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Sample records for dam offspring study

  1. Measuring Taste Impairment in Epidemiologic Studies – The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, KJ; Schubert, CR; Snyder, DJ; Bartoshuk, LM; Huang, GH; Klein, BEK; Klein, R; Nieto, FJ; Pankow, JS; Tweed, TS; Krantz, EM; Moy, GS

    2008-01-01

    Taste or gustatory function may play an important role in determining diet and nutritional status and therefore indirectly impact health. Yet there have been few attempts to study the spectrum of taste function and dysfunction in human populations. Epidemiological studies are needed to understand the impact of taste function and dysfunction on public health, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to develop and test strategies to prevent clinically significant dysfunction. However, measuring taste function in epidemiological studies is challenging and requires repeatable, efficient methods which can measure change over time. Insights gained from translating laboratory-based methods to a population-based study, the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS) will be shared. In this study, a generalized labeled magnitude scale (gLMS) method was used to measure taste intensity of filter paper disks saturated with salt, sucrose, citric acid, quinine, or 6-n-propylthiouracil and a gLMS measure of taste preferences was administered. In addition, a portable, inexpensive camera system to capture digital images of fungiform papillae and a masked grading system to measure the density of fungiform papillae were developed. Adult children of participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin are eligible for this on-going study. The parents were residents of Beaver Dam and 43–84 years of age in 1987–88; offspring range in age from 21–84 years in 2005–2008. Methods will be described in detail and preliminary results about the distributions of taste function in the BOSS cohort will be presented. PMID:19686191

  2. Olfactory impairment in an adult population: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pankow, James S; Nondahl, David M

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of olfactory impairment and associated risk factors and the effects of olfactory impairment on dietary choices and quality of life. Odor identification was measured in 2838 participants aged 21-84 years (mean 49 years) in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. The overall prevalence of olfactory impairment was 3.8%, increased with age (from 0.6% in those<35 years to 13.9% among those≥65 years) and was more common in men than women. In a multivariate model age (odds ratio [OR]=1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.33, 1.64 for every 5-year increase), nasal polyps or deviated septum (OR=2.69, 95% CI=1.62, 4.48), ankle-brachial index<0.9 (OR=3.62, 95% CI=1.45, 9.01), and smoking (women only) (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.19, 4.98 ever smoked vs. never) were associated with an increased odds of olfactory impairment, whereas higher household income, ≥$50,000 versus <$50,000 per year, was associated with a decreased odds of olfactory impairment (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.31, 0.73). Participants with olfactory impairment were less likely to report that food tasted as good as it used to, or that they experienced food flavors the same. There was no association between olfactory impairment and general health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, or dietary choices. The prevalence of olfactory impairment was low in this largely middle-aged cohort, and some factors associated with olfactory impairment are potentially modifiable.

  3. Self-Reported Hearing Difficulties Among Adults With Normal Audiograms: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Kelly L.; Pinto, Alex; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Levy, Sarah; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinicians encounter patients who report experiencing hearing difficulty (HD) even when audiometric thresholds fall within normal limits. When there is no evidence of audiometric hearing loss, it generates debate over possible biomedical and psychosocial etiologies. It is possible that self-reported HDs relate to variables within and/or outside the scope of audiology. The purpose of this study is to identify how often, on a population basis, people with normal audiometric thresholds self-report HD and to identify factors associated with such HDs. Design This was a cross-sectional investigation of participants in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. HD was defined as a self-reported HD on a four-item scale despite having pure-tone audiometric thresholds within normal limits (<20 dB HL0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz bilaterally, at each frequency). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions and word-recognition performance in quiet and with competing messages were also analyzed. In addition to hearing assessments, relevant factors such as sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, medical history, health-related quality of life, and symptoms of neurological disorders were also examined as possible risk factors. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression was used to probe symptoms associated with depression, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 mental score was used to quantify psychological stress and social and role disability due to emotional problems. The Visual Function Questionnaire-25 and contrast sensitivity test were used to query vision difficulties. Results Of the 2783 participants, 686 participants had normal audiometric thresholds. An additional grouping variable was created based on the available scores of HD (four self-report questions), which reduced the total dataset to n = 682 (age range, 21–67 years). The percentage of individuals with normal audiometric thresholds who self-reported HD was 12.0% (82 of 682). The

  4. [Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of FUT-187. (III)--Postnatal study in rat F1 offspring from dams treated orally with FUT-187 during the period of fetal organogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, H; Shiraishi, M; Igarashi, Y; Takeshima, T; Toyohara, S; Imai, S; Shimamura, K; Maruden, A

    1992-12-01

    A postnatal study of F1 offspring exposed to FUT-187 during fetal organogenesis was carried out using Crj : CD rat. FUT-187 was dosed by gavage at 0, 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg/day from day 7 to 17 of gestation. All pregnant rats were allowed to deliver newborns, and F1 offspring were examined for development indices and reproduction and learning ability. Effects at 800 mg/kg included temporary salivation, body weight depression and decreased food intake. There were no adverse effects on delivery and lactation and no significant changes on neonatal development, growth, reproduction and learning ability in the F1 offspring. These results indicate that the no effect dose level of FUT-187 is 200 mg/kg/day in dams, and 800 mg/kg/day in offspring.

