the group (n=63) received 1.5 mg melatonin (Melaxen) daily at 22:30 h for 2 wks. The other 34 subjects were given placebo. Axillary temperature was measured using calibrated mercury thermometers at 03:00, 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, and 23:00 h each of the first and third week. Specially trained personnel took the measurements, avoiding disturbing the sleep of the subjects. To evaluate age-dependent changes, data obtained under similar conditions on 58 young adults (both genders, 17 to 39 yrs of age) were used. Rhythm characteristics were estimated by means of cosinor analyses, and intra- and inter-individual variability by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In both age groups, the body temperature underwent daily changes. The MESOR (36.38+/-0.19 degrees C vs. 36.17+/-0.21 degrees C) and circadian amplitude (0.33+/-0.01 degrees C vs. 0.26+/-0.01 degrees C) were slightly decreased in the elderly compared to the young adult subjects (p<0.001). The mean circadian acrophase was similar in both age groups (17.19+/-1.66 vs. 16.93+/-3.08 h). However, the inter-individual differences were higher in the older group, with individual values varying between 10:00 and 23:00 h. It was mainly this phase variability that caused a decrease in the inter-daily rhythm stability and lower group amplitude. With melatonin treatment, the MESOR was lower by 0.1 degrees C and the amplitude increased to 0.34+/-0.01 degrees C, a similar value to that found in young adults. This was probably due to the increase of the inter-daily rhythm stability. The mean acrophase

  15. Estimation of body temperature rhythm based on heart activity parameters in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sooyoung Sim; Heenam Yoon; Hosuk Ryou; Kwangsuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature contains valuable health related information such as circadian rhythm and menstruation cycle. Also, it was discovered from previous studies that body temperature rhythm in daily life is related with sleep disorders and cognitive performances. However, monitoring body temperature with existing devices during daily life is not easy because they are invasive, intrusive, or expensive. Therefore, the technology which can accurately and nonintrusively monitor body temperature is required. In this study, we developed body temperature estimation model based on heart rate and heart rate variability parameters. Although this work was inspired by previous research, we originally identified that the model can be applied to body temperature monitoring in daily life. Also, we could find out that normalized Mean heart rate (nMHR) and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability showed better performance than other parameters. Although we should validate the model with more number of subjects and consider additional algorithms to decrease the accumulated estimation error, we could verify the usefulness of this approach. Through this study, we expect that we would be able to monitor core body temperature and circadian rhythm from simple heart rate monitor. Then, we can obtain various health related information derived from daily body temperature rhythm.

  16. Estimation of daily mean air temperature from satellite derived radiometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) at JSC utilizes satellite derived estimates of daily mean air temperature (DMAT) to monitor the effect of temperature on screwworm populations. The performance of the SEDS screwworm growth potential predictions depends in large part upon the accuracy of the DMAT estimates.

  17. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  18. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  19. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  20. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  1. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  2. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  3. Meteorology (Temperature)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Air Temperature (° C)   Daily Temperature Range (° C) Difference between the average daily maximum ... The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is above 18° C.   Heating Degree Days below 18° C ...

  4. Fine-Resolution Satellite-Based Daily Sea Surface Temperatures over the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    MODAS with latitudinal extent limited to ±80. Note that only the RTG product includes SST in the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov . The plot masks SST...Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean A. B. Kara1 and C. N. Barron1 Received 18 November 2006; revised...13 February 2007; accepted 27 February 2007; published 22 May 2007. [1] The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface

  5. Effects of temperature seasonality on tundra vegetation productivity using a daily vegetation dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Erler, A.; Frazier, J.; Bhatt, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the seasonality of air temperature will elicit interacting effects on the dynamics of snow cover, nutrient availability, vegetation growth, and other ecosystem properties and processes in arctic tundra. Simulation models often do not have the fine temporal resolution necessary to develop theory and propose hypotheses for the effects of daily and weekly timescale changes on ecosystem dynamics. We therefore developed a daily version of an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model (ArcVeg) to simulate how changes in the seasonality of air temperatures influences the dynamics of vegetation growth and carbon sequestration across regions of arctic tundra. High temporal-resolution air and soil temperature data collected from field sites across the five arctic tundra bioclimate subzones were used to develop a daily weather generator operable for sites throughout the arctic tundra. Empirical relationships between temperature and soil nitrogen were used to generate daily dynamics of soil nitrogen availability, which drive the daily uptake of nitrogen and growth among twelve tundra plant functional types. Seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and remotely sensed land surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) GIMMS 3g dataset were used to investigate constraints on the start of the growing season, although there was no indication of any spatially consistent temperature or day-length controls on greening onset. Because of the exponential nature of the relationship between soil temperature and nitrogen mineralization, temperature changes during the peak of the growing season had greater effects on vegetation productivity than changes earlier in the growing season. However, early season changes in temperature had a greater effect on the relative productivities of different plant functional types, with potential influences on species composition.

  6. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  7. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  8. Daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence in Guangzhou, China: a time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Wan, Yue; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Few previous studies have examined the association between temperature and renal colic in developing regions, especially in China, the largest developing country in the world. We collected daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for renal colic from Guangzhou Emergency Center from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. We used a distributed-lag nonlinear model in addition to the over-dispersed generalized additive model to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence after controlling for seasonality, humidity, public holidays, and day of the week. We identified 3158 EADs for renal colic during the study period. This exposure-response curve was almost flat when the temperature was low and moderate and elevated when the temperature increased over 21 °C. For heat-related effects, the significant risk occurred on the concurrent day and diminished until lag day 7. The cumulative relative risk of hot temperatures (90th percentile) and extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) over lag days 0-7 was 1.92 (95 % confidence interval, 1.21, 3.05) and 2.45 (95 % confidence interval, 1.50, 3.99) compared with the reference temperature of 21 °C. This time-series analysis in Guangzhou, China, suggested a nonlinear and lagged association between high outdoor temperatures and daily EADs for renal colic. Our findings might have important public health significance to prevent renal colic.

  9. Spatiotemporal variations in the difference between satellite-observed daily maximum land surface temperature and station-based daily maximum near-surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xu; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Yao, Yitong; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Kaicun; Piao, Shilong

    2017-02-01

    There is an increasing demand to integrate land surface temperature (LST) into climate research due to its global coverage, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of its distinctive characteristics compared to near-surface air temperature (Tair). Using satellite observations and in situ station-based data sets, we conducted a global-scale assessment of the spatial and seasonal variations in the difference between daily maximum LST and daily maximum Tair (δT, LST - Tair) during 2003-2014. Spatially, LST is generally higher than Tair over arid and sparsely vegetated regions in the middle-low latitudes, but LST is lower than Tair in tropical rainforests due to strong evaporative cooling, and in the high-latitude regions due to snow-induced radiative cooling. Seasonally, δT is negative in tropical regions throughout the year, while it displays a pronounced seasonality in both the midlatitudes and boreal regions. The seasonality in the midlatitudes is a result of the asynchronous responses of LST and Tair to the seasonal cycle of radiation and vegetation abundance, whereas in the boreal regions, seasonality is mainly caused by the change in snow cover. Our study identified substantial spatial heterogeneity and seasonality in δT, as well as its determinant environmental drivers, and thus provides a useful reference for monitoring near-surface air temperature changes using remote sensing, particularly in remote regions.

  10. [The effect of daily exposure to low hardening temperature on plant vital activity].

    PubMed

    Markovskaia, E F; Sysoeva, M I; Sherudilo, E G

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological responses of plants to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature was studied under chamber and field conditions. Experiments were carried out on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), marigolds (Tagetes L.), and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants. The obtained data demonstrated a similar pattern of response in all studied plant species to different variants of exposure to low hardening temperature. The main features of plant response to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature include: a higher rate of increase in cold tolerance (cf. two- or threefold increase relative to constant low hardening temperature) that peaked on day 5 (cf. day 2 at constant low hardening temperature) and was maintained for 2 weeks (cf. 3-4 days at constant low hardening temperature); a simultaneous increase in heat tolerance (cf. twofold relative to constant low hardening temperature) maintained over a long period (cf. only in the beginning of the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a sharp drop in the subsequent cold tolerance after plant incubation in the dark (cf. a very low decrease in cold tolerance following the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a combination of high cold tolerance and high photochemical activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (cf. a low non-photochemical quenching at constant low hardening temperature); and the capacity to rapidly increase cold tolerance in response to repeated short-term exposures to low hardening temperature in plants grown outdoors (cf. a gradual increase after repeated exposure to constant low hardening temperature). Possible methods underlying the plant response to daily short-term exposure to low temperature are proposed.

  11. Kinetics of the Daily Rate of Photosynthesis at Low Temperatures for two Conifers 1

    PubMed Central

    Pharis, R. P.; Hellmers, H.; Schuurmans, E.

    1967-01-01

    The daily course of photosynthesis at low temperatures in 2 coniferous species, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, were studied using controlled environment facilities. After having been grown at a 23° day, and 19° night for a year, seedlings were acclimatized for 4 months to either a 3°, 7° or 11° day all under 1200 ft-c of light and followed by a 16-hour night at 3°. Measurement of photosynthesis at 1200 ft-c revealed 3 separate responses. First, the rapidity at which the plants attained their maximum photosynthesis when the lights were turned on depended upon the species, the current temperature, and the previous temperature condition to which the plants had become acclimatized. The warmer the day temperature the sooner the daily maximum was reached. Second, fluctuations in the rate of photosynthesis during the day varied with the species and the day temperature. Photosynthesis in both fir and pine kept at an 11° day and pines kept at a 7° day attained a daily peak rate followed by a decline. This decline occurred even though temperature and light were kept constant, the CO2 level was returned to 320 ppm from 290 ppm, and the plants were kept well watered. At a 3° day neither species showed this decline. Third, a plant transferred to another temperature acquired a new stable daily photosynthetic pattern. The number of days required for stabilization depended upon the previous temperature history of the plant. The adjustment rate was faster when the temperature was raised than when it was lowered. PMID:16656533

  12. The complex kinetics of protein folding in wide temperature ranges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin

    2004-10-01

    The complex protein folding kinetics in wide temperature ranges is studied through diffusive dynamics on the underlying energy landscape. The well-known kinetic chevron rollover behavior is recovered from the mean first passage time, with the U-shape dependence on temperature. The fastest folding temperature T0 is found to be smaller than the folding transition temperature Tf. We found that the fluctuations of the kinetics through the distribution of first passage time show rather universal behavior, from high-temperature exponential Poissonian kinetics to the relatively low-temperature highly non-exponential kinetics. The transition temperature is at Tk and T0 < Tk < Tf. In certain low-temperature regimes, a power law behavior at long time emerges. At very low temperatures (lower than trapping transition temperature T < T0/(4 approximately 6)), the kinetics is an exponential Poissonian process again.

  13. The daily rhythm of body temperature, heart and respiratory rate in newborn dogs.

    PubMed

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2010-08-01

    We asked whether, during the postnatal period, the daily patterns of body temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR) and breathing frequency (f) begin and develop in synchrony. To this end, measurements of HR, f and Tb were performed weekly, on two consecutive days, for the first two postnatal months on puppies of three breeds of dogs (Rottweiler, Cocker Spaniel and Carlino dogs) with very different birth weights and postnatal growth patterns. Ambient conditions and feeding habits were constant for all puppies. The results indicated that (1) the 24-h average Tb increased and average HR and f decreased with growth, (2) the daily rhythms in Tb were apparent by 4 weeks, irrespective of the puppy's growth pattern, (3) the daily rhythm of Tb in the puppy was not necessarily following that of the mother; in fact, it could anticipate it. (4) The daily rhythms in HR and f were not apparent for the whole study period. We conclude that in neonatal dogs the onset of the daily rhythms of Tb has no obvious relationship with body size or rate of growth and is not cued by the maternal Tb rhythm. The daily rhythms of HR and f do not appear before 2 months of age. Hence, they are not in synchrony with those of Tb.

  14. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  15. Nicotine-induced perturbations on heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity daily rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, A L; Gantenbein, M; Bruguerolle, B

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nicotine on the daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in unrestrained rats by use of implanted radiotelemetry transmitters. The study was divided into three seven-day periods: a control period, a treatment period and a recovery period. The control period was used for baseline measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. During the treatment period three rats received nicotine (1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) at 0900 h. Three rats received saline under the same experimental conditions. Heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were continuously monitored and plotted every 10 min. During the three periods a power spectrum analysis was used to determine the dominant period of rhythmicity. If daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were detected, the characteristics of these rhythms, i.e. the mesors, amplitudes and acrophases, were determined by cosinor analysis, expressed as means +/- s.e.m. and compared by analysis of variance. Nicotine did not suppress daily rhythmicity but induced decreases of amplitudes and phase-advances of acrophases for heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. These perturbations might result from the effects of nicotine on the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the hypothalamic clock that co-ordinates biological rhythms.

  16. Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems.

    PubMed

    Teles, Tarcísio N; Gupta, Shamik; Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Casetti, Lapo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature inversions occur in nature, e.g., in the solar corona and in interstellar molecular clouds: Somewhat counterintuitively, denser parts of the system are colder than dilute ones. We propose a simple and appealing way to spontaneously generate temperature inversions in systems with long-range interactions, by preparing them in inhomogeneous thermal equilibrium states and then applying an impulsive perturbation. In similar situations, short-range systems would typically relax to another thermal equilibrium, with a uniform temperature profile. By contrast, in long-range systems, the interplay between wave-particle interaction and spatial inhomogeneity drives the system to nonequilibrium stationary states that generically exhibit temperature inversion. We demonstrate this mechanism in a simple mean-field model and in a two-dimensional self-gravitating system. Our work underlines the crucial role the range of interparticle interaction plays in determining the nature of steady states out of thermal equilibrium.

  17. Daily energy expenditures of free-ranging Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Meyer, M.W.; Kenow, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the daily energy expenditure of free-living Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks using doubly labeled water (DLW). Average body mass of chicks during the DLW measures were 425, 1,052, and 1,963 g for 10 day-old (n = 5), 21 day-old (n = 6), and 35 day-old (n = 6) chicks, respectively, and their mean daily energy expenditures (DEE) were 686 kJ day-1, 768 kJ day-1, and 1,935 kJ day-1, respectively. Variation in DEE was not due solely to variation in body mass, but age was also a significant factor independent of body mass. Energy deposited in new tissue was calculated from age-dependent tissue energy contents and measured gains in body mass, which were 51, 54, and 33 g day-1 from the youngest to oldest chicks. Metabolizable energy (the sum of DEE and tissue energy) was used to estimate feeding rates of loon chicks and their exposure to mercury in the fish they consume. We calculated that loon chicks in Wisconsin consumed between 162 and 383 g wet mass of fish per day (depending on age), corresponding to intakes of mercury of 16-192 ??g day-1.

  18. Trends in extreme daily temperatures and humidex index in the United Arab Emirates over 1948-2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. W.; Ouarda, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with the analysis of the characteristics of extreme temperature events in the Middle East, using NCEP reanalysis gridded data, for the summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) seasons. Trends in the occurrences of three types of heat spells during 1948-2014 are studied by both Linear Regression (LR) and Mann-Kendall (MK) test. Changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) are also investigated. To better understand the effects of heat spells on public health, the Humidex, a combination index of ambient temperature and relative humidity, is also used. Using percentile threshold, temperature (Humidex) Type-A and Type-B heat spells are defined respectively by daily maximum and minimum temperature (Humidex). Type-C heat spells are defined as the joint occurrence of Type-A and Type-B heat spells at the same time. In the Middle East, it is found that no coherent trend in temperature Type-A heat spells is observed. However, the occurrences of temperature Type-B and C heat spells have consistently increased since 1948. For Humidex heat spells, coherently increased activities of all three types of heat spells are observed in the area. During the summer, the magnitude of the positive trends in Humidex heat spells are generally stronger than temperature heat spells. More than half of the locations in the area show significantly negative DTR trends in the summer, but the trends vary according to the region in the winter. Annual mean temperature has increased an average by 0.5°C, but it is mainly associated with the daily minimum temperature which has warmed up by 0.84°C.Daily maximum temperature showed no significant trends. The warming is hence stronger in minimum temperatures than in maximum temperatures resulting in a decrease in DTR by 0.16 °C per decade. This study indicates hence that the UAE has not become hotter, but it has become less cold during 1948 to 2014.

  19. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size

    PubMed Central

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Jones, Ian D.; Maberly, Stephen C.; French, Jon R.; Livingstone, David M.; Monteith, Donald T.; Simpson, Gavin L.; Thackeray, Stephen J.; Andersen, Mikkel R.; Battarbee, Richard W.; DeGasperi, Curtis L.; Evans, Christopher D.; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P.; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C.; Rusak, James A.; Ryves, David B.; Scott, Daniel R.; Shilland, Ewan M.; Smyth, Robyn L.; Staehr, Peter A.; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored. PMID:27023200

  20. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size.

    PubMed

    Woolway, R Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Maberly, Stephen C; French, Jon R; Livingstone, David M; Monteith, Donald T; Simpson, Gavin L; Thackeray, Stephen J; Andersen, Mikkel R; Battarbee, Richard W; DeGasperi, Curtis L; Evans, Christopher D; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C; Rusak, James A; Ryves, David B; Scott, Daniel R; Shilland, Ewan M; Smyth, Robyn L; Staehr, Peter A; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored.

  1. Braze alloy holds bonding strength over wide temperature range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Copper-based quaternary alloys of the solid solution type is used for vacuum furnace brazing of large stainless steel components at a maximum temperature of 1975 deg F. The alloy has high bonding strength and good ductility over a temperature range extending from the cryogenic region to approximately 800 deg F.

  2. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  3. Clarifying the role of fire heat and daily temperature fluctuations as germination cues for Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Blanes, M. Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims This study aims to determine the role that both direct effects of fire and subsequent daily temperature fluctuations play in the seed bank dynamics of obligate seeders from the Mediterranean Basin. The short yet high soil temperatures experienced due to passage of fire are conflated with the lower, but longer, temperatures experienced by daily fluctuations which occur after removing vegetation. These germination cues are able to break seed dormancy, but it is difficult to assess their specific level of influence because they occur consecutively after summer fires, just before the flush of germination in the wet season (autumn). Methods By applying experimental fires, seed treatments were imposed that combined fire exposure/non-fire exposure with exposure to microhabitats under a gradient of disturbance (i.e. gaps opened by fire, mechanical brushing and intact vegetation). The seeds used were representative of the main families of obligate seeders (Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus and Rosmarinus officinalis). Specifically, an assessment was made of (1) the proportion of seeds killed by fire, (2) seedling emergence under field conditions and (3) seeds which remained ungerminated in soil. Key Results For the three species studied, the factors that most influenced seedling emergence and seeds remaining ungerminated were microhabitats with higher temperature fluctuations after fire (gaps opened by fire and brushing treatments). The direct effect of fire decreased the seedling emergence of U. parviflorus and reduced the proportion of seeds of R. officinalis remaining ungerminated. Conclusions The relevance of depleting vegetation (and subsequent daily temperature fluctuation in summer) suggests that studies focusing on lower temperature thresholds for breaking seed dormancy are required. This fact also supports the hypothesis that the seeding capacity in Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders may have evolved as a response to a wide range of

  4. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  5. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle.

  6. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  7. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  8. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  9. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Semiconductor power devices are typically rated for operation below 150 C. Little data is known for power semiconductors over 150 C. In most cases, the device is derated to zero operating power at 175 C. At the high temperature end of the temperature range, the intrinsic carrier concentration increases to equal the doping concentration level and the silicon behaves as an intrinsic semiconductor. The increase in intrinsic carrier concentration results in a shift of the Fermi level toward mid-bandgap at elevated temperatures. This produces a shift in devices characteristics as a function of temperature. By increasing the doping concentration higher operating temperatures can be achieved. This technique was used to fabricate low power analog and digital devices in silicon with junction operating temperatures in excess of 300 C. Additional temperature effects include increased p-n junction leakage with increasing temperature, resulting in increased resistivity. The temperature dependency of physical properties results in variations in device characteristics. These must be quantified and understood in order to develop extended temperature range operation.

  10. A stage structured mosquito model incorporating effects of precipitation and daily temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2016-12-21

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong province in 2014 was the most serious outbreak ever recorded in China. Given the known positive correlation between the abundance of mosquitoes and the number of dengue fever cases, a stage structured mosquito model was developed to investigate the cause of the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 and its implications for outbreaks of the disease. Data on the Breteau index (number of containers positive for larvae per 100 premises investigated), temperature and precipitation were used for model fitting. The egg laying rate, the development rate and the mortality rates of immatures and adults were obtained from the estimated parameters. Moreover, effects of daily fluctuations of temperature on these parameters were obtained and the effects of temperature and precipitation were analyzed by simulations. Our results indicated that the abundance of mosquitoes depended not only on the total annual precipitation but also on the distribution of the precipitation. The daily mean temperature had a nonlinear relationship with the abundance of mosquitoes, and large diurnal temperature differences can reduce the abundance of mosquitoes. In addition, effects of increasing precipitation and temperature were interdependent. Our findings suggest that the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 was mainly caused by the distribution of the precipitation. In the perspective of mosquito control, our results reveal that it is better to clear water early and spray insecticide between April and August in case of limited resources.

  11. Faraday isolator stably operating in a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, E. A.; Voitovich, A. V.; Palashov, O. V.

    2016-03-01

    A method of stabilizing Faraday isolator characteristics at varying temperatures is proposed in this letter. The method is based on the use of a magnetic system with an inhomogeneous magnetic field and a magneto-optical element holder made of a material with a high value of thermal expansion coefficient. Changing the rotation angle of the polarization plane of radiation caused by the temperature variation of the magneto-optical element and the temperature dependence of its Verdet constant is compensated by its shifting in the magnetic field. The developed device demonstrates an isolation ratio of more than 40 dB at a temperature range of 25 °C. Estimates show the possibility of providing an isolation ratio of more than 45 dB in a temperature range of 60 °C.

  12. [Temperature range for growth of the Antarctic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Romanovaskaia, V A; Tashirev, A B; Gladka, G B; Tashireva, A A

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of a temperature range for growth of microorganisms isolated at various temperatures (1-5 degrees C or 30 degrees C) from biotopes of the Antarctic region (soil, grass Deschampcia antarctica, grass Colobanthus, a green moss, crustose black lichens and encrustation biofilm on vertical rocks) is made. From 40 to 70% of the investigated Antarctic microorganisms, irrespective of temperature conditions of their isolation, were capable of growing in a wide temperature range (from 1 degrees C to 30 degrees C), i.e. they are psychrotolerant. In selective conditions (1 degrees C or 5 degrees C) the psychrophilic Antarctic bacteria and yeast are isolated which grew in the range from 1 degrees C to 20 degrees C and did not grow at 30 degrees C. At the same time, among the Antarctic microorganisms isolated in nonselective conditions (at 30 degrees C), almost 50% are capable of growing at the lowest temperature (5 degrees C), and a smaller number of strains--at 1 degrees C. However with a decrease of cultivation temperature the growth lag-phase of the Antarctic bacteria increased. Thus the level of the final biomass of the investigated strains did not depend on cultivation temperature. When comparing the temperature range of growth of the mesophilic Antarctic bacteria and collection strains of the same species isolated more than 10 years ago from the region with a temperate climate, the psychrotolerant forms were also revealed among the latter. So, it is shown that the investigated Antarctic bacteria can exist in the temperature range characteristic of terrestrial biotopes of the Antarctic Region (from 1 degrees C to 10 degrees C).

  13. Interaction of Mean Temperature and Daily Fluctuation Influences Dengue Incidence in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2015-01-01

    Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation), population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control.

  14. Improved Wide Operating Temperature Range of Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2013-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range (-60 to +60 C) to satisfy the requirements of various applications including landers, rovers, penetrators, CEV, CLV, etc. This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. The Department of Energy (DoE) has identified a number of technical barriers associated with the development of Liion rechargeable batteries for PHEVs. For this reason, DoE has interest in the development of advanced electrolytes that will improve performance over a wide range of temperatures, and lead to long life characteristics (5,000 cycles over a 10-year life span). There is also interest in improving the high-voltage stability of these candidate electrolyte systems to enable the operation of up to 5 V with high specific energy cathode materials. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. In addition, the low-temperature performance typically deteriorates rapidly upon being exposed to high temperatures. A number of electrolyte formulations were developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl propionate (MP)-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalate borate) (LiBOB), which have previously been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. These MP-based electrolytes with additives have been shown to have improved performance in experiments with MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 cells.

  15. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  16. A long range dependent model with nonlinear innovations for simulating daily river flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elek, P.; Márkus, L.

    2004-04-01

    We present the analysis aimed at the estimation of flood risks of Tisza River in Hungary on the basis of daily river discharge data registered in the last 100 years. The deseasonalised series has skewed and leptokurtic distribution and various methods suggest that it possesses substantial long memory. This motivates the attempt to fit a fractional ARIMA model with non-Gaussian innovations as a first step. Synthetic streamflow series can then be generated from the bootstrapped innovations. However, there remains a significant difference between the empirical and the synthetic density functions as well as the quantiles. This brings attention to the fact that the innovations are not independent, both their squares and absolute values are autocorrelated. Furthermore, the innovations display non-seasonal periods of high and low variances. This behaviour is characteristic to generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH) models. However, when innovations are simulated as GARCH processes, the quantiles and extremes of the discharge series are heavily overestimated. Therefore we suggest to fit a smooth transition GARCH-process to the innovations. In a standard GARCH model the dependence of the variance on the lagged innovation is quadratic whereas in our proposed model it is a bounded function. While preserving long memory and eliminating the correlation from both the generating noise and from its square, the new model is superior to the previously mentioned ones in approximating the probability density, the high quantiles and the extremal behaviour of the empirical river flows.

  17. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum daily

  18. Estimating daily air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau by dynamically integrating MODIS LST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Fan; Ye, Ming; Che, Tao; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) data have been used to estimate air temperatures because of the sparseness of station measurements in remote mountainous areas. Due to the availability and accuracy of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data, the use of a single term or a fixed combination of terms (e.g., Terra/Aqua night and Terra/Aqua day), as used in previous estimation methods, provides only limited practical application. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy may be affected by different combinations and variable data quality among the MODIS LST terms and models. This study presents a method that dynamically integrates the available LST terms to estimate the daily mean air temperature and simultaneously considers model selection, data quality, and estimation accuracy. The results indicate that the differences in model performance are related to the combinations of LST terms and their data quality. The spatially averaged cloud cover of 14% for the developed product between 2003 and 2010 is much lower than the 35-54% for single LST terms. The average cross-validation root-mean-square difference values are approximately 2°C. This study identifies the best LST combinations and statistical models and provides an efficient method for daily air temperature estimation with low cloud blockage over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The developed data set and the method proposed in this study can help alleviate the problem of sparse air temperature data over the TP.

