Science.gov

Sample records for dairy cow herds

  1. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  2. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  3. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  4. Weather and soil type affect incidence of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, N; Phelan, P; O'Kiely, P; Waal, T de

    2014-10-18

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can result in marked economic losses on Irish dairy farms. This study investigated the exposure to F hepatica in 237 dairy cow herds, using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA applied to bulk tank milk (BTM) samples collected in the autumn of 2012. A total of 364 BTM samples were collected from 237 different herds, with 127 farmers submitting BTM samples in two consecutive months. Analysis of the BTM samples indicated that 67 per cent (n= 159) of the dairy herds had been exposed to F hepatica. Rainfall, temperature and soil types were significantly different between the exposed and non-exposed herds (P<0.05), highlighting the role of these variables to the exposure to F hepatica. Among the 127 herds that provided two monthly milk samples, 83 herds were exposed to F hepatica and 82 increased their F hepatica antibody levels at the later sampling time (P<0.01).The findings of this study confirm the high prevalence of F hepatica antibodies in Irish dairy herds and show the rise in antibody levels during autumn. This study is the first step towards assessing the spatiotemporal pattern of fasciolosis in dairy herds in Ireland.

  5. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  6. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ≥100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher

  7. Comparison of modeled sampling strategies for estimation of dairy herd lameness prevalence and cow-level variables associated with lameness.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, A C; Moore, D A; Wenz, J R; Vanegas, J

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring herd lameness prevalence has utility for dairy producers and veterinarians in their efforts to reduce lameness, for animal welfare assessment programs, and for researchers. Locomotion scoring is a method used to quantify lameness and calculate prevalence. Because of the time necessary to locomotion score each cow in large dairy herds, a sampling strategy to determine herd lameness prevalence that allows scoring of fewer cows would be useful. Such a sampling strategy must be validated for accuracy compared with the lameness prevalence when all cows in a herd are locomotion scored. The purpose of this study was to assess 3 previously suggested methods of estimating lameness prevalence by strategic sampling of dairy herds. Sampling strategies tested included (1) sampling a calculated number of cows in the middle third of the milking parlor exit order for each pen, (2) sampling a calculated number of cows weighted across pens and distributed evenly within each pen, and (3) sampling all cows in the high production, low production, and hospital pens. Lactating cows on 5 dairy farms in Washington and Oregon (n=4,422) were locomotion scored using a 5-point scale to determine herd-level lameness prevalence (percentage with locomotion score ≥3). Milking parlor exit order, order in headlocks at the feed bunk within each pen, and breed were recorded for each cow. The number of days in lactation, milk production, and parity were collected from farm computer records. Pen grouping strategy for each farm was obtained by interview with farm management. Sampling strategies were modeled using the locomotion score data set for each herd. Estimates of lameness prevalence obtained from the milking parlor exit order sample and the sample distributed across pens were within 5 percentage points of the whole herd prevalence. The third strategy estimated the lameness prevalence within 5 percentage points on 4 farms, but overestimated prevalence on 1 farm. Pen-level prevalence

  8. Herd characteristics and cow-level factors associated with Prototheca mastitis on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, L; Godkin, A; Roesler, U; Polleichtner, A; Slavic, D; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2012-10-01

    Prototheca spp. are algae that cause incurable acute or chronic mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of this case-control study was the identification of cow- and herd-level risk factors for this unusual mastitis pathogen. Aseptically collected composite milk samples from 2,428 milking cows in 23 case and 23 control herds were collected between January and May 2011. A questionnaire was administered to the producers, and cow-level production and demographic data were gathered. In 58 of 64 isolates, Prototheca spp. and Prototheca zopfii genotypes were differentiated using PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. All isolates were identified as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2. The mean within-herd prevalence for Prototheca spp. was 5.1% (range 0.0-12.5%). Case herds had a significantly lower herd-level prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and a higher prevalence of yeasts than did control herds. The final logistic regression model for herd-level risk factors included use of intramammary injections of a non-intramammary drug [odds ratio (OR) = 136.8], the number of different injectable antibiotic products being used (OR = 2.82), the use of any dry cow teat sealant (external OR = 80.0; internal OR = 34.2), and having treated 3 or more displaced abomasums in the last 12 mo OR = 44.7). The final logistic regression model for cow-level risk factors included second or greater lactation (OR = 4.40) and the logarithm of the lactation-average somatic cell count (OR = 2.99). Unsanitary or repeated intramammary infusions, antibiotic treatment, and off-label use of injectable drugs in the udder might promote Prototheca udder infection. PMID:22884347

  9. Management practices associated with conception rate and service rate of lactating Holstein cows in large, commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Schefers, J M; Weigel, K A; Rawson, C L; Zwald, N R; Cook, N B

    2010-04-01

    Data from lactating Holstein cows in herds that participate in a commercial progeny testing program were analyzed to explain management factors associated with herd-average conception and service rates on large commercial dairies. On-farm herd management software was used as the source of data related to production, reproduction, culling, and milk quality for 108 herds. Also, a survey regarding management, facilities, nutrition, and labor was completed on 86 farms. A total of 41 explanatory variables related to management factors and conditions that could affect conception and service rate were considered in this study. Models explaining conception and service rates were developed using a machine learning algorithm for constructing model trees. The most important explanatory variables associated with conception rate were the percentage of repeated inseminations between 4 and 17 d post-artificial insemination, stocking density in the breeding pen, length of the voluntary waiting period, days at pregnancy examination, and somatic cell score. The most important explanatory variables associated with service rate were the number of lactating cows per breeding technician, use of a resynchronization program, utilization of soakers in the holding area during the summer, and bunk space per cow in the breeding pen. The aforementioned models explained 35% and 40% of the observed variation in conception rate and service rate, respectively, and underline the association of herd-level management factors not strictly related to reproduction with herd reproductive performance.

  10. Serratia marcescens mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Kirk, J H; Walker, R D; Bosworth, Q W

    1990-04-01

    Serratia marcescens caused clinical mastitis in 5 cows and nonclinical mastitis in 21 cows of a 190-cow herd. Repeated bacteriologic culture of specimens from the cows, postmilking teat dip, environment, and equipment was performed. Serratia marcescens was not isolated from the dip, environment, or equipment. Progress of the infection in cows was monitored for 10 months. Some cows remained infected with S marcescens for at least 10 months. Economic loss estimates were based on Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear score reports. The average nonclinical loss was about $22/cow. PMID:2184155

  11. Distribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from milk and environment of dairy cows differs between herds.

    PubMed

    Piessens, V; Van Coillie, E; Verbist, B; Supré, K; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Vliegher, S

    2011-06-01

    In many parts of the world, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant pathogens causing intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows. The cows' environment is thought to be a possible source for CNS mastitis and this was investigated in the present paper. A longitudinal field study was carried out in 6 well-managed dairy herds to determine the distribution and epidemiology of various CNS species isolated from milk, causing IMI and living freely in the cows' environment, respectively. In each herd, quarter milk samples from a cohort of 10 lactating cows and environmental samples from stall air, slatted floor, sawdust from cubicles, and sawdust stock were collected monthly (n=13). Isolates from quarter milk samples (n=134) and the environment (n=637) were identified to species level using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. simulans accounted for 81.3% of all CNS milk isolates. Quarters were considered infected with CNS (positive IMI status) only when 2 out of 3 consecutive milk samples yielded the same CNS AFLP type. The species causing IMI were S. chromogenes (n=35 samples with positive IMI status), S. haemolyticus (n=29), S. simulans (n=14), and S. epidermidis (n=6). The observed persistent IMI cases (n=17) had a mean duration of 149.4 d (range 63.0 to 329.8 d). The CNS species predominating in the environment were S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, and S. fleurettii. Herd-to-herd differences in distribution of CNS species were observed in both milk and the environment, suggesting that herd-level factors are involved in the establishment of particular species in a dairy herd. Primary reservoirs of the species causing IMI varied. Staphylococcus chromogenes and S. epidermidis were rarely found in the environment, indicating that other reservoirs were more important in their epidemiology. For S. haemolyticus and S. simulans, the environment was found as a

  12. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2009-03-01

    Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.

  13. A benefit cost analysis of dry-cow mastitis therapy in Ontario dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    McNab, W. Bruce; Meek, Alan H.

    1991-01-01

    Data collected from 297 dairy farms in Ontario were analyzed to investigate the economic consequences of using dry-cow antibiotic therapy, and to demonstrate the elements of an economic evaluation. Benefit/cost ratios ranged from 0.5 to 31.0 depending on the methods used to assess the benefits of therapy. In general, within the assumptions outlined in this analysis, dry-cow therapy was found to be economically advantageous. However, many factors can influence milk production and somatic cell counts. In this observational study, it is possible that some such factors were confounded with the use of dry-cow therapy, and may have biased the estimates of economic impact. PMID:17423801

  14. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  15. Herd- and cow-level risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy farms from the High Plains of the northern Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, N F; Keefe, G; Dohoo, I; Sánchez, J; Arroyave, O; Cerón, J; Jaramillo, M; Palacio, L G

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is the main disease entity affecting dairy farms in the Colombian High Plains of northern Antioquia, Colombia. However, no previous epidemiologic studies have determined the characteristics that increase the risk of infection in this region, where manual milking is still the prevailing system of milking. A 24-mo longitudinal study was designed to identify the predominant mastitis pathogens and important herd- and cow-level risk factors. Monthly visits were made to 37 commercial dairy farms to collect herd- and cow-level data and milk samples. Herd size varied from 6 to 136 cows (mean 37.0, median 29). Herd-level factors included type of milking system (manual or mechanical) and a range of management practices recommended by the National Mastitis Council (Madison, WI) to prevent mastitis. Individual cow-level risk factors included parity, stage of lactation, breed, udder hygiene, and lameness. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between herd- and cow-level risk factors with the presence of subclinical mastitis and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae at the quarter level. A quarter was considered to have subclinical mastitis if it had a positive California Mastitis Test and was subsequently confirmed to have a somatic cell count of ≥200,000 cells/mL. Any cow with one or more quarters with subclinical mastitis was considered to have subclinical mastitis at the cow level. Using 17,622 cow observations, the mean prevalence of subclinical mastitis at the cow level was 37.2% (95% confidence interval: 31.2, 43.3) for the first month and did not substantially change throughout the study. The predominant microorganisms isolated from quarters meeting the subclinical mastitis definition were contagious pathogens, including Strep. agalactiae (34.4%), Corynebacterium spp. (13.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Significant variables associated with subclinical mastitis risk at the quarter level included being a purebred

  16. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  17. Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Aprea, E; Betta, E; Biasioli, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Gasperi, F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and characteristics of individual cows (parity, days in milk, and daily milk yield) on the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses produced under controlled conditions from the milk of individual cows of the Brown Swiss breed. One hundred fifty model cheeses were selected from 1,272 produced for a wider study of the phenotypic and genetic variability of Brown Swiss cows. In our study, we selected 30 herds representing 5 different dairy systems. The cows sampled presented different milk yields (12.3-43.2kg/d), stages of lactation (10-412 d in milk), and parity (1-7). In total, 55 volatile compounds were detected by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including 14 alcohols, 13 esters, 11 free fatty acids, 8 ketones, 4 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 1 terpene, and 1 pyrazine. The most important sources of variation in the volatile organic profiles of model cheeses were dairy system (18 compounds) and days in milk (10 compounds), followed by parity (3 compounds) and milk yield (5 compounds). The model cheeses produced from the milk of tied cows reared on traditional farms had lower quantities of 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, and dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one compared with those reared in freestalls on modern farms. Of these, milk from farms using total mixed rations had higher contents of alcohols (hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol) and esters (ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate) and lower contents of acetic acid compared with those using separate feeds. Moreover, dairy systems that added silage to the total mixed ration produced cheeses with lower levels of volatile organic compounds, in particular alcohols (butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol), compared with those that did not. The amounts of butan-2-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl-2-methylpropanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and 6-propyloxan-2-one

  18. Factors associated with survival in the herd for dairy cows following surgery to correct left displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Reynen, Jennifer L; Kelton, David F; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Newby, Nathalie C; Duffield, Todd F

    2015-06-01

    Left displaced abomasum (LDA) is a common problem in dairy cows. There have been numerous studies focused on predicting prognosis for right displaced abomasal corrective surgery, but a paucity of studies exist focused on more common LDA surgeries. Our objective was to determine if survival to 60 d or 1 yr after surgery could be predicted from the physical exam findings, periparturient disease status, and a biochemical profile from a blood sample obtained at the time of LDA diagnosis. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured immediately using a hand-held meter. Data obtained from CanWest DHI (Guelph, ON, Canada) for all of the study subjects (n=179 cases, by 24 veterinarians from 4 clinics), including cull date, cull reason, and test-day milk production. Cows were classified based on whether or not they were culled within 60 d or 1 yr of surgery. Based on logistic regression, cows that had dystocia [odds ratio (OR)=13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=7-26] or were not ketotic (blood BHBA<1.2 mmol/L; OR=3, 95% CI=1.03-9) at the time of corrective surgery were more likely to be culled within 60 d. Higher serum concentrations of BHBA (OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92-0.98), nonesterified fatty acids (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.75-0.88), and Mg (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.35-0.68) all had a protective effect against culling within 1 yr of LDA surgery. Based on survival analysis, longevity in the herd for 365 d following corrective surgery was associated with higher BHBA and Mg at the time of LDA diagnosis before surgery, as well as milk production following surgery. PMID:25892696

  19. Associations between air emissions from sour gas processing plants and indices of cow retainment and survival in dairy herds in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Scott, H Morgan; Soskolne, Colin L; Lissemore, Kerry D; Martin, S Wayne; Shoukri, Mohamed M; Coppock, Robert W; Guidotti, Tee L

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the effects of air emissions from sour gas processing plants on indices of retainment or survival of adult female dairy cattle on farms in Alberta; namely, the productive lifespan of individual animals, and annual herd-level risks for culling and mortality. Using a geographical information system, 2 dispersion models--1 simple and 1 complex--were used to assess historical exposures to sour gas emissions at 1382 dairy farm sites from 1985 through to 1994. Multivariable survival models, adjusting for the dependence of survival responses within a herd over time, as well as potential confounding variables, were utilized to determine associations between sour gas exposure estimates and the time from the first calving date to either death or culling of 150210 dairy cows. Generalized linear models were used to model the relationship between herd-level risks for culling and mortality and levels of sour gas exposure. No significant (P < 0.05) associations were found with the time to culling (n = 70052). However, both dispersion model exposure estimates were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a decreased hazard for mortality; that is, in cases where cattle had died on-farm (n = 8743). There were no significant associations (P > 0.05) between herd culling risks and the 2 dispersion model exposure estimates. There was no measurable impact of plant emissions on the annual herd risk of mortality.

  20. Case study: Differences in milk characteristics between a cow herd transitioning to organic versus milk from a conventional dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences between organic and conventional milk were studied by comparing two adjacent farms over a 12-mo period starting at the beginning of the grazing season, thus eliminating variables due to geography and weather. Milk was collected from a farm where cows were fed a conventional total mixed ...

  1. Chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, David J.; Schiefer, H. Bruno; Blakley, Barry R.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of excessive copper to a commercially prepared dairy ration caused chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd. A formulation error by a feed company resulted in copper levels of 800 to 1,000 mg/kg in the “as fed concentrate,” amounting to about 400-500 mg copper/kg of the whole ration. Five animals died with typical signs of acute copper toxicity, including intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. A further 39 cows died on the farm from a combination of debilitation and secondary infectious causes, and 215 were sent to slaughter because of debilitation and poor milk production. The mortality of calves born to dams that had been fed the toxic concentrate was approximately 50%. We postulate that dairy cows, particularly pregnant cows, may be more susceptible to copper toxicity than other cattle, and suggest reexamination of the presently allowable maximum levels of copper supplementation of diets for dairy cattle. PMID:17423660

  2. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ≤90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1

  3. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ≤90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1

  4. Some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of Neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J L; López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Bech-Sàbat, G; Serrano, B; Nogareda, C; Sanchez-Nadal, J A; Almeria, S; Santolaria, P

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of Neospora-associated abortions are different in pregnancies of cows and heifers chronically infected with Neospora caninum. In heifers (n = 229), an increase in the cumulative number of days with a mean relative humidity (RH) lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increases the risk of abortion. Yet, the likelihood of abortion was 7.6 times lower for pregnant heifers inseminated with Limousin bull semen, compared with those inseminated with Holstein-Friesian bull semen. In pregnancies of parous cows (n = 521), an increase in rainfall and in the cumulative number of days with a mean RH lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increased the abortion rate. However, in contrast, an increase in the lactation number produced a decrease in the abortion rate, with a likelihood of abortion 4.8 times lower for pregnant cows inseminated with Limousin bull semen, and three times lower for those inseminated with Belgian Blue bull semen, compared with dairy cows inseminated with Holstein-Friesian bull semen. Finally, the likelihood of abortion was 3.2 times lower for pregnancies of parous cows with low antibody titres against N. caninum (6-30 units) as compared to those with high antibody titres (>/=30 units), whereas in heifers this variable had no effect. The practical recommendations of the present study include the control of the cow environment during the second trimester of gestation, the priority of culling for parous cows with higher antibody titres against N. caninum and the insemination of Neospora-seropositive cows with semen from the Limousin breed.

  5. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-10-01

    In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used to calculate the age and temporal dynamics of seroprevalence and prevalence of positive faecal cultures. Faecal culture-positive prevalence was generally low. It was highest (5.4%) in calves during December to February. Seroprevalence varied from 0% to 70% between herds, but was generally more stable in young stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds.

  6. Outbreak of Salmonella Thompson infection in a Swedish dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, S; Johnsson, A; Aspan, A; Bergström, K; Kallay, T B; Szanto, E

    2008-11-15

    Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal sample from a cow in a Swedish dairy herd after calving. When investigations were undertaken in the herd, Salmonella Thompson was isolated from heifers on a separate pasture, and when these heifers were brought into the herd S Thompson spread rapidly. Control strategies managed to rid the herd of the S Typhimurium infection and the prevalence of S Thompson was at first substantially reduced. There was a rapid increase in its prevalence when the animals were let out to pasture and this development eventually led to the depopulation of the entire herd. PMID:19011246

  7. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  8. Associations between herd size, rate of expansion and production, breeding policy and reproduction in spring-calving dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Jago, J G; Berry, D P

    2011-08-01

    Dairy herd size is expected to increase in many European countries, given the recent policy changes within the European Union. Managing more cows may have implications for herd performance in the post-quota era. The objective of this study was to characterise spring-calving herds according to size and rate of expansion, and to determine trends in breeding policy, reproduction and production performance, which will inform industry of the likely implications of herd expansion. Performance data from milk recording herds comprising 775,795 lactations from 2,555 herds for the years 2004 to 2008 inclusive were available from the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation. Herds were classified into Small (average of 37 cows), Medium (average of 54 cows) and Large (average of 87 cows) and separately into herds that were not expanding (Nil expansion), herds expanding on average by three cows per year (Slow expansion) and herds expanding on average by eight cows per year (Rapid expansion). There was no association between rate of expansion and 305-day fat and protein yield. However, 305-day milk yield decreased and milk protein and fat percentage increased with increasing rate of expansion. There were no associations between herd size and milk production except for protein and fat percentage, which increased with increasing herd size. Average parity number of the cows decreased as rate of expansion increased and tended to decrease as herd size increased. In rapidly expanding herds, cow numbers were increased by purchasing more cattle. The proportion of dairy sires relative to beef sires used in the breeding programme of expanding herds increased and there was more dairy crossbreeding, albeit at a low rate. Similarly, large herds were using more dairy sires and fewer beef sires. Expanding herds and large herds had superior reproductive performance relative to non-expanding and small herds. Animals in expanding herds calved for the first time at a younger age, had a shorter calving

  9. Dairy Herd Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

    This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

  10. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  11. Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. by dairy cows on farm and at cull cow markets.

    PubMed

    Wells, S J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Dargatz, D A; Ferris, K; Green, A

    2001-01-01

    As part of a national study of the U.S. dairy cow population, fecal samples were collected from representative cows on 91 dairies and 97 cull dairy cow markets in 19 states. Salmonella spp. were recovered from 5.4% of milk cows, 18.1% of milk cows expected to be culled within 7 days, and 14.9% of culled dairy cows at markets. On a premise basis, Salmonella shedding in milk cows was detected on 21.1% of dairies and 66% of cull dairy cow markets. The percentage of herds with at least one cow with detectable Salmonella fecal shedding was higher during the sampling period from May through July, in herds with at least 100 milk cows, and in herds in the South region. The most common Salmonella serogroups isolated were E (30.8% of isolates) and C1 (28.6%); the most common serotypes isolated were Salmonella Montevideo (21.5% of isolates), Salmonella Cerro (13.3%), and Salmonella Kentucky (8.5%). Fecal shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Typhimurium var. copenhagen was infrequent (2.8% of isolates). Most isolates (88.9%) were susceptible to all 17 antimicrobials evaluated; multiple resistance was an infrequent occurrence. This study provides information describing the distribution of Salmonella fecal shedding from dairy cows on farm and at markets and will serve as a baseline for future studies.

  12. Managing the dairy cow at calving time.

    PubMed

    Mee, John F

    2004-11-01

    Managing the dairy cow at calving, unlike artificial insemination or transrectal ultrasonography, is often perceived as an unskilled task, not requiring specialist training. This article presents the argument for the financial and welfare costs associated with poor periparturient management, and how to address them by veterinarian-led education and upskilling of herd personnel. Successful management of the dairy cow at calving will result in the birth of a healthy calf and a smooth transition of the cow into the milking string with minimal calving problems and their sequelae. The tenets of good calving management are predicting accurately when calving is due, moving cows to the maternity unit on time, discrete calving supervision, knowing when and how to intervene, and ensuring the calf is vigorous and fed colostrum and the cow is healthy postpartum. PMID:15471623

  13. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (p<0.01). Keeping cows in only one group in the dry period increased the odds of having a high incidence herd eightfold (p=0.03). Herd size was confounded with housing system. Housing system was therefore added to the final logistic regression model. In conclusion, a large herd size, a high maximum daily milk yield, keeping dry cows in one group, and not cleaning the feeding platform daily appear to be important risk factors for a high incidence of DA or clinical ketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early

  14. Improving the time efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare in a population.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    Animal-based welfare assessment is time consuming and expensive. A promising strategy for improving the efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare is to first estimate levels of welfare in herds based on data that are more easily obtained. Our aims were to evaluate the potential of herd housing and management data for estimating the level of welfare in dairy herds, and to estimate the associated reduction in the number of farm visits required for identification of herds with poorer welfare in a population. Seven trained observers collected data on 6 animal-based welfare indicators in a selected sample of 181 loose-housed Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22 to 211 cows). Severely lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, cows with a dirty hindquarter, and very lean cows were counted, and avoidance distance was assessed for a sample of cows. Occurrence of displacements (social behavior) was recorded in the whole barn during 120 min of observation. For the same herds, data regarding cattle housing and management were collected on farms, and data relating to demography, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from national databases. A herd was classified as having poorer welfare when it belonged to the 25% worst-scoring herds. We used variables of herd housing and management data as potential predictors for individual animal-based welfare indicators in logistic regressions at the herd level. Prediction was less accurate for the avoidance distance index [area under the curve (AUC)=0.69], and moderately accurate for prevalence of severely lame cows (AUC=0.83), prevalence of cows with lesions or swellings (AUC=0.81), prevalence of cows with a dirty hindquarter (AUC=0.74), prevalence of very lean cows (AUC=0.83), and frequency of displacements (AUC=0.72). We compared the number of farm visits required for identifying herds with poorer welfare in a population for a risk-based screening with predictions based on herd housing

  15. An investigation of risk factors for nocardial mastitis in central Alberta dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Ollis, Gerald W.; Schoonderwoerd, Matthew; Schipper, Casey

    1991-01-01

    A case-control study was undertaken during the summer of 1989 in central Alberta dairy herds to identify independent predictors of nocardial mastitis. Thirty-seven herds with nocardial mastitis were matched with control herds based on herd size, milk production, and enrolment in Alberta Dairy Herd Improvement Services. Control herds were considered free of nocardial mastitis based on negative cultures of four weekly bulk tank milk samples and one composite milk sample collected during the same period from each lactating cow in the herd. A detailed questionnaire on herd management was completed during farm visits. The use of blanket dry cow therapy was not found to be a risk factor for nocardial mastitis. Dry cow therapy with intramammary products containing neomycin and the use of multidose vials of dry cow medications were the only predisposing factors identified as being significantly associated with nocardial mastitis in central Alberta dairy herds. Use of neomycin as a dry cow therapy increased the odds of nocardial mastitis occurring in these dairy herds by 169 times. PMID:17423768

  16. Dietary abomasal impaction in a herd of dairy replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, K J

    1991-04-15

    An episode of dietary abomasal impaction in a herd of dairy replacement heifers was found to be caused by excess almond shells in the ration. Clinical signs and necropsy findings led to the diagnosis. Removal of the almond shells and increasing the energy and digestibility of the ration corrected the problem. Factors contributing to the dietary impactions included advanced stages of pregnancy, high energy demands of growing heifers, and cold weather. Dietary abomasal impactions are not common in dairy cattle because of the high-quality ration a dairy cow generally receives. Replacement heifers in advanced stages of pregnancy have nutritional requirements similar to those of dairy cows, yet are often nutritionally neglected. The clinical findings in this report may help make veterinarians aware of the possibility of dietary abomasal impactions in dairy replacement heifers fed low-quality feeds.

  17. Management practices on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R; Wolff, L J; Michels, L; Schroth, S; Kelton, D F; Heins, B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare husbandry practices on organic and conventional dairy farms of similar sizes in Minnesota. Organic (ORG, n=35), same-sized conventional (SC, n=15, <200 cows) and medium-sized conventional (MC, n=13, ≥200 cows) dairy herds were visited in 2012, and farmers were interviewed once about their farm, herd demographics, and herd management practices concerning nutrition, housing, and reproductive programs. Organic farms had been established as long as conventional farms, and ORG producers had most commonly selected ORG farming because of a negative perception of pesticides for human health. The distribution of cattle breeds and ages differed across farm types. Organic farms had more crossbred cows and a greater number of older cows than conventional farms, who had mainly Holstein cattle. Organic farms did not dock tails, were more likely to use breeding bulls, and were less likely to conduct pregnancy diagnoses in cattle. All conventional farmers fed corn, corn silage, and hay, but no forage or feed supplement was fed by all ORG farms with the exception of pasture. Kelp was supplemented on most ORG farms but on none of the conventional farms. In summary, although there were differences across farm types regarding the use of pasture, feeds, and feed additives, breed and age distribution, reproductive management, and the use of tail docking, observations in other management areas showed large overlap across herd types. PMID:26830734

  18. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  19. Metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles in cows from herds with high or low mastitis incidence.

    PubMed

    Holtenius, K; Persson Waller, K; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Holtenius, P; Hallén Sandgren, C

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles between cows in herds with high or low yearly mastitis incidence. In this study, 271 cows from 20 high yielding dairy herds were examined. According to the selection criteria, all herds had low somatic cell counts. Ten of the selected herds represented low mastitis treatment incidence (LMI) and ten herds had high mastitis treatment incidence (HMI). The farms were visited once and blood samples were taken from each cow that was in the interval from three weeks before to 15 weeks after parturition. The eosinophil count was significantly lower among cows from the HMI herds in the period from four weeks to 15 weeks after parturition. The plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin and urea did not differ between groups, but the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was significantly higher among HMI cows during the period three weeks after parturition. The concentration of the amino acid tryptophan in plasma was significantly lower among the HMI cows prior to parturition. Glutamine was significantly lower in cows from HMI herds during the first three weeks after parturition. Arginine was consistently lower in HMI cows, although the decrease was only significant during the period from four to fifteen weeks after parturition. The results suggest that there were differences in the metabolism and immune status between herds with high or low yearly mastitis treatment incidence indicating an increased metabolic stress in HMI cows.

  20. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  1. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  2. Associations between nondietary factors and dairy herd performance.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Valls, N; Solans, A; Torrent, T

    2008-08-01

    Forty-seven dairy herds (approximately 3,129 lactating cows) from northeast of Spain that were offering exactly the same lactating ration were surveyed to determine the effect of nondietary factors on herd performance. The survey collected information on the profile of the owners (their future intentions, the number of workers, and time devoted to the enterprise), information regarding the animals (reproductive performance, incidence of pathology, culling rate, etc.), information on the facilities (number of feeders, waters, stalls, cleanliness, etc.) and information on management practices (numbers of daily milkings, feed deliveries, feed push-ups, cleaning frequency, etc.). In addition, the chemical quality of drinking water from each dairy enterprise was determined. Also, amount of feed delivered to each herd, daily total milk production, and milk quality were obtained for each herd for a period of 8 mo before the fulfillment of the survey. Mortality rate of calves tended to be lesser in herds that weaned progressively than in those that weaned abruptly. Age at first calving was negatively correlated with level of milk production (mainly due to the type of heifer rearing system used). Culling rate tended to be lower in herds that used a close-up ration than in those that did not. Using gloves and paper towels (instead of cloth towels) tended to reduce the somatic cell count in milk. Concentration of calcium in the drinking water tended to be negatively correlated with the number of days open and with the proportion of cows culled due to infertility problems. Despite that the 47 herds fed the same ration and shared a similar genetic base, average milk production per cow ranged from 20.6 to 33.8 kg/d. A positive relationship (r = 0.57) between the number of stalls per cow and milk production was found. The most important nondietary factors that affected milk production in these dairy herds were age at first calving, presence or absence of feed refusals, number of

  3. Identifying risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, S; Rabiee, A R; Gunn, A; House, J K

    2016-09-01

    Lameness is a significant welfare concern for dairy farmers and a major contributing economic loss to the dairy industry. Information is limited on environmental and managerial risk factors associated with lameness in Australian dairy herds. The objective of this study was to explore and quantify the environmental and management risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 pasture-based dairy herds between 2011 and 2014, where all lactating cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-4) during a single visit. Environmental and management variables, such as length of main track and animal handling practices, were recorded during the visit. The prevalence of lameness was measured for each farm and associated risk factors were analyzed using a Generalized Linear Model, where farm was the unit of analysis. Estimated average prevalence of lameness was 18.9% (range 5 to 44.5%). The prevalence of lameness was associated with the amount of rainfall during the 30 d before the farm assessment, smoothness of concrete surface and available space per cow in the holding yard, and length of feed-pad available per cow. Inappropriate handling of cows on the track (e.g., causing sideways pushing among cows) was also a contributing risk factor to high prevalence of lameness in these dairy herds. The findings of this study suggest that by managing several environmental and farming practices, producers can reduce the prevalence of lameness, leading to improved productivity of their herds. PMID:27394954

  4. Identifying risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, S; Rabiee, A R; Gunn, A; House, J K

    2016-09-01

    Lameness is a significant welfare concern for dairy farmers and a major contributing economic loss to the dairy industry. Information is limited on environmental and managerial risk factors associated with lameness in Australian dairy herds. The objective of this study was to explore and quantify the environmental and management risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 pasture-based dairy herds between 2011 and 2014, where all lactating cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-4) during a single visit. Environmental and management variables, such as length of main track and animal handling practices, were recorded during the visit. The prevalence of lameness was measured for each farm and associated risk factors were analyzed using a Generalized Linear Model, where farm was the unit of analysis. Estimated average prevalence of lameness was 18.9% (range 5 to 44.5%). The prevalence of lameness was associated with the amount of rainfall during the 30 d before the farm assessment, smoothness of concrete surface and available space per cow in the holding yard, and length of feed-pad available per cow. Inappropriate handling of cows on the track (e.g., causing sideways pushing among cows) was also a contributing risk factor to high prevalence of lameness in these dairy herds. The findings of this study suggest that by managing several environmental and farming practices, producers can reduce the prevalence of lameness, leading to improved productivity of their herds.

  5. Factors associated with frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement test plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) testing was summarized for cows with lactations completed from 2001 through 2009. Reported abortions were 1.3% for 8.5 million DHI lactations of cows with recorded breeding dates and that were >151 d pregnant at lactation terminati...

  6. Economic and environmental feasibility of a perennial cow dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Zartman, D L; Crandall, K L

    2005-08-01

    More efficient and economical production systems are needed to improve the sustainability of dairy farms. One concept to consider is using perennial cows. Perennial cows are those that maintain a relatively high milk production for >or=2 yr without going through the typical dry period followed by calving. Farm records show that some cows have produced over 20 kg/d after 4 yr of continuous lactation. A farm simulation model was used to evaluate the long-term performance, environmental impact, and economics of a conceptual perennial cow production system on a typical dairy farm in Pennsylvania. Compared with a traditional 100-cow farm with replacement heifers produced on the farm, a perennial herd of 100 cows and purchased replacements provided environmental benefit but sustained a substantial economic loss. However, increasing the perennial herd to 128 cows better utilized the feed produced on the farm. Compared with the traditional 100-cow farm, use of the perennial 128-cow herd reduced supplemental protein and mineral feed purchases by 38%, increased annual milk sales by 21%, reduced nitrogen losses by 17%, maintained a phosphorus balance, and increased annual net return to farm management by 3200 dollars. A traditional 120-cow dairy farm with purchased replacements also used a similar amount of farm-produced feed. Compared with this option, the farm with 128 perennial cows reduced protein and mineral feed purchases by 36%, maintained similar annual milk sales, increased manure production by 7%, reduced N losses by 10%, and increased annual net return by 12,700 dollars. The economic feasibility of the perennial-cow dairy farm was very sensitive to the milk production maintained by the perennial herd and market prices for milk and perennial replacement animals. The analysis was relatively insensitive to the assumed useful life of perennial cows as long as they could be maintained in the herd for at least 3 yr. Thus, a perennial cow production system can improve the

  7. Vaccination using phase I vaccine is effective to control Coxiella burnetii shedding in infected dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Taurel, Anne-Frieda; Guatteo, Raphaël; Lehebel, Anne; Joly, Alain; Beaudeau, François

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of the vaccination of dairy cows combined or not with antibiotics (i.e. oxytetracycline) to control Coxiella burnetii (Cb) shedding at herd level was investigated in 77 Q fever clinically affected herds. In addition to nulliparous heifers' vaccination, one out of the four following medical strategies was randomly assigned to dairy cows in each herd: vaccination (using a phase I vaccine) alone, vaccination combined with oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline alone or nothing. Their effectiveness to reduce Cb load in quarterly samples of bulk tank milk (BTM) and of pooled milk of primiparous (MP) was assessed through logistic hierarchical models. A significant reduction in Cb load was observed in herds where the vaccination of ≥80% of dairy cows was implemented; whereas the use of antibiotics was uneffective. Our findings support the interest of a whole vaccination strategy and provide evidence for decreasing the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle herds.

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with low within-herd prevalence of intra-mammary infections in dairy cows: Genotyping of isolates.

    PubMed

    Luini, M; Cremonesi, P; Magro, G; Bianchini, V; Minozzi, G; Castiglioni, B; Piccinini, R

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common mastitis-causing pathogens worldwide. In the last decade, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA) infections have been described in several species, included the bovines. Hence, this paper investigates the diffusion of MRSA within Italian dairy herds; the strains were further characterized using a DNA microarray, which detects 330 different sequences, including the methicillin-resistance genes mecA and mecC and SCCmec typing. The analysis of overall patterns allows the assignment to Clonal Complexes (CC). Overall 163 S. aureus isolates, collected from quarter milk samples in 61 herds, were tested. MRSA strains were further processed using spa typing. Fifteen strains (9.2%), isolated in 9 herds (14.75%), carried mecA, but none harboured mecC. MRSA detection was significantly associated (P<0.011) with a within-herd prevalence of S. aureus intra-mammary infections (IMI) ≤5%. Ten MRSA strains were assigned to CC398, the remaining ones to CC97 (n=2), CC1 (n=2) or CC8 (n=1). In 3 herds, MRSA and MSSA co-existed: CC97-MRSA with CC398-MSSA, CC1-MRSA with CC8-MSSA and CC398-MRSA with CC126-MSSA. The results of spa typing showed an overall similar profile of the strains belonging to the same CC: t127-CC1, t1730-CC97, t899 in 8 out of 10 CC398. In the remaining 2 isolates a new spa type, t14644, was identified. The single CC8 was a t3092. The SCCmec cassettes were classified as type IV, type V or type IV/V composite. All or most strains harboured the genes encoding the β-lactamase operon and the tetracycline resistance. Streptogramin resistance gene was related to CC398. Enterotoxin and leukocidin genes were carried only by CC1, CC8 and CC97-MRSA. The persistence of MRSA clones characterized by broader host range, in epidemiologically unrelated areas and in dairy herds with low prevalence of S. aureus IMI, might enhance the risk for adaptation to human species.

  9. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, E; Ostergaard, S; Krogh, M A; Enevoldsen, C

    2008-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer or the consultant, and they were derived from expected cause-effect relations between technical performance and financial performance at the herd level. The study included the indicators shape of lactation curve, reproduction efficiency, heifer management, variation between cows in lactation curve persistency, mortality in cows and calves, dynamics of body condition, and somatic cell counts. Each indicator was defined by 2 or 3 levels, and 2- and 3-factor interactions were included in the simulation experiment, which included 72 scenarios. Each scenario was replicated 200 times, and the resulting gross margin per cow was analyzed as the measure of financial performance. The potential effects of the selected indicators on the gross margin were estimated by means of an ANOVA. The final model allowed estimation of the financial value of specific changes within the key performance indicators. This study indicated that improving the shape of the herd-level lactation curve by 1 quartile was associated with an increase in gross margin of euro 227 per cow year. This represents 53% of the additional available gross margin associated with all the management changes included in the study. The improved herd-level lactation curve increased the gross margin 2.6 times more than improved reproduction efficiency, which again increased the gross margin 2.6 to 5.9 times more than improved management related to heifers, body condition score, mortality, and somatic cell counts. These results were implemented in a simple "metamodel" that used data extracted from ordinary management software to predict herd-specific financial performance related to major management changes. The metamodel was derived from

  10. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of

  11. Case study of copper poisoning in a British dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Bidewell, C A; Drew, J R; Payne, J H; Sayers, A R; Higgins, R J; Livesey, C T

    2012-05-01

    Following the initial diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning (CCP), the copper (Cu) status of a British dairy herd was investigated. Eight fatal cases of CCP were identified over a 17-month period, from December 1999 to May 2001, involving seven Jersey cows and one Holstein-Friesian; seven cows were dry when CCP occurred. Case diagnostic criteria were necrotising hepatopathy associated with abnormally high liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Analysis of the ration for the high-yielding Jersey cow group revealed about 50 mg Cu/kg dry matter intake (DMI). Risk factors predisposing to fatal CCP were Jersey breed, previous high yield, first two weeks of the dry period and moderately high dietary Cu (greater than 40 mg Cu/kg DMI). PMID:22562897

  12. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  13. Johne's disease: reliability of environmental sampling to characterize Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in beef cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, W; Einax, E; Pützschel, R; Schmidt, M; Donat, K

    2016-08-01

    Environmental samples are considered to be a cost-effective method of identifying Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive dairy herds, but evidence for beef cow-calf herds is weak. This study aims at evaluating this approach in a total of 20 German herds that were characterized by individual faecal samples (n = 2545) of all cows. For 14 MAP-positive herds having at least one MAP-positive animal, the within-herd prevalence was calculated from concurrent individual faecal culture-based testing. Six herds certified as 'MAP free' based on the negative results of previous years served as MAP-negative controls. On average, six environmental samples were taken at the end of winter from areas with high cow traffic and tested for MAP by faecal culture. According to the environmental samples, nine (64·3%) out of the 14 MAP-positive cow-calf herds were infected. The percentage of positive environmental samples and the apparent within-herd prevalence (Spearman's P = 0·73, P < 0·001) as well as the herd-level test results (positive and negative) and the herd's status based on individual testing (Fisher's exact test, P = 0·014) showed a positive association. Considering limitations in low-prevalence herds, MAP-positive beef cow-calf herds are detectable by environmental samples in temperate climate zones.

  14. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

    PubMed

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged. PMID:26233443

  15. Campylobacter jejuni in dairy cows and raw milk.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, T. J.; Beckett, P.

    1987-01-01

    Twelve herds of dairy cows were examined by rectal swabbing for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni. Ten herds were positive with the incidence of colonized animals ranging from 10 to 72% of those tested. With the exception of the two negative herds where mains water only was consumed, all animals drank from rivers or streams when grazing. There was no relationship between total and coliform counts and the presence of C. jejuni in raw milk. However, milk from one farm that consistently gave positive results had significantly higher Escherichia coli counts than other samples. PMID:3595744

  16. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  17. Relationship between dairy cow genetic merit and profit on commercial spring calving dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, G; Cromie, A R; Horan, B; Berry, D P

    2012-07-01

    Because not all animal factors influencing profitability can be included in total merit breeding indices for profitability, the association between animal total merit index and true profitability, taking cognisance of all factors associated with costs and revenues, is generally not known. One method to estimate such associations is at the herd level, associating herd average genetic merit with herd profitability. The objective of this study was to primarily relate herd average genetic merit for a range of traits, including the Irish total merit index, with indicators of performance, including profitability, using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Physical, genetic and financial performance data from 1131 Irish seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farms were available following edits; data on some herds were available for more than 1 year of the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Herd average economic breeding index (EBI) was associated with reduced herd average phenotypic milk yield but with greater milk composition, resulting in higher milk prices. Moderate positive correlations (0.26 to 0.61) existed between genetic merit for an individual trait and average herd performance for that trait (e.g. genetic merit for milk yield and average per cow milk yield). Following adjustment for year, stocking rate, herd size and quantity of purchased feed in the multiple regression analysis, average herd EBI was positively and linearly associated with net margin per cow and per litre as well as gross revenue output per cow and per litre. The change in net margin per cow per unit change in the total merit index was €1.94 (s.e. = 0.42), which was not different from the expectation of €2. This study, based on a large data set of commercial herds with accurate information on profitability and genetic merit, confirms that, after accounting for confounding factors, the change in herd profitability per unit change in herd genetic merit for the total merit index is

  18. Modeling milk urea of Walloon dairy cows in management perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Laloux, L; Gillon, A; Miglior, F; Soyeurt, H; Hammami, H; Bertozzi, C; Gengler, N

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an adapted random regression test-day model for milk urea (MU) and to study the possibility of using predictions and solutions given by the model for management purposes. Data included 607,416 MU test-day records of first-lactation cows from 632 dairy herds in the Walloon Region of Belgium. Several advanced features were used. First, to detect the herd influence, the classical herd x test-day effect was split into 3 new effects: a fixed herd x year effect, a fixed herd x month-period effect, and a random herd test-day effect. A fixed time period regression was added in the model to take into account the yearly oscillations of MU on a population scale. Moreover, first autoregressive processes were introduced and allowed us to consider the link between successive test-day records. The variance component estimation indicated that large variance was associated with the random herd x test-day effect (48% of the total variance), suggesting the strong influence of herd management on the MU level. The heritability estimate was 0.13. By comparing observed and predicted MU levels at both the individual and herd levels, target ranges for MU concentrations were defined to take into account features of each cow and each herd. At the cow level, an MU record was considered as deviant if it was <200 or >400 mg/L (target range used in the field) and if the prediction error was >50 mg/L (indicating a significant deviation from the expected level). Approximately 7.5% of the MU records collected between June 2007 and May 2008 were beyond these thresholds. This combination allowed for the detection of potentially suspicious cows. At the herd level, the expected MU level was considered as the sum of the solutions for specific herd effects. A herd was considered as deviant from its target range when the prediction error was greater than the standard deviation of MU averaged by herd test day. Results showed that 6.7% of the herd test-day MU levels

  19. Herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Sławomir J; Czopowicz, Michał; Weber, Corinna N; Müller, Elisabeth; Witkowski, Lucjan; Kaba, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    A serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern Poland. Ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of Poland (Podlaskie, 47 herds and Łodzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. A simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (≥18 month-old). A total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with a commercial competitive ELISA (Bio-X Diagnostics, Belgium). To calculate true herd-level seroprevalence test sensitivity and specificity were adjusted from an individual- to a herd-level using FreeCalc method. The true overall herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was 56.7% (95% CI: 47.5%, 65.9%). The true herd-level seroprevalence in Podlaskie was 63.3% (95% CI: 43.0%, 83.6%) and 50.5% (95% CI: 32.8%, 68.2%) in Łodzkie province and these figures did not differ significantly between the two provinces (chi2 test p = 0.238). One hundred forty three of 734 cows (19.5%) were seropositive which gave the true overall individual-level seroprevalence of 20.1% (95% CI: 17.4%, 23.2%). Percentage of seropositive cows in each herd varied from 6% to 80%. This study is the first epidemiological investigation of herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in Polish dairy cattle population. In conclusion, the result of the study confirmed previous data that N. caninum infection is widespread in the Polish cattle population and thus should be considered as a potential cause of spontaneous abortions.