  5. Neurofunctional Evaluation of Young Male Offspring of Rat Dams with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Delascio Lopes, Carla; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Mazzola, Jacqueline; Camano, Luiz; Mattar, Rosiane

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance. PMID:22363880

  6. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed.

  7. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  8. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  9. Transfer of Ga-67 from hamster dam to fetus and offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.L.; Byrd, B.L.

    1981-06-01

    We have studied the transfer of Ga-67 from the hamster dam to the fetus and also to the postpartum offspring. During gestation the concentration of Ga-67 in the mammary glands increased by approximately 20-fold, and Ga-67 was transferred across the placenta into the fetus. The concentration of Ga-67 in the fetus decreased during the terminal stages of gestation, partly due to a decreased transfer of Ga-67 itself and partly as the result of the rapid growth of the fetus. One-day-old offspring were able to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract the Ga-67 contained in ingested dam's milk, whereas 9-day-old offspring excrete essentially all such ingested Ga-67. The Ga-67 radiation hazards to the fetus during gestation and that resulting from the transfer of Ga-67 to the newborn through ingestion of the mother's milk should receive further investigation.

  10. Changes in liveweight and behaviour of alpaca dams and offspring following weaning.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J C; Littlejohn, R P; Davis, G H

    1993-12-01

    The effects of offspring sex, weight, age, and level of interaction with the dam on responses to weaning were examined to assist in the development of a weaning protocol for alpacas. In the first study, preand post-weaning activities, and weight change over Days -12-0,0-7 and 7-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 20 dam-offspring (hembra-cria) pairs aged 81-200 days. Pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (P<0.05). Although heavier crias tended to be found closer to their dams than lighter crias (P<0.05) no additional effect of age on the dam-offspring relationship was found. Following weaning, cria growth rates were low over Days 0-7 but improved over Days 7-16, and hembra weight change followed the same pattern. Over Days 0-2, grazing and sitting activities of hembras and crias were replaced by standing and walking along paddock fencelines, although by Day 2 fenceline activities had decreased (P<0.05). Crias which were more frequently observed at fencelines had lower post-weaning growth rates (P<0.05). In the second study, pre-weaning sucking behaviour, and weight change over Days -30-0, 0-8 and 8-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 19 hembra-cria pairs aged 124-160 days. During 10 hours of observation on Days -5 and -4, the total duration of sucking by individual crias varied from 0-18 minutes, and the mean +/- SEM duration of sucking was 1.94 +/- 0.113 minutes. Cria sucking behaviour was positively related to growth rate prior to and weight at weaning (P<0.05). As in the first study, pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (P<0.05). Following weaning, growth rates of the crias were depressed and the hembras lost weight over Days 0-8 and 8-16. The changes in growth rate and behaviour in Studies 1 and 2 indicated that weaning can be stressful for hembras and crias. However, there was no evidence from either study that pre-weaning behavioural or physical characteristics were

  11. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  12. Altered lipid metabolism in rat offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet containing soy protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi; Won, Sae Bom; Kwon, Young Hye

    2017-04-01

    Substantial studies have reported that maternal protein restriction may induce later development of cardiovascular disease in offspring by impairing antioxidant system and lipid metabolism. Because a unique amino acid composition of soy protein isolate has been shown to provide health benefits, including hypolipidemic effects, we investigated effects of maternal low-protein diet composed of low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed 20% or 10% SPI diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. On postnatal day 21, male offspring and their dams were studied. Maternal consumption of low-protein diet composed of SPI did not induce hepatic oxidative stress in offspring. Although serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in dams were not different between groups, serum triacylglycerol levels were lower in offspring of dams fed a 10% SPI diet (10% SPI group) compared to offspring of dams fed a 20% SPI diet (20% SPI group). Maternal protein restriction also reduced serum HDL/total cholesterol levels. The mRNA levels of apolipoprotein A1, which is required for HDL formation, were lower in 10% SPI group compared to 20% SPI group and were positively correlated with serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Although maternal consumption of low-protein diet containing SPI did not induce oxidative stress and hypertriglyceridemia, the present study indicates that it may disturb cholesterol metabolism of rat offspring on postnatal day 21. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of maternal diet composed of soy protein isolate on later development of cardiovascular disease in offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemically Contaminated Eel Fed to Pregnant and Lactating Mouse Dams Causes Hyperactivity in Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Imen; Soualeh, Nidhal; Bohn, Torsten; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouyaed, Jaouad