  19. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like changes in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether changing land use has led to detectable changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed changes of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic changes to changing land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446212"><span>Part 2. Association of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Wuhan, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Fewer studies have been published on the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to all natural causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the association between air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to all natural causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and <span class="hlt">ranges</span> are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9430E..1XK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9430E..1XK"><span>Nylon coil actuator operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> and stiffness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kianzad, Soheil; Pandit, Milind; Bahi, Addie; Rafie Ravandi, Ali; Ko, Frank; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Components in automotive and aerospace applications require a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of operation. Newly discovered thermally active Baughman muscle potentially provides affordable and viable solutions for driving mechanical devices by heating them from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but little is known about their operation below room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We study the mechanical behavior of nylon coil actuators by testing elastic modulus and by investigating tensile stroke as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Loads that <span class="hlt">range</span> from 35 MPa to 155 MPa were applied. For the nylon used and the coiling conditions, active thermal contraction totals 19.5 % when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is raised from -40 °C to 160 °C. The thermal contraction observed from -40 °C to 20°C is only ~2 %, whereas between 100 and 160 °C the contraction is 10 %. A marked increase in thermal contraction is occurs in the vicinity of the glass transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (~ 45°C). The elastic modulus drops as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, from ~155 MPa at - 40 °C to 35 MPa at 200 °C. Interestingly the drop in active contraction with increasing load is small and much less than might be expected given the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of modulus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A"><span>Multisite multivariate modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Canadian Prairie Provinces using generalized linear models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asong, Zilefac E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework, a multisite stochastic modelling approach is developed using <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is modeled using a two-stage normal-heteroscedastic model by fitting mean and variance components separately. Likewise, precipitation occurrence and conditional precipitation intensity processes are modeled separately. The relationship between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is accounted for by using transformations of precipitation as covariates to predict <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields. Large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are used to calibrate these models for the 1971-2000 period. Validation of the developed models is performed on both pre- and post-calibration period data. Results of the study indicate that the developed models are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields, such as inter-site and inter-variable correlation structure, and systematic regional variations present in observed sequences. A number of simulated weather statistics <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from seasonal means to characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes and some of the commonly used climate indices are also found to be in close agreement with those derived from observed data. This GLM-based modelling approach will be developed further for multisite statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model outputs to explore climate variability and change in this region of Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432"><span>Effect of constant and fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> melatonin production by eyecups from Rana perezi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valenciano, A I; Alonso-Gómez, A L; Alonso-Bedate, M; Delgado, M J</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>We analysed the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in relation to constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on day/night melatonin synthesis in frog eyecups in culture. Eyecups were cultured for 24 h under 12L:12D photoperiod and two thermal regimes, constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25, 15 and 5 degrees C) and thermoperiod (WL/CD, thermophase coinciding with photophase and cryophase coinciding with scotophase; and CL/WD, cryophase coinciding with photophase and thermophase coinciding with scotophase). A negative correlation between ocular serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for both diurnal and nocturnal activities has been observed. This effect of increased ocular activity at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more pronounced than the well-known stimulatory effect of darkness, and it does not depend on the photoperiod phase. The lack of interactions between the phase of photoperiod and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicates that the effects of both factors are independent. Night-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the key factor in determining the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the Rana perezi retina. However, daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can not counteract the inhibitory effect of light on ocular melatonin synthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4346C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4346C"><span>Statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and subdaily stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: Application to the Methow River Basin, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caldwell, R. J.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Bountry, J.; Lai, Y.; Elsner, M. M.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Management of water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Columbia River Basin (Washington) is critical because water projects have substantially altered the habitat of Endangered Species Act listed species, such as salmon, throughout the basin. This is most important in tributaries to the Columbia, such as the Methow River, where the spawning and rearing life stages of these cold water fishes occurs. Climate change projections generally predict increasing air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the western United States, with less confidence regarding shifts in precipitation. As air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise, we anticipate a corresponding increase in water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which may alter the timing and availability of habitat for fish reproduction and growth. To assess the impact of future climate change in the Methow River, we couple historical climate and future climate projections with a statistical modeling framework to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. A K-nearest neighbor algorithm is also employed to: (i) adjust the climate projections for biases compared to the observed record and (ii) provide a reference for performing spatiotemporal disaggregation in future hydraulic modeling of stream habitat. The statistical models indicate the primary drivers of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stream flow and show reasonable skill in predictability. When compared to the historical reference time period of 1916-2006, we conclude that increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected to occur at each subsequent time horizon representative of the year 2020, 2040, and 2080, with an increase of 0.8 ± 1.9°C by the year 2080.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr42W1....3B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr42W1....3B"><span>Contribution of Modis Satellite Image to Estimate the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in the Casablanca City, Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahi, Hicham; Rhinane, Hassan; Bensalmia, Ahmed</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is considered to be an essential variable for the study and analysis of meteorological regimes and chronics. However, the implementation of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> monitoring of this variable is very difficult to achieve. It requires sufficient of measurements stations density, meteorological parks and favourable logistics. The present work aims to establish relationship between day and night land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from MODIS data and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acquired between [2011-20112] and provided by the Department of National Meteorology [DMN] of Casablanca, Morocco. The results of the statistical analysis show significant interdependence during night observations with correlation coefficient of R2=0.921 and Root Mean Square Error RMSE=1.503 for Tmin while the physical magnitude estimated from daytime MODIS observation shows a relatively coarse error with R2=0.775 and RMSE=2.037 for Tmax. A method based on Gaussian process regression was applied to compute the spatial distribution of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from MODIS throughout the city of Casablanca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925550','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925550"><span>A <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Global Solar Radiation in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are readily available around the world, the models based on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are available in China. PMID:24605046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605046"><span>A <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based model for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are readily available around the world, the models based on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are available in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940023321','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940023321"><span>Silicon device performance measurements to support <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Nelms, R. Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Silicon based power devices can be used at 200 C. The device measurements made during this program show a predictable shift in device parameters with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. No catastrophic or abrupt changes occurred in the parameters over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. As expected, the most dramatic change was the increase in leakage currents with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. At 200 C the leakage current was in the milliAmp <span class="hlt">range</span> but was still several orders of magnitude lower than the on-state current capabilities of the devices under test. This increase must be considered in the design of circuits using power transistors at elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Three circuit topologies have been prototyped using MOSFET's and IGBT's. The circuits were designed using zero current or zero voltage switching techniques to eliminate or minimize hard switching of the power transistors. These circuits have functioned properly over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. One thousand hour life data have been collected for two power supplies with no failures and no significant change in operating efficiency. While additional reliability testing should be conducted, the feasibility of designing soft switched circuits for operation at 200 C has been successfully demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod on <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. Methods We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). Results L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Conclusions Herein, we showed that light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862828"><span>A model to approximate lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records and its application in risk assessment for the establishment of fish diseases in the UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thrush, M A; Peeler, E J</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Ambient water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a key factor controlling the distribution and impact of disease in fish populations, and optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> have been characterised for the establishment of a number important aquatic diseases exotic to the UK. This study presents a simple regression method to approximate <span class="hlt">daily</span> average surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in lakes of 0.5-15 ha in size across the UK using 5 km(2) gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> average air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provided by the UK Meteorological Office. A Geographic information system (GIS) is used to present thematic maps of relative risk scores established for each grid cell based on the mean number of days per year that water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> satisfied optimal criteria for the establishment of two economically important pathogens of cyprinid fish (koi herpesvirus (KHV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV)) and the distribution and density of fish populations susceptible to these viruses. High-density susceptible populations broadly overlap the areas where the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are optimal for KHV (central and south-east England); however, few fish populations occur in areas where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are most likely to result in the establishment of spring viremia of carp (SVC) (namely northern England and Scotland). The highest grid-cell risk scores for KHV and SVC were 7 and 6, respectively, out of a maximum score of 14. The proportion of grid cells containing susceptible populations with risk scores of 5 or more was 37% and 5% for KHV and SVC, respectively. This work demonstrates a risk-based approach to inform surveillance for exotic pathogens in aquatic animal health management, allowing efficient use of resources directed towards higher risk animals and geographic areas for early disease detection. The methodology could be used to examine the change in distribution of high-risk areas for both exotic and endemic fish diseases under different climate change scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863253','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863253"><span>Amplifier circuit operable over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kelly, Ronald D.; Cannon, William L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..151a2029V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..151a2029V"><span>High accuracy magnetic field sensors with wide operation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasil'evskii, I. S.; Vinichenko, A. N.; Rubakin, D. I.; Bolshakova, I. A.; Kargin, N. I.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>n+InAs(Si) epitaxial thin films heavily doped by silicon and Hall effect magnetic field sensors based on this structures have been fabricated and studied. We have demonstrated the successful formation of highly doped InAs thin films (∼100 nm) with the different intermediate layer arrangement and appropriate electron mobility values. Hall sensors performance parameters have been measured in wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Obtained sensitivity varied from 1 to 40 Ω/T, while the best linearity and lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient have been found in the higher doped samples with lower electron mobility. We attribute this to the electron system degeneracy and decreased phonon contribution to electron mobility and resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4905910','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4905910"><span>Factors affecting the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk <span class="hlt">daily</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matsui, Nobumasa; Shoji, Morio; Kitagawa, Takashi; Terada, Shigeru</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] Increased plantar pressure during walking is a risk factor for foot ulcers because of reduced <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints. However, the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the factors affecting the <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk <span class="hlt">daily</span>. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy feet of 35 patients receiving hemodialysis therapy were examined. Measurements included the passive <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, and flexion and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. [Results] Hemodialysis duration was not associated with ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Diabetes duration was significantly associated with limited ankle joint mobility. Finally, blood hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and age were associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion. [Conclusion] The present study identified age, diabetes, and decreased physical activity, but not hemodialysis duration, to be risk factors for limited joint mobility of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27313371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4852792','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4852792"><span>Increased risk of muscle tears below physiological <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scott, E. E. F.; Hamilton, D. F.; Wallace, R. J.; Muir, A. Y.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is known to influence muscle physiology, with the velocity of shortening, relaxation and propagation all increasing with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Scant data are available, however, regarding thermal influences on energy required to induce muscle damage. Methods Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were harvested from 36 male rat limbs and exposed to increasing impact energy in a mechanical test rig. Muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was varied in 5°C increments, from 17°C to 42°C (to encompass the in vivo <span class="hlt">range</span>). The energy causing non-recoverable deformation was recorded for each <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A measure of tissue elasticity was determined via accelerometer data, smoothed by low-pass fifth order Butterworth filter (10 kHz). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance was accepted at p = 0.05. Results The energy required to induce muscle failure was significantly lower at muscle <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 17°C to 32°C compared with muscle at core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, i.e., 37°C (p < 0.01). During low-energy impacts there were no differences in muscle elasticity between cold and warm muscles (p = 0.18). Differences in elasticity were, however, seen at higher impact energies (p < 0.02). Conclusion Our findings are of particular clinical relevance, as when muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops below 32°C, less energy is required to cause muscle tears. Muscle <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 32°C are reported in ambient conditions, suggesting that it would be beneficial, particularly in colder environments, to ensure that peripheral muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is raised close to core levels prior to high-velocity exercise. Thus, this work stresses the importance of not only ensuring that the muscle groups are well stretched, but also that all muscle groups are warmed to core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in pre-exercise routines. Cite this article: Professor A. H. R. W. Simpson. Increased risk of muscle tears below physiological <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:61–65. DOI: 10</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L"><span>Spatial modeling of the highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Korea via max-stable processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Youngsaeng; Yoon, Sanghoo; Murshed, Md. Sharwar; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, ChunHo; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jeong-Soo</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>This paper examines the annual highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DMT) in Korea by using data from 56 weather stations and employing spatial extreme modeling. Our approach is based on max-stable processes (MSP) with Schlather’s characterization. We divide the country into four regions for a better model fit and identify the best model for each region. We show that regional MSP modeling is more suitable than MSP modeling for the entire region and the pointwise generalized extreme value distribution approach. The advantage of spatial extreme modeling is that more precise and robust return levels and some indices of the highest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be obtained for observation stations and for locations with no observed data, and so help to determine the effects and assessment of vulnerability as well as to downscale extreme events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019969','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019969"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dodson, R.; Marks, D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Two methods are investigated for interpolating <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equations to convert measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and elevations to sea-level potential <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The potential <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hocking, Daniel J.; O’Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O’Donnell, Matthew J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018423','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018423"><span>Wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electronic device with lead attachment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farrell, R. (Inventor)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A electronic device including lead attachment structure which permits operation of the devices over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> is reported. The device comprises a core conductor having a thin coating of metal thereon whereby only a limited amount of coating material is available to form an alloy which bonds the core conductor to the device electrode, the electrode composition thus being affected only in the region adjacent to the lead.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873628','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873628"><span>Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Baozhen, Li; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> and wider <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhSS...58..382S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhSS...58..382S"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of the liquid-glass transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanditov, D. S.; Darmaev, M. V.; Sanditov, B. D.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>It has been shown that the currently used method for calculating the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of δ T g in the glass transition equation qτ g = δ T g as the difference δ T g = ( T 12- T 13) results in overestimated values, which is explained by the assumption of a constant activation energy of glass transition in deriving the calculation equation ( T 12 and T 13 are the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> corresponding to the logarithmic viscosity values of logη = 12 and logη = 13). The methods for the evaluation of δ T g using the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation and the model of delocalized atoms are considered, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with the product qτ g ( q is the cooling rate of the melt and τ g is the structural relaxation time at the glass transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span>). The calculation of τ g for inorganic glasses and amorphous organic polymers is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B"><span>Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Few sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571674"><span>[Interpolation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by using geographically weighted regression-Kriging].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guo-feng; Yang, Li-rong; Qu, Ming-kai; Chen, Hui-lin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the input variable of numerous models in agriculture, hydrology, climate, and ecology. Currently, in study areas where the terrain is complex, methods taking into account correlation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and environment variables and autocorrelation of regression residual (e.g., regression Kriging, RK) are mainly adopted to interpolate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, such methods are based on the global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression technique, without taking into account the spatial nonstationary relationship of environment variables. Geographically weighted regression-Kriging (GWRK) is a kind of method that takes into account spatial nonstationarity relationship of environment variables and spatial autocorrelation of regression residuals of environment variables. In this study, according to the results of correlation and stepwise regression analysis, RK1 (covariates only included altitude), GWRK1 (covariates only included altitude), RK2 (covariates included latitude, altitude and closest distance to the seaside) and GWRK2 (co-variates included altitude and closest distance to the seaside) were compared to predict the spatial distribution of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on Hainan Island on December 18, 2013. The prediction accuracy was assessed using the maximum positive error, maximum negative error, mean absolute error and root mean squared error based on the 80 validation sites. The results showed that GWRK1's four assessment indices were all closest to 0. The fact that RK2 and GWRK2 were worse than RK1 and GWRK1 implied that correlation among covariates reduced model performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> grids for Austria since 1961—concept, creation and applicability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiebl, Johann; Frei, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Current interest into past climate change and its potential role for changes in the environment call for spatially distributed climate datasets of high temporal resolution and extending over several decades. To foster such research, we present a new gridded dataset of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> covering Austria at 1-km resolution and extending back till 1961 at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time resolution. To account for the complex and highly variable thermal distributions in this high-mountain region, we adapt and employ a recently published interpolation method that estimates nonlinear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with altitude and accounts for the non-Euclidean spatial representativity of station measurements. The spatial analysis builds upon 150 station series in and around Austria (homogenised where available), all of which extend over or were gap-filled to cover the entire study period. The restriction to (almost) complete records shall avoid long-term inconsistencies from changes in the station network. Systematic leave-one-out cross-validation reveals interpolation errors (mean absolute error) of about 1 °C. Errors are relatively larger for minimum compared to maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, for the interior of the Alps compared to the flatland and for winter compared to summer. Visual comparisons suggest that valley-scale inversions and föhn are more realistically captured in the new compared to existing datasets. The usefulness of the presented dataset (SPARTACUS) is illustrated in preliminary analyses of long-term trends in climate impact indices. These reveal spatially variable and eventually considerable changes in the thermal climate in Austria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z"><span>On the use of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to calculate the extended spring indices phenological models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zurita-Milla, Raul; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Batarseh, Sana; Ault, Toby; Schwartz, Mark D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Models that predict the timing of recurrent biological events play an important role in supporting the systematic study of phenological changes at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. One set of such models are the extended Spring indices (SI-x). These models predicts a suite of phenological metrics ("first leaf" and "first bloom," "last freeze" and the "damage index") from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data and geographic location (to model the duration of the day). The SI-x models were calibrated using historical phenological and weather observations from the continental US. In particular, the models relied on first leaf and first bloom observations for lilac and honeysuckle and on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values from a number of weather stations located near to the sites where phenological observations were made. In this work, we study the use of DAYMET (http://daymet.ornl.gov/) to calculate the SI-x models over the continental USA. DAYMET offers <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values for the period 1980 to 2012. Using an automatic downloader, we downloaded complete DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series for the over 1100 geographic locations where historical lilac observations were made. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values were parsed and, using the recently available MATLAB code, the SI-x indices were calculated. Subsequently, the predicted first leaf and first bloom dates were compared with historical lilac observations. The RMSE between predicted and observed lilac leaf/bloom dates was calculated after identifying data from the same geographic location and year. Results were satisfactory for the lilac observations in the Eastern US (e.g. the RMSE for the blooming date was of about 5 days). However, the correspondence between the observed and predicted lilac values in the West was rather week (e.g. RMSE for the blooming date of about 22 days). This might indicate that DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data in this region of the US might contain larger uncertainties due to a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...42D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...42D"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W"><span>The influence of topographic setting and weather type on the correlation between elevation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures in mountainous terrain in the Canadian Rocky Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Wendy; Marshall, Shawn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates for hydrological and ecological studies in mountainous regions are often based on lapse rate adjustments using sparse low elevation measurements. These measurements may not be representative of the area where estimates are required. This study examines the effects varying topographic settings under different weather types have on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship. The Foothills Climate Array study recorded hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 2004 and 2010 at ˜230 weather stations over an area of approximately 24 000 km2 in the Canadian Rocky mountains, extending to the Canadian prairies. 132 sites are considered mountain sites, comprising a <span class="hlt">range</span> of elevation values, surface types and varied terrain morphology. Correlations are calculated between all station pairs for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, grouped by weather type for the 2006 data. Topographic and surface type characteristics - horizontal and vertical separation, height above valley bottom, slope aspect and angle and land surface type - for the 10 highest correlated neighbours for each site are examined as a means of determining which of these measures drives a similar behavior in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results indicate a weak <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation correlation coefficient is -0.31 for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, varying from weaker than -0.2 for weather types where cold air pooling is a common occurrence to stronger than -0.6 for cool wet weather days. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have an average correlation coefficient of -0.78, but the correlation weakens to -0.4 for cold weather events. There is a nonlinear maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship, with weak correlations below 2000 m and stronger correlations at higher elevations. Choosing sites with similar topographic settings does strengthen the correlation coefficient, but the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship remains weak due to large day to day</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357"><span>Influence of repeated <span class="hlt">daily</span> menthol exposure on human <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation and perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillis, D Jason; Weston, Neil; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A single exposure to menthol can, depending on concentration, enhance both cool sensations and encourage body heat storage. This study tested whether there is an habituation in either response after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures. Twenty-two participants were assigned to one of three spray groups: Control (CON; n=6), 0.05% L-menthol (M(0.05%); n=8), and 0.2% L-menthol (M(0.2%); n=8). On Monday (20°C, 50% rh) participants were sprayed with 100 mL of solution and undertook 40 min of cycling at 45% of their peak power (Ex1), from Tuesday to Thursday (30°C, 50% rh) they were sprayed twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> whilst resting (R1 to R6), Friday was a repeat of Monday (Ex2). Thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort, perceived exertion, irritation, rectal and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tsk), skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were monitored. A two-way ANOVA (alpha=0.05) compared responses from the beginning (Ex1, R1) and end (Ex2, R5) of the testing week. M(0.2%) induced significantly (P<0.05) cooler TS at the beginning of the week (Ex1, R1) compared to the end (Ex2, R5), indicating habituation of TS; this was not observed in M(0.05%). No other perceptual or physiological responses habituated. 0.2% Menthol caused a heat storage response, mediated by vasoconstriction, at the beginning and end of the week, suggesting the habituation of TS occurred in a pathway specific to sensation. In summary, the cooling influence of 0.2% menthol habituates after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures, but with no habituation in heat storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvX...4a1040B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvX...4a1040B"><span>Short-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlations in Magnetite above the Verwey <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bosak, Alexey; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Hoesch, Moritz; Piekarz, Przemysław; Le Tacon, Mathieu; Krisch, Michael; Kozłowski, Andrzej; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Parlinski, Krzysztof</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Magnetite, Fe3O4, is the first magnetic material discovered and utilized by mankind in Ancient Greece, yet it still attracts attention due to its puzzling properties. This is largely due to the quest for a full and coherent understanding of the Verwey transition that occurs at TV=124 K and is associated with a drop of electric conductivity and a complex structural phase transition. A recent detailed analysis of the structure, based on single crystal diffraction, suggests that the electron localization pattern contains linear three-Fe-site units, the so-called trimerons. Here, we show that whatever the electron localization pattern is, it partially survives up to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as short-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlations in the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> cubic phase, easily discernible by diffuse scattering. Additionally, ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that characteristic features in these diffuse scattering patterns can be correlated with the Fermi surface topology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S"><span>Transient 21st Century Changes in <span class="hlt">Daily</span>-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A key question for policy and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We therefore use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment driven by the A1B emission scenario to investigate the transient changes in the frequency, duration and magnitude of six <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale hot and cold extreme indices throughout the 21st century in the United States. We evaluate these changes within a time of emergence framework and calculate the emergence of a permanent exceedence above the colder part of the current (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and further analyze whether a new norm, with the distribution centered on the current distribution's maxima/minima, emerges. We find that hot extremes will permanently exceed the current distribution's colder half in large parts of the U.S. during the 21st century, along with the emergence of a new hot extremes norm. The changes are particularly robust for tropical nights in the Eastern U.S. and for the exceedence of the 95th <span class="hlt">daily-maximum-temperature</span> percentile in the West and the Northeast. Conversely, no widespread emergence for a permanent exceedence or a new norm is found for cold extremes, with the exception of cold spell duration and frost day frequency. Accordingly, our analysis implies unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S. by the mid century under increase radiative forcing, as well as cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at least occasionally as long and as severe as in the current climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324"><span>Seasonal patterns of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in group-living Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W; Bennett, Nigel C; Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E; Waterman, Jane M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(a)). We measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(a) provided the greatest explanatory power for mean T(b) whereas sunrise had greatest power for T(b) acrophase. There were significant changes in mean T(b) and T(b) acrophase over time with mean T(b) increasing and T(b) acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in T(b), sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which T(b) remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to 'offload' heat. In addition, greater T(b) amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their T(a)-T(b) gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on T(b) with a lower and less variable T(b) in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile T(b) which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M"><span>Ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability from in-situ and satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST variability on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical variability. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA Glob<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> project which aims at applying surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in models in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pulido, Jose E.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Landis, J. Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: High ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Methods: Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005–2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure–response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, in most cases RRs increased for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ≤ 3 days. Conclusions: In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904"><span>Polar microwave brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Nimbus-7 SMMR: Time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly maps from 1978 to 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.; Zwally, H. Jay</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gridded maps (October 25, 1978 through August 15, 1987) were generated from all ten channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer orbital data. This unique data set can be utilized in a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of applications including heat flux, ocean circulation, ice edge productivity, and climate studies. Two sets of data in polar stereographic format are created for the Arctic region: one with a grid size of about 30 km on a 293 by 293 array similar to that previously utilized for the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer, while the other has a grid size of about 25 km on a 448 by 304 array identical to what is now being used for the DMSP Scanning Multichannel Microwave Imager. Data generated for the Antaractic region are mapped using the 293 by 293 grid only. The general technique for mapping, and a quality assessment of the data set are presented. Monthly and yearly averages are also generated from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and sample geophysical ice images and products derived from the data are given. Contour plots of monthly ice concentrations derived from the data for October 1978 through August 1987 are presented to demonstrate spatial and temporal detail which this data set can offer, and to show potential research applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V"><span>Observed trends in indices of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for the countries of the western Indian Ocean, 1961-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, L. A.; Aguilar, E.; Saindou, M.; Hassane, A. F.; Jumaux, G.; Roy, D.; Booneeady, P.; Virasami, R.; Randriamarolaza, L. Y. A.; Faniriantsoa, F. R.; Amelie, V.; Seeward, H.; Montfraix, B.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A workshop on climate change indices was held at the Mauritius Meteorological Services in October 2009 to produce the first analysis of climate trends for the countries of the western Indian Ocean. Scientists brought their long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for a careful assessment of data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices. This paper reports on the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices for 1961-2008. The results indicate a definitive warming of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Annual means of the daytime and nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased at a similar rate, leading to no discernible change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Significant increasing trends were found in the frequency of warm days and warm nights, while decreasing trends were observed in the frequency of cold days and cold nights. Moreover, it seems that the warm extremes have changed more than the cold extremes in the western Indian Ocean region. Trends in precipitation indices are generally weak and show less spatial coherence. Regionally, a significant decrease was found in the annual total rainfall for the past 48 years. The results also show some increase in consecutive dry days, no change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity and consecutive wet days, and a decrease in extreme precipitation events. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> indices are highly correlated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the region, whereas weak correlations are found with the precipitation indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using wavelet regression, ANN, GEP and empirical models: A comparative study of selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharifi, Sayed Saber; Rezaverdinejad, Vahid; Nourani, Vahid</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Although the sunshine-based models generally have a better performance than <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based models for estimating solar radiation, the limited availability of sunshine duration records makes the development of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based methods inevitable. This paper presents a comparative study between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Wavelet Regression (WR) and 5 selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based empirical models for estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation. A new combination of inputs including four readily accessible parameters have been employed: <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean clearness index (KT), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (ΔT), theoretical sunshine duration (N) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra). Ten statistical indicators in a form of GPI (Global Performance Indicator) is used to ascertain the suitability of the models. The performance of selected models across the <span class="hlt">range</span> of solar radiation values, was depicted by the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. Comparing these plots makes it evident that ANNs can cover a broader <span class="hlt">range</span> of solar radiation values. The results shown indicate that the performance of ANN model was clearly superior to the other models. The findings also demonstrated that WR model performed well and presented high accuracy in estimations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957609','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957609"><span>Changes in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> and national cereal yields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobell, D</p> <p>2007-04-26</p> <p>Models of yield responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change have often considered only changes in average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide <span class="hlt">ranges</span> that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D"><span>Impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813125R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813125R"><span>The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, <span class="hlt">daily</span> information on surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rayner, Nick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Day-to-day variations in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements are not available everywhere. A global <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements and retrievals of surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S"><span>Transient twenty-first century changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L"><span>An empirical method for estimating probability density functions of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lussana, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The presented work focuses on the investigation of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (TN) and maximum (TX) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability density functions (PDFs) with the intent of both characterising a region and detecting extreme values. The empirical PDFs estimation procedure has been realised using the most recent years of gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis fields available at ARPA Lombardia, in Northern Italy. The spatial interpolation is based on an implementation of Optimal Interpolation using observations from a dense surface network of automated weather stations. An effort has been made to identify both the time period and the spatial areas with a stable data density otherwise the elaboration could be influenced by the unsettled station distribution. The PDF used in this study is based on the Gaussian distribution, nevertheless it is designed to have an asymmetrical (skewed) shape in order to enable distinction between warming and cooling events. Once properly defined the occurrence of extreme events, it is possible to straightforwardly deliver to the users the information on a local-scale in a concise way, such as: TX extremely cold/hot or TN extremely cold/hot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068"><span>Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The variability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed by the China Meteorological Administ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..247D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..247D"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using MODIS data in southern Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Didari, Shohreh; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh; Khanbilvardi, Reza</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LSAT) is a key variable in agricultural, climatological, hydrological, and environmental studies. Many of their processes are affected by LSAT at about 5 cm from the ground surface (LSAT5cm). Most of the previous studies tried to find statistical models to estimate LSAT at 2 m height (LSAT2m) which is considered as a standardized height, and there is not enough study for LSAT5cm estimation models. Accurate measurements of LSAT5cm are generally acquired from meteorological stations, which are sparse in remote areas. Nonetheless, remote sensing data by providing rather extensive spatial coverage can complement the spatiotemporal shortcomings of meteorological stations. The main objective of this study was to find a statistical model from the previous day to accurately estimate spatial <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum LSAT5cm, which is very important in agricultural frost, in Fars province in southern Iran. Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) data were obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra satellites at daytime and nighttime periods with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. These data along with geometric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevation information were used in a stepwise linear model to estimate minimum LSAT5cm during 2003-2011. The results revealed that utilization of MODIS Aqua nighttime data of previous day provides the most applicable and accurate model. According to the validation results, the accuracy of the proposed model was suitable during 2012 (root mean square difference (RMSD) = 3.07 °C, {R}_{adj}^2 = 87 %). The model underestimated (overestimated) high (low) minimum LSAT5cm. The accuracy of estimation in the winter time was found to be lower than the other seasons (RMSD = 3.55 °C), and in summer and winter, the errors were larger than in the remaining seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> and maximum ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> (ADT) and the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P < 0.01) for all traits. Narrower <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of ADT3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, and PDL (P < 0.01), while higher PEAK3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, PDL, and LBA (P < 0.001). To reduce the risk of reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their <span class="hlt">temperature</span> management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MAR.A5004H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..MAR.A5004H"><span>Microcalorimetry: Wide <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span>, High Field, Small Sample Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hellman, Frances</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>We have used Si micromachining techniques to fabricate devices for measuring specific heat or other calorimetric signals from microgram-quantity samples over a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 1 to 900K in magnetic fields to date up to 8T. The devices are based on a relatively robust silicon nitride membrane with thin film heaters and thermometers. Different types of thermometers are used for different purposes and in different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. These devices are particularly useful for thin film samples (typically 200-400 nm thick at present) deposited directly onto the membrane through a Si micromachined evaporation mask. They have also been used for small single crystal samples attached by conducting grease or solder, and for powder samples dissolved in a solvent and dropped onto devices. The measurement technique used (relaxation method) is particularly suited to high field measurements because the thermal conductance can be measured once in zero field and is field independent, while the time constant of the relaxation does not depend on thermometer calibration. Present development efforts include designs which show promise for time-resolved calorimetry measurements of biological samples in small amounts of water. Samples measured to date include amorphous magnetic thin films (a-TbFe2 and giant negative magnetoresistance a-Gd-Si alloys), empty and filled fullerenes (C_60, K_3C_60, C_82, La@C_82, C_84, and Sc_2@C_84), single crystal manganites (La_1-xSr_xMnO_3), antiferromagnetic multilayers (NiO/CoO, NiO/MgO, and CoO/MgO), and nanoparticle magnetic materials (CoO in a Ag matrix).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25492855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25492855"><span>Hip <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion during <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities in patients with posterior pelvic tilt from supine to standing position.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamura, Satoru; Miki, Hidenobu; Tsuda, Kosuke; Takao, Masaki; Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Naoki; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Sugano, Nobuhiko</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In most patients with hip disorders, the anterior pelvic plane (APP) sagittal tilt does not change from supine to standing position. However, in some patients, APP sagittal tilt changes more than 10° posteriorly from supine to standing position. The purpose of this study was to both examine APP sagittal tilt and investigate the hip flexion and extension <span class="hlt">range</span> of motion (ROM) required during <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities in these atypical patients. Patient-specific 4-dimensional (4D) motion analysis was performed for 50 hips from 44 patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. All patients divided into two categories, such as atypical patients for whom the pelvis tilted more than 10° posteriorly from supine to standing position preoperatively (19 hips from 18 patients) and the remaining typical patients (31 hips from 26 patients). The required hip flexion and extension angles did not differ significantly between atypical patients and typical patients. In conclusion, the hip flexion ROM during deep bending activities and hip extension ROM during extension activities required in those atypical patients with pelvic tilt more than 10° backward from supine to standing position did not shift in the direction of extension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S"><span>Observed Trends in Indices of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T"><span>Merging <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from multiple satellites using a Bayesian maximum entropy method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Shaolei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Di; Li, Ziwei</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) is an important variable for understanding interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. SST fusion is crucial for acquiring SST products of high spatial resolution and coverage. This study introduces a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method for blending <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSTs from multiple satellite sensors. A new spatiotemporal covariance model of an SST field is built to integrate not only single-day SSTs but also time-adjacent SSTs. In addition, AVHRR 30-year SST climatology data are introduced as soft data at the estimation points to improve the accuracy of blended results within the BME framework. The merged SSTs, with a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 24 hours, are produced in the Western Pacific Ocean region to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed methodology. Comparisons with in situ drifting buoy observations show that the merged SSTs are accurate and the bias and root-mean-square errors for the comparison are 0.15°C and 0.72°C, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495"><span>R-vine models for spatial time series with an application to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erhardt, Tobias Michael; Czado, Claudia; Schepsmeier, Ulf</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We introduce an extension of R-vine copula models to allow for spatial dependencies and model based prediction at unobserved locations. The proposed spatial R-vine model combines the flexibility of vine copulas with the classical geostatistical idea of modeling spatial dependencies using the distances between the variable locations. In particular, the model is able to capture non-Gaussian spatial dependencies. To develop and illustrate our approach, we consider <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data observed at 54 monitoring stations in Germany. We identify relationships between the vine copula parameters and the station distances and exploit these in order to reduce the huge number of parameters needed to parametrize a 54-dimensional R-vine model fitted to the data. The new distance based model parametrization results in a distinct reduction in the number of parameters and makes parameter estimation and prediction at unobserved locations feasible. The prediction capabilities are validated using adequate scoring techniques, showing a better performance of the spatial R-vine copula model compared to a Gaussian spatial model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A"><span>A physics-based correction model for homogenizing sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auchmann, R.; BröNnimann, S.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A new physics-based technique for correcting inhomogeneities present in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records is proposed. The approach accounts for changes in the sensor-shield characteristics that affect the energy balance dependent on ambient weather conditions (radiation, wind). An empirical model is formulated that reflects the main atmospheric processes and can be used in the correction step of a homogenization procedure. The model accounts for short- and long-wave radiation fluxes (including a snow cover component for albedo calculation) of a measurement system, such as a radiation shield. One part of the flux is further modulated by ventilation. The model requires only cloud cover and wind speed for each day, but detailed site-specific information is necessary. The final model has three free parameters, one of which is a constant offset. The three parameters can be determined, e.g., using the mean offsets for three observation times. The model is developed using the example of the change from the Wild screen to the Stevenson screen in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record of Basel, Switzerland, in 1966. It is evaluated based on parallel measurements of both systems during a sub-period at this location, which were discovered during the writing of this paper. The model can be used in the correction step of homogenization to distribute a known mean step-size to every single measurement, thus providing a reasonable alternative correction procedure for high-resolution historical climate series. It also constitutes an error model, which may be applied, e.g., in data assimilation approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23377036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23377036"><span>Global climate change: impact of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on mortality in Guangzhou, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Jun; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Ou, Chun-Quan; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Zhou, Qin; Shen, Gi-Chuan; Chen, Ping-Yan; Guo, Yuming</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator associated with global climate change, but little is known about the effects of DTR on mortality. We examined the effects of DTR on cause-/age-/education-specific mortality in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in China during 2003-2010. A quasi-Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the effects of DTR, after controlling for <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, air pollutants, season and day of the week. A 1 °C increase in DTR at lag 0-4 days was associated with a 0.47% (95% confidence interval: 0.01%-0.93%) increase in non-accidental mortality. Stroke mortality was most sensitive to DTR. Female, the elderly and those with low education were more susceptible to DTR than male, the youth and those with high education, respectively. Our findings suggest that vulnerable subpopulations should pay more attention to protect themselves from unstable <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839764"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlations of Global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) derived from 1870–2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively long-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller long-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities. PMID:27100397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100397"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlations of Global Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) derived from 1870-2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively long-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller long-<span class="hlt">range</span> correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859"><span>High-frequency <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in China and its relationship to large-scale circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Fu-Ting; Fu, Congbin; Qian, Yun; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shu-Yu</p> <p>2016-04-18</p> <p>Two measures of intra-seasonal variability, indicated respectively by standard deviations (SD) and day-to-day (DTD) fluctuations denoted by absolute differences between adjacent 2-day periods, as well as their relationships with large-scale circulation patterns were investigated in China during 1962–2008 on the basis of homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from 549 local stations and reanalysis data. Our results show that both the SD and DTD of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin) in summer as well as the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter have been decreasing, while the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) variability in summer is fluctuating more, especially over southern China. In summer, an attribution analysis indicates that the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and high-level East Asian Subtropical Jet stream (EASJ) are positively correlated with both SD and DTD, but the correlation coefficients are generally greater with the SD than with the DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tmax. In contrast, the location of the EASJ shows the opposite correlation pattern, with intensity regarding the correlation with both SD and DTD. In winter, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is negatively correlated with both the SD and DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but its intra-seasonal variability exhibits good agreement with the SD of the Tmin. The Siberian High acts differently with respect to the SD and DTD of the Tmin, demonstrating a regionally consistent positive correlation with the SD. Overall, the large-scale circulation can well explain the intra-seasonal SD, but DTD fluctuations may be more local and impacted by local conditions, such as changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> itself, the land surface, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1104890-reduced-diurnal-temperature-range-does-change-warming-impacts-ecosystem-carbon-balance-mediterranean-grassland-mesocosms','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1104890-reduced-diurnal-temperature-range-does-change-warming-impacts-ecosystem-carbon-balance-mediterranean-grassland-mesocosms"><span>Reduced diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) has increased faster than <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We reportmore » on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls to create realistic diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with gradual day-night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions and elevated early morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1104890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1104890"><span>Reduced diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T<sub>min</sub>) has increased faster than <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T<sub>max</sub>) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact T<sub>min</sub> occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in T<sub>min</sub> than T<sub>max</sub>, using precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls to create realistic diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with gradual day-night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions and elevated early morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn T<sub>min</sub>=ambient +5ºC, afternoon T<sub>max</sub>= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, rather than changes in T<sub>min</sub>/T<sub>max</sub>, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713450X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713450X"><span>Carbon nanotube dry adhesives with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced adhesion over a large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Ming; Du, Feng; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ajit; Dai, Liming</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Conventional adhesives show a decrease in the adhesion force with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to thermally induced viscoelastic thinning and/or structural decomposition. Here, we report the counter-intuitive behaviour of carbon nanotube (CNT) dry adhesives that show a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced adhesion strength by over six-fold up to 143 N cm-2 (4 mm × 4 mm), among the strongest pure CNT dry adhesives, over a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from -196 to 1,000 °C. This unusual adhesion behaviour leads to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced electrical and thermal transports, enabling the CNT dry adhesive for efficient electrical and thermal management when being used as a conductive double-sided sticky tape. With its intrinsic thermal stability, our CNT adhesive sustains many <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transition cycles over a wide operation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. We discover that a `nano-interlock' adhesion mechanism is responsible for the adhesion behaviour, which could be applied to the development of various dry CNT adhesives with novel features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116088','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5116088"><span>Carbon nanotube dry adhesives with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced adhesion over a large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Ming; Du, Feng; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ajit; Dai, Liming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Conventional adhesives show a decrease in the adhesion force with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to thermally induced viscoelastic thinning and/or structural decomposition. Here, we report the counter-intuitive behaviour of carbon nanotube (CNT) dry adhesives that show a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced adhesion strength by over six-fold up to 143 N cm−2 (4 mm × 4 mm), among the strongest pure CNT dry adhesives, over a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from −196 to 1,000 °C. This unusual adhesion behaviour leads to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-enhanced electrical and thermal transports, enabling the CNT dry adhesive for efficient electrical and thermal management when being used as a conductive double-sided sticky tape. With its intrinsic thermal stability, our CNT adhesive sustains many <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transition cycles over a wide operation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. We discover that a ‘nano-interlock' adhesion mechanism is responsible for the adhesion behaviour, which could be applied to the development of various dry CNT adhesives with novel features. PMID:27849052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566202','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3566202"><span>Lagged Effect of Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> on Mortality in a Subtropical Megacity of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Tao; Rutherford, Shannon; Xu, Yanjun; Xu, Xiaojun; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Chu, Cordia; Ma, Wenjun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Many studies have found extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can increase the risk of mortality. However, it is not clear whether extreme diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) is associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> disease-specific mortality, and how season might modify any association. Objectives To better understand the acute effect of DTR on mortality and identify whether season is a modifier of the DTR effect. Methods The distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was applied to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of DTR on deaths (non-accidental mortality (NAD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease (RD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBD)) in the full year, the cold season and the warm season. Results A non-linear relationship was consistently found between extreme DTR and mortality. Immediate effects of extreme low DTR on all types of mortality were stronger than those of extreme high DTR in the full year. The cumulative effects of extreme DTRs increased with the increment of lag days for all types of mortality in cold season, and they were greater for extreme high DTRs than those of extreme low DTRs. In hot season, the cumulative effects for extreme low DTRs increased with the increment of lag days, but for extreme high DTR they reached maxima at a lag of 13 days for all types of mortality except for CBD(at lag6 days), and then decreased. Conclusions Our findings suggest that extreme DTR is an independent risk factor of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality, and season is a modifier of the association of DTR with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality. PMID:23405130</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R"><span>Use of Sharpened Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Evapotranspiration Estimation over Irrigated Crops in Arid Lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosas Aguilar, J.; McCabe, M. F.; Houborg, R.; Gao, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Satellite remote sensing provides data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Land-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. This study applies the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which sharpens the 1 km thermal data down to the resolution of the optical data (250-500 m) based on functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. The DMS approach adopted here has been enhanced/refined for application over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The sharpened LST data is input to an integrated modeling system that uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of evapotranspiration. Results are evaluated against available flux tower observations over irrigated maize near Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Successful monitoring of field-scale changes in surface fluxes are of importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly monitored. Gao, F.; Kustas, W.P.; Anderson, M.C. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 3287-3319.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19660000055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19660000055"><span>Hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace has increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Caves, R. M.; Gresslin, C. H.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>Improved hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace operates at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 5,350 deg F. The furnace heats up from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 4,750 deg F in 30 seconds and cools down to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in 2 minutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..92..145L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..92..145L"><span>A general model for estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and site geographic parameters in Southwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs using routinely measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011"><span>Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and average <span class="hlt">daily</span> gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gain (ADG) and Tympanic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C"><span>The creation of future <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded datasets of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a spatial weather generator, Cyprus 2020-2050</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Pashiardis, Stelios; Lange, Manfred</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets are essential for natural resource management and the analysis of climate changes and their effects. This study aimed to create gridded datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, for the future (2020-2050). The horizontal resolution of the developed datasets is 1 x 1 km2, covering the area under control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study is divided into two parts. The first consists of the evaluation of the performance of different interpolation techniques for <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1980-2010) for the creation of the gridded datasets. Rainfall data recorded at 145 stations and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 34 stations were used. For precipitation, inverse distance weighting (IDW) performs best for local events, while a combination of step-wise geographically weighted regression and IDW proves to be the best method for large scale events. For minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a combination of step-wise linear multiple regression and thin plate splines is recognized as the best method. Six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the A1B SRES emission scenario from the EU ENSEMBLE project database were selected as sources for future climate projections. The RCMs were evaluated for their capacity to simulate Cyprus climatology for the period 1980-2010. Data for the period 2020-2050 from the three best performing RCMs were downscaled, using the change factors approach, at the location of observational stations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> time series were created with a stochastic rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator. The RainSim V3 software (Burton et al., 2008) was used to generate spatial-temporal coherent rainfall fields. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator was developed in R and modeled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a weakly stationary process with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and standard deviation conditioned on the wet and dry state of the day (Richardson, 1981). Finally gridded datasets depicting projected future climate conditions were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.1969H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.1969H"><span>Comparing the skill of different reanalyses and their ensembles as predictors for <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a glaciated mountain (Peru)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hofer, Marlis; Marzeion, Ben; Mölg, Thomas</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>It is well known from previous research that significant differences exist amongst reanalysis products from different institutions. Here, we compare the skill of NCEP-R (reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NCEP), ERA-int (the European Centre of Medium-<span class="hlt">range</span> Weather Forecasts Interim), JCDAS (the Japanese Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System reanalyses), MERRA (the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), CFSR (the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis by the NCEP), and ensembles thereof as predictors for <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a high-altitude glaciated mountain site in Peru. We employ a skill estimation method especially suited for short-term, high-resolution time series. First, the predictors are preprocessed using simple linear regression models calibrated individually for each calendar month. Then, cross-validation under consideration of persistence in the time series is performed. This way, the skill of the reanalyses with focus on intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability is quantified. The most important findings are: (1) ERA-int, CFSR, and MERRA show considerably higher skill than NCEP-R and JCDAS; (2) differences in skill appear especially during dry and intermediate seasons in the Cordillera Blanca; (3) the optimum horizontal scales largely vary between the different reanalyses, and horizontal grid resolutions of the reanalyses are poor indicators of this optimum scale; and (4) using reanalysis ensembles efficiently improves the performance of individual reanalyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23H1669B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23H1669B"><span>Spatial and Temporal Stream <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Response to Contemporary Forest Harvesting in the Oregon Coast <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bladon, K. D.; Cook, N. A.; Light, J. T.; Segura, C.; Teply, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Historical research at the Alsea Watershed Study (1958-1973), in the Oregon Coast <span class="hlt">Range</span>, demonstrated that clear-cut harvesting, with complete removal of riparian vegetation, can result in large and dramatic changes in mean <span class="hlt">daily</span>, maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span>, diurnal variation, and annual patterns in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts). This previous research was instrumental in the addition of regulations in the Oregon Forest Practices Act of 1971, necessitating retention of streamside vegetation (riparian management zones) in harvest units to maintain water quality and aquatic habitat. Due to the ecological importance of Ts, preventing or mitigating changes in the thermal regime following land use activities, such as forest harvesting, is a primary focus of contemporary forest watershed management. The Alsea Watershed Study Revisited (2006-Present) has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the Ts responses to contemporary forest harvesting practices and compare these with the impacts from the 1960's harvest. In general, Ts increases from late spring through about mid-July, with peak Ts occuring between about mid-July and mid-August, after which Ts decreases into the fall. During the pre-harvest period (2006-2008; n=244) the June to September mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum Ts was 13.0°C in Flynn Creek (control) and 12.0°C in Needle Branch (harvested). In the post-harvest period (2010-2012; n=240) the June to September mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum Ts was 12.4°C in Flynn Creek (control) and 12.0°C in Needle Branch (harvested). Similarly, the difference (Flynn Ck - Needle Branch) in 7 day moving mean of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum Ts decreased from the pre-harvest (1.0°C) to the post-harvest (0.3°C) period, which was principally driven by a decrease in Ts in the control catchment. Longitudinal sampling of Ts within Needle Branch indicated a cooling trend such that the slight increases in post-harvest Ts weren't detectable in downstream, unharvested stream reaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53D1238Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53D1238Z"><span>Using Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> to Examine the Climatology of Solar Energy Potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zercher, C. N.; Hanrahan, J.; Murphy, S. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The potential for annual solar energy production largely depends on the amount of incoming shortwave radiation which is dependent on cloud cover. Due to natural large-scale climate variability, long-term cloud cover can vary substantially, therefore modifying the total energy that can be produced by solar cells in individual locations. Under anthropogenic climate change, future precipitation is expected to significantly deviate from observed values, therefore suggesting that cloud cover, and thus solar energy potential, will also change. The expected changes are both positive and negative depending on geographic region and can be highly spatially variable, particularly in regions of complex terrain. Because of the short-term availability of observed radiation and cloud cover data, it is difficult to study the historical climatology of solar energy potential, thus making future projections uncertain. Research has shown that another readily available climate variable, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, correlates well with <span class="hlt">daily</span> averaged shortwave radiation values during months of minimal/no snow cover, and can thus serve as a proxy for shortwave radiation during the warm season throughout the period of record. In the present study, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> is shown to be an excellent predictor of shortwave radiation around the state of Vermont, independent of latitude and elevation. Monte Carlo significance testing is also used to examine recent trends in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA247667','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA247667"><span>The <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of a Large Dynamic <span class="hlt">Range</span> Photodetector Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>to achieve a logarithmic steady state response. This paper analyzes the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the circuit operation and presents experimental results demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm...61..407K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJBm...61..407K"><span>Influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on incidence of cardiac arrhythmias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jayeun; Kim, Ho</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We investigated the association between ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) and the exacerbation of arrhythmia symptoms, using data from 31,629 arrhythmia-related emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul, Korea. Linear regression analyses with allowances for over-dispersion were applied to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and ED visits, adjusted for various environmental factors. The effects were expressed as percentage changes in the risk of arrhythmia-related ED visits up to 5 days later, with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), per 1 °C increase in DTR and 1 °C decrease in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The overall risk of ED visits increased by 1.06 % (95 % CI 0.39 %, 1.73 %) for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and by 1.84 % (0.34, 3.37 %) for DTR. A season-specific effect was detected for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during both fall (1.18 % [0.01, 2.37 %]) and winter (0.87 % [0.07, 1.67 %]), and for DTR during spring (3.76 % [0.34, 7.29 %]). Females were more vulnerable, with 1.57 % [0.56, 2.59 %] and 3.84 % [1.53, 6.20 %] for the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DTR, respectively. An age-specific effect was detected for DTR, with 3.13 % [0.95, 5.36 %] for age ≥ 65 years, while a greater increased risk with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease was observed among those aged <65 (1.08 % [0.17, 2.00 %]) than among those aged ≥65 (1.02 % [0.06, 1.99 %]). Cardiac arrest was inversely related with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1.61 % [0.46, 2.79 %]), while other cardiac arrhythmias depended more on the change in DTR (4.72 % [0.37, 9.26 %]). These findings provide evidence that low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevated DTR influence the occurrence of arrhythmia exacerbations or symptoms, suggesting a possible strategy for reducing risk by encouraging vulnerable populations to minimize exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp...99K"><span>Influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on incidence of cardiac arrhythmias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jayeun; Kim, Ho</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We investigated the association between ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) and the exacerbation of arrhythmia symptoms, using data from 31,629 arrhythmia-related emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul, Korea. Linear regression analyses with allowances for over-dispersion were applied to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and ED visits, adjusted for various environmental factors. The effects were expressed as percentage changes in the risk of arrhythmia-related ED visits up to 5 days later, with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), per 1 °C increase in DTR and 1 °C decrease in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The overall risk of ED visits increased by 1.06 % (95 % CI 0.39 %, 1.73 %) for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and by 1.84 % (0.34, 3.37 %) for DTR. A season-specific effect was detected for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during both fall (1.18 % [0.01, 2.37 %]) and winter (0.87 % [0.07, 1.67 %]), and for DTR during spring (3.76 % [0.34, 7.29 %]). Females were more vulnerable, with 1.57 % [0.56, 2.59 %] and 3.84 % [1.53, 6.20 %] for the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DTR, respectively. An age-specific effect was detected for DTR, with 3.13 % [0.95, 5.36 %] for age ≥ 65 years, while a greater increased risk with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease was observed among those aged <65 (1.08 % [0.17, 2.00 %]) than among those aged ≥65 (1.02 % [0.06, 1.99 %]). Cardiac arrest was inversely related with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1.61 % [0.46, 2.79 %]), while other cardiac arrhythmias depended more on the change in DTR (4.72 % [0.37, 9.26 %]). These findings provide evidence that low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevated DTR influence the occurrence of arrhythmia exacerbations or symptoms, suggesting a possible strategy for reducing risk by encouraging vulnerable populations to minimize exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oscillation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increased suspended sediment on growth and smolting in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shrimpton, J.M.; Zydlewski, J.D.; Heath, J.W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation and increased suspended sediment concentration on growth and smolting in juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish were ponded on February 26; each treatment group had three replicates of 250 fish. Mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the entire experiment were 12.3????C for all tanks with a total of 1348 and 1341 degree days for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oscillating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tanks, respectively. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> fluctuation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averaged 7.5????C in the variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> groups and less than 1????C for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group. Starting on April 5, bentonite clay was added each day to tanks as a pulse event to achieve a suspended sediment concentration of 200??mg l- 1; clay cleared from the tanks within approximately 8??h. Fish were sampled at approximately two??week intervals from ponding until mid-June. On the last sample date, June 12, a single gill arch was removed and fixed for histological examination of gill morphology. By early May, significant differences were seen in size between the groups; control > <span class="hlt">temperature</span> = sediment > (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ?? sediment). This relationship was consistent throughout the experiment except for the last sample date when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group had a mean weight significantly greater than the sediment group. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was not affected by <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations, but groups subjected to increased suspended sediment had significantly lower enzyme activities compared to controls. Mean cell size for gill chloride cells did not differ between groups. Plasma cortisol increased significantly during the spring, but there were no significant differences between groups. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24933403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24933403"><span>Wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> testing with ROTEM coagulation analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kander, Thomas; Brokopp, Jens; Friberg, Hans; Schött, Ulf</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Mild induced hypothermia is used for neuroprotection in patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-dependent effects on rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)) assays with EXTEM(®), FIBTEM(®), or APTEM(®) in cardiac arrest patients have not previously been studied. Ten patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who underwent induced hypothermia were studied during stable hypothermia at 33°C. ROTEM <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on EXTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays were studied at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> set between 30°C and 42°C. Citrated whole blood test tubes were incubated in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-adjusted heating blocks and then investigated at respective <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-adjusted ROTEM. The following variables were determined: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, and maximum clot firmness (MCF). The results from hypo- and hyperthermia samples were compared with the samples incubated at 37°C using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. CT-EXTEM(®) and CT-APTEM(®) were prolonged by hypothermia at 30°C (p<0.01 for both) and 33°C (p<0.05 for both). Hyperthermia at 42°C shortened CT-EXTEM (p<0.05) and CT-APTEM (p<0.01). CFT-EXTEM(®) and CFT-APTEM(®) were markedly prolonged by hypothermia at 30°C, 33°C, and 35°C (p<0.01 for all except CFT-EXTEM, 35°C [p<0.05]). The α-angle-EXTEM was markedly decreased at 30°C, 33°C, and 35°C (p<0.01) but increased at 40°C (p<0.05) and 42°C (p<0.01); α-angle-APTEM showed similar results. MCF was unchanged at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for all tests. ROTEM (EXTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays) revealed a hypocoagulative response to in vitro-applied hypothermia in the blood of cardiac arrest patients reflected in the prolonged clot initiation and decreased clot propagation. Hyperthermia showed the opposite effects. Clot firmness was not affected by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070023431','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070023431"><span>Gap/silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Extended <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A two-junction solar cell has a bottom solar cell junction of crystalline silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. A three (or more) junction solar cell has bottom solar cell junctions of silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. The resulting solar cells exhibit improved extended <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324194','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324194"><span>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts water consumption by <span class="hlt">range</span> cattle in winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, which may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinkin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010704"><span>Silicon device performance measurements to support <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Cosby, Melvin; Johnson, R. Wayne; Nelms, R. Mark; Askew, Ray</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Characterization results of a MOS controlled thyristor (MCTA60P60) are presented. This device is rated for 60A and for an anode to cathode voltage of -600 V. As discussed in the last report, the MCT failed during 500 V leakage tests at 200 C. In contrast to the BJT (bipolar junction transistor), MOSFET, and IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) devices tested, the breakdown voltage of the MCT decreases significantly with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K"><span>Evaluation of Downscaled CMIP5 Model Skill in Simulating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Over the Southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keellings, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Downscaled CMIP5 climate projections of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the Downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections archive are examined regionally over the southeastern U.S. Three measures of model skill (means-based, distribution-based, extreme-based) are utilized to assess the ability of 15 downscaled models to simulate <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations. A new test is proposed to determine statistical significance of the probability density function based skill measures. Skill scores are found to be generally high for all three measures throughout the study region, but lower scores are present in coastal and mountainous areas. Application of the significance test shows that while the skill scores may be high they are not significantly higher than could be expected at random in some areas. The distribution-based skill scores are not significant in much of Florida and the Appalachians. The extreme-based skill scores are not significant in more than 90% of the region for all models investigated. The findings suggest that although the downscaled models have simulated observed means well and are a good match to the entire distribution of observations, they are not simulating the occurrence of extreme (above 90th percentile) maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930007812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930007812"><span>Silicon device performance measurements to support <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Testing of the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-controlled thyristor (MCT) has uncovered a failure mechanism at elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The failure appears to be due to breakdown of the gate oxide. Further testing is underway to verify the failure mode. Higher current level inverters were built to demonstrate 200 C operation of the N-MOSFET's and insulated-gate-bipolar transistors (IGBT's) and for life testing. One MOSFET failed early in testing. The origin of this failure is being studied. No IGBT's have failed. A prototype 28-to-42 V converter was built and is being tested at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The control loop is being finalized. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> stable, high value (10 micro-F) capacitors appear to be the limiting factor in the design at this time. In this application, the efficiency will be lower for the IGBT version due to the large V sub(cesat) (3.5-4 V) compared to the input voltage of 28 V. The MOSFET version should have higher efficiency; however, the MOSFET does not appear to be as robust at 200 C. Both versions are built for comparison.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23B1142R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23B1142R"><span>Predicting Snow-To-Rain Transitions Across The Western U.S.: When Is <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sufficient?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajagopal, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The phase of precipitation at the land surface is critical for determining the timing and amount of water available for hydrological and ecological systems. Natural variability in precipitation phase due to elevation, micro-climate, and storm characteristics make it a challenge to predict phase. In addition, regional warming is expected to move the snow-rain elevation higher in the future, which has the potential to alter water availability. Despite this, there are few techniques for direct observation of precipitation phase and many predictive techniques apply simple <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds (i.e. 0 degree Celsius) to determine spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we asked two questions: 1) what is the optimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for predicting snow-rain transitions in the mountains of the Western U.S.? and 2) what errors in precipitation phase estimation are associated with common <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds? We use 502 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations with data from 2004 to 2014 to determine rain versus snow using a combination of precipitation, snow depth, and SWE observations. From the observations, we determined that <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a better predictor of rain and snow events than average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from -2.0 to 3 C, with an average of 0.3 C across ecoregions. The Northern Basin and Northern Cascades with lower average elevations had higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds and the Southern Rockies with highest elevations had the lowest thresholds. Developing a relationship based on station elevation improved the RMSE by 12%, whereas using an optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> developed for each station improved the RMSE by 34% on average. While using optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds reduce error in prediction, they do not eliminate misclassification of rain-show transitions. These results highlight a current weakness in our ability to predict the effects of regional warming that could have uneven impacts on water and ecological resource management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...163.1069A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...163.1069A"><span>Zero-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Fluctuations in Short-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Spin Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arguin, L.-P.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.; Wehr, J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We consider the energy difference restricted to a finite volume for certain pairs of incongruent ground states (if they exist) in the d-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass at zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We prove that the variance of this quantity with respect to the couplings grows proportionally to the volume in any d ≥ 2. An essential aspect of our result is the use of the excitation metastate. As an illustration of potential applications, we use this result to restrict the possible structure of spin glass ground states in two dimensions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=208739','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=208739"><span>Observations of a “weekend effect” in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Forster, Piers M. de F.; Solomon, Susan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Using surface measurements of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the Global <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Climatological Network data set, we find evidence of a weekly cycle in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) for many stations in the United States, Mexico, Japan, and China. The “weekend effect,” which we define as the average DTR for Saturday through Monday minus the average DTR for Wednesday through Friday, can be as large as 0.5 K, similar to the magnitude of observed long-term trends in DTR. This weekend effect has a distinct large-scale pattern that has changed only slightly over time, but its sign is not the same in all locations. The station procedures and the statistical robustness of both the individual station data and the patterns of DTR differences are thoroughly examined. We conclude that the weekend effect is a real short time scale and large spatial scale geophysical phenomenon, which is necessarily human in origin. We thus provide strong evidence of an anthropogenic link to DTR, an important climate indicator. Several possible anthropogenic mechanisms are discussed; we speculate that aerosol-cloud interactions are the most likely cause of this weekend effect, but we do not rule out others. PMID:14500787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESSDD...8.1021B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESSDD...8.1021B"><span>CPLFD-GDPT5: high-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset for two largest Polish river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezowski, T.; Szcześniak, M.; Kardel, I.; Michałowski, R.; Okruszko, T.; Mezghani, A.; Piniewski, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The CHASE-PL Forcing Data-Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations from Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), ECAD and NOAA-NCDC (Slovak, Ukrainian and Belarus stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of Vistula and Odra basin and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in time from about 100 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 300 for precipitation in 1950 up to about 180 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 700 for precipitation in 1990. The precipitation dataset was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were: kriging with elevation as external drift for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross-validation revealed low root mean squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 0.88 for maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Vistula and Odra basins. Link to the dataset: <a href="http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07" target=_blank>http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESSD....8..127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESSD....8..127B"><span>CPLFD-GDPT5: High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set for two largest Polish river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezowski, Tomasz; Szcześniak, Mateusz; Kardel, Ignacy; Michałowski, Robert; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Piniewski, Mikołaj</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland) Forcing Data-Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation & <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), and European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECAD) and National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration-National Climatic Data Center (NOAA-NCDC) (Slovak, Ukrainian, and Belarusian stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of the Vistula and Oder basins and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in time from about 100 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 300 for precipitation in the 1950s up to about 180 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 700 for precipitation in the 1990s. The precipitation data set was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were kriging with elevation as external drift for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross validation revealed low root-mean-squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively, and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 0.88 for maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N"><span>Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira</p> <p></p> <p>This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL). Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05) of 0.25 (SD 0.61) °C in the morning and 0.24 (SD 0.50) °C in the afternoon. Differences between oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer and winter tended to be greater in subjects with low ADL scores, even when their room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was well-controlled. In conclusion, the oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly are lower in winter than summer, particularly in physically inactive people. It appears that those with low levels of ADL are more vulnerable to large changes in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858"><span>Differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Ordovás, J M; Smith, C E; Nicolás, F; Garaulet, M</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The circadian rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity patterns. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) (mean ± SEM). Skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T"><span>Error Correction of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Simulations in Europe and the Effects on Climate Change Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Heinrich, G.; Regional; Local Climate Modeling; Analysis Research Group</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>State-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) have shown their capability to reproduce mesoscale and even finer climate variability satisfactorily. However, considerable differences between model results and observational data remain, due to scale discrepancies and model errors. This limits the direct utilization of RCM results in climate change impact studies. Besides continuous climate model improvement, empirical-statistical post-processing approaches (model output statistics) offer an immediate pathway to mitigate these model problems and to provide better input data for climate change impact assessments. Among various statistical approaches, quantile mapping (QM) represents one powerful non-parametric technique to post-process RCM outputs. In this study, results from a transient regional climate simulation (period: 1951 to 2050; general circulation model: HadCM3; emission scenario: A1B; RCM: CLM) with horizontal grid spacing of 25 km is error corrected for entire Europe based on the E-OBS European <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded observational dataset (http://ensembles-eu.org). Firstly, the performance of QM for correcting <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for long-term simulations is evaluated in a decadal cross-validation framework between 1961 and 2000 and the error characteristics are discussed. In the case of precipitation amount a frequency adaptation tool is presented which deals with rare situations where the probability for non-precipitation days is lower in the observations than in the model. Secondly, the issue of generating new extremes in future scenarios is raised. For this purpose, the ERA-40 reanalysis driven hindcast is used to assure best possible temporal correlation between observations and model output. The hindcast is split such that the independent validation period contains observed extremes outside the <span class="hlt">range</span> of the calibration period. Two extrapolation schemes at the tails of the calibrated correction functions are tested and compared to the simple</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373"><span>GSOD Based <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Global Mean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xuan Shi, Dali Wang</p> <p>2014-05-05</p> <p>This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T W; Bennett, S M; Cao, W</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526"><span>Control of Continuous Irradiation Injury on Potatoes with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Cycling 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Bennett, Susan M.; Cao, Weixing</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18°C and fluctuating 22°C/14°C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18°C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:11537703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050"><span>Water quality and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle affect biofilm formation in drip irrigation devices revealed by optical coherence tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Jueying; Horn, Harald; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona; Katz, Sagi; Wagner, Michael</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Drip irrigation is a water-saving technology. To date, little is known about how biofilm forms in drippers of irrigation systems. In this study, the internal dripper geometry was recreated in 3-D printed microfluidic devices (MFDs). To mimic the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in (semi-) arid areas, experiments were conducted in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled box between 20 and 50°C. MFDs were either fed with two different treated wastewater (TWW) or synthetic wastewater. Biofilm formation was monitored non-invasively and in situ by optical coherence tomography (OCT). 3-D OCT datasets reveal the major fouling position and illustrate that biofilm development was influenced by fluid dynamics. Biofilm volumetric coverage of the labyrinth up to 60% did not reduce the discharge rate, whereas a further increase to 80% reduced the discharge rate by 50%. Moreover, the biofilm formation rate was significantly inhibited in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle independent of the cultivation medium used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761507','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761507"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: a statistical modeling study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1 km × 1 km) <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts to Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R2 of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R2 of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376 °C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. PMID:26717080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N"><span>Bias correction of global and regional simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia using quantile mapping method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A trend preserving quantile mapping (QM) method was applied to adjust the biases of the global and regional climate models (GCM and RCMs) simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia regions based on APHRODITE dataset. Output from four different RCMs as well as their driving GCM in CORDEX-EA archive were corrected to examine the added value of RCMs dynamical downscaling in the context of bias adjustment. The result shows that the RCM biases are comparable to that of the GCM biases. In some instances, RCMs amplified the GCM biases. Generally, QM method substantially improves the biases for both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, the bias adjustment method works better for surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and less so for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. The large inter-models variability is reduced remarkably after bias adjustment. Overall, study indicates no strong evident that RCMs downscaling as an immediate step before bias correction provides additional improvement to the sub-regional climate compared to the correction directly carried out on their forcing GCM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996"><span>The effect of physical exercise on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piccione, Giuseppe; Grasso, Fortunata; Fazio, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses. Blood samples from 12 Thoroughbred horses, six sedentary animals and six athletes (studied both before and after a period of inactivity) were collected at 4h intervals for 48h via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded every 4h for 48h with a rectal probe. Platelet aggregation was measured with an aggregometer. Collagen was used to test the aggregation of the plasma samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by single cosinor method. Cosinor analysis identified the periodic parameters and their acrophases (expressed in hours) during the 2 days of monitoring. On each single day, there was a highly significant effect of time in all the horses, with P values <0.05. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rhythms were unaffected by exercise. Platelet aggregation in exercising horses differed from the sedentary horses, and this difference disappeared after a 2-week period of rest. The results could be interpreted as indicating that physical exercise has an influence on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation in horses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717080"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: A statistical modeling study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1km×1km) <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts-Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R(2) of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R(2) of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376°C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..1211549E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..1211549E"><span>Combining satellite observations to develop a <span class="hlt">daily</span> global soil moisture product for a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enenkel, M.; Reimer, C.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Pfeil, I.; Parinussa, R.; De Jeu, R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The soil moisture dataset that is generated via the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) of the European Space Agency (ESA) (ESA CCI SM) is a popular research product. It is composed of observations from nine different satellites and aims to exploit the individual strengths of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) sensors, thereby providing surface soil moisture estimates at a spatial resolution of 0.25°. However, the annual updating cycle limits the use of the ESA CCI SM dataset for operational applications. Therefore, this study proposes an adaptation of the ESA CCI processing chain for <span class="hlt">daily</span> global updates via satellite-derived near real-time (NRT) soil moisture observations. In order to extend the ESA CCI SM dataset from 1978 to present we use NRT observations from the Advanced SCATterometer on-board the MetOp satellites and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 on-board GCOM-W. Since these NRT observations do not incorporate the latest algorithmic updates, parameter databases, and intercalibration efforts, by nature they offer a lower quality than reprocessed offline datasets. Our findings indicate that, despite issues in arid regions, the new "CCI NRT" dataset shows a good correlation with ESA CCI SM. The average global correlation coefficient between CCI NRT and ESA CCI SM (Pearson's R) is 0.8. An initial validation with 40 in-situ observations in France, Kenya, Senegal and Kenya yields an average R of 0.58 and 0.49 for ESA CCI SM and CCI NRT respectively. In summary, the CCI NRT dataset is getting ready for operational use, supporting applications such as drought and flood monitoring, weather forecasting or agricultural applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, not the circadian clock, regulate growth rate in Brachypodium distachyon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A; Cole, Benjamin J; Whitney, Ian P; MacKinnon, Kirk J-M; Kay, Steve A; Hazen, Samuel P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. Changes in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light changes, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced changes in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no change in growth rate under conditions of constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not change in response to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate changes in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C"><span>Trends and periodicity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, and the nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases faster than the daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19741765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19741765"><span>Cascaded optical isolator configuration having high-isolation characteristics over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wavelength <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shiraishi, K; Kawakami, S</p> <p>1987-07-01</p> <p>A new configuration of a cascaded optical isolator with high isolation over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wavelength is proposed. The configuration consists of two unit isolators, each of which is optimized for a different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wavelength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810049646&hterms=commercial+radio+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcommercial%2Bradio%2Bsystems','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810049646&hterms=commercial+radio+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcommercial%2Bradio%2Bsystems"><span>Heart rate, multiple body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, long-<span class="hlt">range</span> and long-life telemetry system for free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> animals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-<span class="hlt">range</span>, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at multiple locations from free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium <span class="hlt">range</span> transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-<span class="hlt">range</span> tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality among the elderly: a meta-analysis and systematic review of epidemiological evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ye, Xiaofang; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The impact of climate change on the health of vulnerable groups such as the elderly has been of increasing concern. However, to date there has been no meta-analysis of current literature relating to the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations upon mortality amongst the elderly. We synthesised risk estimates of the overall impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on elderly mortality across different continents. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed to identify papers published up to December 2010. Selection criteria including suitable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicators, endpoints, study-designs and identification of threshold were used. A two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model was performed to summarise the percent increase in mortality with a 1°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase (or decrease) with 95% confidence intervals in hot (or cold) days, with lagged effects also measured. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria and almost 13 million elderly deaths were included in this meta-analysis. In total, there was a 2-5% increase for a 1°C increment during hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals, and a 1-2 % increase in all-cause mortality for a 1°C decrease during cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals. Lags of up to 9 days in exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals were substantially associated with all-cause mortality, but no substantial lagged effects were observed for hot intervals. Thus, both hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> substantially increased mortality among the elderly, but the magnitude of heat-related effects seemed to be larger than that of cold effects within a global context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20396893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20396893"><span>Winter body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> Cape ground squirrel, Xerus inauris: no evidence for torpor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, Wendy A; O'Riain, M Justin; Hetem, Robyn S; Fuller, Andrea; Fick, Linda G</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris, Sciuridae) living in their natural environment during winter has not yet been investigated. In this study we measured abdominal T(b) of eight free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> Cape ground squirrels over 27 consecutive days during the austral winter. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(b) was relatively stable at 37.0 ± 0.2°C (<span class="hlt">range</span> 33.4 to 40.2°C) despite a marked variation in globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(g)) (<span class="hlt">range</span> -7 to 37°C). Lactating females (n = 2) consistently had a significantly higher mean T (b) (0.7°C) than non-lactating females (n = 3) and males. There was a pronounced nychthemeral rhythm with a mean active phase T(b) of 38.1 ± 0.1°C and a mean inactive phase T(b) of 36.3 ± 0.3°C for non-lactating individuals. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of T(b) rhythm was 3.8 ± 0.2°C. T(b) during the active phase closely followed T(g) and mean active phase T(b) was significantly correlated with mean active phase T(g) (r(2) = 0.3-0.9; P < 0.01). There was no evidence for <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor or pronounced hypothermia during the inactive phase, and mean minimum inactive phase T(b) was 35.7 ± 0.3°C for non-lactating individuals. Several alternatives (including nocturnal huddling, an aseasonal breeding pattern and abundant winter food resources) as to why Cape ground squirrels do not employ nocturnal hypothermia are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..569R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..569R"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reference Evapotranspiration using <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Based Models and Remotely Sensed Data over Indian River Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>R, Shwetha H.; D, Nagesh Kumar</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is the most significant component of the hydrological budget. Accurate quantification of ETo is vital for proper water management, efficient agricultural activities, irrigation planning and irrigation scheduling. FAO Penman Montieth (FAO-PM) is the widely accepted and used method for the ETo estimation under all climatic conditions, but needs numerous inputs which are difficult to acquire in developing countries. In such conditions, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based models such as Hargreaves-Samani (HS) equation and Penman Montieth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (PMT) can be used, where only maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are required. Spatial interpolation of meteorological parameters to calculate spatial variation of ETo results in inaccurate estimations at lowly densed weather stations. Hence, there is a necessity of simple and easy method to estimate spatial distribution of ETo. In this regard, remotely sensed data provides viable alternative approach to obtain continuous spatio-temporal ETo. In this study, we used <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based ETo models with remotely sensed LST data to estimate spatio-temporal variation of ETo. Day and night LST (MYD11A1) data of the year 2010 for the Cauvery basin on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis were obtained from MODIS sensor of Aqua satellite. Firstly, day and night land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (LST) with HS and PMT methods were applied to estimate ETo. Secondly, maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were estimated from day and night LST respectively using simple linear regression and these air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were used to estimate ETo. Estimated results were validated with the ETo calculated using meteorological data obtained from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) by applying standard FAO-PM. The preliminary results revealed that, HS method with LST overestimated ETo in the study region. Statistical analysis showed PMT method with both LST and air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> performed better than the HS method. These two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based methods are often used for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814427B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814427B"><span>Statistical downscaling of sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (6-hour) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Romania, by means of artificial neural networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cǎrbunaru, Felicia</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The role of statistical downscaling is to model the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and climatic variables on a regional and sub-regional scale, making use of the predictions of future circulation generated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) in order to capture the effects of climate change on smaller areas. The study presents a statistical downscaling model based on a neural network-based approach, by means of multi-layer perceptron networks. Sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data series from 81 meteorological stations over Romania, with full data records are used as predictands. As large-scale predictor, the NCEP/NCAD air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 850 hPa over the domain 20-30E / 40-50N was used, at a spatial resolution of 2.5×2.5 degrees. The period 1961-1990 was used for calibration, while the validation was realized over the 1991-2010 interval. Further, in order to estimate future changes in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 850 hPa corresponding to the IPCC A1B scenario was extracted from the CNCM33 model (Meteo-France) and used as predictor. This work has been realized within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJBm...50..121O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJBm...50..121O"><span>Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Marie S.; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0 14 years) and the elderly (ages ≥65 years). Predictors included mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [cold (10 11°C) for both cities and heat (35 36°C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each city (15°C in Mexico City, 25°C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15912362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15912362"><span>Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Marie S; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0-14 years) and the elderly (ages >or=65 years). Predictors included mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [cold (10-11 degrees C) for both cities and heat (35-36 degrees C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each city (15 degrees C in Mexico City, 25 degrees C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements at the nearest weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a <span class="hlt">range</span> of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from the equatorial region (10°N) to the Arctic (64°N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor, airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our results suggest that, depending on the measure, season, and location, outdoor weather measurements can be reliably used to represent indoor exposures and that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor exposure than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, absolute measures of water vapor should be examined in conjunction with other measures (e.g. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity) in studies of the effect of weather and climate on human health. PMID:26054827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a <span class="hlt">range</span> of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998"><span>Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on grizzly bear habitat selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pigeon, Karine E; Cardinal, Etienne; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Côté, Steeve D</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>To fulfill their needs, animals are constantly making trade-offs among limiting factors. Although there is growing evidence about the impact of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection in mammals, the role of environmental conditions and thermoregulation on apex predators is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection patterns of grizzly bears in the managed landscape of Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bear habitat selection followed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal pattern that was influenced by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with adult males showing stronger responses than females to warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Cutblocks aged 0-20 years provided an abundance of forage but were on average 6 °C warmer than mature conifer stands and 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks. When ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased, the relative change (odds ratio) in the probability of selection for 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks decreased during the hottest part of the day and increased during cooler periods, especially for males. Concurrently, the probability of selection for 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks increased on warmer days. Following plant phenology, the odds of selecting 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks also increased from early to late summer while the odds of selecting 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks decreased. Our results demonstrate that ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and therefore thermal requirements, play a significant role in habitat selection patterns and behaviour of grizzly bears. In a changing climate, large mammals may increasingly need to adjust spatial and temporal selection patterns in response to thermal constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901"><span>Variation in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): does water limitation drive heterothermy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, a variability in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> beyond the limits of homeothermy, has been advanced as a key adaptation of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) to their arid-zone life. We measured body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using implanted data loggers, for a 1-year period, in five oryx free-living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, during hot months compared to cooler months, not only were maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher (41.1 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.1°C, P = 0.0002) but minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also were lower (36.1 ± 0.3 vs. 36.8 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.04), resulting in a larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm (5.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.0007), while mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose by only 0.4°C. The maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm reached 7.7°C for two of our oryx during the hot-dry period, the largest amplitude ever recorded for a large mammal. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability was influenced not only by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but also water availability, with oryx displaying larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitudes of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm during warm-dry months compared to warm-wet months (3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3°C, P = 0.005), even though ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were the same. Free-living Arabian oryx therefore employ heterothermy greater than that recorded in any other large mammal, but water limitation, rather than high ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, seems to be the primary driver of this heterothermy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A"><span>Trends in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Extreme <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Indices for the Countries of the Western Indian Ocean, 1975-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguilar, Enric; Vincent, Lucie A.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In the framework of the project "Renforcement des Capacités des Pays de la COI dans le Domaine de l'Adaptation au Changement Climatique (ACCLIMATE)" (Comission de l'Ocean Indien, COI), a workshop on homogenization of climate data and climate change indices analysis was held in Mauritius in October 2009, using the successful format prepared by the CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices. Scientists from the five countries in Western Indian Ocean brought <span class="hlt">daily</span> climatological data from their region for a meticulous assessment of the data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices which can be used for analyses of changes in climate extremes. Although the period of analysis is very short, it represents a seminal step for the compilation of longer data set and allows us to examine the evolution of climate extremes in the area during the time period identified as the decades where anthropogenic warming es larger than natural forcings. This study first presents some results of the homogeneity assessment using the software package RHtestV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) which has been developed for the detection of changepoints in climatological datasets. Indices based on homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitations were also prepared for the analysis of trends at more than 50 stations across the region. The results show an increase in the percentage of warm days and warm nights over 1975-2008 while changes in extreme precipitations are not as consistent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109w1902B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109w1902B"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> coefficients of crystalline-quartz elastic constants over the cryogenic <span class="hlt">range</span> [4 K, 15 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bon, Jérémy; Galliou, Serge; Bourquin, Roger</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This paper brings out the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficients of synthetic-quartz elastic constants at liquid helium <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The method is based on the relationship between the resonance frequencies of a quartz acoustic cavity and the elastic constants of the material. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficients of the elastic constants are extracted from experimental frequency-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected within the very useful cryogenic <span class="hlt">range</span> [4 K-15 K] from a set of resonators of various cut angles, because of the anisotropy of quartz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950019127','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950019127"><span>Alternate method for achieving <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in the -160 to +90 Celcius <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Kenneth R. (Inventor)</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A single-pass method for accurate and precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in the -160 to +90 C <span class="hlt">range</span> is discussed. The method exhibited minimal set-point overshoot during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions. Control to +/-2 C with transitions between set-points of 7 C per minute were achieved. The method uses commercially available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controllers and a gaseous nitrogen/liquid nitrogen mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spikes caused by liquid nitrogen pulsing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3653820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3653820"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of DTF compared with effects of constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66 hours of development in 12 different constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects over the distribution of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments at the same average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. At an average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF <span class="hlt">range</span> and thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008584&hterms=Resilience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DResilience','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008584&hterms=Resilience&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DResilience"><span>Performance of Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Electrolytes in Quallion Prototype Li-Ion Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Tomcsi, M. R.; Nagata, M.; Visco, V.; Tsukamoto, H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>For a number of applications, there is a continued interest in the development of rechargeable lithium-based batteries that can effectively operate over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (i.e., -40 to +70 deg C). These applications include powering future planetary rovers for NASA, enabling the next generation of automotive batteries for DOE, and supporting many DOD applications. Li-ion technology has been demonstrated to have good performance over a reasonably wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> with many systems; however, there is still a desire to improve the low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rate capacity as well as the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resilience. In the current study, we would like to present recent results obtained with prototype Li-Ion cells (manufactured by Quallion, LLC) which include various wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrolytes developed by both JPL and Quallion. To demonstrate the viability of the technology, a number of performance tests were carried out, including: (a) discharge rate characterization over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (down to -60 deg C) using various rates (up to 20C rates), (b) discharge rate characterization at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> charging, (c) variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (-40 to +70 deg C), and (d) cycling at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (50 deg C). As will be discussed, impressive rate capability was observed at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with many systems, as well as good resilience to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling. To augment the performance testing on the prototype cells, a number of experimental three electrodes cells were fabricated (including Li reference electrodes) to allow the determination of the lithium kinetics of the respective electrodes and interfacial properties as a function of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090027758','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090027758"><span>Wide-<span class="hlt">Range</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensors with High-Level Pulse Train Output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Two types of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors have been developed for wide-<span class="hlt">range</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications. The two sensors measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">range</span> of -190 to +200 C and utilize a thin-film platinum RTD (resistance <span class="hlt">temperature</span> detector) as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensing element. Other parts used in the fabrication of these sensors include NPO (negative-positive- zero) type ceramic capacitors for timing, thermally-stable film or wirewound resistors, and high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> circuit boards and solder. The first type of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor is a relaxation oscillator circuit using an SOI (silicon-on-insulator) operational amplifier as a comparator. The output is a pulse train with a period that is roughly proportional to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> being measured. The voltage level of the pulse train is high-level, for example 10 V. The high-level output makes the sensor less sensitive to noise or electromagnetic interference. The output can be read by a frequency or period meter and then converted into a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reading. The second type of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor is made up of various types of multivibrator circuits using an SOI type 555 timer and the passive components mentioned above. Three configurations have been developed that were based on the technique of charging and discharging a capacitor through a resistive element to create a train of pulses governed by the capacitor-resistor time constant. Both types of sensors, which operated successfully over the wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, have potential use in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments including jet engines and space exploration missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230465"><span>The impact of seasonality in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on thermal tolerance and elevational <span class="hlt">range</span> size.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sheldon, Kimberly S; Tewksbury, Joshua J</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation can influence physiology, biogeography, and life history, with large consequences for ecology, evolution, and the impacts of climate change. Based on the seasonality hypothesis, greater annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation at high latitudes should result in greater thermal tolerance and, consequently, larger elevational <span class="hlt">ranges</span> in temperate compared to tropical species. Despite the mechanistic nature of this hypothesis, most research has used latitude as a proxy for seasonality, failing to directly examine the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation on physiology and <span class="hlt">range</span> size. We used phylogenetically matched beetles from locations spanning 60 degrees of latitude to explore links between seasonality, physiology and elevational <span class="hlt">range</span>. Thermal tolerance increased with seasonality across all beetle groups, but realized seasonality (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation restricted to the months species are active) was a better predictor of thermal tolerance than was annual seasonality. Additionally, beetles with greater thermal tolerance had larger elevational <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. Our results support a mechanistic framework linking variation in realized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to physiology and distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L"><span>Comparison of two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum/mean/minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in China during 1960-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Cao, Lijuan; Zhu, Yani; Yan, Zhongwei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tm), and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) series in China have recently been developed. One is CHTM3.0, based on the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) method, and includes 753 stations for the period 1960-2013. The other is CHHTD1.0, based on the Relative Homogenization test (RHtest), and includes 2419 stations over the period 1951-2011. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tmax/Tm/Tmin series at 751 stations, which are in both datasets, are chosen and compared against the raw dataset, with regard to the number of breakpoints, long-term climate trends, and their geographical patterns. The results indicate that some robust break points associated with relocations can be detected, the inhomogeneities are removed by both the MASH and RHtest method, and the data quality is improved in both homogenized datasets. However, the differences between CHTM3.0 and CHHTD1.0 are notable. By and large, in CHHTD1.0, the break points detected are fewer, but the adjustments for inhomogeneities and the resultant changes of linear trend estimates are larger. In contrast, CHTM3.0 provides more reasonable geographical patterns of long-term climate trends over the region. The reasons for the differences between the datasets include: (1) different algorithms for creating reference series for adjusting the candidate series—more neighboring stations used in MASH and hence larger-scale regional signals retained; (2) different algorithms for calculating the adjustments—larger adjustments in RHtest in general, partly due to the individual local reference information used; and (3) different rules for judging inhomogeneity—all detected break points are adjusted in CHTM3.0, based on MASH, while a number of break points detected via RHtest but without supporting metadata are overlooked in CHHTD1.0. The present results suggest that CHTM3.0 is more suitable for analyses of large-scale climate change in China, while CHHTD1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27503715"><span>'Optimal thermal <span class="hlt">range</span>' in ectotherms: Defining criteria for tests of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-size-rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Kiełbasa, Anna; Sobczyk, Mateusz</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Thermal performance curves for population growth rate r (a measure of fitness) were estimated over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for three species: Coleps hirtus (Protista), Lecane inermis (Rotifera) and Aeolosoma hemprichi (Oligochaeta). We measured individual body size and examined if predictions for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-size rule (TSR) were valid for different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. All three organisms investigated follow the TSR, but only over a specific <span class="hlt">range</span> between minimal and optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while maintenance at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> beyond this <span class="hlt">range</span> showed the opposite pattern in these taxa. We consider minimal and optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to be species-specific, and moreover delineate a physiological <span class="hlt">range</span> outside of which an ectotherm is constrained against displaying size plasticity in response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This thermal <span class="hlt">range</span> concept has important implications for general size-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> studies. Furthermore, the concept of 'operating thermal conditions' may provide a new approach to (i) defining criteria required for investigating and interpreting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects, and (ii) providing a novel interpretation for many cases in which species do not conform to the TSR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6291865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6291865"><span>The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 475 to 825 degrees centigrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allen, T.H.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> independent. In the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Acomys russatus: the response to chemical signals released by Acomys cahirinus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fluxman, S; Haim, A</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Two species of spiny mice of the genus Acomys--the golden spiny A. russatus and the common spiny A. cahirinus--are sympatric in the arid and hot parts of the Rift Valley in Israel. The coexistence of these two species is due to exclusion of A. russatus mice by A. cahirinus mice from nocturnal activity. The aim of this research was to study if odor signals released by A. cahirinus mice can play a role in the exclusion of A. russatus mice. A. russatus mice with an implanted transmitter recording body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) were kept alone in a metabolic chamber under constant conditions of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (27 degrees C) and photoperiod (12 h light:12 h dark). After 5 days of recording, chemical signals from an A. cahirinus mouse were added through the air tube going into the metabolic chamber of the A. russatus mice. This treatment caused a shift of approximately 2 h in Tb <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of the naive tested A. russatus mice, whereas no shift was observed in A. russatus mice that had been kept in the same room with the A. cahirinus mouse before measurements. These results strongly support the idea that chemical signals released by A. cahirinus mice can entrain the Tb rhythms of A. russatus mice. Therefore, it may be assumed that the exclusion of A. russatus mice from nocturnal activity by A. cahirinus mice could be achieved through the odor released by the latter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771"><span>Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9630J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9630J"><span>Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a cross-scale information transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability has been observed in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016107','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110016107"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of Thin Film Spiral Inductors on Alumina Over a <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> of 25 to 475 C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present an analysis of inductors on an Alumina substrate over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 25 to 475 C. Five sets of inductors, each set consisting of a 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and a 4.5 turn inductor with different line width and spacing, were measured on a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probe station from 10 MHz to 30 GHz. From these measured characteristics, it is shown that the inductance is nearly independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for low frequencies compared to the self resonant frequency, the parasitic capacitances are independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the resistance varies nearly linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These characteristics result in the self resonant frequency decreasing by only a few percent as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased from 25 to 475 C, but the maximum quality factor decreases by a factor of 2 to 3. These observations based on measured data are confirmed through 2D simulations using Sonnet software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20476812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20476812"><span>The direction and <span class="hlt">range</span> of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change influences yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallup, Andrew C; Miller, Michael L; Clark, Anne B</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Comparative research suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior in homeotherms. Our previous experiments revealed that yawning increased in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) as ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was raised toward body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (22-->34 degrees C). In this study, we identify the <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that triggers yawning to rule out the possible effect of changing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in any <span class="hlt">range</span>. To corroborate its thermoregulatory function, we also related the incidence of yawning to other avian thermoregulatory behaviors in budgerigars (e.g., panting, wing venting). In a repeated measures design, 16 budgerigars were exposed to 4 separate 10-min periods of changing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: (a) low-increasing (23-->27 degrees C), (b) high-increasing (27-->33 degrees C), (c) high-decreasing (34-->28 degrees C), and (d) low-decreasing (28-->24 degrees C). Birds yawned significantly more during the high-increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, and yawning was positively correlated with ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across trials. Yawning was also positively correlated with other thermoregulatory behaviors. This research clarifies the previously demonstrated relationship between yawning rate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by providing evidence that the physiological trigger for yawning is related to increasing body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rather than the detection of changing external <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770012620','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770012620"><span>Soil moisture sensing with aircraft observations of the diurnal <span class="hlt">range</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmugge, T. J.; Blanchard, B.; Anderson, A.; Wang, V.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Aircraft observations of the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were made by measurements of the thermal emission in the 8-14 micrometers band over agricultural fields around Phoenix, Arizona. The diurnal <span class="hlt">range</span> of these surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were well correlated with the ground measurement of soil moisture in the 0-2 cm layer. The surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations for vegetated fields were found to be within 1 or 2 C of the ambient air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicating no moisture stress. These results indicate that for clear atmospheric conditions remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a reliable indicator of soil moisture conditions and crop status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108"><span>Depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is specific for liver and correlates with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kutschke, Maria; Grimpo, Kirsten; Kastl, Anja; Schneider, Sandra; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation to save energy. Increasing evidence suggests depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster but tissue-specificity and relation to torpor depth is unknown. We first confirmed a previous study by Brown and colleagues reporting on the depressed substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor. Next, we show that mitochondrial respiration is not depressed in kidneys, skeletal muscle and heart. In liver mitochondria, we found that state 3 and state 4 respirations correlate with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting inhibition related to torpor depth and to metabolic rate. We conclude that molecular events leading to depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor are specific to liver and linked to a decrease in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Different tissue-specificity of mitochondrial depression may assist to compare and identify the molecular nature of mitochondrial alterations during torpor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22938524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22938524"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, physiology and behavior limit the <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacobson, Elliott R; Barker, David G; Barker, Tracy M; Mauldin, Richard; Avery, Michael L; Engeman, Richard; Secor, Stephen</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A well-established population of Burmese pythons resides in the Everglades of southern Florida. Prompted in part by a report that identified much of southern USA as suitable habitat for expansion or establishment of the Burmese python, we examined the plausibility of this snake to survive winters at sites north of the Everglades. We integrated <span class="hlt">daily</span> low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded from October to February from 2005-2011 at Homestead, Orlando and Gainesville, Florida; and Aiken, South Carolina, with minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> projected for python digestion (16 °C), activity (5 °C) and survival (0 °C). Mean low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> decreased northward from Homestead to Aiken and the number of days of freezing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased northward. Digestion was impaired or inhibited for 2 months in the Everglades and up to at least 5 months in Aiken, and activity was increasingly limited northward during these months. Reports of overwinter survivorship document that a single bout of low and freezing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> results in python death. The capacity for Burmese pythons to successfully overwinter in more temperate regions of the USA is seemingly prohibited because they lack the behaviors to seek refuge from, and the physiology to tolerate, cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. As tropical Southeast Asia is the source of the Everglades Burmese pythons, we predict it is unlikely that they will be able to successfully expand to or colonize more temperate areas of Florida and adjoining states due to their lack of behavioral and physiological traits to seek refuge from cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613"><span>Strong impacts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the green-up date and summer greenness of the Tibetan Plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Fu, Yongshuo H; Wang, Shiping; Cong, Nan; Janssens, Ivan A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding vegetation responses to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) helps in elucidating the land-atmosphere energy exchange, which affects air mass movement over and around the TP. Although the TP is one of the world's most sensitive regions in terms of climatic warming, little is known about how the vegetation responds. Here, we focus on how spring phenology and summertime greenness respond to the asymmetric warming, that is, stronger warming during nighttime than during daytime. Using both in situ and satellite observations, we found that vegetation green-up date showed a stronger negative partial correlation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin ) than with maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax ) before the growing season ('preseason' henceforth). Summer vegetation greenness was strongly positively correlated with summer Tmin , but negatively with Tmax . A 1-K increase in preseason Tmin advanced green-up date by 4 days (P < 0.05) and in summer enhanced greenness by 3.6% relative to the mean greenness during 2000-2004 (P < 0.01). In contrast, increases in preseason Tmax did not advance green-up date (P > 0.10) and higher summer Tmax even reduced greenness by 2.6% K(-1) (P < 0.05). The stimulating effects of increasing Tmin were likely caused by reduced low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> constraints, and the apparent negative effects of higher Tmax on greenness were probably due to the accompanying decline in water availability. The dominant enhancing effect of nighttime warming indicates that climatic warming will probably have stronger impact on TP ecosystems than on apparently similar Arctic ecosystems where vegetation is controlled mainly by Tmax . Our results are crucial for future improvements of dynamic vegetation models embedded in the Earth System Models which are being used to describe the behavior of the Asian monsoon. The results are significant because the state of the vegetation on the TP plays an important role in steering the monsoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=275294','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=275294"><span>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> compression hastens berry development and modifies flavonoid partitioning in grapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> during the day and night are known to influence grape berry metabolism and resulting composition. In this study, the flavonoid composition of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot berries was investigated as a function of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR). The DTR was compressed by c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448518"><span>Serial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring and comparison of rectal and muscle <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in immobilized free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>vdB Morkel, Peter; Miller, Michele; Jago, Mark; Radcliffe, Robin W; du Preez, Pierre; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Sefton, Jennifer; Taft, Arthur; Nydam, Daryl; Gleed, Robin D</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Control of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is critical to a successful anesthetic outcome, particularly during field immobilization of wild animals. Hyperthermia associated with exertion can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening complications such as organ damage (including myopathy) and death. Methods for monitoring core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> must accurately reflect the physiologic status of the animal in order for interventions to be effective. The goal of this preliminary study was to compare serial rectal and muscle <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in field-immobilized black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and evaluate a possible association. Twenty-four free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> black rhinoceros were immobilized between February and March of 2010 in Ethosha National Park, Namibia. Pairwise comparisons showed a correlation of 0.73 (95% CI; 0.70-0.75) between rectal and muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. Results from a multivariable model indicate that muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> readings were, on average, 0.46 degrees C (95% CI; 0.36-0.57 degrees C) higher than rectal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> while adjusting for repeated measurements on the same rhinoceros, effect of duration of immobilization, and effect of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on rhinoceroses' <span class="hlt">temperature</span> readings. As immobilization time increased, muscle and rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values within an individual rhinoceros tended to equilibrate. The overall <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> decreased by an average of 0.00059 degrees C/min (95% CI; -0.0047 to -0.0035 degrees C/min; P = 0.779). As the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at time of immobilization increased by 1 degree C, the average rhinoceros <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased by 0.09 degrees C (95% CI; 0.06-0.11 degrees C, P < 0.0001). Higher body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> creates a potential for cellular damage leading to complications that include myopathy. Methods for monitoring rectal, muscle, and ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> should be incorporated into anesthetic monitoring protocols for large ungulates, particularly under field conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..360W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..360W"><span>Evaluation of simulated climatological diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in CMIP5 models from the perspective of planetary boundary layer turbulent mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Nan; Zhou, Liming; Dai, Yongjiu</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This study examines the effects of modeled planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing on the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle climatology over land in 20 CMIP5 models with AMIP simulations. When compared with observations, the magnitude of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) is systematically underestimated over almost all land areas due to a widespread warm bias of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) and mostly a cold bias of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax). Analyses of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble means suggest that the biases of the simulated PBL mixing could very likely contribute to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> biases. For the regions with the cold bias in Tmax, the daytime PBL mixing is generally underestimated. The consequent more dry air entrainment from the free atmosphere could help maintain the surface humidity gradient, and thus produce more surface evaporation and potentially lower the Tmax. The opposite situation holds true for the regions with the warm bias of Tmax. This mechanism could be particularly applicable to the regions with moderate and wet climate conditions where surface evaporation depends more on the surface humidity gradient, but less on the available soil moisture. For the widespread warm bias of Tmin, the widely-recognized overestimated PBL mixing at nighttime should play a dominant role by transferring more heat from the atmosphere to the near-surface to warm the Tmin. Further analyses using the high resolution CFMIP2 output also support the CMIP5 results about the connections of the biases between the simulated turbulent mixing and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle. The large inter-model variations of the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> diurnal cycle primarily appear over the arid and semi-arid regions and boreal arctic regions where the model differences in the PBL turbulence mixing could make equally significant contributions to the inter-model variations of DTR, Tmax and Tmin compared to the model differences in surface radiative processes. These results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798364"><span>Associations of day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Although the impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality and morbidity have been documented, few studies have investigated whether day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) are independent risk factors for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design This was a prospective, population-based, observational study. Methods We obtained all OHCA data from 2005-2013 from six major prefectures in Japan: Hokkaido, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, and Osaka. We used a quasi-Poisson regression analysis with a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the associations of day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and DTR with OHCA for each prefecture. Results In total, 271,698 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were reported during the study period. There was a significant increase in the risk of OHCA associated with cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in five prefectures, with relative risks (RRs) <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.649) in Hokkaido to 3.893 (95% CI 1.713-8.845) in Kyoto. DTR was adversely associated with OHCA on hot days in Aichi (RR 1.158; 95% CI 1.028-1.304) and on cold days in Tokyo (RR 1.030; 95% CI 1.000-1.060), Kanagawa (RR 1.042; 95% CI 1.005-1.082), Kyoto (RR 1.060; 95% CI 1.001-1.122), and Osaka (RR 1.050; 95% CI 1.014-1.088), whereas there was no significant association between day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and OHCA. Conclusion We found that associations between day-to-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and DTR and OHCA were generally small compared with the association with mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our findings suggest that preventative measures for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related OHCA may be more effective when focused on mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DTR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11810215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11810215"><span>Brain and arterial blood <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> oryx ( Oryx gazella).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We used implanted miniature data loggers to measure brain and arterial blood <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> every 5 min for up to 15 days in four free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> oryx ( Oryx gazella) in their natural habitat. Globe <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeded 45 degrees C and average peak radiant heat load was 800 W.m(-2). Arterial blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibited a moderate amplitude nychthemeral rhythm of 1.8+/-0.3 degrees C (mean +/-SD). The amplitude of the nychthemeral rhythm was not influenced by variations in ambient heat load. Average brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exceeded carotid arterial blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by 0.29 degrees C but there was a <span class="hlt">range</span> of body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over which the brain could be up to 0.4 degrees C cooler or 0.5 degrees C warmer than arterial blood. At high body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (>39.5 degrees C) at rest, three of the animals tended to maintain the brain cooler than arterial blood. During exercise the brain was always warmer than arterial blood. The slope of the regression line relating brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to carotid blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was less than one. At short time scales of 5-20 min, brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied significantly more than did carotid blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We attribute part of the variability in brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to transient stress responses and the influence of sympathetic activation attenuating selective brain cooling. We conclude that, contrary to the widely cited postulate, the carotid rete does not protect the brain during hyperthermia. Oryx also do not show adaptive heterothermy and, over short time intervals, have a brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> more variable than carotid blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T"><span>A Hybrid Framework to Bias Correct and Empirically Downscale <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, P.; Abraham, Z.; Winkler, J. A.; Perdinan, P.; Zhong, S. S.; Liszewska, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Bias correction and statistical downscaling are widely used approaches for postprocessing climate simulations generated by global and/or regional climate models. The skills of these approaches are typically assessed in terms of their ability to reproduce historical climate conditions as well as the plausibility and consistency of the derived statistical indicators needed by end users. Current bias correction and downscaling approaches often do not adequately satisfy the two criteria of accurate prediction and unbiased estimation. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid regression framework was developed to both minimize prediction errors and preserve the distributional characteristics of climate observations. Specifically, the framework couples the loss functions of standard (linear or nonlinear) regression methods with a regularization term that penalizes for discrepancies between the predicted and observed distributions. The proposed framework can also be extended to generate physically-consistent outputs across multiple response variables, and to incorporate both reanalysis-driven and GCM-driven RCM outputs into a unified learning framework. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated using <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Program (NARCCAP) . The accuracy of the framework is comparable to standard regression methods, but, unlike the standard regression methods, the proposed framework is able to preserve many of the distribution properties of the response variables, akin to bias correction approaches such as quantile mapping and bivariate geometric quantile mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.120...87T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.120...87T"><span>Effects of climate change on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cloudiness in the Shikoku region: a statistical downscaling model approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tatsumi, Kenichi; Oizumi, Tsutao; Yamashiki, Yosuke</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we present a detailed analysis of the effect of changes in cloudiness (CLD) between a future period (2071-2099) and the base period (1961-1990) on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN) and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX) in the same period for the Shikoku region, Japan. This analysis was performed using climate data obtained with the use of the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). We calibrated the SDSM using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis dataset for the SDSM input and <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and CLD from 10 surface data points (SDP) in Shikoku. Subsequently, we validated the SDSM outputs, specifically, TMIN, TMAX, and CLD, obtained with the use of the NCEP reanalysis dataset and general circulation model (GCM) data against the SDP. The GCM data used in the validation procedure were those from the Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios and from the third generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) for the SRES A2 and A1B scenarios. Finally, the validated SDSM was run to study the effect of future changes in CLD on TMIN and TMAX. Our analysis showed that (1) the negative linear fit between changes in TMAX and those in CLD was statistically significant in winter while the relationship between the two changes was not evident in summer, (2) the dependency of future changes in TMAX and TMIN on future changes in CLD were more evident in winter than in other seasons with the present SDSM, (3) the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) decreased in the southern part of Shikoku in summer in all the SDSM projections while DTR increased in the northern part of Shikoku in the same season in these projections, (4) the dependencies of changes in DTR on changes in CLD were unclear in summer and winter. Results of the SDSM simulations performed for climate change scenarios such as those from this study contribute to local-scale agricultural and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120014363&hterms=battery+uses&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbattery%2Buses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120014363&hterms=battery+uses&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbattery%2Buses"><span>Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objectives of this work are: (1) Develop advanced Li -ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (i.e., -30 to +60C). (2) Improve the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrolytes. (3) Improve the high voltage stability of these candidate electrolytes systems to enable operation up to 5V with high specific energy cathode materials. (4) Define the performance limitations at low and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (5) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18651755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18651755"><span>Dual fluorescence sensor for trace oxygen and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with unmatched <span class="hlt">range</span> and sensitivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baleizão, Carlos; Nagl, Stefan; Schäferling, Michael; Berberan-Santos, Mário N; Wolfbeis, Otto S</p> <p>2008-08-15</p> <p>An optical dual sensor for oxygen and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is presented that is highly oxygen sensitive and covers a broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Dual sensing is based on luminescence lifetime measurements. The novel sensor contains two luminescent compounds incorporated into polymer films. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive dye (ruthenium tris-1,10-phenanthroline) has a highly <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent luminescence and is incorporated in poly(acrylonitrile) to avoid cross-sensitivity to oxygen. Fullerene C70 was used as the oxygen-sensitive probe owing to its strong thermally activated delayed fluorescence at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that is extremely oxygen sensitive. The cross-sensitivity of C70 to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is accounted for by means of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor. C70 is incorporated into a highly oxygen-permeable polymer, either ethyl cellulose or organosilica. The two luminescent probes have different emission spectra and decay times, and their emissions can be discriminated using both parameters. Spatially resolved sensing is achieved by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging. The response times of the sensor to oxygen are short. The dual sensor exhibits a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation <span class="hlt">range</span> between at least 0 and 120 degrees C, and detection limits for oxygen in the ppbv <span class="hlt">range</span>, operating for oxygen concentrations up to at least 50 ppmv. These <span class="hlt">ranges</span> outperform all dual oxygen and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors reported so far. The dual sensor presented in this study is especially appropriate for measurements under extreme conditions such as high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and ultralow oxygen levels. This dual sensor is a key step forward in a number of scientifically or commercially important applications including food packaging, for monitoring of hyperthermophilic microorganisms, in space technology, and safety and security applications in terms of detection of oxygen leaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B23A0354P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B23A0354P"><span>Impacts of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on ecosystem carbon balance: an experimental test in grassland mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, C. L.; Gregg, J. W.; Wilson, J. K.; Pangle, L. A.; Bailey, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Although extensive research has determined ecosystem responses to equal increases in day and night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, current <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases have generally been asymmetrical, with increases in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) exceeding increases in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), or vice versa, depending on location. We conducted an ecosystem warming experiment in a perennial grassland to determine the effects of asymmetrically elevated diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles using precision climate-controlled sunlit environmental chambers. Asymmetrically warmed chambers (+5/+2°C, Tmin/Tmax) were compared with symmetrically warmed (+3.5°C continuously) and control chambers (ambient). We tested three alternative hypotheses comparing the carbon balance under symmetric (SYM) and asymmetric (ASYM) warming: H1) SYM < ASYM, due either to a shorter growing season in the SYM treatment from lower Tmin, or to higher respiratory costs from higher Tmax; H2) SYM > ASYM, because warmer nights in the ASYM treatment increase respiration more then photosynthesis, reducing plant growth; H3) SYM = ASYM, due to a combination of effects. Results from the third growing season support H3, that carbon balance is the same under the two elevated diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles. During the early part of the growing season, asymmetric warming resulted in higher nighttime respiratory losses than symmetric warming, but these greater loses were compensated by increased early morning photosynthesis. As a result, carbon balance was not different in the two warming treatments at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time steps. Furthermore, declines in soil moisture over the growing season may have important modulating impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of carbon fluxes. As soils dried, carbon fluxes became less sensitive to diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, and more similar in the symmetric and asymmetric treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6941E..13A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6941E..13A"><span>Measurement of effective <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of fire service thermal imaging cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amon, Francine; Bryner, Nelson</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The use of thermal imaging cameras (TIC) by the fire service is increasing as fire fighters become more aware of the value of these tools. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is currently developing a consensus standard for design and performance requirements of TIC as used by the fire service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology facilitates this process by providing recommendations for science-based performance metrics and test methods to the NFPA technical committee charged with the development of this standard. A suite of imaging performance metrics and test methods, based on the harsh operating environment and limitations of use particular to the fire service, has been proposed for inclusion in the standard. The Effective <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> (ETR) measures the <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that a TIC can view while still providing useful information to the user. Specifically, extreme heat in the field of view tends to inhibit a TIC's ability to discern surfaces having intermediate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, such as victims and fire fighters. The ETR measures the contrast of a target having alternating 25 °C and 30 °C bars while an increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> is imposed on other surfaces in the field of view. The ETR also indicates the thermal conditions that trigger a shift in integration time common to TIC employing microbolometer sensors. The reported values for this imaging performance metric are the hot surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> within which the TIC provides adequate bar contrast, and the hot surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at which the TIC shifts integration time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSR....77....1R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSR....77....1R"><span>Increasing sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical <span class="hlt">range</span> of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution <span class="hlt">range</span> of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and <span class="hlt">range</span> of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution <span class="hlt">ranges</span> were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or changes on their distributional <span class="hlt">range</span> or abundance, along the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution <span class="hlt">range</span> while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889"><span>Synergistic effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations and matching light-dark cycle enhances population growth and synchronizes oviposition behavior in a soil arthropod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liefting, Maartje; Cosijn, Jarno; Ellers, Jacintha</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rather than a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime. The benefit of fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations with light and dark phases e.g. to anticipate the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Such synergistic effects have primarily been studied in the light of activity patterns and gene expression, but have not yet been shown to extend to population dynamics and aspects of individual fitness like oviposition behavior. We therefore explored possible synergistic effects on life history traits of the springtail Orchesella cincta. We first test the primary effect of ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations of different amplitudes on population growth and total population mass. The slowest population growth was observed in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime treatment and the highest population growth in the regime with high amplitude fluctuations. In a second experiment, population growth and oviposition rhythm were measured under four different regimes; a constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime, thermoperiod only, photoperiod only and thermoperiod and photoperiod aligned as under natural conditions. The regime in which thermoperiod was aligned with photoperiod resulted in a higher population growth than could be realized by either factor alone. Also, significantly fewer eggs were laid in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/light regime than in the other three regimes, strongly suggesting that this regime is stressful to O. cincta. Additionally, the fraction of eggs laid at night was highest in the regime with the combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light cycle. In conclusion, our results show that under these experimental</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110024035','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110024035"><span>Analysis of the Dryden Wet Bulb GLobe <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Algorithm for White Sands Missile <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>LaQuay, Ryan Matthew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In locations where workforce is exposed to high relative humidity and light winds, heat stress is a significant concern. Such is the case at the White Sands Missile <span class="hlt">Range</span> in New Mexico. Heat stress is depicted by the wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is the official measurement used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is measured by an instrument which was designed to be portable and needing routine maintenance. As an alternative form for measuring the wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, algorithms have been created to calculate the wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from basic meteorological observations. The algorithms are location dependent; therefore a specific algorithm is usually not suitable for multiple locations. Due to climatology similarities, the algorithm developed for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center was applied to data from the White Sands Missile <span class="hlt">Range</span>. A study was performed that compared a wet bulb globe instrument to data from two Surface Atmospheric Measurement Systems that was applied to the Dryden wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> algorithm. The period of study was from June to September of2009, with focus being applied from 0900 to 1800, local time. Analysis showed that the algorithm worked well, with a few exceptions. The algorithm becomes less accurate to the measurement when the dew point <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is over 10 Celsius. Cloud cover also has a significant effect on the measured wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The algorithm does not show red and black heat stress flags well due to shorter time scales of such events. The results of this study show that it is plausible that the Dryden Flight Research wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> algorithm is compatible with the White Sands Missile <span class="hlt">Range</span>, except for when there are increased dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cloud cover or precipitation. During such occasions, the wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span> instrument would be the preferred method of measurement. Out of the 30</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140001963&hterms=battery+uses&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbattery%2Buses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140001963&hterms=battery+uses&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbattery%2Buses"><span>Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1722v0008C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1722v0008C"><span>Broadening of mesophase <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> induced by doping calamitic mesogen with banana-shaped mesogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cvetinov, Miroslav; Stojanović, Maja; Obadović, Dušanka; Vajda, Aniko; Fodor-Csorba, Katalin; Eber, Nandor</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We have investigated three binary mixtures composed of selected banana-shaped dopant in low concentrations and calamitic mesogen in high. Banana-shaped dopant forms a B7 phase, while the calamitic mesogen exhibit nematic and smectic SmA and SmC phases. The occurring mesophases have been identified by their optical textures. At dopant concentrations of 2.2 and 3.1 mol%, there is evident broadening of nematic and smectic SmA <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> in respect to the pure calamitic compound. Yet, the mixture with dopant concentration of 7 mol% exhibits narrower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of mesophases. Increasing dopant concentration caused lowering of all phase transitions <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (TI-N, TN-SmA, TSmA-SmC) in all investigated mixtures. Therefore, mixing classic calamitic compounds with novel banana-shaped compound in low concentrations is viable way to attain useful mesophase <span class="hlt">range</span> for application in industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5527809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5527809"><span>Implications of the corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> in the prediction of laser thermal damage. [Monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mikesell, G.W. Jr.; Schepler, K.L.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Corneal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the rhesus monkeys have been measured under conditions that may exist during laser experiments. The minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> found for all experimental conditions were 29.54/sup 0/C and 39.16/sup 0/C, respectively, a <span class="hlt">range</span> of 9.62/sup 0/C. A computer model of thermal damage due to laser irradiation was used to determine the effect varying initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could have on corneal damage thresholds (ED50's). The <span class="hlt">range</span> of 9.62/sup 0/C found in monkeys for all experimental conditions corresponded to a 39% difference in threshold power. The dependence of damage thresholds on initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could be an important factor to consider when basing laser safety standards on damage threshold data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1101/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1101/"><span>User's Guide, software for reduction and analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather and surface-water data: Tools for time series analysis of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and streamflow data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hereford, Richard</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The software described here is used to process and analyze <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather and surface-water data. The programs are refinements of earlier versions that include minor corrections and routines to calculate frequencies above a threshold on an annual or seasonal basis. Earlier versions of this software were used successfully to analyze historical precipitation patterns of the Mojave Desert and the southern Colorado Plateau regions, ecosystem response to climate variation, and variation of sediment-runoff frequency related to climate (Hereford and others, 2003; 2004; in press; Griffiths and others, 2006). The main program described here (Day_Cli_Ann_v5.3) uses <span class="hlt">daily</span> data to develop a time series of various statistics for a user specified accounting period such as a year or season. The statistics include averages and totals, but the emphasis is on the frequency of occurrence in days of relatively rare weather or runoff events. These statistics are indices of climate variation; for a discussion of climate indices, see the Climate Research Unit website of the University of East Anglia (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/projects/stardex/) and the Climate Change Indices web site (http://cccma.seos.uvic.ca/ETCCDMI/indices.html). Specifically, the indices computed with this software are the frequency of high intensity 24-hour rainfall, unusually warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and unusually high runoff. These rare, or extreme events, are those greater than the 90th percentile of precipitation, streamflow, or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> computed for the period of record of weather or gaging stations. If they cluster in time over several decades, extreme events may produce detectable change in the physical landscape and ecosystem of a given region. Although the software has been tested on a variety of data, as with any software, the user should carefully evaluate the results with their data. The programs were designed for the <span class="hlt">range</span> of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and streamflow measurements expected in the semiarid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5002035','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5002035"><span>The correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Colombo district, Sri Lanka 2005–2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ehelepola, N. D. B.; Ariyaratne, Kusalika</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Meteorological factors affect dengue transmission. Mechanisms of the way in which different diurnal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">ranging</span> around different mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, influence dengue transmission were published after 2011. Objective We endeavored to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> (DTRs) in Colombo district, Sri Lanka, and to explore the possibilities of using our findings to improve control of dengue. Design We calculated the weekly dengue incidence in Colombo during 2005–2014, after data on all of the reported dengue patients and estimated mid-year populations were collected. We obtained <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from two Colombo weather stations, averaged, and converted them into weekly data. Weekly averages of DTR versus dengue incidence graphs were plotted and correlations observed. The count of days per week with a DTR of >7.5°C and <7.5°C were also calculated. Wavelet time series analysis was performed to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and DTR. Results We obtained a negative correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR>7.5°C with an 8-week lag period, and a positive correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR<7.5°C, also with an 8-week lag. Conclusions Large DTRs were negatively correlated with dengue transmission in Colombo district. We propose to take advantage of that in local dengue control efforts. Our results agree with previous studies on the topic and with a mathematical model of relative vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Global warming and declining DTR are likely to favor a rise of dengue, and we suggest a simple method to mitigate this. PMID:27566717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18j3051G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18j3051G"><span>Surprises from quenches in long-<span class="hlt">range</span>-interacting systems: <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion and cooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, Shamik; Casetti, Lapo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>What happens when one of the parameters governing the dynamics of a long-<span class="hlt">range</span> interacting system of particles in thermal equilibrium is abruptly changed (quenched) to a different value? While a short-<span class="hlt">range</span> system, under the same conditions, will relax in time to a new thermal equilibrium with a uniform <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the system, a long-<span class="hlt">range</span> system shows a fast relaxation to a non-equilibrium quasistationary state (QSS). The lifetime of such an off-equilibrium state diverges with the system size, and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is non-uniform across the system. Quite surprisingly, the density profile in the QSS obtained after the quench is anticorrelated with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile in space, thus exhibiting the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion: denser regions are colder than sparser ones. We illustrate with extensive molecular dynamics simulations the ubiquity of this scenario in a prototypical long-<span class="hlt">range</span> interacting system subject to a variety of quenching protocols, and in a model that mimics an experimental setup of atoms interacting with light in an optical cavity. We further demonstrate how a procedure of iterative quenching combined with filtering out the high-energy particles in the system may be employed to cool the system. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> inversion is observed in nature in some astrophysical settings; our results imply that such a phenomenon should be observable, and could even be exploitable to advantage, also in controlled laboratory experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5078669','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5078669"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Shifts for Three European Tree Species over the Last 10,000 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cheddadi, Rachid; Araújo, Miguel B.; Maiorano, Luigi; Edwards, Mary; Guisan, Antoine; Carré, Matthieu; Chevalier, Manuel; Pearman, Peter B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We quantified the degree to which the relationship between the geographic distribution of three major European tree species, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies and January <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tjan) has remained stable over the past 10,000 years. We used an extended data-set of fossil pollen records over Europe to reconstruct spatial variation in Tjan values for each 1000-year time slice between 10,000 and 3000 years BP (before present). We evaluated the relationships between the occurrences of the three species at each time slice and the spatially interpolated Tjan values, and compared these to their modern <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. Our results reveal that F. sylvatica and P. abies experienced Tjan <span class="hlt">ranges</span> during the Holocene that differ from those of the present, while A. alba occurred over a Tjan <span class="hlt">range</span> that is comparable to its modern one. Our data suggest the need for re-evaluation of the assumption of stable climate tolerances at a scale of several thousand years. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> instability in our observed data independently validates similar results based exclusively on modeled Holocene <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our study complements previous studies that used modeled data by identifying variation in frequencies of occurrence of populations within the limits of suitable climate. However, substantial changes that were observed in the realized thermal niches over the Holocene tend to suggest that predicting future species distributions should not solely be based on modern realized niches, and needs to account for the past variation in the climate variables that drive species <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. PMID:27826308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LTP....38..227L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LTP....38..227L"><span>Micromechanical properties of C70 single crystals in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 77-350 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lubenets, S. V.; Natsik, V. D.; Fomenko, L. S.; Rusakova, A. V.; Osipyan, Yu. A.; Orlov, V. I.; Sidorov, N. S.; Izotov, A. N.