  20. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  1. Does milk yield reflect the level of welfare in dairy herds?

    PubMed

    Coignard, Maud; Guatteo, Raphaël; Veissier, Isabelle; Lehébel, Anne; Hoogveld, Charlotte; Mounier, Luc; Bareille, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Under the assumption that milk yield may be reduced in herds with impaired welfare, the present study aimed at investigating whether milk yield could be used as a reliable indicator of welfare. In 125 commercial French dairy herds, the association between the welfare of the herd (evaluated using the Welfare Quality assessment protocol) and cow milk yield was investigated using linear mixed models. Positive associations were identified between milk yield and low aggressions between cows and good emotional state of the herd but there was a negative association with good health assessed through the occurrence of diseases and injuries. These opposite associations resulted in no association with the overall welfare of the herd. Milk yield should not therefore be used as an indicator of overall welfare.

  2. Copper poisoning in a dairy herd fed a mineral supplement

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Charles H.

    1993-01-01

    Copper poisoning in a dairy herd resulted in the death of 9 of 63 (14%) adult Holstein cows. Clinical signs were acute anorexia, weakness, mental dullness, poor pupillary light reflexes, and scant nasal discharge. These were followed by recumbency, chocolate-colored blood, jaundice, and death. Four animals exhibited signs of hyperesthesia and/or rumen stasis prior to death. At necropsy there was generalized icterus of body tissues, with the liver appearing orange and the kidneys dark blue. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in Kupffer cells, and severe to moderate hepatocellular necrosis in all cases. Ammonium molybdate added to the ration, combined with the cessation of mineral supplementation, arrested the outbreak. These cases illustrate significant mortality, due to copper poisoning, in adult cattle fed a low-dose mineral dietary supplement for over two years. Dietary copper intake of the herd (on a dry matter basis) was 37.5 mg/kg for lactating cows and 22.6 mg/kg for dry cows. PMID:17424221

  3. Seasonal influences on conception efficiency in Minnesota dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Udomprasert, P; Williamson, N B

    1987-09-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of climatological factors on the conception efficiency of cows in 23 Minnesota dairy herds between March 1982 and March 1985. It was found that year of insemination (P < 0.005), herd (P < 0.005), linear and quadratic terms of days open (P < 0.05), and linear and quadratic terms of minimum temperature (MNT), maximum temperature (MXT) and temperature humidity index (THI) were similarly related to observed monthly variations in first service conception rates. The year of insemination (P < 0.005), herd (P < 0.005), and linear and quadratic terms of MNT, MXT and THI were also related to the variation in overall conception rate. Conception rate declined from April to August and increased from August to January. There was an 11% difference between the month of lowest fertility (August) and the month of highest fertility (November). It can be concluded that climatological factors appear to depress herd fertility in the northern United States as well as in the warmer southern areas. Thus, consideration should be given to strategies which will minimize the impact of the observed fertility depression due to these climatic factors.

  4. Monensin might protect Ontario, Canada dairy cows from paratuberculosis milk-ELISA positivity.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Steven H; Duffield, Todd F; Leslie, Ken E; Lissemore, Kerry D; Archambault, Marie; Bagg, Randy; Dick, Paul; Kelton, David F

    2006-10-17

    Our objective was to define the role of monensin sodium in protecting cows from being milk-ELISA positive for paratuberculosis in Ontario, Canada dairy herds. In total, 4933 dairy cows from 94 herds were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Forty-four of the enrolled herds were selected purposively by their herd veterinarian and another 50 herds were randomly selected from a local milk production-recording agency. A herd-management survey was completed on each farm during the months of May through August 2003. During this same time-period, composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows and tested with a milk-ELISA for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Analyses were stratified according to the paratuberculosis history of the herds. In the 48 herds in which paratuberculosis had not been diagnosed before, the use of calf hutches and monensin in milking cows were both associated with reduced odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.19 and 0.21, respectively). In the 46 herds with a prior history of paratuberculosis, feeding monensin to the breeding-age heifers was associated with decreased odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.54). Monensin use might be associated with milk-ELISA positivity, but its impact on the transmission of paratuberculosis remains unknown.

  5. Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2014-02-01

    Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a

  6. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin

  7. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen.

  9. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. PMID:26854346

  10. Short communication: Bulk milk somatic cell penalties in herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81).

  11. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  12. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine corona virus (BCV) affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001) bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01) of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great importance and that herds can

  13. An estimation of the clinical mastitis incidence per 100 cows per year based on routinely collected herd data.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it was possible to (1) estimate the clinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI) for all Dutch dairy herds and (2) to detect farms with a high CMI based on routinely collected herd data. For this study, 240 dairy farms with a conventional milking system that participated in the milk recording program every 4 to 6 wk were randomly selected and agreed to participate. From the initial 240 herds, data of clinical mastitis (CM) registrations and routinely collected herd data of 227 herds were complete and could be used for analysis. Routinely collected herd data consisted of identification and registration records, antimicrobial usage, test-day records from the milk recording program, bulk tank milk (BTM) somatic cell count data and results of diagnostic tests on BTM samples. For each of the 227 herds, the CMI per 100 cows per year was calculated per quarter of the year and was combined with the available herd data. Two models were developed to predict the CMI for all dairy herds and to detect individual herds that belonged to the 25% herds with the highest CMI. Records of 156 (67%) herds were used for development of the models and the remaining 71 (33%) were used for validation. The model that estimated the CMI in all herds consisted of 11 explanatory variables. The observed and predicted averages of the validation herds were not significantly different. The model estimated a CMI per 100 cows per year of 32.5 cases (95% confidence interval=30.2-34.8), whereas the farmers registered 33.4 cases (95% confidence interval=29.5-37.4). The model that aimed at detecting individual herds with a high CMI contained 6 explanatory variables and could correctly classify 77% of all validation herds at the quarter-year level. The most important variables in the model were antibiotic usage for treating CM and BTM somatic cell count. In conclusion, models based on routinely collected herd data gave an accurate prediction of CMI for all Dutch dairy

  14. Genetic evaluation of dairy cow livability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for cow livability (LIV) were developed to measure a cow's ability to stay alive while on the farm, whereas PTA for productive life (PL) measures a cow's ability to avoid either dying on the farm or being culled. About 20% of dairy cows die instead of being sol...

  15. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  16. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  17. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  18. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving. PMID:21851656

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Davies, P L; Leigh, J A; Bradley, A J; Archer, S C; Emes, R D; Green, M J

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds: Strain Heterogeneity and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J. A.; Bradley, A. J.; Archer, S. C.; Emes, R. D.; Green, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing was successfully completed on 494 isolates of Streptococcus uberis from clinical mastitis cases in a study of 52 commercial dairy herds over a 12-month period. In total, 195 sequence types (STs) were identified. S. uberis mastitis cases that occurred in different cows within the same herd and were attributed to a common ST were classified as potential transmission events (PTEs). Clinical cases attributed to 35 of the 195 STs identified in this study were classified PTE. PTEs were identified in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases, which include the first recorded occurrence of that ST in that herd (index case) and all persistent infections with that PTE ST, represented 40% of all the clinical mastitis cases and occurred in 63% of the herds. PTE-associated cases accounted for >50% of all S. uberis clinical mastitis cases in 33% of the herds. Nine STs (ST-5, -6, -20, -22, -24, -35, -233, -361, and -512), eight of which were grouped within a clonal complex (sharing at least four alleles), were statistically overrepresented (OVR STs). The findings indicate that 38% of all clinical mastitis cases and 63% of the PTEs attributed to S. uberis in dairy herds may be caused by the nine most prevalent strains. The findings suggest that a small subset of STs is disproportionally important in the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in the United Kingdom, with cow-to-cow transmission of S. uberis potentially occurring in the majority of herds in the United Kingdom, and may be the most important route of infection in many herds. PMID:26491180

  1. Stockpersons' attitudes to the husbandry of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, M F; Wilkinson, J M

    2000-08-01

    The health and welfare of dairy cows are dependent upon the stockpersons who handle, observe and monitor them. The attitudes and behaviour of these people have been little studied, although they are fundamental for the animals' well-being and performance. The results of a series of standardised interviews with 238 dairy stockpersons are discussed. Milking was considered both the most important and the most enjoyed task, and the most disliked task was cleaning the parlour and yards. These attitudes can affect the health of the herd. The stockpersons valued their interaction with animals; 'a special event involving the cows' was frequently mentioned as the component of a 'good' day, and a 'bad event involving the cows' was almost unanimously the factor associated with a 'bad' day. PMID:10975331

  2. Environmental reservoirs for Serratia marcescens intramammary infections in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, M I; Fox, L K; Gaskins, C T; Gay, J M

    1996-02-15

    Via special media, Serratia marcescens isolates were found in 3 bedding pack samples and in 2 milking parlor floor samples, and in milk samples from 19 cows during an episode of mastitis in a dairy cow herd. Chromosomal digest patterns of isolated S marcescens were indistinguishable for 18 of the milk samples and all bedding pack samples. Our findings provide strong evidence that the bedding pack was the reservoir of S marcescens associated with the outbreak of intramammary infections. Additionally, our ability to match digest patterns of isolates in the bedding pack and milk confirms the theory that S marcescens is an environmental pathogen capable of causing mastitis.

  3. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-04-05

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies.

  4. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies. PMID:27048416

  5. [Planned dairy herd health. I: General philosophy].

    PubMed

    Lourens, D C; Coubrough, R I

    1985-09-01

    A dairy herd health programme may be defined as a planned and co-ordinated approach which aims at achieving and maintaining optimal herd health, production and reproduction, the implementation of which is governed by sound economic principles. The object of this article is to present and discuss some facets of the background philosophy of the concept of herd health, and look at some of the pitfalls and shortcomings of their application in practice. In terms of production levels achieved in other developed countries, South Africa lags behind. While factors such as climate, environment, feed quality, and basic livestock potential may play a role in this difference, the single most important factor is undoubtedly the managemental approach. Modern livestock production requires a shift in emphasis of veterinary involvement towards a herd approach which promotes increased cost-effective production. The veterinarian forms part of a production team which, apart from himself, includes the farmer, farm labour and the animal scientist. The veterinarian has a key role in this endeavour. Through his basic training he is well equipped to serve as a co-ordinator of the massive flow of information being generated. To do this effectively he must be able to work with, advise and communicate with people at various levels of management as well as with the labour force. While optimal co-operation of each team member is cardinal to the success of such a programme, no progress will be made unless the farmer is convinced of the viability of the undertaking, and indeed has the managerial skills to implement any directive or recommendation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4078844

  6. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  7. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  8. Management practices associated with presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk from Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen affecting cows worldwide. Practices to control this organism have been advocated for decades, and identification of risk factors in individual herds is crucial in prevention and control of Staph. aureus. The objectives of this paper were to estimate prevalence of Staph. aureus in Ohio dairies and to determine a potential association of herd characteristics and management practices with isolation of Staph. aureus in bulk tank milk. A questionnaire about herd characteristics, milking procedures, udder health, mastitis control, and biosecurity practices was mailed to 780 dairy producers; the response rate for the survey was 49%. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence was 48, 64, and 69% when 1, 2, or 3 samples of bulk tank milk from each herd were considered, respectively. Herds practicing prestrip, pre- and postmilking teat dip, and using a single towel per cow as part of the milking routine as well as herds where owners were involved in milking were at significantly reduced odds for detection of Staph. aureus in their bulk tank milk. PMID:26686713

  9. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alvåsen, K; Jansson Mörk, M; Dohoo, I R; Sandgren, C Hallén; Thomsen, P T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-11-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on-farm cow mortality. Cows with at least one calving between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2009 from herds enrolled in the Swedish official milk recording scheme with >40 cow-years were included. Each cow was followed from the day of calving until she calved again or left the herd (died, slaughtered or sold). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow was slaughtered, sold, calved again or had an on-going lactation at 500 days after calving. The lactations were split into seasons (January to April, May to August and September to December) and at 30 and 100 days in milk in order to evaluate seasonal effects and the effect of disease in different lactation stages. Primiparous and multiparous cows were analysed separately. The highest hazards for both primiparous and multiparous cows were found for traumatic events and diseases, both in the lactation stage in which the cow died and in the preceding stage. The hazard was higher in early lactation and lower in 2nd parity compared to higher parities. Increased age at first calving (for primiparous cows), calving between January and April, dystocia and stillbirth also increased the mortality hazard. Differences were also found between breeds, between milk production parameters at first test milking and between management types. The results from this study show the importance of good management and preventive health actions, especially around calving, to avoid mortality in dairy cows.

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required.

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  12. Determining the optimum replacement policy for Holstein dairy herds in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, A S; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H; Moradi, M; Sanders, A H; De Vries, A

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum replacement policy for Holstein dairy herds in Iran using a dynamic programming model. Cows were described in terms of state variables that included milk production class, parity, pregnancy status, and month in milk with a 1-mo stage length. The objective function maximized the net present value of cows over a 15-yr planning horizon. Markov simulation was used to estimate expected herd dynamics under the optimal decision plan determined by dynamic programming. Stochastic elements included probabilities of pregnancy and abortion, production level, and involuntary culling. The optimum annual culling rate was estimated to be 31.4%, and cows had an expected herd life (time from first calving until culling) of 3.18 yr. High replacement cost and low carcass value resulted in only 2.87% voluntary culling (i.e., optimal model-based replacement). Assuming a heat detection rate of 0.4, cows averaged 2.8 services per lactation under the optimal policy. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the effect of milk price, herd-average production, feed cost, heifer price, and carcass value on optimum replacement decisions. Herd-average production, replacement cost, and risk of involuntary culling were important factors affecting the optimal culling policy. Changes in the price of feed, calves, and milk and the probability of pregnancy had no considerable effect on the optimal policy considering the market situation in Iran during 2008.

  13. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen.

  14. Dairy cow culling strategies: making economical culling decisions.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W; Oltjen, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine important economic elements of culling decisions, to review progress in development of culling decision support systems, and to discern some of the potentially rewarding areas for future research on culling models. Culling decisions have an important influence on the economic performance of the dairy but are often made in a nonprogrammed fashion and based partly on the intuition of the decision maker. The computer technology that is available for dairy herd management has made feasible the use of economic models to support culling decisions. Financial components--including profit, cash flow, and risk--are major economic factors affecting culling decisions. Culling strategies are further influenced by short-term fluctuations in cow numbers as well as by planned herd expansion. Changes in herd size affect the opportunity cost for postponed replacement and may alter the relevance of optimization strategies that assume a fixed herd size. Improvements in model components related to biological factors affecting future cow performance, including milk production, reproductive status, and mastitis, appear to offer the greatest economic potential for enhancing culling decision support systems. The ultimate value of any culling decision support system for developing economic culling strategies will be determined by its results under field conditions.

  15. Aspects of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus herd-level seroprevalence and vaccination in dairy and beef herds in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus cause diseases of cattle with a worldwide distribution. The primary objective of the present study was to describe aspects of herd-level BoHV-1 and BVDV seroprevalence (based on testing of pooled sera) and control on farms in Northern Ireland, including vaccine usage. An indirect antibody ELISA test (SVANOVA, Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden) was applied to serum pools which were constructed from serum samples taken for a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 500 Northern Irish dairy and beef cow herds in 2010, for which vaccination status was determined by telephone survey. The herd-level seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in Northern Ireland was estimated in non-vaccinating herds and associations between possible risk factors (herd type and herd size (quartiles)) and herd-level prevalence were determined using chi-squared analysis. Results The herd-level seroprevalence (of BoHV-1 and BVDV) in non-vaccinating herds was 77.3% (95% CI: 73.6–80.9%) and 98.4% (95% CI: 97.3–99.5%) respectively in the cross-sectional study. A significant difference existed in BoHV-1 herd-level seroprevalence between dairy and beef herds (74.7% vs 86.5% respectively; p < 0.02) though not for BVDV seroprevalence (98.5% vs 98.3% respectively; p > 0.91). A significant association was found between herd size (quartiles) and herd-level classification for BoHV-1 herd-level seroprevalence based on cut-off percentage positivity (COPP) (p < 0.01) while no such association was found for BVDV (p = 0.22). 15.5% and 23.8% of farmers used BoHV-1 and BVDV vaccines, respectively. BoHV-1 vaccine was used in 30% of dairy herds and in 11% of beef herds, while BVDV vaccine was used in 46% and 16% of dairy and beef herds, respectively. Conclusions The results from this study indicate that the true herd-level seroprevalences to bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine virus diarrhoea virus in non

  16. Risk factors for the occurrence of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, L L; Thaler Neto, A; Souza, G N; Picinin, L C A; Felipus, N C; Reche, N L M; Schmidt, F A; Werncke, D; Simon, E E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the risk factors for new and chronic subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) using the monthly somatic cells count of dairy cows. The study took place at 30 dairy herds with approximately 1,700 cows in lactation. Data characterizing the dairy farms and their milking management were obtained from a survey questionnaire. The somatic cells count values from 2 consecutive months were used to classify cows as either healthy or with new or chronic infections. A chi-squared test was used in the analysis of subclinical IMI to evaluate associations between each independent variable, followed by logistic regression to estimate the risk of a new infection in healthy cows and of chronic infection in cows with new infections. Factors increasing the odds ratio of a cow developing a new case of subclinical mastitis were (1) cows with more than 3 lactations, (2) cows with a mean hyperkeratosis score above 3, (3) cows with the udder below the hock, (4) cows with very dirty udders, and (5) milking of infected animals before healthy cows. Factors increasing the risk of a subclinical chronic infection compared with new cases of subclinical mastitis were (1) a lack of regular maintenance of milking machinery, (2) cows over 100 d in lactation, and (3) cows with the udder on or below the hock. The risk factors identified in this study can be used in IMI control programs to reduce the frequency of new and chronic cases of subclinical mastitis.

  17. Serological study of bovine herpes virus type 1 in dairy herds of Hamedan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Aliasghar; Gharekhani, Jamal; Zandieh, Masoumeh; Sadeghi-Nasab, Ali; Akbarein, Hesameddin; Karimi-Makhsous, Ahmad; Yavari, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling design was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) in non-vaccinated dairy herds in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Simple random sampling was used for selection of cattle in each herd. Informative data about each herd and selected animals were recorded by the farm manager in a provided questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from 492 animals in 41 industrial herds. A commercial indirect ELISA test was used to determine the seropositivity against BHV-1. The individual and herd seroprevalence for BHV-1 were 58.74% and 82.93%, respectively. The intra-herd prevalences were ranged from 16.70% to 100%. Geographical characteristics of Hamedan province may explain the high sero-prevalence rates found in this study compared to those of others obtained from different parts of the country. The proportion of seropositive cows were increased with age (p <0.05). Animals from large and moderate sized herds had higher odds of seropositivity than those of small size herds. These findings could be related to the presence of a considerable number of BHV-1 carriers in this region. The high herd and animal prevalence found in the present study suggested necessity of implementing an intensive control program for reducing BHV-1 infection rates.

  18. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (P<0.01) to use pooled colostrum supplies, while smaller herds were more likely (P<0.05) to allow the calf to suckle the dam. The majority (86%) of respondents had stored supplies of colostrum; average-sized herds had the greatest likelihood of storing colostrum (P<0.05), compared to other herd sizes; larger sized herds had a lesser likelihood (P<0.05) of storing colostrum in a freezer, compared to other herd sizes. Although freezing colostrum was the most common method used to store colostrum (54% of respondents), 17% of respondents stored colostrum at room temperature, 29% of which stored it at room temperature for greater than 4 days. The results from the

  19. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W

    2014-07-01

    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  20. Performance and welfare of dairy cows in an alternative housing system in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Barberg, A E; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Reneau, J K

    2007-03-01

    The compost bedded pack dairy barn is an alternative housing system for lactating cows that has received increased attention in the last 2 yr. No descriptive data were available about this housing system. Therefore, a study of 12 compost dairy barns in Minnesota was conducted between late June 2005 and September 2005. The objectives of this study were to describe the housing system, identify management practices used in these herds, observe cow welfare, analyze herd performance and udder health prior to and following the change in housing system, and measure producer satisfaction with the system. Producers were interviewed on various aspects related to the housing system and herd management, samples of milk were collected, and cows were scored for locomotion, body condition, hygiene, and hock lesions. In addition, historical bulk tank information and Dairy Herd Improvement Association data were collected when available. At the time of the visit, the Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) was 325,000 +/- 172,000 cells/mL, rolling herd average was 10,457 +/- 1,138 kg per cow, and herd size was 73 +/- 35.5 lactating cows. The body condition score was 3.04 +/- 0.11, the cow hygiene score was 2.66 +/- 0.19, and 7.8% of all cows were clinically lame (locomotion score > or = 3 on a 1 to 5 scale). No hock lesions were present on 74.9% of the cows; 24.1% of cows had a mild lesion (hair loss), and 1.0% had a severe lesion (swollen hock). Historical analysis of the bulk tank SCC showed that 3 out of the 7 herds analyzed had a significant reduction in bulk tank SCC when compared with the previous housing system. Mastitis infection rates decreased significantly by 12% on 6 of the 9 farms analyzed. Reproductive performance significantly improved for 4 out of the 7 herds analyzed, with 25.9 and 34.5% improvement in heat detection rates and pregnancy rates, respectively. The main reasons producers reported for building this type of housing system were for

  1. Economic effects of exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus on dairy herds in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Heuer, C; Healy, A; Zerbini, C

    2007-12-01

    The economic loss to dairy farmers associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is believed to be high in New Zealand, but no estimates are yet available. The aim was therefore to estimate the economic loss associated with BVDV in dairy herds in New Zealand. Bulk tank milk (BTM) from a random sample of 590 herds from the Northland, Bay of Plenty, and Waikato regions was tested for antibody against BVDV. The inhibition percentage (sample to positive ratio), based on a threshold validated in an earlier study, was used to indicate herd-level infection. Herd reproductive indices, herd lactation-average somatic cell counts, and herd average production of milk solids were regressed on BTM inhibition percentage. Herd averages of the overall annual culling rate, the rate of culling because of failure to conceive, the proportion of physiological inter-service intervals, the first-service conception rate, the pregnancy rate at the end of mating, and somatic cell counts were not associated with BVDV antibody in BTM. Abortion rates, rates of calving induction, the time from calving to conception, and the number of services per conception increased, however, whereas milk production decreased with increasing BVDV antibody in BTM. The results indicated significant reproductive and production loss associated with the amount of BVDV antibody in BTM. Total loss attributable to infection with BVDV was similar to reports from other countries and estimated as NZ$87 per cow and year in affected herds, and NZ$44.5 million per year for the New Zealand dairy industry based on an estimated 14.6% affected herds. The loss estimate excludes added cost and negative consequences with respect to animal welfare attributable to increased induction rates, and a greater incidence of production disease because of BVD-induced immune suppression.

  2. Identifying risk factors for poor hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B H; Thomsen, P T; Sørensen, J T

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors for poor cow hind limb cleanliness in Danish loose-housed, lactating dairy cows. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of 1315 cows in 42 commercial Danish dairy herds with primarily Danish Holstein cows. The effect of four cow-level factors (parity, days in milk, daily lying time and lameness) and eight herd-level factors (herd size, milk production, milking system, floor type, access to pasture grazing, floor scraping frequency, hoof bathing frequency and hoof washing frequency) on the risk of having dirtier hind limbs were analysed using ordinal logistic regression fitting a proportional odds model. Cow hind limb cleanliness was scored using an ordinal score from 1 to 4: 1 being clean and 4 being covered in dirt. The odds ratios (ORs) estimated from the proportional odds model depict the effect of a risk factor on the odds of having a higher rather than a lower cleanliness score. First parity cows had an increased risk of being dirtier compared with third parity or older cows (OR=1.70). Compared with late lactation, early and mid lactation were associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=2.07 and 1.33, respectively). Decreasing the daily time lying by 30 min was associated with an increased risk of being dirtier (OR=1.05). Furthermore, an increased risk of being dirtier was found in herds with no pasture access (OR=3.75). PMID:22440353

  3. A necropsy-based descriptive study of dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C S; Garry, F B; Lombard, J E; Kidd, J A; Hill, A E; Gould, D H

    2009-05-01

    Increasing levels of dairy cow mortality pose a challenge to the US dairy industry. The industry's current understanding of dairy cow mortality is reliant upon descriptions largely based on producer or veterinary assumptions regarding cause of death without the benefit of detailed postmortem evaluations. A thorough necropsy is a superior tool for establishing a cause of death, except for cases involving euthanasia for traumatic accidents or severe locomotor disorders. Information provided from a necropsy examination would be most valuable if it were categorized and combined with cow health information in a complete postmortem evaluation designed to guide future management decisions. The objective of this study was to describe dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy over a 1-yr period and explore classification systems for necropsy findings that might inform management actions aimed at reducing dairy cow mortality. Throughout the study period a thorough necropsy examination was performed on every cow that died. Based upon this examination each death was characterized by a proximate cause (i.e., the most likely immediate cause of the death). Each proximate cause of death was then categorized using 3 alternate schemes founded on generalized etiologic principles and influenced by previous clinical history and treatments. These schemes included the broad categories commonly used for classifying findings within a review of literature related to dairy cow mortality, a diagnostic scheme used within the problem-oriented veterinary medical record, and an analysis focusing on the primary physiologic system derangement for each death. A total of 2,067 cows were enrolled during the study period of which 1,468 cows freshened, 507 cows were sold, and 94 cows died, resulting in a mortality risk of 6.4 deaths per 100 lactations at risk. The distribution of deaths by parity was significantly different from the herd distribution at the end of study with the largest percentage of death

  4. Prevalence and consequences of subacute ruminal acidosis in German dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence and the clinical consequences of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows are still poorly understood. In order to evaluate the prevalence of SARA, 26 German dairy farms were included in a field study. In each herd, between 11 and 14 lactating dairy cows were examined for their ruminal pH using rumenocentesis. Milk production data and farm management characteristics were recorded. Each farm was scored for lameness prevalence among lactating animals, and body condition score was recorded three times four to five weeks apart in all animals examined. Farms were grouped on basis of ruminal pH and compared for lameness, body condition, milk production parameters and style of management. Animals were grouped on basis of their measured ruminal pH and compared accordingly for milk production parameters and body condition score. Results Of 315 cows examined, 63 individuals (20%) exhibited a ruminal pH of ≤ 5.5 at time of rumenocentesis. Of 26 farms examined, eleven farms had three or more of their cows experiencing a ruminal pH of ≤ 5.5 and were classified as likely experiencing subacute ruminal acidosis. These farms tended to be bigger than the others and offered less lying space to the lactating cows. There was no clear tendency regarding lameness. Among individual cows, animals with a low ruminal pH of ≤ 5.5 were found to be in significantly poorer body condition than animals with higher pH values (p < 0,05). Conclusions The study shows 11 out of 26 of herds likely experiencing SARA. Bigger herds tend to be at a higher risk for SARA, while individuals with low ruminal pH tend to be lower in body condition. The study points to the importance of management in preventing SARA. PMID:23805878

  5. Variation in the interservice intervals of dairy cows in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Remnant, J G; Green, M J; Huxley, J N; Hudson, C D

    2015-02-01

    An understanding of the normal estrous-cycle length of the cow is important when managing and monitoring dairy-herd fertility. Although the normal interovulatory interval is widely considered to be 21 d, some studies have found alternative intervals to be more prevalent; previously, most of the variation in interval length was expected to be between cows. The aim of this study was to assess the time between inseminations (interservice interval, ISI) in a large number of dairy cows and to explore possible associations between cow factors and estrous-cycle length. The study used ISI data from 42,252 cows in 159 herds across England and Wales. Univariate analysis of the subset of 114,572 intervals between 15 and 30 d (a range covering the increased frequency of ISI occurring at the expected time of the first return to estrus) following an insemination revealed a modal ISI of 22d. Primiparous heifers had a modal ISI of 21 d. Significant differences existed between the distribution of ISI for different yield groups, parity numbers, and the number of inseminations. Multilevel regression modeling was used to evaluate the associations between cow factors and ISI, while accounting for clustering at the herd and cow level. This revealed significant associations between predicted ISI and insemination number, days in milk, lactation 305-d milk yield, and month and year of insemination. Variance partition coefficients indicated that only 1% of variation in ISI was at the herd level, 12% at the animal level, and 87% at the insemination level, indicating that cycle length varies substantially more between cycles within a cow than between cows or herds. These findings suggest the normal range of ISI for modern UK dairy cows is longer than expected and cycle length has a large amount of unexplained variation within individual animals over time. PMID:25529414

  6. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  7. Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes within a U.S. dairy herd, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Sonnier, Jakeitha; Schukken, Ynte H; Karns, Jeffrey S; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, is frequently isolated from the environment. Dairy cows and dairy farm environments are reservoirs of this pathogen, where fecal shedding contributes to its environmental dispersal and contamination of milk, dairy products, and meat. The molecular diversity of 40 L. monocytogenes isolates representing 3 serogroups (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) collected between 2004 and 2010 from the feces of dairy cattle on a single dairy farm was assessed using a multivirulence locus sequence typing (MVLST) assay. The dairy farm L. monocytogenes MVLST patterns were compared to those from 138 strains isolated globally from clinical cases, foods, and the environment. Results of the study demonstrated that several distantly related L. monocytogenes strains persisted among members of the herd over the course of the study while other strains were transient. Furthermore, some strains isolated during this study appear to be distantly related to previously isolated L. monocytogenes while others are closely related to Epidemic Clones associated with human illness. This work demonstrates that dairy cows can be reservoirs of a diverse population of potentially human pathogenic L. monocytogenes that represents a risk to consumers of milk, dairy products, and meat.

  8. Age-structured dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model of Salmonella Dublin infection within dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-06-01

    In the demand for a decision support tool to guide farmers wanting to control Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) in Danish dairy herds, we developed an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model of S. Dublin in dairy herds, which incorporated six age groups (neonatal, preweaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection states (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The model simulated population and infection dynamics over a period of 10 years in weekly time steps as: 1) population sizes of each of the six age-groups; 2) S. Dublin incidence and number of animals in each infection state; and 3) S. Dublin related morbidity and mortality in the acutely infected animals. The effects of introducing one infectious heifer on the risk of spread of S. Dublin within the herd and on the duration of infection were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 48 scenarios. The scenarios covered all combinations of three herd sizes (70, 200 and 400 cows), four hygiene levels indicating infectious contact parameters, and four herd susceptibility levels indicating different susceptibility parameters for the individual animals in each of the six age groups in the herd. The hygiene level was highly influential on the probability that the infection spread within the herd, duration of infection and epidemic size. The herd susceptibility level was also influential, but not likely to provide sufficient prevention and control of infection on its own. Herd size did not affect the probability of infection spread upon exposure, but the larger the herd the more important were management and housing practices that improve hygiene and reduce susceptibility to shorten durations of infection in the herd and to increase the probability of extinction. In general, disease and mortality patterns followed epidemic waves in the herds. However, an interesting pattern was seen for acute infections and

  9. Register-based predictors of violations of animal welfare legislation in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Otten, N D; Nielsen, L R; Thomsen, P T; Houe, H

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of animal welfare can include resource-based or animal-based measures. Official animal welfare inspections in Denmark primarily control compliance with animal welfare legislation based on resource measures (e.g. housing system) and usually do not regard animal response parameters (e.g. clinical and behavioural observations). Herds selected for welfare inspections are sampled by a risk-based strategy based on existing register data. The aim of the present study was to evaluate register data variables as predictors of dairy herds with violations of the animal welfare legislation (VoAWL) defined as occurrence of at least one of the two most frequently violated measures found at recent inspections in Denmark, namely (a) presence of injured animals not separated from the rest of the group and/or (b) animals in a condition warranting euthanasia still being present in the herd. A total of 25 variables were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and assessed as predictors using a multivariable logistic analysis of a data set including 73 Danish dairy herds, which all had more than 100 cows and cubicle loose-housing systems. Univariable screening was used to identify variables associated with VoAWL at a P-value<0.2 for the inclusion in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Backward selection procedures identified the following variables for the final model predictive of VoAWL: increasing standard deviation of milk yield for first lactation cows, high bulk tank somatic cell count (⩾250 000 cells/ml) and suspiciously low number of recorded veterinary treatments (⩽25 treatments/100 cow years). The identified predictors may be explained by underlying management factors leading to impaired animal welfare in the herd, such as poor hygiene, feeding and management of dry or calving cows and sick animals. However, further investigations are required for causal inferences to be established.

  10. An evaluation of parameters for the detection of subclinical rumen acidosis in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Enemark, J M D; Jørgensen, R J; Kristensen, N B

    2004-11-01

    An observational study was conducted in six Danish dairy herds. A specially designed stomach tube was compared to the rumenocentesis technique as part of the monitoring of rumen pH. In contrast to a previous study, the use of the stomach tube appeared to reduce saliva contamination. However, correlation with the rumenocentesis technique was poor ( r = 0.33; p = 0.019) and a linear model could only partly explain variations between either results. The presence of subclinical rumen acidosis (SRA) was evidenced in one herd only, as judged by results obtained by the rumenocentesis technique. The present study revealed some limitations of the rumenocentesis technique in small or medium-sized herds due to difficulties in selecting sufficient numbers of cows in the respective groups at risk. The finding of two apparently clinical normal cows with rumen pH values below 5.0 leads to the consideration that such fluctuations may be temporary and at least does not give rise to clinical symptoms. However, the long-term effect of such fluctuations is not known. In general, primiparous cows seemed more prone to low ruminal pH values (< 6.0), higher ruminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, and possibly to metabolic acidosis, than were multiparous cows. Ruminal propionate was the most precise predictor of rumen pH, whereas milk fat percentage varied greatly between lactational groups. Blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and fructosamine as well as urine phosphorus excretion and renal net acid-base excretion (NABE) were related to ruminal acid load, but were not predictive of rumen pH. Monitoring of dairy herds for SRA should be performed routinely and employ several diagnostic tools (rumenocentesis, renal NABE determination) as well as specific knowledge of herd management and feeding routines.

  11. A pathogen-specific approach towards udder health management in dairy herds: Using culture and somatic cell counts from routine herd investigations.

    PubMed

    Petzer, Inge-Marié; Karzis, Joanne; Donkin, Edward F; Webb, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated udder health diagnostic programme was developed and used over a 15-year period in South Africa to analyse milk samples based on microbiological and cytological patterns within various groups and for individual cows and udder quarters in dairy herds. These pathogen-specific analyses are utilised for pro-active improvement and management of udder health in South African commercial dairy herds. The programme acts as a monitoring tool and identifies management areas at risk and individual cows with udder disease and uses both quarter and composite milk samples. Intra-mammary infection (IMI) is a dynamic situation and depending on the time a milk sample is taken, false-negative results may be obtained. A new IMI and an infection that is curing may both have low somatic cell counts (SCCs), masking the true bacterial status. SCC in individual infected udder quarters may differ greatly depending on the causative bacterial species, its pathogenicity, the host immune status and the environmental factors involved. A pathogen-specific udder health approach was followed with repeated herd tests to take account of these udder health dynamics. The results of the herd IMI investigation are applied in practice to assist veterinarians, udder health consultants and managers to make informed and specific detailed decisions at both a herd and on an individual cow basis regarding udder health. PMID:27608503

  12. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    PubMed Central

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  13. Reproductive management practices and performance of Canadian dairy herds using automated activity-monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Neves, R C; LeBlanc, S J

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics and motivations of producers who had implemented automated activity-monitoring (AAM) systems and to compare herd reproductive performance before and after the implementation of an AAM system and between herds with AAM and herds managing reproduction based on timed artificial insemination (TAI) or based on other programs. Freestall dairy herds located in Ontario and the western provinces of Canada and enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement were surveyed through a mail questionnaire between April and July 2010. The data describe the characteristics and reproductive management practices of herds using AAM systems. A total of 505 questionnaires (29%) were returned. On average, 21-d pregnancy risk, conception risk, and 21-d insemination risk did not differ between herds managing reproduction based on an AAM system (18, 39, and 50%, respectively) or a TAI-based program (17, 38, and 49%, respectively). Herds that implemented an AAM system had a significant increase in annual pregnancy risk, from 15 to 17%, and insemination risk increased from 42 to 50%, whereas conception risk was unchanged (37 and 35%) following adoption of the system. The majority of respondents with AAM systems first used the system to manage reproduction in lactating cows. Most herds with AAM were performing artificial insemination twice per day, most commonly with an interval from the estrus alarm to artificial insemination of 7 to 12 h. The most commonly reported reason to adopt an AAM system was a desire to improve reproductive performance. These results support the findings from randomized trials that AAM-based programs can yield comparable reproductive performance to TAI-based programs.

  14. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) <165 m or (2) ≥165 m. Cover of track way was categorised as (1) prepared (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows.

  15. Postpartum uterine diseases and their impacts on conception and days open in dairy herds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Toni, F; Vincenti, L; Ricci, A; Schukken, Y H

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and the impact of postpartum uterine diseases in postpartum cows on future uterine status and reproductive performance in large Italian dairy herds. This study provides an important quantitative estimate of uterine and postpartum diseases incidence that afflict high-producing Italian dairy cows. The total number of cows included in the study was 1498 on three farms; all cows were followed from the dry period until 300 days postpartum. All farms used high-quality data collection systems and standard operating procedures: weekly herd health visits, monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association visits, and, due to cheese-making milk quality requirements, a supplementary milk sample collected at 7 ± 3 days postpartum evaluated for milk components. Clinical metritis in primiparous cows did not change the time to the first artificial insemination (AI) or days open; conversely, clinical metritis in multiparous cows had impact on the time to first AI (hazard ratio: 0.66, P < 0.01) and resulted in a lower conception rate at first insemination and a increase in days open (odds ratio: 0.64, P < 0.05). Clinical endometritis had a strong deleterious effect on first AI conception rate (odds ratio: 0.34, P < 0.05) and days open across all lactations (hazard ratio: 0.68, P < 0.05). Persistent metritis, defined as the presence of both clinical metritis and clinical endometritis in the same animal in the same lactation, caused low conception rate both in the first-lactation and in older cows and had a strong negative effect on the proportion of pregnant cows at 300 days (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the impact of endometritis on fertility was true across lactation groups. A good management and precocious diagnosis of the pathologies is not resolutive to restore good fertility parameters, and understanding the immune response in first-lactation cows may be of value for developing alternative intervention protocols for older

  16. Invited review: udder health of dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Hovinen, M; Pyörälä, S

    2011-02-01

    Automatic milking (AM) is increasing in modern dairy farming, and over 8,000 farms worldwide currently use this technology. Automatic milking system is designed to replace conventional milking managed by a milker in a milking parlor or in tie stalls. Cows are generally milked more frequently in AM than in conventional milking, and milking is quarter-based instead of udder-based. Despite improvements in the milking process and often building of a new barn before the introduction of AM, udder health of the cows has not improved; on the contrary, problems may appear following conversion from conventional milking to AM. This review focuses on udder health of dairy cows in AM, and we discuss several aspects of cow and milking management in AM associated with udder health. Finally, adequate management methods in AM are suggested. According to several studies comparing udder health between automatic and conventional milking or comparing udder health before and after the introduction of automatic milking in the same herds, udder health has deteriorated during the first year or more after the introduction of AM. Automatic detection of subclinical and clinical mastitis and cleaning the teats before milking are challenges of AM. Failures in mastitis detection and milking hygiene pose a risk for udder health. These risk factors can partly be controlled by management actions taken by the farmer, but AM also needs further technical development. To maintain good udder health in AM, it is imperative that the barn is properly designed to keep the cows clean and the cow traffic flowing. Milking frequency must be maintained for every cow according to its stage of lactation and milk production. Careful observation of the cows and knowledge of how to use all data gathered from the system are also important. "Automatic" does not mean that the role of a competent herdsman is in any way diminished. PMID:21257025

  17. Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs.

    PubMed

    Derks, Marjolein; Hogeveen, Henk; Kooistra, Sake R; van Werven, Tine; Tauer, Loren W

    2014-12-01

    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P<0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related

  18. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  19. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  20. Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Botreau, R; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors "relaxed" and "happy" than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down

  1. Association between disease occurrence and fertility of dairy cows in three geographic regions of Chile.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Paudyal, S; Krauss, R; Arias, F; Lopez, H; Luco, A; Vergara, C F

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to analyze the association between disease occurrence during early lactation and reproductive performance and survival of dairy cows in high-producing herds, under different management practices in three geographic regions of Chile. Data included 30,757 lactation records of cows calving from January 2013 to June 2014 in three different locations: Central (C) area (n = 6198 cows in eight herds), Central-South (CS) area(n = 17,234 cows in 12 herds), and South (S) area (n = 7325 cows in six herds). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and ANOVA, considering cow as the experimental unit. Covariables offered to the models included parity number, season of calving, cow and herd relative milk yield, geographic location, and management system. Average milk yield (305 ME) per cow were 12,091, 11,783, and 6852 kg for C, CS, and S regions, respectively. Time from calving to first service and time to conception were consistently greater for cows with at least one disease event within 50 days in milk (DIM), for cows that were reported lame, or for cows that had mastitis or metritis. The odds (95% confidence interval) of pregnancy at 150 DIM (P150) and the odds of survival until 150 DIM (S150) for cows that had at least one disease event within 50 DIM were 0.84 (0.79-0.91) times the odds of pregnancy and 0.25 (0.22-0.28) times the odds of survival for healthy cows. The odds of P150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 1.56 (1.36-1.80) and 1.16 (1.04-1.30) times the odds of P150 for cows in the S area. The odds of S150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 0.48 (0.37-0.62) and 0.54 (0.42-0.67) times the odds of S150 for cows in the S area. These data suggested that cow health status and geographic location are significantly associated with reproductive performance and survival in this population of Chilean dairy cows.

  2. Association between disease occurrence and fertility of dairy cows in three geographic regions of Chile.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Paudyal, S; Krauss, R; Arias, F; Lopez, H; Luco, A; Vergara, C F

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to analyze the association between disease occurrence during early lactation and reproductive performance and survival of dairy cows in high-producing herds, under different management practices in three geographic regions of Chile. Data included 30,757 lactation records of cows calving from January 2013 to June 2014 in three different locations: Central (C) area (n = 6198 cows in eight herds), Central-South (CS) area(n = 17,234 cows in 12 herds), and South (S) area (n = 7325 cows in six herds). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and ANOVA, considering cow as the experimental unit. Covariables offered to the models included parity number, season of calving, cow and herd relative milk yield, geographic location, and management system. Average milk yield (305 ME) per cow were 12,091, 11,783, and 6852 kg for C, CS, and S regions, respectively. Time from calving to first service and time to conception were consistently greater for cows with at least one disease event within 50 days in milk (DIM), for cows that were reported lame, or for cows that had mastitis or metritis. The odds (95% confidence interval) of pregnancy at 150 DIM (P150) and the odds of survival until 150 DIM (S150) for cows that had at least one disease event within 50 DIM were 0.84 (0.79-0.91) times the odds of pregnancy and 0.25 (0.22-0.28) times the odds of survival for healthy cows. The odds of P150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 1.56 (1.36-1.80) and 1.16 (1.04-1.30) times the odds of P150 for cows in the S area. The odds of S150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 0.48 (0.37-0.62) and 0.54 (0.42-0.67) times the odds of S150 for cows in the S area. These data suggested that cow health status and geographic location are significantly associated with reproductive performance and survival in this population of Chilean dairy cows. PMID:27059394

  3. Herd-level prevalence of Map infection in dairy herds of southern Chile determined by culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR.