    2017-08-15

    This study examined whether perinatal exposure to polluted eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) induces changes in the locomotor activity of offspring mice across lifespan (post-natal days (PNDs) 47 - 329), using the open field and the home cage activity tests. Dams were exposed during gestation and lactation, through diets enriched in eels naturally contaminated with pollutants including PCBs. Analysis of the eel muscle focused on the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) indicator PCBs (Σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180). Four groups of dams (n = 10 per group) received either a standard diet without eels or eels (0.8 mg/kg/day) containing 85, 216, or 400 ng/kg/day of ϵ6 NDL-PCBs. The open field test showed that early-life exposure to polluted eels increased locomotion in female offspring of exposed dams but not in males, compared to controls. This hyperlocomotion appeared later in life, at PNDs 195 and 329 (up to 32 % increase, p < 0.05). In addition, overactivity was observed in the home cage test at PND 305: exposed offspring females showed a faster overall locomotion speed (3.6 - 4.2 cm/s) than controls (2.9 cm/s, p <0.05); again, males remained unaffected. Covered distances in the home cage test were only elevated significantly in offspring females exposed to highest PCB concentrations (3411 ± 590 cm vs. 1377 ± 114 cm, p < 0.001). These results suggest that early-life exposure to polluted eels containing dietary contaminants including PCBs caused late, persistent and gender-dependent neurobehavioral hyperactive effects in offspring mice. Furthermore, female hyperactivity was associated with a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.

  14. Effect of dam weight and pregnancy nutrition on average lactation performance of ewe offspring over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Paten, A M; Pain, S J; Peterson, S W; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2016-11-21

    The foetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal weight and nutrition during gestation, which could affect offspring milk production. It has previously been shown that ewes born to dams offered maintenance nutrition during pregnancy (day 21 to 140 of gestation) produced greater milk, lactose and CP yields in their first lactation when compared with ewes born to dams offered ad libitum nutrition. In addition, ewes born to heavier dams produced greater milk and lactose yields when compared with ewes born to lighter dams. The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the 5-year lactation performance of the previously mentioned ewes, born to heavy or light dams that were offered maintenance or ad libitum pregnancy nutrition. Ewes were milked once per week, for the first 6 weeks of their lactation, for 5 years. Using milk yield and composition data, accumulated yields were calculated over a 42-day period for each year for milk, milk fat, CP, true protein, casein and lactose using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Over the 5-year period, ewes born to heavy dams produced greater average milk (P=0.04), lactose (P=0.01) and CP (P=0.04) yields than offspring born to light dams. In contrast, over the 5-year period dam nutrition during pregnancy did not affect average (P>0.05) offspring milk yields or composition, but did increase milk and lactose accumulated yield (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively) in the first lactation. These results indicate that maternal gestational nutrition appears to only affect the first lactational performance of ewe offspring. Neither dam nutrition nor size affected grand-offspring live weight gain to, or live weight at weaning (P>0.05). Combined these data indicate that under the conditions of the present study, manipulating dam weight or nutrition in pregnancy can have some effects of offspring lactational performance, however, these effects are not large enough to alter grand-offspring growth to weaning. Therefore, such manipulations

  15. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; P<0.05), and this difference could be normalized by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester treatment. In conclusion, perinatal maternal Resv supplementation mitigated the development of hypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  16. Cardiac cytochrome C oxidase activity and contents of subunits 1 and 4 are altered in offspring by low prenatal copper intake by rat dams.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W Thomas; Anderson, Cindy M

    2008-07-01

    It has been reported previously that the offspring of rat dams consuming low dietary copper (Cu) during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) characterized by reduced catalytic activity and mitochondrial and nuclear subunit content after postnatal d 10. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the cardiac CCO deficiency was caused directly by low postnatal Cu intake or whether it was a prenatal effect of low Cu intake by the dams that became manifest postnatally. Dams were fed either a Cu-adequate diet (6 mg Cu/kg) or Cu-deficient diet (1 mg Cu/kg) beginning 3 wk before conception and throughout gestation and lactation. One day following parturition, several litters from Cu-adequate dams were cross fostered to Cu-deficient dams and several litters from Cu-deficient dams were cross fostered to Cu-adequate dams. Litters that remained with their birth dams served as controls. CCO activity, the content of the mitochondrial-encoded CCO subunit 1 (COX1), and the content of the nuclear-encoded subunit COX4 in cardiac mitochondria were reduced in the 21-d-old offspring of Cu-deficient dams. COX1 content was normal in the 21-d-old cross-fostered offspring of Cu-deficient dams, but CCO activity and COX4 were reduced. Cross fostering the offspring of Cu-adequate dams to Cu-deficient dams did not significantly affect CCO activity, COX1 content, or COX4 content in cardiac mitochondria of 21-d-old offspring. These data indicate that low prenatal Cu intake by dams was the determinant of CCO activity in cardiac mitochondria of the 21-d-old offspring and may have led to the assembly of a less-than-fully active holoenzyme.