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Hexagonal single crystals of C70 down to 1-2 mm in size were grown, which allowed the investigation of their low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> mechanical properties for the first time. Morphology, microplasticity anisotropy, and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of Vickers microhardness HV (T) of the C70 crystals involving all known phase transitions were studied with the aid of optical microscopy and microindentation in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 77-350 K. The association of the features of HV (T) dependence with orientation phase transformations was analyzed. It is suggested that microplasticity anisotropy of the C70 crystals correlates with the active slip systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5141499','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5141499"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extends the <span class="hlt">Range</span> of Size Discrimination of Nonionic Polymers by a Biological Nanopore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Piguet, Fabien; Ouldali, Hadjer; Discala, Françoise; Breton, Marie-France; Behrends, Jan C.; Pelta, Juan; Oukhaled, Abdelghani</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We explore the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the interaction of polydisperse mixtures of nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers of different average molar masses with the biological nanopore α-hemolysin. In contrast with what has been previously observed with various nanopores and analytes, we find that, for PEGs larger than a threshold molar mass (2000 g/mol, PEG 2000), increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases the duration of the PEG/nanopore interaction. In the case of PEG 3400 the duration increases by up to a factor of 100 when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 5 °C to 45 °C. Importantly, we find that increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extends the polymer size <span class="hlt">range</span> of application of nanopore-based single-molecule mass spectrometry (Np-SMMS)-type size discrimination. Indeed, in the case of PEG 3400, discrimination of individual molecular species of different monomer number is impossible at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but is achieved when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is raised to 45 °C. We interpret our observations as the consequence of a decrease of PEG solubility and a collapse of PEG molecules with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In addition to expanding the <span class="hlt">range</span> of application of Np-SMMS to larger nonionic polymers, our findings highlight the crucial role of the polymer solubility for the nanopore detection. PMID:27924860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...638675P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...638675P"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extends the <span class="hlt">Range</span> of Size Discrimination of Nonionic Polymers by a Biological Nanopore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piguet, Fabien; Ouldali, Hadjer; Discala, Françoise; Breton, Marie-France; Behrends, Jan C.; Pelta, Juan; Oukhaled, Abdelghani</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We explore the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the interaction of polydisperse mixtures of nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers of different average molar masses with the biological nanopore α-hemolysin. In contrast with what has been previously observed with various nanopores and analytes, we find that, for PEGs larger than a threshold molar mass (2000 g/mol, PEG 2000), increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases the duration of the PEG/nanopore interaction. In the case of PEG 3400 the duration increases by up to a factor of 100 when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 5 °C to 45 °C. Importantly, we find that increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extends the polymer size <span class="hlt">range</span> of application of nanopore-based single-molecule mass spectrometry (Np-SMMS)-type size discrimination. Indeed, in the case of PEG 3400, discrimination of individual molecular species of different monomer number is impossible at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but is achieved when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is raised to 45 °C. We interpret our observations as the consequence of a decrease of PEG solubility and a collapse of PEG molecules with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In addition to expanding the <span class="hlt">range</span> of application of Np-SMMS to larger nonionic polymers, our findings highlight the crucial role of the polymer solubility for the nanopore detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27109165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27109165"><span>Equatorial <span class="hlt">range</span> limits of an intertidal ectotherm are more linked to water than air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seabra, Rui; Wethey, David S; Santos, António M; Gomes, Filipa; Lima, Fernando P</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>As climate change is expected to impose increasing thermal stress on intertidal organisms, understanding the mechanisms by which body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> translate into major biogeographic patterns is of paramount importance. We exposed individuals of the limpet Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, to realistic experimental treatments aimed at disentangling the contribution of water and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the buildup of thermal stress. Treatments were designed based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected at the microhabitat level, from 15 shores along the Atlantic European coast spanning nearly 20° of latitude. Cardiac activity data indicated that thermal stress levels in P. vulgata are directly linked to elevated water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while high air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is only stressful if water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is also high. In addition, the analysis of the link between population densities and thermal regimes at the studied locations suggests that the occurrence of elevated water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may represent a threshold P. vulgata is unable to tolerate. By combining projected <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold identified, we show that climate change will likely result in the westward expansion of the historical distribution gap in the Bay of Biscay (southwest France), and northward contraction of the southern <span class="hlt">range</span> limit in south Portugal. These findings suggest that even a minor relaxing of the upwelling off northwest Iberia could lead to a dramatic increase in thermal stress, with major consequences for the structure and functioning of the intertidal communities along Iberian rocky shores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.4601Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.4601Y"><span>Rapid poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of tropical reef corals in response to rising sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamano, Hiroya; Sugihara, Kaoru; Nomura, Keiichi</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> caused by climatic warming may cause poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts and/or expansions in species distribution. Tropical reef corals (hereafter corals) are some of the world's most important species, being not only primary producers, but also habitat-forming species, and thus fundamental ecosystem modification is expected according to changes in their distribution. Although most studies of climate change effects on corals have focused on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced coral bleaching in tropical areas, poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts and/or expansions may also occur in temperate areas. We show the first large-scale evidence of the poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of modern corals, based on 80 years of national records from the temperate areas of Japan, where century-long measurements of in situ sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have shown statistically significant rises. Four major coral species categories, including two key species for reef formation in tropical areas, showed poleward <span class="hlt">range</span> expansions since the 1930s, whereas no species demonstrated southward <span class="hlt">range</span> shrinkage or local extinction. The speed of these expansions reached up to 14 km/year, which is far greater than that for other species. Our results, in combination with recent findings suggesting <span class="hlt">range</span> expansions of tropical coral-reef associated organisms, strongly suggest that rapid, fundamental modifications of temperate coastal ecosystems could be in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTSM.129..444T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTSM.129..444T"><span>Wide Pressure <span class="hlt">Range</span> Measurement due to the Exchange of Heater Driving of the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Difference Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takashima, Noriaki; Kimura, Mitsuteru</p> <p></p> <p>We have extended measurable pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> of the thin film Pirani vacuum sensor that is still sensitive above 1×105 Pa (1 atmosphere). In our thin film Pirani vacuum sensor, our proposed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference sensor of the short circuit Seebeck-current detection type thermocouple is used in order to get extremely high sensitivity, especially both in very low pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> and in higher pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> than 1×104 Pa. In our new pressure sensor the cantilever type sensing region, in which a microheater and two thermocouples are formed to measure the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference, is adopted. Therefore, we can use the null method to measure very small pressure accurately in the high vacuum <span class="hlt">range</span> (low pressure <span class="hlt">range</span>). On the other hand in the higher pressure than 1×104 Pa., we could expand the pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> by adoption of the vibration of the sensing cantilever based on the sudden heating due to the exchange of heater driving. We have achieved much wider measurable pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> over 8 digits by use of our new simple thin film Pirani vacuum sensor than that of the traditional one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......184L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......184L"><span>Development of ceramic lithium-electrolyte based carbon dioxide sensors for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from ambient to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Inhee</p> <p></p> <p>Solid-state electrochemical CO2 gas sensors composed of an electrolyte and two porous electrodes have been used extensively in the automobile and bio-chemical industry. Based on the field of application, the working <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the sensor <span class="hlt">ranges</span> from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 600°C. Two potentiometric CO2 sensors that work at different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> were developed in this work. A potentiometric CO2 gas sensor with Li3PO 4 electrolyte and BaCO3 coated Li2CO3 sensing electrode was developed and the sensing electrode was characterized in order to understand its sensing mechanism under humid conditions. This potentiometric CO2 sensor showed humidity-interference-free sensing response for high CO2 concentrations (5˜25%) at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T > 400°C). In addition, the sensor showed good reproducibility and long-term stability under humid conditions. In the sensing electrode, the BaCO 3 layer improved the resistance against humidity as a chemical barrier, while the inner Li2CO3 layer was responsible for the CO2 sensing. However, the sensor in which the eutectic layer covered the entire sensing electrode showed good sensing behavior under dry and humid conditions. Lately, low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> CO2 sensors have been attracting attention due to their low power consumption and easy sensor miniaturization, since a heater is unnecessary. We have developed a low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> CO2 sensor based on lithium lanthanum titanate (LLT) electrolyte in dry conditions that requires further improvement. Lithium lanthanum titanate (LLT) electrolytes were prepared by a conventional solid-state method. The impedance of the LLT electrolyte was measured over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 300 to 473 K and the frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> of 5 Hz and 13 MHz. Activation energies for the Li ionic conduction for grain boundary and grain were estimated to be 0.47 and 0.31 eV, respectively. It was found that LLT is a good ionic conductor at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a good candidate as an electrolyte for low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPS...193..944H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPS...193..944H"><span>Wide-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> operation supercapacitors from nanostructured activated carbon fabric</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Kaihsuan; Masarapu, Charan; Ko, Tsehao; Wei, Bingqing</p> <p></p> <p>Electrochemical power sources that offer high energy and power densities and, can also withstand a harsh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> have become extremely desirable in applications <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from civilian portable electronic devices to military weapons. In this report, we demonstrated a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> withstanding supercapacitor which can be operated from 100 °C to -40 °C within a voltage window from -2 V to 2 V. The performance of the supercapacitor coin cells, assembled with nanostructured activated carbon fabric (ACF) as the electrode material and 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF 4) in polypropylene carbonate (PC) solution as the electrolyte, was systematically studied within the set <span class="hlt">temperature</span> window. The ACF supercapacitor yielded ideal rectangular shapes in cyclic voltammograms within 0-100 °C with an average mass capacitance of 90 F g -1 and, 60 F g -1 at -25 °C. The capacitance was still over 20 F g -1 at the extremely low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of -40 °C. Another exciting feature of the ACF supercapacitors was that they resumed their room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> capacitance when cooled from 100 °C and defrosted from -40 °C, demonstrating an excellent repeatability and stability. The charge-discharge behavior of the ACF supercapacitors showed long-cycle stability at extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These high electrochemical performances make this type of supercapacitors very promising in many practical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22410440"><span>Dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and densities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zaghloul, Mofreh R.</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>We investigate the dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and densities. The partition functions for molecular and atomic species are evaluated, in a statistical-mechanically consistent way, implementing recent developments in the literature and taking high-density effects into account. A new chemical model (free energy function) is introduced in which the fluid is considered as a mixture of diatomic molecules, atoms, ions, and free electrons. Intensive short <span class="hlt">range</span> hard core repulsion is taken into account together with partial degeneracy of free electrons and Coulomb interactions among charged particles. Samples of computational results are presented as a set of isotherms for the degree of ionization, dissociated fraction of molecules, pressure, and specific internal energy for a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of densities and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Predictions from the present model calculations show an improved and sensible physical behavior compared to other results in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...109j6103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...109j6103S"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and frequency characteristics of low-loss MnZn ferrite in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Ke; Lan, Zhongwen; Yu, Zhong; Xu, Zhiyong; Jiang, Xiaona; Wang, Zihui; Liu, Zhi; Luo, Ming</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A low-loss Mn0.7Zn0.24Fe2.06O4 ferrite has been prepared by a solid-state reaction method. The MnZn ferrite has a high initial permeability, μi (3097), a high saturation induction, Bs (526 mT), a high Curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tc (220 °C), and a low core loss, PL (≤ 415 kW/m3) in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25-120 °C) and frequency (10-100 kHz) <span class="hlt">range</span>. As the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, an initial decrease followed by a subsequent increase of hysteresis loss, Ph, and eddy current loss, Pe is observed. Both Ph and Pe increase with increasing frequency. When f ≥ 300 kHz, a residual loss, Pr, appears. Pe increases with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and frequency. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and frequency dependence of Ph can be explained by irreversible domain wall movements, Pe by the skin effect, and Pr by domain wall resonance, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006420','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006420"><span>An alternate method for achieving <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in the -130 C to 75 C <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Kenneth R.; Anderson, Mark R.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Thermal vacuum testing often requires <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control of chamber shrouds and heat exchangers within the -130 C to 75 C <span class="hlt">range</span>. There are two conventional methods which are normally employed to achieve control through this intermediate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>: (1) single-pass flow where control is achieved by alternately pulsing hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and cold LN2 into the feed line to yield the setpoint <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; and (2) closed-loop circulation where control is achieved by either electrically heating or LN2 cooling the circulating GN2 to yield the setpoint <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A third method, using a mass flow ratio controller along with modulating control valves on GN2 and LN2 lines, provides excellent control but equipment for this method is expensive and cost-prohibitive for all but long-term continuous processes. The single-pass method provides marginal control and can result in unexpected overcooling of the test article from even a short pulse of LN2. The closed-loop circulation method provides excellent control but requires an expensive blower capable of operating at elevated pressures and cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Where precise control is needed (plus or minus 2 C), single-pass flow systems typically have not provided the precision required, primarily because of overcooling <span class="hlt">temperature</span> excursions. Where several individual circuits are to be controlled at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the use of expensive cryogenic blowers for each circuit is also cost-prohibitive, especially for short duration of one-of-a-kind tests. At JPL, a variant of the single-pass method was developed that was shown to provide precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in the -130 C to 75 C <span class="hlt">range</span> while exhibiting minimal setpoint overshoot during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions. This alternate method uses a commercially available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controller along with a GN2/LN2 mixer to dampen the amplitude of cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spikes caused by LN2 pulsing. The design of the GN2/LN2 mixer, the overall control system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.370...81Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.370...81Z"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-dependent Goos-Hänchen shift in the terahertz <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zang, Mengdi; He, Ting; Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Liang; Shen, Jingling</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this work, an observation of Goos-Hänchen shift in the terahertz <span class="hlt">range</span> on a metal surface with a change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is reported. A s-polarized terahertz wave incident at 45° onto an aluminum surface produces a positive GH shift that increases with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We used an interference method by observing the change of interference fringes of two THz beams to verify the existence of the GH shift and indirectly measured the quantity of it. Based on experimental data and theoretical analysis, the increase of GH shift on the aluminum surface as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 23 °C and 101 °C has been obtained. Considering the effect of the thermal expansion, the maximum variation of GH shift is 267.2 μm with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changing 78 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254160"><span>Communication: Anomalous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> order in phosphonium ionic liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hettige, Jeevapani J.; Kashyap, Hemant K.; Margulis, Claudio J.</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>In a recent article by the Castner and Margulis groups [Faraday Discuss. 154, 133 (2012)], we described in detail the structure of the tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquid as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using X-ray scattering, and theoretical partitions of the computationally derived structure function. Interestingly, and as opposed to the case in most other ionic-liquids, the first sharp diffraction peak or prepeak appears to increase in intensity as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. This phenomenon is counter intuitive as one would expect that intermediate <span class="hlt">range</span> order fades as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases. This Communication shows that a loss of hydrophobic tail organization at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is counterbalanced by better organization of polar components giving rise to the increase in intensity of the prepeak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13...93T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CliPa..13...93T"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variability in the Iberian <span class="hlt">Range</span> since 1602 inferred from tree-ring records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tejedor, Ernesto; Ángel Saz, Miguel; María Cuadrat, José; Esper, Jan; de Luis, Martín</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Tree rings are an important proxy to understand the natural drivers of climate variability in the Mediterranean Basin and hence to improve future climate scenarios in a vulnerable region. Here, we compile 316 tree-ring width series from 11 conifer sites in the western Iberian <span class="hlt">Range</span>. We apply a new standardization method based on the trunk basal area instead of the tree cambial age to develop a regional chronology which preserves high- to low-frequency variability. A new reconstruction for the 1602-2012 period correlates at -0.78 with observational September <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with a cumulative mean of the 21 previous months over the 1945-2012 calibration period. The new IR2Tmax reconstruction is spatially representative for the Iberian Peninsula and captures the full <span class="hlt">range</span> of past Iberian <span class="hlt">Range</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. Reconstructed long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations match reasonably well with solar irradiance changes since warm and cold phases correspond with high and low solar activity, respectively. In addition, some annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> downturns coincide with volcanic eruptions with a 3-year lag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671586"><span>Effects of regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on electric vehicle efficiency, <span class="hlt">range</span>, and emissions in the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuksel, Tugce; Michalek, Jeremy J</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>We characterize the effect of regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences on battery electric vehicle (BEV) efficiency, <span class="hlt">range</span>, and use-phase power plant CO2 emissions in the U.S. The efficiency of a BEV varies with ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to battery efficiency and cabin climate control. We find that annual energy consumption of BEVs can increase by an average of 15% in the Upper Midwest or in the Southwest compared to the Pacific Coast due to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from BEVs vary primarily with marginal regional grid mix, which has three times the GHG intensity in the Upper Midwest as on the Pacific Coast. However, even within a grid region, BEV emissions vary by up to 22% due to spatial and temporal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation and its implications for vehicle efficiency and charging duration and timing. Cold climate regions also encounter days with substantial reduction in EV <span class="hlt">range</span>: the average <span class="hlt">range</span> of a Nissan Leaf on the coldest day of the year drops from 70 miles on the Pacific Coast to less than 45 miles in the Upper Midwest. These regional differences are large enough to affect adoption patterns and energy and environmental implications of BEVs relative to alternatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJBm...57..597L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJBm...57..597L"><span>Effect of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>While diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> during the day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110010220','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110010220"><span>Stability of a Crystal Oscillator, Type Si530, Inside and Beyond its Specified Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Data acquisition and control systems depend on timing signals for proper operation and required accuracy. These clocked signals are typically provided by some form of an oscillator set to produce a repetitive, defined signal at a given frequency. Crystal oscillators are commonly used because they are less expensive, smaller, and more reliable than other types of oscillators. Because of the inherent characteristics of the crystal, the oscillators exhibit excellent frequency stability within the specified <span class="hlt">range</span> of operational <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In some cases, however, some compensation techniques are adopted to further improve the thermal stability of a crystal oscillator. Very limited data exist on the performance and reliability of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) crystal oscillators at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> beyond the manufacturer's specified operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. This information is very crucial if any of these parts were to be used in circuits designed for use in space exploration missions where extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> swings and thermal cycling are encountered. This report presents the results of the work obtained on the operation of Silicon Laboratories crystal oscillator, type Si530, under specified and extreme ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5011777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5011777"><span>An improved approach for measuring immersion freezing in large droplets over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tobo, Yutaka</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Immersion freezing (ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled water) is a key process for forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. Immersion freezing experiments with particles in microliter-sized (millimeter-sized) water droplets are often applied to detecting very small numbers of ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, the application of such large droplets remains confined to the detection of INPs active at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> much higher than the homogeneous freezing limit, because of artifacts related to freezing of water droplets without added INPs at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of −25 °C or higher on a supporting substrate. Here I report a method for measuring immersion freezing in super-microliter-sized droplets over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. To reduce possible artifacts, droplets are pipetted onto a thin layer of Vaseline and cooled in a clean booth. In the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system, freezing of pure (Milli-Q) water droplets are limited at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above −30 °C. An intercomparison of various techniques for immersion freezing experiments with reference particles (Snomax and illite NX) demonstrates that despite the use of relatively large droplets, the CRAFT setup allows for evaluating the immersion freezing activity of the particles over almost the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (about −30 °C to 0 °C) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. PMID:27596247</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJT....34.1110N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJT....34.1110N"><span>Experimental Investigation of Soil Thermal Conductivity Over a Wide <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikolaev, Ivan V.; Leong, Wey H.; Rosen, Marc A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The results are reported of an experimental investigation of the soil thermal conductivity over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, for various water contents and two soil types. The results are particularly important in predictions of underground heat transfer, which require a quantitative understanding of the coupled dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on texture, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and water content. In the research, comprehensive sets of thermal conductivity for Ottawa sand (coarse soil) and Richmond Hill fine sandy loam (medium soil) are experimentally obtained using the guarded hot-plate method, for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from 2° C to 92° C and water contents varying from complete dryness to full saturation. For both soils, the thermal conductivity is observed to vary in three stages with respect to increasing water content: a very minor increase as water content increases to the permanent wilting point, a steep increase as water content further increases to field capacity, and a minor increase (for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> less than 72° C) or decrease for (<span class="hlt">temperatures</span> greater than 72° C) when the field capacity is exceeded. Then, on the basis of gathered datasets, a similar Ke(Sr,T) form of the soil thermal conductivity model by Tarnawski et al. is used to empirically fit the data. The resulted correlations fit the data well with their overall root-relative-mean-square percentage errors of 4.7 % and 6.1 % for Ottawa sand and Richmond Hill fine sandy loam, respectively, and are suitable for most engineering applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50c5303Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50c5303Y"><span>Thermal stimulated current response in cupric oxide single crystal thin films over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Kungan; Wu, Shuxiang; Yu, Fengmei; Zhou, Wenqi; Wang, Yunjia; Meng, Meng; Wang, Gaili; Zhang, Yueli; Li, Shuwei</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Cupric oxide single crystal thin films (~26 nm) were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction show that the thin films are 2  ×  2 reconstructed with an in-plane compression and out-of-plane stretching. A thermal stimulated current measurement indicates that the electric polarization response is shown in the special 2D cupric oxide single crystal thin film over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 130 K to near-room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We infer that the abnormal electric response involves the changing of phase transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> induced by structure distortion, the spin frustration and the magnetic fluctuation effect of a short-<span class="hlt">range</span> magnetic order, or the combined action of both of the two factors mentioned above. This work suggests a promising clue for finding new room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> single phase multiferroics or tuning phase transition <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18699676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18699676"><span>A compound carbon thermometer for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 0.3-100 K.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adolf, A; Djerassi, H; Leszczyszyn, J</p> <p>1979-09-01</p> <p>A compound carbon thermometer consisting of an abreast connection of a carbon Speer resistor and a carbon Allen-Bradley resistor was tested in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interval 0.3-100 K, an interval which generally requires two independent resistors to be covered. The characteristics, sensitivity, and analytical handling of the resistance versus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are discussed and compared with the corresponding behavior of other thermometers. The satisfactory performance of the compound carbon device contributes to the extension of wide-<span class="hlt">range</span> thermometry to 0.3 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111078S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111078S"><span>Comparison of correction methods of inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data on example of Central European <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanek, P.; Gruber, Ch.; Zahradnicek, P.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for <span class="hlt">daily</span> data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods were investigated more deeply and their results were mutually compared. The methods used were HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM of Olivier Mestre and a new method of Petr Stepanek. For the calculation, the software ProClimDB has been combined with R software scripts containing HOM and SPLIDHOM and the different methodological approaches were applied to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of various meteorological elements measured in the area of the Czech Republic. The tool is open and freely available. Series were processed by means of the developed ProClimDB and AnClim software (www.climahom.eu).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086975"><span>Factors affecting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation and habitat use in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> diamondback terrapins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akins, C D; Ruder, C D; Price, S J; Harden, L A; Gibbons, J W; Dorcas, M E</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Measuring the thermal conditions of aquatic reptiles with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataloggers is a cost-effective way to study their behavior and habitat use. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dataloggers are a particularly useful and informative approach to studying organisms such as the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) that inhabits a dynamic environment often inaccessible to researchers. We used carapace-mounted dataloggers to measure hourly carapace <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tc) of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> terrapins in South Carolina from October 2007 to 2008 to examine the effects of month, sex, creek site, and tide on Tc and to determine the effects of month, sex, and time of day on terrapin basking frequency. Simultaneous measurements of environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Te; shallow mud, deep mud, water) allowed us to make inferences about terrapin microhabitat use. Terrapin Tc differed significantly among months and creek and between sexes. Terrapin microhabitat use also varied monthly, with shallow mud <span class="hlt">temperature</span> being the best predictor of Tc November-March and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> being the best predictor of Tc April-October. Terrapins basked most frequently in spring and fall and males basked more frequently than females. Our study contributes to a fuller understanding of terrapin thermal biology and provides support for using dataloggers to investigate behavior and habitat use of aquatic ectotherms inhabiting dynamic environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11209884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11209884"><span>Feeding behaviour of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> penguins determined by oesophageal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charrassin, J B; Kato, A; Handrich, Y; Sato, K; Naito, Y; Ancel, A; Bost, C A; Gauthier-Clerc, M; Ropert-Coudert, Y; Le Maho, Y</p> <p>2001-01-22</p> <p>Sea birds play a major role in marine food webs, and it is important to determine when and how much they feed at sea. A major advance has been made by using the drop in stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> after ingestion of ectothermic prey. This method is less sensitive when birds eat small prey or when the stomach is full. Moreover, in diving birds, independently of food ingestion, there are fluctuations in the lower abdominal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the dives. Using oesophageal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we present here a new method for detecting the timing of prey ingestion in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> sea birds, and, to our knowledge, report the first data obtained on king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). In birds ashore, which were hand-fed 2-15 g pieces of fish, all meal ingestions were detected with a sensor in the upper oesophagus. Detection was poorer with sensors at increasing distances from the beak. At sea, slow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops in the upper oesophagus and stomach characterized a diving effect per se. For the upper oesophagus only, abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations were superimposed, therefore indicating prey ingestions. We determined the depths at which these occurred. Combining the changes in oesophageal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of marine predators with their diving pattern opens new perspectives for understanding their foraging strategy, and, after validation with concurrent applications of classical techniques of prey survey, for assessing the distribution of their prey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001IJBm...45..143F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001IJBm...45..143F"><span>Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of environmental conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiala, D.; Lomas, K. J.; Stohrer, M.</p> <p></p> <p>A mathematical model for predicting human thermal and regulatory responses in cold, cool, neutral, warm, and hot environments has been developed and validated. The multi-segmental passive system, which models the dynamic heat transport within the body and the heat exchange between body parts and the environment, is discussed elsewhere. This paper is concerned with the development of the active system, which simulates the regulatory responses of shivering, sweating, and peripheral vasomotion of unacclimatised subjects. Following a comprehensive literature review, 26 independent experiments were selected that were designed to provoke each of these responses in different circumstances. Regression analysis revealed that skin and head core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affect regulatory responses in a non-linear fashion. A further signal, i.e. the rate of change of the mean skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> weighted by the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> error signal, was identified as governing the dynamics of thermoregulatory processes in the cold. Verification and validation work was carried out using experimental data obtained from 90 exposures covering a <span class="hlt">range</span> of steady and transient ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 5°C and 50°C and exercise intensities between 46 W/m2 and 600 W/m2. Good general agreement with measured data was obtained for regulatory responses, internal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and the mean and local skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of unacclimatised humans for the whole spectrum of climatic conditions and for different activity levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...342..241B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPS...342..241B"><span>A lithium-ion capacitor model working on a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barcellona, S.; Piegari, L.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Energy storage systems are spreading both in stationary and transport applications. Among innovative storage devices, lithium ion capacitors (LiCs) are very interesting. They combine the advantages of both traditional electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium ion batteries (LiBs). The behavior of this device is much more similar to ELDCs than to batteries. For this reason, several models developed for traditional ELDCs were extended to LiCs. Anyway, at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> LiCs behavior is quite different from ELDCs and it is more similar to a LiB. Consequently, EDLC models works fine at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but give worse results at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This paper proposes a new electric model that, overcoming this issue, is a valid solution in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Based on only five parameters, depending on polarization voltage and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the proposed model is very simple to be implemented. Its accuracy is verified through experimental tests. From the reported results, it is also shown that, at very low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the dependence of the resistance from the current has to be taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000115878&hterms=sound+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000115878&hterms=sound+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Btemperature"><span>Optical Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air Over the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> 300-650 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hart, Roger C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Using laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), the speed of sound in room air (1 atm) is measured over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 300-650 K. Since the LITA apparatus maintains a fixed sound wavelength as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is varied, this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> simultaneously corresponds to a sound frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> of 10-15 MHz. The data are compared to a published model and typically agree within 0.1%-0.4% at each of 21 <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015108','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015108"><span>Two-phase working fluids for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 50 to 350 deg, phase 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Several two phase heat transfer fluids were tested in aluminum and carbon steel reflux capsules for over 25,000 hours at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 300 C. Several fluids showed very good stability and would be useful for long duration heat transfer applications over the <span class="hlt">range</span> 100 to 350 C. Instrumentation for the measurement of surface tension and viscosity were constructed for use with heat transfer fluids over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 0 to 300 C and with pressures from 0 to 10 atmospheres. The surface tension measuring device constructed requires less than a 1.0 cc sample and displays an accuracy of about 5 percent in preliminary tests, while the viscometer constructed for this program requires a 0.05 cc sample and shows an accuracy of about 5 percent in initial tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22628653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22628653"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-dependent alterations in host use drive rapid <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion in a butterfly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pateman, Rachel M; Hill, Jane K; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard; Thomas, Chris D</p> <p>2012-05-25</p> <p>Responses of species to climate change are extremely variable, perhaps because of climate-related changes to interactions among species. We show that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related changes in the dependence of the butterfly Aricia agestis on different larval host plants have facilitated rapid <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion. Historically, the butterfly was largely restricted to a single plant species, Helianthemum nummularium, but recent warmer conditions have enabled the butterfly to increasingly use the more widespread plant species Geranium molle. This has resulted in a substantial increase in available habitat and rapid <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion by the butterfly (79 kilometers northward in Britain in 20 years). Interactions among species are often seen as constraints on species' responses to climate change, but we show that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent changes to interspecific interactions can also facilitate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RJPCA..91..195B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RJPCA..91..195B"><span>V-structures of ethylene glycol and monoethanolamine in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of the liquid phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balabaev, N. K.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A.; Shirokova, E. V.; Sirotkin, D. A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Vibration-averaged V-structures for liquid ethylene glycol (EG) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are found in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of the solvents' liquid phase by means of molecular dynamics. The obtained V-structures' characteristics are compared to X-ray diffraction data on the crystalline phases of these compounds. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental data is observed. The V-structures are compared to that of water.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371770"><span>Artificial <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Anisotropy of Crystals in X-Ray Frequency <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mkrtchyan, Vahram P.; Gasparyan, Laura G.; Balyan, Minas K.</p> <p>2010-04-06</p> <p>The effect of artificial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy of crystals in X-ray frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> was observed for the first time and an effort to theoretically interpret this effect in Bragg-Laue diffraction case was made. It was established that an isotropic crystal optically turns into an artificially anisotropic one with optical axis along the direction of applied external influence as a symmetry axis, giving rise to the double refraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780008386','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780008386"><span>Two-Phase Working Fluids for the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> 50 to 350 C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saaski, E. W.; Owzarski, P. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The decomposition and corrosion of two-phase heat transfer liquids and metal envelopes have been investigated on the basis of molecular bond strengths and chemical thermodynamics. Potentially stable heat transfer fluids for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 100 C to 350 C have been identified, and reflux heat pipes tests initiated with 10 fluids and carbon steel and aluminum envelopes to experimentally establish corrosion behavior and noncondensable gas generation rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590452"><span>Torpor expression in juvenile and adult Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) differs in frequency, duration and onset in response to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diedrich, Victoria; Bank, Jonathan H; Scherbarth, Frank; Steinlechner, Stephan</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In addition to morphological and physiological traits of short-day acclimatisation, Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) from Central Asia exhibit spontaneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor to decrease energy demands during winter. Environmental factors such as food scarcity and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been shown to facilitate the use of this temporal reduction in metabolism and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We investigated the effect of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on short-day acclimation and torpor expression in juvenile and adult Djungarian hamsters. The animals were exposed to a cold dark phase (6°C) and a warmer light phase (18°C) and were compared with control hamsters kept at a constant ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 18°C. Under constant conditions, torpor expression did not differ between adult and juvenile hamsters. Although the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle evoked an increased metabolic rate in adult and juvenile hamsters during the dark phase and strengthened the synchronization between torpor entrance and the beginning of the light phase, it did not induce the expected torpor facilitation. In adult hamsters, torpor expression profiles did not differ from those under constant conditions at all. In contrast, juvenile hamsters showed a delayed onset of torpor season, a decreased torpor frequency, depth and duration, as well as an increased number of early torpor terminations coinciding with the rise in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> after the beginning of the light phase. While the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> challenge appeared to be of minor importance for energy balance and torpor expression in adult hamsters, it profoundly influenced the overall energy saving strategy of juvenile hamsters, promoting torpor-alleviating active foragers over torpor-prone energy-savers. In addition, our data suggest a more efficient acclimation in juvenile hamsters under additional energy challenges, which reduces the need for torpor expression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989IJT....10..505K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989IJT....10..505K"><span>Study of special ceramics with a dilatometer in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 25 2000°C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaisersberger, E.; Kelly, J.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>Many properties of special ceramic materials, often closely related, such as sintering <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, shrinkage in firing, mineral reaction, and strength can be studied with thermal analysis. Also the influence of type, structure, and preparation of raw materials and, of plasticizers and binding materials for forming and compressing, as well as the compatibility with protective coatings (glazes, varnishes, metal films), are investigated by thermal analysis. The development of a new dilatometer for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 25 2000°C with maximum heating rates of 20 K·min-1 and sample sizes 25 50 mm in length and 6 12 mm in diameter for measurements in an argon atmosphere and vacuum has opened up new horizons. Sintering studies at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.5115T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.5115T"><span>Reassessing changes in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>: A new data set and characterization of data biases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorne, P. W.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C. N.; Rennie, J. J.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Vose, R. S.; Peterson, T. C.; Durre, I.; Davy, R.; Esau, I.; Klein-Tank, A. M. G.; Merlone, A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>It has been a decade since changes in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) globally have been assessed in a stand-alone data analysis. The present study takes advantage of substantively improved basic data holdings arising from the International Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Initiative's databank effort and applies the National Centers for Environmental Information's automated pairwise homogeneity assessment algorithm to reassess DTR records. It is found that breakpoints are more prevalent in DTR than other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elements and that the resulting adjustments have a broader distribution. This strongly implies that there is an overarching tendency, across the global meteorological networks, for nonclimatic artifacts to impart either random or anticorrelated rather than correlated biases in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series. Future homogenization efforts would likely benefit from simultaneous consideration of DTR and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, in addition to average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Estimates of change in DTR are relatively insensitive to whether adjustments are calculated directly or inferred from adjustments returned for the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series. The homogenized series exhibit a reduction in DTR since the midtwentieth century globally (-0.044 K/decade). Adjustments serve to approximately halve the long-term global reduction in DTR in the basic "raw" data. Most of the estimated DTR reduction occurred over 1960-1980. In several regions DTR has apparently increased over 1979-2012, while globally it has exhibited very little change (-0.016 K/decade). Estimated changes in DTR are an order of magnitude smaller than in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which have both been increasing rapidly on multidecadal timescales (0.186 K/decade and 0.236 K/decade, respectively, since the midtwentieth century).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048032"><span>SiC JFET Transistor Circuit Model for Extreme <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neudeck, Philip G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A technique for simulating extreme-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation of integrated circuits that incorporate silicon carbide (SiC) junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) has been developed. The technique involves modification of NGSPICE, which is an open-source version of the popular Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) general-purpose analog-integrated-circuit-simulating software. NGSPICE in its unmodified form is used for simulating and designing circuits made from silicon-based transistors that operate at or near room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Two rapid modifications of NGSPICE source code enable SiC JFETs to be simulated to 500 C using the well-known Level 1 model for silicon metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). First, the default value of the MOSFET surface potential must be changed. In the unmodified source code, this parameter has a value of 0.6, which corresponds to slightly more than half the bandgap of silicon. In NGSPICE modified to simulate SiC JFETs, this parameter is changed to a value of 1.6, corresponding to slightly more than half the bandgap of SiC. The second modification consists of changing the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of MOSFET transconductance and saturation parameters. The unmodified NGSPICE source code implements a T(sup -1.5) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence for these parameters. In order to mimic the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> behavior of experimental SiC JFETs, a T(sup -1.3) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence must be implemented in the NGSPICE source code. Following these two simple modifications, the Level 1 MOSFET model of the NGSPICE circuit simulation program reasonably approximates the measured high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> behavior of experimental SiC JFETs properly operated with zero or reverse bias applied to the gate terminal. Modification of additional silicon parameters in the NGSPICE source code was not necessary to model experimental SiC JFET current-voltage performance across the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 25 to 500 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.523..196H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.523..196H"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">range</span> energy transport in single supramolecular nanofibres at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haedler, Andreas T.; Kreger, Klaus; Issac, Abey; Wittmann, Bernd; Kivala, Milan; Hammer, Natalie; Köhler, Jürgen; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Hildner, Richard</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Efficient transport of excitation energy over long distances is a key process in light-harvesting systems, as well as in molecular electronics. However, in synthetic disordered organic materials, the exciton diffusion length is typically only around 10 nanometres (refs 4, 5), or about 50 nanometres in exceptional cases, a distance that is largely determined by the probability laws of incoherent exciton hopping. Only for highly ordered organic systems has the transport of excitation energy over macroscopic distances been reported--for example, for triplet excitons in anthracene single crystals at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as well as along single polydiacetylene chains embedded in their monomer crystalline matrix at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (at 10 kelvin, or -263 degrees Celsius). For supramolecular nanostructures, uniaxial long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transport has not been demonstrated at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Here we show that individual self-assembled nanofibres with molecular-scale diameter efficiently transport singlet excitons at ambient conditions over more than four micrometres, a distance that is limited only by the fibre length. Our data suggest that this remarkable long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transport is predominantly coherent. Such coherent long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transport is achieved by one-dimensional self-assembly of supramolecular building blocks, based on carbonyl-bridged triarylamines, into well defined H-type aggregates (in which individual monomers are aligned cofacially) with substantial electronic interactions. These findings may facilitate the development of organic nanophotonic devices and quantum information technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26156373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26156373"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">range</span> energy transport in single supramolecular nanofibres at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haedler, Andreas T; Kreger, Klaus; Issac, Abey; Wittmann, Bernd; Kivala, Milan; Hammer, Natalie; Köhler, Jürgen; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Hildner, Richard</p> <p>2015-07-09</p> <p>Efficient transport of excitation energy over long distances is a key process in light-harvesting systems, as well as in molecular electronics. However, in synthetic disordered organic materials, the exciton diffusion length is typically only around 10 nanometres (refs 4, 5), or about 50 nanometres in exceptional cases, a distance that is largely determined by the probability laws of incoherent exciton hopping. Only for highly ordered organic systems has the transport of excitation energy over macroscopic distances been reported--for example, for triplet excitons in anthracene single crystals at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as well as along single polydiacetylene chains embedded in their monomer crystalline matrix at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (at 10 kelvin, or -263 degrees Celsius). For supramolecular nanostructures, uniaxial long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transport has not been demonstrated at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Here we show that individual self-assembled nanofibres with molecular-scale diameter efficiently transport singlet excitons at ambient conditions over more than four micrometres, a distance that is limited only by the fibre length. Our data suggest that this remarkable long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transport is predominantly coherent. Such coherent long-<span class="hlt">range</span> transport is achieved by one-dimensional self-assembly of supramolecular building blocks, based on carbonyl-bridged triarylamines, into well defined H-type aggregates (in which individual monomers are aligned cofacially) with substantial electronic interactions. These findings may facilitate the development of organic nanophotonic devices and quantum information technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.4942...63P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.4942...63P"><span>VCSEL based transmitter module for automotive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> between -55° C and +125° C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poferl, Stefan G.; Krieg, Marcel; Hocky, Oliver; Zeeb, Eberhard</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Robust, high speed optical data bus systems are increasingly required in automobiles, not only for entertainment applications within the passenger compartment but also for engine management systems and safety sensor networks. Optoelectronic components and modules intended to be used in cars have to withstand harsh environmental conditions, e.g. they have to be operational within a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of up to - 55 °C to +1 25 °C for several thousand hours and at the same time they have to be of very low-cost. In this paper we describe a 500 MBit/s transmitter module based on a commercial available 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a bias-T driving circuit. The optical output power of the module varies only by -0.5 dBm +/- 1dB in the required <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> without active <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control. In addition we describe a packaging solution for the VCSEL transmitters allowing the operation of the module even in an extreme engine compartment environment, where short term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> peaks above 125 °C appear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233588','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233588"><span>Elevational <span class="hlt">Ranges</span> of Birds on a Tropical Montane Gradient Lag behind Warming <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Forero-Medina, German; Terborgh, John; Socolar, S. Jacob; Pimm, Stuart L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Species may respond to a warming climate by moving to higher latitudes or elevations. Shifts in geographic <span class="hlt">ranges</span> are common responses in temperate regions. For the tropics, latitudinal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients are shallow; the only escape for species may be to move to higher elevations. There are few data to suggest that they do. Yet, the greatest loss of species from climate disruption may be for tropical montane species. Methodology/Principal Findings We repeat a historical transect in Peru and find an average upward shift of 49 m for 55 bird species over a 41 year interval. This shift is significantly upward, but also significantly smaller than the 152 m one expects from warming in the region. To estimate the expected shift in elevation we first determined the magnitude of warming in the locality from historical data. Then we used the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> lapse rate to infer the required shift in altitude to compensate for warming. The <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts in elevation were similar across different trophic guilds. Conclusions Endothermy may provide birds with some flexibility to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and allow them to move less than expected. Instead of being directly dependent on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, birds may be responding to gradual changes in the nature of the habitat or availability of food resources, and presence of competitors. If so, this has important implications for estimates of mountaintop extinctions from climate change. PMID:22163309</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212152','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212152"><span>Modelling the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of species by reaction-diffusion equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richter, Otto; Moenickes, Sylvia; Suhling, Frank</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The spatial dynamics of <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion is studied in dependence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The main elements population dynamics, competition and dispersal are combined in a coherent approach based on a system of coupled partial differential equations of the reaction-diffusion type. The nonlinear reaction terms comprise population dynamic models with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent reproduction rates subject to an Allee effect and mutual competition. The effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on travelling wave solutions is investigated for a one dimensional model version. One main result is the importance of the Allee effect for the crossing of regions with unsuitable habitats. The nonlinearities of the interaction terms give rise to a richness of spatio-temporal dynamic patterns. In two dimensions, the resulting non-linear initial boundary value problems are solved over geometries of heterogeneous landscapes. Geo referenced model parameters such as mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevation are imported into the finite element tool COMSOL Multiphysics from a geographical information system. The model is applied to the <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of species at the scale of middle Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27154303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27154303"><span>Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) Respond to Increased Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> with a Seasonal Shift in the Timing of Their <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Inactivity Patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davimes, Joshua G; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Gravett, Nadine; Bertelsen, Mads F; Mohammed, Osama B; Ismail, Khairy; Bennett, Nigel C; Manger, Paul R</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Arabian oryx inhabits an environment where summer ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can exceed 40 °C for extended periods of time. While the oryx uses a suite