    PubMed

    Kruze, J; Monti, G; Schulze, F; Mella, A; Leiva, S

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, an infectious disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is an economically important disease in dairy herds worldwide. In Chile the disease has been reported in domestic and wildlife animals. However, accurate and updated estimations of the herd-prevalence in cattle at national or regional level are not available. The objectives of this study were to determine the herd-level prevalence of dairy herds with Map infected animals of Southern Chile, based on two diagnostic tests: culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR. Two composite environmental fecal samples and one bulk-tank milk sample were collected during September 2010 and September 2011 from 150 dairy farms in Southern Chile. Isolation of Map from environmental fecal samples was done by culture of decontaminated samples on a commercial Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium (HEYM) with and without mycobactin J. Suspicious colonies were confirmed to be Map by conventional IS900 PCR. Map detection in bulk-tank milk samples was done by real time IS900 PCR assay. PCR-confirmed Map was isolated from 58 (19.3%) of 300 environmental fecal samples. Holding pens and manure storage lagoons were the two more frequent sites found positive for Map, representing 35% and 33% of total positive samples, respectively. However, parlor exits and cow alleyways were the two sites with the highest proportion of positive samples (40% and 32%, respectively). Herd prevalence based on environmental fecal culture was 27% (true prevalence 44%) compared to 49% (true prevalence 87%) based on bulk-tank milk real time IS900 PC. In both cases herd prevalence was higher in large herds (>200 cows). These results confirm that Map infection is wide spread in dairy herds in Southern Chile with a rough herd-level prevalence of 28-100% depending on the herd size, and that IS900 PCR on bulk-tank milk samples is more sensitive than environmental fecal culture to detect

  4. Salmonella diversity and burden in cows on and culled from dairy farms in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to further characterize the epidemiology of Salmonella carried by dairy cows culled from herds in the Texas High Plains and marketed for human consumption. Feces were collected from 706 animals culled from a convenience sample of 9 dairies. In addition, individually...

  5. a Sensor Based Automatic Ovulation Prediction System for Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Toby; Hart, John; Pemberton, Roy

    2000-12-01

    Sensor scientists have been successful in developing detectors for tiny concentrations of rare compounds, but the work is rarely applied in practice. Any but the most trivial application of sensors requires a specification that should include a sampling system, a sensor, a calibration system and a model of how the information is to be used to control the process of interest. The specification of the sensor system should ask the following questions. How will the material to be analysed be sampled? What decision can be made with the information available from a proposed sensor? This project provides a model of a systems approach to the implementation of automatic ovulation prediction in dairy cows. A healthy well managed dairy cow should calve every year to make the best use of forage. As most cows are inseminated artificially it is of vital importance mat cows are regularly monitored for signs of oestrus. The pressure on dairymen to manage more cows often leads to less time being available for observation of cows to detect oestrus. This, together with breeding and feeding for increased yields, has led to a reduction in reproductive performance. In the UK the typical dairy farmer could save € 12800 per year if ovulation could be predicted accurately. Research over a number of years has shown that regular analysis of milk samples with tests based on enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) can map the ovulation cycle. However, these tests require the farmer to implement a manually operated sampling and analysis procedure and the technique has not been widely taken up. The best potential method of achieving 98% specificity of prediction of ovulation is to adapt biosensor techniques to emulate the ELISA tests automatically in the milking system. An automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows is specified. The system integrates a biosensor with automatic milk sampling and a herd management database. The biosensor is a screen printed carbon electrode system capable of

  6. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  7. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  8. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in beef cows and heifers were examined. Data were from the 1987 calving season for a subset of 123 herds which maintained individual-animal records, from a sample of 180 randomly selected Ontario cow-calf herds. The median herd dystocia rate was 5.8% and 24.4% of herds had no dystocias. The median herd stillbirth rate was 2.8%, and 33.3% of herds had no stillbirths. Dystocias and stillbirths were much more common in heifers than in cows. Separate statistical models of dystocia and stillbirth for cows and heifers were created. Dystocia in cows was associated with calf sex, previous calving assistance and large breed type and birth weight. Variations in 1987 cow herd dystocia rates were associated with calving season, location and density, and the herd dystocia rate in 1986. Dystocia in heifers was associated with large breed type and calf birth weight. Herd-level management practices associated with increased heifer dystocia rates included breeding heifers to calve earlier than cows and rearing heifers together with the cow herd. Stillbirths for both cows and heifers were associated with calving assistance, particularly hard assistance. Herd-level management and other factors were unassociated with stillbirths. PMID:1586893

  9. Epidemiologic study on Besnoitia besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Al-Majali, Ahmad M; Ababneh, Mohammad M; Abutarbush, Sameeh M

    2015-07-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an apicomplexan parasite and the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis which is considered as a re-emergent disease in Europe. A cross-sectional serological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with B. besnoiti infection in 68 dairy herds (n = 806 cows) in Jordan during the period from January to June 2007 and the spring of 2014. Data regarding herd's management was obtained by filling questionnaires through personal interviews with farmers. An indirect ELISA test was used to detect antibodies against B. besnoiti. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to B. besnoiti. At the individual cow and herd level, the true prevalence of seropositive animals was 6 and 28.7 %, respectively. Cows between 2 and 6 years of age had significantly higher seroprevalence of B. besnoiti than other age groups. The highest seroprevalence of B. besnoiti was found in Zarqa and Irbid governorates. Multivariable logistic regression model identified that exchanging visits by farm workers to neighboring farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to B. besnoiti, while smaller herd size and twice a day farm cleaning using sweeping and water hosing were identified as protective factors. This is the first study that investigated the seroprevalence of B. besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical manifestation of B. besnoiti infection as well as to identify the possible presence of other Besnoitia species and definitive hosts for the parasite.

  10. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  11. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs) and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd. PMID:21777489

  12. Using routinely recorded herd data to predict and benchmark herd and cow health status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health using producer-recorded data is feasible. Estimates of heritability are low, indicating that genetic progress will be slow. Improvement of health traits may also be possible with the incorporation of environmental and managerial aspects into herd health pro...

  13. A comparison of timed artificial insemination and automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention in 3 commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Dolecheck, K A; Silvia, W J; Heersche, G; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of cows inseminated based on automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention (AAM) to cows from the same herds inseminated using only an intensive timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Cows (n=523) from 3 commercial dairy herds participated in this study. To be considered eligible for participation, cows must have been classified with a body condition score of at least 2.50, but no more than 3.50, passed a reproductive tract examination, and experienced no incidences of clinical, recorded metabolic diseases in the current lactation. Within each herd, cows were balanced for parity and predicted milk yield, then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: TAI or AAM. Cows assigned to the TAI group were subjected to an ovulation synchronization protocol consisting of presynchronization, Ovsynch, and Resynch for up to 3 inseminations. Cows assigned to the AAM treatment were fitted with a leg-mounted accelerometer (AfiAct Pedometer Plus, Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) at least 10 d before the end of the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP). Cows in the AAM treatment were inseminated at times indicated by the automated alert system for up to 90 d after the VWP. If an open cow experienced no AAM alert for a 39±7-d period (beginning at the end of the VWP), hormone intervention in the form of a single injection of either PGF2α or GnRH (no TAI) was permitted as directed by the herd veterinarian. Subsequent to hormone intervention, cows were inseminated when alerted in estrus by the AAM system. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 33 to 46 d after insemination. Pregnancy loss was determined via a second ultrasound after 60 d pregnant. Timed artificial insemination cows experienced a median 11.0 d shorter time to first service. Automated activity-monitored cows experienced a median 17.5-d shorter service interval. No treatment difference in probability of pregnancy to first AI, probability

  14. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, O C; Barkema, H W; Berends, I M G A; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M

    2009-02-16

    In this study, the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in The Netherlands was estimated on 49 randomly selected herds with at least 40 lactating cows. In total, 4220 quarter milk samples were collected. The prevalence of CNS IMI in The Netherlands was estimated at 10.8% at quarter level and 34.4% at cow level, making it the most frequently isolated group of pathogens. Fourteen species of CNS were identified; the most frequently isolated species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (30.3%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.9%) and Staphylococcus capitis (11.0%). Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in heifers compared to older cows. Geometric mean quarter SCC of CNS-positive quarters was 109,000 cells/ml, which was approximately twice as high as culture-negative quarters. Quarters infected with S. chromogenes, S. capitis and Staphylococcus xylosus had a higher SCC (P<0.05) than culture-negative quarters, while quarters that were culture-positive for S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus hyicus tended to have a higher SCC than culture-negative quarters. An increased prevalence of CNS IMI was associated with the herd-level variables source of drinking water not being tap water, housing of dry cows in one group instead of multiple groups, measurement of cow SCC every month, udder health monitoring by the veterinarian, pasturing during outdoor season, percentage of stalls contaminated with milk, and BMSCC>250,000 cells/ml. Although a causal relation between these factors and prevalence of CNS is not proven and for some factors not even likely, knowledge of the associations found may be helpful when approaching CNS problems on dairy farms. PMID:18977613

  15. Concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone in dairy heifers is positively associated with productive herd life.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Krassel, F; Scheetz, D M; Neuder, L M; Ireland, J L H; Pursley, J R; Smith, G W; Tempelman, R J; Ferris, T; Roudebush, W E; Mossa, F; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Ireland, J J

    2015-05-01

    Reliable biomarkers predictive of productive herd life (time in herd after birth of first calf) have heretofore not been discovered in dairy cattle. However, circulating concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are positively associated with number of follicles or antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian function, and fertility, and approximately 25% of cows have a relatively low AFC and low AMH concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that heifers with the lowest AMH concentrations have suboptimal fertility and are removed from a herd for poor reproductive performance at a greater rate, and therefore have a shorter productive herd life compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. To test this hypothesis, 11- to 15-mo-old Holstein heifers (n=281) were subjected to a single measurement of AMH. All heifers not removed from the herd had the opportunity to complete 2 lactations and start their third lactation after calving. During this time, performance and health parameters for each individual were recorded daily by herd managers. Results showed that the quartile of heifers with the lowest AMH concentration also had, on average, a shorter productive herd life (by 196 d), a reduced survival rate after birth of the first calf, the lowest level of milk production (first lactation), the lowest total percentage of cows pregnant (across all lactations), the highest culling rates (first and second lactations and overall), and the highest culling rate for poor reproduction (first lactation) compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. We concluded that a single determination of AMH concentration in young adult dairy heifers may be a simple diagnostic method to predict herd longevity, and AMH may be a useful phenotypic marker to improve longevity of dairy cows. PMID:25726106

  16. The association between milk urea nitrogen and DHI production variables in western commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R G; Young, A J

    2003-09-01

    A retrospective observational study was conducted using data from Dairy Herd Improvement monthly tests to investigate the association between milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration and milk yield, milk protein, milk fat percentage, SCC, and parity for commercial Holstein and Jersey herds in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Mean MUN for Holstein cows was 15.5 mg/ dl (5.5 mmol/L) MUN and 14.1 mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L) for Jersey cows. Mean MUN, categorized by 30-d increments of days in milk (DIM), paralleled changes in milk values and followed a curvilinear shape. For Holstein cows, concentrations of MUN were different among lactation groups 1, 2, and 3+ for the first 90 DIM for Holsteins. Overall, concentrations of MUN were lower during for the first 30 DIM compared with all other DIM categories for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Multivariate regression models of MUN by milk protein showed that as the milk protein percentage increased, MUN concentration decreased; however, models for Jersey cows showed that MUN did not decrease significantly until above 3.4% milk protein. Milk fat percentage also decreased as MUN increased, but by only 1 mg/dl MUN over the range of 2.2 to 5.8% milk fat. Somatic cell count showed a negative relationship with MUN. Holstein cows with milk protein percentage >3.2% had lower MUN compared with cows having milk protein <3.2% for milk yields from 27.3 to 54.5 kg/d and lower than cows having a milk protein <3.0% for milk yield of 54.5 to 63.6 kg/d. In Jersey cows, MUN concentrations were not different among milk protein percentage categorized by milk yield. This study found that MUN was inversely associated with milk protein percentage and paralleled change in milk yield over time.

  17. Herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria on dairy farms in Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J; Hedberg, Craig W; Kaneene, John B; Ruegg, Pamela L; Warnick, Lorin D; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB) on dairy cattle farms in Minnesota, USA. After adjustment for farm size, risk factors included: use of total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating dairy cows [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8 to 5.1], no use of monensin for weaned calves (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 9.3), and no use of decoquinate for preweaned calves (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.6). Fecal shedding of STB was more common in small herds (< 100 cows, OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 6.2) than in large herds (≥ 100 cows). Herd management factors related to cattle feeding practices were associated with fecal shedding of STB.

  18. A mathematical model of Staphylococcus aureus control in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Zadoks, R. N.; Allore, H. G.; Hagenaars, T. J.; Barkema, H. W.; Schukken, Y. H.

    2002-01-01

    An ordinary differential equation model was developed to simulate dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Data to estimate model parameters were obtained from an 18-month observational study in three commercial dairy herds. A deterministic simulation model was constructed to estimate values of the basic (R0) and effective (Rt) reproductive number in each herd, and to examine the effect of management on mastitis control. In all herds R0 was below the threshold value 1, indicating control of contagious transmission. Rt was higher than R0 because recovered individuals were more susceptible to infection than individuals without prior infection history. Disease dynamics in two herds were well described by the model. Treatment of subclinical mastitis and prevention of influx of infected individuals contributed to decrease of S. aureus prevalence. For one herd, the model failed to mimic field observations. Explanations for the discrepancy are given in a discussion of current knowledge and model assumptions. PMID:12403116

  19. A stochastic estimate of the economic impact of oral calcium supplementation in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Oetzel, G R

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to develop stochastic models to estimate the economic impact in the first 30 d in milk of oral calcium supplementation to multiparous postparturient dairy cows using 4 different strategies: (1) supplementation of cows with a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield, (2) supplementation of lame cows, (3) supplementation of both cows that have a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield and cows that are lame, and (4) supplementation of all cows. Data from current literature were used to model input variables associated with the costs and risks related to milk production, postparturient disease, and culling. The mean net herd impact per 1,000 calvings for each of the 4 supplementation strategies was $4,425, $5,812, $8,313, and $3,065, respectively. Postpartum supplementation of multiparous lame cows had the highest return on investment at 6.5 to 1, followed by supplementation of multiparous high milk yield and lame cows, multiparous high milk yield cows only, and supplementation of all multiparous postpartum cows with returns of 1.8 to 1, 1.1 to 1, and 0.3 to 1, respectively. A herd's average milk yield at first test had the highest influence on the net impact of oral calcium supplementation to all multiparous cows and accounted for 30% of the variation, followed by the decrease in risk of health events in lame cows given oral calcium at 22%, a herd's prevalence of lameness at calving at 13%, and the price of milk at 10%. Each of the remaining stochastic variables contributed to less than 5% of the variation in net herd financial impact of oral calcium administration. Whereas supplementation of all postpartum multiparous cows returned a positive net herd impact approximately 80% of the time, if a herd was willing to devote time to mature-equivalent milk yield calculations and locomotion scoring, supplementation of this subpopulation of postpartum cows with oral calcium was estimated to have a positive economic impact in all

  20. High herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Western Canadian dairy farms, based on environmental sampling.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Haupstein, D; Pickel, C; Orsel, K

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether herd size and housing system (tie-stall versus freestall or loose housing) affected the risk of a herd testing positive for MAP. Six environmental samples were collected on 360 Alberta farms (60% of registered producers) and on 166 Saskatchewan dairy farms (99%). In total, 47% of the sampled farms in Alberta and 53% of the sampled farms in Saskatchewan had at least one environmental sample that was MAP culture positive and were, therefore, defined as infected. Sensitivity of environmental sampling was estimated using 3 subsequent annual tests performed on 82 farms. Because laboratory protocols were continuously improved throughout the project, the sensitivity increased over time. Therefore, a mean of the sensitivity estimates weighted on sampling year was constructed; this resulted in sensitivities of 68 and 69% for Alberta and Saskatchewan, respectively. Implementing those estimates in an approximate Bayesian computation model resulted in a true herd prevalence of 68% (95% probability interval: 60-80%) for Alberta and 76% (95% probability interval: 70-85%) for Saskatchewan. Herds with >200 cows had 3.54 times higher odds of being environmental sample positive and had more positive samples than herds with <50 cows (neither province nor housing system affected those results). In conclusion, the majority of Alberta and Saskatchewan dairy farms were infected with MAP and larger herds were more often MAP positive than smaller herds.

  1. Estimation of the relative impact of treatment and herd management practices on prevention of digital dermatitis in French dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Relun, A; Lehebel, A; Bruggink, M; Bareille, N; Guatteo, R

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to concurrently estimate the effect of different digital dermatitis (DD) treatment regimens and herd management practices on the occurrence of a new DD lesion. A controlled clinical trial was conducted and involved 4678 dairy cows from 52 French dairy farms where DD was endemic. Farms were allocated by minimisation to one of 4 treatment regimens, varying through the mode (footbath or collective spraying) and the frequency of application (2 days every 4 weeks or fortnightly). They were visited 7 times every 4 weeks by 14 trained investigators. Frailty Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative effect of potential risk factors and treatment practices on the time until the first occurrence of a DD lesion. At herd level, high initial DD prevalence strongly increased the risk for DD occurrence (HR=1.93, CI 1.23-3.04), as well as absence of hoof-trimming (HR=1.75, CI 1.36-2.27) and poor leg cleanliness (HR=2.44, CI 1.80-3.31). At animal level, Holstein breed (HR=1.92, CI 1.35-3.57) and high-productive cows (HR=1.26, CI 1.01-1.56) were identified to be at higher risk for DD compared to Normande breed and low-productive cows, respectively. Compared to individual topical antibiotic treatments alone, collective treatments tended to decrease the risk of DD occurrence only when applied over 2 days at least every fortnight (HR range=0.64-0.73).

  2. National survey of clinical and subclinical mastitis in Jamaican dairy herds, 1985-1986.

    PubMed

    Zingeser, J; Daye, Y; Lopez, V; Grant, G; Bryan, L; Kearney, M; Hugh-Jones, M E

    1991-02-01

    Between April 1985 and August 1986, 89 Jamaican dairy herds with 10 or more cows were visited, 1,645 lactating cows were examined using the CMT test and 254 composite milk samples collected for bacteriological examination. Widespread management faults were noted, especially of milking machine usage and maintenance and the abuse of antibiotics. Fifty-six per cent of all quarters were found to have CMT scores of one or higher, 0.8% showed clinical mastitis and 3.2% were blind. The most common bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, was recovered from 31% of sampled cows. The resultant milk loss from clinical and subclinical mastitis was estimated to be 20% of the potential national production.

  3. Dairy cows with metritis: Coxiella burnetii test results in uterine, blood and bulk milk samples.

    PubMed

    Muskens, J; van Maanen, C; Mars, M H

    2011-01-10

    In cattle, Coxiella burnetii infections are generally asymptomatic but can also be associated with reproductive disorders. Metritis is considered as one of the symptoms of C. burnetii infections, but reliable information is lacking. Therefore, information on the presence of C. burnetii in the uterine content of cows with metritis is important to increase our knowledge on this pathogen. In this study, the uterine content of 45 dairy cows with metritis belonging to 12 herds was tested for C. burnetii with a real-time PCR assay. Only one uterine sample tested PCR (highly) positive, all other samples were PCR negative. The PCR positive cow tested also positive for antibodies. Three other cows from other herds tested antibody positive. The bulk milk (BM) samples of these 12 herds were tested by real-time PCR assay and antibody-ELISA. Six BM samples (50%) were positive in PCR and 10 (83%) were positive in ELISA. Culturing the uterus samples by bacteriology, the most frequently cultured bacteria were arcanobacterium (n=24), E. coli (n=16), other streptococci (n=10), Streptococcus uberis (n=8) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=5). This study indicates that C. burnetii is not an important cause for metritis in dairy herds, although apparently C. burnetii was or had been present in most of these herds.

  4. Factors associated with clinical mastitis incidence in French dairy herds during late gestation and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Barnouin, J; Chassagne, M

    1998-01-01

    A prospective epidemiological survey was conducted in dairy herds in Brittany (France), concerning 139 herd-years. The data were divided into ten 14 herd-year groups (deciles) and three of these were compared using discrimination by barycentric analysis to study herd late gestation and early lactation variables associated with the annual incidence of herd clinical mastitis in the first 60 days of gestation (CMAI). The first decile included herd-years with low CMAI (o to 4.6%), the second decile, herd-years with medium CMAI (11.6 to 14.3%) and the last decile, herd-years with high CMAI (26.3 to 45.5%). Herd data included diet components, milk yield and reproduction parameters, clinical diseases, body condition score, body dirtiness score and circulating biochemical and hematological markers. The high CMAI group had the following characteristics: 1) lower percentages of dried cows supplemented with vitamins 'ADE'; 2) higher levels of plasma ceruloplasmin and higher gamma glutamyl transferase activities (GGT) in the late gestation period; 3) higher percentages of winter calvings (December, January, February). Clinical mastitis risk could be controlled by supplementations with vitamins A, D and E in the late gestation period, because of the potential relationship between oxidative stress and mastitis. Higher GGT activities would be associated with Fasciolasis via common climatic risk factors (rainfall, humidity) for both mastitis and liver flukes. Winter calving and clinical mastitis would be associated with unfavourable hygiene conditions and stress at calving related to high animal density and bad weather conditions. Ceruloplasmin could be a specific predictor for mastitis risk through nutritional, immune and genetic interrelated factors. PMID:9601148

  5. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds.

  6. Effect of exposure to Neospora caninum, Salmonella, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo on the economic performance of Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Sayers, R; O' Grady, L; Shalloo, L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of exposure to Salmonella, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo (L. hardjo) on dairy farm profitability and to simulate the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on dairy farm profitability. The production effects associated with exposure to each of these pathogens in study herds were defined under 3 categories: (1) milk production effects, (2) reproduction effects (including culling), and (3) mortality effects. The production effects associated with exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were incorporated into the Moorepark Dairy Systems Model. In the analysis, herds negative for exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were assumed baseline herds, with all results presented relative to this base. In simulations examining the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on farm profitability, vaccinated herds (vaccination costs included) were considered as baseline herds and results were presented relative to this base. Total annual profits in unvaccinated herds were reduced by €77.31, €94.71, and €112.11 per cow at milk prices of €0.24, €0.29, and €0.34/L, respectively, as a result of exposure to Salmonella. In the current study, herds positive for exposure to Salmonella recorded a 316-kg reduction in milk yield, whereas no association was detected between exposure to N. caninum or L. hardjo and milk production. Exposure to both N. caninum and L. hardjo was associated with compromised reproductive performance. Herds positive for exposure to N. caninum and Salmonella had greater rates of adult cow mortality and calf mortality, respectively. Vaccination for both Salmonella and L. hardjo was associated with improved performance in study herds. Exposure to N. caninum resulted in a reduction in annual farm profits of €11.55, €12, and €12.44 per cow at each milk price, whereas exposure to L. hardjo resulted in a reduction in

  7. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. PMID:27040783

  8. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content.

  9. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems.

    PubMed

    Somers, J G C J; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2003-06-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and severity of claw disorders during hoof trimming events at the end of the pasture (P-study) and housing period (H-study). The number of cows in each study was 3078 (49 herds) and 3190 (47 herds), respectively. Due to a different hoof trimming strategy, data collected during both observation periods in SY herds (638 cows; 16 herds) were combined. Cows in straw yards (SY) had by far the lowest numbers of claw disorders. Over 80% of cows exposed to concrete flooring had at least one claw disorder at the time of observation, whereas on SY surfaces, this percentage was between 55 and 60. Cows on SL-SCR were less frequently affected by interdigital dermatitis/heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis (DD) than cows on SL (reference floor system). Little difference in claw health was found between SF and SL. The ZG cows were at higher risk (OR > 2) for most claw disorders in the P-study, whereas in the H-study, ZG cows showed less IDHE, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer. All herds on concrete flooring (SL, SL-SCR, SCF, ZG) were infected by DD, resulting in an average cow level prevalence of 30%. This indicates that the level of DD infection has increased considerably over the last 10 yr in The Netherlands.

  10. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs.

  11. Environmental and behavioural factors affecting the prevalence of foot lameness in New Zealand dairy herds - a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chesterton, R N; Pfeiffer, D U; Morris, R S; Tanner, C M

    1989-12-01

    A case-control study of environmental and behavioural factors influencing foot lameness was undertaken on 62 dairy herds comprising an average of 185 milking cows in Taranaki, New Zealand. Thirty two case herds were identified as having had at least 10 per cent of the cows lame during the milking season in which the herd was studied, and thirty control herds were selected on the basis that no more than 3 per cent of cows in these herds had been lame per year for at least two years immediately prior to investigation. Each herd was visited at both a morning and an afternoon milking, and 58 risk factors were measured between the time the farmer began to assemble the cows for milking and the completion of milking. Comparison of single variables between case and control herds identified 24 which showed differences (p<0.10). These variables were then subjected to stepwise multivariate logistic regression, and statistically significant variables in this analysis were used to create a tentative path diagram of possible causal web relationships between the various risk factors and the outcome variable, the lameness prevalence level. Information from a review of the published literature was used to include further variables to the 24 into the initial (or null hypothesis) path model. Logistic path analysis was then used to eliminate non-significant paths from the diagram, leaving 19 arrows joining 13 variables in the final path diagram, compared with 33 joining 20 variables in the initial version. The most influential variables in explaining variation between case and control herds were the average level of maintenance of the track and the degree of patience shown by the farmer in bringing the cows in for milking. Overall, factors associated with the movement of animals to the milking shed explained 40 per cent of the variation (deviance) with regard to the lameness prevalence level. Risk factors associated with characteristics of the milking process explain 24 per cent, and

  12. Economic effect of bovine abortion syndrome in commercial dairy herds in Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Gädicke, P; Vidal, R; Monti, G

    2010-10-01

    Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of bovine abortion syndrome (BAS) in dairy cows from Chile. A stochastic model was proposed to evaluate the cost of an abortion on a yearly basis to include variability in cost and income by dairy and by year. The marginal total net revenue (ΔTNR) for a typical, lactation was obtained by the calculating the difference between total revenues (retail milk and calf sales) and total expenses (production cost (cows, feeding, labor, health) plus administrative and, general costs) for lactation with and without abortion. Production data were obtained from a retrospective study of 127 dairy herds located in southern Chile between 2000 and 2006. Milk production from cows with and without abortion was estimated by a mixed model using milk test day data. Production cost and prices paid to farmers were obtained from service company records (TODOAGRO S.A.). Cost and income value was corrected for inflation and expressed in the values from 2006. In addition, a separate analysis for different parities (1, 2, 3 or more) was performed. Distributions for the stochastic variables were obtained by fitting distributions from our database using @Risk. The stochastic variables included in the analysis were all related to income, feeding, depreciation, health, Artificial Insemination and general costs like fuel, salaries, taxes, etc. There was a high probability (89.20%) of a negative ΔTNR in lactations with abortion for overall, parities, with a mean loss of $ -143.32. Stratifying by parity, the predicted mean of the distribution for ΔTNR in each

  13. Economic effect of bovine abortion syndrome in commercial dairy herds in Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Gädicke, P; Vidal, R; Monti, G

    2010-10-01

    Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of bovine abortion syndrome (BAS) in dairy cows from Chile. A stochastic model was proposed to evaluate the cost of an abortion on a yearly basis to include variability in cost and income by dairy and by year. The marginal total net revenue (ΔTNR) for a typical, lactation was obtained by the calculating the difference between total revenues (retail milk and calf sales) and total expenses (production cost (cows, feeding, labor, health) plus administrative and, general costs) for lactation with and without abortion. Production data were obtained from a retrospective study of 127 dairy herds located in southern Chile between 2000 and 2006. Milk production from cows with and without abortion was estimated by a mixed model using milk test day data. Production cost and prices paid to farmers were obtained from service company records (TODOAGRO S.A.). Cost and income value was corrected for inflation and expressed in the values from 2006. In addition, a separate analysis for different parities (1, 2, 3 or more) was performed. Distributions for the stochastic variables were obtained by fitting distributions from our database using @Risk. The stochastic variables included in the analysis were all related to income, feeding, depreciation, health, Artificial Insemination and general costs like fuel, salaries, taxes, etc. There was a high probability (89.20%) of a negative ΔTNR in lactations with abortion for overall, parities, with a mean loss of $ -143.32. Stratifying by parity, the predicted mean of the distribution for ΔTNR in each

  14. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID

  15. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Schukken, Y H; Pradhan, A K; Smith, J M; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Wolfgang, D R; Grohn, Y T

    2011-10-01

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental sites in 3 commercial dairy herds in the Northeast US were cultured quarterly for MAP, providing 1131 samples (133 (11.8%) were culture-positive), and all adult animals in the herds were tested biannually by fecal culture (FC), for 6 years. Of the environmental sites sampled, manure storage areas and shared alleyways were most likely to be culture-positive. Environmental sample results were compared to FC results from either the concurrent or previous sampling date at both the herd and the pen level. At the herd level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding increased the odds of a positive non-pen environmental sample by a factor of 6 and increased the average amount of MAP in non-pen samples by 2.9 cfu/g. At the pen level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding in the pen increased the odds of a positive environment by a factor of 2.4 and the average amount of MAP was increased by 3.5 cfu/g. We were not able to model the relationship between non-pen environmental sample status and the distance between shedding animals and the sample's location, and neighboring pens did not significantly affect the results of the pen-level analysis. The amount of MAP in pen-level samples and the probability of a pen testing positive for MAP were both positively but non-significantly correlated with the number of animals in the pen shedding >30 cfu/g of MAP. At least 6 environmental samples met the criteria for the U.S. Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program on 47 of the 72 sampling dates; of these, 19 of the 47 FC-positive sampling dates

  16. Short communication: Lameness impairs feeding behavior of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Norring, M; Häggman, J; Simojoki, H; Tamminen, P; Winckler, C; Pastell, M

    2014-07-01

    The automated, reliable, and early detection of lameness is an important aim for the future development of modern dairy operations. One promising indicator of lameness is a change in the feeding behavior of a cow. In this study, the associations between feeding behavior and lameness were evaluated. A herd of 50 cows was investigated during the winter season in a freestall barn. Feeding behavior, feed intake, milk yield, and body weight were monitored using electronic feeding troughs and an automated milking system. Gait scoring every second week was used as a measure of lameness. To analyze the effect of lameness on feeding behavior and milk yield, linear mixed models were used. Cows with more severe lameness spent less time feeding per day (104 ± 4, 101 ± 4, and 91 ± 4 min/d for lameness scores 2, 3, and 4, respectively). An interaction between parity and lameness score was detected, with severely lame primiparous cows spending the least time feeding. Severely lame cows fed faster; however, their body weights were lower than for less-lame cows. Increase in lactation stage was associated with longer daily feeding time, longer duration of feeding bouts, and lower feeding rate. Worsening of gait was associated with lower silage intake and less time spent feeding even before severe lameness was scored. The results indicate that lameness is associated with changes in feeding behavior and that such changes could be considered in the future development of remote monitoring systems. It should also be noted that impaired feeding behavior along with lameness can put the welfare of especially early lactating primiparous cows at risk.

  17. Risk factors for interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Somers, J G C J; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2005-09-30

    Risk factors concerning both the pasture and housing seasons for interdigital dermatitis and heel-horn erosion (IDHE) were studied in dairy cows in a cross-sectional study in The Netherlands. The study population included 2,326 cows (41 herds) and 2,751 cows (46 herds) for the pasture and housing seasons, respectively. Of these animals, 545 (23%) showed serious lesions of IDHE (stages 2 and 3) at the end of the pasture season and 1,269 (46%) during housing. Logistic regression of the pasture study indicated that increased parity, solid concrete floor, restricted grazing time, and herd trimming at long intervals were associated with an increased odds of IDHE, while dry cows and lactating cows within 30 days after calving as well as cows on a slatted floor with manure scraper, and grassland with mixed type of soil were associated with lower odds. In the housing study, odds of IDHE increased with parity, administering low- or medium-energy roughage, and introduction of dry cows into the lactating herd at >2 weeks before calving. The presence of long cubicles, knee-bumpers installed in cubicles as well as rearing calves and heifers within the dairy cows' accommodation decreased the odds of IDHE.

  18. Salmonella diversity and burden in cows on and culled from dairy farms in the Texas High Plains.

    PubMed

    Loneragan, Guy H; Thomson, Daniel U; McCarthy, Rebecca M; Webb, Hattie E; Daniels, Angela E; Edrington, Thomas S; Nisbet, David J; Trojan, Sara J; Rankin, Shelly C; Brashears, Mindy M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of Salmonella carried by dairy cows culled from herds in the Texas High Plains. Feces were collected from a convenience sample of 706 animals culled from nine dairy farms. In addition, individually paired fecal and hide samples were collected from 70 healthy milking cows on three of the dairies. Samples were cultured for Salmonella using routine methods; isolates were serotyped and subjected to a panel of antimicrobial drugs to determine susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from 32.6% of culled cows. Whole-herd use of a vaccine containing siderophore receptors and porin proteins was associated (p=0.05) with reduced Salmonella prevalence in that the prevalence among herds that practiced whole-herd vaccination was 8.0% compared to 36.8% among herds that did not use this vaccine. The majority (88.6%) of isolates were pansusceptible or resistant to one drug. Of the 3.1% of isolates resistant to more than four drugs, all were Salmonella Newport and were recovered from one dairy. Various serotypes were recovered from individual fecal and hide samples. Salmonella Montevideo was recovered more frequently (p<0.01) from hide samples, whereas Salmonella Cerro was recovered more frequently (p<0.01) from feces. Salmonella was recovered from at least one cow on all dairies. While our study was not a priori designed to address herd-level factors, we found evidence that the whole-herd use of a siderophore receptor and porin protein-containing vaccine might be a useful aid in the control of Salmonella in groups of cattle. As this is a nonrandomized evaluation of an intervention, other herd-level factors that may be correlated with vaccine use, such as biosecurity, might have been responsible for the observed association.

  19. Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 17±3, 21±3, and 24±3 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ≥20mm at 17±3 or at 21±3 DIM or that had a corpus luteum <20mm in 2 consecutive examinations were determined to be cyclic by 21±3 DIM. The following information was collected for up to 14 DIM: calving season, parity, calving problems, metabolic problems, metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 17±3 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P≤0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ≤76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 21±3 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as

  20. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-07-14

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  1. Factors affecting calf mortality in Iranian Holstein dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Shooroki, Hadi Fazeli; Kamalabadi, Ali Shafiee; Stevenson, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to document mortality reasons and risk factors for mortality in dairy calves in the northeast of Iran. This was a prospective cohort study of calves born on ten commercial dairy herds from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2010. A total of 4097 live calves were followed for 90 days after birth. For each calf details of sex, parity of the dam, type of parturition and season of birth were recorded. The interval (in days) from the date of birth to the date of death and the reason for death was recorded for those calves that died before 90 days of age. A Cox proportional hazards model, including a frailty term to account for unmeasured herd-level effects was developed to quantify the effect of factors associated with time to death. Two hundred and sixty-six (6.5%, 95% CI: 5.8-7.3%) of the 4097 live-born calves died or were euthanised before 90 days of age. The most important reasons for death were digestive tract disorders (58% of all deaths, 95% CI: 52-64%) followed by respiratory diseases (13% of all deaths, 95% CI: 9-17%). Calves exposed to dystocia at birth had 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49-2.92) times the daily hazard of death compared with calves born from a normal calving. The daily hazard of death for calves born in the summer was 1.93 (95% CI: 1.41-2.64) times greater than the hazard for those calves born in the autumn. Inclusion of the herd-level frailty term had a significant effect on hazard estimates indicating that the study herds were heterogeneous in the distribution of unmeasured herd-level factors influencing calf survival. Our results show that diarrhoea is the most important cause of calf mortality in dairy herds in this area of Iran and that environmental and management factors affect calf mortality rate.

  2. Effect of factors associated with insemination on calving rate in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Watson, E D; Jones, P C; Saunders, R W

    1987-09-12

    The results of 7569 inseminations performed on 6007 cows in 94 dairy herds were used to investigate the relative importance of time of insemination, bull and inseminator on calving rates in dairy cows. Although the time of insemination in relation to the first observation of oestrus was shown to have some effect, the effect was minimal during the first 24 hours. The maximum difference in expected calving rates between cows served with semen from groups of bulls with a history of either low or high fertility was 20 per cent, and the maximum difference in expected calving rate between cows inseminated by groups of inseminators who had consistently achieved either low or high fertility was 13 per cent. PMID:3686786

  3. Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in feces from preweaned dairy calves and postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Björn

    2015-09-01

    Quinolone resistance may emerge in gut bacteria (e.g., in Escherichia coli) of animals. Such bacteria could cause infections in the animal itself or be transmitted to humans via the food chain. Quinolone resistance is also observed in fecal E. coli of healthy dairy cattle, but the prevalence varies between farms, not solely as a result of varying degree of fluoroquinolone exposure. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the fecal shedding of quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) from dairy calves and postpartum cows. Rectal swabs from 15 preweaned calves and 5 postpartum cows per farm were collected on 23 Swedish dairy farms to determine the prevalence of QREC. Risk factors for the shedding of QREC were investigated using multivariable statistical models. Quinolone-resistant E. coli were found on all but one farm. Factors associated with QREC shedding by calves were being younger than 18 d, being fed milk from cows treated with antimicrobials, recent use of fluoroquinolones in the herd, carriage of QREC by postpartum cows, and using the calving area never or rarely as a sick pen compared with often. Factors associated with QREC shedding by cows were calving in group pens or freestalls compared with single pens or tiestalls, purchasing cattle, sharing animal transports with other farmers, and poor farm hygiene. Proper biosecurity and improved hygiene, as well as minimizing fluoroquinolone exposure and waste milk feeding, may be important factors to reduce the burden of QREC on dairy farms. PMID:26188574

  4. Mechanisms underlying reduced fertility in anovular dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S

    2016-07-01

    Resumption of ovulation after parturition is a coordinated process that involves recoupling of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in the liver, increase in follicular development and steroidogenesis, and removal of negative feedback from estradiol in the hypothalamus. Infectious diseases and metabolic disorders associated with extensive negative energy balance during early lactation disrupt this pathway and delay first ovulation postpartum. Extended periods of anovulation postpartum exert long-lasting effects on fertility in dairy cows including the lack of spontaneous estrus, reduced pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and increased risk of pregnancy loss. Concentrations of progesterone in anovular cows subjected to synchronized programs for AI are insufficient to optimize follicular maturation, oocyte competence, and subsequent fertility to AI. Ovulation of first wave follicles, which develop under low concentrations of progesterone, reduces embryo quality in the first week after fertilization and P/AI in dairy cows. Although the specific mechanisms by which anovulation and low concentrations of progesterone impair oocyte quality have not been defined, studies with persistent follicles support the involvement of premature resumption of meiosis and degradation of maternal RNA. Suboptimal concentrations of progesterone before ovulation also increase the synthesis of PGF2α in response to oxytocin during the subsequent estrous cycle, which explains the greater incidence of short luteal phases after the first AI postpartum in anovular cows compared with estrous cyclic herd mates. It is suggested that increased spontaneous luteolysis early in the estrous cycle is one of the mechanisms that contributes to early embryonic losses in anovular cows. Anovulation also leads to major shifts in gene expression in elongated conceptuses during preimplantation stages of pregnancy. Transcripts involved with control of energy metabolism and DNA repair were

  5. Evaluation of udder health parameters and risk factors for clinical mastitis in Dutch dairy herds in the context of a restricted antimicrobial usage policy.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2016-04-01

    Recently, many changes have been implemented in Dutch dairy herds. Herd sizes have increased and antimicrobial use has been reduced. Certain types of antimicrobials can only be used in specific circumstances, and the preventive use of antimicrobials in dry cows is prohibited. The aim of this study was to quantify clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and risk factors associated with CM in Dutch dairy herds in 2013, in the context of these changes. For this study, 240 dairy herds were randomly selected from farms that participated in test-day milk recording, used a conventional milking system, and agreed to participate in the study. Eventually, 233 Dutch dairy farmers had complete records of CM in their herds in 2013 and 224 of these farmers completed a questionnaire on management factors potentially associated with CM. All participating farmers gave consent to use their routinely collected herd data such as test-day records and cow identification and registration data. Clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI and SCMI, respectively) per 100 cows per year, subclinical mastitis prevalence, and average bulk tank milk somatic cell count were obtained for 2013. The risk factor analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model with a log link function and a negative binomial distribution on herd level in Stata 13.1. A median CMI of 28.6 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCMI of 70.1 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCM prevalence of 15.8%, and bulk tank milk somatic cell count of 171 × 10(3) cells/mL were observed in 2013. Factors that were significantly associated with a higher CMI were cleaning slatted floors only once per day compared with more than 4 times a day (i.e., mechanical), a higher percentage of Holstein Friesian cows present in the herd, treating less than 50% of the cows with CM with antimicrobials, postmilking teat disinfection, and treatment of cows with elevated somatic cell count with antimicrobials. The results of this

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dutch dairy cattle herds based on bulk tank milk testing.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, E; Schotten, N; Schimmer, B; Hautvast, J L A; van Schaik, G; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

    2014-11-01

    Despite cattle herds can harbor Coxiella burnetii, risk factors for C. burnetii presence in dairy cattle herds are largely unknown. Therefore, C. burnetii herd prevalence and risk factors for bulk tank milk (BTM) positivity were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was filled out by the farmer and BTM from 301 farms was tested by ELISA for presence of C. burnetii antibodies and PCR for presence of C. burnetii DNA. Risk factors were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Antibodies to C. burnetii were detected in 81.6% (CI: 77.2-85.9) and C. burnetii DNA in 18.8% (CI: 14.4-23.1) of the BTM samples. Herd size (OR=1.1 per 10 cows), cleaning the bedding of the cubicles at most every other day (OR=2.8) and purchase of cattle from at least two addresses (OR=3.1) showed a significant and positive association with ELISA positivity and use of an automatic milking system a negative association (OR=0.3). Risk factors for PCR positivity were purchase of cattle from at least two delivery addresses (OR=3.2), presence of cows with ticks (OR=2.0), use of an automatic milking system (OR=0.2) and presence of goats or sheep on the farm (OR=0.4). Biosecurity and general hygiene seem associated with introduction and spread of C. burnetii in dairy herds. PMID:25239684

  7. Comparison of claw health and milk yield in dairy cows on elastic or concrete flooring.

    PubMed

    Kremer, P V; Nueske, S; Scholz, A M; Foerster, M

    2007-10-01

    This article reports on the effects of elastic (rubber) flooring compared with concrete flooring on claw health and milk yield in dairy cows. Milk yield and activity data of 53 complete lactations from 49 cows were recorded by an automatic milking system in the University of Munich Livestock Center dairy herd. Cows were kept in a loose housing system on concrete-slatted or rubber-matted slatted flooring. Claws were trimmed and measured linearly in combination with claw lesion diagnosis 3 times during one lactation period (including the transition phase). An automatic milking system recorded milk yield and activity. The net horn growth of the claws increased on elastic flooring. Therefore, correct and frequent claw trimming is at least as important for claw health in dairy herds kept on rubber flooring as for those on concrete-slatted flooring. Cows housed on rubber had an increased incidence of sole ulcers. Sole hemorrhages (except for hemorrhages associated with sole ulcers) occurred less frequently on rubber than on concrete. Results concerning digital dermatitis were difficult to assess, because manual manure scraping on rubber required sprinkling the flooring twice daily, which additionally moistened the digital skin of the cows. This might explain the greater incidence of digital dermatitis on elastic flooring. The incidence of clinically lame cows did not differ between flooring types. Cows showed greater activity on rubber, most likely caused by the more comfortable walking surface compared with the concrete-slatted flooring. The greater activity may indicate better overall health of high-yielding dairy cows on rubber flooring. Milk yield, however, did not differ between flooring types.

  8. Factors associated with high milk test day somatic cell counts in large dairy herds in Brandenburg. I: Housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Köster, G; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine influences of housing conditions on the udder health in 80 German dairy herds with a herd size between 100 and 1100 cows. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire for the farm manager and a farm visit using a standardized data capture form on hygiene and management. The somatic cell counts of all lactating cows on each farm were collected monthly by the local dairy herd improvement association and analysed to assess udder health status. Factor analysis was used to analyse the variables describing the environmental hygiene. The values derived for the extracted components were classified into good, moderate and poor. The association of the categories was then analysed for their influence on log somatic cell count of the current month (CMSCC) and the year before the farm visit (YASCC) by a one-way anova. In comparison to other housing systems, free stalls with cubicles had the lowest geometric mean somatic cell count. Three components were derived from the factor analysis. Of those, acceptance of the cubicles by the cows and barn hygiene were determined as components influencing the CMSCC and YASCC significantly, while the association of hygiene of the milking parlour with somatic cell counts was only significant for YASCC. The results of the study show that the cow comfort and housing hygiene have a substantial impact on milk quality and should therefore become the focus of further research on the farm management practices.

  9. Shorter sampling periods and accurate estimates of milk volume and components are possible for pasture based dairy herds milked with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Burke, Jennie K; Taukiri, Sarah; Petch, Susan-Fay; Turner, Sally-Anne

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows grazing pasture and milked using automated milking systems (AMS) have lower milking frequencies than indoor fed cows milked using AMS. Therefore, milk recording intervals used for herd testing indoor fed cows may not be suitable for cows on pasture based farms. We hypothesised that accurate standardised 24 h estimates could be determined for AMS herds with milk recording intervals of less than the Gold Standard (48 hs), but that the optimum milk recording interval would depend on the herd average for milking frequency. The Gold Standard protocol was applied on five commercial dairy farms with AMS, between December 2011 and February 2013. From 12 milk recording test periods, involving 2211 cow-test days and 8049 cow milkings, standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and milk composition were calculated for the Gold Standard protocol and compared with those collected during nine alternative sampling scenarios, including six shorter sampling periods and three in which a fixed number of milk samples per cow were collected. Results infer a 48 h milk recording protocol is unnecessarily long for collecting accurate estimates during milk recording on pasture based AMS farms. Collection of two milk samples only per cow was optimal in terms of high concordance correlation coefficients for milk volume and components and a low proportion of missed cow-test days. Further research is required to determine the effects of diurnal variations in milk composition on standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and components, before a protocol based on a fixed number of samples could be considered. Based on the results of this study New Zealand have adopted a split protocol for herd testing based on the average milking frequency for the herd (NZ Herd Test Standard 8100:2015). PMID:27600967

  10. The use of pedometry for estrus detection in dairy cows in Israel.

    PubMed

    Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to describe the use of pedometry on commercial dairy farms in Israel, to evaluate its efficiency in heat detection and to describe a clinical trial comparing between pedometry and the Ovsynch technique. Pedometry is the major tool of heat detection on most farms in Israel today. On many farms automated electronic pedometry is the sole mean of heat detection. Production and reproduction parameters are monitored by Hachaklait Veterinary Services Ltd. Results are compared with the farm history and with national means and goals. The average herd rate of undetected heat in more than 120 herds recorded between 2004 and 2008 has increased from 30.3 to 38.9% in primiparous cows and from 33.9 to 43.9% in multiparous cows respectively. The average duration of the waiting period has dropped from 106.2 to 93.4 days and from 99.9 to 87.3 days in primiparous and multiparous cows respectively. The average annual rate of cows shown on heat by pedometry and not inseminated by the A.I. technicians in recent years was 13% and remained steady. The mean herd rate of normal length heat cycles (18-24 days) in multiparous cows in recent years has been fairly steady; 57.4 to 58.4% of all cycles detected in 2004 and 2008 respectively. Herd rate of double cycles is also used to estimate the sensitivity of pedometry systems. Average rate of double cycles (37-60 days) per herd per annum in multiparous cows has dropped steadily from 22.6 to 20.1% between 2004 and 2008 respectively. Mean herd rate of short cycles in multiparous cows in 2008 was 7.4% Pregnancy checks are performed by the herds' veterinarians by transrectal palpation from 40 days post A.I. onward. In 2008 the average herd rate of negative pregnancy checks in cows was 27.5% (9.5-53.4%). The wide range indicates a large variability of pedometry system in tracking non-conceived cycling cows. Beside activity and heat detection pedometry systems record other individual cow parameters. A controlled

  11. Economic comparison of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in dairy herds using optimized culling decisions.

    PubMed

    Kessels, J A; Cha, E; Johnson, S K; Welcome, F L; Kristensen, A R; Gröhn, Y T

    2016-05-01

    This study used an existing dynamic optimization model to compare costs of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in US dairy herds. Clinical mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland causing major economic losses in dairy herds due to reduced milk production, reduced conception, and increased risk of mortality and culling for infected cows. Treatment protocols were developed to reflect common practices in dairy herds. These included targeted therapy following pathogen identification, and therapy without pathogen identification using a broad-spectrum antimicrobial or treating with the cheapest treatment option. The cost-benefit of J5 vaccination was also estimated. Effects of treatment were accounted for as changes in treatment costs, milk loss due to mastitis, milk discarded due to treatment, and mortality. Following ineffective treatments, secondary decisions included extending the current treatment, alternative treatment, discontinuing treatment, and pathogen identification followed by recommended treatment. Average net returns for treatment protocols and vaccination were generated using an existing dynamic programming model. This model incorporates cow and pathogen characteristics to optimize management decisions to treat, inseminate, or cull cows. Of the treatment protocols where 100% of cows received recommended treatment, pathogen-specific identification followed by recommended therapy yielded the highest average net returns per cow per year. Out of all treatment scenarios, the highest net returns were achieved with selecting the cheapest treatment option and discontinuing treatment, or alternate treatment with a similar spectrum therapy; however, this may not account for the full consequences of giving nonrecommended therapies to cows with clinical mastitis. Vaccination increased average net returns in all scenarios.

  12. Prevalence and persistence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in three dairy research herds.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S I; Boonyayatra, S; Oliver, S P

    2009-02-16

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (CNS) were isolated from 11.3% (1407 of 12,412) of mammary quarter milk samples obtained from cows in three dairy research herds in 2005. Approximately 27% (383/1407) of CNS was identified to the species level. The species distribution among those CNS identified from all herds was Staphylococcus chromogenes (48%), Staphylococcus hyicus (26%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Staphylococcus simulans (7%), Staphylococcus warneri (2%), Staphylococcus hominis (2%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1%), Staphylococcus xylosus (1%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (<1%), Staphylococcus sciuri (<1%), and Staphylococcus intermedius (<1%). Staphylococcuschromogenes was the predominant CNS isolated from all three herds; however, differences were seen in the prevalence of other CNS species. A total of 158 CNS (S. chromogenesn=66, S. hyicusn=38, S. epidermidisn=37, S. simulans n=10, and S. warneri n=7) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The majority (33/41) of CNS isolated from the same mammary quarter on more than one occasion had the same PFGE pattern indicating persistence of the same infection over time. When all PFGE patterns for each CNS were analyzed, no common pulsotype was seen among the three herds indicating that CNS are quite diverse. Composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data were obtained +/-14d of when CNS were isolated. Average milk SCC (5.32 log(10)/ml) for cows in which CNS was the only bacteria isolated was significantly higher than the average milk SCC (4.90 log(10)/ml) from cows with quarter milk samples that were bacteriologically negative.

  13. Trends in udder health and emerging mastitogenic pathogens in South African dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Petzer, I-M; Karzis, J; Watermeyer, J C; van der Schans, T J; van Reenen, R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379,000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11,946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1% and 24.1% to 15.4 and 30.0% respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as alphabeta haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a minor pathogen

  14. Prepartum supplementation of selenium and vitamin E to dairy cows: assessment of selenium and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hidiroglou, M.; McAllister, A.J.; Williams, C.J.

    1987-06-01

    Incidence of retained placenta in dairy cows was evaluated in 627 parturitions. The herd was divided prepartum into three groups: (1) control, no treatment (n = 217 cows); (2) cows injected intramuscularly (n = 190) 21 to 10 d prior parturition with 45 mg Se and 2040 IU of vitamin E; and (3) cows intraruminally administered (n = 220) with two 30-g pellets containing 10% elemental selenium 2 mo prior to expected calving. Incidence of retained placenta (22.1%) was not reduced by Se in combination with vitamin E injection or intraruminal Se pellet nor were other measures of reproduction improved for cows fed a prepartum diet adequate in Se. At parturition the blood plasma Se concentrations were higher in treated postpartum with Se than in untreated cows. No difference in blood plasma Se was observed at parturition between cows with or without placenta retention. Cows dosed intraruminally with Se had a significant increase in milk Se, but this was to small to be a danger to human health. The present results on placenta retention suggest that this disorder is not a Se responsive disease in the dairy cow.

  15. Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2015-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCS<2 were at greatest risk of mild or severe lameness, and an increased BCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the

  16. Association between antibody status to bovine herpesvirus 1 and quality of milk in dairy herds in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rola, J G; Larska, M; Grzeszuk, M; Rola, J

    2015-02-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) is one of the most important pathogens of cattle; however, its effect on somatic cell count and milk components is not completely understood. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of BoHV1 infection on quality of bovine bulk tank milk (BTM). A total of 1,790 individual blood samples collected at 28 dairy farms were used to determine the BoHV1 infection status of the herds with ELISA tests. The quality parameters of milk were evaluated by instrumental methods with BTM samples collected at monthly intervals from May 2011 to May 2012. The statistical analysis was performed to study the associations between BoHV1 herd status, quality of BTM, and herd-specific parameters. The risk factors influencing bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were estimated using the multivariable mixed-effects maximum likelihood regression model. The true prevalences of BoHV1 infection at the animal and herd levels were 49.3 and 64.6%, respectively. The average BMSCC differed significantly between the herds grouped accordingly to their BoHV1 infection status. Interestingly, the highest BMSCC was observed in the vaccinated herds (240.3×10(3) cells/mL). Additionally, the BoHV1 herd status had a significant effect on the fat content of BTM. The largest herds that were investigated had a BoHV1 seroprevalence over 30%. The herd status was considerably influenced by the numbers of cows in the herds. Besides, no significant differences in total bacterial count or protein content in milk from BoHV1-infected und uninfected herds were observed. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer compared with the winter months regardless of the BoHV1 status of the herds. In the final multivariable regression model, the main risk factors associated with BMSCC were BoHV1 herd status, the percentage of BoHV1 infected animals in a herd, the number of cows in a herd, and the season. Our study suggests that BoHV1 infection may influence BMSCC levels, which are key

  17. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  18. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in Portuguese dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Luís; Alegria, Nuno; Anastácio, Sofia; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; da Silva, Gabriela; Rabiço, Ângela; Simões, João

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an important zoonotic disease which has been recently diagnosed, mainly in sheep and goats, in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine Coxiella burnetii antibodies in dairy farms from the northwest of Portugal. Bulk tank milk samples were randomly obtained, on November 2013, from 90 dairy farms and assayed using an ELISA kit. The apparent prevalence was 61.1% (95% C.I. from 50.8 to 70.5%). The proportion of negative and intermediate (inconclusive) herds was 34.5% (25.5 to 44.7%) and 4.4% (1.7 to 10.9%), respectively. In conclusion, a high level of exposure to Coxiella burnetii was observed in Portuguese dairy cattle herds, highlighting the needs to better understand the epidemiology of Q fever in Portugal by the implementation of a monitoring program based on harmonized serologic and molecular methodologies and elucidation of the infection status of the herds. PMID:25339430

  19. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  20. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  1. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and isolated udder pathogens in dairy cows in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Östensson, Karin; Lam, Vo; Sjögren, Natahlie; Wredle, Ewa

    2013-04-01

    Dairy production is not traditional in Vietnam. The farmers have little practical knowledge and udder health control is generally lacking. In order to give the farmers appropriate advice, knowledge about the distribution of udder pathogens is crucial. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and to identify udder pathogens isolated from smallholder dairy herds in Southern Vietnam. Twenty farms with a herd somatic cell count (SCC) ranging from low (≤ 400 × 10(3)cells/mL) to high (>400 × 10(3)cells/mL) were randomly selected. Milk samples were collected from 458 quarters of 115 clinically healthy cows. SCC was analyzed on farm by a portable cell counter. Bacteriological samples were taken using Mastistrip(©) cassettes and sent to Sweden for examination. For all herds the mean herd SCC was 632 × 10(3)/mL milk. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter SCC basis was 63.2 % and at cow basis 88.6 %. Only 40 % of all cows were bacteriologically negative in all quarters. Streptococcus agalactiae was the most commonly found bacteria species, isolated from 96 of the 458 quarter samples, in 13 of the 20 farms. The results indicate pronounced subclinical mastitis problems among the dairy cows in this region mainly due to infections with S. agalactiae. The high prevalence of this highly contagious pathogen is probably attributable to the generally poor milking hygiene and low awareness of proper measures to prevent occurrence and spread of udder infections. A strict, targeted action program for the herds in this area is required in order to lower the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. PMID:23212834

  2. Temporal associations between low body condition, lameness and milk yield in a UK dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Green, L E; Huxley, J N; Banks, C; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has hypothesised that cows in low body condition become lame. We tested this in a prospective longitudinal study. Body condition score (BCS), causes of lameness and milk yield were collected from a 600-cow herd over 44-months. Mixed effect binomial models and a continuous outcome model were used to investigate the associations between lameness, BCS and milk yield. In total, 14,320 risk periods were obtained from 1137 cows. There were 1510 lameness treatments: the most common causes of lameness were sole ulcer (SU) (39%), sole haemorrhage (SH) (13%), digital dermatitis (DD) (10%) and white line disease (WLD) (8%). These varied by year and year quarter. Body condition was scored at 60-day intervals. BCS ranged from 1 to 5 with a mean of 2.5, scores were higher in very early lactation but varied widely throughout lactation; approximately 45% of scores were <2.5. The key finding was that BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for lameness in the following 0-2 months and >2-4 months for all causes of lameness and also specifically for SU/WLD lameness. BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for SH in the following 0-2 months but not >2-4 months. There was no such association with DD. All lameness, SU/WLD, SH and DD were significantly more likely to occur in cows that had been lame previously, but the effect of BCS was present even when all repeat cases of lameness were excluded from the analysis. Milk yield was significantly higher and fell in the month before treatment in cows lame with SU/WLD but it was not significantly higher for cows that were treated for DD compared with non-lame cows. These findings support the hypothesis that low BCS contributes to the development of horn related claw lameness but not infectious claw diseases in dairy cows. One link between low BCS and lameness is a thin digital cushion which has been proposed as a trigger for claw horn disease. Cows with BCS 2 produced more milk than cows

  3. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, <5 of 9 before calving, and lost condition between calving and the start of the breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS <5 of 9 with a loss of condition between breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors.

  4. Using multiple objective programming in a dairy cow breeding program.

    PubMed

    Tozer, P R; Stokes, J R

    2001-12-01

    Multiple-objective programming was used to examine the effects various objectives had on the optimal portfolio of sires chosen for a given breeding problem in a Jersey cow dairy herd. It was assumed that the dairy producer had the following three objectives in the breeding decision: to maximize Net Merit, to minimize inbreeding, and to minimize total expenditure on semen. Integer programming models of these three single objectives were estimated to provide the ideal and anti-ideal values for use in several multiple-objective programming models. The integer multiple-objective models examined the interactions and costs of tradeoffs between the three single objectives in a model framework designed to minimize the maximum deviations from the single-objective optima. A model with equal weights on each objective resulted in a decrease of 3% in average inbreeding but also reduced average Net Merit by $170 from the single-objective optima. A second model, where the weight on Net Merit was twice that of inbreeding and semen cost, decreased Net Merit by $100 and reduced inbreeding by 2% from the single objective optima. The results of the multiple-objective programming models show that reducing the inbreeding coefficient for a group of sires purchased will decrease the Net Merit. However, the results generated also demonstrate that the weights placed on each objective by the dairy producer substantially affect the optimal levels of each objective within the multiple-objective model.

  5. A large Markovian linear program to optimize replacement policies and dairy herd net income for diets and nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, V E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was 2-fold: 1) to propose a novel modeling framework using Markovian linear programming to optimize dairy farmer-defined goals under different decision schemes and 2) to illustrate the model with a practical application testing diets for entire lactations. A dairy herd population was represented by cow state variables defined by parity (1 to 15), month in lactation (1 to 24), and pregnancy status (0 nonpregnant and 1 to 9 mo of pregnancy). A database of 326,000 lactations of Holsteins from AgSource Dairy Herd Improvement service (http://agsource.crinet.com/page249/DHI) was used to parameterize reproduction, mortality, and involuntary culling. The problem was set up as a Markovian linear program model containing 5,580 decision variables and 8,731 constraints. The model optimized the net revenue of the steady state dairy herd population having 2 options in each state: keeping or replacing an animal. Five diets were studied to assess economic, environmental, and herd structural outcomes. Diets varied in proportions of alfalfa silage (38 to 98% of dry matter), high-moisture ear corn (0 to 42% of dry matter), and soybean meal (0 to 18% of dry matter) within and between lactations, which determined dry matter intake, milk production, and N excretion. Diet ingredient compositions ranged from one of high concentrates to alfalfa silage only. Hence, the model identified the maximum net revenue that included the value of nutrient excretion and the cost of manure disposal associated with the optimal policy. Outcomes related to optimal solutions included the herd population structure, the replacement policy, and the amount of N excreted under each diet experiment. The problem was solved using the Excel Risk Solver Platform with the Standard LP/Quadratic Engine. Consistent replacement policies were to (1) keep pregnant cows, (2) keep primiparous cows longer than multiparous cows, and (3) decrease replacement rates when milk and feed prices are favorable

  6. A large Markovian linear program to optimize replacement policies and dairy herd net income for diets and nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, V E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was 2-fold: 1) to propose a novel modeling framework using Markovian linear programming to optimize dairy farmer-defined goals under different decision schemes and 2) to illustrate the model with a practical application testing diets for entire lactations. A dairy herd population was represented by cow state variables defined by parity (1 to 15), month in lactation (1 to 24), and pregnancy status (0 nonpregnant and 1 to 9 mo of pregnancy). A database of 326,000 lactations of Holsteins from AgSource Dairy Herd Improvement service (http://agsource.crinet.com/page249/DHI) was used to parameterize reproduction, mortality, and involuntary culling. The problem was set up as a Markovian linear program model containing 5,580 decision variables and 8,731 constraints. The model optimized the net revenue of the steady state dairy herd population having 2 options in each state: keeping or replacing an animal. Five diets were studied to assess economic, environmental, and herd structural outcomes. Diets varied in proportions of alfalfa silage (38 to 98% of dry matter), high-moisture ear corn (0 to 42% of dry matter), and soybean meal (0 to 18% of dry matter) within and between lactations, which determined dry matter intake, milk production, and N excretion. Diet ingredient compositions ranged from one of high concentrates to alfalfa silage only. Hence, the model identified the maximum net revenue that included the value of nutrient excretion and the cost of manure disposal associated with the optimal policy. Outcomes related to optimal solutions included the herd population structure, the replacement policy, and the amount of N excreted under each diet experiment. The problem was solved using the Excel Risk Solver Platform with the Standard LP/Quadratic Engine. Consistent replacement policies were to (1) keep pregnant cows, (2) keep primiparous cows longer than multiparous cows, and (3) decrease replacement rates when milk and feed prices are favorable

  7. Antibiotic use in dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, A; Koops, W J; Wemmenhove, H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variation in antibiotic use and the effects of external factors on trends in antibiotic use at the herd level by using the number of daily dosages as an indicator for antibiotic use. For this purpose, antibiotic use was analyzed in 94 dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012. The herds were divided into 3 groups of farmers: one group was guided in their antibiotic use from 2008 to 2010 as part of the project, whereas the other 2 groups were not actively guided. The farms were located in 10 of the 12 provinces and were clients of 32 of the 300 veterinary practices that treat cattle. Sales invoices from the veterinary practices provided the antibiotic and cost data for the participating farmers. The number of animal-defined daily dosages (ADDD) indicates the number of days per year that the average cow in a herd is given antibiotic treatment. The average ADDD for all farms from 2005 to 2012 was 5.86 (standard deviation=2.14); 68% of ADDD were used for udder health, 24% for clinical mastitis and 44% for dry-cow therapy. Variation in ADDD among herds decreased during the study period. The trend in ADDD can be described as having 3 phases: (1) a period of increasing use coinciding with little public concern about antibiotic use (2005-2007), (2) a period of growing awareness and stabilization of use (2007-2010), and (3) a period of decreasing use coinciding with increasing societal concerns (2010-2012). The greatest reduction in use was for drugs other than those used to treat the udder. Drug use for mastitis treatment fell considerably in the final year of the study period, whereas farmers were reluctant to reduce use for dry-cow therapy. Almost 40% of the herds were given less than 2.5 ADDD for dry-cow therapy, which is equivalent to 2.5 tubes per average cow in the herd, and 20% used more than 3 tubes per cow. Use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones dropped from 18% of ADDD during 2005 to

  8. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suthar, V S; Canelas-Raposo, J; Deniz, A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-05-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is defined as concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.2 to 1.4 mmol/L and it is considered a gateway condition for other metabolic and infectious disorders such as metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Reported prevalence rates range from 6.9 to 43% in the first 2 mo of lactation. However, there is a dearth of information on prevalence rates considering the diversity of European dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of SCK, (2) identify thresholds of BHBA, and (3) study their relationships with postpartum metritis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, and mastitis in European dairy farms. From May to October 2011, a convenience sample of 528 dairy herds from Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey was studied. β-Hydroxybutyrate levels were measured in 5,884 cows with a handheld meter within 2 to 15 d in milk (DIM). On average, 11 cows were enrolled per farm and relevant information (e.g., DIM, postpartum diseases, herd size) was recorded. Using receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, blood BHBA thresholds were determined for the occurrence of metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, and lameness. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were built for each disease, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. Overall prevalence of SCK (i.e., blood BHBA ≥ 1.2 mmol/L) within 10 countries was 21.8%, ranging from 11.2 to 36.6%. Cows with SCK had 1.5, 9.5, and 5.0 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression models demonstrated that cows with blood BHBA levels of ≥ 1.4, ≥ 1.1 and ≥ 1.7 mmol/L during 2 to 15 DIM had 1.7, 10.5, and 6.9 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively, compared with cows with lower

  9. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    . The increased milk yield observed in experiment 1 was not observed in experiment 2. Adding 8% of MB to lactating cow diets had a mixed effect on DMI and milk production. Milk component yields and milk quality were not affected. Feeding this level of MB presents a hemolytic danger to lactating dairy cows. PMID:21605775

  10. Evidence of birth seasonality and clustering of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2013-11-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a contagious intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). In cattle, young calves are at the highest risk for acquiring the infection which occurs mainly through ingestion of MAP from contaminated milk, colostrum and feces or environmental contacts. Data consisted of birth dates and ELISA results of 8000 mature cows from 24 Jersey herds from throughout the US and 4 Wisconsin Holstein herds. Some herds also had complete fecal culture (FC) results. The first infection (case) definition (CD1) relied on only ELISA results. A second case definition (CD2) was used in which results of both ELISA and FC tests were considered: animals testing positive to either test were considered "test-positives" and cows testing negative to ELISA or to both ELISA and FC were regarded as "test-negatives". Objective one was to assess seasonality in birth of MAP-infected animals. The effects of age, breed, herd and season of birth (expressed as the sine and cosine functions of birth days within year) were examined using logistic regression. Age was significantly associated with the MAP infection status of dairy cows for both CDs (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.09, 1.14; P<0.0001 for CD1; OR=1.16; 95% CI 1.08, 1.24; P<0.0001 for CD2). Season of birth had a significant effect on the risk of MAP infection based on CD1 (OR=0.79; 95% CI 0.71, 0.89; P<0.001 for cosine of birth days) with a peak in summer and a trough in winter based on the fitted model. Objective two was to assess whether test-positive animals were randomly distributed or were clustered by date of birth within herds. A temporal cluster analysis approach (scan statistic) implemented in SaTScan software was used for each case definition to detect clusters of birth cohorts using birthdates. Results identified significant clustering of MAP infection cases for CD1 in multiple herds (P<0.05). These results necessitate matching cases and controls of MAP

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in tie-stall dairy herds using a standardized environmental sampling technique and targeted pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Paré, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Buczinski, Sébastien; Doré, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Julie H; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic contagious enteritis of ruminants that causes major economic losses. Several studies, most involving large free-stall herds, have found environmental sampling to be a suitable method for detecting MAP-infected herds. In eastern Canada, where small tie-stall herds are predominant, certain conditions and management practices may influence the survival and transmission of MAP and recovery (isolation). Our objective was to estimate the performance of a standardized environmental and targeted pooled sampling technique for the detection of MAP-infected tie-stall dairy herds. Twenty-four farms (19 MAP-infected and 5 non-infected) were enrolled, but only 20 were visited twice in the same year, to collect 7 environmental samples and 2 pooled samples (sick cows and cows with poor body condition). Concurrent individual sampling of all adult cows in the herds was also carried out. Isolation of MAP was achieved using the MGIT Para TB culture media and the BACTEC 960 detection system. Overall, MAP was isolated in 7% of the environmental cultures. The sensitivity of the environmental culture was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20% to 70%] when combining results from 2 different herd visits and 32% (95% CI: 13% to 57%) when results from only 1 random herd visit were used. The best sampling strategy was to combine samples from the manure pit, gutter, sick cows, and cows with poor body condition. The standardized environmental sampling technique and the targeted pooled samples presented in this study is an alternative sampling strategy to costly individual cultures for detecting MAP-infected tie-stall dairies. Repeated samplings may improve the detection of MAP-infected herds. PMID:27408329

  12. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs. PMID:26233445

  13. Evaluation of complementary diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis detection in dairy herds from India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, Dharmender Kumar; Singh, Bhoj Raj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to know the herd prevalence and evaluate the single intradermal tuberculin testing (SITT), culture isolation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Materials and Methods: A total of 541 cows of three dairy farms of Bareilly and Mukteshwar were screened by SITT followed by collection of pre-scapular lymph node (PSLN) aspirates (71), milk (54), and blood (71) samples from reactor animals. These clinical samples were processed for culture isolation and direct PCR-based identification and species differentiation. Results: Out of 541 cows screened by SITT, 71 (13.12%) animals were found positive. Mycobacteria were isolated from 3 (4.22%) PSLN aspirate but not from any cultured milk and blood samples. 28 (39.43%) PSLN aspirate and 5 (9.25%) milk samples were positive for Mycobacterium TB (MTB) complex (MTC) by PCR amplification for the IS6110 insertion sequence; however, blood samples were found negative. For species differentiation, multiplex-PCR using 12.7 kb primers was conducted. Out of 28 PSLN aspirate, Mycobacterium bovis was detected in 18 (64.28%) and MTB in 8 (28.57%), whereas 2 aspirate samples (7.14%) were positive for both the species. All the five milk positive samples were positive for M. bovis. Conclusion: Direct detection of bovine TB by a molecular-based method in dairy animals after preliminary screening was appeared to be more sensitive and specific compared to the conventional method (i.e., culture isolation). Its application in form of serial testing methodology for the routine diagnosis and thereafter, culling of infected stock may be suggested for the control programs in dairy herds. The PSLN aspirate was found to be the most suitable specimen for culture isolation and PCR-based detection of Mycobacterium spp. among live infected animals. PMID:27651675

  14. Evaluation of complementary diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis detection in dairy herds from India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, Dharmender Kumar; Singh, Bhoj Raj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to know the herd prevalence and evaluate the single intradermal tuberculin testing (SITT), culture isolation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Materials and Methods: A total of 541 cows of three dairy farms of Bareilly and Mukteshwar were screened by SITT followed by collection of pre-scapular lymph node (PSLN) aspirates (71), milk (54), and blood (71) samples from reactor animals. These clinical samples were processed for culture isolation and direct PCR-based identification and species differentiation. Results: Out of 541 cows screened by SITT, 71 (13.12%) animals were found positive. Mycobacteria were isolated from 3 (4.22%) PSLN aspirate but not from any cultured milk and blood samples. 28 (39.43%) PSLN aspirate and 5 (9.25%) milk samples were positive for Mycobacterium TB (MTB) complex (MTC) by PCR amplification for the IS6110 insertion sequence; however, blood samples were found negative. For species differentiation, multiplex-PCR using 12.7 kb primers was conducted. Out of 28 PSLN aspirate, Mycobacterium bovis was detected in 18 (64.28%) and MTB in 8 (28.57%), whereas 2 aspirate samples (7.14%) were positive for both the species. All the five milk positive samples were positive for M. bovis. Conclusion: Direct detection of bovine TB by a molecular-based method in dairy animals after preliminary screening was appeared to be more sensitive and specific compared to the conventional method (i.e., culture isolation). Its application in form of serial testing methodology for the routine diagnosis and thereafter, culling of infected stock may be suggested for the control programs in dairy herds. The PSLN aspirate was found to be the most suitable specimen for culture isolation and PCR-based detection of Mycobacterium spp. among live infected animals.

  15. The effect of reproductive performance on the dairy cattle herd value assessed by integrating a daily dynamic programming model with a daily Markov chain model.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, A S; Cabrera, V E

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on dairy cattle herd value. Herd value was defined as the herd's average retention payoff (RPO). Individual cow RPO is the expected profit from keeping the cow compared with immediate replacement. First, a daily dynamic programming model was developed to calculate the RPO of all cow states in a herd. Second, a daily Markov chain model was applied to estimate the herd demographics. Finally, the herd value was calculated by aggregating the RPO of all cows in the herd. Cow states were described by 5 milk yield classes (76, 88, 100, 112, and 124% with respect to the average), 9 lactations, 750 d in milk, and 282 d in pregnancy. Five different reproductive programs were studied (RP1 to RP5). Reproductive program 1 used 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI; 42% conception rate for first TAI and 30% for second and later services) and the other programs combined TAI with estrus detection. The proportion of cows receiving artificial insemination after estrus detection ranged from 30 to 80%, and conception rate ranged from 25 to 35%. These 5 reproductive programs were categorized according to their 21-d pregnancy rate (21-d PR), which is an indication of the rate that eligible cows become pregnant every 21 d. The 21-d PR was 17% for RP1, 14% for RP2, 16% for RP3, 18% for RP4, and 20% for RP5. Results showed a positive relationship between 21-d PR and herd value. The most extreme herd value difference between 2 reproductive programs was $77/cow per yr for average milk yield (RP5 - RP2), $13/cow per yr for lowest milk yield (RP5 - RP1), and $160/cow per yr for highest milk yield (RP5 - RP2). Reproductive programs were ranked based on their calculated herd value. With the exception of the best reproductive program (RP5), all other programs showed some level of ranking change according to milk yield. The most dramatic ranking change was observed in RP1, which moved from being the worst ranked

  16. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  17. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of national milk-recording data of seasonal-calving New Zealand dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Clements, A C A; Pfeiffer, D U; Hayes, D

    2005-10-12

    A spatio-temporal analysis was undertaken with the aim of identifying the dynamics of herd mean individual cow SCCs (MICSCC) in seasonally calving New Zealand dairy herds. Two datasets were extracted from the Livestock Improvement Corporation's extensive national dairy recording database: (1) milk-recording data aggregated at the herd-level and (2) sales questionnaire data containing information on the size, location and infrastructure of each farm. A Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach was applied to the analysis. The data were aggregated by 10 km(2) grid cells and linear regression models were developed with spatially structured and unstructured random effects, a linear temporal trend random effect and spatial-temporal interactions for log-transformed median MISCC (ln(median MISCC)). Significant associations were found between ln(median MISCC) and milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, farm area and number of cups in the dairy. This led us to suggest that SCCs should be adjusted for volume and constituents prior to determining a threshold MISCC for identification of subclinical mastitis (SCM) problem herds. Part, or all, of the temporal trend in MISCC in the spatio-temporal model was accounted for by inclusion of yield and milk constituents as independent variables. This supports the hypothesis of a dilution effect with potential consequences for misdiagnosis of SCM, particularly in late lactation. Unmeasured covariates were similarly likely to be spatially structured and unstructured. PMID:16107283

  18. The effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on fertility in dairy cows: two case-control studies in the province of Styria, Austria.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Kuchling, Sabrina; Kopacka, Ian; Pinior, Beate; Köfer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) leads to substantial economic losses in beef and dairy herds worldwide. Two case-control studies were carried out using production data from 1996 to 2012 to analyse the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) on fertility in dairy herds in the province of Styria during an eradication programme. In study 1, herds in which at least one persistently BVDV-infected (PI) animal was detected (case herds) were compared to a group of control herds proven free from BVDV infection (contro herds). In study 2, within BVD infected herds the period during which P animals were present (exposed period) was compared to the period after successful BVD eradication (unexposed period). Calving interval (CAl) and the probability of a first service conception (FSC) were used as indicators in a mixed regression model to investigate the impact of BVD on reproductive performance. The model results indicated that BVD had a significant influence on CAl and FSC. Cows from control herds were 1.1 times more likely to conceive at first service compared to cows from case herds and cows served during the BVDV unexposed period were 1.3 times more likely to conceive at first service than those inseminated during the exposed period. In BVD-infected herds the CAI averaged seven days shorter in unexposed periods than in exposed periods. Besides BVD the animal breed and the parity substantially impact the analysed fertility indicators.

  19. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla, H. Patricia; Martínez, M. José Juan; Medina, C. Mario; Morales, S. Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent. PMID:17955907

  20. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent.

  1. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  2. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  3. Use of Stochastic Simulation to Evaluate the Reduction in Methane Emissions and Improvement in Reproductive Efficiency from Routine Hormonal Interventions in Dairy Herds.

    PubMed

    Archer, Simon C; Hudson, Christopher D; Green, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the magnitude and between herd variation in changes of methane emissions and production efficiency associated with interventions to improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Data for 10,000 herds of 200 cows were simulated. Probability of conception was predicted daily from the start of the study (parturition) for each cow up to day 300 of lactation. Four scenarios of differing first insemination management were simulated for each herd using the same theoretical cows: A baseline scenario based on breeding from observed oestrus only, synchronisation of oestrus for pre-set first insemination using 2 methods, and a regime using prostaglandin treatments followed by first insemination to observed oestrus. Cows that did not conceive to first insemination were re-inseminated following detection of oestrus. For cows that conceived, gestation length was 280 days with cessation of milking 60 days before calving. Those cows not pregnant after 300 days of lactation were culled and replaced by a heifer. Daily milk yield was calculated for 730 days from the start of the study for each cow. Change in mean reproductive and economic outputs were summarised for each herd following the 3 interventions. For each scenario, methane emissions were determined by daily forage dry matter intake, forage quality, and cow replacement risk. Linear regression was used to summarise relationships. In some circumstances improvement in reproductive efficiency using the programmes investigated was associated with reduced cost and methane emissions compared to reliance on detection of oestrus. Efficiency of oestrus detection and the time to commencement of breeding after calving influenced variability in changes in cost and methane emissions. For an average UK herd this was a saving of at least £50 per cow and a 3.6% reduction in methane emissions per L of milk when timing of first insemination was pre-set. PMID:26061424

  4. Use of Stochastic Simulation to Evaluate the Reduction in Methane Emissions and Improvement in Reproductive Efficiency from Routine Hormonal Interventions in Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Simon C.; Hudson, Christopher D.; Green, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the magnitude and between herd variation in changes of methane emissions and production efficiency associated with interventions to improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Data for 10,000 herds of 200 cows were simulated. Probability of conception was predicted daily from the start of the study (parturition) for each cow up to day 300 of lactation. Four scenarios of differing first insemination management were simulated for each herd using the same theoretical cows: A baseline scenario based on breeding from observed oestrus only, synchronisation of oestrus for pre-set first insemination using 2 methods, and a regime using prostaglandin treatments followed by first insemination to observed oestrus. Cows that did not conceive to first insemination were re-inseminated following detection of oestrus. For cows that conceived, gestation length was 280 days with cessation of milking 60 days before calving. Those cows not pregnant after 300 days of lactation were culled and replaced by a heifer. Daily milk yield was calculated for 730 days from the start of the study for each cow. Change in mean reproductive and economic outputs were summarised for each herd following the 3 interventions. For each scenario, methane emissions were determined by daily forage dry matter intake, forage quality, and cow replacement risk. Linear regression was used to summarise relationships. In some circumstances improvement in reproductive efficiency using the programmes investigated was associated with reduced cost and methane emissions compared to reliance on detection of oestrus. Efficiency of oestrus detection and the time to commencement of breeding after calving influenced variability in changes in cost and methane emissions. For an average UK herd this was a saving of at least £50 per cow and a 3.6% reduction in methane emissions per L of milk when timing of first insemination was pre-set. PMID:26061424

  5. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  6. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  7. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. I. Technique, histological criteria and results.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G; Martin, S W; Johnson, W H

    1991-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were taken for histological assessment from 97 cows which calved in a commercial dairy herd between April and August 1984. Sixty-two cows were biopsied at both day 26 and 40 postpartum, 23 cows at only day 26, and 12 at day 40 only. Subjective and quantitative histological criteria were assessed. Ninety-five percent of biopsies were adequate for at least subjective assessment. The distribution of criteria within each horn-day category, as well as combined readings by day and by gravid or nongravid horn were computed and significant differences noted. There was more severe inflammation and more segmented cells at day 26 than 40 postpartum, and in the gravid compared to the nongravid horn. The distribution patterns for the criteria examined provide an overview of histological characteristics in this group of postpartum cows. PMID:1884295

  8. Trends and seasonality of reproductive performance in Florida and Georgia dairy herds from 1976 to 2002.

    PubMed

    de Vries, A; Risco, C A

    2005-09-01

    Trends in reproductive performance from 1976 to 2002 were studied for dairy farms located in Florida and Georgia using 2,897,517 Dairy Herd Improvement Association lactation records of Holstein cows. One-half of the 1552 herds in the final edited records had measures for at least 8 yr. Measures of reproductive performance changed significantly over time. Days to first service increased from a low of 84 d in 1983 to 104 d in 2001. Cows that calved during spring had 9.2 (1983) to 33.2 (1999) more days to first service than cows that calved during fall. Annual pregnancy rates (PR) for 71 to 364 d since last calving (DSC; PR(71-364)) decreased from 21.6% in 1977 to 1979, to 12% in 2000 to 2002. The greatest PR(71-364) was observed during winter and the lowest during summer (15.8 vs. 5.6% in 2002, respectively). The absolute difference between PR(71-364) during winter and summer remained similar over time at 11 percentage units. Pregnancy rates in the early stages since calving (71 to 133 d) showed greater decreases over time than PR in the later stages since calving. From 1998 to 2002, PR in the later stages since calving (134 to 364 d) was on average 11.5%. Pregnancy rate from 71 to 133 DSC remained greater (13.4%). In the winter, the decrease in PR(71-364) was primarily due to a large decrease in PR(71-91). Average days to conception increased from a low of 121 in 1982 to a high of 167 in 1998. The average difference between cows that calved during spring and fall increased from 22 d in 1976 to 47.5 d in 1986, but remained constant at 39.1 d from 1985. Average calving interval increased from 399 d in 1976 to 429 d in 2000. Average days dry between 1976 and 2001 remained similar at 69 d. Days to culling of nonpregnant cows after 182 DSC increased from 341 in 1983 to 415 in 1998. Season of calving had no clear association with average days to culling. The last milk yield recorded less than 1 mo before culling of nonpregnant cows after 182 DSC decreased by DSC to

  9. Evaluation of systematic breeding programs for lactating dairy cows: a review.

    PubMed

    Nebel, R L; Jobst, S M

    1998-04-01

    Observing cows in estrus and inseminating them at the optimum time are necessary steps for effective reproductive management of a dairy herd. However, larger herd sizes can lead to reproductive inefficiency and decreased profits on dairy farms. Synchronization of estrus behavior through pharmacological control has been used to improve reproductive efficiency. Methods of synchronizing estrus were originally devised to decrease the time spent detecting estrus; however, systematic breeding programs are now being used for convenience and efficiency in reproductive management. Systematic breeding programs provide an organized approach for administering artificial insemination (AI) at first service. Moreover, reproductive management is based on a methodical approach for the entire herd rather than for the individual cow. Targeted Breeding (Pharmacia-Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) consists of a series of three PGF2 alpha injections at 14-d intervals. For convenience, injections are usually given one day a week to all cows that surpass the specified target date. The PGF2 alpha injections may be continued until detection of estrus and AI or fixed-time AI. Ovsynch consists of a GnRH injection at a random stage of the estrous cycle, followed by PGF2 alpha 7 d later, a second GnRH injection 36 to 48 h after PGF2 alpha, and timed AI. Research has shown that both Ovsynch and Targeted Breeding can improve reproductive performance over that of traditional programs. PMID:9594406

  10. The use of hormonal treatments to improve the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows in feedlot or pasture-based management systems.

    PubMed

    Lucy, M C; McDougall, S; Nation, D P

    2004-07-01

    Hormonal interventions have been used to increase the probability of estrous detection and insemination, and to increase pregnancy rates of dairy cattle under a variety of management systems. The present review addresses the basic principles of hormonal intervention and presents typical examples that illustrate the methodology. The hormones used to control the estrous cycle mimic the reproductive hormones found within the normal cow. Most estrous synchronization systems employ a method for controlling follicular wave development, promoting ovulation in anestrous cows, regressing the corpus luteum in cyclic cows, and synchronizing estrus and (or) ovulation at the end of treatment. A wide range of reproductive systems are in place on dairy farms. In most herds, a non-intervention period is practiced where postpartum cows are observed estrus estrus. Cows not observed in estrus are then treated. A number of studies in pasture-based and confinement systems have demonstrated net benefits of whole-herd synchronization. Despite the advantages of whole-herd reproductive programs, their uptake has been inconsistent globally. The benefits of a timed artificial insemination (AI) system increase under conditions of poor estrous detection rate and poor conception rate. The unpopular nature of timed AI programs in pasture-fed cows relates to high rates of estrous detection and conception for pasture-based dairying. Regardless of production system, some cows must be re-inseminated because they are not pregnant after first insemination. The presence of "phantom cows" (non-pregnant cows that do not return to estrus) creates a serious reproductive challenge for both pasture-based and confinement-style operations. Early pregnancy diagnosis and second insemination timed AI may reduce the effects of phantom cows on dairy herds. Fundamental research into anestrous, the hormonal control of the estrous cycle, and early pregnancy detection should elucidate new methods that can be used to

  11. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    PubMed

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  12. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  13. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows.