of adaptations that aid survival, the effects of this extreme environment on inactivity are unknown. To determine how the oryx manages inactivity seasonally, we measured the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and used fine-grain actigraphy, in 10 animals, to reveal when the animals were inactive in relation to ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod. We demonstrate that during the cooler winter months, the oryx was inactive during the cooler parts of the 24-h day (predawn hours), showing a nighttime (nocturnal) inactivity pattern. In contrast, in the warmer summer months, the oryx displayed a bimodal inactivity pattern, with major inactivity bouts (those greater than 1 h) occurring equally during both the coolest part of the night (predawn hours) and the warmest part of the day (afternoon hours). Of note, the timing of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not vary seasonally, although the amplitude did change, leading to a seasonal alteration in the phase relationship between inactivity and the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm. Because during periods of inactivity the oryx were presumably asleep for much of the time, we speculate that the daytime shift in inactivity may allow the oryx to take advantage of the thermoregulatory physiology of sleep, which likely occurs when the animal is inactive for more than 1 h, to mitigate environmentally induced increases in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=284758','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=284758"><span>Differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The circadian rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25155185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25155185"><span>Effects of reproductive status and high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of a free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> basoendotherm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levesque, Danielle L; Lobban, Kerileigh D; Lovegrove, Barry G</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Tenrecs (Order Afrosoricida) exhibit some of the lowest body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T b) of any eutherian mammal. They also have a high level of variability in both active and resting T bs and, at least in cool <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in captivity, frequently employ both short- and long-term torpor. The use of heterothermy by captive animals is, however, generally reduced during gestation and lactation. We present data long-term T b recordings collected from free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> S. setosus over the course of two reproductive seasons. In general, reproductive females had slightly higher (~32 °C) and less variable T b, whereas non-reproductive females and males showed both a higher propensity for torpor as well as lower (~30.5 °C) and more variable rest-phase T bs. Torpor expression defined using traditional means (using a threshold or cut-off T b) was much lower than predicted based on the high degree of heterothermy in captive tenrecs. However, torpor defined in this manner is likely to be underestimated in habitats where ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is close to T b. Our results caution against inferring metabolic states from T b alone and lend support to the recent call to define torpor in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> animals based on mechanistic and not descriptive variables. In addition, lower variability in T b observed during gestation and lactation confirms that homeothermy is essential for reproduction in this species and probably for basoendothermic mammals in general. The relatively low costs of maintaining homeothermy in a sub-tropical environment might help shed light on how homeothermy could have evolved incrementally from an ancestral heterothermic condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3790548','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3790548"><span>Implications of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase for host plant <span class="hlt">range</span>: predictions for a butterfly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Audusseau, Hélène; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although changes in phenology and species associations are relatively well-documented responses to global warming, the potential interactions between these phenomena are less well understood. In this study, we investigate the interactions between <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, phenology (in terms of seasonal timing of larval growth) and host plant use in the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album. We found that the hierarchy of larval performance on three natural host plants was not modified by a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase as such. However, larval performance on each host plant and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment was affected by rearing season. Even though larvae performed better at the higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regardless of the time of the rearing, relative differences between host plants changed with the season. For larvae reared late in the season, performance was always better on the herbaceous plant than on the woody plants. In this species, it is likely that a prolonged warming will lead to a shift from univoltinism to bivoltinism. The demonstrated interaction between host plant suitability and season means that such a shift is likely to lead to a shift in selective regime, favoring specialization on the herbaceous host. Based on our result, we suggest that host <span class="hlt">range</span> evolution in response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase would in this species be highly contingent on whether the population undergoes a predicted shift from one to two generations. We discuss the effect of global warming on species associations and the outcome of asynchrony in rates of phenological change. PMID:24101991</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMEP...25.1076A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMEP...25.1076A"><span>A Study on Flow Behavior of AA5086 Over a Wide <span class="hlt">Range</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asgharzadeh, A.; Jamshidi Aval, H.; Serajzadeh, S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Flow stress behavior of AA5086 was determined using tensile testing at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 500 °C and strain rates varying between 0.002 and 1 s-1. The strain rate sensitivity parameter and occurrence of dynamic strain aging were then investigated in which an Arrhenius-type model was employed to study the serrated flow. Additionally, hot deformation behavior at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher than 320 °C was evaluated utilizing hyperbolic-sine constitutive equation. Finally, a feed forward artificial neural network model with back propagation learning algorithm was proposed to predict flow stress for all deformation conditions. The results demonstrated that the strain rate sensitivity at <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 25-270 °C was negative due to occurrence of dynamic strain aging leading to significant reduction in fracture strain. The serrated yielding activation energy was found to be 46.1 kJ/mol. It indicated that the migration of Mg-atoms could be the main reason for this phenomenon. The hot deformation activation energy of AA5086 was also calculated about 202.3 kJ/mol while the dynamic recovery was the main softening process. Moreover, the ANN model having two hidden layers was shown to be an efficient structure for determining flow stress of the examined alloy for all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and strain rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EaFut...4..270W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EaFut...4..270W"><span>Future Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change resulting from a <span class="hlt">range</span> of aerosol emissions scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wobus, Cameron; Flanner, Mark; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Moura, Maria Cecilia P.; Smith, Steven J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to emissions of aerosols -- specifically black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate -- depends on both the sector and the region where these emissions originate. Thus, the net Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to global aerosol emissions reductions will depend strongly on the blend of emissions sources being targeted. We use recently published equilibrium Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response factors for BC, OC, and sulfate to estimate the <span class="hlt">range</span> of present-day and future Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes from seven different aerosol emissions scenarios. Globally, Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes calculated from all of these emissions scenarios indicate that present-day emissions from the domestic and transportation sectors generate the majority of present-day Arctic warming from BC. However, in all of these scenarios, this warming is more than offset by cooling resulting from SO2 emissions from the energy sector. Thus, long-term climate mitigation strategies that are focused on reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector could generate short-term, aerosol-induced Arctic warming. A properly phased approach that targets BC-rich emissions from the transportation sector as well as the domestic sectors in key regions -- while simultaneously working toward longer-term goals of CO2 mitigation -- could potentially avoid some amount of short-term Arctic warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15389504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15389504"><span>FTIR study of carbonate loss from carbonated apatites in the wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rau, J V; Cesaro, S Nunziante; Ferro, D; Barinov, S M; Fadeeva, I V</p> <p>2004-11-15</p> <p>The mineral constituent of bone tissue is a carbonate-substituted apatite (CHA). The thermal stability of the CHA has been revealed to depend on the substitution type and degree, although relatively little is known about this behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the carbonate loss from synthetic CHAs in equilibrium conditions in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. An approach based on FTIR spectroscopy of condensed gas phase was applied to evaluate the CO and CO2 release with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Four different CHAs were studied, which were prepared by either precipitation from solution or the solid-state interaction. The samples differ from each other by the substitution degree. In one of the samples calcium was partially substituted by magnesium. Decomposition was shown to start at surprisingly low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, about 400 degrees C, and the CO content increases monotonously with the increase of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The CO2 content goes through a maximum due to its decomposition into carbon monoxide and oxygen, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of this maximum being strongly dependent on the chemical synthesis route. Therefore, control of the sintering atmosphere with respect to the CO2/CO ratio is needed when preparing the carbonated apatite bioceramics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101991"><span>Implications of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase for host plant <span class="hlt">range</span>: predictions for a butterfly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Audusseau, Hélène; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Although changes in phenology and species associations are relatively well-documented responses to global warming, the potential interactions between these phenomena are less well understood. In this study, we investigate the interactions between <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, phenology (in terms of seasonal timing of larval growth) and host plant use in the polyphagous butterfly Polygonia c-album. We found that the hierarchy of larval performance on three natural host plants was not modified by a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase as such. However, larval performance on each host plant and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment was affected by rearing season. Even though larvae performed better at the higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regardless of the time of the rearing, relative differences between host plants changed with the season. For larvae reared late in the season, performance was always better on the herbaceous plant than on the woody plants. In this species, it is likely that a prolonged warming will lead to a shift from univoltinism to bivoltinism. The demonstrated interaction between host plant suitability and season means that such a shift is likely to lead to a shift in selective regime, favoring specialization on the herbaceous host. Based on our result, we suggest that host <span class="hlt">range</span> evolution in response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase would in this species be highly contingent on whether the population undergoes a predicted shift from one to two generations. We discuss the effect of global warming on species associations and the outcome of asynchrony in rates of phenological change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhD...39.1932D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JPhD...39.1932D"><span>TSDC study of XLPE recrystallization effects in the melting <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diego, J. A.; Belana, J.; Òrrit, J.; Sellarès, J.; Mudarra, M.; Cañadas, J. C.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The electrical properties of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), employed in mid-voltage cable insulation are studied using thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction. A complex heteropolar peak appears by TSDC between 50 and 110 °C, with a maximum at 105 °C. These measurements reveal that there is an optimal polarization <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tpo) around 90 °C. For this polarization <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the measured discharge peak area is maximum. Although the presence of a Tpo is common in the study of relaxations by TSDC, in this case one would expect a monotonic decrease in the TSDC response with increasing polarization <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to the decrease in the total crystalline fraction. In this paper, TSDC curves obtained under several conditions are interpreted in terms of recrystallization processes in XLPE during the polarization stage, if the sample is polarized in the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. In this case, the recrystallization of a fraction of the material molten at this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> promotes the formation of more stable and defect-free crystals. The presence of recrystallization processes is detected by DSC and confirmed by x-ray diffractometry. TSDC measurements have been performed with samples polarized at several <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tp) cooling from the melt or heating from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Also, TSDC results are obtained with previous annealing or with several cooling rates. These results allow us to infer that crystalline material grown from recrystallization processes that take place in the polarization stage attains a particularly stable polarization. Possible microscopical causes of this effect are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816900I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816900I"><span>Interannual Variability and Trends in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extreme Indices in Finland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation Patterns, 1961-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irannezhad, Masoud; Kløve, Bjørn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (minimum and maximum) and precipitation datasets applied at regular grid points (10×10 km2) throughout Finland for 1961-2011 were analyzed with the aim to evaluate variability and trends in weather extremes on both national and spatial scale of the country and their relationships with atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs). Recommending by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), the extreme indices considered for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were frost days (FD), summer days (SD) and ice days (ID); and for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation were heavy precipitation days (R10), consecutive dry days (CDD), consecutive wet days (CWD), highest 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day), simple <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity index (SDII) and precipitation fraction due to 95th percentile of the reference period (R95pTOT). This study used the well-known influential ACPs for Finland climate variability: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), East Atlantic (EA), East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), Polar (POL), Scandinavia (SCA). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine significant historical trends in extreme indices, and the Spearman rank correlation (rho) to identify relationships between extreme indices and ACPs. For <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, statistically significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were found in ID (-0.40±0.34 days/year) and FD (-0.45±0.27 days/year) on a national scale of Finland during 1961-2011. The AO and EA/WR were most significant ACPs affecting variations in ID and FD, with rho = -0.73 and 0.42, respectively. For the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation extreme indices on the nation-wide of country over the study period (1961-2011), significant trends were only determined in SDII (0.01±0.00 mm/wet days year) and R95pTOT (0.19±0.09 %/year). Both of these indices (SDII and R95pTOT) showed the strongest correlations with the EA/WR pattern, with rho between from -0.42 to -0.34. The EA/WR pattern was also the most influential ACP for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCM...29c5703P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCM...29c5703P"><span>Size effect on high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variable <span class="hlt">range</span> hopping in Al+ implanted 4H-SiC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parisini, Antonella; Parisini, Andrea; Nipoti, Roberta</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The hole transport properties of heavily doped 4H-SiC (Al) layers with Al implanted concentrations of 3  ×  1020 and 5  ×  1020 cm-3 and annealed in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 1950-2100 °C, have been analyzed to determine the main transport mechanisms. This study shows that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the resistivity (conductivity) may be accounted for by a variable <span class="hlt">range</span> hopping (VRH) transport into an impurity band. Depending on the concentration of the implanted impurities and the post-implantation annealing treatment, this VRH mechanism persists over different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> that may extend up to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this framework, two different transport regimes are identified, having the characteristic of an isotropic 3D VRH and an anisotropic nearly 2D VRH. The latter conduction mechanism appears to take place in a rather thick layer (about 400 nm) that is too large to induce a confinement effect of the carrier hops. The possibility that an anisotropic transport may be induced by a structural modification of the implanted layer because of a high density of basal plane stacking faults (SF) in the implanted layers is considered. The interpretation of the conduction in the heaviest doped samples in terms of nearly 2D VRH is supported by the results of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation on one of the 5  ×  1020 cm-3 Al implanted samples of this study. In this context, the average separation between basal plane SFs, measured along the c-axis, which is orthogonal to the carrier transport during electrical characterization, appears to be in keeping with the estimated value of the optimal hopping length of the VRH theory. Conversely, no SFs are detected by TEM in a sample with an Al concentration of 1  ×  1019 cm-3 where a 3D nearest neighbor hopping (NNH) transport is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066249"><span>High flow rate microfluidic device for blood plasma separation using a <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Villarreal, Angeles Ivón; Arundell, Martin; Carmona, Manuel; Samitier, Josep</p> <p>2010-01-21</p> <p>A hybrid microfluidic device that uses hydrodynamic forces to separate human plasma from blood cells has been designed and fabricated and the advantageous effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and flow rates are investigated in this paper. The blood separating device includes an inlet which is reduced by approximately 20 times to a small constrictor channel, which then opens out to a larger output channel with a small lateral channel for the collection of plasma. When tested the device separated plasma from whole blood using a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of flow rates, between 50 microl min(-1) and 200 microl min(-1), at the higher flow rates injected by hand and at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from 23 degrees C to 50 degrees C, the latter resulting in an increase in the cell-free layer of up to 250%. It was also tested continuously using between 5% and 40% erythrocytes in plasma and whole blood without blocking the channels or hemolysis of the cells. The mean percentage of plasma collected after separation was 3.47% from a sample of 1 ml. The percentage of cells removed from the plasma varied depending on the flow rate used, but at 37 degrees C <span class="hlt">ranged</span> between 95.4 +/- 1% and 97.05 +/- 05% at 100 microl min(-1) and 200 microl min(-1), respectively. The change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> also had an effect on the number of cells removed from the plasma which was between 93.5 +/- 0.65% and 97.01 +/- 0.3% at 26.9 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively, using a flow rate of 100 microl min(-1). Due to its ability to operate in a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of conditions, it is envisaged that this device can be used in in vitro 'lab on a chip' applications, as well as a hand-held point of care (POC) device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827148"><span>Direct and indirect toxicity of the fungicide pyraclostrobin to Hyalella azteca and effects on leaf processing under realistic <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willming, Morgan M; Maul, Jonathan D</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Fungicides in aquatic environments can impact non-target bacterial and fungal communities and the invertebrate detritivores responsible for the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter. Additionally, in some aquatic systems <span class="hlt">daily</span> water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations may influence these processes and alter contaminant toxicity, but such <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations are rarely examined in conjunction with contaminants. In this study, the shredding amphipod Hyalella azteca was exposed to the fungicide pyraclostrobin in three experiments. Endpoints included mortality, organism growth, and leaf processing. One experiment was conducted at a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (23 °C), a fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime (18-25 °C) based on field-collected data from the S. Llano River, Texas, or an adjusted fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime (20-26 °C) based on possible climate change predictions. Pyraclostrobin significantly reduced leaf shredding and increased H. azteca mortality at concentrations of 40 μg/L or greater at a constant 23 °C and decreased leaf shredding at concentrations of 15 μg/L or greater in the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. There was a significant interaction between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment and pyraclostrobin concentration on H. azteca mortality, body length, and dry mass under direct aqueous exposure conditions. In an indirect exposure scenario in which only leaf material was exposed to pyraclostrobin, H. azteca did not preferentially feed on or avoid treated leaf disks compared to controls. This study describes the influence of realistic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation on fungicide toxicity to shredding invertebrates, which is important for understanding how future alterations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes due to climate change may influence the assessment of ecological risk of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28375249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28375249"><span>Substrate material selection method for multilayer diffractive optics in a wide environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piao, Mingxu; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhao, Chunzhu; Zhang, Bo; Mao, Shan; Zhao, Yuanming; Zhao, Lidong</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We present a substrate material selection method for multilayer diffractive optical elements (MLDOEs) to obtain high polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency (PIDE) in a wide environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. The extended expressions of the surface relief heights for the MLDOEs are deduced with consideration of the influence of the environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The PIDE difference Δη¯(λ) and PIDE change factor F are introduced to select a reasonable substrate material combination. A smaller value of Δη¯(λ) or F indicates a smaller decrease of the PIDE in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, and the corresponding substrate material combination is better. According to the deduced relation, double-layer and three-layer DOEs with different combinations are discussed. The results show that IRG26 and zinc sulfide is the best substrate material combination in the infrared waveband for double-layer DOEs, and polycarbonate is more reasonable than polymethyl methacrylate as the middle filling optical material for three-layer DOEs when the two substrate materials are the same.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.1925A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.1925A"><span>National Inter-laboratory Comparison of Thermocouples in the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> from to</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arifoviç, N.; Kalemci, M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>One of the main criteria demonstrating the competence of a calibration laboratory is successful participation in inter-laboratory comparisons. Real capability of the laboratory including claimed uncertainties could be demonstrated based on the results of comparisons, evaluated either through -criteria or other acceptable measures. As a number of accredited laboratories with scopes covering calibration services in the field of thermometry have been increasing, the demand for organization of inter-laboratory comparisons with participation of accredited laboratories occurs. Based on this fact, a national inter-laboratory comparison of thermocouple calibrations in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from to in the field of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was launched by TUBITAK UME in 2011. The purpose of the inter-laboratory comparison was to compare the results of the participating laboratories during calibration of the thermocouples in the <span class="hlt">range</span> from to . Three type S thermocouples were constructed and calibrated by TUBITAK UME which is the pilot laboratory of the comparison. It was recommended that the participants use their standard procedure for the calibration of thermocouples and follow the instructions of comparison protocol during the calibration. The inter-laboratory comparison was carried out among eleven national accredited laboratories. In this paper, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences obtained by participating laboratories with associated uncertainties of the results and values will be presented. The metrological equivalence of all laboratories was demonstrated, with all values being less than 1.0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.751a2019G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.751a2019G"><span>Thermal analysis of the mixtures of paraffin with aluminum in wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gubin, S. A.; Maklashova, I. V.; Levitskaya, I. S.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The mixtures and composites of wax, paraffin and metals are widely used as energy efficient formulations and phase change materials for heat storage. Aluminum is frequently employed in the formulations of many composite explosives or propellants. Metal fuel additives are used in advanced explosive formulations to achieve higher combustion <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and longer pressure pulses. In this project, Al-paraffin wax composite materials were prepared and characterized. The thermal stability of the prepared powders was determined by differential scanning calorimeter, simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis- differential thermal analysis in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 30-1300°C at atmospheric pressure. The results of differential scanning calorimeter showed that the thermal performance and structure of the composite materials are stable up to 200°C.The paraffindecompositionwith an energy release is possible at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over 200°C and the oxidation of aluminum may be at a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above its melting point.It is shown that the maximum total amount of heat generated by the thermal decomposition of the composition was at the mass fraction of aluminum of 16% - 18%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030124','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030124"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in complex terrain: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> variations and long-term change in the central Sierra Nevada, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lundquist, J.D.; Cayan, D.R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A realistic description of how <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> vary with elevation is crucial for ecosystem studies and for models of basin-scale snowmelt and spring streamflow. This paper explores surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from an array of 37 sensors, called the Yosemite network, which traverses both slopes of the Sierra Nevada in the vicinity of Yosemite National Park, California. These data indicate that a simple lapse rate is often a poor description of the spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure. Rather, the spatial pattern of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the Yosemite network varies considerably with synoptic conditions. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) were used to identify the dominant spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns and how they vary in time. Temporal variations of these surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns were correlated with large-scale weather conditions, as described by National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis data. Regression equations were used to downscale larger-scale weather parameters, such as Reanalysis winds and pressure, to the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure over the Yosemite network. These relationships demonstrate that strong westerly winds are associated with relatively warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the east slope and cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the west slope of the Sierra, and weaker westerly winds are associated with the opposite pattern. Reanalysis data from 1948 to 2005 indicate weakening westerlies over this time period, a trend leading to relatively cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the east slope over decadal timescale's. This trend also appears in long-term observations and demonstrates the need to consider topographic effects when examining long-term changes in mountain regions. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1239285-new-method-achieving-enhanced-dielectric-response-over-wide-temperature-range','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1239285-new-method-achieving-enhanced-dielectric-response-over-wide-temperature-range"><span>A new method for achieving enhanced dielectric response over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Maurya, Deepam; Sun, Fu -Chang; Pamir Alpay, S.; ...</p> <p>2015-10-19</p> <p>We report a novel approach for achieving high dielectric response over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. In this approach, multilayer ceramic heterostructures with constituent compositions having strategically tuned Curie points (TC) were designed and integrated with varying electrical connectivity. Interestingly, these multilayer structures exhibited different dielectric behavior in series and parallel configuration due to variations in electrical boundary conditions resulting in the differences in the strength of the electrostatic coupling. The results are explained using nonlinear thermodynamic model taking into account electrostatic interlayer interaction. We believe that present work will have huge significance in design of high performance ceramic capacitors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013164','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920013164"><span>Oxidation characteristics of Beta-21S in air in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 600 to 800 C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wallace, Terryl A.; Clark, Ronald K.; Wiedemann, Karl E.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The metastable beta-Ti alloy Beta-21S, Ti-15Mo-2.7Nb-3Al-0.2Si (weight percent), has been proposed as a candidate for use in metal matrix composites in future hypersonic vehicles. The present study investigated the oxidation behavior of Beta-21S over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 600 C to 800 C. Oxidation weight gain was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis. Oxidized specimens were evaluated using x ray diffraction techniques, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x ray analysis, and electron microprobe analysis to identify oxidation products and evaluate oxidation damage to the alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhaTr..83..980F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhaTr..83..980F"><span>Modulation in Tl2SeO4 in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 298-90 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fábry, Jan; Kopecký, Miloš; Kub, Jiří</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Synchrotron experiments have revealed a structural modulation in Thallium selenate, Tl2SeO4, in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 298-90 K. The modulation is manifested by the presence of the first-order satellites. In difference to the majority of β-K2SO4 compounds where the modulation takes place along the axis a (Pnma setting), the incommensurate modulation in Tl2SeO4 takes place along the b setting emphasizing exceptionality of Tl2SeO4 in this structural family. The modulation vector q = (0.0, 0.397(9), 0.0); the space group Pnma(0b0)000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007OptLT..39.1351Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007OptLT..39.1351Z"><span>Research on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution of combustion flames based on high dynamic <span class="hlt">range</span> imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Hui; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The imaging-based three-color method is widely used in the field of non-contact <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement of combustion flames. In this paper, by analyzing the imaging process of a combustion flame in detail, we re-derivate the three-color method by adopting a theory of high dynamic <span class="hlt">range</span> imaging. Instead of using white balanced, gamma calibrated or other algorithms applied 8-bit pixel values, we use irradiance values on the image plane; these values are obtained by combining two differently exposed raw images into one high dynamic <span class="hlt">range</span> irradiance map with the help of the imaging system's response function. An instrumentation system is presented and a series of experiments have been carried out, the results of which are satisfactory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..699...20A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..699...20A"><span>Evaluation of Heat Pipe Working Fluids In The <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> 450 to 700 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, William G.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Angirasa, Devarakonda; Mi, Ye</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>In the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 450-700 K, there are currently no working fluids that have been validated for heat pipes and loop heat pipes, with the exception of water in the lower portion of the <span class="hlt">range</span>. This paper reviews a number of potential working fluid including several organic fluids, mercury, sulfur/iodine, and halides. Physical property data are used where available, and estimated where unavailable using standard methods. The halide salts appear to possess attractive properties, with good liquid transport factors, and suitable vapor pressures. Where nuclear radiation is not a consideration, other potential working fluids are aniline, naphthalene, toluene, and phenol. The limited available life test data available suggests that toluene, naphthalene, and some of the halides are compatible with stainless steel, while the other fluids have not been tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20.1765H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20.1765H"><span>Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Chase, Thomas N.; Nath Goswami, Bhupendra</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over central India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by a maximum of 1-1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..12.6575H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..12.6575H"><span>Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halder, S.; Saha, S. K.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Chase, T. N.; Goswami, B. N.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> moderate rainfall events, that constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 till 2005. Mean and extreme near surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the monsoon season have also increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) with prescribed vegetation cover of 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the above observed changes in moderate rainfall events and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been caused by land-use land-cover change (LULCC) which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over central India coincides with the region of decreased (increased) forest (crop) cover. The results also show that land-use land-cover alone causes warming in the extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by maximum of 1-1.2 °C, that is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease (increase) in forest (crop) cover reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, apart from decreasing the moisture convergence. These factors act together not only in reducing the moderate rainfall events over central India but also the amount of rainfall in that category, significantly. This is the most interesting result of this study. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. As a result, there is enhanced warming at the surface and decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India. Results from the additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of land-use land-cover change on increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and decrease in moderate rainfall events. This study not only demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over India, but also shows the necessity for inclusion of projected anthropogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26090852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26090852"><span>Retrieval and Mapping of Soil Texture Based on Land Surface Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Data from MODIS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, De-Cai; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Zhao, Ming-Song; Pan, Xian-Zhang; Zhao, Yu-Guo; Li, De-Cheng; Macmillan, Bob</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have investigated the direct retrieval of soil properties, including soil texture, using remotely sensed images. However, few have considered how soil properties influence dynamic changes in remote images or how soil processes affect the characteristics of the spectrum. This study investigated a new method for mapping regional soil texture based on the hypothesis that the rate of change of land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is related to soil texture, given the assumption of similar starting soil moisture conditions. The study area was a typical flat area in the Yangtze-Huai River Plain, East China. We used the widely available land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> product of MODIS as the main data source. We analyzed the relationships between the content of different particle soil size fractions at the soil surface and land surface day <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) during three selected time periods. These periods occurred after rainfalls and between the previous harvest and the subsequent autumn sowing in 2004, 2007 and 2008. Then, linear regression models were developed between the land surface DTR and sand (> 0.05 mm), clay (< 0.001 mm) and physical clay (< 0.01 mm) contents. The models for each day were used to estimate soil texture. The spatial distribution of soil texture from the studied area was mapped based on the model with the minimum RMSE. A validation dataset produced error estimates for the predicted maps of sand, clay and physical clay, expressed as RMSE of 10.69%, 4.57%, and 12.99%, respectively. The absolute error of the predictions is largely influenced by variations in land cover. Additionally, the maps produced by the models illustrate the natural spatial continuity of soil texture. This study demonstrates the potential for digitally mapping regional soil texture variations in flat areas using readily available MODIS data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4668265','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4668265"><span>The interrelationship between dengue incidence and diurnal <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a Sri Lankan city and its potential applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ehelepola, N. D. B.; Ariyaratne, Kusalika</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, humidity, and other weather variables influence dengue transmission. Published studies show how the diurnal fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> around different mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> influence dengue transmission. There are no published studies about the correlation between diurnal <span class="hlt">range</span> of humidity and dengue transmission. Objective The goals of this study were to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the Sri Lankan city of Kandy and to explore the possibilities of using that information for better control of dengue. Design We calculated the weekly dengue incidence in Kandy during the period 2003–2012, after collecting data on all of the reported dengue patients and estimated midyear populations. Data on <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and night-time and daytime humidity were obtained from two weather stations, averaged, and converted into weekly data. The number of days per week with a diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) of >10°C and <10°C and the number of days per week with a diurnal humidity <span class="hlt">range</span> (DHR) of >20 and <15% were calculated. Wavelet time series analysis was performed to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. Results There were negative correlations between dengue incidence and a DTR >10°C and a DHR >20% with 3.3-week and 4-week lag periods, respectively. Additionally, positive correlations between dengue incidence and a DTR <10°C and a DHR <15% with 3- and 4-week lag periods, respectively, were discovered. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the results of previous entomological studies and theoretical models of DTR and dengue transmission correlation. It is important to conduct similar studies on diurnal fluctuations of humidity in the future. We suggest ways and means to use this information for local dengue control and to mitigate the potential effects of the ongoing global reduction of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26473634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26473634"><span>Gas-Phase Reaction of Hydroxyl Radical with p-Cymene over an Extended <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bedjanian, Yuri; Morin, Julien; Romanias, Manolis N</p> <p>2015-11-12</p> <p>The kinetics of the reaction of OH radicals with p-cymene has been studied in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 243-898 K using a flow reactor combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer: OH + p-cymene → products. The reaction rate constant was determined as a result of absolute measurements, from OH decay kinetics in excess of p-cymene and employing the relative rate method with OH reactions with n-pentane, n-heptane,1,3-dioxane, HBr, and Br2 as the reference ones. For the rate coefficient of the H atom abstraction channel, the expression k1b = (3.70 ± 0.42) × 10(-11) exp[-(772 ± 72)/T] was obtained over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 381-898 K. The total rate constant (addition + abstraction) determined at T = 243-320 K was k1 = (1.82 ± 0.48) × 10(-12) exp[(607 ± 70)/T] or, in a biexponential form, k1 = k1a + k1b = 3.7 × 10(-11) exp(-772/T) + 6.3 × 10(-13) exp(856/T), independent of the pressure between 1 and 5 Torr of helium. In addition, our results indicate that the reaction pathway involving alkyl radical elimination upon initial addition of OH to p-cymene is most probably unimportant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...73H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...73H"><span>Effects of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> and drought on wheat yield in Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernandez-Barrera, S.; Rodriguez-Puebla, C.; Challinor, A. J.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This study aims to provide new insight on the wheat yield historical response to climate processes throughout Spain by using statistical methods. Our data includes observed wheat yield, pseudo-observations E-OBS for the period 1979 to 2014, and outputs of general circulation models in phase 5 of the Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for the period 1901 to 2099. In investigating the relationship between climate and wheat variability, we have applied the approach known as the partial least-square regression, which captures the relevant climate drivers accounting for variations in wheat yield. We found that drought occurring in autumn and spring and the diurnal <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> experienced during the winter are major processes to characterize the wheat yield variability in Spain. These observable climate processes are used for an empirical model that is utilized in assessing the wheat yield trends in Spain under different climate conditions. To isolate the trend within the wheat time series, we implemented the adaptive approach known as Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. Wheat yields in the twenty-first century are experiencing a downward trend that we claim is a consequence of widespread drought over the Iberian Peninsula and an increase in the diurnal <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results are important to inform about the wheat vulnerability in this region to coming changes and to develop adaptation strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23924206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23924206"><span>Adaptation of the pituitary-adrenal axis to <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated forced swim exposure in rats is dependent on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabasa, Cristina; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Comparison of exposure to certain predominantly emotional stressors reveals a qualitatively similar neuroendocrine response profile as well as a reduction of physiological responses after <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure (adaptation). However, particular physical components of the stressor may interfere with adaptation. As defective adaptation to stress can enhance the probability to develop pathologies, we studied in adult male rats (n = 10/group) swimming behavior (struggling, immobility and mild swim) and physiological responses (ACTH, corticosterone and rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) to <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure to forced swim (20 min, 13 d) at 25 or 36 °C (swim25 or swim36). Rats were repeatedly blood-sampled by tail-nick and hormones measured by radioimmunoassay. Some differences were observed between the two swim <span class="hlt">temperature</span> groups after the first exposure to forced swim: (a) active behaviors were greater in swim25 than swim36 groups; (b) swim25 but not swim36 caused hypothermia; and (c) swim36 elicited the same ACTH response as swim25, but plasma corticosterone concentration was lower for swim36 at 30 min post-swim. After <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure, adaptation in ACTH secretion was observed with swim36 already on day 4, whereas with swim25 adaptation was not observed until day 13 and was of lower magnitude. Nevertheless, after repeated exposure to swim25 a partial protection from hypothermia was observed and the two swim conditions resulted in progressive reduction of active behaviors. Thus, <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated swim at 25 °C impairs adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as compared to swim at 36 °C, supporting the hypothesis that certain physical components of predominantly emotional stressors can interfere with the process of adaptation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863307','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863307"><span>Ductile long <span class="hlt">range</span> ordered alloys with high critical ordering <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wrought articles fabricated therefrom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Liu, Chain T.; Inouye, Henry</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Malleable long <span class="hlt">range</span> ordered alloys having high critical ordering <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exist in the V(Fe, Co).sub.3 and V(Fe, Co, Ni).sub.3 systems. These alloys have the following compositions comprising by weight: 22-23% V, 14-30% Fe, and the remainder Co or Co and Ni with an electron density no more than 7.85. The maximum combination of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> strength, ductility and creep resistance are manifested in the alloy comprising by weight 22-23% V, 14-20% Fe and the remainder Co and having an atomic composition of V(Fe .sub.0.20-0.26 C Co.sub.0.74-0.80).sub.3. The alloy comprising by weight 22-23% V, 16-17% Fe and 60-62% Co has excellent high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> properties. The alloys are fabricable into wrought articles by casting, deforming, and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004675','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004675"><span>Performance of MEMS Silicon Oscillator, ASFLM1, under Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Over the last few years, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) resonator-based oscillators began to be offered as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts by a few companies [1-2]. These quartz-free, miniature silicon devices could compete with the traditional crystal oscillators in providing the timing (clock function) for many digital and analog electronic circuits. They provide stable output frequency, offer great tolerance to shock and vibration, and are immune to electro-static discharge [1-2]. In addition, they are encapsulated in compact lead-free packages, cover a wide frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> (1 MHz to 125 MHz), and are specified, depending on the grade, for extended <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation from -40 C to +85 C. The small size of the MEMS oscillators along with their reliability and thermal stability make them candidates for use in space exploration missions. Limited data, however, exist on the performance and reliability of these devices under operation in applications where extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> or thermal cycling swings, which are typical of space missions, are encountered. This report presents the results of the work obtained on the evaluation of an ABRACON Corporation MEMS silicon oscillator chip, type ASFLM1, under extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..65..141R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..65..141R"><span>Magnetic Properties of the Stack of HTSC Tapes in a Wide <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rudnev, Igor; Abin, Dmitriy; Osipov, Maxim; Pokrovskiy, Sergey; Ermolaev, Yuriy; Mineev, Nikolay</p> <p></p> <p>The trapped field strength of HTSC stacks were measured in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> T=4-80 K and dc magnetic fields up to 8 Т. A single 12 mm by 12 mm square samples were cut from commercial (RE)BCO tape 12 mm wide and then stacked together. The number of layers in the stacks was varied from n=5 to n=250. Trapped field strength was measured by means of Hall probe which was placed directly on the stacks surface. The dependences of remnant field strength Brem on number of layers in the stacks at different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Brem (n) as well as on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependences Brem (T) at various n were obtained. It was found that Brem (n) dependences have a nonlinear character with a tendency to saturation for n > 60. The maximum remnant (trapped) field was found to be more than 2.5 Т at T=4 К. The relaxation of trapped field was studied also and it was determined that the rate of relaxation processes tends to decrease with the increase in a number of tapes in the stack. The correlation between dependency Brem (n) and dependency of magnetic levitation force measured at T=77 K at zero field cooling were found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JLTP..175..523M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JLTP..175..523M"><span>Thermodynamic Properties of He Gas in the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> 4.2-10 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mosameh, S. M.; Sandouqa, A. S.; Ghassib, H. B.; Joudeh, B. R.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The thermodynamic properties of He gas are investigated in the <span class="hlt">temperature-range</span> 4.2-10 K, with special emphasis on the second virial coefficient in both the classical and quantum regimes. The main input in computing the quantum coefficient is the `effective' phase shifts. These are calculated within the framework of the Galitskii-Migdal-Feynman (GMF) formalism, using the HFDHE2 and Sposito potentials. The virial equation of state is constructed. Extensive calculations are carried out for the pressure-volume-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (P-V-T) behavior, as well as chemical potential, and nonideality of the system. The following results are obtained. First, the validity of the GMF formalism for the present system is demonstrated beyond any doubt. Second, the boiling point (phase-transition point) of He gas is determined from the P-V behavior using the virial equation of state, its value being closest than all previous results to the experimental value. Third, the chemical potential is evaluated from the quantum second virial coefficient. It is found that increases (becomes less negative) as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreases or the number density n increases. Further, shows no sensitivity to the differences between the potentials used up to n = 10 m. Finally, the compressibility Z is computed and discussed as a measure of the nonideality of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TRACE..23..105O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TRACE..23..105O"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> for Cryo Cutting of Frozen Mackerel using DSC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi</p> <p></p> <p>Frozen mackerel flesh was subjected to measurement of its fracture stress (bending energy) in a low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. The optimum conditions for low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cutting, "cryo cutting," were estimated from the results of enthalpy changes measured by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). There were two enthalpy changes for gross transition on the DSC chart for mackerel, one was at -63°C to -77°C and the other at -96°C to -112°C. Thus we estimated that mackerel was able to cut by bending below -63°C and that there would be a great decrease in bending energy occurring at around -77°C and -112°C. In testing, there were indeed two great decreases of bending energy for the test pieces of mackerel that had been frozen at -40°C, one was at -70°C to -90°C and the other was at -100°C to -120°C. Therefore, the test pieces of mackerel could be cut by bending at -70°C. The results showed that the DSC measurement of mackerel flesh gave a good estimation of the appropriate cutting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of mackerel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdAtS..34..181Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdAtS..34..181Y"><span>On the contrasting decadal changes of diurnal surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> between the Tibetan Plateau and southeastern China during the 1980s-2000s</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Yang; Ren, Rongcai</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The diurnal surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) has become significantly smaller over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) but larger in southeastern China, despite the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> having increased steadily in both areas during recent decades. Based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data covering 1979-2012, this study shows that the weakened DTR over TP is caused by stronger warming of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) and a weak cooling of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax); meanwhile, the enhanced DTR over southeastern China is mainly associated with a relatively stronger/weaker warming of Tmax/Tmin. A further quantitative analysis of DTR changes through a process-based decomposition method—the Coupled Surface-Atmosphere Climate Feedback Response Analysis Method (CFRAM)—indicates that changes in radiative processes are mainly responsible for the decreased DTR over the TP. In particular, the increased low-level cloud cover tends to induce the radiative cooling/warming during daytime/nighttime, and the increased water vapor helps to decrease the DTR through the stronger radiative warming during nighttime than daytime. Contributions from the changes in all radiative processes (over -2°C) are compensated for by those from the stronger decreased surface sensible heat flux during daytime than during nighttime (approximately 2.5°C), but are co-contributed by the changes in atmospheric dynamics (approximately -0.4°C) and the stronger increased latent heat flux during daytime (approximately -0.8°C). In contrast, the increased DTR over southeastern China is mainly contributed by the changes in cloud, water vapor and atmospheric dynamics. The changes in surface heat fluxes have resulted in a decrease in DTR over southeastern China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.alz.org/care/alzheimers-dementia-daily-plan.asp','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.alz.org/care/alzheimers-dementia-daily-plan.asp"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Life <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental Care ... About Us | News | Events | Press | Careers | Privacy Policy | Copyrights & Reprints | Contact Us National Headquarters Alzheimer's Association National ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.5138T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.5138T"><span>Reassessing changes in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>: Intercomparison and evaluation of existing global data set estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorne, P. W.; Donat, M. G.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Williams, C. N.; Alexander, L. V.; Caesar, J.; Durre, I.; Harris, I.; Hausfather, Z.; Jones, P. D.; Menne, M. J.; Rohde, R.; Vose, R. S.; Davy, R.; Klein-Tank, A. M. G.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Peterson, T. C.; Rennie, J. J.