  14. Recent advances in the synchronization of estrus and ovulation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization programs have become standard components in the current breeding management of cows in the dairy herds of most dairy industries. Many are based on protocols that allow timed inseminations (TAI) so as to circumvent the practical difficulties associated with estrus detection. These difficulties are exacerbated in modern herds of high producing cows either because of increasing herd size in which individual animal monitoring is difficult and often subjective, or because small intensively managed herds are milked in robotic systems that minimize animal: staff interactions. Additional reasons arise from high producing cows having less obvious symptoms of estrus, partly because of housing systems combined with intensive feeding and milking, partly because of higher metabolic clearance rates of reproductive hormones like estradiol and partly because of the increasing prevalence of prolonged post-partum anestrus and reproductive tract pathology. The most recently developed programs include protocols for resynchronization following first or subsequent inseminations. These re-synchronization protocols may involve selected forms of hormonal intervention during the diestrous and pro-estrous periods following TAI, or following pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound from 28 days after TAI. The latter form of re-synchronization has become increasingly important with the recognition that late embryonic/early foetal death has become a major factor compromising the reproductive performance of high producing Holstein cows in many dairy industries. Although cows detected in estrus without any hormonal treatment before insemination have higher conception rates than those inseminated following synchronization and TAI, the low detection rates combined with embryonic death means that intervals from calving to conception (days open) are usually less when synchronization programs have been successfully implemented. One of the significant factors affecting a program's success is

  15. Recent advances in the synchronization of estrus and ovulation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization programs have become standard components in the current breeding management of cows in the dairy herds of most dairy industries. Many are based on protocols that allow timed inseminations (TAI) so as to circumvent the practical difficulties associated with estrus detection. These difficulties are exacerbated in modern herds of high producing cows either because of increasing herd size in which individual animal monitoring is difficult and often subjective, or because small intensively managed herds are milked in robotic systems that minimize animal: staff interactions. Additional reasons arise from high producing cows having less obvious symptoms of estrus, partly because of housing systems combined with intensive feeding and milking, partly because of higher metabolic clearance rates of reproductive hormones like estradiol and partly because of the increasing prevalence of prolonged post-partum anestrus and reproductive tract pathology. The most recently developed programs include protocols for resynchronization following first or subsequent inseminations. These re-synchronization protocols may involve selected forms of hormonal intervention during the diestrous and pro-estrous periods following TAI, or following pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound from 28 days after TAI. The latter form of re-synchronization has become increasingly important with the recognition that late embryonic/early foetal death has become a major factor compromising the reproductive performance of high producing Holstein cows in many dairy industries. Although cows detected in estrus without any hormonal treatment before insemination have higher conception rates than those inseminated following synchronization and TAI, the low detection rates combined with embryonic death means that intervals from calving to conception (days open) are usually less when synchronization programs have been successfully implemented. One of the significant factors affecting a program's success is

  16. Economic analysis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis vaccines in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Cho, J; Tauer, L W; Schukken, Y H; Gómez, M I; Smith, R L; Lu, Z; Grohn, Y T

    2012-04-01

    Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, is a chronic infectious enteric disease of ruminants, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Given the absence of a fail-safe method of prevention or a cure, Johne's disease can inflict significant economic loss on the US dairy industry, with an estimated annual cost of over $200 million. Currently available MAP control strategies include management measures to improve hygiene, culling MAP serologic- or fecal-positive adult cows, and vaccination. Although the 2 first control strategies have been reported to be effective in reducing the incidence of MAP infection, the changes in herd management needed to conduct these control strategies require significant effort on the part of the dairy producer. On the other hand, vaccination is relatively simple to apply and requires minor changes in herd management. Despite these advantages, only 5% of US dairy operations use vaccination to control MAP. This low level of adoption of this technology is due to limited information on its cost-effectiveness and efficacy and some important inherent drawbacks associated with current MAP vaccines. This study investigates the epidemiological effect and economic values of MAP vaccines in various stages of development. We create scenarios for the potential epidemiological effects of MAP vaccines, and then estimate economically justifiable monetary values at which vaccines become economically beneficial to dairy producers such that a net present value (NPV) of a farm's net cash flow can be higher than the NPV of a farm using no control or alternative nonvaccine controls. Any vaccination with either low or high efficacy considered in this study yielded a higher NPV compared with a no MAP control. Moreover, high-efficacy vaccines generated an even higher NPV compared with alternative controls, making vaccination economically attractive. Two high-efficacy vaccines were particularly effective in MAP control and NPV

  17. Assessment of Fatty Liver Syndrome and Its Predisposing Factors in a Dairy Herd from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Clara I.

    2013-01-01

    The present on-farm research evaluated the occurrence of fatty liver syndrome and its predisposing risk factors for multiparous dairy cows from a commercial herd in Venezuela. Liver biopsy samples were collected at 35 days (d) prepartum (Holstein, n = 14; Holstein × Carora crossbred, n = 17) as well as 1 to 7 d (Holstein, n = 8; Holstein × Carora crossbred, n = 11) and 28 to 35 d (Holstein, n = 6; Holstein × Carora crossbred, n = 14) postpartum in order to analyse hepatic triacylglycerols (TAG, % wet basis) and glycogen concentrations. At postpartum, an occurrence of 72.0% for severe fatty liver along with 73.5% of subclinical ketosis (SCK) was found. The multiple regression model that best explained the association between milk production in the previous lactation (MYP) and TAG at first week postpartum was as follows: TAG, % = −11.2 + 3.16 (prepartum body condition) + 0.0009176 (MYP) (R² = 0.36, P < 0.05). Logistic regression indicated that Holstein × Carora crossbred cows tended to have 27% higher relative risk than Holstein to experience SCK, whereas prepartum liver TAG greater than 3% tended to be associated with a higher relative risk for SCK compared to cows with TAG ≤3%. PMID:23738138

  18. Severe Mycoplasma bovis outbreak in an Austrian dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Pothmann, Harald; Spergser, Joachim; Elmer, Josef; Prunner, Isabella; Iwersen, Michael; Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Drillich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    A conventional dairy farm, housing 19 Austrian Simmental cows, experienced a spontaneous outbreak of a Mycoplasma bovis infection, showing severe clinical signs of respiratory tract disease, clinical mastitis, and tremendous drop in milk production. Despite intensive therapy, 5 cows died within 2 weeks or were euthanized. From the remaining cows, bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction revealed M. bovis in 10 of 14 milk samples. Mycoplasma bovis was found in 1 of 5 randomly collected nasal swabs. Autopsy of 1 cow revealed infection of the lungs and the udder with M. bovis. The 13 M. bovis isolates from milk samples, nasal swabs, lungs, and udder were genotyped by multilocus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis, and indicated that described infections were caused by a single M. bovis strain. The virulent M. bovis strain resulted in dramatic economic loss to the farmer. To control the disease, culling of all animals, including heifers and calves, was recommended, and strict hygienic measures were implemented before introducing new animals to the farm. PMID:26450838

  19. Management of heat stress to improve fertility in dairy cows in Israel.

    PubMed

    Flamenbaum, Israel; Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    Israel has about 100,000 dairy cows mostly all of Israeli-Holstein-breed, kept in close to 1000 dairy farms. Most farms are distributed along the Mediterranean Sea coast and in the hot internal valleys. According to the Israeli Herd book the average annual milk production, per cow in 2008 was 11,460 kg, with 3.7% fat and 3.2% protein. Israel's climate is considered "subtropical dry" or Mediterranean, characterized by warm and dry summer with day temperatures above 30 C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 90%. Climatic limitations brought dairy farmers to develop and implement new technologies and management practices that would enable high milk production and reproduction in summers. In the last three decades the Ministry of Agriculture research units, the extension service and dairy farmers conducted a series of trials and surveys in order to develop an efficient cooling system that will obtain and maintain high milk yield and good reproduction during the hot and humid summer. The cooling system commonly used in Israel is based on a combination of frequent direct watering of the cows, followed by forced ventilation air blowing onto the cows. The system was developed in Israel nearly 30 years ago. A typical cycle is five minutes long and consists of 30 sec of watering followed by 4.5 min of forced ventilation. Providing the cows with 5-7 cooling sessions per day, 30-45 min each, allowed cows, producing 25-30 kg of milk per day to maintain their body temperature below 39.0 C, throughout the day time, on a typical Israeli summer day. At the same time, non-cooled cows had high body temperatures (above 39.5 C), during some part of the daytime and returned to normal body temperatures (below 39.0 C), only for a few hours late at night. In an experiment conducted in 1985-86, conception rate (CR) of cows, cooled as described above, was significantly higher than of non-cooled cows (59 vs. 17% and 57 vs. 17%), for first insemination and for all inseminations

  20. Prevalence in bulk tank milk and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni in dairy herds in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Valentina; Borella, Laura; Benedetti, Valentina; Parisi, Antonio; Miccolupo, Angela; Santoro, Eliana; Recordati, Camilla; Luini, Mario

    2014-03-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are frequently the cause of human gastroenteritis and have assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter spp. in dairy herds and to investigate the possible sources of bulk milk contamination. Bulk milk from dairy herds (n = 282) was cultured for Campylobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. At three Campylobacter jejuni-positive farms, bovine feces, pigeon intestines, milk, and water points were also investigated. Isolates were identified by PCR and genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). C. jejuni was detected in 34 (12%) bulk milk samples. The strains belonged to 14 sequence types, and the most common clonal complexes were CC-21, CC-48, and CC-403. No association was demonstrated between the presence of C. jejuni and high levels of Enterobacteriaceae in bulk milk. At the three farms examined, C. jejuni was isolated from bovine feces (25/82 [30.5%]), pigeon intestines (13/60 [21.7%]), bulk milk (10/24 [41.7%]), and water points (4/16 [25%]). MLST revealed lineages that were common between milk and bovine feces but distinct between cattle and pigeons. In one herd, C. jejuni with the same genotype was isolated repeatedly from bulk milk and a cow with an udder infection. Our results showed a high prevalence of C. jejuni in bulk milk and suggested that udder excretion, in addition to fecal matter, may be a route of bulk milk contamination. MLST analysis indicated that pigeons are probably not relevant for the transmission of C. jejuni to cattle and for milk contamination.

  1. Prevalence in Bulk Tank Milk and Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni in Dairy Herds in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Valentina; Borella, Laura; Benedetti, Valentina; Parisi, Antonio; Miccolupo, Angela; Santoro, Eliana; Recordati, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are frequently the cause of human gastroenteritis and have assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter spp. in dairy herds and to investigate the possible sources of bulk milk contamination. Bulk milk from dairy herds (n = 282) was cultured for Campylobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. At three Campylobacter jejuni-positive farms, bovine feces, pigeon intestines, milk, and water points were also investigated. Isolates were identified by PCR and genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). C. jejuni was detected in 34 (12%) bulk milk samples. The strains belonged to 14 sequence types, and the most common clonal complexes were CC-21, CC-48, and CC-403. No association was demonstrated between the presence of C. jejuni and high levels of Enterobacteriaceae in bulk milk. At the three farms examined, C. jejuni was isolated from bovine feces (25/82 [30.5%]), pigeon intestines (13/60 [21.7%]), bulk milk (10/24 [41.7%]), and water points (4/16 [25%]). MLST revealed lineages that were common between milk and bovine feces but distinct between cattle and pigeons. In one herd, C. jejuni with the same genotype was isolated repeatedly from bulk milk and a cow with an udder infection. Our results showed a high prevalence of C. jejuni in bulk milk and suggested that udder excretion, in addition to fecal matter, may be a route of bulk milk contamination. MLST analysis indicated that pigeons are probably not relevant for the transmission of C. jejuni to cattle and for milk contamination. PMID:24413598

  2. Genetic control of reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    The advent of AI has markedly improved the production potential of dairy cows in all systems of production and transformed the dairy industry in many countries. Unfortunately, for many years breeding objectives focused solely on milk production. This resulted in a major decline in genetic merit for fertility traits. In recent years, the underlying physiological mechanisms responsible for this decline have started to be unravelled. It is apparent that poor genetic merit for fertility traits is associated with multiple defects across a range of organs and tissues that are antagonistic to achieving satisfactory fertility performance. The principal defects include excessive mobilisation of body condition score, unfavourable metabolic status, delayed resumption of cyclicity, increased incidence of endometritis, dysfunctional oestrus expression and inadequate luteal phase progesterone concentrations. On a positive note, it is possible to identify sires that combine good milk production traits with good fertility traits. Sire genetic merit for daughter fertility traits is improving rapidly in the dairy breeds, including the Holstein. With advances in animal breeding, especially genomic technologies, to identify superior sires, genetic merit for fertility traits can be improved much more quickly than they initially declined.

  3. Expanding the dairy herd in pasture-based systems: The role of sexed semen within alternative breeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C; Shalloo, L; Hutchinson, I A; Butler, S T

    2016-08-01

    A simulation model was developed to determine the effects of sexed semen use in heifers and lactating cows on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Five separate artificial insemination (AI) protocols were established according to the type of semen used: (1) conventional frozen-thawed semen (CONV); (2) sexed semen in heifers and conventional semen used in cows (SS-HEIFER); (3) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows (body condition score ≥3 and calved ≥63 d), with conventional semen used in the remainder of cows (SS-CONV); (4) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows, with conventional semen in the remainder of cows for the first AI and conventional beef semen used for the second AI (SS-BEEF); or (5) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows, with conventional semen in the remainder of cows for the first AI and short gestation length semen used for the second AI (SS-SGL). Each AI protocol was assessed under 3 scenarios of sexed semen conception rate (SS-CR): 100, 94, and 87% relative to that of conventional semen. Artificial insemination was used on heifers for the first 3 wk and on cows for the first 6 wk of the 12-wk breeding season. The initial herd size was 100 cows, and all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion, up to a maximum herd size of 300 cows. Once maximum herd size was reached, all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo old. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each AI protocol was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The SS-CONV protocol generated more replacement heifers than all other AI protocols, facilitating faster expansion, and reached maximum herd size in yr 9, 9, and 10 for 100, 94, and 87% SS-CR, respectively. All AI protocols, except SS-BEEF and SS-SGL at 87% SS-CR, reached maximum herd size within the 15-yr period

  4. A cross sectional observational study to estimate herd level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars in small holder dairy cattle farms in southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The south of Chile constitutes the main cattle milk producing area of the country. Regarding leptospirosis control in Chile, there is neither an official program nor an epidemiological characterization of smallholder dairy farms. This study was carried out to determine Leptospira seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity at herd level in smallholder bovine dairy herds in southern Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenient sample of 1,537 apparently healthy dairy cows was included in the study. Individual blood samples were taken and examined for six selected reference Leptospira serovars by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Results Of the included herds 75% (52/69) showed serological titers against one or more Leptospira serovar. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was the serovar most frequently (81%) reported from animals with positive results. The variables considered risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity were calve natural breeding system, using a specific calving area and vaccination against Leptospira. Adult cows in contact with calves weaned, proved to be a protective factor against infection. Conclusions Herds neglecting the management practices mentioned in this study could represent an important source of Leptospira infection for other herds in the same geographic area, as well as for other animal species. PMID:24906684

  5. Transition Diseases in Grazing Dairy Cows Are Related to Serum Cholesterol and Other Analytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol

  6. Factors associated with frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement test plans.

    PubMed

    Norman, H D; Miller, R H; Wright, J R; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M

    2012-07-01

    Frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) testing was summarized for cows with lactations completed from 2001 through 2009. For 8.5 million DHI lactations of cows that had recorded breeding dates and were >151 d pregnant at lactation termination, the frequency of recorded abortions was 1.31%. Effects of year, herd-year, month, and pregnancy stage at lactation termination; parity; breed; milk yield; herd size; geographic region; and state within region associated with DHI-recorded abortion were examined. Abortions recorded through DHI (minimum gestation of 152 d required) were more frequent during early gestation; least squares means (LSM) were 4.38, 3.27, 1.19, and 0.59% for 152 to 175, 176 to 200, 201 to 225, and 226 to 250 d pregnant, respectively. Frequency of DHI-recorded abortions was 1.40% for parity 1 and 1.01% for parity ≥ 8. Abortion frequency was highest from May through August (1.42 to 1.53%) and lowest from October through February (1.09 to 1.21%). Frequency of DHI-recorded abortions was higher for Holsteins (1.32%) than for Jerseys (1.10%) and other breeds (1.27%). Little relationship was found between DHI-recorded abortions and herd size. Abortion frequencies for effects should be considered to be underestimated because many abortions, especially those caused by genetic recessives, go undetected. Therefore, various nonreturn rates (NRR; 60, 80, …, 200 d) were calculated to document pregnancy loss confirmed by the absence of homozygotes in the population. Breeding records for April 2011 US Department of Agriculture sire conception rate evaluations were analyzed with the model used for official evaluations with the addition of an interaction between carrier status of the service sire (embryo's sire) and cow sire (embryo's maternal grandsire). Over 13 million matings were examined using various NRR for Holstein lethal recessive traits (brachyspina and complex vertebral malformation) and undesirable recessive haplotypes (HH1

  7. Neospora caninum in Estonian dairy herds in relation to herd size, reproduction parameters, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, and bovine herpes virus 1.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Orro, Toomas; Aleksejev, Annely; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo; Viltrop, Arvo

    2012-11-23

    Cows infected with the tissue parasite Neospora caninum (Nc) are more likely to abort or give birth to calves with neurological disorders. The known infection routes are transplacentally and by consumption of oocysts shed by the definitive host, the dog. It has been hypothesised, that dormant stages of persistent Nc infection may be reactivated by immunosuppression mechanisms such as pathogenic invasions as bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV1) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The study was set to give the first prevalence data on Nc from Estonian dairy herds in both animal as well as herd level. In addition, association between herd size and Nc, and association of Nc with abortion incidence (Ab), stillbirth incidence (Sb), insemination index (II), and calving interval (CaI) in the presence of BHV1 and BVDV was studied. Blood samples from 1973 animals from 100 herds were collected in 2006-2008, and 320 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were collected in 2007. Antibodies against Nc was found in 2.5 ± 0.4% (95% CI) of the animals and at least one positive animal was found in 37.0 ± 4.7% (95% CI) of the herds. In addition, Nc antibodies were detected in 16.3 ± 2.0% (95% CI) of the tested BTM. Large herds (≥ 200 animals) were less likely to have seropositive animals for Nc. Logistic regression models showed that herds with more than one animal seropositive for Nc had significantly higher odds ratio of abortion incidence (OR: 11.92, 1.18-120.18 95% CI, p=0.036) and tendency of having more stillbirths (OR: 5.52, 0.87-35.02 95% CI, p=0.07). On the other hand one Nc seropostive cow in the herd was associated with lower odds ratio (OR: 0.22, 0.05-0.91 95% CI, p=0.04) of higher calving intervals. Estonian prevalence results reflect observations in the region. No evidence was found of the pathogens were affecting fertility variables through interactions but independently BHV1 and Nc had an impact on the abortion.

  8. Schmallenberg virus antibody development and decline in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd in Germany, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Holsteg, Mark; Sasserath, Michael; Beer, Martin

    2015-12-31

    In late 2011, the novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Central Europe. Since that year, a dairy cattle herd kept in the German region in which the virus was initially detected was continuously monitored. In order to evaluate the development of the within-herd seroprevalence, but also to assess the long-term persistence of antibodies against SBV in individual animals, blood samples of all cows older than 24 months were taken yearly after the respective vector season and serologically analyzed. In December 2011, in 74% of the tested animals SBV-specific antibodies were detectable. Additional scattered seroconversions were observed between the 2011 and 2012 vector seasons, thereafter all seronegative animals remained negative. Until December 2014, the intra-herd seroprevalence decreased to 58%. A total of 122 cows infected presumable in autumn 2011 were sampled every year, 9 of them became seronegative until December 2014. Consequently, though SBV-specific antibodies were detected in about 90% of the monitored animals for more than three years, a lifelong antibody-based immunity is not expected in every animal. The loss of anti-SBV antibodies in individual animals combined with the missing infection of young stock results in a declining herd seroprevalence and increases the risk of a renewed virus circulation to a greater extent within the next years.

  9. Fecal shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption.

    PubMed

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Stancampiano, Laura; Taddei, Roberta; Serratore, Patrizia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Factors affecting the fecal shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in Italian dairy farms were investigated in a 12-month longitudinal study performed on a dairy farm authorized to sell raw milk in Italy. Fifty animals were randomly selected from 140 adult and young animals, and fecal samples were collected six times at 2-month intervals. At each sampling time, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples also were collected for both adult and young animals. Samples were analyzed with real-time PCR assay and culture examination. Overall, 33 samples (9.7%) were positive for thermophilic Campylobacter by real-time PCR: 26 (9.2%) of 280 fecal samples, 6 (16.6%) of 36 water samples, and 1 (4.2%) of 24 feed samples. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 6 of 280 samples; no other Campylobacter species was isolated. A higher (but not significantly) number of positive fecal samples were found in younger animals (11.33 versus 6.92% of adult animals), and a significantly higher number of positive water samples were collected from the water troughs of young animals. A distinct temporal trend was observed during the study period for both cows and calves, with two prevalence peaks between November and December and between May and July. Several factors such as calving, housing practices, herd size, management practices forcing together a higher number of animals, and variations in feed or water sources (previously reported as a cause of temporal variation in different farming conditions) were excluded as the cause of the two seasonal peaks in this study. The factors affecting the seasonality of Campylobacter shedding in the dairy herds remain unclear and warrant further investigation. The results of the present study indicate that special attention should be paid to farm hygiene management on farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk, with increased surveillance by the authorities at certain times of the year.

  10. Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in Estonian dairy herds using a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and Estonian dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.

  11. Herd-level risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy herds from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L L; Miranda, I C S; Hein, H E; Neto, W Santiago; Costa, E F; Marks, F S; Rodenbusch, C R; Canal, C W; Corbellini, L G

    2013-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 300 randomly selected dairy herds which were tested for antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) using a commercial indirect ELISA kit (SVANOVA). Results from the analysis were interpreted according to the Swedish BVDV control scheme. The testing revealed 129 (43%) BTM BVDV antibody-positive herds. Use of artificial insemination (AI) and herd size were significantly associated with BVDV serological status (P<0.05). Dairy herds that use AI had 2.82 increased odds of BVDV-seropositivity (95% CI: 1.02-7.24). Since the semen used in the studied population come from known selected sires, it was hypothesized that AI technicians should represent an important risk factor because the increasing number of visitors in the farm can introduce the virus through the clothes, shoes and contaminated equipment.

  12. Epidemiological and molecular evidence of a monophyletic infection with Staphylococcus aureus causing a purulent dermatitis in a dairy farmer and multiple cases of mastitis in his cows.

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, A.; Hittman, A.; Leyland, M.; Rogers, L.; Le Quesne, B.

    2004-01-01

    An epidemiological and molecular investigation of a cutaneous suppurative infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a dairy farmer, occurring concurrently with an outbreak of clinical mastitis in his herd, was carried out. A common aetiology for the diseases in the farmer and his cows was established by combining clinical evidence with a molecular genomic analysis of the bacterial isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of DNA macro-restriction fragments. This case indicates the possibility of the emergence and circulation of anthropozoonotic clones of S. aureus in dairy herds. It also provides further evidence of the severe impact of infection with highly virulent clones on dairy lactating cattle. PMID:15188719

  13. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  14. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  15. Relationships between milk production, ovarian function and fertility in high-producing dairy herds in north-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J; López-Gatius, F; Bech-Sàbat, G; García-Ispierto, I; Serrano, B; Santolaria, P

    2008-10-01

    In the dairy industry worldwide, reproductive disorders are a major cause of economic losses and a challenge to scientists and technicians. In recent decades, declining fertility and increasing milk production have been widely reported in dairy cattle. In this article, the relationships between milk production, ovarian disorders and fertility in high-producing dairy herds are briefly described. We carried out a retrospective study of 23 204 lactations included in a reproductive control programme in north-eastern Spain, a geographical area experiencing both warm and cool conditions. The data were collected between 1991 and 2007 and refer to cows first inseminated or examined 45-80 days postpartum in five well-managed, commercial, Holstein-Friesian high-producing dairy herds. Ovarian disorders were classified as ovarian inactivity or hypofunction, cystic ovarian disease, sub-oestrus or silent ovulation and sub-luteal function. Ovarian hypofunction and milk production increased throughout the study period and there was a decrease in the pregnancy rate to first artificial insemination (AI). Cows suffering ovarian hypofunction were efficiently treated using combined progestagen-prostaglandin treatments. The incidence of ovarian cysts showed little variation with time. Treatment of this syndrome may include different GnRH-based treatments or manual rupture. During the last 5 years, sub-oestrus was the predominant dysfunction (42.1%) compared with the cystic (6.3%) and ovarian hypofunction (12%) forms. Response of sub-oestrous cows to treatment with luteolitic agents was usually higher than 60%. Ovarian function and fertility were dramatically impaired during the warm period. However, during the later years of the study, the inclusion of fans and water sprinklers for the warm season appeared to overcome the seasonal effect on fertility. PMID:18803755

  16. Ultrasonography of the rumen of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the ultrasonographic findings of the rumen in 45 healthy dairy cows. Results The cows were scanned on both sides using a 5.0 MHz transducer. The dorsal visible margin of the rumen ran parallel to the lung from cranioventral to caudodorsal. It was furthest from the dorsal midline at the 9th intercostal space (48.3 ± 9.24 cm) and closest at the 12th intercostal space (22.4 ± 3.27 cm). The longitudinal groove, which could be clearly identified at all examination sites because it appeared as a triangular notch, formed the ventral margin of the dorsal sac of the rumen. The dorsal sac of the rumen was largest at the caudal flank (40.3 ± 6.33 cm), where it was adjacent to the abdominal wall. The ventral sac of the rumen extended across the ventral midline into the right hemiabdomen and its ventral margin had a largely horizontal craniocaudal course. The height of the ventral sac of the rumen exceeded that of the dorsal sac at all examination sites; the maximum height was measured at the 12th intercostal space (62.6 ± 9.53 cm). The dorsal gas cap, characterised ultrasonographically by typical reverberation artifacts, was visible in all cows from the 12th intercostal space to the caudal flank. It was largest at the 12th intercostal space (20.5 ± 7.03 cm). The transition from the gas cap to the fibre mat was marked by the abrupt cessation of the reverberation artifacts. It was not possible to differentiate a fibre mat and a ventral fluid phase. The rumen could be imaged from the right side in 21 cows (47%). Conclusions Ultrasonography is well suited for the detailed examination of the rumen of cows. The reference values obtained from this study add to the diagnostic tools that are available for the assessment of bovine patients. PMID:23497545

  17. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  18. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea. PMID:21897097

  19. Hypocalcemic effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the dairy cow.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, L M; Campbell, D L; Harvey, T

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the parenteral administration of aminoglycoside antibiotics on the blood calcium concentration in dairy cows was investigated. Gentamicin was tested in vitro in blood drawn from cows, dihydrostreptomycin was tested in nonlactating cows and neomycin was tested in postpartum cows. The total and bound calcium fractions were significantly reduced by all three antibiotics. No change occurred in the unbound calcium fractions. Caution is advised in the use of these drugs in postpartum cows, especially those with a history of milk fever. PMID:71189

  20. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis dynamics in a dairy herd: An individual based approach.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamun, Mohammad A; Smith, Rebecca L; Schukken, Ynte H; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-11-01

    In the dairy industry, Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is one of the major investigated diseases. To date, researchers have suggested some control strategies for JD, such as test-and-cull based herd management, isolated calf rearing management, and vaccinations. Due to the slow progressing nature of MAP, tests with low diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity, and economic limitations, implementing these strategies has not resulted in elimination of MAP from farms. To date, no study has integrated detailed dairy herd dynamics with different MAP transmission routes. We have developed an individual-based dairy herd model by incorporating basic herd dynamics in a closed herd environment where no new animals have been bought from outside. The model considered three age groups of animals: calves, heifers and adults. It includes sequential life events of a dairy animal and such key dynamic processes of the dairy herd as lactation cycle, calving, voluntary waiting period, insemination, pregnancy, dry-off period and calf and heifer rearing. After initially validating that the model reproduced typical herd dynamics, it was extended by incorporating MAP infection dynamics, where each individual adult animal belonged to one of four infection compartments: susceptible, latent, low shedding and high shedding. The model includes two disease transmission routes: horizontal transmission (i.e., fecal-oral) and vertical transmission (i.e., in utero infection). The results confirm that this model can simulate a realistic dairy herd and that inclusion of the above-mentioned dynamic processes provides useful information about individual infected animals to farmers. Access to the individual animal information offers more validity to assessment of appropriate control strategies for an endemically MAP infected herd. This model can serve as an accurate and novel tool not only to better understand MAP dynamics, but is also valuable as an

  1. [Incidence and treatment of dermatitis digitalis in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Kyllar, V; Ryjácek, J; Sterc, J; Cech, S

    1985-10-01

    In dairy cows of the Black Pied Lowland, Bohemian Pied breeds and their crossbreds loosely in large cow houses VKK 900 on slatted floors, 24% incidence of dermatitis digitalis was recorded during the period of one year. Relations between the occurrence of this disease, age and efficiency of dairy cows, time of parturition and season of the year were studied. Therapeutical effects of several methods of treatment were evaluated and compared. No effect of age and efficiency of dairy cows, nor of the year season on the occurrence of this disease was observed. A significantly higher occurrence was proved in the period before and after parturition, when 80% of the total occurrence of digitalis dermatitis were diagnosed. During this period, however, the cows were housed in a stable with markedly worse environmental circumstance than those in production stable. 91% cases of dermatitis were diagnosed on the digits of pelvic limbs. Relapses were determined only in five dairy cows. There was no case of the disease occurring in calves reared in the prophylactorium of the calf house. Therapeutical results were best after repeated mass treatment of the digits of dairy cows in 5% formaldehyde baths. The results of this study point at a conclusion that probable pathogens of this disease are specific infection agents, or that there are more synergic pathogens. A significant pre-disposition factor are bad environmental circumstances. PMID:3933162

  2. [Control measures in officially acknowledged brucellosis-free and leukosis unsuspected dairy herds on the basis of bulk milk samples in combination with ELISA tests].

    PubMed

    Forschner, E; Bünger, I; Krause, H P; Küttler, D

    1989-01-01

    1. EC- and National Regulations. Since 1988 the EC-regulations accept in addition to the on Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) based blood serum testing of cattle herds that are filed as "free from Enzootic Bovine Leucosis" the use of ELISA for this purpose. The regular testings in dairy cattle herds can be done alternatively with single or pooled milk samples, in other herds with pooled blood sera using ELISA. General condition is only a minimal sensitivity of the test to detect the European EBL Antibody Standard ("E4") in a dilution of 1:10 in negative serum or 1:250 in negative milk. Adequate national regulations are in preparation. The present limitation of pool sizes, blood maximum 50 animals without preparation steps 20, and milk after concentration treatment 50 cows is neutralized by proceedings in development of higher sensitive ELISA tests. This limitation should be canceled. Herd bulk milk samples without size limitations are accepted to be tested with "Milk Ring Test" by EC for the regular testings in filed "Brucellosis Free Dairy Cattle Herds". The alternative use of more sensitive (and more specific) ELISA tests for this purpose including the technical conditions is in a final discussion. 2. Scientific-Technical Base for Using the Chances of the Proceeding in the EC-Regulations. The realisation of the EC accepted or final discussed ELISA based bulk milk testing to control filed "EBL- and/or Brucellosis Free Herds" depends on some basic conditions like sensitivity, specificity, and variability of the ELISA systems. Field trials of more than 20,000 bulk milk samples in case of Brucellosis and more than 2,000 in case of EBL show the feasibilities and the limits of the ELISA systems in defining the status of the herds. The Brucellosis respectively the EBL situations of the dairy cattle herds tested in this trail were well known by history and by investigation of single animal blood samples using conventional tests. Special test run variations of

  3. Management and characteristics of recycled manure solids used for bedding in Midwest freestall dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Janni, K A

    2012-04-01

    were similar for all 3 bedding sources. Addition of a mechanical blower post-separation and use of a shelter for storage were associated with reduced fresh-bedding moisture but not associated with bacterial counts. This was the first survey of herds using RMS for bedding in the Midwest. We learned that RMS was being used successfully as a source of bedding for dairy cows. For most farms in the study, somatic cell count was comparable to the average in the region and not excessively high.

  4. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05). Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05). Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05). Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI) = 1.1(1.08–1.11). Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23), 3.16 (0.80) and 6.52 (1.01) kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  5. Milk drop due to leptospirosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Leptospiral milk drop in dairy cows. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in a cow. Systemic pasteurellosis in lambs. Encephalopathy due to water deprivation/salt poisoning suspected in weaned lambs. Biliary cystadenoma in a red deer hind. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for November 2014 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:25748187

  6. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  7. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  8. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. PMID:26778315

  9. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  10. Use of inline measures of l-lactate dehydrogenase for classification of posttreatment mammary Staphylococcus aureus infection status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, C Hildebrandt; Kristensen, A R; Østergaard, S; Bennedsgaard, T W

    2016-10-01

    An automated method for determining whether dairy cows with subclinical mammary infections recover after antibiotic treatment would be a useful tool in dairy production. For that purpose, inline l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements was modeled using a dynamic linear model; the variance parameters were estimated using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The method used to classify cows as infected or uninfected was based on a multiprocess Kalman filter. Two learning data sets were created: infected and uninfected. The infected data set consisted of records from 48 cows with subclinical Staphylococcus aureus infection from 4 herds collected in 2010. The uninfected data set came from 35 uninfected cows collected during 2013 from 2 herds. Bacteriological culturing was used as gold standard. To test the model, we collected data from the 48 infected cows 50 d after antibiotic treatment. As a result of the treatment, this test data set consisted of 25 cows that still had a subclinical infection and 23 cows that were recovered. Model sensitivity was 36.0% and specificity was 82.6%. To a large extent, l-lactate dehydrogenase reflected the cow's immune response to the presence of pathogens in the udder. However, cows that were classified correctly before treatment had a better chance of correct classification after treatment. This indicated a variation between cows in immune response to subclinical mammary infection that may complicate the detection of subclinically infected cows and determination of recovery. PMID:27522431

  11. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  12. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino

    2016-02-01

    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P < 0.001) incidence of abortion compared with SN cows (prevalence, 4.1%). Neospora caninum DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 44.4% of intact aborted fetuses from SP cows, whereas none was found in those aborted from SN cows. The average daily milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P < 0.001) in SP (22.5 ± 0.3 L/day) than in SN cows (24.8 ± 0.2 L/day). Furthermore, SP cows presented greater occurrence of retained placenta (17.1% vs. 6.0%; P < 0.001) and acute postpartum metritis (9.8% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.001). Despite similar pregnancy rates after first postpartum artificial insemination (27.6% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.40), cumulative pregnancy rates during 300 days in milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P = 0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

  13. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, A; Bødker, R; Nielsen, L R

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an "alarm herd" concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from "likely free of infection" to "likely infected" in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3 mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate the herds being "likely infected" according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be incorporated into a model including other known risk factors for change in herd classification. Furthermore, the model could be extended to other diseases monitored in similar ways.

  14. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake.

  15. Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes within a U.S. dairy herd, 2004-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, is frequently isolated from the environment. Dairy cows and dairy farm environments are reservoirs of this pathogen where fecal shedding contributes to its environmental dispersal and contamination of milk, dairy products, and meat. The mo...

  16. Description and factors of variation of the overall health score in French dairy cattle herds using the Welfare Quality(®) assessment protocol.

    PubMed

    Coignard, M; Guatteo, R; Veissier, I; de Boyer des Roches, A; Mounier, L; Lehébel, A; Bareille, N

    2013-11-01

    Extensive information is available in the literature on the specific risk factors of the main health disorders afflicting dairy cattle herds. However, it remains difficult to manage a herd's overall health because measures to control one risk factor can exacerbate the risk of another disease. To achieve and maintain good overall herd health, livestock systems and management practices need to simultaneously take into account all of the main health disorders. We aimed to identify the characteristics of systems and practices conducive to good herd health using the Welfare Quality(®) assessment protocol for cattle. This protocol allows an assessment of the level of health and welfare at the herd level according to the opinion of a selected group of 13 experts from animal sciences. Our objectives were to (i) describe the distribution of dairy herds' health scores in a representative sample of French dairy cattle herds, and (ii) to investigate systems (housing system, milking system, herd size, breed, farm location) and management practices associated with variations of the overall health score of dairy herds. This protocol was carried out on 130 farms between December 2010 and March 2011. A multivariable analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate the factors of variation of the overall health score at the herd level. The overall health scores of the farms in the sample were classified as moderate for the vast majority of farms (95.4%) (mainly due to subclinical mastitis, dystocia and pain induced by disbudding/dehorning) and varied little between farms. Some livestock systems were associated with a higher overall health score: straw yards and milking parlors (P<0.0001), highland vs. lowland locations (P=0.013), Montbeliarde rather than Holstein breeds (P=0.006). Some management practices also were associated with a higher level of health: medium herd average parity (P=0.03), low proportion of dirty cows (P=0.002) and low proportion of cows with abnormal

  17. Low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds highlight differences between serotypes.

    PubMed

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin

  18. Economic risk analysis model for bovine viral diarrhea virus biosecurity in cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Sanderson, Michael W; Jones, Rodney; N'Guessan, Yapo; Renter, David; Larson, Robert; White, Brad J

    2014-03-01

    A stochastic model was designed to calculate the cost-effectiveness of biosecurity strategies for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cow-calf herds. Possible sources of BVDV introduction considered were imported animals, including the calves of pregnant imports, and fenceline contact with infected herds, including stocker cattle raised in adjacent pastures. Spread of BVDV through the herd was modeled with a stochastic SIR model. Financial consequences of BVDV, including lost income, treatment costs, and the cost of biosecurity strategies, were calculated for 10 years, based on the risks of a herd with a user-defined import profile. Results indicate that importing pregnant animals and stockers increased the financial risk of BVDV. Strategic testing in combination with vaccination most decreased the risk of high-cost outbreaks in most herds. The choice of a biosecurity strategy was specific to the risks of a particular herd.

  19. Layouts for small freestall dairy barns: effect on milk yield for cows in different parities.

    PubMed

    Næss, G; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2011-03-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows has many different layouts and the space allocated for cows differs considerably. The objective of the present study was to investigate possible associations between barn layout and milk yield for different parities in small dairy freestall barns. Layouts of 204 Norwegian freestall barns constructed during the period from 1995 to 2005, and with a mean herd size of 42.7±15.5 cows, were obtained and merged with milk yield data and calving interval, for each parity, from the Norwegian Milk Recording System (NDHRS). The milk yield data set contained 20,221 different lactations from these 204 herds. Both simple mixed models, including the different explanatory variables one by one together with parity, calving interval, and herd as random effect, and a final mixed model, including all significant explanatory variables, were created. According to variables tested in this study, the final mixed model estimates show that only primiparous cows benefit significantly from increased free space allocation. Milk yield was generally higher in automatic milking system barns compared with that in barns with milking parlors, but not for primiparous cows. Milk yield was higher for all parities for barns using separation pens in accordance with the recommendations. Barns with 2 or more dead-end alleys had lower milk yield compared with that from layouts without dead-end alleys. Primiparous cows benefited from water troughs located for easy access and responded with increased milk yield. In 10% of the barns, the water trough capacity was less than 47% of the recommendations, and all parities benefited from a water trough capacity higher than this level. Higher parities had increased milk yield when water trough capacity was more than 80%. Feed bunk space, number of freestall rows, and the location of freestalls had no significant effect on the milk yield. The present study showed that increased space and improved access to water is beneficial to

  20. Management of Reproductive Disease in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert O

    2016-07-01

    Postpartum diseases are common in dairy cows, and their incidence contributes to reduced fertility and increased risk of culling, making their prevention and management extremely important. Reproductive efficiency has a major impact on economic success of any dairy production unit. Optimizing reproductive efficiency contributes to overall efficiency of production units, minimizing environmental impacts and contributing to sustainability of food production. Additionally, control of reproductive diseases is important for maintenance of health and welfare of dairy cows; for minimizing use of antibiotics; and ensuring a wholesome, safe, and nutritious product. PMID:27324451

  1. Management of Reproductive Disease in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert O

    2016-07-01

    Postpartum diseases are common in dairy cows, and their incidence contributes to reduced fertility and increased risk of culling, making their prevention and management extremely important. Reproductive efficiency has a major impact on economic success of any dairy production unit. Optimizing reproductive efficiency contributes to overall efficiency of production units, minimizing environmental impacts and contributing to sustainability of food production. Additionally, control of reproductive diseases is important for maintenance of health and welfare of dairy cows; for minimizing use of antibiotics; and ensuring a wholesome, safe, and nutritious product.

  2. The use of computers in dairy herd health program: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.

    1989-01-01

    This review of the literature covers the changes in the approach to veterinary health management that led to the introduction of computerized herd health programs and the various other applications of the computer in the practice of dairy herd medicine. The role that production recording systems, mainframe computers, minicomputers, and microcomputers have played in the evolution of herd health programs are also reviewed. PMID:17423392

  3. [Reduced performance and high somatic cell counts in a dairy herd fed high amounts of brewers' grain].

    PubMed

    Wenzinger, B

    2013-09-01

    The present case report describes a herd problem on a Holstein Friesian dairy farm in Switzerland, which could be attributed to the feeding of high amounts of wet brewers' grain over several months. Apathy and reduced general appearance, reduced feed intake as well as a decline in milk yield could be observed. A strong increase in milk somatic cell counts as well as an increase in the incidence of mastitis could be found. The milk fat content was highly elevated in all cows, whereas the milk protein content was reduced. The exclusion of wet brewers' grain from the partial mixed ration resulted in a considerable improvement of the general appearance of the cows and a decrease of the milk somatic cell counts. Feed that is easily spoiled could be a health risk for animals, particularly under hot and humid weather conditions and if fed in high amounts.

  4. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages.

  5. Consequence of alternative standards for bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of dairy operations failing compliance with current US and European Union (EU) standards for bulk-tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) as well as BTSCC standards proposed by 3 national organizations were evaluated using 2 populations of US dairy herds: Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHI) ...