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Changes in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) over global land areas are compared from a broad <span class="hlt">range</span> of independent data sets. All data sets agree that global-mean DTR has decreased significantly since 1950, with most of that decrease occurring over 1960-1980. The since-1979 trends are not significant, with inter-data set disagreement even over the sign of global changes. Inter-data set spread becomes greater regionally and in particular at the grid box level. Despite this, there is general agreement that DTR decreased in North America, Europe, and Australia since 1951, with this decrease being partially reversed over Australia and Europe since the early 1980s. There is substantive disagreement between data sets prior to the middle of the twentieth century, particularly over Europe, which precludes making any meaningful conclusions about DTR changes prior to 1950, either globally or regionally. Several variants that undertake a broad <span class="hlt">range</span> of approaches to postprocessing steps of gridding and interpolation were analyzed for two of the data sets. These choices have a substantial influence in data sparse regions or periods. The potential of further insights is therefore inextricably linked with the efficacy of data rescue and digitization for maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series prior to 1950 everywhere and in data sparse regions throughout the period of record. Over North America, station selection and homogeneity assessment is the primary determinant. Over Europe, where the basic station data are similar, the postprocessing choices are dominant. We assess that globally averaged DTR has decreased since the middle twentieth century but that this decrease has not been linear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9446D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9446D"><span>Evidence of both phenological and <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts in birds in response to increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Alison; Cooney, Tom; Stirnemann, Rebecca; O'Halloran, John</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>It is well established that the timing of arrival of long-distance migrant birds in spring is advancing throughout Europe and that this response is, at least in part, due to an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in line with current global warming. In Ireland, we have seen a number of sub-Saharan species, such as, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) and sand martin (Riparia riparia) advance their arrival time over a 31-year period. In addition, a medium-distance winter migrant, the whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), has significantly advanced its spring departure time from its wintering ground in Ireland. Furthermore, a number of species, such as the little egret (Egretta garzetta), more typically associated with a warmer climate than Ireland, was considered to be a ‘rare visitor' up to 1990 and has now begun to breed and to establish a population on the island. All of these phenological and <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts have been correlated with various <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables. The consequences of early arrival at wintering and breeding grounds could result in increased fitness but only if an appropriate food resource is in adequate supply at the new earlier time. If <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> continue to rise as predicted, the status of some bird species in Ireland may change from ‘rare' to ‘common' or from ‘visitor' to ‘resident' with a possible concurrent increase in population size. Equally, the opposite trend may occur, for birds that prefer cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, whereby we may see a decrease in population size followed by the loss of certain species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3338R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3338R"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">range</span> persistence in the global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the global warming "time bomb"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rypdal, M.; Rypdal, K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Maximum Likelihood Estimations (MLE) based on instrumental data over the last 160 years indicate that there is Long-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Persistence (LRP) in Global Mean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (GMST) on time scales of months to decades. The persistence is much higher in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than in land <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Power spectral analysis of multi-model, multi-ensemble runs of global climate models indicate further that this persistence may extend to centennial and maybe even millennial time-scales. We also support these conclusions by wavelet variogram analysis, DFA, and MLE of Northern hemisphere mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions over the last two millennia. These analyses indicate that the GMST is a strongly persistent noise with Hurst exponent H>0.9 on time scales from decades up to at least 500 years. We show that such LRP can be very important for long-term climate prediction and for the establishment of a "time bomb" in the climate system due to a growing energy imbalance caused by the slow relaxation to radiative equilibrium under rising anthropogenic forcing. We do this by the construction of a multi-parameter dynamic-stochastic model for the GMST response to deterministic and stochastic forcing, where LRP is represented by a power-law response function. Reconstructed data for total forcing and GMST over the last millennium are used with this model to estimate trend coefficients and Hurst exponent for the GMST on multi-century time scale by means of MLE. Ensembles of solutions generated from the stochastic model also allow us to estimate confidence intervals for these estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860054410&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dplot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860054410&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dplot"><span>Analysis of a resistance-energy balance method for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat plots using one-time-of-day infrared <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of evaporation over field-scale or larger areas are needed in hydrologic studies, irrigation scheduling, and meteorology. Remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> might be used in a model to calculate evaporation. A resistance-energy balance model, which combines an energy balance equation, the Penman-Monteith (1981) evaporation equation, and van den Honert's (1948) equation for water extraction by plant roots, is analyzed for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat using postnoon canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. Additional data requirements are half-hourly averages of solar radiation, air and dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and wind speed, along with reasonable estimates of canopy emissivity, albedo, height, and leaf area index. Evaporation fluxes were measured in the field by precision weighing lysimeters for well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Errors in computed <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation were generally less than 10 percent, while errors in cumulative evaporation for 10 clear sky days were less than 5 percent for both well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Some results from sensitivity analysis of the model are also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35.2467C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35.2467C"><span>Testing fault growth models with low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronology in the northwest Basin and <span class="hlt">Range</span>, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Curry, Magdalena A. E.; Barnes, Jason B.; Colgan, Joseph P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Common fault growth models diverge in predicting how faults accumulate displacement and lengthen through time. A paucity of field-based data documenting the lateral component of fault growth hinders our ability to test these models and fully understand how natural fault systems evolve. Here we outline a framework for using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology (AHe) to quantify the along-strike growth of faults. To test our framework, we first use a transect in the normal fault-bounded Jackson Mountains in the Nevada Basin and <span class="hlt">Range</span> Province, then apply the new framework to the adjacent Pine Forest <span class="hlt">Range</span>. We combine new and existing cross sections with 18 new and 16 existing AHe cooling ages to determine the spatiotemporal variability in footwall exhumation and evaluate models for fault growth. Three age-elevation transects in the Pine Forest <span class="hlt">Range</span> show that rapid exhumation began along the <span class="hlt">range</span>-front fault between approximately 15 and 11 Ma at rates of 0.2-0.4 km/Myr, ultimately exhuming approximately 1.5-5 km. The ages of rapid exhumation identified at each transect lie within data uncertainty, indicating concomitant onset of faulting along strike. We show that even in the case of growth by fault-segment linkage, the fault would achieve its modern length within 3-4 Myr of onset. Comparison with the Jackson Mountains highlights the inadequacies of spatially limited sampling. A constant fault-length growth model is the best explanation for our thermochronology results. We advocate that low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronology can be further utilized to better understand and quantify fault growth with broader implications for seismic hazard assessments and the coevolution of faulting and topography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178440','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178440"><span>Testing fault growth models with low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronology in the northwest Basin and <span class="hlt">Range</span>, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Curry, Magdalena A. E.; Barnes, Jason B.; Colgan, Joseph P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Common fault growth models diverge in predicting how faults accumulate displacement and lengthen through time. A paucity of field-based data documenting the lateral component of fault growth hinders our ability to test these models and fully understand how natural fault systems evolve. Here we outline a framework for using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology (AHe) to quantify the along-strike growth of faults. To test our framework, we first use a transect in the normal fault-bounded Jackson Mountains in the Nevada Basin and <span class="hlt">Range</span> Province, then apply the new framework to the adjacent Pine Forest <span class="hlt">Range</span>. We combine new and existing cross sections with 18 new and 16 existing AHe cooling ages to determine the spatiotemporal variability in footwall exhumation and evaluate models for fault growth. Three age-elevation transects in the Pine Forest <span class="hlt">Range</span> show that rapid exhumation began along the <span class="hlt">range</span>-front fault between approximately 15 and 11 Ma at rates of 0.2–0.4 km/Myr, ultimately exhuming approximately 1.5–5 km. The ages of rapid exhumation identified at each transect lie within data uncertainty, indicating concomitant onset of faulting along strike. We show that even in the case of growth by fault-segment linkage, the fault would achieve its modern length within 3–4 Myr of onset. Comparison with the Jackson Mountains highlights the inadequacies of spatially limited sampling. A constant fault-length growth model is the best explanation for our thermochronology results. We advocate that low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronology can be further utilized to better understand and quantify fault growth with broader implications for seismic hazard assessments and the coevolution of faulting and topography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4312199S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4312199S"><span>Storm impact on sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> cloud-free satellite data reconstructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shropshire, Taylor; Li, Yizhen; He, Ruoying</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Upper ocean responses to tropical storms/hurricanes have been extensively studied using satellite observations. However, resolving concurrent sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and chlorophyll a (chl a) responses along storm tracks remains a major challenge due to extensive cloud coverage in satellite images. Here we produce <span class="hlt">daily</span> cloud-free SST and chl a reconstructions based on the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function method over a 10 year period (2003-2012) for the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea regions. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> reconstructions allow us to characterize and contrast previously obscured subweekly SST and chl a responses to storms in the two main storm-impacted regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Statistical analyses of <span class="hlt">daily</span> SST and chl a responses revealed regional differences in the response time as well as the response sensitivity to maximum sustained wind speed and translation speed. This study demonstrates that SST and chl a responses clearly depend on regional ocean conditions and are not as universal as might have been previously suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10154E..0PW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10154E..0PW"><span>An effective method to enhance working <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of lasers from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, JianLong; Zhang, YaTing; Cao, MingXuan; Song, XiaoXian; Che, YongLi; Dai, HaiTao; Zhang, GuiZhong; Yao, JianQuan</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Stable and homogeneous dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals (DDCLCs) were prepared. The lasers generated from DDCLCs can be tuned by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the working <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of DDCLCs was from 20 °C to 60 °C. After adding bi-functional monomer RM257 and photoinitiator Irgacure 2959, the working <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of lasers from DDCLCs was enhanced from 20-60 °C to 20-70 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28089413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28089413"><span>Relation of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Air Pollutant Levels in a Japanese Nationwide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamaji, Kyohei; Kohsaka, Shun; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujii, Kenshi; Amano, Tetsuya; Uemura, Shiro; Akasaka, Takashi; Kadota, Kazushige; Nakamura, Masato; Kimura, Takeshi</p> <p>2017-03-15</p> <p>Effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuation of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and concentrations of air pollutants on acute cardiovascular events have not been well studied. From January 2011 to December 2012, a total of 56,863 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were registered from 929 institutes with median interinstitutional distance of 2.6 km. We constructed generalized linear mixed models in which the presence or absence of patients with STEMI per day per institute was included as a binomial response variable, with <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorologic and environmental data obtained from their respective observatories nearest to the institutes (median distance of 9.7 and 5.6 km) as the explanatory variables. Both lower mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increase in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the previous day were independently associated with the STEMI occurrence throughout the year (odds ratio [OR] 0.925, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.915 to 0.935, per 10°C, p <0.001; and OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.009 to 1.015, per °C, p <0.001, respectively). Decrement in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from -4 days to -3 days before the event date was marginally associated with the STEMI occurrence, only during the wintertime (OR 0.991, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.999, per °C, p = 0.03). As for the air pollutants, nitrogen oxides and suspended particle matter were not correlated with the occurrence of STEMI after adjusting for the meteorologic and livelihood variables. Both the absolute value and relative change in the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were associated with the occurrence of STEMI; the associations with the air pollutant levels were less clear after adjustment for these meteorologic variables in Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633461W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633461W"><span>Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008349','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008349"><span>Epitaxial growth of 6H silicon carbide in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 1320 C to 1390 C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Will, H. A.; Powell, J. A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>High-quality epitaxial layers of 6H SiC have been grown on 6H SiC substrates with the grown direction perpendicular to the crystal c-axis. The growth was by chemical vapor deposition from methyltrichlorosilane (CH3SiCl3) in hydrogen at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the <span class="hlt">range</span> of 1320 to 1390 C. Epitaxial layers up to 80 microns thick were grown at rates of 0.4 microns/min. Attempts at growth on the (0001) plane of 6H SiC substrates under similar conditions resulted in polycrystalline cubic SiC layers. Optical and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to characterize the grown layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000027700&hterms=vaporization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dvaporization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000027700&hterms=vaporization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dvaporization"><span>Radiative Vaporization of Graphite in the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> of 4000 to 4500 deg K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lundell, John H.; Dickey, Robert R.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The vaporization of graphite under intense laser radiation is considered both theoretically and experimentally. Under intense radiation, the mass-loss rate can be high enough to cause the flow in the laser plume to be supersonic. Under these conditions, the vaporization process is coupled to the plume gasdynamics. Experimental results are presented for surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 3985 to 4555 K and mass-loss rates from 0.52 to 27.0 g/sq cm sec. The data are used to determine the vapor pressure of graphite in a <span class="hlt">range</span> of 2 to 11 atm, and the results are shown to be in good agreement with the JANAF vapor pressure curve, if the vaporization coefficients are unity. The assumption of unity vaporization coefficients is shown to be reasonable by a comparison of the present results with other recent vapor pressure results for graphite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760039030&hterms=vaporization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dvaporization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760039030&hterms=vaporization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dvaporization"><span>Vaporization of graphite in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 4000 to 4500 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lundell, J. H.; Dickey, R. R.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The vaporization of graphite under intense laser radiation is considered both theoretically and experimentally. Under intense radiation, the mass-loss rate can be high enough to cause the flow in the laser plume to be supersonic. It is shown that under these conditions the vaporization process is coupled to the plume gasdynamics and the mass-loss rate for graphite is 62% of the free vaporization rate. Experimental results are presented for surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 3985 to 4555 K and mass-loss rates from 0.56 to 27.0 g per sq cm sec. The results are used to determine the vapor pressure of graphite in a pressure <span class="hlt">range</span> of 2 to 11 atm, and the values are shown to be in agreement with the JANAF vapor pressure curve.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhyB..284.2026S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhyB..284.2026S"><span>A 3He gas heat switch for the 0.5-2 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Eric N.; Parpia, Jeevak M.; Beamish, John R.</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>We have constructed a prototype heat switch for use in a cyclic demagnetization apparatus. The desired operating <span class="hlt">range</span> of the switch is from 0.5 to 1.8 K. The measured conductivity of the switch is 50 μW/ K at 1.5 K when ‘off ’ and 8 mW/K at 0.5 K when ‘on’. The switching is carried out by 3He gas which is admitted and extracted from the device by a miniature charcoal adsorption pump which is controlled by electrical heat and a weak thermal link to a pumped 4He bath. In this paper we discuss details of construction and the performance as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and consider the switching time between on and off states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050792"><span>Effect of glass composition on activation energy of viscosity in glass-melting-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hrma, Pavel R.; Han, Sang Soo</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>In the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, where the viscosity (Eta) of molten glass is <10{sup 3} Pa s, the activation energy (B) is virtually ln(Eta) = A + B/T, is nearly independent of melt composition. Hence, the viscosity-composition relationship for Eta < 10{sup 3} Pa s is defined by B as a function of composition. Using a database encompassing over 1300 compositions of high-level waste glasses with nearly 7000 viscosity data, we developed mathematical models for B(x), where x is the composition vector in terms of mass fractions of components. In this paper, we present 13 versions of B(x) as first- and second-order polynomials with coefficients for 15 to 39 components, including Others, a component that sums constituents having little effect on viscosity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024135','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024135"><span>Methane storage in nanoporous material at supercritical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Keliu; Chen, Zhangxin; Li, Xiangfang; Dong, Xiaohu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The methane storage behavior in nanoporous material is significantly different from that of a bulk phase, and has a fundamental role in methane extraction from shale and its storage for vehicular applications. Here we show that the behavior and mechanisms of the methane storage are mainly dominated by the ratio of the interaction between methane molecules and nanopores walls to the methane intermolecular interaction, and a geometric constraint. By linking the macroscopic properties of the methane storage to the microscopic properties of a system of methane molecules-nanopores walls, we develop an equation of state for methane at supercritical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of pressures. Molecular dynamic simulation data demonstrates that this equation is able to relate very well the methane storage behavior with each of the key physical parameters, including a pore size and shape and wall chemistry and roughness. Moreover, this equation only requires one fitted parameter, and is simple, reliable and powerful in application. PMID:27628747</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042581','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042581"><span>Assessment of Operation of EMK21 MEMS Silicon Oscillator Over Wide <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Electronic control systems, data-acquisition instrumentation, and microprocessors require accurate timing signals for proper operation. Traditionally, ceramic resonators and crystal oscillators provided this clock function for the majority of these systems. Over the last few years, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) resonator-based oscillators began to surface as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts by a few companies. These quartz-free, miniature silicon devices could easily replace the traditional crystal oscillators in providing the timing/clock function for many digital and analog circuits. They are reported to provide stable output frequency, offer great tolerance to shock and vibration, and are immune to electro-static discharge [ 1-2]. In addition, they are encapsulated in compact lead-free packages and cover a wide frequency <span class="hlt">range</span> (1 MHz to 125 MHz). The small size of the MEMS oscillators along with their thermal stability make them ideal candidates for use in space exploration missions. Limited data, however, exist on the performance and reliability of these devices under operation in applications where extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> or thermal cycling swings, which are typical of space missions, are encountered. This report presents the results of the work obtained on the evaluation of an Ecliptek Corporation MEMS silicon oscillator chip under extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MTDM..tmp...34W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MTDM..tmp...34W"><span>Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of strain rates and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of strain rates ( 10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass ( α ) transition and the secondary ( β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24535132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24535132"><span>Impact of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> on human health: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Xu; Jin, Liu; Song, Jian; Su, Hong</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Increasing epidemiological studies have shown that a rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change within 1 day is an independent risk factor for human health. This paper aimed to systematically review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) and human health and to propose future research directions. A literature search was conducted in October 2013 using the databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EBSCO. Empirical studies regarding the relationship between DTR and mortality and morbidity were included. Twenty-five relevant studies were identified, among which, 11 investigated the relationship between DTR and mortality and 14 examined the impact of DTR on morbidity. The majority of existing studies reported that DTR was significantly associated with mortality and morbidity, particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Notably, compared with adults, the elderly and children were more vulnerable to DTR effects. However, there were some inconsistencies regarding the susceptible groups, lag time, and threshold of DTR. The impact of DTR on human health may be confounded or modified by season, socioeconomic, and educational status. Further research is needed to further confirm the adverse effects of DTR in different geographical locations; examine the effects of DTR on the health of children aged one or under; explore extreme DTR effects on human health; analyze the difference of DTR effects on human health in different locations and the modified effects of potential confounding factors; and develop detailed preventive measures against large DTR, particularly for susceptible groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PlST...18..732W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PlST...18..732W"><span>Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide <span class="hlt">Range</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MTDM...21...97W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MTDM...21...97W"><span>Constitutive modeling of polycarbonate over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of strain rates and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Haitao; Zhou, Huamin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoxuan</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The mechanical behavior of polycarbonate was experimentally investigated over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of strain rates (10^{-4} to 5× 103 s^{-1}) and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (293 to 353 K). Compression tests under these conditions were performed using a SHIMADZU universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Falling weight impact testing was carried out on an Instron Dynatup 9200 drop tower system. The rate- and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent deformation behavior of polycarbonate was discussed in detail. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests were utilized to observe the glass (α ) transition and the secondary (β ) transition of polycarbonate. The DMA results indicate that the α and β transitions have a dramatic influence on the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The decompose/shift/reconstruct (DSR) method was utilized to decompose the storage modulus into the α and β components and extrapolate the entire modulus, the α-component modulus and the β-component modulus. Based on three previous models, namely, Mulliken-Boyce, G'Sell-Jonas and DSGZ, an adiabatic model is proposed to predict the mechanical behavior of polycarbonate. The model considers the contributions of both the α and β transitions to the mechanical behavior, and it has been implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine VUMAT. The model predictions are proven to essentially coincide with the experimental results during compression testing and falling weight impact testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008720&hterms=ester&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dester','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008720&hterms=ester&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dester"><span>Wide Operating <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Electrolytes for High Voltage and High Specific Energy Li-Ion Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, M. C.; Hwang, C.; Krause, F. C.; Soler, J.; West, W. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Amine, K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A number of electrolyte formulations that have been designed to operate over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> have been investigated in conjunction with layered-layered metal oxide cathode materials developed at Argonne. In this study, we have evaluated a number of electrolytes in Li-ion cells consisting of Conoco Phillips A12 graphite anodes and Toda HE5050 Li(1.2)Ni(0.15)Co(0.10)Mn(0.55)O2 cathodes. The electrolytes studied consisted of LiPF6 in carbonate-based electrolytes that contain ester co-solvents with various solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) promoting additives, many of which have been demonstrated to perform well in 4V systems. More specifically, we have investigated the performance of a number of methyl butyrate (MB) containing electrolytes (i.e., LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + MB (20:20:60 v/v %) that contain various additives, including vinylene carbonate, lithium oxalate, and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB). When these systems were evaluated at various rates at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the methyl butyrate-based electrolytes resulted in improved rate capability compared to cells with all carbonate-based formulations. It was also ascertained that the slow cathode kinetics govern the generally poor rate capability at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in contrast to traditionally used LiNi(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2-based systems, rather than being influenced strongly by the electrolyte type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040084568&hterms=sound+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040084568&hterms=sound+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsound%2Btemperature"><span>High-speed Imaging of Global Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Distributions on Hypersonic Ballistic-<span class="hlt">Range</span> Projectiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The NASA-Ames ballistic <span class="hlt">range</span> provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic <span class="hlt">range</span> experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the <span class="hlt">range</span>. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic <span class="hlt">range</span> to measure global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T31E..05R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T31E..05R"><span>Does tectonics drive topography ? Insights from low - <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronology and numerical modeling along the Himalayan <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robert, X.; van der Beek, P.; Braun, J.; Perry, C.; Mugnier, J. L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Although the Himalayan <span class="hlt">range</span> is commonly presented as cylindrical along-strike, geological structures, topography, precipitation rate, convergence rates and low - <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronological ages all vary significantly from west to east. Here, we focus on the interpretation of thermochronological datasets in term of cylindricity in geometry and kinematics of the MHT along the Himalayan <span class="hlt">range</span>. We propose a structural and kinematic model of the major crustal Himalayan thrust, the MHT, based on apatite fission-track (AFT) ages collected along north - south transects in western and eastern - central Nepal (Kali Gandaki and Trisuli Rivers). AFT ages are consistently young (≤3 My) along both N-S transects in the MCT zone and increase (4 to 6 My) toward the south in the Lesser Himalaya. We constrain the geometry of the MHT ramp with 2 age-elevation transects, one in the MCT zone and one in the outer Lesser Himalaya, interpreted in terms of exhumation rate. The data can be fit without invoking out-of-sequence thrusting in the Main Central Thrust zone by varying the geometry of the MHT along strike, in accord with independent geodetic and geophysical data. We compare our data to published low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronological datasets for western - central Nepal, eastern - central Nepal, western India and the Bhutan Himalaya. We use these data to constrain numerical thermal-kinematic models using a modified version of the PECUBE code, in order to quantify potential along-strike variations in the kinematics of the Himalayan <span class="hlt">range</span>. Our results show that lateral variations in geometry of the MHT (in particular the presence or absence of a major ramp) strongly control the kinematics, the exhumation history and the topography of the orogen. Where a major crustal ramp is present, the topography shows a steep gradient that focuses exhumation and orographic precipitation whereas the topography is more gentle and exhumation less focused in the absence of a ramp. Our results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213782R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213782R"><span>Does tectonics drive topography ? Insights from low - <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronology and numerical modeling along the Himalayan <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robert, Xavier; van der Beek, Peter; Braun, Jean; Perry, Claire; Mugnier, Jean-Louis</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Although the Himalayan <span class="hlt">range</span> is commonly presented as cylindrical along-strike, geological structures, topography, precipitation rate, convergence rates and low - <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronological ages all vary significantly from west to east. Here, we focus on the interpretation of thermochronological datasets in term of cylindricity in geometry and kinematics of the MHT along the Himalayan <span class="hlt">range</span>. We propose a structural and kinematic model of the major crustal Himalayan thrust, the MHT, based on apatite fission-track (AFT) ages collected along north - south transects in western and eastern - central Nepal (Kali Gandaki and Trisuli Rivers). AFT ages are consistently young (< 3 My) along both N-S transects in the MCT zone and increase (4 to 6 My) toward the south in the Lesser Himalaya. We constrain the geometry of the MHT ramp with 2 age-elevation transects, one in the MCT zone and one in the outer Lesser Himalaya, interpreted in terms of exhumation rate. The data can be fit without invoking out-of-sequence thrusting in the Main Central Thrust zone by varying the geometry of the MHT along strike, in accord with independent geodetic and geophysical data. We compare our data to published low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermochronological datasets for western - central Nepal, eastern - central Nepal, western India and the Bhutan Himalaya. We use these data to constrain numerical thermal-kinematic models using a modified version of the PECUBE code, in order to quantify potential along-strike variations in the kinematics of the Himalayan <span class="hlt">range</span>. Our results show that lateral variations in geometry of the MHT (in particular the presence or absence of a major ramp) strongly control the kinematics, the exhumation history and the topography of the orogen. Where a major crustal ramp is present, the topography shows a steep gradient that focuses exhumation and orographic precipitation whereas the topography is more gentle and exhumation less focused in the absence of a ramp. Our results imply</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9252245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9252245"><span>The impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of melatonin and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of golden spiny mice Acomys russatus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haim, A; Zisapel, N</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Beta-adrenergic stimulation induces melatonin synthesis and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in rodents. The golden spiny mouse, Acomys russatus is a nocturnal species capable of diurnal activity when coexisting with its congenitor the common spiny mouse A. cahirinus. We have investigated the impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SMT--a metabolite and index of melatonin production) and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in male A. russatus. Mice were acclimated to an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) of 28 degrees C, under two photoperiod regimes (16L:8D; 8L:16D). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Tb and urinary 6-SMT were measured for a period of 30 h at intervals of 4 h. Propranolol (4.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered one hour before lights went off (i.e. when beta blockade does not affect NST in this species) and both variables were measured for another 30 h. The beta blocker markedly augmented melatonin output of A. russatus under both photoperiod regimes. The elevation in melatonin secretion was accompanied with an increase in Tb of only 16L:8D-acclimated mice (i.e. shorten duration of melatonin peak). However, in 8L:16D-acclimated mice, a phase advance of about 4 h was noted in 6-SMT <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm. These results indicate that the role of sympathetic innervation in regulation of melatonin synthesis in A. russatus differs from that in the rat. In addition, these data are compatible with the hyperthermic action of melatonin in this species. Therefore, it is suggested that in A. russatus, other neural pathways are involved in its pineal regulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1329139','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1329139"><span>The Effect of a Pre-Lens Aperture on the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> and Image Uniformity of Microbolometer Infrared Cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Parris, Larkin S.; Lindal, John M.; Kunc, Vlastimil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> extension of long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) cameras by placing an aperture in front of the lens. An aperture smaller than the lens will reduce the radiance to the sensor, allowing the camera to image targets much hotter than typically allowable. These higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were accurately determined after developing a correction factor which was applied to the built-in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> calibration. The relationship between aperture diameter and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> is linear. The effect of pre-lens apertures on the image uniformity is a form of anti-vignetting, meaning the corners appear brighter (hotter) than the rest of the image. An example of using this technique to measure <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of high melting point polymers during 3D printing provide valuable information of the time required for the weld-line <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to fall below the glass transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568305','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568305"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-driven <span class="hlt">range</span> expansion of an irruptive insect heightened by weakly coevolved plant defenses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Raffa, Kenneth F.; Powell, Erinn N.; Townsend, Philip A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Warming climate has increased access of native bark beetles to high-elevation pines that historically received only intermittent exposure to these tree-killing herbivores. Here we show that a dominant, relatively naïve, high-elevation species, whitebark pine, has inferior defenses against mountain pine beetle compared with its historical lower-elevation host, lodgepole pine. Lodgepole pines respond by exuding more resin and accumulating higher concentrations of toxic monoterpenes than whitebark pine, where they co-occur. Furthermore, the chemical composition of whitebark pine appears less able to inhibit the pheromonal communication beetles use to jointly overcome tree defenses. Despite whitebark pine’s inferior defenses, beetles were more likely to attack their historical host in mixed stands. This finding suggests there has been insufficient sustained contact for beetles to alter their complex behavioral mechanisms driving host preference. In no-choice assays, however, beetles readily entered and tunneled in both hosts equally, and in stands containing less lodgepole pine, attacks on whitebark pines increased. High-elevation trees in pure stands may thus be particularly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-driven <span class="hlt">range</span> expansions. Predators and competitors were more attracted to volatiles from herbivores attacking their historical host, further increasing risk in less coevolved systems. Our results suggest cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provided a sufficient barrier against herbivores for high-elevation trees to allocate resources to other physiological processes besides defense. Changing climate may reduce the viability of that evolutionary strategy, and the life histories of high-elevation trees seem unlikely to foster rapid counter adaptation. Consequences extend from reduced food supplies for endangered grizzly bears to altered landscape and hydrological processes. PMID:23277541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature"><span>The use of LinkWinds for the validation and analysis of 14 years of Microwave Sounder Unit <span class="hlt">daily</span> global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Botts, Michael E.; Spencer, Roy W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data derived from the Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) provides an opportunity for investigating atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a global scale since 1979. Fourteen years of global data sets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies within the lower stratosphere and lower troposphere are being generated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. LinkWinds, a visualization/analysis package under development at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been extremely useful for validating and analyzing these data sets. LinkWinds provides the ability to interactively scroll and animate through the 10,220 images of temporal data, to selectively slice and view the data along latitude, longitude, or temporal axes, to interactively analyze spatial and temporal variability within the data, and to perform correlative analysis between various elements of the data. These capabilities have been invaluable in allowing the recognition of processing artifacts, as well as the effects that physical phenomena, such as the El Ninos effects and the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, have had on atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977524','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977524"><span>Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr−1 (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr−1 (***P < 0.001) during summer. PMID:27502177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631251P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631251P"><span>Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr‑1 (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr‑1 (***P < 0.001) during summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27502177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27502177"><span>Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980's, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr(-1) (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr(-1) (***P < 0.001) during summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4374360','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4374360"><span>Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4°C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4°C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts’ heath and NASA’s mission. PMID:25821722</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821722"><span>Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LSSR....5....1D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LSSR....5....1D"><span>Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047446','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047446"><span>Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: Average Annual <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This data set represents the average monthly maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047860','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047860"><span>Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Annual <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This data set represents the average monthly minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.160...99S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.160...99S"><span>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> trend over North Carolina and the associated mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad; Mekonnen, Ademe; Jha, Manoj K.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This study seeks to investigate the variability and presence of trend in the diurnal surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) over North Carolina (NC) for the period 1950-2009. The significance trend test and the magnitude of trends were determined using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen approach, respectively. Statewide significant trends (p < 0.05) of decreasing DTR were found in all seasons and annually during the analysis period. Highest (lowest) temporal DTR trends of magnitude - 0.19 (- 0.031) °C/decade were found in summer (winter). Potential mechanisms for the presence/absence of trend in DTR have been highlighted. Historical data sets of the three main moisture components (precipitation, total cloud cover (TCC), and soil moisture) and the two major atmospheric circulation modes (North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Oscillation) were used for correlation analysis. The DTRs were found to be negatively correlated with the precipitation, TCC and soil moisture across the state for all the seasons and annual basis. It appears that the moisture components related better to the DTR than to the atmospheric circulation modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JEMat..10..959J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JEMat..10..959J"><span>Endurance and retention of mnos devices over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from -50°c to +125°c</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, R. V.; Brown, W. D.</p> <p>1981-11-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation on the endurance and retention characteristics of MNOS devices has been studied over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from -50°c to +125°C. The endurance of MNOS devices is significantly degraded as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased. Retention, on the other hand, appears to be a more sensitive function of endurance cycling than increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Increased nitride conductivity, thermal excitation tunneling and charge centroid movement at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> along with increased surface state density caused by endurance cycling are suggested as mechanisms to explain observed degradation in device performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014477','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014477"><span>Shallow subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surveys in the basin and <span class="hlt">range</span> province, U.S.A.-I. Review and evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Olmsted, F.H.; Welch, A.H.; Ingebritsen, S.E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> surveys at depths of 1-2 m have had varying success in geothermal exploration in the Basin and <span class="hlt">Range</span> province. The most successful surveys have identified patterns of near-surface thermal-fluid flow within areas of less than 2 km2. Results have been less consistent in larger areas where zones of hydrothermal upflow are less well known, nongeothermal perturbing factors are significant and lateral variations in shallow subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are small. Nongeothermal perturbations can be minimized by use of mean annual <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> instead of synoptic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, by physically based simulation of ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> or by statistical modeling. ?? 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F"><span>North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a global warming context: possible consequences for Western North American <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Favre, Alice; Gershunov, Alexander</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and maxima of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques coupled global climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were tracked and <span class="hlt">daily</span> frequencies were gridded. Transient activity in the CNRM-CM3 historical simulation (1950-1999) was validated against reanalysis. The GCM correctly reproduces winter trajectories as well as mean geographical distributions of cyclones and anticyclones over the North Pacific in spite of a general under-estimation of cyclones’ frequency. On inter-annual time scales, frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones vary in accordance with the Aleutian Low (AL) strength. When the AL is stronger (weaker), cyclones are more (less) numerous over the central and eastern North Pacific, while anticyclones are significantly less (more) numerous over this region. The action of transient cyclones and anticyclones over the central and eastern North Pacific determines seasonal climate over the West Coast of North America, and specifically, winter weather over California. Relationships between winter cyclone/anticyclone behavior and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation/cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over Western North America (the West) were examined and yielded two simple indices summarizing North Pacific transient activity relevant to regional climates. These indices are strongly related to the observed inter-annual variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over the West as well as to large scale seasonally averaged near surface climate conditions (e.g., air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 2 m and wind at 10 m). In fact, they represent the synoptic links that accomplish the teleconnections. Comparison of patterns derived from NCEP-NCAR and CNRM-CM3 revealed that the model reproduces links between cyclone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhB..22b8101W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhB..22b8101W"><span>Study on the relationships between Raman shifts and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> for a-plane GaN using <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent Raman scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Dang-Hui; Xu, Sheng-Rui; Hao, Yue; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Xu, Tian-Han; Lin, Zhi-Yu; Zhou, Hao; Xue, Xiao-Yong</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, Raman shifts of a-plane GaN layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by low-pressure metal—organic chemical vapor deposition (LPMOCVD) are investigated. We compare the crystal qualities and study the relationships between Raman shift and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for conventional a-plane GaN epilayer and insertion AlN/AlGaN superlattice layers for a-plane GaN epilayer using <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent Raman scattering in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 83 K to 503 K. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependences of GaN phonon modes (A1 (TO), E2 (high), and E1 (TO)) and the linewidths of E2 (high) phonon peak are studied. The results indicate that there exist two mechanisms between phonon peaks in the whole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, and the relationship can be fitted to the pseudo-Voigt function. From analytic results we find a critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> existing in the relationship, which can characterize the anharmonic effects of a-plane GaN in different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. In the <span class="hlt">range</span> of higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the relationship exhibits an approximately linear behavior, which is consistent with the analyzed results theoretically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IzAOP..49..784Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IzAOP..49..784Z"><span>Characteristics of individual reactions of the cardiovascular system of healthy people to changes in meteorological factors in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zenchenko, T. A.; Skavulyak, A. N.; Khorseva, N. I.; Breus, T. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Based on the results of 4-year observations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in seven healthy volunteers, two distinct types of reaction of physiological indicators (PIs) to changes in meteorological parameters (first and foremost, atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T atm) are revealed. The first type is a monotonic (but nonuniform with respect to speed) decrease in systolic BP with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is most pronounced for T atm < -5°C and T atm > 15°C, with a weaker reaction of diastolic BP and no reaction of HR (in four volunteers). The second type is a two-phase nonmonotonic dependence of BP indicators on T atm, which coincides with the first type in the <span class="hlt">range</span> T atm < -5°C and is characterized by a positive correlation of BP and HR indicators with T atm for T atm > -5°C (in two volunteers). The physiological mechanisms that can provide the observed compensatory-adaptive reactions of healthy individuals to atmospheric factors in different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> are analyzed in detail. It has been shown that the revealed regularities can explain the results obtained by the authors in earlier studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25704400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25704400"><span>Relaxor ferroelectric-based electrocaloric polymer nanocomposites with a broad operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> and high cooling energy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Qi; Zhang, Guangzu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Jiang, Shenglin; Zeng, Yike; Wang, Qing</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Electrocaloric nanocomposites simultaneously derive high electrocaloric strength from inorganic inclusions and high dielectric strength from the polymer matrix to display a pronounced electrocaloric effect (ECE). By designing the inorganic filler and polymer matrix, which are both relaxor ferroelectrics with the ambient-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> phase transition and minimized hysteresis, a large ECE becomes accessible with high cooling efficiency over a broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> at and near room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752811"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythms persist under the midnight sun but are absent during hibernation in free-living arctic ground squirrels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Cory T; Barnes, Brian M; Buck, C Loren</p> <p>2012-02-23</p> <p>In indigenous arctic reindeer and ptarmigan, circadian rhythms are not expressed during the constant light of summer or constant dark of winter, and it has been hypothesized that a seasonal absence of circadian rhythms is common to all vertebrate residents of polar regions. Here, we show that, while free-living arctic ground squirrels do not express circadian rhythms during the heterothermic and pre-emergent euthermic intervals of hibernation, they display entrained <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) throughout their active season, which includes six weeks of constant sun. In winter, ground squirrels are arrhythmic and regulate core body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to within ±0.2°C for up to 18 days during steady-state torpor. In spring, after the use of torpor ends, male but not female ground squirrels, resume euthermic levels of T(b) in their dark burrows but remain arrhythmic for up to 27 days. However, once activity on the surface begins, both sexes exhibit robust 24 h cycles of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We suggest that persistence of nycthemeral rhythms through the polar summer enables ground squirrels to minimize thermoregulatory costs. However, the environmental cues (zeitgebers) used to entrain rhythms during the constant light of the arctic summer in these semi-fossorial rodents are unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25944779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25944779"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> exposure to summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> affects the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells but not male fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Ramon, J; Rafel, O; Tusell, L; Piles, M; López-Béjar, M</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of long exposure to summer circadian heat stress cycles on sperm parameters and the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells from rabbit bucks. Twelve White New Zealand rabbit bucks were exposed to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the thermoneutral zone (from 18 °C to 22 °C; control group) or exposed to a summer circadian heat stress cycles (30 °C, 3 h/day; heat stress group). Spermatozoa were flushed from the epididymis and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Sperm total motility and progressivity were negatively affected by high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (P < 0.05), as were also specific motility parameters (curvilinear velocity, linear velocity, mean velocity, straightness coefficient, linearity coefficient, wobble coefficient, and frequency of head displacement; P < 0.05, but not the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement). Heat stress significantly increased the percentage of less-motile sperm subpopulations, although the percentage of the high-motile subpopulation was maintained, which is consistent with the fact that no effect was detected on fertility rates. However, prolificacy was reduced in females submitted to heat stress when inseminated by control bucks. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are linked to changes in the proportion of motile sperm subpopulations of the epididymis, although fertility is still preserved despite the detrimental effects of heat stress. On the other hand, prolificacy seems to be affected by the negative effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, especially by altering female reproduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22548418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22548418"><span>Lead retention by broiler litter biochars in small arms <span class="hlt">range</span> soil: impact of pyrolysis <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M; Klasson, K Thomas</p> <p>2012-05-23</p> <p>Phosphorus-rich manure biochar has a potential for stabilizing Pb and other heavy metal contaminants, as well as serving as a sterile fertilizer. In this study, broiler litter biochars produced at 350 and 650 °C were employed to understand how biochar's elemental composition (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn) affects the extent of heavy metal stabilization. Soil incubation experiments were conducted using a sandy, slightly acidic (pH 6.11) Pb-contaminated (19906 mg kg(-1) total Pb primarily as PbCO(3)) small arms <span class="hlt">range</span> (SAR) soil fraction (<250 μm) amended with 2-20 wt % biochar. The Pb stabilization in pH 4.9 acetate buffer reached maximum at lower (2-10 wt %) biochar amendment rate, and 350 °C biochar containing more soluble P was better able to stabilize Pb than the 650 °C biochar. The 350 °C biochar consistently released greater amounts of P, K, Mg, Na, and Ca than 650 °C biochar in both unbuffered (pH 4.5 sulfuric acid) and buffered (pH 4.9 acetate) systems, despite 1.9-4.5-fold greater total content of the 650 °C biochar. Biochars, however, did not influence the total extractable Pb over three consecutive equilibration periods consisting of (1) 1 week in pH 4.5 sulfuric acid (simulated leaching by rainfall), (2) 1 week in pH 4.9 acetate buffer (standard solution for toxicity characteristic leaching procedure), and (3) 1 h in pH 1.5 glycine at 37 °C (in vitro bioaccessibility procedure). Overall, lower pyrolysis <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was favorable for stabilizing Pb (major risk driver of SAR soils) and releasing P, K, Ca, and other plant nutrients in a sandy acidic soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0174G"><span>Enhancing Extreme Heat Health-Related Intervention and Preparedness Activities Using Remote Sensing Analysis of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Surface Observation Networks and Ecmwf Reanalysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, R. L.; Booth, J.; Hondula, D.; Ross, K. W.; Stuyvesant, A.; Alm, G.; Baghel, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Extreme heat causes more human fatalities in the United States than any other natural disaster, elevating the concern of heat-related mortality. Maricopa County Arizona is known for its high heat index and its sprawling metropolitan complex which makes this region a perfect candidate for human health research. Individuals at higher risk are unequally spatially distributed, leaving the poor, homeless, non-native English speakers, elderly, and the socially isolated vulnerable to heat events. The Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University and NASA DEVELOP LaRC are working to establish a more effective method of placing hydration and cooling centers in addition to enhancing the heat warning system to aid those with the highest exposure. Using NASA's Earth Observation Systems from Aqua and Terra satellites, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> spatial variability within the UHI was quantified over the summer heat seasons from 2005 - 2014, effectively establishing a remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climatology for the county. A series of One-way Analysis of Variance revealed significant differences between <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages of the top 30% of census tracts within the study period. Furthermore, synoptic upper tropospheric circulation patterns were classified to relate surface weather types and heat index. The surface weather observation networks were also reviewed for analyzing the veracity of the other methods. The results provide detailed information regarding nuances within the UHI effect and will allow pertinent recommendations regarding the health department's adaptive capacity. They also hold essential components for future policy decision-making regarding appropriate locations for cooling centers and efficient warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CPL...494..160N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CPL...494..160N"><span>Kinetics of the reaction of Cl atoms with CHCl 3 over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 253-313 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Elna J. K.; Hoff, Janus; Nielsen, Ole John; Johnson, Matthew S.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>The reaction CHCl 3 + Cl → CCl 3 + HCl was studied in the atmospherically relevant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 253 to 313 K and in 930 mbar of N 2 diluent using the relative rate method. A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent reaction rate constant, valid in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 220-330 K, was determined by a fit to the result of the present study and that of Orlando (1999); k = (3.77 ± 0.32) × 10 -12 exp((-1011 ± 24)/T) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815588J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815588J"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation by kriging with external drift in an Alpine Catchment. Sensitivity analysis to the temporal scale adopted to define the variogram models. (southeast Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Jimenez-Sanchez, Jorge</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The knowledge of the climatic historical variables in a River Basin is essential for an appropriate management of the water resources in the system. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and precipitation are the most important variables from the point of view of the assessment of water availability and its spatially and temporal distribution. The aim of this work is to estimate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using kriging with external drift (KED). A grid with a spatial resolution of 1 km and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution has been adopted to estimate values for the period 1980 to 2014 in the "Alto Genil" basin (southeast Spain). The altitude in the catchment changes from 530 to 3100 m a.s.l. The climatic variables depend of the altitude and this variable has been used as external drift. Data from 119 precipitation station and 72 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> station of the AEMET have been employed. The relationship between the altitude and the variables has been analyzed using the regression function of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for annual and monthly scale. Normally the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation increase linearly with the altitude. The relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and altitude is clearly linear. In the case of the precipitation there is a value of altitude (approximately 1500 m) from which the precipitation decreases with the altitude (inverse rainfall gradient) for every months with the exception of July that has a linear relationship. This inverse rainfall gradient has been observed in other cases as Andes Mountains, some African high mountains, tropical or subtropical high mountains. Therefore, in the case of the precipitation we have a quadratic external drift and for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we have a linear external drift. The monthly and annual climatic variograms were calibrated in order to study if the climatic variables have a seasonal conduct. The KED allows to obtain an estimation with both models (annual and monthly) for the two variables and we can quantify the sensibility of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..541D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..541D"><span>Carbon films embedded by nickel nanoparticles: fluctuation in hopping rate and variable-<span class="hlt">range</span> hopping with respect to annealing <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dalouji, Vali; Elahi, Smohammad; Solaymani, Shahram; Ghaderi, Atefeh; Elahi, Hossein</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this work, the electrical properties of carbon-nickel films annealed at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (573, 773, 1073 and 1273 K) in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 15-300 K were investigated. The films were grown by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering on quartz substrates at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The multiphonon hopping conduction mechanism is found to dominate the electrical transport in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 150-300 K. It can be seen that the room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> hopping rate (ΓRT) at 773 K has maximum value of 56.8 × 105 s-1. Our results of conductivity measurements at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are in good agreement with strong carrier-lattice coupling model; on the other hand, the conductivity in the <span class="hlt">range</span> 15-50 K is well described in terms of variable-<span class="hlt">range</span> hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The localized state density around Fermi level N( E F) and the average hopping energy W hop at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the films annealed at 773 K have maximum value of 2.23 × 1023 (cm-3 eV-1) and minimum value of 9.74 × 10-4 eV, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814572"><span>Kinetic Testing of Nitrate-Based Sodalite Formation Over the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> of 40 to 100 Degrees Centigrade (Final Report)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mattus, A.J.