  6. The effect of digital lesions and floor type on locomotion score in Dutch dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Frankena, K; Somers, J G C J; Schouten, W G P; van Stek, J V; Metz, J H M; Stassen, E N; Graat, E A M

    2009-02-01

    This study describes the effects of floor system, digital dermatitis (DD) and interdigital dermatitis and heel-horn erosion (IDHE) on locomotion performance in 225 dairy cows of 12 commercial dairy herds. Nine herds were kept in cubicle houses with concrete passageways (either solid, slatted, or grooved concrete) and three herds were kept in straw yards. Animals were at most five times examined at monthly intervals for lesion severity of DD and IDHE and for locomotion score. Locomotion score was rated on a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (from normal to severe) and disturbed locomotion (lameness) was defined as a score > or =3. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the 943 observations using lameness (yes/no) as outcome variable. The proportion of observations scored as lame (locomotion score > or =3) increased from 18% 1 month after trimming to 29% at 4 months after trimming. Severe lesions of DD and IDHE were associated with a significantly higher proportion of lame cows. The proportion of animals with disturbed locomotion increased from 16% to 40% as the severity of DD increased and from 17% to 30% with increasing severity of IDHE lesions. Locomotion performance highly differed between the cubicle house and straw yard group. Only 1% of all gaits in straw yard cows were scored as lame, while in cubicle housed cows these percentages varied from 24% to 46% with grooved floors showing the highest average locomotion score. Due to the extreme low incidence of lameness in straw yards, the statistical analysis had to be restricted to observations on concrete floors (n=744). The logistic regression model with lameness (yes/no) as dependent variable and random effects of cow and herd resulted in Odds Ratios for severe DD and IDHE of, respectively, 3.2 and 3.2, both significantly larger than unity. Cows housed at grooved concrete floors showed the highest OR of 6.5 compared to solid concrete floors. Recovery of lameness was poor as disturbance in gait lasted several

  7. Effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, K E; Doig, P A; Bosu, W T; Curtis, R A; Martin, S W

    1984-01-01

    The effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta were studied. Three hundred and seventy-eight cows diagnosed as having retained placenta received intramuscular injections of either 2 mL sterile water or 200 micrograms of GnRH in 2 mL sterile water between day 8 and day 14 postpartum. Rectal palpation was performed at the time of treatment and ten to 20 days after treatment in order to determine the rate of uterine involution. Thereafter, monthly rectal examinations were carried out until insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was made by rectal palpation at 40 days or more after breeding. Using the entire experimental population, there were no significant differences between GnRH-treated and control cows for the rate of uterine involution, the occurrence of reproductive problems, the interval from parturition to first observed estrus, the interval from parturition to first insemination, the interval from parturition to conception, the number of services per conception, the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and the incidence of culling for infertility. When the data for herds in which breeding began earlier in the postpartum period (herds having a mean less than or equal to 80 days from parturition to first service for retained placenta cows) were considered, the GnRH treatment resulted in a significantly shorter (p less than or equal to 0.01) calving to conception interval as compared to control cows. Also, there was a significant reduction (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and a significant reduction in the interval from parturition to first service.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6391640

  8. Timed artificial insemination with estradiol cypionate or insemination at estrus in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cerri, R L A; Santos, J E P; Juchem, S O; Galvão, K N; Chebel, R C

    2004-11-01

    A total of 799 Holstein cows from 3 herds were randomly assigned at 37 +/- 3 d in milk (DIM) to timed artificial insemination (AI) or insemination at detected estrus. Cows were presynchronized with injections of PGF(2alpha) at 37 and 51 DIM. At 65 DIM, cows received an injection of GnRH, followed 7 d later by PGF(2alpha). Cows in the estrus-detected group were inseminated after being observed in estrus during the 7 d after the last PGF(2alpha). Cows in the timed AI group received an injection of 1 mg of estradiol cypionate (ECP) 24 h after the last PGF(2alpha). If detected in estrus cows were inseminated then or at a fixed time 48 h after ECP. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 30 d and by palpation at 44 and 58 d after AI. Plasma progesterone was measured in 4 samples per cow collected on days of 1) second PGF(2alpha), 2) GnRH, 3) third PGF(2alpha), and 4) 48 h after third PGF(2alpha). Cows were classified as cyclic or anovulatory based on progesterone concentrations in samples 1 and 2. Similarly, cows were classified according to progesterone concentrations in samples 2, 3, and 4 (H = >or=1 ng/mL; L = <1 ng/mL), resulting in 8 combinations (LLL, LHL, LLH, LHH, HHH, HHL, HLH, and HLL). Conception rates and pregnancy rates were higher for cows in the timed AI group than in the estrus-detected group at 30, 44, and 58 d (e.g., at 58 d, pregnancy rates were 42.2% for multiparous cows or 34.4% for primiparous cows in the group receiving ECP and timed AI compared with only 20.8 or 18.8% for respective parity subgroups for the treatment group inseminated only at detected estrus). Pregnancy losses were 11.5% from 30 to 58 d and did not differ between treatments. Cyclic cows within both treatments had higher estrous responses, conception rates, and pregnancy rates. Cows that responded to presynchronization and to luteolysis (HHL) had the highest conception and pregnancy rates, followed by cows classified as LHL. Use of 1 mg of ECP to induce

  9. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) <2.5 had higher occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI. The occurrence of S. uberis IMI was higher in quarters with California mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens.

  10. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) <2.5 had higher occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI. The occurrence of S. uberis IMI was higher in quarters with California mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens. PMID:24823898

  11. Use of early lactation milk recording data to predict the calving to conception interval in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Cook, J G; Green, M J

    2016-06-01

    Economic success in dairy herds is heavily reliant on obtaining pregnancies at an early stage of lactation. Our objective in this study was to attempt to predict the likelihood of conception occurring by d 100 and 150 of lactation (days in milk, DIM) by Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis using test day milk recording data and reproductive records gathered retrospectively from 8,750 cows from 33 dairy herds located in the United Kingdom. Overall, 65% of cows recalved with 30, 46, and 65% of cows conceiving by 100 DIM, 150 DIM, and beyond 150 DIM, respectively. Overall conception rate (total cows pregnant/total number of inseminations) was 27.47%. Median and mean calving to conception intervals were 123 and 105 d, respectively. The probability of conception by both 100 DIM and 150 DIM was positively associated with the average daily milk weight produced during the fourth week of lactation (W4MK) and protein percentage for test day samples collected between 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM. Butterfat percentage at 0 to 30 DIM was negatively associated with the probability of conception by 100 DIM but not at 150 DIM. High somatic cell count (SCC) at both 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM was negatively associated with the probability of conception by 100 DIM, whereas high SCC at 31 to 60 DIM was associated with a reduced probability of conception by 150 DIM. Increasing parity was associated with a reduced odds of pregnancy. Posterior predictions of the likelihood of conception for cows categorized as having "good" (W4MK >30kg and protein percentage at 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM >3.2%) or "poor" (W4MK <25kg and protein percentage at 0 to 30 and 31 to 60 DIM <3.0%) early lactation attributes with actual observed values indicated model fit was good. The predicted likelihood of a "good" cow conceiving by 100 and 150 DIM was 0.39 and 0.57, respectively (actual observed values 0.40 and 0.59). The corresponding values for a "poor" cow were 0.28 and 0.42 (actual observed values 0.26 and 0

  12. Predicting the probability of abortion in dairy cows: a hierarchical Bayesian logistic-survival model using sequential pregnancy data.

    PubMed

    Thurmond, M C; Branscum, A J; Johnson, W O; Bedrick, E J; Hanson, T E

    2005-05-10

    Although abortion contributes substantially to poor reproductive health of dairy herds, little is known about the predictability of abortion based on age, previous abortion or gravidity (number of previous pregnancies). A poor understanding of effects of maternal factors on abortion risk exists, in part, because of methodological difficulties related to non-independence of multiple pregnancies of the same cow in analysis of fetal survival data. We prospectively examined sequential pregnancies to investigate relationships between fetal survival and putative dam risk factors for 2991 abortions from 24,706 pregnancies of 13,145 cows in nine California dairy herds. Relative risks and predicted probabilities of abortion (PPA) were estimated using a previously described hierarchical Bayesian logistic-survival model generalized to incorporate longitudinal data of multiple pregnancies from a single cow. The PPA increased with increasing dam age at conception, with increasing number of previous abortions, and if the previous pregnancy was aborted >60 days in gestation. The PPA decreased with increasing gravidity and with increasing number of days open. For cows that aborted, the median time to fetal death decreased slightly as gravidity increased. The study considers several methodological issues faced in epidemiologic investigations of fetal health, including multi-modal hazard functions, extensive censoring and non-independence of multiple pregnancies. The model improves our ability to predict bovine abortion and to characterize fetal survival, which have important applications to herd health management.

  13. The impact of controlled nutrition during the dry period on dairy cow health, fertility and performance.

    PubMed

    Beever, David E

    2006-12-01

    Average dairy herd fertility is declining, with more serves per successful conception, extended calving intervals and increased culling due to failure to rebreed, all adding significant costs to milk production. Genetics, management and nutrition have all contributed to this decline in fertility; the paper focuses primarily on nutritional issues. The extent of body condition loss after calving and its possible impact on fertility is considered, with evidence that this phenomenon is common in many herds irrespective of average milk yields. Body tissue mobilisation after calving increases the flux of non-esterified fatty acids to the liver and pathways of fatty acid metabolism are considered. Particular attention is given to the effects of high plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels on fat accumulation in liver cells and possible impacts on nitrogen and glucose metabolism. Current nutritional practices with early lactation cows which aim to stimulate milk yield and peak milk production but have been shown to exacerbate body condition loss, are reviewed. The paper also considers cow health issues during the peri-parturient period and how these may affect milk yield and fertility. It is concluded that current feeding practices for dry cows, with the provision of increasing amounts of the lactation ration during the Close-up period to accustom the rumen microbes and offset the expected reduction in feed intake as pregnancy reaches term, have largely failed to overcome peri-parturient health problems, excessive body condition loss after calving or declining fertility. From an examination of the energy and protein requirements of dry cows, it is suggested that current Close-up feeding practices can lead to luxury intakes of nutrients that can increase fat deposition in the viscera and the liver. Under such conditions, metabolism of nutrients by the cow may be compromised. In contrast, limited feeding throughout the whole dry period has been shown to prevent many of the

  14. A simulation model to quantify the value of implementing whole-herd Bovine viral diarrhea virus testing strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Renter, David G; Sanderson, Mike W

    2011-03-01

    Although numerous diagnostic tests are available to identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cow-calf herds, data are sparse when evaluating the economic viability of individual tests or diagnostic strategies. Multiple factors influence BVDV testing in determining if testing should be performed and which strategy to use. A stochastic model was constructed to estimate the value of implementing various whole-herd BVDV cow-calf testing protocols. Three common BVDV tests (immunohistochemistry, antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and polymerase chain reaction) performed on skin tissue were evaluated as single- or two-test strategies. The estimated testing value was calculated for each strategy at 3 herd sizes that reflect typical farm sizes in the United States (50, 100, and 500 cows) and 3 probabilities of BVDV-positive herd status (0.077, 0.19, 0.47) based upon the literature. The economic value of testing was the difference in estimated gross revenue between simulated cow-calf herds that either did or did not apply the specific testing strategy. Beneficial economic outcomes were more frequently observed when the probability of a herd being BVDV positive was 0.47. Although the relative value ranking of many testing strategies varied by each scenario, the two-test strategy composed of immunohistochemistry had the highest estimated value in all but one herd size-herd prevalence permutation. These data indicate that the estimated value of applying BVDV whole-herd testing strategies is influenced by the selected strategy, herd size, and the probability of herd BVDV-positive status; therefore, these factors should be considered when designing optimum testing strategies for cow-calf herds.

  15. Discovery of Bovine Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponema spp. in the Dairy Herd Environment by a Targeted Deep-Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Martin W.; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K.

    2014-01-01

    The bacteria associated with the infectious claw disease bovine digital dermatitis (DD) are spirochetes of the genus Treponema; however, their environmental reservoir remains unknown. To our knowledge, the current study is the first report of the discovery and phylogenetic characterization of rRNA gene sequences from DD-associated treponemes in the dairy herd environment. Although the spread of DD appears to be facilitated by wet floors covered with slurry, no DD-associated treponemes have been isolated from this environment previously. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge about the spread of this disease among cows within a herd as well as between herds. To address the issue of DD infection reservoirs, we searched for evidence of DD-associated treponemes in fresh feces, in slurry, and in hoof lesions by deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with identification at the operational-taxonomic-unit level. Using treponeme-specific primers in this high-throughput approach, we identified small amounts of DNA (on average 0.6% of the total amount of sequence reads) from DD-associated treponemes in 43 of 64 samples from slurry and cow feces collected from six geographically dispersed dairy herds. Species belonging to the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like and Treponema phagedenis-like phylogenetic clusters were among the most prevalent treponemes in both the dairy herd environment and the DD lesions. By the high-throughput approach presented here, we have demonstrated that cow feces and environmental slurry are possible reservoirs of DD-associated treponemes. This method should enable further clarification of the etiopathogenesis of DD. PMID:24814794

  16. Invasion and transmission of Salmonella Kentucky in an adult dairy herd using approximate Bayesian computation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of Salmonella Kentucky followed by a high level of sustained endemic prevalence was recently observed in a US adult dairy herd enrolled in a longitudinal study involving intensive fecal sampling. To understand the invasion ability and transmission dynamics of Salmonella Kentucky in dairy...

  17. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants.

  18. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. PMID:26010136

  19. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Schutz, M M; Lossie, A C; Eicher, S D

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, immune status, and expression of genes associated with lameness during the dry and periparturient periods. Cows were assigned to freestall housing with either rubber (RUB; n = 13) or concrete (CON; n = 14) at the feed-bunk and alley immediately after their first calving, and managed on this system during all subsequent lactations. At dry off, cows were moved to a straw bedded-pack dry cow pen, and remained there until about 2 d before subsequent calving. To investigate whether greater exposure to RUB or CON increased the differences between cows on each treatment, cows at the end of either their first (n = 16) or second (n = 11) lactations were included in the experiment. Locomotion scores and blood samples were obtained at -60 (beginning of the dry period), -30, 0 (after calving), +10 and +18 d relative to calving. Leukocyte counts were obtained by using an automated cell counter. Phagocytic activity, and cells positive for CD14 and CD18 expression were measured by flow cytometry using labeled microbeads and antibodies. Expression of tachikinin 1(TAC1), histamine receptor 1 (H1), and metalloproteinase (MMP)13 in blood leukocytes was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment effects were determined using a repeated measures model. Provision of rubber flooring did not improve dairy cow locomotion during the subsequent study period. However, time relative to calving had an effect on locomotion score and speed, which were worst on d 0, probably because of the discomfort associated with calving. An interaction occurred between treatment and time for neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. The RUB cows had greater neutrophil and lesser lymphocyte numbers postpartum than CON. These cows also had more cells positive for CD14 postpartum compared with prepartum. Moreover, RUB cows showed upregulation of MMP13 and TAC1 compared with CON. These genes are associated with lameness and pain

  20. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  1. Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lecaroz, R; Warnick, L D; Guard, C L; Smith, M C; Barry, D A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. PMID:10769767

  2. Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hills, J L; Wales, W J; Dunshea, F R; Garcia, S C; Roche, J R

    2015-03-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, supplementary feeds are used to increase dry matter intake and milk production. Historically, supplementation involved the provision of the same amount of feed (usually a grain-based concentrate feed) to each cow in the herd during milking (i.e., flat-rate feeding). The increasing availability of computerized feeding and milk monitoring technology in milking parlors, however, has led to increased interest in the potential benefits of feeding individual cows (i.e., individualized or differential feeding) different amounts and types of supplements according to one or more parameters (e.g., breeding value for milk yield, current milk yield, days in milk, body condition score, reproduction status, parity). In this review, we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies for pasture-based dairy cows fed supplements in the bail during milking. A unique feature of our review compared with earlier publications is the focus on individualized feeding strategies under practical grazing management. Previous reviews focused primarily on research undertaken in situations where cows were offered ad libitum forage, whereas we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies under rotational grazing management, wherein pasture is often restricted to all or part of a herd. The review provides compelling evidence that between-cow differences in response to concentrate supplements support the concept of individualized supplementary feeding. PMID:25582585

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Different Test Combinations for Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infecting Dairy Herds in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajni; Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Singh, Shoor Vir; Sharma, Shukriti; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Singh, Ajay Vir; Filia, Gurusimiran; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Jayaraman, Sujata; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Saminathan, Mani; Dhama, Kuldeep; Sohal, Jagdip Singh

    2015-01-01

    A total of 355 cows were sampled (serum, n = 315; faeces, n = 355; milk, n = 209) from dairy farms located in the Punjab state of India. Faeces and serum/milk samples were screened by acid fast staining and "indigenous ELISA," respectively. IS900 PCR was used to screen faeces and milk samples. Bio-load of MAP in dairy cows was 36.9, 15.6, 16.3, and 14.4%, using microscopy, serum ELISA, milk ELISA and milk PCR, respectively. Estimated kappa values between different test combinations: serum and milk ELISA, faecal microscopy and faecal PCR, milk ELISA and milk PCR, faecal PCR and serum ELISA were 0.325, 0.241, 0.682, and 0.677, respectively. Estimation of the relative sensitivity and specificity of different tests in the present study indicated that "serum ELISA" and "milk ELISA" were good screening tests, add "milk PCR" was "confirmatory test" for MAP infection. Combination of milk ELISA with milk PCR may be adopted as a model strategy for screening and diagnosis of JD in lactating/dairy cattle herds in Indian conditions.

  4. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high. PMID:20808573

  5. Clinicopathological evaluation of downer dairy cows with fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Panousis, Nikolaos; Roubies, Nikolaos; Giadinis, Nektarios; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Georgiadis, Marios; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between severity of fatty liver and macromineral status in downer dairy cows and determined the usefulness of selected biochemical analytes for assessing prognosis. Blood and liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 Holstein downer cows shortly after the cows became recumbent and before they were treated. Liver tissue was examined histologically and serum activity of liver-derived enzymes and concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, bile acids, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetic acid, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and macrominerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P) were determined. Fatty liver infiltration was severe in 44% of the cows and moderate in 44%. Serum activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, and NEFA/cholesterol ratio were good indicators of fatty liver. Cows with severe fatty liver had the lowest mean K values. The prognosis is guarded for downer cows with moderate and severe fatty liver and when total bilirubin concentration is high.

  6. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows.

  7. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  8. Precalving factors affecting conception risk in Holstein dairy cows in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Tillard, Emmanuel; Humblot, Patrice; Faye, Bernard; Lecomte, Philippe; Dohoo, Ian; Bocquier, François

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify precalving nutritional risk factors that may affect variation in first service conception risk in 21 commercial Holstein dairy herds in a tropical environment (Reunion Island). The data set included 473 lactation records in 404 cows. A multivariate logistic-regression model including herd as a random effect was used to analyse the relationship between first service conception risk and energy status (body condition score, plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate), nitrogen status (urea), hepatic function (gamma-glutamyltransferase, glutamate deshydrogenase, albumin), and mineral deficiencies (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium), adjusting systematically for factors such as breeding, season, parity, previous milk yield and fertility, calving to first service interval and type of oestrus (spontaneous versus induced). The overall mean conception risk was 0.27+/-0.02 (mean+/-S.E.M., n=473). First service conception risk was penalized by calving to 1st service interval shorter than 60 days, synchronized oestrus, previous 305-day milk yield >8000 kg (p<0.05), low blood glucose concentration in high-yielding cows (p<0.05) and combined high urea and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations (p<0.01). Precalving energy imbalance, revealed by low prepartum glucose concentration, was a strong nutritional predictor of low first service conception risk in high-yielding cows. Some precalving nutritional disorders potentially associated with consumption of spoiled silage which induces elevated circulating urea and beta-hydroxybutyrate have a delayed detrimental effect on conception, even if the true causes of this effect remain to be elucidated. As a conclusion, our findings should lead the breeders to pay more attention to the feeding of dry cows that is usually neglected in Reunion Island dairy farms.

  9. Effect of widespread and limited use of sexed semen on genetic progress and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Khalajzadeh, S; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Mehrbani Yeganeh, H

    2012-09-01

    Stochastic simulation was used for studying the impacts of sexed semen on genetic progress and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Three strategies were compared: WSS (use unsexed semen in cows and heifers), SSH (use sexed semen in heifers and unsexed semen in cows) and SSCH (use sexed semen in both cows and heifers). Conception rate (CR) of unsexed semen was considered to be 35% and 65% in cows and heifers, respectively. CR of sexed semen was considered to be 15 (20% in cows and 50% in heifers), 10, 5 and 0 percentage points lower than unsexed semen. Thus, four subschemes were compared under SSCH (SSCH15, SSCH10, SSCH5, SSCH0) and SSH (SSH15, SSH10, SSH5, SSH0). Moreover, the effect was studied in four distinct paths of selection: active sires (AS), young bulls (YB), bull dams (BD) and milking cows (CW). The average genetic superiority of CW was 12% and 9.5% in SSCH15 and SSH15 strategies relative to a base scheme, respectively. The average genetic superiority of CW was 19% and 10.5% in SSCH0 and SSH0, respectively. Regression analysis showed that genetic superiority of CW increased significantly, that is, 0.5% and 0.1% per every 1% increase in CR in SSCH and SSH, respectively. The result showed that there is a significant difference between genetic superiority of cows in SSCH and SSH schemes. Widespread and limited use of sexed semen in commercial dairy herds resulted in a large genetic advantage in CW. The genetic advantage of gender control was minimal in the selection paths of AS, YB and BD. Open days and services per conception reached to 153 v. 125 days and 5 v. 2.86 under SSCH15 compared with WSS. The age at first calving increased from 774 to 790 days in SSH15 and SSCH15 strategies. Mean of parities decreased to 2.26 v. 2.42 by using sexed semen. The widespread use of sexed semen increased the age average of cows in all parities. Sexed semen increased selection intensity in the CW path, and this contributed to the genetic merit of future cows. On the

  10. Factors associated with high milk test day somatic cell counts in large dairy herds in Brandenburg. II. Milking practices.

    PubMed

    Köster, G; Tenhagen, B-A; Scheibe, N; Heuwieser, W

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influences of different milking practices on cow udder health in 80 large dairy herds (range 100-1100 cows) in Brandenburg, Germany. Milking practices were evaluated during one complete milking using a standardized data capture form. The somatic cell count (SCC) of all lactating cows on each farm was determined monthly by the local milk recording association 'Landeskontrollverband Brandenburg'. Factor analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the different aspects of the milking practices. The components extracted by the factor analysis were examined for their influence on the SCC of the current month (CMSCC) and the year before the visit (YASCC) using univariate analysis of variance. Three components were extracted from the milking practices. 'Reasonable use of water' was significantly related to CMSCC (P = 0.019) and YASCC (P = 0.003). It included information on the use of a hose to clean udders before milking, cleaning of the floor between groups and use of water to clean teats. 'Attention of the milkers' was also significantly associated with CMSCC (P = 0.012) and YASCC (P = 0.014). It included information on the accuracy of mastitis detection by foremilk screening and the regular use of post-milking teat and cluster disinfection. The component 'preparation routines' (method of udder cleaning and forestripping) did not significantly influence CMSCC and YASCC. These results indicate that excessive use of water in the parlour during milking time is harmful to udder health and that the consistency of procedures in the milking parlour presents significant room for improvement in large dairy herds in Brandenburg.

  11. Evaluation of hooves' morphometric parameters in different hoof trimming times in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mohamadnia, Ahmadreza; Khaghani, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Wide variety of timings and techniques has been used based on the housing, production, availability of requirements etc. This current study was done for a morphologic evaluation of the cow's digit in different trimming times. A dairy herd with 2200 milking cow, free stalls barns, average daily production of 36 liters per cow was selected. Forty cows were assigned to four groups based on hoof trimming times as, 100-120 days in milk (Group I), cows before drying (Group II), visual long toed cows (Group III) and delayed pregnant cows (Group IV). Toe length from coronary band to the toe tip (A), dorsal hoof angle (D), toe height from coronary band in toe region to the ground level (B), heel height from coronary band in heel region to the ground level (C) and heel height to toe length proportion was measured. The highest toe length was recorded in medial digit of group IV (9.19 ± 0.68 cm) and the lowest one recorded in lateral digit of group I (8.28 ± 0.62 cm). Distribution of the cows in different groups under study was based on their toe length, as the highest and lowest distribution were recorded in groups III and I, respectively. The highest measurements in all indices were recorded in group IV that followed by group III except for toe height that was higher in group II following group IV. The lowest toe length was recorded in group I that needs more attention due to the risk of over trimming and its supposed complications in this group. PMID:25568679

  12. Why is it getting more difficult to successfully artificially inseminate dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Dobson, H; Walker, S L; Morris, M J; Routly, J E; Smith, R F

    2008-08-01

    Successfully using artificial insemination (AI) is defined as getting cows pregnant when the farmer wants them in-calf and making the best use of appropriate genetic potential. Over the past 30 to 50 years, the percentage of animals in oestrus that stand-to-be-mounted (STBM) has declined from 80% to 50%, and the duration of STBM from 15 h to 5 h; both in parallel with a reduction in first-service-pregnancy-rate from 70% to 40%. Meanwhile, the incidence of lameness and mastitis has not decreased; and it takes more than an extra 40 and 18 days, respectively, to get a lame or mastitic cow in-calf compared to healthy herd-mates. The intensity of oestrus is 50% lower in severely lame cows, and fewer lame cows ovulate. Luteal phase milk progesterone concentrations are also 50% lower in lame cows, and follicular phase oestradiol is also lower in non-ovulating lame cows compared to ovulating animals. Furthermore, lame cows that do not ovulate do not have an LH surge, and the LH pulse frequency in their late follicular phase is lower (0.53 v. 0.76 pulses/h). Thus, we suggest that the stress of lameness reduces LH pulsatility required to drive oestradiol production by the dominant follicle. The consequent low oestradiol results in less-intense oestrus behaviour and failure to initiate an LH surge; hence there is no ovulation. A series of experimental studies substantiate our hypothesis that events activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis interfere at both the hypothalamus and the pituitary level to disrupt LH and oestradiol secretion, and thus the expression of oestrus behaviour. Our inability to keep stress at a minimum by appropriately feeding and housing high-production cows is leading to a failure to meet genetic potential for yield and fertility. We must provide realistic solutions soon, if we want to successfully use AI to maintain a sustainable dairy industry for the future.

  13. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical ketosis and association with production parameters in dairy cows in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, T; Papen, J; Bemers, R; Vertenten, G; Berge, A C B

    2015-02-01

    Ketosis is associated with many transition cow diseases and the subclinical form has been found to be a common condition in high-producing dairy cows. The objectives of this field study in the Netherlands were (1) to determine risk factors for subclinical ketosis [SCK; 1.2-2.9mmol of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA)/L of serum] and clinical ketosis (CK: ≥3.0mmol of BHBA/L of serum) at 7 to 14 d in milk and (2) to assess the association of SCK and CK with production parameters at the first dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Twenty-three dairies were enrolled by a local veterinary practice from 2009 to 2010, and 1,715 cows were screened for ketosis by measuring serum BHBA concentrations at 7 to 14 d in milk. Overall, 47.2% of cows had SCK and 11.6% had CK. Mixed generalized logit models with a random effect of herd were used to evaluate cow level factors associated with SCK and CK. The associations of SCK and CK with milk production parameters were tested using mixed linear models with a random effect of herd. Cows at a moderate (3.25-3.75) or fat (≥4) body condition score before calving were more likely to develop SCK and CK than thin (body condition score≤3.0) cows. The risk for developing SCK was higher in parity 2 and older cows compared with heifers, whereas for CK only, parity ≥3 cows had a higher risk. The quarter of the year in which a cow calved was associated with the risk for SCK and CK. For SCK quarter 1 (January-March) and quarter 2 (April-June), and for CK quarter 1, quarter 2, and quarter 3 (July-September) all increased the risk of development of the condition compared with quarter 4 (October-December). An increased yield of colostrum at first milking was associated with increasing risk for SCK and CK. Prolonged previous lactation length and dry period length were both associated with increased odds for SCK and CK. Subclinical ketosis and CK were associated with a higher milk yield, a higher milk fat percentage, and a lower milk protein percentage

  14. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical ketosis and association with production parameters in dairy cows in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, T; Papen, J; Bemers, R; Vertenten, G; Berge, A C B

    2015-02-01

    Ketosis is associated with many transition cow diseases and the subclinical form has been found to be a common condition in high-producing dairy cows. The objectives of this field study in the Netherlands were (1) to determine risk factors for subclinical ketosis [SCK; 1.2-2.9mmol of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA)/L of serum] and clinical ketosis (CK: ≥3.0mmol of BHBA/L of serum) at 7 to 14 d in milk and (2) to assess the association of SCK and CK with production parameters at the first dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Twenty-three dairies were enrolled by a local veterinary practice from 2009 to 2010, and 1,715 cows were screened for ketosis by measuring serum BHBA concentrations at 7 to 14 d in milk. Overall, 47.2% of cows had SCK and 11.6% had CK. Mixed generalized logit models with a random effect of herd were used to evaluate cow level factors associated with SCK and CK. The associations of SCK and CK with milk production parameters were tested using mixed linear models with a random effect of herd. Cows at a moderate (3.25-3.75) or fat (≥4) body condition score before calving were more likely to develop SCK and CK than thin (body condition score≤3.0) cows. The risk for developing SCK was higher in parity 2 and older cows compared with heifers, whereas for CK only, parity ≥3 cows had a higher risk. The quarter of the year in which a cow calved was associated with the risk for SCK and CK. For SCK quarter 1 (January-March) and quarter 2 (April-June), and for CK quarter 1, quarter 2, and quarter 3 (July-September) all increased the risk of development of the condition compared with quarter 4 (October-December). An increased yield of colostrum at first milking was associated with increasing risk for SCK and CK. Prolonged previous lactation length and dry period length were both associated with increased odds for SCK and CK. Subclinical ketosis and CK were associated with a higher milk yield, a higher milk fat percentage, and a lower milk protein percentage

  15. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  16. Impact of antibiotic use in adult dairy cows on antimicrobial resistance of veterinary and human pathogens: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2011-03-01

    Antibiotics have saved millions of human lives, and their use has contributed significantly to improving human and animal health and well-being. Use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has resulted in healthier, more productive animals; lower disease incidence and reduced morbidity and mortality in humans and animals; and production of abundant quantities of nutritious, high-quality, and low-cost food for human consumption. In spite of these benefits, there is considerable concern from public health, food safety, and regulatory perspectives about the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Over the last two decades, development of antimicrobial resistance resulting from agricultural use of antibiotics that could impact treatment of diseases affecting the human population that require antibiotic intervention has become a significant global public health concern. In the present review, we focus on antibiotic use in lactating and nonlactating cows in U.S. dairy herds, and address four key questions: (1) Are science-based data available to demonstrate antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in dairy cows associated with use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows? (2) Are science-based data available to demonstrate that antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in adult dairy cows impacts pathogens that cause disease in humans? (3) Does antimicrobial resistance impact the outcome of therapy? (4) Are antibiotics used prudently in the dairy industry? On the basis of this review, we conclude that scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among pathogens isolated from dairy cows to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows and other food-producing animals does contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance

  17. Microbiologic investigation of an epizootic of mastitis caused by Serratia marcescens in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, P L; Guterbock, W M; Holmberg, C A; Gay, J M; Weaver, L D; Walton, R W

    1992-01-15

    An epizootic of subclinical and clinical mastitis caused by Serratia marcescens was investigated in a 1,000-cow dairy farm in California. Serratia marcescens was isolated from 13 to 18% of composite milk samples obtained from lactating dairy cows. During monthly milk sampling performed during a 4-month period, S marcescens was isolated from 38.8 to 62.3% of composite milk samples obtained from cows from which S marcescens was previously isolated. Few cows infected with S marcescens had evidence of clinical mastitis. Somatic cell count value was associated with isolation of S marcescens. Cows with somatic cell counts greater than 500,000 were 5.48 times as likely to have intramammary infections with S marcescens, compared with cows with somatic cell count less than or equal to 500,000. Lactation number also was associated with S marcescens intramammary infection. After adjusting for the effect of lactation number, cows with high somatic cell count values were 2.98 times as likely to have intramammary infection with S marcescens, compared with cows with low somatic cell counts. Infection with S marcescens was independent of days in lactation, production string, and daily milk production. Eleven months after the beginning of the epizootic, S marcescens was isolated from organic bedding samples obtained from the dairy. Despite numerous attempts, other sources of S marcescens could not be identified on this dairy.

  18. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone in adult dairy cows and associations with fertility.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E S; Bisinotto, R S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Morrison, A; Kumar, A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in plasma of dairy cows and to investigate the relationships between plasma AMH and fertility responses during a 100-d breeding season. Lactating cows, 1,237 in 2 seasonally calving herds, had estrous cycles presynchronized and were enrolled in a timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol. All cows were inseminated on the first day of breeding season, considered study d 0. Blood was sampled on d -8 and analyzed for concentrations of AMH and progesterone. From d 19 to 35, detection of estrus was performed daily and cows detected in estrus were reinseminated. On d 36, bulls were placed with cows for 65 d of natural service breeding. Factors identified to be associated with concentrations of AMH in plasma were breed of the cow and lactation number. Concentrations of AMH were greater for Jerseys, followed by crossbreds, and then Holsteins. Cows on lactations 2 and 3 had greater concentrations of AMH than those on lactations 1 and ≥ 4. Although pregnancy per AI at the timed AI was not associated with concentrations of AMH, cows with low AMH had greater detection of estrus at timed AI, and the latter benefited pregnancy per AI, particularly in cows that had low progesterone at the beginning of the synchronization protocol. Pregnancy loss between gestation d 30 and 65 was greater in cows with low AMH compared with those with intermediate or high AMH. Return to estrus in cows that failed to become pregnant from the timed AI was not associated with AMH, but pregnancy rate in cows bred on estrus (reinsemination + natural service) was associated positively with AMH. In conclusion, breed and lactation number were identified to be associated with concentrations of AMH in plasma. Concentration of AMH was associated positively with maintenance of pregnancy at the first postpartum AI and with pregnancy rate in cows inseminated after detection of spontaneous

  19. Reproductive responses of dairy cows with ovarian cysts to simultaneous human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone and cloprostenol compared to gonadotropin-releasing hormone alone treatment

    PubMed Central

    Taktaz, T.; Kafi, M.; Mokhtari, Adel; Heidari, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Bovine ovarian cysts are a common cause of economic loss in modern dairy herds. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive responses to three protocols using hCG, GnRH and cloprostenol when the definite diagnosis of the type of ovarian cyst is/is not possible in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts were divided into three groups. At diagnosis (Day 0), cows in Group 1 (the conventional method, n=47) were injected with 0.02 mg of a GnRH analogue i.m. (Buserelin); cows in Group 2 (n=47) were intramuscularly treated with 0.02 mg Buserelin plus 500 µg cloprostenol; and cows in Group 3 (n=50) were intramuscularly treated with 1500 IU hCG plus 500 µg cloprostenol. All cows received 500 µg cloprostenol intramuscularly on Day 10. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the recovery time, interval to conception, conception rate at first AI, and pregnancy rates by Days 70 and 100 after treatment among the three groups. Conclusions: Simultaneous treatment of ovarian cysts with hCG or GnRH and cloprostenol appeared to have no advantage over the conventional method, GnRH alone, in dairy cows. Furthermore, hCG and GnRH have an equal therapeutic effect in cows with ovarian cysts. PMID:27047149

  20. Evaluation of a coagulase-negative variant of Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of intramammary infections in a herd of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fox, L K; Besser, T E; Jackson, S M

    1996-09-15

    A coagulase-negative variant of Staphylococcus aureus was identified in a herd of 250 lactating dairy cows. During testing of the entire herd, this strain of S aureus was isolated from aseptically collected milk samples of 25 cows. Cows with intramammary infections attributable to coagulase-negative S aureus had an increased somatic cell count in their milk, which was indicative of mastitis infection. Speciation of the Staphylococcus organisms was made, using a series of biochemical tests. A strain of a coagulase-positive S aureus also caused intramammary infections in the herd and shared identical biochemical characteristics with the coagulase-negative strain. Moreover, both strains could not be typed by the use of the International Set of Bovine Phages. Analysis of these findings indicated that a coagulase-negative variant of S aureus can cause intramammary infections in cattle, coagulase-negative variants of S aureus that cause mastitis can be more prevalent in herds than coagulase-positive variants, and clinicians should avoid misclassifying coagulase-negative S aureus as organisms that are clinically unimportant.

  1. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  2. Hot topic: Early postpartum treatment of commercial dairy cows with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs increases whole-lactation milk yield.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A J; Ylioja, C M; Vargas, C F; Mamedova, L K; Mendonça, L G; Coetzee, J F; Hollis, L C; Gehring, R; Bradford, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postpartum administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium salicylate can increase 305-d milk yield in older dairy cattle (parity 3 and greater). However, in this prior work, sodium salicylate was delivered to cows via the drinking water, a method that does not align well with current grouping strategies on commercial dairy farms. The objective of the current study was to replicate these results on a commercial dairy farm with a simplified treatment protocol and to compare sodium salicylate with another NSAID, meloxicam. Dairy cattle in their second lactation and greater (n=51/treatment) were alternately assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition, with treatments lasting for 3d. Experimental treatments began 12 to 36 h after parturition and were (1) 1 placebo bolus on the first day and 3 consecutive daily drenches of sodium salicylate (125 g/cow per day; SAL); (2) 1 bolus of meloxicam (675 mg/cow) and 3 drenches of an equal volume of water (MEL); or (3) 1 placebo bolus and 3 drenches of water (CON). Blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment, immediately following the last day of treatment, and 7d after the last day of treatment; plasma was analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids, haptoglobin, and paraoxonase. Milk production, body condition score, reproductive status, and retention in the herd were monitored for 365 d posttreatment, and effects of treatment, parity, days in milk, and interactions were evaluated in mixed effects models. Significance was declared at P<0.05. Whole-lactation milk and protein yields were greater in NSAID-treated cows, although 305-d fat production was not affected. There was a significant interaction of treatment and parity for plasma glucose concentration; MEL increased plasma glucose concentrations compared with CON and SAL in older cows. Sodium salicylate decreased plasma BHB concentration compared with MEL at 7d posttreatment

  3. The high producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, H; Smith, RF; Royal, MD; Knight, CH; Sheldon, IM

    2009-01-01

    Contents: Intensive genetic selection has resulted in modern dairy cow with very high milk yields but reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to get enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation and the animals require considerable veterinary attention in the early period after calving. Both genetic and management changes to increase the persistency of lactations would reduce the number and intensity of clinical risk periods throughout a cow's life without compromising milk output. PMID:17688598

  4. Production effects related to mastitis and mastitis economics in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Henri; Fourichon, Christine; Beaudeau, François

    2003-01-01

    Mastitis is the most prevalent production disease in dairy herds world-wide and is responsible for several production effects. Milk yield and composition can be affected by a more or less severe short-term depression and, in case of no cure, by a long-acting effect, and, sometimes, an overlapping effect to the next lactation. Summary values in the literature for losses of milk production were proposed at 375 kg for a clinical case (5% at the lactation level) and at 0.5 kg per 2-fold increase of crude SCC of a cow. Due to the withdrawal period after treatment, composition changes in milk can almost be neglected in economic calculations. Lethality rate for clinical mastitis is very low on the average, while anticipated culling occurs more frequently after clinical and subclinical mastitis (relative risk between 1.5 and 5.0). The economics of mastitis needs to be addressed at the farm level and, per se, depends on local and regional epidemiological, managerial and economic conditions. To assess the direct economic impact of mastitis, costs (i.e. extra resource use) and losses (i.e. reduced revenues) have to be aggregated. To support decision making for udder health control, it is necessary to use a marginal approach, based on the comparison of the losses avoided and the additional costs of modified plans, compared to the existing ones.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies using quantitative real-time PCR and bacterial culture to identify contagious mastitis cases in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Murai, Kiyokazu; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Champagne, John D; Glenn, Kathy; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-03-01

    Diagnostic strategies to detect contagious mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds during an outbreak have been minimally studied with regard to cost and diagnostic sensitivity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for identification of infected cows in two California dairy herds during contagious mastitis outbreaks. M. bovis was investigated in a subset of a herd (n=1210 cows) with an estimated prevalence of 2.8% (95% CI=1.9, 3.7), whereas Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae were studied in a second herd (n=351 cows) with an estimated prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI=1.5, 5.3) and 16.8% (95% CI=12.9, 20.7), respectively. Diagnostic strategies involved a combination of testing stages that utilized bacterial culture, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), or both. Strategies were applied to individual or pooled samples of 5, 10, 50 or 100 samples. Culture was considered the gold standard for sensitivity estimation of each strategy. The reference strategy was the strategy with the lowest cost per culture-positive cow which for both M. bovis and Strep. agalactiae consisted of 2 stages, culture of samples in pools of 5 followed by culture of individual samples in positive pools with a sensitivity of 73.5% (95% CI: 55.6, 87.1) and 96.6% (95% CI: 27.7, 84.8), respectively. The reference strategy for Staph. aureus consisted of 3 stages, culture of individual samples in pools of 100 (stage 1), culture constituents of those positive from stage 1 in pools of 5 (stage 2), culture constituents of those positive from stage 2 individually (stage 3) which resulted in a sensitivity of 58.3% (95% CI: 88.3, 99.6). The most cost-effective alternative to the reference strategy was whole herd milk culture for all 3 pathogens. QPCR testing was a component of the second most cost-effective alternative for M. bovis and the third most cost-effective alternatives for

  6. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration.

  7. Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

  8. Long-term detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in individual and bulk tank milk from a dairy herd with a low prevalence of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Khol, J L; Wassertheurer, M; Sodoma, E; Revilla-Fernández, S; Damoser, J; Osterreicher, E; Dünser, M; Kleb, U; Baumgartner, W

    2013-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants and is shed into the milk of infected cows, which contributes to the controversial discussion about a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk for the entry of MAP in the food chain via milk from dairy farms with subclinical JD. Therefore, the occurrence of MAP in the milk of a dairy herd with a low prevalence of JD was studied in single and bulk tank milk samples over a period of 23 mo and compared with MAP shedding into feces. Milk, fecal, and blood samples were taken from all cows older than 1.5 yr of age at the beginning and the end of the trial and analyzed for MAP or specific antibodies. In addition, 63 cows (33 MAP infected and 30 MAP noninfected) were selected for monthly sampling. Raw and pasteurized bulk tank milk samples were collected on a monthly basis. The milk samples were tested for MAP by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the fecal samples were tested for bacterial shedding by qPCR or solid culture. Based on the results of the herd investigations, the prevalence of cows shedding MAP was around 5%; no cases of clinical JD were observed during the study period. The results of the ELISA showed high variation, with 2.1 to 5.1% positive milk samples and 14.9 to 18.8% ELISA-positive blood samples. Monthly milk sampling revealed low levels of MAP shedding into the individual milk samples of both MAP-infected and noninfected cows, with only 13 cows shedding the bacterium into milk during the study period. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was not detected by qPCR in any raw or pasteurized bulk tank milk sample throughout the study. A significant positive association could be found between MAP shedding into milk and feces. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that MAP is only shed via milk in a small proportion of cows with subclinical JD for a limited period of time and

  9. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders. PMID:22059292

  10. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  11. The cost of a case of subclinical ketosis in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gohary, Khaled; Overton, Michael W; Von Massow, Michael; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Lissemore, Kerry D; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model to estimate the cost of a case of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in Canadian dairy herds. Costs were derived from the default inputs, and included increased clinical disease incidence attributable to SCK, $76; longer time to pregnancy, $57; culling and death in early lactation attributable to SCK, $26; milk production loss, $44. Given these figures, the cost of 1 case of SCK was estimated to be $203. Sensitivity analysis showed that the estimated cost of a case of SCK was most sensitive to the herd-level incidence of SCK and the cost of 1 day open. In conclusion, SCK negatively impacts dairy herds and losses are dependent on the herd-level incidence and factors included in the calculation. PMID:27429460

  12. Evaluation of the change of serum copper and zinc concentrations of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Gao, Li; Guo, Changming; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Zhe

    2010-12-01

    Ketosis in dairy cows can lead to poor reproductive success and decreased milk production. Since the serum concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are closely associated with the health status of cows, we investigated whether serum concentrations of Cu and Zn differed in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis and healthy dairy cows. Blood samples of 19 healthy dairy cows and 15 subclinically ketotic dairy cows were collected from three farms, and the concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), Cu, and Zn were determined. Subclinically ketotic dairy cows had significantly higher BHBA and NEFA levels (p < 0.01) and lower glucose (p < 0.01) than healthy dairy cows. Likewise, serum concentrations of Zn were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. There was no significant difference observed for serum Cu concentration between healthy and subclinically ketotic dairy cows. This study suggests that a decreased serum Zn concentration could be a cause of decreased reproductive performance in subclinically ketotic dairy cows.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuljeet; Erdman, Richard A; Swanson, Kara M; Molenaar, Adrian J; Maqbool, Nauman J; Wheeler, Thomas T; Arias, Juan A; Quinn-Walsh, Erin C; Stelwagen, Kerst

    2010-03-01

    It is well established that milk production of the dairy cow is a function of mammary epithelial cell (MEC) number and activity and that these factors can be influenced by diverse environmental influences and management practises (nutrition, milk frequency, photoperiod, udder health, hormonal and local effectors). Thus, understanding how the mammary gland is able to respond to these environmental cues provides a huge potential to enhance milk production of the dairy cow. In recent years our understanding of molecular events within the MEC underlying bovine lactation has been advanced through mammary microarray studies and will be further advanced through the recent availability of the bovine genome sequence. In addition, the potential of epigenetic regulation (non-sequence inheritable chemical changes in chromatin, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which affect gene expression) to manipulate mammary function is emerging. We propose that a substantial proportion of unexplained phenotypic variation in the dairy cow is due to epigenetic regulation. Heritability of epigenetic marks also highlights the potential to modify lactation performance of offspring. Understanding the response of the MEC (cell signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms) to external stimuli will be an important prerequisite to devising new technologies for maximising their activity and, hence, milk production in the dairy cow.

  14. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  15. Using simulation to interpret a discrete time survival model in a complex biological system: fertility and lameness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Christopher D; Huxley, Jonathan N; Green, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds) were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herd's incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance) using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period), PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herd's lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd) rather than individual level.

  16. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls.

  17. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls. PMID:26923045

  18. Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

    2014-01-01

    As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited.

  19. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Tauer, Loren W.; Sanderson, Michael W.; Grohn, Yrjo T.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2–3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2–4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal’s herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times. PMID:24703601

  20. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment.

    PubMed

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9-20 h) or the night (21-8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5+/-2.9 during the day and 70.1+/-4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal

  1. Lymphocyte functions in dairy cows in hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Scalia, Daniela; Ronchi, Bruno; Kuzminsky, Giorgina; Nardone, Alessandro

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of intense high environmental temperatures (HET) on lymphocyte functions in periparturient dairy cows. The study was undertaken from the beginning of March through the end of July 2003 in a commercial dairy unit located approximately 40 km north of Rome. Thirty-four Holstein cows were utilised in the study. Twenty-two of these cows gave birth in spring (SP cows), from 28 March to 30 April. The remaining 12 cows gave birth in summer (SU cows), between 15 June and 2 July. The two groups of cows were balanced for parity and were fed the same rations. Blood samples were taken 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before calving, and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after calving, in order to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) function in vitro, and to determine plasma cortisol concentrations. After isolation, the PBMC were stimulated with mitogens and their response in terms of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion was measured. During spring, either the day (9 20 h) or the night (21 8 h) temperature humidity index (THI) was below the upper critical THI (72) established for dairy cows. During summer, the mean daily THI values were 79.5±2.9 during the day and 70.1±4.7 during the night. Furthermore, during summer, three heat waves (a period of at least 3 consecutive days during which there were less than 10 recovery hours) occurred. Recovery hours were intended hours with a THI below 72. The first heat wave lasted 5 days, the second 6 days, and the third 15 days. Compared to the SP cows, over the entire periparturient period the extent of DNA synthesis and IgM secretion levels were lower (P ranging from <0.01 to 0.0001) and higher (P<0.01) respectively, in the SU cows. Before calving, the SU cows also presented higher (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma cortisol compared to the SP cows. This study indicates that the effects of HET on the immune response depend on the specific immune function under consideration, and that neuroendocrinal changes

  2. Plasma exosome profiles from dairy cows with divergent fertility phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M D; Scholz-Romero, K; Reed, S; Peiris, H N; Koh, Y Q; Meier, S; Walker, C G; Burke, C R; Roche, J R; Rice, G; Salomon, C

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions may be influenced by neighboring cells, distant tissues, or local environmental factors. Exosomes are specific subsets of extracellular vesicles that internalize and deliver their content to near and distant sites. Exosomes may play a role in the maternal-embryo crosstalk vital for the recognition and maintenance of a pregnancy; however, their role in dairy cow reproduction has not been established. This study aimed to characterize the exosome profile in the plasma of 2 strains of dairy cow with divergent fertility phenotypes. Plasma was obtained and characterized on the basis of genetic ancestry as fertile (FERT; <23% North American genetics, New Zealand Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8) or subfertile (SUBFERT; >92% North American genetics, North American Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8). Exosomes were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation and characterized by size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis, NanoSight NS500, NanoSight Ltd., Amesbury, UK), the presence of CD63 (Western blot), and their morphology (electron microscopy). The total number of exosomes was determined by quantifying the immunoreactive CD63 (ExoELISA kit, System Biosciences), and the protein content established by mass spectrometry. Enriched exosome fractions were identified as cup-shape vesicles with diameters around 100 nm and positive for the CD63 marker. The concentration of exosomes was 50% greater in FERT cows. Mass spectrometry identified 104 and 117 proteins in FERT and SUBFERT cows, of which 23 and 36 were unique, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for proteins involved in immunomodulatory processes and cell-to-cell communication. Although the role of exosomes in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated, their quantification and content in models with divergent fertility phenotypes could provide novel information to support both physiological and genetic

  3. Quantification of cow's milk percentage in dairy products - a myth?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Helmut K; Bürger, J; Kaar, N

    2012-07-01

    The substitution of ewe's and goat's milk for cheaper cow's milk is still a fraudulent practice in the dairy industry. Moreover, soy-based products (e.g., soy milk, yoghurt) have to be checked for cow's milk as they are an alternative for people suffering from an allergy against bovine milk proteins. This work reports the evaluation of different protein-based electrophoretic methods and DNA-based techniques for the qualitative detection as well as the quantitative determination of cow's milk percentage in dairy and soy milk products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of γ-caseins using an optimized pH gradient was appropriate not only for the detection of cow's milk, but also for an estimation of cow's milk percentage in mixed-milk cheese varieties. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) proved the method of choice to detect cow's milk in soy milk products, whereas IEF and SDS-PAGE of proteins were not applicable due to false-positive results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to confirm the results of protein-based electrophoretic methods. Problems inherent in quantitative analysis of cow's milk percentage using protein-based techniques and even more using DNA-based methods were emphasized. Applicability of quantitative real-time PCR for the determination of cow's milk percentage in mixed-milk cheese was shown to be hampered by several factors (e.g., somatic cell count of milk; technological parameters influencing the final DNA concentration in ripened commercial cheese samples). The implementation of certified reference standards (of major relevant cheese groups) containing 50% cow's milk was urgently recommended to enable at least a yes/no decision in commercial mixed-milk cheese samples. PMID:22349339

  4. Economics of fertility in high-yielding dairy cows on confined TMR systems.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, V E

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this review paper was to summarise the latest findings in dairy cattle reproductive economics with an emphasis on high yielding, confined total mixed ration systems. The economic gain increases as the reproductive efficiency improves. These increments follow the law of diminishing returns, but are still positive even at high reproductive performance. Reproductive improvement results in higher milk productivity and, therefore, higher milk income over feed cost, more calf sales and lower culling and breeding expenses. Most high-yielding herds in the United States use a combination of timed artificial insemination (TAI) and oestrous detection (OD) reproductive programme. The ratio of achievable pregnancies between OD and TAI determines the economic value difference between both and their combinations. Nonetheless, complex interactions between reproductive programme, herd relative milk yield, and type of reproductive programme are reported. For example, higher herd relative milk yield would favour programme relying more on TAI. In addition, improved reproductive efficiency produces extra replacements. The availability of additional replacements could allow more aggressive culling policies (e.g. less services for non-pregnant cows) to balance on-farm supply and demand of replacements. Balancing heifer replacement availability in an efficient reproductive programme brings additional economic benefits. New technologies such as the use of earlier chemical tests for pregnancy diagnosis could be economically effective depending on the goals and characteristics of the farm. Opportunities for individual cow reproductive management within defined reproductive programme exist. These decisions would be based on economic metrics derived from the value of a cow such as the value of a new pregnancy, the cost of a pregnancy loss, or the cost of an extra day open. PMID:24679357

  5. Economics of fertility in high-yielding dairy cows on confined TMR systems.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, V E

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this review paper was to summarise the latest findings in dairy cattle reproductive economics with an emphasis on high yielding, confined total mixed ration systems. The economic gain increases as the reproductive efficiency improves. These increments follow the law of diminishing returns, but are still positive even at high reproductive performance. Reproductive improvement results in higher milk productivity and, therefore, higher milk income over feed cost, more calf sales and lower culling and breeding expenses. Most high-yielding herds in the United States use a combination of timed artificial insemination (TAI) and oestrous detection (OD) reproductive programme. The ratio of achievable pregnancies between OD and TAI determines the economic value difference between both and their combinations. Nonetheless, complex interactions between reproductive programme, herd relative milk yield, and type of reproductive programme are reported. For example, higher herd relative milk yield would favour programme relying more on TAI. In addition, improved reproductive efficiency produces extra replacements. The availability of additional replacements could allow more aggressive culling policies (e.g. less services for non-pregnant cows) to balance on-farm supply and demand of replacements. Balancing heifer replacement availability in an efficient reproductive programme brings additional economic benefits. New technologies such as the use of earlier chemical tests for pregnancy diagnosis could be economically effective depending on the goals and characteristics of the farm. Opportunities for individual cow reproductive management within defined reproductive programme exist. These decisions would be based on economic metrics derived from the value of a cow such as the value of a new pregnancy, the cost of a pregnancy loss, or the cost of an extra day open.

  6. Lameness scoring system for dairy cows using force plates and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghamsari, S Mehdi; Nowrouzian, I; Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghidary, S Shiry

    2012-02-01

    Lameness scoring is a routine procedure in dairy industry to screen the herds for new cases of lameness. Subjective lameness scoring, which is the most popular lameness detection and screening method in dairy herds, has several limitations. They include low intra-observer and inter-observer agreement and the discrete nature of the scores which limits its usage in monitoring the lameness. The aim of this study is to develop an automated lameness scoring system comparable with conventional subjective lameness scoring by means of artificial neural networks. The system is composed of four balanced force plates installed in a hoof-trimming box. A group of 105 dairy cows was used for the study. Twenty-three features extracted from ground reaction force (GRF) data were used in a computer training process which was performed on 60 per cent of the data. The remaining 40 per cent of the data were used to test the trained system. Repeatability of the lameness scoring system was determined by GRF samples from 25 cows, captured at two different times from the same animals. The mean sd was 0.31 and the mean coefficient of variation was 14.55 per cent, which represents a high repeatability in comparison with subjective vision-based scoring methods. Although the highest sensitivity and specificity values were seen in locomotion score groups 1 and 4, the automatic lameness system was both sensitive and specific in all groups. The sensitivity and specificity were higher than 72 per cent in locomotion score groups 1 to 4, and it was 100 per cent specific and 50 per cent sensitive for group 5. PMID:22141114

  7. Herd-level relationship between antimicrobial use and presence or absence of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bovine mastitis pathogens on Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vineet; McClure, J T; Scholl, Daniel T; DeVries, Trevor J; Barkema, Herman W

    2013-08-01

    Concurrent data on antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance are needed to contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria. The present study examined a herd-level association between AMU and AMR in Escherichia coli (n=394) and Klebsiella species (n=139) isolated from bovine intramammary infections and mastitis cases on 89 dairy farms in 4 regions of Canada [Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and Maritime Provinces (Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick)]. Antimicrobial use data were collected using inventory of empty antimicrobial containers and antimicrobial drug use rate was calculated to quantify herd-level AMU. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using Sensititre National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) gram-negative MIC plate (Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH). Isolates were classified as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. Intermediate and resistant category isolates were combined to form an AMR category, and multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine herd-level odds of AMR to tetracycline, ampicillin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and kanamycin in E. coli isolates. In the case of Klebsiella species isolates, logistic regression models were built for tetracycline and sulfisoxazole; however, no associations between AMU and AMR in Klebsiella species were observed. Ampicillin-intermediate or -resistant E. coli isolates were associated with herds that used intramammarily administered cloxacillin, penicillin-novobiocin combination, and cephapirin used for dry cow therapy [odds ratios (OR)=26, 32, and 189, respectively], and intramammary ceftiofur administered for lactating cow therapy and systemically administered penicillin (OR=162 and 2.7, respectively). Use of systemically administered penicillin on a dairy farm was associated with tetracycline and streptomycin-intermediate or -resistant E. coli isolates (OR=5

  8. Estrus detection using radiotelemetry or visual observation and tail painting for dairy cows on pasture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z Z; McKnight, D J; Vishwanath, R; Pitt, C J; Burton, L J

    1998-11-01

    The efficiency and accuracy of estrus detection using HeatWatch (DDx Inc., Denver, CO) or visual observation were compared in an autumn-calving Friesian herd (n = 48 per group) and a spring-calving Jersey herd (n = 50 per group) grazing on pasture. Cows in the group monitored by the HeatWatch system were fitted with a pressure-sensitive transmitter that signaled mounting activities associated with estrus. Visual observation was carried out for about 20 min before the morning and afternoon milkings and was aided by a strip of paint applied over the tailhead. Ovarian cyclicity was monitored with progesterone concentrations in milk samples collected twice a week. The efficiency and accuracy of estrus detection were, respectively, 98.4 and 97.6% for visual observation and 91.7 and 100% for HeatWatch detection. Autumn-calving herds differed from spring-calving herds in duration of estrus (9.7 vs. 7.3 h), number of mounts (13.6 vs. 8.5), total duration of mounts (36.8 vs. 19.9 s), and mean duration of a mount (2.6 vs. 2.3 s). There was no significant variation in the distribution of the time of onset of estrus or mounting activities at different hours of the day. Conception rate was similar for AI after estrus detection with HeatWatch (65.8%) or after visual observation (65.0%). The highest conception rate was obtained when AI was carried out between 12 and 18 h after the first mount. Both the HeatWatch system and visual observation plus tail painting can be used for estrus detection of dairy cows on pasture.

  9. Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, J

    2001-08-01

    Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

  10. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  11. BVDV and BHV-1 Infections in Dairy Herds in Northern and Northeastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kampa, J; Ståhl, K; Moreno-López, J; Chanlun, A; Aiumlamai, S; Alenius, S

    2004-01-01

    Bulk milk samples from 220 dairy herds were collected at 9 public milk collection centres in the northeastern and northern Thailand, and a subset of 11 herds was selected for individual testing. The samples were tested for presence of antibodies to BVDV and BHV-1 using an indirect ELISA. The results from the bulk milk testing demonstrated a moderate level of exposure to BVDV and BHV-1 (73% and 67%, respectively). However, the low proportion of herds with high BVDV antibody-levels (13%) and the low within-herd seroprevalence of BVDV and BHV-1 in the 11 herds (24% and 5%, respectively), particularly among the young stock (15% and 0%, respectively), demonstrated a low prevalence of active BVDV infection and a low rate of reactivation of latent BHV-1. The presence of a self-clearance process was also indicated by the results from the individual testing. Moreover, a surprisingly low prevalence of BVDV and BHV-1 antibody-positive herds at one of the milk centres was found. This centre was established 5–10 years before the others. Our impression is that this reflects the self-clearance process, where consecutive replacement of imported infected animals without further spread has resulted in a nearly total elimination of the infections. Based on our experiences and on these results we are convinced that this process can continue if there is awareness of herd biosecurity. This is especially important in the context of a future intensification of the dairy production. PMID:15663078

  12. Response in two commercial Holstein herds to addition of sodium bicarbonate to alfalfa hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Bath, D L; Bishop, S E; Peterson, N G; Hight, W B; De Peters, E J

    1985-07-01

    Feeding trials were conducted in two commercial dairy herds to evaluate the addition of .8% sodium bicarbonate to alfalfa hay-based diets. Approximately half of each herd served as controls and the other half was fed the same diet with sodium bicarbonate. A total of 1280 Dairy Herd Improvement Association lactation records were obtained in the two herds during the trials. Cows in herd 1 were milked three times daily and cows in herd 2 were milked twice daily. In herd 1, milk production from control and bicarbonate groups was: first lactation cows, 7491 and 7748 kg/cow; second lactation cows, 8363 and 8791 kg/cow; and third and higher lactation cows, 8713 and 9562 kg/cow. There were no differences in milkfat or solids-not-fat percentages between treatment groups. In herd 2, milk production from control and bicarbonate groups was: first lactation cows, 6800 and 7158 kg/cow; second lactation cows, 8487 and 8082 kg/cow; and third and higher lactation cows, 8807 and 8216 kg/cow. First lactation cows fed sodium bicarbonate had a lower milk fat percentage than controls. There were no other differences in milk fat or solids-not-fat percentages between treatment groups. PMID:2993391

  13. Synchronisation of ovulation for management of reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Santos, J E P

    2014-05-01

    Important developments have occurred in the last two decades, since the advent of the Ovsynch protocol, on the understanding and use of synchronisation programmes for management of reproduction in dairy herds. This better understanding of oestrus cycle control associated with suboptimal reproductive performance in dairy herds has led dairy producers to quickly adopt timed artificial insemination (AI) protocols. Recent surveys have documented that fixed-time AI has become an important component of management of reproduction in high-producing herds. Furthermore, timed AI protocols have also demonstrated benefits in pasture-based milk production systems because of the ability to increase insemination rate. In general, successful use of the Ovsynch protocol requires some fundamental physiological principles to be respected, including: induction of ovulation to synchronise follicle growth in the first 2 days of the programme such that a young antral follicle is recruited; maintenance of high concentrations of progesterone during the development of the ovulatory follicle, but also effectively lyse the corpus luteum to result in very low concentration of progesterone at AI; and having a healthy pre-ovulatory follicle of moderate diameter that is highly oestrogenic and responsive to gonadotropins to synchronously ovulate 12 to 18 h after insemination. Current methods oestrous and ovulation synchronisation are still not optimal and future improvements will likely require new technologies for hormone formulation and delivery such that additional interventions are minimised to maintain acceptance by producers. PMID:24709227

  14. Synchronisation of ovulation for management of reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Santos, J E P

    2014-05-01

    Important developments have occurred in the last two decades, since the advent of the Ovsynch protocol, on the understanding and use of synchronisation programmes for management of reproduction in dairy herds. This better understanding of oestrus cycle control associated with suboptimal reproductive performance in dairy herds has led dairy producers to quickly adopt timed artificial insemination (AI) protocols. Recent surveys have documented that fixed-time AI has become an important component of management of reproduction in high-producing herds. Furthermore, timed AI protocols have also demonstrated benefits in pasture-based milk production systems because of the ability to increase insemination rate. In general, successful use of the Ovsynch protocol requires some fundamental physiological principles to be respected, including: induction of ovulation to synchronise follicle growth in the first 2 days of the programme such that a young antral follicle is recruited; maintenance of high concentrations of progesterone during the development of the ovulatory follicle, but also effectively lyse the corpus luteum to result in very low concentration of progesterone at AI; and having a healthy pre-ovulatory follicle of moderate diameter that is highly oestrogenic and responsive to gonadotropins to synchronously ovulate 12 to 18 h after insemination. Current methods oestrous and ovulation synchronisation are still not optimal and future improvements will likely require new technologies for hormone formulation and delivery such that additional interventions are minimised to maintain acceptance by producers.

  15. Designing a risk-based surveillance program for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Norwegian dairy herds using multivariate statistical process control analysis.

    PubMed

    Whist, A C; Liland, K H; Jonsson, M E; Sæbø, S; Sviland, S; Østerås, O; Norström, M; Hopp, P

    2014-11-01

    Surveillance programs for animal diseases are critical to early disease detection and risk estimation and to documenting a population's disease status at a given time. The aim of this study was to describe a risk-based surveillance program for detecting Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Norwegian dairy cattle. The included risk factors for detecting MAP were purchase of cattle, combined cattle and goat farming, and location of the cattle farm in counties containing goats with MAP. The risk indicators included production data [culling of animals >3 yr of age, carcass conformation of animals >3 yr of age, milk production decrease in older lactating cows (lactations 3, 4, and 5)], and clinical data (diarrhea, enteritis, or both, in animals >3 yr of age). Except for combined cattle and goat farming and cattle farm location, all data were collected at the cow level and summarized at the herd level. Predefined risk factors and risk indicators were extracted from different national databases and combined in a multivariate statistical process control to obtain a risk assessment for each herd. The ordinary Hotelling's T(2) statistic was applied as a multivariate, standardized measure of difference between the current observed state and the average state of the risk factors for a given herd. To make the analysis more robust and adapt it to the slowly developing nature of MAP, monthly risk calculations were based on data accumulated during a 24-mo period. Monitoring of these variables was performed to identify outliers that may indicate deviance in one or more of the underlying processes. The highest-ranked herds were scattered all over Norway and clustered in high-density dairy cattle farm areas. The resulting rankings of herds are being used in the national surveillance program for MAP in 2014 to increase the sensitivity of the ongoing surveillance program in which 5 fecal samples for bacteriological examination are collected from 25 dairy herds

  16. Short communication: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk of dairy cows and effect of swine population density.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Bertocchi, L; Zanoni, M G; Barberio, A; Drigo, I; Varisco, G; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2016-03-01

    The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently frequently been reported in dairy cattle, usually with low prevalence. The livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398 is especially involved in cases of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Swine carry LA-MRSA without clinical symptoms and are considered its reservoir and shedder. People exposed to swine are particularly at risk of LA-MRSA colonization. Environments with relevant livestock density are a demonstrated risk factor for humans to be carriers of a LA-MRSA. This work investigated dairy farms located in an area with a high livestock density, mainly represented by swine. Bulk tank milk samples from 224 dairy farms were collected, and their status was defined as MRSA-positive or MRSA-negative based on culture on chromogenic medium. The number of fattening swine and of fattening swine herds was calculated in an area of 3 km around each dairy farm through georeferencing. The probability of a Staphylococcus aureus-positive dairy farm to be MRSA positive based on the extent of potential infective pressure due to swine density was calculated. Both the number of swine herds and the number of swine were associated with the MRSA status of dairy herds. The 9 MRSA isolated were typed by multi-locus sequence typing and spa-typing, and characterized for their virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The ST and spa-types detected are consistent with those present in the Italian swine population. Virulence and resistance profiles are mostly consistent with the types detected. This work provides the first evidence of the epidemiological challenge exerted by the density of the swine population on MRSA in dairy cows.

  17. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on displaced abomasum, removal from herd, and reproduction in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2012-05-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Measured outcomes were development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 d in milk (DIM), conception to first service, and time to conception within 150 DIM. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Cows with SCK were randomized to treatment group (oral PG) or untreated control group (no PG); treatment cows were orally drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. Mixed effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the effect of PG on DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service; a semiparametric proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the days-to-conception outcome. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least 1 β-hydroxybutyrate test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Of these, 372 were assigned to the PG treatment group and 369 to the control group. Thirty-nine cows (5.3%) developed a DA after testing positive for SCK and 30 cows (4.0%) died or were sold within the first 30 DIM. Based on risk ratios, control cows were 1.6 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3 to 2.0] to develop a DA and 2.1 times more likely (95% CI=1.2 to 3.6) to die or be sold than cows treated with PG. In addition, PG-treated cows were 1.3 times more likely (risk ratio 95% CI=1.1 to 1.5) to conceive at first insemination than control cows in 3 of the herds. No difference was observed in days to conception within 150 DIM between treatment groups (hazard ratio for PG cows=1.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 1.4), with a median time to

  18. Type 1 and type 2 immune response profiles of commercial dairy cows in 4 regions across Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen A.; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of dairy cattle have adverse implications for both the dairy industry and animal welfare. Understanding adaptive immune response profiles of cattle on a national scale will provide insight into the potential for improving health and decreasing disease. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate immune response phenotypes of Holstein cows outside the peripartum period and to determine if antibody isotype bias to putative type 1 and type 2 test antigens is maintained. The cows, housed on commercial farms in 4 key dairy regions across Canada, were immunized with test antigens to measure their ability to mount cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) and antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR). Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was used as an indicator of CMIR and primary and secondary serum antibodies of the immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgG2 isotypes were used to determine AMIR to the test antigens. Immune response phenotypes varied significantly among regions, herds, and cows. Cows in Alberta had significantly higher DTH responses and secondary responses to the type 2 test antigen than those in other regions. However, cows in Alberta had significantly lower primary antibody responses. It was found that Alberta had the lowest incidence of mastitis caused by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus compared with other regions. The IgG1/IgG2 antibody isotype ratio confirmed the nature of the test antigens. This was the first study to evaluate adaptive immune response profiles and disease incidence of dairy cows on a national scale and it therefore provides a glimpse of the current situation in Canada. PMID:23024454

  19. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P < 0.001) in cows suffering from ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  20. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P < 0.001) in cows suffering from ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry. PMID:26728033

  1. Feeding a higher forage diet prepartum decreases incidences of subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vickers, L A; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-02-01

    A common feeding practice during the dry period is to switch dairy cows to an energy-dense diet 3 wk prepartum, but this practice may lead to the overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of metabolic disease postpartum. The aim of this trial was to compare the metabolic status of transition Holstein dairy cows fed a 77% forage diet (77F; NEl = 1.46 Mcal/kg; NDF = 41%) vs. those fed an 87% forage diet (87F; NEl = 1.41 Mcal/kg; 48% NDF). Approximately 60 d before calving, cows were dried off, housed in a free stall barn, and fed the 87F diet. Three weeks before expected calving, cows were randomly assigned to either the 77F treatment and switched to this diet (n = 45) or assigned to the 87F treatment and stayed on the dry cow ration until parturition (n = 42). After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet (NEl = 1.59 Mcal/kg; 36% NDF). Dry matter intake was measured daily from 2 wk before to 2 wk after calving. Blood was sampled daily for 10 d postpartum. Subclinical ketosis was diagnosed using a threshold of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.0 mmol/L after calving. The percentage of cows pregnant and odds of being pregnant for each treatment group were determined at 60, 90, and 120 d in milk through ultrasound by the herd veterinarian. Cows on the 87F diet consumed less DM prepartum than those on the 77F diet (12.7 ± 0.3 kg/d vs. 15.4 ± 0.3 kg/d, P < 0.001), but no difference in DMI was detected after calving (19.7 ± 5.5 kg/d; P = 0.87). Although the calculated prepartum required energy intake was the same for the 2 treatments (15.3 ± 1.2 Mcal/d; P = 0.16), cows on the 77F diet consumed 4.5 Mcal/d more than those on the 87F diet (22.5 ± 0.5 Mcal/d vs. 18.0 ± 0.5 Mcal/d; P < 0.001). Postpartum concentration of BHBA was less for cows fed the 87F diet prepartum (0.49 ± 0.02 mmol/L vs. 0.59 ± 0.02 mmol/L; P = 0.02), and fewer animals on this diet were diagnosed subclinical ketosis (SCK; 49% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). Milk production tended to be

  2. Supplementation of progesterone via controlled internal drug release inserts during ovulation synchronization protocols in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chebel, R C; Al-Hassan, M J; Fricke, P M; Santos, J E P; Lima, J R; Martel, C A; Stevenson, J S; Garcia, R; Ax, R L

    2010-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of exogenous progesterone (P4) during a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol on pregnancies per AI (P/AI) in dairy cows not previously detected in estrus. Lactating cows (n=3,248) from 7 commercial dairy herds were submitted to a presynchronization protocol (2 injections of PGF(2alpha) 14 d apart; Presynch), and cows in estrus after the second PGF(2alpha) received AI (EDAI; n=1,583). Cows not inseminated by 12 to 14 d after the second PGF(2alpha) injection were submitted to a TAI protocol (GnRH on d 0, PGF(2alpha) on d 7, and GnRH+TAI 72h after PGF(2alpha)). At onset of the TAI protocol, cows were balanced by parity and days in milk and assigned randomly to receive no exogenous P4 (control, n=803) or a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert containing 1.38g of P4 from d 0 to 7 (CIDR, n=862). Blood samples were collected at the second PGF(2alpha) injection of the Presynch and on the day of the first GnRH injection of the TAI protocol for P4 determination. When P4 in both samples was <1 ng/mL, cows were classified as anovular, whereas cows having at least 1 sample >or=1 ng/mL were classified as cyclic. Concentration of P4 at 11 to 14 d after AI was determined in a subgroup of cows (n=453) from 2 herds. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-5 and 65+/-5 d after AI. Proportion of cows inseminated on estrus after the second PGF(2alpha) injection of the Presynch protocol differed among herds (range=26.7 to 59.8%). Overall P/AI for EDAI cows at 40+/-5 and 65+/-5 d were 36.2 and 33.7%, respectively, and pregnancy loss was 8.8%. Proportion of cyclic cows at the onset of the TAI protocol differed among herds (range from 66.5 to 86.3%), but did not differ between treatments (control=72.4%, CIDR=74.1%). Treatment affected P/AI at 40+/-5 (control=33.3%, CIDR=38.1%) and 65+/-5 (control=30.0%, CIDR=35.1%) d after AI but did not affect pregnancy loss (8.6%). Cyclic cows had greater P/AI at 40+/-5 (38.2 vs. 29.3%) and 65+/-5 d (35

  3. Development of claw traits and claw lesions in dairy cows kept on different floor systems.

    PubMed

    Somers, J G C J; Schouten, W G P; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2005-01-01

    Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a straw yard (SY). Twenty cows per farm were selected and stratified by parity. Information on claw traits was recorded on right lateral hind claws between October 2002 and May 2003. In addition, lesion development of interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis (DD) was studied in both rear feet. No differences in claw traits were detected among groups on different floor types, with the exception of claw angle. Claw angles were smallest in cows on SY. Claws of cows on SC were steeper than those on SL and GR. The study provided no evidence that floor-related differences in claw lesions were related to differences in horn growth, wear, and resulting claw shape. Lesions of IDHE developed gradually over time and did not differ among flooring types. Cows in SY had the smallest lesion scores for DD, whereas cows on SL had significantly less DD than cows on SC and GR. Incidence of DD fluctuated over time. Development of different stages of DD was monitored in-depth. Both early and healed stages were rather changeable and often turned into other disease stages. Classical ulcerative lesions (stage M2) persisted for a long time, with 20% of the initially unaffected claws having active lesions of DD within 5 mo. The M2 lesions generally did not cure effectively after claw trimming, and frequent use of footbaths resulted in a poor prognosis for recovery.

  4. The influence of body condition on the fasting energy metabolism of nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Birnie, J W; Agnew, R E; Gordon, F J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of cow body condition score on fasting heat production. Twelve nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows were selected from within the dairy herd at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland. Six of these animals (group A) had condition scores > or = 4.5, and the remainder (group B) had condition scores <2. All cows were offered dried grass pellets at estimated maintenance energy level (0.58 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg(0.75)) for a minimum of 21 d. The diet also supplied 2.5 times the metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance. Following this, each cow underwent a 5-d fast in open circuit respiration calorimeters during which fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. On completion of measurement, group A was fed to reduce condition score (CS) below 2, while group B was fed to raise each individual condition score above 4.5. When the appropriate condition scores were achieved, dried grass pellets were again offered at maintenance for a minimum of 21 d, and fasting heat production was measured. It was observed that fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was significantly higher for cows with low body condition (<2; ultrasonic fat depth < or = 2.9 mm) compared with cows displaying high body condition (> or = 4.5; ultrasonic fat depth > or = 8.2 mm). A linear relationship between condition score and fasting heat production (MJ/kg(0.75)) was defined by regression analysis as; FHP (MJ/kg(0.75)) = 0.501(SE 0.0121) - 0.030CS (SE 0.0035). PMID:10877386

  5. Some observations on the epidemiology of bovine leucosis virus infection in a large dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilesmith, J W; Straub, O C; Lorenz, R J

    1980-01-01

    Bovine leucosis infection rates were calculated for two years in a naturally infected dairy herd in which serologically positive animals were not preferentially culled. Transmission of infection was found to occur mainly during the winter housing period. No variation in susceptibility to infection with age was found and young animals did not show a prolonged time from infection to sero-conversion. PMID:6246561

  6. Influence of season and microclimate on fertility of dairy cows in a hot-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. E.; Jassim, A. H.; Armstrong, D. V.; Wiersma, F.; Schuh, J. D.

    1992-09-01

    Records were obtained over a 3 year period from six Holstein dairy farms of 300 to 500 cows each in the Phoenix, Ariz. area. Dairies were selected on the basis of similar management practices, herd size, milk production and facilities (with the exception of cooling systems). Microclimatic modifications (two dairies each) were shade only (approximately 3.7 m2/cow), evaporative-cooled shades and low-pressure water foggers under the shades. Data were categorized by season of calving (spring, Feb. May; summer, June Sept.; and fall, Oct. Jan.). Traits evaluated were calving interval, days open and services/conception. Calving interval was shortest for cows calving in the spring (378 days), intermediate in fall (382 days) and longest in summer (396 days). Similar seasonal trends were observed for days open (103, 103 and 119 days, respectively) and services/conception (1.54, 1.81 and 1.93, respectively). All differences between spring and summer were significant ( P < 0.05). Calving interval and days open were less for evaporative-cooled groups (374 and 98 days, respectively), with no difference between shade only and foggers (391 and 392 days, 112 and 116 days, respectively). Services/conception were similar for all groups (1.72 to 1.79). A significant interaction between microclimate and season for services/conception could be interpreted as (i) smaller season differences for evaporative-cooled groups than for shade or foggers, or (ii) a change in the ranking of control and fogger groups during summer versus fall. Evaporative cooling was more effective than fogging for reducing the detrimental effects of seasonal high temperatures on fertility.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Salmonella Cerro Infection in a US Dairy Herd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, Prem; van Kessel, Jo Ann; Karns, Jeffrey; Wolfgang, David; Schukken, Ynte; Grohn, Yrjo

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis has been one of the major causes of human foodborne illness in the US. The high prevalence of infections makes transmission dynamics of Salmonella in a farm environment of interest both from animal and human health perspectives. Mathematical modeling approaches are increasingly being applied to understand the dynamics of various infectious diseases in dairy herds. Here, we describe the transmission dynamics of Salmonella infection in a dairy herd with a set of non-linear differential equations. Although the infection dynamics of different serotypes of Salmonella in cattle are likely to be different, we find that a relatively simple SIR-type model can describe the observed dynamics of the Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro infection in the herd.

  8. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  9. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Røntved, C M; Sørensen, P; Herskin, M S

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2 d before (d -2 and -1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening milking on d 0, each cow received an intramammary infusion with 20 to 40 cfu of E. coli in 1 healthy front quarter. Paraclinical and bacteriological examinations were conducted to confirm infection. Half of the cows were subjected to liver and udder biopsies twice during the trial. Behavior was video-recorded on 5 consecutive days, d -2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared with that on the other days (16.6±1.1, 16.5±1.0, 13.2±1.2, 18.1±1.1, and 16.0±0.8% of time for d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 2, respectively). The duration of standing idle increased on d 0 compared with that on the control days and d 1 and 2 (29.4±2.6, 28.0±2.3, 39.1±2.6, 31.4±3.8, and 25.9±2.6% of time for d -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2, respectively). The frequency of self-grooming behavior per hour decreased in the initial 24h compared with that on d -2, -1, and 2 (4.1±0.8, 5.4±1.9, 3.2±0.6, 3.6±0.6, and 4.8±1.0 for d -2, -1, 0, 1, and 2, respectively). Likewise, duration of rumination and frequency of turning the head against the udder decreased in the first days after infection (rumination: 32.2±1.6, 34.8±1.8, 27.9±1.7, 30.0±2.6, and 34.8±1.7% of time; and frequency of turning head: 0.6

  10. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  11. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  12. Periparturient immunosuppression and strategies to improve dairy cow health during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Aleri, J W; Hine, B C; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Wales, W J; Mallard, B; Fisher, A D

    2016-10-01

    Common health problems observed during peripartum include milk fever, mastitis, fatty liver disease, ketosis, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, hypomagnesaemia and abomasal displacements. The increased incidence of health problems observed during the periparturient period can be partly attributed to suboptimal immune responses. Factors contributing to decreased periparturient immunity include the act of parturition itself, impaired leukocytic activity, effects of colostrogenesis and lactogenesis, and associated hypocalcemia and negative energy balance. Nutritional and other management strategies represent a relevant short-term strategy aimed at improving the health and welfare of the transitioning cow. Additionally, it is important to consider improving the health of dairy herds through the genetic selection of animals with enhanced robustness by identifying those with superior disease resistance or resilience in the face of infection. As a consequence these animals are better able to cope with the production and environmental stresses. These may provide long-term selection strategies for improving the health and welfare of the transitioning cow particularly when combined with sound management practices, allowing dairy cattle to reach their full genetic potential.

  13. Periparturient immunosuppression and strategies to improve dairy cow health during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Aleri, J W; Hine, B C; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Wales, W J; Mallard, B; Fisher, A D

    2016-10-01

    Common health problems observed during peripartum include milk fever, mastitis, fatty liver disease, ketosis, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, hypomagnesaemia and abomasal displacements. The increased incidence of health problems observed during the periparturient period can be partly attributed to suboptimal immune responses. Factors contributing to decreased periparturient immunity include the act of parturition itself, impaired leukocytic activity, effects of colostrogenesis and lactogenesis, and associated hypocalcemia and negative energy balance. Nutritional and other management strategies represent a relevant short-term strategy aimed at improving the health and welfare of the transitioning cow. Additionally, it is important to consider improving the health of dairy herds through the genetic selection of animals with enhanced robustness by identifying those with superior disease resistance or resilience in the face of infection. As a consequence these animals are better able to cope with the production and environmental stresses. These may provide long-term selection strategies for improving the health and welfare of the transitioning cow particularly when combined with sound management practices, allowing dairy cattle to reach their full genetic potential. PMID:27663364

  14. Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis in a dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Cable, C S; Rebhun, W C; Fortier, L A

    1997-10-01

    A 9-year-old Holstein cow was evaluated for colic and decreased milk production of 2 days' duration. Preoperative serum biochemical results suggested hepatic damage and cholestasis. On the basis of persistent signs of abdominal pain that were nonresponsive to analgesics, exploratory laparotomy was performed. The cow was found to have choleliths. Cholecystocentesis was performed, and samples were submitted for cytologic examination and bacterial culture. Bacterial culture yielded Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Using digital pressure, choleliths were reduced until they could be passed through the bile duct into the duodenum. The cow recovered from surgery without complications, and all serum biochemical test results returned to reference ranges. Cholelithiasis is rare in cattle but can result in signs of abdominal pain.

  15. Prediction of drinking water intake by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Judy, J V; Kebreab, E; Kononoff, P J

    2016-09-01

    Mathematical models that predict water intake by drinking, also known as free water intake (FWI), are useful in understanding water supply needed by animals on dairy farms. The majority of extant mathematical models for predicting FWI of dairy cows have been developed with data sets representing similar experimental conditions, not evaluated with modern cows, and often require dry matter intake (DMI) data, which may not be routinely available. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a set of new empirical models for predicting FWI of lactating and dry cows with and without DMI using literature data, and (2) evaluate the new and the extant models using an independent set of FWI measurements made on modern cows. Random effect meta-regression analyses were conducted using 72 and 188 FWI treatment means with and without dietary electrolyte and daily mean ambient temperature (TMP) records, respectively, for lactating cows, and 19 FWI treatment means for dry cows. Milk yield, DMI, body weight, days in milk, dietary macro-nutrient contents, an aggregate milliequivalent concentration of dietary sodium and potassium (NaK), and TMP were used as potential covariates to the models. A model having positive relationships of DMI, dietary dry matter (DM%), and CP (CP%) contents, NaK, and TMP explained 76% of variability in FWI treatment means of lactating cows. When challenged on an independent data set (n=261), the model more accurately predicted FWI [root mean square prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE%)=14.4%] compared with a model developed without NaK and TMP (RMSPE%=17.3%), and all extant models (RMSPE%≥15.7%). A model without DMI included positive relationships of milk yield, DM%, NaK, TMP, and days in milk, and explained 63% of variability in the FWI treatment means and performed well (RMSPE%=17.9%), when challenged on the independent data. New models for dry cows included positive relationships of DM% and TMP along with DMI or body

  16. Impact of bovine somatotropin on genetic evaluation of dairy sires and cows.

    PubMed

    Weigel, K A; Fisher, T M; Van der Linde, C; Gianola, D; Rekaya, R

    1998-07-01

    Data for milk yield and bovine somatotropin (bST) injections were obtained for 92,463 lactations of 51,986 Holstein cows in 222 commercial dairy herds that had used bST during the previous 3 yr. The overall rate of bST usage in these herds was 29%, and little difference occurred across lactations. A slightly higher percentage of cows with a low pretreatment phenotypic milk yield received bST, but there was no relationship between bST usage rate and the genetic potential of the cows, as measured by the PTA for milk of the sire. The mean starting date of bST administration was 147 d of lactation. Breeding values were estimated using three different animal models. In the first model, all data regarding bST injection were ignored. The second model included a fixed effect of bST injection (0 or 1 for each lactation). In the third model, data for bST injection were used to define management groups such that cows within a particular herd, year, and season of calving that received bST during the lactation were in a different management group from their contemporaries that did not receive bST. Correlations for EBV between sire and cow either ignoring bST or treating bST as a fixed effect were > 0.999, and approximately 98% of selected individuals were chosen under both models. Use of bST information to define the management groups resulted in correlations > 0.99; the EBV from models that either ignored bST or treated bST as a fixed effect had 92 to 95% of the selected individuals chosen by the other two models. The genetic correlation between lactation milk yield with and without bST treatment, which was estimated using a multiple-trait model, was 0.98, which indicated minimal interaction of genotype and bST. In general, bST treatment had little impact on the genetic selection decisions in this study.

  17. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

  18. Association between digital dermatitis lesions and test-day milk yield of Holstein cows from 41 French dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Relun, A; Lehebel, A; Chesnin, A; Guatteo, R; Bareille, N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between digital dermatitis (DD) lesions and test-day milk yield (TDY) in dairy cows, taking into account the severity of the lesions. Data were collected for 6 mo on 47 French dairy farms endemically affected by DD and involved in a clinical trial aiming to assess the effectiveness of collective treatments against DD. The hind feet of all lactating cows were scored for DD by 14 trained investigators on a monthly basis using a 4-point M-stage scoring system (M0 to M4, M standing for Mortellaro). The DD status was defined in 3 categories at the animal level: no DD [scores of M0 and (or) M4 on both feet], moderate case (score of M1 on 1 or both feet and no M2 score), and severe case (score of M2 on 1 or both feet). All monthly TDY in the lactation were collected. The final complete data set included 7,599 TDY of 1,782 Holstein cows from 41 herds. The effect of DD lesions on the following TDY (i.e., within 30 d after detection of a DD lesion) was analyzed separately for primiparous and multiparous cows, using mixed-models ANOVA, with TDY as repeated measures. During the trial, 38% of the primiparous and 41% of the multiparous cows were observed at least once with a DD lesion (moderate or severe case), the cows being observed with a DD lesion, on average, for 2 consecutive visits. Milk yield decreased significantly for cows diagnosed with a DD lesion. Primiparous cows produced, on average, 0.63 kg/d less when DD was moderate and 0.50 kg/d less when the disease was severe, compared with unaffected cows. Multiparous cows produced, on average, 0.50 kg/d less when DD was moderate and 0.75 kg/d less when the disease was severe, compared with unaffected cows. These results confirm that DD lesions have a significant effect on the milk yield of dairy cows, including when animals are rigorously treated. Milk yield losses, thus, should be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of DD control programs.