</p> <p>2001-09-07</p> <p>The focus of this study was the desilication kinetics of a Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm 2H simulant over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 40 to 100 C. Results showed that the formation of nitrate-nitrite-based sodalite over aluminum-to-silicon (Al:Si) molar ratios <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from 1:1 to 20:1 exhibited overall-second order kinetics. The Arrhenius apparent activation energy associated with the crystal growth process of the sodalite was determined to be 35 kJ/mol over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> investigated. Second-order rate constants were extrapolated to the 2H evaporator working <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of {approx} 130 C and were found to be 0.012 L mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. At this operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the half-life of a limiting reactant with a 0.1 M feed would be 14 min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940478','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940478"><span>Intraspecific variation in thermal acclimation of photosynthesis across a <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a perennial crop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zaka, Serge; Frak, Ela; Julier, Bernadette; Gastal, François; Louarn, Gaëtan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Interest in the thermal acclimation of photosynthesis has been stimulated by the increasing relevance of climate change. However, little is known about intra-specific variations in thermal acclimation and its potential for breeding. In this article, we examined the difference in thermal acclimation between alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars originating from contrasting origins, and sought to analyze the mechanisms in play. A series of experiments was carried out at seven growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 5 and 35 °C using four cultivars from temperate and Mediterranean origin. Leaf traits, the photosynthetic rate at 25 °C (A40025), the photosynthetic rate at optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (A400opt), the thermal optimum of photosynthesis (Topt), and the photosynthetic parameters from the Farqhuar model were determined. Irrespective of cultivar origin, a clear shift in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of photosynthesis was observed as a function of growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, affecting thermal optimum of photosynthesis, photosynthetic rate at optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photosynthetic rate at 25 °C. For both cultivars, Topt values increased linearly in leaves grown between 5 and 35 °C. Relative homeostasis of A40025 and A400opt was found between 10 °C and 30 °C growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but sharp declines were recorded at 5 and 35 °C. This homeostasis was achieved in part through modifications to leaf nitrogen content, which increased at extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Significant changes were also recorded regarding nitrogen partitioning in the photosynthetic apparatus and in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of photosynthetic parameters. The cultivars differed only in terms of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response of photosynthetic parameters, with Mediterranean genotypes displaying a greater sensitivity of the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation to elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. It was concluded that intra-specific variations in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimation of photosynthesis exist among alfalfa cultivars, but that</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4336Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4336Q"><span>A Modified Johnson-Cook Model for Advanced High-Strength Steels Over a Wide <span class="hlt">Range</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qingdong, Zhang; Qiang, Cao; Xiaofeng, Zhang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is widely used in automotive industry. In order to investigate the mechanical behaviors of AHSS over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, quasi-static tensile experiments were conducted at the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 298 to 1073 K on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine. The results show that flow behaviors are affected by testing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> significantly. In order to describe the flow features of AHSS, the Johnson-Cook (JC) model is employed. By introducing polynomial functions to consider the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on hardening behavior, the JC model is modified and used to predict flow behavior of AHSS at different experimental conditions. The accuracy of the modified JC model is verified and the predicted flow stress is in good agreement with experimental results, which confirms that the modified JC model can give an accurate and precise estimate over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079694','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079694"><span>Factors Affecting Date of Implantation, Parturition, and Den Entry Estimated from Activity and Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Free-<span class="hlt">Ranging</span> Brown Bears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E.; Zedrosser, Andreas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> brown bears. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human. PMID:24988486</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24988486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24988486"><span>Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> brown bears.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> brown bears. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5923508','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5923508"><span>Determination of the elastic moduli of a machinable ceramic over the <span class="hlt">range</span> from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 800/sup 0/C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nakano, H.; Nagai, S.; Imai, H.</p> <p>1987-07-01</p> <p>The ultrasonic velocities of a machinable ceramic were measured using the pulse echo overlap technique. The machinable ceramic consists of 5- to 10-..mu..m crystallite blocks of mica in a boroaluminosilicate glass matrix. The elastic moduli are deduced from the sound velocities over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 800/sup 0/C. Their <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change is well described by a fourth-degree polynomial. Although the moduli decrease with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a plateau region appears at about 450/sup 0/C. This anomalous behavior is explained by applying the simple rule of mixtures to cnstitutent materials, the mica crystallites, and the glass matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H51A1183S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H51A1183S"><span>Innovative use of Distributed <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensing and Meteorological Data to Understand Thermoregulation of Free-<span class="hlt">Ranging</span> Howling Monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suarez, F. I.; Vinyard, C. J.; Williams, S. H.; Hausner, M. B.; Tyler, S. W.; Glander, K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> fluctuations are a major driver of change in natural habitats and influence the lifestyle of all organisms because <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts molecular, physiological, and behavioral processes. However, there is a lack of understanding on how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affects metabolism, behavior, and ecology at the organismal level. Even though physiological responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations have been well documented in laboratory conditions, it has been challenging to collect the required environmental data to study thermoregulation of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> mammals such as mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Fortunately, recent advances in fiber-optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing (DTS) now permit the observation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields in the environment at scales <span class="hlt">ranging</span> from millimeters to kilometers. This has opened an exciting opportunity for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring at scales that were previously not feasible. This study addresses the main limitations of previous studies of primate behavior by integrating real-time environmental data with the behavior and physiological response of free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> primates. In this work, we present preliminary DTS data collected in a natural habitat of howling monkeys. Fiber-optic cables were hung between the ground and an elevation of approximately 15 m within the forest canopy, providing continuous profiles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> without any disturbance due to the animals and habitat. These measurements were integrated with conventional meteorological data and with the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the location of the animal, as well as with measurements of primate's subcutaneous and core body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These data will be utilized to determine how environmental conditions relate to primate behavioral and physiological responses in time and space. The methodologies used in this study provide tools to test theories of physiological thermoregulation of other free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> animals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InPhT..78...84P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InPhT..78...84P"><span>Normal <span class="hlt">range</span> and lateral symmetry in the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile of pregnant women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, Tânia; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Simoes, Ricardo</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Body skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a useful parameter for diagnosing diseases and infrared thermography can be a powerful tool in providing important information to detect body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in a noninvasive way. The aim of this work was to study the pattern of skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during pregnancy, to establish skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reference values and to find correlations between these and the pregnant population characteristics. Sixty-one healthy pregnant women (mean age 30.6 ± 5.1 years) in the 8th-40th gestational week with normal pregnancies were examined in 31 regions of interest (ROI). The ROIs were defined all over the body in order to determine the most influenced by factors such as age or body mass index (BMI). The results obtained in this work highlight that in normal pregnant women the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is symmetrically distributed, with the symmetrical areas differing less than 0.5 °C , with a mean value of 0.25 ± 0.23 °C . This study identified a significant negative correlation between the BMI and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Age has been shown to have great influence on the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with a significant increase of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed with age. This work explores a novel medical application of infrared thermography and provides a characterization of thermal skin profile in human pregnancy for a large set of ROIs while also evaluating the effects of age and BMI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5073287','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5073287"><span>Relaxation dynamics of glasses along a wide stability and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Tinoco, C.; Ràfols-Ribé, J.; González-Silveira, M.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>While lots of measurements describe the relaxation dynamics of the liquid state, experimental data of the glass dynamics at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are much scarcer. We use ultrafast scanning calorimetry to expand the timescales of the glass to much shorter values than previously achieved. Our data show that the relaxation time of glasses follows a super-Arrhenius behaviour in the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime above the conventional devitrification <span class="hlt">temperature</span> heating at 10 K/min. The liquid and glass states can be described by a common VFT-like expression that solely depends on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and limiting fictive <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We apply this common description to nearly-isotropic glasses of indomethacin, toluene and to recent data on metallic glasses. We also show that the dynamics of indomethacin glasses obey density scaling laws originally derived for the liquid. This work provides a strong connection between the dynamics of the equilibrium supercooled liquid and non-equilibrium glassy states. PMID:27767071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635607R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...635607R"><span>Relaxation dynamics of glasses along a wide stability and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Tinoco, C.; Ràfols-Ribé, J.; González-Silveira, M.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>While lots of measurements describe the relaxation dynamics of the liquid state, experimental data of the glass dynamics at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are much scarcer. We use ultrafast scanning calorimetry to expand the timescales of the glass to much shorter values than previously achieved. Our data show that the relaxation time of glasses follows a super-Arrhenius behaviour in the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime above the conventional devitrification <span class="hlt">temperature</span> heating at 10 K/min. The liquid and glass states can be described by a common VFT-like expression that solely depends on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and limiting fictive <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We apply this common description to nearly-isotropic glasses of indomethacin, toluene and to recent data on metallic glasses. We also show that the dynamics of indomethacin glasses obey density scaling laws originally derived for the liquid. This work provides a strong connection between the dynamics of the equilibrium supercooled liquid and non-equilibrium glassy states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16637994','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16637994"><span>Stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> telemetry reveals temporal patterns of foraging success in a free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> marine mammal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Austin, Deborah; Bowen, W D; McMillan, J I; Boness, D J</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>1. We studied feeding frequency in free-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> grey seals using stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> telemetry to test if previously reported sex differences in the diving, movement and diet were reflected in the temporal pattern of foraging success. 2. Data were retrieved from 21 of 32 grey seals from 1999 to 2001, totalling 343 days and 555 feeding events, with individual record length varying from 2 to 40 days (mean: 16.33 +/- 2.67 days/seal). 3. Seals fed on 57.8 +/- 6.46% of days sampled and had an average of 1.7 +/- 0.26 meals per day, but individual variability was apparent in the temporal distribution of feeding as evidenced by high coefficients of variation (coefficient of variation = 69.0%). 4. Bout analysis of non-feeding intervals of six grey seals suggests that feeding intervals of individuals were varied and probably reflect differences in prey availability. Grey seals tended to have many single feeding events with long periods separating each event, as would be expected for a large carnivore with a batch-reactor digestive system. 5. We found significant sex differences in the temporal distribution of feeding. The number of feeding events per day was greater in males (2.2 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.2), as was time associated with feeding per day (56.6 +/- 5.8 min vs. 43.9 +/- 9.4 min). 6. The number of feeding events varied with time of day with the least number occurring during dawn. Feeding event size differed significantly by time of day, with greater meal sizes during the dawn and the smallest meals during the night. 7. The length of time between meals increased with the size of the previous meal, and was significantly less in males (541.4 +/- 63.5 min) than in females (1092.6 +/- 169.9 min). 8. These results provide new insight into the basis of sex differences in diving and diet in this large size-dimorphic marine predator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140003180','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140003180"><span>On the Trend of the Annual Mean, Maximum, and Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and the Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> in the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, Dataset, 1844 -2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Robert M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Examined are the annual averages, 10-year moving averages, decadal averages, and sunspot cycle (SC) length averages of the mean, maximum, and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (DTR) for the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, during the interval 1844-2012. Strong upward trends are apparent in the Armagh surface-air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (ASAT), while a strong downward trend is apparent in the DTR, especially when the ASAT data are averaged by decade or over individual SC lengths. The long-term decrease in the decadaland SC-averaged annual DTR occurs because the annual minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have risen more quickly than the annual maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Estimates are given for the Armagh annual mean, maximum, and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the DTR for the current decade (2010-2019) and SC24.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16795658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16795658"><span>The effects of videotape modeling and <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on residential electricity conservation, home <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winett, R A; Hatcher, J W; Fort, T R; Leckliter, I N; Love, S Q; Riley, A W; Fishback, J F</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 62 degrees F when home and about 59 degrees F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75 degrees F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4159165','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4159165"><span>Positive matrix factorization of a 32-month series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 speciation data with incorporation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stratification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xie, Mingjie; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Dutton, Steven J.; Milford, Jana B.; Hemann, Joshua G.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Miller, Shelly L.; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Sheppard, Lianne; Hannigan, Michael P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study presents source apportionment results for PM2.5 from applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a 32-month series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 compositional data from Denver, CO, including concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, bulk elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), and 51 organic molecular markers (OMMs). An optimum 8-factor solution was determined primarily based on the interpretability of the PMF results and rate of matching factors from bootstrapped PMF solutions with those from the base case solution. These eight factors were identified as inorganic ion, n-alkane, EC/sterane, light n-alkane/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), medium alkane/alkanoic acid, PAH, winter/methoxyphenol and summer/odd n-alkane. The inorganic ion factor dominated the reconstructed PM2.5 mass (sulfate + nitrate + EC + OC) in cold periods (<span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> < 10 °C; 43.7% of reconstructed PM2.5 mass) whereas the summer/odd n-alkane factor dominated in hot periods (> 20 °C; 53.1%). The two factors had comparable relative contributions of 26.5% and 27.1% in warm periods with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 10 °C and 20 °C. Each of the seven factors resolved in a previous study (Dutton et al., 2010b) using a 1-year data set from the same location matches one factor from the current work based on comparing factor profiles. Six out of the seven matched pairs of factors are linked to similar source classes as suggested by the strong correlations between factor contributions (r = 0.89 − 0.98). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-stratified source apportionment was conducted for three subsets of the data in the current study, corresponding to the cold, warm and hot periods mentioned above. The cold period (7-factor) solution exhibited a similar distribution of reconstructed PM2.5 mass as the full data set solution. The factor contributions of the warm period (7-factor) solution were well correlated with those from the full data set solution (r = 0.76 − 0.99). However, the reconstructed PM2.5 mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1308283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1308283"><span>The effects of videotape modeling and <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on residential electricity conservation, home <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Winett, Richard A.; Hatcher, Joseph W.; Fort, T. Richard; Leckliter, Ingrid N.; Love, Susan Q.; Riley, Anne W.; Fishback, James F.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 62°F when home and about 59°F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75°F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior change, and energy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1027B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1027B"><span>A collection of sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergström, H.; Bhend, J.; Brázdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Řezníčková, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046783','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046783"><span>Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcScD...9.3795E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcScD...9.3795E"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> scale winter-time sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and the Iberian Poleward Current in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esnaola, G.; Sáenz, J.; Zorita, E.; Fontán, A.; Valencia, V.; Lazure, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The combination of remotely sensed gappy sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) images with the missing data filling Data Interpolating EOFs (DINEOF) technique followed by a Principal Component Analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale variability of the winter-time surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC) during the 1981-2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the variability of the IPC. A physical mechanism involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables is proposed in relation to the variability of the IPC. It jointly takes into account several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the Joint Effect of Baroclinicity And Relief (JEBAR) effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic Gyre. This mechanism emerges from an atmospheric 500 hPa circulation anomaly that has not a simple relationship with any of the most common North Atlantic teleconnection patterns. It then generates mutually coherent SST and sea level anomaly patterns in the North Atlantic area due to the action of anomalous wind-stress and heat-fluxes, and locally, it also generates the conditions for the mentioned mechanisms in the Bay of Biscay area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FML.....750063C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FML.....750063C"><span>High performance shape memory effect in nitinol wire for actuators with increased operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casati, Riccardo; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Vedani, Maurizio; Tuissi, Ausonio</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>In this research, the high performance shape memory effect (HP-SME) is experimented on a shape memory NiTi wire, with austenite finish <span class="hlt">temperature</span> higher than room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The HP-SME consists in the thermal cycling of stress induced martensite and it allows achieving mechanical work higher than that produced by conventional shape memory actuators based on the heating/cooling of detwinned martensite. The Nitinol wire was able to recover about 5.5% of deformation under a stress of 600 MPa and to withstand about 5000 cycles before failure. HP-SME path increased the operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the shape memory actuator wire. Functioning <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher than 100°C was reached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9493701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9493701"><span>Barnidipine, a novel calcium antagonist for once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment of hypertension: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> study. Dutch Barnidipine Multicenter Study Group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, W; Holwerda, N J</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>The antihypertensive effects and tolerance of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> barnidipine, a novel dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, were evaluated. A total of 190 patients with a sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 95-114 mmHg were investigated in this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-<span class="hlt">ranging</span> study. After a 4-week single-blind placebo run-in period, patients were randomized to placebo or barnidipine (10 mg, 20 mg, or 30 mg modified release capsules) once <span class="hlt">daily</span> for 6 weeks. Nonresponders (sitting DBP > or =90 mmHg and a decrease of < 10 mmHg) were treated for an additional 6 weeks with a dose increase of 10 mg. At each clinic visit, sitting and standing blood pressure and heart rate were measured approximately 24 hours after the last dose of study drug was taken. Compared with placebo, barnidipine lowered blood pressure, with a trend toward a dose-response relationship over the dose <span class="hlt">range</span> 10-30 mg. A dose increment of 10 mg in nonresponders resulted in additional reductions in blood pressure. At the end of the active treatment period, the responder rates were 41% and 57% for 10 mg and 20 mg barnidipine, respectively. Heart rate in both sitting and standing positions was not affected by barnidipine. Treatment with barnidipine was well tolerated, and the incidence of adverse events was dose related and consistent with vasodilatation. In conclusion, barnidipine (10-30 mg) administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> is well tolerated and reduces blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSCom.247...27S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSCom.247...27S"><span>Enhancement of Curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> induced by Al doping in Mn1-xAlxCoGe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Si, Xiaodong; Liu, Yongsheng; Lei, Wei; Xu, Juan; Du, Wenlong; Lin, Jia; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Xiaofei</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Mn1-xAlxCoGe alloys with a second order transition were produced by arc-melting method. The substitution of Mn by Al increased the Curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TC) from 260.5 K to 300.8 K, the magnetic entropy change (|ΔSM|) decreased from 3.78 J·Kg-1K-1 to 2.35 J·Kg-1K-1 under a field change of Δμ0H=5 T. In addition, the |ΔSM| well linearly depends on the H2/3 around TC. Furthermore, the relative cooling power (RCP) can reach 242.3 J·Kg-1 with a large full width at half maximum of |ΔSM| (75.5 K) for x=0.02. The decrease of |ΔSM| is explained by the corresponding monotonical decrease of magnetic moment per formula unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..155a2028S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..155a2028S"><span>Ultrahigh vacuum holder-positioner for in situ studies of conductive nanostructures in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shevtsov, D. V.; Lyaschenko, S. A.; Varnakov, S. N.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A holder-positioner was developed in order to be used in high vacuum systems designed for synthesis and in situ samples investigation by optical methods in 77÷1171 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. During tests of holder- positioner the designed system demonstrated independence from other process chamber components, compactness, a large number of the sample degrees of freedom and the stability of maintaining <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the <span class="hlt">range</span> from 77 to 1171 K with a maximum sample cooling rate about 0.1 K/s.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24897844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24897844"><span>The impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the bionomics of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with special reference to the cool geographic <span class="hlt">range</span> margins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisen, Lars; Monaghan, Andrew J; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hayden, Mary H; Bieringer, Paul E</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), which occurs widely in the subtropics and tropics, is the primary urban vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, and an important vector of chikungunya virus. There is substantial interest in how climate change may impact the bionomics and pathogen transmission potential of this mosquito. This Forum article focuses specifically on the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the bionomics of Ae. aegypti, with special emphasis on the cool geographic <span class="hlt">range</span> margins where future rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> could facilitate population growth. Key aims are to: 1) broadly define intra-annual (seasonal) patterns of occurrence and abundance of Ae. aegypti, and their relation to climate conditions; 2) synthesize the existing quantitative knowledge of how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts the bionomics of different life stages of Ae. aegypti; 3) better define the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> for which existing population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti are likely to produce robust predictions; 4) explore potential impacts of climate warming on human risk for exposure to Ae. aegypti at its cool <span class="hlt">range</span> margins; and 5) identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its geographic <span class="hlt">range</span> now and in the future. We first outline basic scenarios for intra-annual occurrence and abundance patterns for Ae. aegypti, and then show that these scenarios segregate with regard to climate conditions in selected cities where they occur. We then review how near-constant and intentionally fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> impact development times and survival of eggs and immatures. A subset of data, generated in controlled experimental studies, from the published literature is used to plot development rates and survival of eggs, larvae, and pupae in relation to water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The general shape of the relationship between water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and development rate is similar for eggs, larvae, and pupae. Once the lower</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26716003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26716003"><span>The potential for climate-driven bathymetric <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts: sustained <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure exposures on a marine ectotherm, Palaemonetes varians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morris, J P; Thatje, S; Cottin, D; Oliphant, A; Brown, A; Shillito, B; Ravaux, J; Hauton, C</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Range</span> shifts are of great importance as a response for species facing climate change. In the light of current ocean-surface warming, many studies have focused on the capacity of marine ectotherms to shift their <span class="hlt">ranges</span> latitudinally. Bathymetric <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts offer an important alternative, and may be the sole option for species already at high latitudes or those within enclosed seas; yet relevant data are scant. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have wide <span class="hlt">ranging</span> effects on physiology, importantly acting in synergy thermodynamically, and therefore represent key environmental constraints to bathymetric migration. We present data on transcriptional regulation in a shallow-water marine crustacean (Palaemonetes varians) at atmospheric and high HP following 168-h exposures at three <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the organisms' thermal scope, to establish the potential physiological limit to bathymetric migration by neritic fauna. We observe changes in gene expression indicative of cellular macromolecular damage, disturbances in metabolic pathways and a lack of acclimation after prolonged exposure to high HP. Importantly, these effects are ameliorated (less deleterious) at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and exacerbated at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These data, alongside previously published behavioural and heat-shock analyses, have important implications for our understanding of the potential for climate-driven bathymetric <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4680618','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4680618"><span>The potential for climate-driven bathymetric <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts: sustained <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure exposures on a marine ectotherm, Palaemonetes varians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morris, J. P.; Thatje, S.; Cottin, D.; Oliphant, A.; Brown, A.; Shillito, B.; Ravaux, J.; Hauton, C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Range</span> shifts are of great importance as a response for species facing climate change. In the light of current ocean-surface warming, many studies have focused on the capacity of marine ectotherms to shift their <span class="hlt">ranges</span> latitudinally. Bathymetric <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts offer an important alternative, and may be the sole option for species already at high latitudes or those within enclosed seas; yet relevant data are scant. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have wide <span class="hlt">ranging</span> effects on physiology, importantly acting in synergy thermodynamically, and therefore represent key environmental constraints to bathymetric migration. We present data on transcriptional regulation in a shallow-water marine crustacean (Palaemonetes varians) at atmospheric and high HP following 168-h exposures at three <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the organisms’ thermal scope, to establish the potential physiological limit to bathymetric migration by neritic fauna. We observe changes in gene expression indicative of cellular macromolecular damage, disturbances in metabolic pathways and a lack of acclimation after prolonged exposure to high HP. Importantly, these effects are ameliorated (less deleterious) at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and exacerbated at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These data, alongside previously published behavioural and heat-shock analyses, have important implications for our understanding of the potential for climate-driven bathymetric <span class="hlt">range</span> shifts PMID:26716003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139875"><span>HTP kinetics studies on isolated elementary combustion reactions over wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fontijn, A.; Adusei, G.Y.; Hranisavlevic, J.; Bajaj, P.N.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The goals of this project are to provide accurate data on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions, (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made mainly by using the pseudo-static HTP (high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> photochemistry) technique. While continuing rate coefficient measurements, further aspects of kinetics research are being explored. Thus, starting from the data obtained, a method for predicting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of rate coefficients of oxygen-atom olefin experiment and confirms the underlying mechanistic assumptions. Mechanistic information of another sort, i.e. by product analysis, has recently become accessible with the inauguration of our heated flow tube mass spectrometer facility; early results are reported here. HTP experiments designed to lead to measurements of product channels by resonance fluorescence have started.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhSS...54.1832M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhSS...54.1832M"><span>Caloric characteristics of PbTiO3 in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of the ferroelectric phase transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mikhaleva, E. A.; Flerov, I. N.; Gorev, M. V.; Molokeev, M. S.; Cherepakhin, A. V.; Kartashev, A. V.; Mikhashenok, N. V.; Sablina, K. A.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The heat capacity and thermal expansion of the PbTiO3 ceramic sample have been measured in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 80-970 K. The electrocaloric and barocaloric efficiencies of lead titanate in the ferroelectric phase transition <span class="hlt">range</span> have been investigated by analyzing the experimental data in terms of the thermodynamic theory of phase transitions, the electrical equation of state P( T, E), the Pippard equation, and the S( T, p) diagram.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300234','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300234"><span>Electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices controlled by the thickness of paraelectric layer in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ma, D. C.; Lin, S. P.; Chen, W. J.; Zheng, Yue Xiong, W. M.; Wang, Biao</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>As functions of the paraelectric layer thickness, misfit strain and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices are investigated using a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau thermodynamic model. Ferroelectric phase transition driven by the relative thickness of the superlattice is found to dramatically impact the electrocaloric response. Near the phase transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the magnitude of the electrocaloric effect is maximized and shifted to lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by increasing the relative thickness of paraelectric layer. Theoretical calculations also imply that the electrocaloric effect of the superlattices depends not only on the relative thickness of paraelectric layer but also on misfit strain. Furthermore, control of the relative thickness of paraelectric layer and the misfit strain can change availably both the magnitude and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of the electrocaloric effect, which suggests that ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices may be promising candidates for use in cooling devices in a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=306026','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=306026"><span>Wheat responses to a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: The hot serial cereal experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Concomitant with the increase in Earth’s atmospheric CO2 concentration, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are warming on a global scale. Crop growth models are useful tools to predict the likely effects of these global changes on agricultural productivity and to develop strategies to maximize the benefits and minimize t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293134"><span>All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen</p> <p>2015-08-21</p> <p>There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 120 °C. The cell works at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g(-1) at 10 mA g(-1) (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> application as a first step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015StGM...37Q..57S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015StGM...37Q..57S"><span>Influence of Strain Rate on Tensile Strength of Woven Geotextile in the Selected <span class="hlt">Range</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stępień, Sylwia; Szymański, Alojzy</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Investigation of geosynthetics behaviour has been carried out for many years. Before using geosynthetics in practice, the standard laboratory tests had been carried out to determine basic mechanical parameters. In order to examine the tensile strength of the sample which extends at a constant strain rate, one should measure the value of the tensile force and strain. Note that geosynthetics work under different conditions of stretching and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which significantly reduce the strength of these materials. The paper presents results of the tensile test of geotextile at different strain rates and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 20 °C to 100 °C. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and strain rate on tensile strength and strain of the woven geotextile. The article presents the method of investigation and the results. The data obtained allowed us to assess the parameters of material which should be considered in the design of the load-bearing structures that work at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 100 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4031198','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4031198"><span><span class="hlt">Range</span>-Wide Latitudinal and Elevational <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Gradients for the World's Terrestrial Birds: Implications under Global Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>La Sorte, Frank A.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (<span class="hlt">range</span> size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under climate change. Elevational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' <span class="hlt">ranges</span>, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852009"><span><span class="hlt">Range</span>-wide latitudinal and elevational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>La Sorte, Frank A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (<span class="hlt">range</span> size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under climate change. Elevational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' <span class="hlt">ranges</span>, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21443741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21443741"><span>Defining the response of a microorganism to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that span its complete growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (-2°C to 28°C) using multiplex quantitative proteomics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Timothy J; Lauro, Federico M; Ertan, Haluk; Burg, Dominic W; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Cavicchioli, Ricardo</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The growth of all microorganisms is limited to a specific <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. However, it has not previously been determined to what extent global protein profiles change in response to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that incrementally span the complete growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of a microorganism. As a result it has remained unclear to what extent cellular processes (inferred from protein abundance profiles) are affected by growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and which, in particular, constrain growth at upper and lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> limits. To evaluate this, 8-plex iTRAQ proteomics was performed on the Antarctic microorganism, Methanococcoides burtonii. Methanococcoides burtonii was chosen due to its importance as a model psychrophilic (cold-adapted) member of the Archaea, and the fact that proteomic methods, including subcellular fractionation procedures, have been well developed. Differential abundance patterns were obtained for cells grown at seven different growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (-2°C, 1°C, 4°C, 10°C, 16°C, 23°C, 28°C) and a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify trends in protein abundances. The multiplex analysis enabled three largely distinct physiological states to be described: cold stress (-2°C), cold adaptation (1°C, 4°C, 10°C and 16°C), and heat stress (23°C and 28°C). A particular feature of the thermal extremes was the synthesis of heat- and cold-specific stress proteins, reflecting the important, yet distinct ways in which <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced stress manifests in the cell. This is the first quantitative proteomic investigation to simultaneously assess the response of a microorganism to numerous growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including the upper and lower growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> limits, and has revealed a new level of understanding about cellular adaptive responses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870026955&hterms=equilibrium+constants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dequilibrium%2Bconstants','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870026955&hterms=equilibrium+constants&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dequilibrium%2Bconstants"><span>Comparison of calculated and experimental thermal attachment rate constants for SF6 in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 200-600 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Electron-attachment cross sections are calcualted for the process e(-) + SF6 yields SF6(-) in the energy <span class="hlt">range</span> 1-200 meV. An electron scattering approximation is used in which diatomiclike potential energy curves near the equilibrium SF6 ground state are constructed from recent spectroscopic data. Excellent agreement is found over the entire energy <span class="hlt">range</span> with experimental attachment cross sections at a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 300 K for s-wave (l = 0) scattering. The same calculation, with appropriate adjustment of the thermal populations, is used to calculate attachment rate constants in the <span class="hlt">range</span> 50-600 K for both s- and p-wave scattering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710203L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710203L"><span>Statistics of regional surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> post year 1900. Long-<span class="hlt">range</span> versus short-<span class="hlt">range</span> dependence, and significance of warming trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Løvsletten, Ola; Rypdal, Martin; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We explore the statistics of instrumental surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records on 5°× 5°, 2°× 2°, and equal-area grids. In particular, we compute the significance of determinstic trends against two parsimonious null models; auto-regressive processes of order 1, AR(1), and fractional Gaussian noises (fGn's). Both of these two null models contain a memory parameter which quantifies the temporal climate variability, with white noise nested in both classes of models. Estimates of the persistence parameters show significant positive serial correlation for most grid cells, with higher persistence over occeans compared to land areas. This shows that, in a trend detection framework, we need to take into account larger spurious trends than what follows from the frequently used white noise assumption. Tested against the fGn null hypothesis, we find that ~ 68% (~ 47%) of the time series have significant trends at the 5% (1%) significance level. If we assume an AR(1) null hypothesis instead, then the result is that ~ 94% (~ 88%) of the time series have significant trends at the 5% (1%) significance level. For both null models, the locations where we do not find significant trends are mostly the ENSO regions and the North-Atlantic. We try to discriminate between the two null models by means of likelihood-ratios. If we at each grid point choose the null model preferred by the model selection test, we find that ~ 82% (~ 73%) of the time series have significant trends at the 5% (1%). We conclude that there is emerging evidence of significant warming trends also at regional scales, although with a much lower signal-to-noise ratio compared to global mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Another finding is that many <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are consistent with error models for internal variability that exhibit long-<span class="hlt">range</span> dependence, whereas the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations of the tropical oceans are strongly influenced by the ENSO, and therefore seemingly more consistent with random processes with short-<span class="hlt">range</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5079224','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5079224"><span>Timing of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life is jaggy: How episodic ultradian changes in body and brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are integrated into this process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blessing, William; Ootsuka, Youichirou</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Charles Darwin noted that natural selection applies even to the hourly organization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Indeed, in many species, the day is segmented into active periods when the animal searches for food, and inactive periods when the animal digests and rests. This episodic temporal patterning is conventionally referred to as ultradian (<24 hours) rhythmicity. The average time between ultradian events is approximately 1–2 hours, but the interval is highly variable. The ultradian pattern is stochastic, jaggy rather than smooth, so that although the next event is likely to occur within 1–2 hours, it is not possible to predict the precise timing. When models of circadian timing are applied to the ultradian temporal pattern, the underlying assumption of true periodicity (stationarity) has distorted the analyses, so that the ultradian pattern is frequently averaged away and ignored. Each active ultradian episode commences with an increase in hippocampal theta rhythm, indicating the switch of attention to the external environment. During each active episode, behavioral and physiological processes, including changes in body and brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, occur in an integrated temporal order, confirming organization by programs endogenous to the central nervous system. We describe methods for analyzing episodic ultradian events, including the use of wavelet mathematics to determine their timing and amplitude, and the use of fractal-based procedures to determine their complexity. PMID:28349079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153674"><span>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern of heart rate, body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, locomotor activity, and autonomic nervous activity in congenitally bronchial-hypersensitive (BHS) and bronchial-hyposensitive (BHR) guinea pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akita, Megumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Nishibata, Ryoji; Mikami, Hiroki; Tsubone, Hirokazu</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>We studied the characteristics of the rhythmicity of heart rate (HR), body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (BT), locomotor activity (LA) and autonomic nervous activity in bronchial-hypersensitive (BHS) and bronchial-hyposensitive (BHR) guinea pigs. For this purpose, HR, BT, LA, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded from conscious and unrestrained guinea pigs using a telemetry system. Autonomic nervous activity was analyzed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Nocturnal patterns, in which the values in the dark phase (20:00-06:00) were higher than those in the light phase (06:00-20:00), were observed in HR, BT and LA in both strains of guinea pigs. The autonomic nervous activity in BHS guinea pigs showed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern, although BHR guinea pigs did not show such a rhythmicity. The high frequency (HF) power in BHS guinea pigs was higher than that in BHR guinea pigs throughout the day. Moreover, the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio in BHS guinea pigs was lower than that in BHR guinea pigs throughout the day. These results suggest that parasympathetic nervous activity may be predominant in BHS guinea pigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983662"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Not Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), is Causally Associated with Short-Term Acute <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mortality Rates: Results from One Hundred United States Cities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cox, Tony; Popken, Douglas; Ricci, Paolo F</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air (C) have been suspected of contributing causally to increased acute (e.g., same-day or next-day) human mortality rates (R). We tested this causal hypothesis in 100 United States cities using the publicly available NMMAPS database. Although a significant, approximately linear, statistical C-R association exists in simple statistical models, closer analysis suggests that it is not causal. Surprisingly, conditioning on other variables that have been extensively considered in previous analyses (usually using splines or other smoothers to approximate their effects), such as month of the year and mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggests that they create strong, nonlinear confounding that explains the statistical association between PM2.5 and mortality rates in this data set. As this finding disagrees with conventional wisdom, we apply several different techniques to examine it. Conditional independence tests for potential causation, non-parametric classification tree analysis, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), and Granger-Sims causality testing, show no evidence that PM2.5 concentrations have any causal impact on increasing mortality rates. This apparent absence of a causal C-R relation, despite their statistical association, has potentially important implications for managing and communicating the uncertain health risks associated with, but not necessarily caused by, PM2.5 exposures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22212188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22212188"><span>Analysis of Er{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} codoped fluoroindate glasses as wide <span class="hlt">range</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haro-Gonzalez, P.</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>Graphical abstract: The sensor sensitivity as a function of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of erbium and holmium doped fluoroindate glasses. A wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 20 K to 425 K is covered with a sensitivity larger than 0.0005. Highlights: {yields} The FIR technique has been carried out in fluoroindate glass sample. {yields} The Er doped fluoroindate sample has a maximum sensitivity of 0.0028 K{sup -1} at 425 K. {yields} The Ho doped fluoroindate sample has a maximum sensitivity of 0.0036 K{sup -1} at 59 K. -- Abstract: The fluorescence intensity ratio technique for two fluoroindate glass samples has been carried out. The green emissions at 523 nm and at 545 nm in a 0.1 mol% of Er{sup 3+} doped fluoroindate glass was studied in a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 125 K to 425 K with a maximum sensitivity of 0.0028 K{sup -1} for 425 K. In a sample doped with 0.1 mol% of Ho{sup 3+} the emissions at 545 nm and at 750 nm were analyzed as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 20 K to 300 K obtaining a maximum sensitivity of 0.0036 K{sup -1} at 59 K. Using both fluoroindate glass samples a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from 20 K to 425 K is easily covered pumping with two low-cost diode laser at 406 nm and 473 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcSci...9..655E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcSci...9..655E"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> scale wintertime sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and IPC-Navidad variability in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esnaola, G.; Sáenz, J.; Zorita, E.; Fontán, A.; Valencia, V.; Lazure, P.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The combination of remotely sensed gappy Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) images with the missing data filling DINEOF (data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions) technique, followed by a principal component analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale variability of the wintertime surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC), or Navidad, during the 1981-2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the IPC-Navidad variability. Once a time series for the evolution of the SST signal of the current over the last decades is well established, this time series is used to propose a physical mechanism in relation to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables. According to the proposed mechanism, an atmospheric circulation anomaly observed in both the 500 hPa and the surface levels generates atmospheric surface level pressure, wind-stress and heat-flux anomalies. In turn, those surface level atmospheric anomalies induce mutually coherent SST and sea level anomalies over the North Atlantic area, and locally, in the Bay of Biscay area. These anomalies, both locally over the Bay of Biscay area and over the North Atlantic, are in agreement with several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief (JEBAR) effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic gyre.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC.10309003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC.10309003M"><span>Study of the Spectral Properties of Nanocomposites with CdSe Quantum Dots in a Wide <span class="hlt">Range</span> of Low <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magaryan, K. A.; Eremchev, I. Y.; Karimullin, K. R.; Knyazev, M. V.; Mikhailov, M. A.; Vasilieva, I. A.; Klimusheva, G. V.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Luminescence spectra of the colloidal solution of CdSe quantum dots (in toluene) were studied in a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Samples were synthesized in the liquid crystal matrix of cadmium octanoate (CdC8). A comparative analysis of the obtained data with previous results was performed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JEPT...68..640S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JEPT...68..640S"><span>Calculation of the density of solutions (sunflower oil + n-hexane) over a wide <span class="hlt">range</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Safarov, M. M.; Abdukhamidova, Z.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>We present the results from an experimental investigation of the density of the sunflower oil system as a function of the mass concentration of n-hexane in the <span class="hlt">ranges</span> of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> T=290 520 K and pressures P=0.101 98.1 MPa. A method of hydrostatic weighing was used to measure the density of the solutions under study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940030874','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940030874"><span>Long <span class="hlt">range</span> forecasts of the Northern Hemisphere anomalies with antecedent sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kung, Ernest C.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The contract research has been conducted in the following three major areas: analysis of numerical simulations and parallel observations of atmospheric blocking, diagnosis of the lower boundary heating and the response of the atmospheric circulation, and comprehensive assessment of long-<span class="hlt">range</span> forecasting with numerical and regression methods. The essential scientific and developmental purpose of this contract research is to extend our capability of numerical weather forecasting by the comprehensive general circulation model. The systematic work as listed above is thus geared to developing a technological basis for future NASA long-<span class="hlt">range</span> forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23768601','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23768601"><span>Processing of waxy starch/xanthan gum mixtures within the gelatinization <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heyman, Bart; Depypere, Frédéric; Van der Meeren, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen</p> <p>2013-07-25</p> <p>Pasting experiments of waxy potato and waxy maize starch systems were set up in which <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> close to the gelatinization <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were selected (67.5, 70 and 72.5°C). DSC measurements showed that under these conditions small fractions of the starches remained ungelatinized. During the pasting process two different shear rates were imposed (50s(-1) and 150s(-1)) to investigate the shear stability of the different starch containing systems. Swelling of the granules occurred in a more controlled manner and granule breakdown during pasting could be limited. As a result of these heating conditions more swollen granules are present, as confirmed by laser light diffraction. This positive effect was clearly noticeable in the flow curves of the cooled pastes. Xanthan gum addition could further reduce breakdown either by restricting the swelling or by stabilizing the granules. At higher starch contents the former is most likely dominating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22066646','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22066646"><span>Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> 300 - 1500 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dvoretskii, D A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Zlenko, Alexander S; Khopin, V F; Semjonov, S L; Guryanov, Aleksei N; Denisov, L K; Dianov, Evgenii M</p> <p>2012-09-30</p> <p>The visible and near-IR absorption and luminescence bands of bismuth-doped silica and germanosilicate fibres have been measured for the first time as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent IR luminescence lifetime of a bismuth-related active centre associated with silicon in the germanosilicate fibre has been determined. The Bi{sup 3+} profile across the silica fibre preform is shown to differ markedly from the distribution of IR-emitting bismuth centres associated with silicon. The present results strongly suggest that the IR-emitting bismuth centre comprises a lowvalence bismuth ion and an oxygen-deficient glass network defect. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26575207','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26575207"><span>Design and Synthesis of an MOF Thermometer with High Sensitivity in the Physiological <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong</p> <p>2015-12-07</p> <p>An important result of research on mixed-lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (M'LnMOFs) is the realization of highly sensitive ratiometric luminescent thermometers. Here, we report the design and synthesis of the new M'LnMOF Tb0.80Eu0.20BPDA with high relative sensitivity in the physiological <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime (298-318 K). The emission intensity and luminescence lifetime were investigated and compared to those of existing materials. It was found that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent luminescence properties of Tb0.80Eu0.20BPDA are strongly associated with the distribution of the energy levels of the ligand. Such a property can be useful in the design of highly sensitive M'LnMOF thermometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27802733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27802733"><span>Dilatometer setup for low coefficient of thermal expansion materials measurements in the 140 K-250 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spannagel, Ruven; Hamann, Ines; Sanjuan, Josep; Schuldt, Thilo; Gohlke, Martin; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis; Braxmaier, Claus</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Space applications demand light weight materials with excellent dimensional stability for telescopes, optical benches, optical resonators, etc. Glass-ceramics and composite materials can be tuned to reach very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In order to determine such CTEs, very accurate setups are needed. Here we present a dilatometer that is able to measure the CTE of a large variety of materials in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 140 K to 250 K. The dilatometer is based on a heterodyne interferometer with nanometer noise levels to measure the expansion of a sample when applying small amplitude controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signals. In this article, the CTE of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer sample has been determined with an accuracy in the 10(-8) K(-1) <span class="hlt">range</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623577"><span>Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad <span class="hlt">range</span> of applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87j3112S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RScI...87j3112S"><span>Dilatometer setup for low coefficient of thermal expansion materials measurements in the 140 K-250 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spannagel, Ruven; Hamann, Ines; Sanjuan, Josep; Schuldt, Thilo; Gohlke, Martin; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis; Braxmaier, Claus</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Space applications demand light weight materials with excellent dimensional stability for telescopes, optical benches, optical resonators, etc. Glass-ceramics and composite materials can be tuned to reach very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In order to determine such CTEs, very accurate setups are needed. Here we present a dilatometer that is able to measure the CTE of a large variety of materials in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> of 140 K to 250 K. The dilatometer is based on a heterodyne interferometer with nanometer noise levels to measure the expansion of a sample when applying small amplitude controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signals. In this article, the CTE of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer sample has been determined with an accuracy in the 10-8 K-1 <span class="hlt">range</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...8.5037M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...8.5037M"><span>A broadening <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity <span class="hlt">range</span> with a core-shell YbEr@YbNd double ratiometric optical nanothermometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marciniak, L.; Prorok, K.; Francés-Soriano, L.; Pérez-Prieto, J.; Bednarkiewicz, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The chemical architecture of lanthanide doped core-shell up-converting nanoparticles can be engineered to purposely design the properties of luminescent nanomaterials, which are typically inaccessible to their homogeneous counterparts. Such an approach allowed to shift the up-conversion excitation wavelength from ~980 to the more relevant ~808 nm or enable Tb or Eu up-conversion emission, which was previously impossible to obtain or inefficient. Here, we address the issue of limited <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity <span class="hlt">range</span> of optical lanthanide based nano-thermometers. By covering Yb-Er co-doped core nanoparticles with the Yb-Nd co-doped shell, we have intentionally combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent Er up-conversion together with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent Nd --> Yb energy transfer, and thus have expanded the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response <span class="hlt">range</span> ΔT of a single nanoparticle based optical nano-thermometer under single ~808 nm wavelength photo-excitation from around ΔT = 150 K to over ΔT = 300 K (150-450 K). Such engineered nanocrystals are suitable for remote optical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in technology and biotechnology at the sub-micron scale.The chemical architecture of lanthanide doped core-shell up-converting nanoparticles can be engineered to purposely design the properties of luminescent nanomaterials, which are typically inaccessible to their homogeneous counterparts. Such an approach allowed to shift the up-conversion excitation wavelength from ~980 to the more relevant ~808 nm or enable Tb or Eu up-conversion emission, which was previously impossible to obtain or inefficient. Here, we address the issue of limited