  19. Effect of dairy farming system, herd, season, parity, and days in milk on modeling of the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Malchiodi, F; Sturaro, E; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the variation in curd firmness model parameters obtained from coagulating bovine milk samples, and to investigate the effects of the dairy system, season, individual farm, and factors related to individual cows (days in milk and parity). Individual milk samples (n = 1,264) were collected during the evening milking of 85 farms representing different environments and farming systems in the northeastern Italian Alps. The dairy herds were classified into 4 farming system categories: traditional system with tied animals (29 herds), modern dairy systems with traditional feeding based on hay and compound feed (30 herds), modern dairy system with total mixed ration (TMR) that included silage as a large proportion of the diet (9 herds), and modern dairy system with silage-free TMR (17 herds). Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation properties, and parameters were modeled using curd firmness measures (CFt) collected every 15 s from a lacto-dynamographic analysis of 90 min. When compared with traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the curd firming measures showed greater variability and yielded a more accurate description of the milk coagulation process: the model converged for 93.1% of the milk samples, allowing estimation of 4 CFt parameters and 2 derived traits [maximum CF (CF(max)) and time from rennet addition to CF(max) (t(max))] for each sample. The milk samples whose CFt equations did not converge showed longer rennet coagulation times obtained from the model (RCT(eq)) and higher somatic cell score, and came from less-productive cows. Among the sources of variation tested for the CFt parameters, dairy herd system yielded the greatest differences for the contrast between the traditional farm and the 3 modern farms, with the latter showing earlier coagulation and greater instant syneresis rate constant (k(SR)). The use of TMR yielded a greater tmax because of a higher instant curd

  20. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper. PMID:16124702

  1. Impact of three inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus vaccines on bulk milk p80 (NS3) ELISA test results in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P; Graham, David A; Arkins, Sean

    2015-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is endemic in many countries and vaccines are used as a component of control and eradication strategies. Surveillance programmes to detect exposure to BVDV often incorporate the use of bulk milk (BM) testing for antibodies against BVDV p80 (NS3), but vaccination can interfere with these results. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BVDV vaccines would confound BM testing for specific antibodies in a nationally representative group of commercial dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 256 commercial dairy herds were included in the statistical analysis. Quarterly BM or serum samples from selected weanling heifers (unvaccinated homeborn youngstock) were assessed by ELISA for antibodies against the BVDV p80 subunit and whole virus. Wilcoxon rank-sum and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to examine differences among groups vaccinated with one of three commercially available inactivated BVDV vaccines. Two of the three vaccines showed evidence of interference with ELISA testing of BM samples. ROC analysis highlighted that one vaccine did not reduce the discriminatory power of the BVDV p80 ELISA for identification of herds with evidence of recent BVDV circulation, when compared with unvaccinated herds; thus, administration of this vaccine would allow uncomplicated interpretation of BM ELISA test results in vaccinated seropositive herds. Seasonal differences in BM antibody results were identified, suggesting that the latter half of lactation is the most suitable time for sampling dairy herds containing predominantly spring calving cows. The results of the present study are likely to prove useful in countries allowing vaccination during or following BVDV eradication, where BM testing is required as part of the surveillance strategy. PMID:25986132

  2. An automated walk-over weighing system as a tool for measuring liveweight change in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, R A; Morton, J M; Beggs, D S; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Blackwood, C B

    2013-07-01

    Automated walk-over weighing systems can be used to monitor liveweights of cattle. Minimal literature exists to describe agreement between automated and static scales, and no known studies describe repeatability when used for daily measurements of dairy cows. This study establishes the repeatability of an automated walk-over cattle-weighing system, and agreement with static electronic scales, when used in a commercial dairy herd to weigh lactating cows. Forty-six lactating dairy cows from a seasonal calving, pasture-based dairy herd in southwest Victoria, Australia, were weighed once using a set of static scales and repeatedly using an automated walk-over weighing system at the exit of a rotary dairy. Substantial agreement was observed between the automated and static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Weights measured by the automated walkover scales were within 5% of those measured by the static scales in 96% of weighings. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement were -23.3 to 43.6 kg, a range of 66.9 kg. The 95% repeatability coefficient for automated weighings was 46.3 kg. Removal of a single outlier from the data set increased Lin's concordance coefficient, narrowed Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement to a range of 32.5 kg, and reduced the 95% repeatability coefficient to 18.7 kg. Cow misbehavior during walk-over weighing accounted for many of the larger weight discrepancies. The automated walk-over weighing system showed substantial agreement with the static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. This contrasted with limited agreement when assessed using Bland and Altman's method, largely due to poor repeatability. This suggests the automated weighing system is inadequate for detecting small liveweight differences in individual cows based on comparisons of single weights. Misbehaviors and other factors can result in the recording of spurious values on walk-over scales. Excluding

  3. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW.

  4. Isolation of Staphylococcus microti from milk of dairy cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Król, Jarosław; Wanecka, Anna; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Dropińska, Agata; Bania, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Paściak, Mariola

    2016-01-15

    The present paper is a case-report of multiple udder infections in a dairy herd caused by Staphylococcus microti. Over a 22-month period, eleven S. microti isolates from milk samples from 9 cows were collected. The animals experienced subclinical (with one exception) intramammary infections with a high self-cure rate. The identification of the microorganism was carried out by means of two independent approaches: nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, as well as some housekeeping genes (sodA, rpoB, dnaJ), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. All S. microti isolates belonged to an apparently single clone (as detected by the RAPD analysis), indicating that the microorganism could adapt, to some degree, to the bovine mammary gland or even spread from cow to cow in a contagious manner. This report is, to our knowledge, the first ever case of bovine mastitis caused by S. microti and the first instance of isolation of this microorganism from domesticated animals.

  5. Claw health and prevalence of lameness in cows from compost bedded and cubicle freestall dairy barns in Austria.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, J; Raith, J; Kuchling, S; Mandl, V; Hund, A; Kofler, J

    2016-10-01

    Claw health and lameness data from five dairies with compost bedded barns (n = 201 data sets) were evaluated and compared with data from five dairy herds housed in freestall cubicle barns (n = 297 data sets). They were matched for having the same cow numbers, flooring type and similar milk yield. The prevalence of lameness, claw lesions and their severity grades were analysed. Two claw health indicators, the cow claw score (CCS) and the farm claw score (FCS), were calculated using a computerised claw trimming database programme; there was no significant difference in overall lameness prevalence in cows from five compost bedded barns (18.7%) compared to cows from five freestall cubicle herds (14.9%). A cumulative link mixed model (CLMM) did not show significant differences in locomotion between different types of bedding material, flooring system, breed, visit number, observer and time since last trimming, but locomotion was significantly influenced by CCS. Another CLMM tested the impact of parameters mentioned on CCS and showed significant influence of flooring type, visit number and cattle breed. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of claw disorders between compost bedded and freestall cubicle barns were found for white line disease (WLD; 20.4% and 46.6%, respectively), heel horn erosion (HHE; 26.9% and 59.9%, respectively), concave dorsal wall as a result of chronic laminitis (6.5% and 15.9%, respectively) and for interdigital hyperplasia (0.2% and 3.1%, respectively). The results of this study indicate that compost dairy barns are a good alternative to common cubicle housing systems in terms of lameness, claw health and animal welfare. PMID:27687931

  6. Aquagrams of raw milk for oestrus detection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Takemura, G; Bázár, G; Ikuta, K; Yamaguchi, E; Ishikawa, S; Furukawa, A; Kubota, Y; Kovács, Z; Tsenkova, R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop rapid and cost-effective method for oestrus detection in dairy cows by means of near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics, using raw milk from individual cows. We found that aquaphotomics approach showed consistent specific water spectral pattern of milk at the oestrus periods of the investigated Holstein cows. Characteristic changes were detected especially in foremilk collected at morning milking. They were reflected in calculated aquagrams of milk spectra where distinctive spectral pattern of oestrus showed increased light absorbance of strongly hydrogen-bonded water. Results showed that monitoring of raw milk near infrared spectra provides an opportunity for analysing hormone levels indirectly, through the changes of water spectral pattern caused by complex physiological changes related to fertile periods. PMID:25704193

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of intramuscular versus intramammary treatment of subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in dairy cows in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J; Chaffer, M; Sanchez, J; Torres, G; Macias, D; Jaramillo, M; Duque, P C; Ceballos, A; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed in 17 Colombian dairy herds to determine the cure risk among cows subclinically infected with Streptococcus agalactiae exposed to 2 antibiotic therapies. Composite milk samples were collected before milking at the onset of the trial (pretreatment) and 2 subsequent times over a period of approximately 63 d. The intramammary application (IMM) of ampicillin-cloxacillin was compared with the intramuscular application (IM) of penethamate hydriodide, and cure risks after an initial and retreatment application were assessed. Cure risk after the initial treatment was higher (82.4%) for the IMM treatment than for IM therapy (65.8%). However, no difference was observed in the cure risk of refractory cases after retreatment (IMM=52.6% vs. IM=51.2%). The cumulative cure risk (both initial and retreatment) was 90.4 and 82.9% for the IMM and IM products, respectively. A 2-level random effects logistic model that controlled for pretreatment cow-level somatic cell count, indicated that IM treatment (odds ratio=0.37) had a lower cure risk than IMM and a tendency for a lower cure risk with increasing baseline somatic cell count. Our findings suggest that both products and administration routes can reduce the prevalence of S. agalactiae in affected herds, but the IMM product had a better efficacy in curing the infection. In addition to the treatment protocol, the cow somatic cell count should be considered when making management decisions for cows infected with S. agalactiae. PMID:26074229

  8. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  9. Fatty acid profiles in relation to triglyceride level in the liver of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Mohamed, Tharwat; Goto, Akiko; Oikawa, Shin; Kurosawa, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate possible relationships between triglyceride (TG) levels and fatty acid composition in bovine liver, hepatic TG and seven individual fatty acids were measured in 23 Holstein dairy cows, of them 6 are healthy. Liver TG level was greater than 3 % in 12 cows which were ruled fatty liver. Palmitic and oleic acid proportions were significantly higher in fatty liver cows than in the healthy cows, while stearic acid was lower in fatty liver cows. With increased liver TG, stearic acid proportions decreased dramatically. Results indicate that hepatic lipidosis markedly alters the proportions of the various fatty acids in the liver of dairy cows.

  10. A case-control study to estimate the effects of acute clinical infection with the Schmallenberg virus on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in Swiss dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, M; Lechner, I; Aebi, M; Vögtlin, A; Posthaus, H; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in Switzerland in July 2012 and many Swiss dairy farmers reported acute clinical signs in dairy cattle during the spread of the virus until December 2012. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of an acute infection with SBV on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in dairy farms with clinical signs of SBV infection (case farms), and to compare those farms to a matched control group of dairy farms in which cattle did not show clinical signs of SBV infection. Herd size was significantly (p<0.001) larger in case farms (33 cows, n=77) than in control farms (25 cows, n=84). Within case herds, 14.8% (median) of the cows showed acute clinical signs. Managers from case farms indicated to have observed a higher abortion rate during the year with SBV (6.5%) than in the previous year (3.7%). Analysis of fertility parameters based on veterinary bills and data from the breeding associations showed no significant differences between case and control farms. The general veterinary costs per cow from July to December 2012 were significantly higher (p=0.02) in case (CHF 19.80; EUR 16.50) than in control farms (CHF 15.90; EUR 13.25). No differences in milk yield were found between groups, but there was a significant decrease in milk production in case farms in the second half year in 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 (p<0.001) and 2013 (p=0.009). The average daily milk yield per cow (both groups together) was +0.73kg higher (p=0.03) in the second half year 2011 and +0.52kg (p=0.12) in the second half year 2013 compared to the same half year 2012. Fifty-seven percent of the cows with acute clinical signs (n=461) were treated by a veterinarian. The average calculated loss after SBV infection for a standardized farm was CHF 1606 (EUR 1338), which can be considered as low at the national level, but the losses were subject to great fluctuations between farms, so that individual farms could have very

  11. Efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy against mild to moderate clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cows: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Truchetti, Geoffrey; Bouchard, Émile; DesCôteaux, Luc; Scholl, Daniel; Roy, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the efficacy of extended ceftiofur therapy and none have focused on extended therapy for naturally occurring clinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of extended intramammary ceftiofur therapy of 8 d duration with a standard 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. Holstein cows from 22 dairy herds (n = 241) were randomly allocated to the 2 treatment groups. For each case of mastitis, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered intramammary once a day for 2 or 8 d. Clinical cure, 21 d after the last treatment, was 89% (98/110) in each group. Bacteriological cure 21 d after the last treatment for the 2- and 8-day regimens were 32% (15/47) and 61% (25/41), respectively, for all bacteria (P = 0.007), 64% (9/14) and 82% (9/11), respectively, for streptococci (P = 0.50), and 0% (0/20) and 47% (9/19), respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.0004). There were no statistical differences between groups for new intramammary infections. Overall, ceftiofur extended therapy increased cure when compared to a 2-day regimen for the treatment of naturally occurring mild to moderate clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:24396178

  12. Latent heat loss of dairy cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis; de Queiroz, João Paulo A. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate evaporative heat transfer of dairy cows bred in a hot semi-arid environment. Cutaneous ( E S) and respiratory ( E R) evaporation were measured (810 observations) in 177 purebred and crossbred Holstein cows from five herds located in the equatorial semi-arid region, and one herd in the subtropical region of Brazil. Rectal temperature ( T R), hair coat surface temperature ( T S) and respiratory rate ( F R) were also measured. Observations were made in the subtropical region from August to December, and in the semi-arid region from April to July. Measurements were done from 1100 to 1600 hours, after cows remained in a pen exposed to the sun. Environmental variables measured in the same locations as the animals were black globe temperature ( T G), air temperature ( T A), wind speed ( U), and partial air vapour pressure ( P V). Data were analysed by mixed models, using the least squares method. Results showed that average E S and E R were higher in the semi-arid region (117.2 W m-2 and 44.0 W m-2, respectively) than in the subtropical region (85.2 W m-2 and 30.2 W m-2, respectively). Herds and individual cows were significant effects ( P < 0.01) for all traits in the semi-arid region. Body parts did not affect T S and E S in the subtropical region, but was a significant effect ( P < 0.01) in the semi-arid region. The average flank T S (42.8°C) was higher than that of the neck and hindquarters (39.8°C and 41.6°C, respectively). Average E S was higher in the neck (133.3 W m-2) than in the flank (116.2 W m-2) and hindquarters (98.6 W m-2). Coat colour affected significantly both T S and E S ( P < 0.01). Black coats had higher T S and E S in the semi-arid region (41.7°C and 117.2 W m-2, respectively) than white coats (37.2°C and 106.7 W m-2, respectively). Rectal temperatures were almost the same in both subtropical and semi-arid regions. The results highlight the need for improved management methods specific for semi-arid regions.

  13. Latent heat loss of dairy cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis; de Queiroz, João Paulo A Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate evaporative heat transfer of dairy cows bred in a hot semi-arid environment. Cutaneous (E(S)) and respiratory (E(R)) evaporation were measured (810 observations) in 177 purebred and crossbred Holstein cows from five herds located in the equatorial semi-arid region, and one herd in the subtropical region of Brazil. Rectal temperature (T(R)), hair coat surface temperature (T(S)) and respiratory rate (F(R)) were also measured. Observations were made in the subtropical region from August to December, and in the semi-arid region from April to July. Measurements were done from 1100 to 1600 hours, after cows remained in a pen exposed to the sun. Environmental variables measured in the same locations as the animals were black globe temperature (T(G)), air temperature (T(A)), wind speed (U), and partial air vapour pressure (P(V)). Data were analysed by mixed models, using the least squares method. Results showed that average E(S) and E(R) were higher in the semi-arid region (117.2 W m(-2) and 44.0 W m(-2), respectively) than in the subtropical region (85.2 W m(-2) and 30.2 W m(-2), respectively). Herds and individual cows were significant effects (P < 0.01) for all traits in the semi-arid region. Body parts did not affect T(S) and E(S) in the subtropical region, but was a significant effect (P < 0.01) in the semi-arid region. The average flank T(S) (42.8°C) was higher than that of the neck and hindquarters (39.8°C and 41.6°C, respectively). Average E(S) was higher in the neck (133.3 W m(-2)) than in the flank (116.2 W m(-2)) and hindquarters (98.6 W m(-2)). Coat colour affected significantly both T(S) and E(S) (P < 0.01). Black coats had higher T(S) and E(S) in the semi-arid region (41.7°C and 117.2 W m(-2), respectively) than white coats (37.2°C and 106.7 W m(-2), respectively). Rectal temperatures were almost the same in both subtropical and semi-arid regions. The results highlight the need for improved management methods specific

  14. Impact of udder disorders on culling of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Beaudeau, F; Fourichon, C; Frankena, K; Faye, B; Seegers, H; Noordhuizen, J P

    1994-01-01

    Data from a prospective longitudinal study carried out from 1986 to 1990 in 47 commercial Holstein dairy herds from western France were used to quantify the effects of udder health disorders on the risk of culling. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between 4 udder health disorders and early and late culling. Teat injuries were associated with an increased risk of early culling in the current and following lactations. Mastitis and high milk cell count were associated with an increased risk of late culling in the current and following lactations, respectively.

  15. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R

    2016-06-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  16. Lameness detection via leg-mounted accelerometers on dairy cows on four commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Thorup, V M; Munksgaard, L; Robert, P-E; Erhard, H W; Thomsen, P T; Friggens, N C

    2015-10-01

    Lameness in dairy herds is traditionally detected by visual inspection, which is time-consuming and subjective. Compared with healthy cows, lame cows often spend longer time lying down, walk less and change behaviour around feeding time. Accelerometers measuring cow leg activity may assist farmers in detecting lame cows. On four commercial farms, accelerometer data were derived from hind leg-mounted accelerometers on 348 Holstein cows, 53 of them during two lactations. The cows were milked twice daily and had no access to pasture. During a lactation, locomotion score (LS) was assessed on average 2.4 times (s.d. 1.3). Based on daily lying duration, standing duration, walking duration, total number of steps, step frequency, motion index (MI, i.e. total acceleration) for lying, standing and walking, eight accelerometer means and their corresponding coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for each week immediately before an LS. A principal component analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the variables. The effects of LS and farm on the principal components (PC) and on the variables were analysed in a mixed model. The first four PC accounted for 27%, 18%, 12% and 10% of the total variation, respectively. PC1 corresponded to Activity variability due to heavy loading by five CV variables related to standing and walking. PC2 corresponded to Activity level due to heavy loading by MI walking, MI standing and walking duration. PC3 corresponded to Recumbency due to heavy loading by four variables related to lying. PC4 corresponded mainly to Stepping due to heavy loading by step frequency. Activity variability at LS4 was significantly higher than at the lower LS levels. Activity level was significantly higher at LS1 than at LS2, which was significantly higher than at LS4. Recumbency was unaffected by LS. Stepping at LS1 and LS2 was significantly higher than at LS3 and LS4. Activity level was significantly lower on farm 3 compared with farms 1 and 2

  17. Effect of delayed breeding during the summer on profitability of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gobikrushanth, M; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this retrospective observational cohort study, combined with simulation, was to evaluate the effect of extending the voluntary waiting period (VWP) during the summer on profitability on a Florida dairy farm. Data from Holstein cows (n=1,416) that calved between June and September of 2007 and 2008 were used. Cows that calved between June 1 and July 21 (regular group; REG; n=719) were artificially inseminated (AI) for the first time upon estrus detection (ED) after the second PGF₂α of the Presynch protocol administered between 57 and 63 d in milk (DIM), or underwent timed AI using the Ovsynch protocol (TAI) if not detected in estrus. Cows that calved between July 22 and September 18 (extended group; EXT; n=697) underwent AI for the first time after the first or second PGF₂α starting November 14 or November 21 or underwent TAI if not detected in estrus. For second and subsequent AI, all cows underwent AI upon ED or enrolled on TAI after nonpregnancy diagnosis. Following these schemes, average VWP in the REG group and EXT group were 60 and 83 d, respectively. Overall profitability for both experimental and subsequent parities were calculated by subtracting the costs existing of feeding costs ($0.30/kg lactating cow diet; $0.25/kg dry cow diet), breeding costs ($2.65/dose PGF₂α; $2.40/dose GnRH; $0.25/injection administration; $10/semen straw; $5/AI; $3/pregnancy diagnosis), and other costs ($3/d) from the daily revenues with milk sales ($0.44/kg of milk), cow sales ($1.76/kg of live weight), and calf sales ($140/calf). A herd budget simulation was used to predict future cash flow after culling or end of subsequent parity until 6 yr after the start of the study to account for all cash flow consequences of extended VWP. Cows in the EXT group had greater first-service pregnancy per AI (PAI1) but still had greater days open and calving interval. Delaying breeding did not affect total cash flow because the EXT group had greater combined

  18. [Red discolouration of the urine in a dairy cattle herd as a stock problem].

    PubMed

    Müller, K; Kamphues, J; Wolf, P; Huchzermeyer, B; Kaske, M

    2012-01-01

    After feeding a new batch of rapeseed meal (2.5 kg/cow/day) in the total mixed ration (TMR) of dairy cows on a dairy farm in Bavaria, numerous puddles of reddish fluid were found on the floor of the cubicle housing system. These were caused by a red discolouration of the urine. Directly after urination, the urine was macroscopically yellow and bright; the discolouration developed throughout the consecutive hours. Feed intake was markedly decreased and milk yield was lowered by 10%. No disturbances of the general health and blood key parameters were evident. After feeding two other cows with rapeseed meal of this batch (three times daily 1 kg each), the phenomenon occurred in one animal on the third and fourth days. Further analyses revealed evidence that the discolouration was due to substances which were excreted via the kidney and led to reddish urine after delayed reaction with the oxygen in the air.

  19. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  20. Prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) 0157 in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, E.; Aspan, A.; Gunnarsson, A.; Vågsholm, I.

    2005-01-01

    A prevalence study of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) was performed in 371 randomly selected dairy herds distributed throughout Sweden. Faecal and manure samples were collected and analysed by immunomagnetic separation and culturing. Data were recorded for each herd regarding herd size, age of sampled animals and whether, in addition to cattle, the farm kept other animals. VTEC O157 was isolated from 33 (8.9%) of the 371 investigated herds. The prevalence was higher (23.3%) in Halland county than in the rest of Sweden (P > 0.01). Halland was also the county in Sweden that during the study period had the highest incidence of human VTEC O157 cases. VTEC O157 was not detected on any farm in northern Sweden. Identified risk factors, in the multivariate analyses, for herds being VTEC O157 positive were herd size, geographical localization, presence of pigs on the farm and median age of sampled animals. PMID:15816162

  1. Herd- and individual-level prevalences of and risk factors for Salmonella spp. fecal shedding in dairy farms in Al-Dhulail Valley, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, Yaser H; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N

    2015-10-01

    Salmonellosis is an important disease frequently associated with diarrhea in calves. From January to September 2009, a cross-sectional study involving 91 dairy farms was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection in cattle in Al-Dhulail Valley, Jordan. A total of 910 calve and cow fecal samples were collected. Information on farm management practices was obtained through personal interviews using a standardized questionnaire and was tested as risk factors for Salmonella spp. positivity in farms by using logistic regression analysis. Standard conventional methods for Salmonella isolation and serotyping were used, and the disk agar diffusion test was used for antimicrobial testing. The herd-level prevalence of Salmonella spp. in calves, cows, and dairy farms was 12, 12, and 23 %, respectively, and the individual-level prevalence was 4 % for calves, cows, and dairy farms. Forty-six percent of the dairy farms had calf diarrhea, and 4 % had cow diarrhea. Seven (17 %) of the 42 farms with calf diarrhea had Salmonella. However, only 7 % (95 % CI: 4, 10) of the 221 diarrheic and 1 % (95 % CI: 0.2, 4) of the 234 of non-diarrheic calves had Salmonella. A total of 33 Salmonella isolates were obtained from the fecal samples: 12 isolates were Salmonella typhimurium, 6 were Salmonella montevideo, 6 were Salmonella anatum, 2 were Salmonella enteritidis, and 7 isolates were not serotyped. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, neomycin, colisitin, and amoxicillin at 100, 91, 85, 79, 79, and 70 %, respectively. Out of the 11 variables/categories, the frequency of cleaning every 2 months or more was associated with high odds of infection among calves (OR = 5.6) and farms (OR = 7.0).

  2. Atypical rumen acidosis in a dairy herd from whiskey distillery by-products.

    PubMed

    Davenport, D F; Kerr, L A

    2001-06-01

    Decreased milk and reproductive performance, high incidence of gastrointestinal surgeries, and acute deaths were investigated in a herd of Holstein cows. The health problems were due to abnormally low rumen pH's from ingestion of 30 gal/hd/d of a 3.4 pH liquid feed ingredient. A combination of acid neutralizing agents (calcium hydroxide plus sodium carbonate) alleviated the toxic effects of the feed ingredient.

  3. Atypical rumen acidosis in a dairy herd from whiskey distillery by-products.

    PubMed

    Davenport, D F; Kerr, L A

    2001-06-01

    Decreased milk and reproductive performance, high incidence of gastrointestinal surgeries, and acute deaths were investigated in a herd of Holstein cows. The health problems were due to abnormally low rumen pH's from ingestion of 30 gal/hd/d of a 3.4 pH liquid feed ingredient. A combination of acid neutralizing agents (calcium hydroxide plus sodium carbonate) alleviated the toxic effects of the feed ingredient. PMID:11383660

  4. Modeling conductive cooling for thermally stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin; Perano, K

    2016-02-01

    Conductive cooling, which is based on direct contact between a cow lying down and a cooled surface (water mattress, or any other heat exchanger embedded under the bedding), allows heat transfer from the cow to the cooled surface, and thus alleviate heat stress of the cow. Conductive cooling is a novel technology that has the potential to reduce the consumption of energy and water in cooling dairy cows compared to some current practices. A three-dimensional conduction model that simulates cooling thermally-stressed dairy cows was developed. The model used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to characterize the air-flow field surrounding the animal model. The flow field was obtained by solving the continuity and the momentum equations. The heat exchange between the animal and the cooled water mattress as well as between the animal and ambient air was determined by solving the energy equation. The relative humidity was characterized using the species transport equation. The conduction 3-D model was validated against experimental temperature data and the agreement was very good (average error is 4.4% and the range is 1.9-8.3%) for a mesh size of 1117202. Sensitivity analyses were conducted between heat losses (sensible and latent) with respect to air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, and level of wetness of skin surface to determine which of the parameters affect heat flux more than others. Heat flux was more sensitive to air temperature and level of wetness of the skin surface and less sensitive to relative humidity.

  5. Modeling conductive cooling for thermally stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin; Perano, K

    2016-02-01

    Conductive cooling, which is based on direct contact between a cow lying down and a cooled surface (water mattress, or any other heat exchanger embedded under the bedding), allows heat transfer from the cow to the cooled surface, and thus alleviate heat stress of the cow. Conductive cooling is a novel technology that has the potential to reduce the consumption of energy and water in cooling dairy cows compared to some current practices. A three-dimensional conduction model that simulates cooling thermally-stressed dairy cows was developed. The model used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to characterize the air-flow field surrounding the animal model. The flow field was obtained by solving the continuity and the momentum equations. The heat exchange between the animal and the cooled water mattress as well as between the animal and ambient air was determined by solving the energy equation. The relative humidity was characterized using the species transport equation. The conduction 3-D model was validated against experimental temperature data and the agreement was very good (average error is 4.4% and the range is 1.9-8.3%) for a mesh size of 1117202. Sensitivity analyses were conducted between heat losses (sensible and latent) with respect to air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, and level of wetness of skin surface to determine which of the parameters affect heat flux more than others. Heat flux was more sensitive to air temperature and level of wetness of the skin surface and less sensitive to relative humidity. PMID:26857982

  6. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Van Nuffel, Annelies; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Pastell, Matti; Thorup, Vivi M.; Bahr, Claudia; Sonck, Bart; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary As lame cows produce less milk and tendto have other health problems, finding and treating lame cows is very importantfor farmers. Sensors that measure behaviors associated with lameness in cowscan help by alerting the farmer of those cows in need of treatment. This reviewgives an overview of sensors for automated lameness detection and discussessome practical considerations for investigating and applying such systems inpractice. Abstract Despite the research on opportunities toautomatically measure lameness in cattle, lameness detection systems are notwidely available commercially and are only used on a few dairy farms. However, farmers need to be aware of the lame cows in their herds in order treat themproperly and in a timely fashion. Many papers have focused on the automatedmeasurement of gait or behavioral cow characteristics related to lameness. Inorder for such automated measurements to be used in a detection system, algorithms to distinguish between non-lame and mildly or severely lame cowsneed to be developed and validated. Few studies have reached this latter stageof the development process. Also, comparison between the different approachesis impeded by the wide range of practical settings used to measure the gait or behavioralcharacteristic (e.g., measurements during normal farming routine or duringexperiments; cows guided or walking at their own speed) and by the differentdefinitions of lame cows. In the majority of the publications, mildly lame cowsare included in the non-lame cow group, which limits the possibility of alsodetecting early lameness cases. In this review, studies that used sensortechnology to measure changes in gait or behavior of cows related to lamenessare discussed together with practical considerations when conducting lamenessresearch. In addition, other prerequisites for any lameness detection system onfarms (e.g., need for early detection, real-time measurements) are discussed. PMID:26479390

  7. A survey on Dictyocaulus viviparus antibodies in bulk milk of dairy herds in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Klewer, Anne-Marie; Forbes, Andrew; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina

    2012-02-01

    Parasitic bronchitis caused by the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus, occurs worldwide in temperate areas. The parasite is found predominantly in calves and heifers, but dairy cattle can suffer from lungworms when they become infected for the first time or if they have lost immunity due to lack of exposure to lungworm larvae during the grazing season. The present study was performed to determine the D. viviparus bulk milk antibody prevalence in dairy herds in the East Frisian region of northwestern Germany, Lower Saxony, by analysing bulk milk samples collected in January (860 samples), September (866 samples) and November (860 samples) 2008, thereby representing 906 dairy farms. These samples were tested for antibodies against D. viviparus by a milk ELISA. This test detects patent infections only since it is based on recombinant major sperm protein as antigen. While in January 12.8% of dairy farms were positive for D. viviparus antibodies, the bulk milk samples collected in September and November revealed 6.9% and 6.6% positive dairy herds. From the 906 dairy farms included in the study, 191 (21.1%) tested positive at least once for antibodies against lungworm. From 810 dairy farms from which bulk milk samples were obtained during all three samplings, 146 (18.0%) farms were positive at one sampling date, 27 (3.3%) at two, and 4 (0.5%) on all three sampling dates. The majority of the farms represented in the study belonged to four districts of East Frisia, which showed no significant difference in the proportion of positive dairy farms.

  8. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their waste as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) and greenhouse gases (GH...

  9. Effect of prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin on health and performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gohary, K; LeBlanc, S J; Lissemore, K D; Overton, M W; Von Massow, M; Duffield, T F

    2014-10-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 5 commercial dairy herds in southern Ontario with 1,362 cows enrolled to evaluate the effect of prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on health and performance. Cows were randomly assigned to receive either 325 mg of sometribove zinc suspension (n=680) or a placebo injection (n=682; control) subcutaneously every 14 d until calving. Treatments started 28 to 22 d before expected calving, with a maximum of 3 treatments per cow. Serum samples taken at the time of enrollment, 1 wk before calving, and weekly for 3 wk after calving were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, and haptoglobin. Diseases were recorded by farm staff. Incidences of clinical ketosis, clinical mastitis, displaced abomasum, metritis, retained placenta, milk fever, and lameness were similar between groups. Body condition score was lower for treated than for control cows at 3 wk after calving (3.13 and 3.17, respectively). Serum NEFA tended to be higher for treated than for control cows by 0.01 mmol/L. Overall BHBA was not different between groups, but BHBA for treated cows was higher in wk 1 after calving (750 and 698 μmol/L, respectively) and tended to be higher in wk 2 after calving (779 and 735 μmol/L, respectively). Incidence of hyperketonemia was similar between groups. Treated cows had higher serum glucose compared with control cows (2.8 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively). We detected no differences in serum aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, or haptoglobin between groups. Milk yield was recorded daily for each cow for 63 d, and did not differ between groups (37.1 ± 0.5 kg and 36.7 ± 0.5 kg, respectively) but we detected a tendency for treated cows to produce 0.8 kg/d more milk than control cows in wk 1 after calving. We observed no difference between groups in the time from calving to first insemination or the probability of

  10. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  11. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  12. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  13. Optimizing replacement of dairy cows: modeling the effects of diseases.

    PubMed

    Gröhn, Y T; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Allore, H G; DeLorenzo, M A; Hertl, J A; Galligan, D T

    2003-09-30

    We modified an existing dairy management decision model by including economically important dairy cattle diseases, and illustrated how their inclusion changed culling recommendations. Nine common diseases having treatment and veterinary costs, and affecting milk yield, fertility and survival, were considered important in the culling decision process. A sequence of stages was established during which diseases were considered significant: mastitis and lameness, any time during lactation; dystocia, milk fever and retained placenta, 0-4 days of lactation; displaced abomasum, 5-30 days; ketosis and metritis, 5-60 days; and cystic ovaries, 61-120 days. Some diseases were risk factors for others. Baseline incidences and disease effects were obtained from the literature. The effects of various disease combinations on milk yield, fertility, survival and economics were estimated. Adding diseases into the model did not increase voluntary or total culling rate. However, diseased animals were recommended for culling much more than healthy cows, regardless of parity or production level. Cows in the highest production level were not recommended for culling even if they contracted a disease. The annuity per cow decreased and herdlife increased when diseases were in the model. Higher replacement cost also increased herdlife and decreased when diseases were in the model. Higher replacement cost also increased herdlife and decreased the annuity and voluntary culling rate.

  14. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to non-genetic factors, such as th...

  15. Prevalence and etiological agents of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in nine dairy herds in North-East Poland.

    PubMed

    Sztachańska, M; Barański, W; Janowski, T; Pogorzelska, J; Zduńczyk, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and etiological agents of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in nine dairy herds in North-East Poland. In total, 387 Polish HF were involved in the study. The diagnosis of mastitis was performed on the basis of clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of milk, determination of somatic cell count and bacteriological examination of milk. Subclinical mastitis was found in an average of 36.7% (range from 21.0% to 53.1%) of cows and of 15.7% (range from 9.6% to 25.2%) of quarters. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS; 31.6% of quarters), Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (15.6% of quarters), Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus (12.1% of quarters) and fungi (12.2% of quarters) were most frequently isolated from subclinical mastitis. Etiological agents of subclinical mastitis differed strongly between herds. The results of this study showed that the incidence of subclinical mastitis at the end of lactation in dairy herds in North-East Poland is high. CNS were the most frequently isolated from subclinical mastitis cases, however mastitis caused by the contagious pathogens Str. agalactiae and Staph. aureus is still a problem. The fungal infections of the mammary gland also play an important role. PMID:27096795

  16. Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in feline population in urban and dairy cattle herds in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talebkhan Garoussi, Massoud; Mehravaran, Mohsen; Abdollahpour, Gholamreza; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cats in the Leptospira epidemiology is due to the possibility of transferring leptospirosis to wild and domesticated animals. The purpose of this survey was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira infection in shorthair cats in different location of Mashhad, Iran. Totally, 147 blood samples were taken from 42 (28.57%), 52 (35.37%) and 53 (36.05%) households, stray and cats which lived in industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad, Iran, respectively. Sera were tested with seven live Leptospira antigens using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera with 50.00% agglutination at the dilution of ≥ 1/100 were considered as positive samples. Agglutination at dilutions of < 1/100 considered as suspected to Leptospira infection. Overall, 19 (12.92%) out of 147 cats showed reaction in MAT. The seroprevalence at a titer ≥ 1:100 and < 1:100 were 10 (6.80%) and 9 (6.12%), respectively. Serum samples showed positive reaction against Leptospira intterogans hardjo (no = 10; 52.63%), pomona (no = 5; 26.31%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (no = 4; 21.05%). Eight cats (42.10%) belong to dairy cattle herds had the most infection only by L. I. hardjo with 1:200 titer. There were no significant differences among the weight‚ age and sex of infected cats. However, there were significant differences between the infected cats in dairy cattle herds and the cats in the urban area (p < 0.05). It is concluded that cats can be infected by Leptospira spp. especially in commercial dairy cattle herds. Cats can be considered as a sanitation hazards in the area for this zoonotic disease. PMID:26973765

  17. Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Roel H.; Kalkers-van de Ven, Shirley C.G.; den Boer, Mauk M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary: Whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming depends, among other things, on effects of time and production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at acupuncture points (APs). We measured the IV at 24 APs located left (L) and right (R) of the bladder (BL) and stomach (ST) meridians. The effect of time of measurement (assessed on six cows in one herd) was confirmed for seven APs, and of production factors (analyzed using 108 cows in three herds) for seven APs. We recommend BL19R, BL20R and BL46-02L as reference values, and BL14L, BL16L and BL17L for diagnostics, and ten other APs for further study. Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of hour and day of measurement, and of production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at 24 acupuncture points (APs). This is a first step in assessing whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming. The APs studied were left (L) and right (R) points of the bladder (BL) and stomach (ST) meridians. The effect of time was measured in a 3x3 Latin square on six cows in one herd. The effect of production factors was analyzed using 108 cows from three herds for two months. The effect of time excludes BL 14R, 16R, 21R, 22R, 30R, 46-02R, 43-01L and 30L, and ST18 bilaterally for diagnostic use. The contribution of parity, age or lactation period to monthly models of BL21R, 18R and 15R, and ST18R exclude these for diagnostic use. Of the remaining APs, BL19R, BL20R and BL46-02L showed stable IVs and are recommended for reference measurements. APs BL14L, BL16L and BL17L are recommended for diagnostics, and BL 16R, 17R, 18R, 23R, 30R, 15L, 20L, 22L and 29L need further study. Factors contributing to the variation in the IV of several APs were: milk robot, number of inseminations, body condition score, days of the preceding lactation, kg milk and kg milk fat of current and preceding month and preceding year, and milk cell count and urea content

  18. The effect of lameness on the resting behavior and metabolic status of dairy cattle during the transition period in a freestall-housed dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Calderon, D F; Cook, N B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this observational study was to examine the effect of lameness on the resting behavior of dairy cattle through the transition period in a mattress-bedded commercial freestall facility, and explore the relationships between lameness, behavior, and metabolic indicators of disease. A convenience sample was used, comprised of 40 multiparous and 17 primiparous Holstein cows that were recruited as they entered the close-up pen and tracked through the maternity, hospital, and fresh pens. At recruitment, 87.5% of multiparous cows and 23.5% of primiparous cows showed evidence of abnormal gait. Lying time decreased from 16 d before calving from a least squares means ± standard error of 13.5 ± 0.6 h/d to a nadir of 10.6 ± 0.38 h/d on the day of calving. After a period of increased rest after calving, lying time stabilized by d 6 to between 9.8 and 10.8h/d. This change was accompanied by an increase in the number of lying bouts per day from least squares means (95% confidence limits) of 11.2 (10.0 to 12.4) bouts per day to a peak of 17.7 (16.5 to 18.8) bouts per day on the day before calving, and a decrease in the duration of each lying bout. Resting behavior was influenced by calving month, temperature humidity index, body condition, parity, and lameness. Moderate and severely lame cows had significantly longer lying times throughout the transition period before and after calving, but most notable was a dramatic increase in the number of lying bouts observed 3 d before and after calving. In the straw-bedded, loose-housed maternity pen, moderate and severely lame cows had 20.3 (19.1 to 21.5) bouts per day, compared with 15.6 (14.3 to 16.8) bouts per day for nonlame cows. We hypothesized that this alteration in behavior may be associated with hypersensitivity to pain due to lameness. A total of 26.3% of cows tested above a threshold of 1,400 μM β-hydroxybutyrate. Moderate and severely lame cows had a least squares means (95% confidence limits)

  19. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p < 0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  20. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p<0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables.

  1. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2012-10-01

    Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of β was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0-63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6-8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4-11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8-43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence. PMID:22560559

  2. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm

    PubMed Central

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production. PMID:20592844

  3. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V Michael

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production.

  4. Quarter and cow risk factors associated with a somatic cell count greater than 199,000 cells per milliliter in united Kingdom dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Breen, J. E.; Bradley, A. J.; Green, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Quarter and cow risk factors associated with a somatic cell count (SCC) >199,000 cells/mL at the next milk recording during lactation were investigated during a 12-mo longitudinal study on 8 commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in Southwest England, United Kingdom. The individual risk factors studied on 1,677 cows included assessments of udder and leg hygiene, teat-end callosity and hyperkeratosis, body condition score (BCS), and measurements of monthly milk quality and yield. The outcome variable used for statistical analysis was the next recorded individual cow SCC >199,000 cells/mL. Statistical analysis included use of generalized linear mixed models. Significant covariates associated with an increased risk of SCC >199,000 cells/mL were increasing parity, increasing month of lactation, previous SCC (SCC 200,000 cells/mL and greater, odds ratio = 7.12), and cows with a BCS <1.5 (odds ratio = 2.09) or BCS >3.5 (odds ratio = 2.20). Significant covariates associated with a reduced risk of SCC >199,000 cells/mL were cows with contamination of the skin of the udder and quarters with mild (odds ratio = 0.65) and moderate (odds ratio = 0.62) hyperkeratosis of the teat-end. These results suggest that individual quarter and cow-level factors are important in the acquisition of intramammary infections as measured by SCC during lactation. Cow energy status, as measured by BCS, may influence the risk of intramammary infection during lactation. PMID:19528588

  5. A benefit to cost analysis of the effect of premilking teat hygiene on somatic cell count and intramammary infections in a commercial dairy herd.

    PubMed Central

    Ruegg, P L; Dohoo, I R

    1997-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of premilking teat disinfection (predipping) on several measures of mastitis in a commercial dairy farm where the predominant organisms isolated from intramammary infections were coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Cows were randomly assigned to a treated (predipped with 0.5% iodine germicide plus "good udder preparation") or a control group ("good udder preparation" alone). Sterile composite milk samples were collected at the initiation of the trial and on an approximately bimonthly basis throughout the duration of the trial. There was no difference in the prevalence of isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. from composite milk samples obtained during the 6 herd cultures. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the control group was 1.38 cases per 1000 cow days. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the treatment group was 1.06 cases per 1000 cow days. The ratio of these 2 was 1.3, suggesting a higher rate in the control group, but the ratio was not statistically significant (P = 0.34). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the effect of treatment group was not significant, although the coefficient suggested that predipping reduced the risk of clinical mastitis. The benefit to cost ratio of 0.37 indicated that the benefit of reduced incidence of clinical cases of mastitis would not have justified the added expense required to predip the herd. Images Figure 1. PMID:9332747

  6. Assessment of an application for touchscreen devices to record calving-related events in dairy herds and monitor personnel performance.

    PubMed

    Barragan, A A; Workman, J D; Bas, S; Proudfoot, K L; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess (1) the effectiveness of a calving training workshop and an application (app) for touchscreen devices to capture calving-related events, and (2) personnel compliance with calving protocols (time from birth to feeding of first colostrum and time that cows spent in labor). Calving personnel (n=23) from 5 large dairy farms (range: 800-10,000 cows) participated in the study. Participants received training through an on-farm workshop regarding calving management practices and functioning of the app before recording calving-related events. Pre- and posttest evaluations were administered to each participant to measure their knowledge gain and satisfaction with the workshop. Calving personnel recorded calving-related events (n=323) using the app for 7 d following training. Furthermore, the records collected with the app were used to assess missing and incorrect data and calving personnel compliance with calving management protocols (recording time that cows spent in labor and timing of feeding first colostrum to calves). Calving personnel reported that the information provided during the training was relevant (agree=14.3% and strongly agree=85.7%) and of great immediate use (agree=33.3% and strongly agree=66.7%). The presented materials and hands-on demonstrations substantially increased the knowledge level of the attendees (by 23.7 percentage points from pre- to posttest scores). The follow-up assessment with participants revealed that the app was easy to use (91.3%) and that they would continue to use it (100%). Frequency of incorrect (r=0.77) or missing (r=0.76) data was positively correlated with calving:personnel ratio. Furthermore, c