  17. Hypercholesterolemic diet applied to rat dams protects their offspring against cognitive deficits. Simulated neonatal anoxia model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Iwo

    2004-09-30

    There is accumulating data suggesting a neuroprotective activity of cholesterol, especially in stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a protective activity of this lipid in simulated neonatal anoxia was investigated. Rats were subjected to high cholesterol by feeding their dams with a diet enriched with cholesterol. Half of these rats were subjected to anoxia. One and a half months later, the rats were tested for their ability to acquire a spatial memory, one group on the linear maze and the other on the Morris water maze. After these assessments, the level of total plasma cholesterol was measured. Rats from dams subjected to neonatal anoxia on standard diet performed worse than control rats in both types of behavioral experiments, whereas anoxic rats from dams were housed on hypercholesterolemic diet performed as control animals. It suggests that dietetic cholesterol applied by their dams protected rats against cognitive deficits elicited by neonatal anoxia. Furthermore, offspring of anoxic rats housed on standard diet had elevated levels of blood cholesterol in relation to control animals. Generally, anoxia affected the concentration of this lipid much stronger than hypercholesterolemic diet of their dams. It might mean that the anoxia-related rise of cholesterol could be involved in physiological phenomenon being an adaptive response to neurotoxic processes. This concept is discussed in relation to pathological mechanisms in AD. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Food restriction during pregnancy alters brain's antioxidant network in dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vinícius; August, Pauline M; Stocher, Daniela P; Klein, Caroline P; Couto, Pablo R G; Silva, Yasmini D; Sagini, João P; Salomon, Tiago B; Benfato, Mara S; Matté, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction increases life span and protects distinct organisms against a series of diseases, among which, those related to oxidative stress, like neurodegenerative diseases. Interferences in the maternal environment are known to reprogram the offspring metabolism response, impacting in the risk of chronic diseases development in adulthood. We aimed to assess the effects of 40% food restriction on reactive species levels, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses, and oxidative damage parameters in the cerebellum and total cerebral cortex of pregnant rats and their offspring. Dams and pups showed oxidative modulation caused by food restriction in both structures. Dichlorofluorescein oxidation, reflecting reactive species levels, was reduced in the cerebellum of dams and offspring, while the cerebral cortex was not affected. Decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels were found in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of pups, while nitric oxide was increased in the cortex. We also measured the activities of important antioxidant enzymes responsible by reactive oxygen species elimination. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in the cerebellum of dams and in both structures of pups, while it was decreased in dams' cerebral cortex. Both brain structures were affected concerning to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutaredoxin activities, which were reduced in pups and dams. Non-enzymatic defenses were decreased in pups, while dams showed an adaptive pattern in the cerebellum and no alteration in the cerebral cortex. Even though the results suggest increased oxidative status, lipids and proteins were not oxidatively affected. Our data suggest that intrauterine food restriction may disrupt oxidative status, impairing the antioxidant network.

  19. Programmed hyperphagia in offspring of obese dams: Altered expression of hypothalamic nutrient sensors, neurogenic factors and epigenetic modulators.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mina; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Maternal overnutrition results in programmed offspring obesity, mediated in part, by hyperphagia. This is remarkably similar to the effects of maternal undernutrition on offspring hyperphagia and obesity. In view of the marked differences in the energy environment of the over and under-nutrition exposures, we studied the expression of select epigenetic modifiers associated with energy imbalance including neurogenic factors and appetite/satiety neuropeptides which are indicative of neurogenic differentiation. HF offspring were exposed to maternal overnutrition (high fat diet; HF) during pregnancy and lactation. We determined the protein expression of energy sensors (mTOR, pAMPK), epigenetic factors (DNA methylase, DNMT1; histone deacetylase, SIRT1/HDAC1), neurogenic factors (Hes1, Mash1, Ngn3) and appetite/satiety neuropeptides (AgRP/POMC) in newborn hypothalamus and adult arcuate nucleus (ARC). Despite maternal obesity, male offspring born to obese dams had similar body weight at birth as Controls. However, when nursed by the same dams, male offspring of obese dams exhibited marked adiposity. At 1 day of age, HF newborn males had significantly decreased energy sensors, DNMT1 including Hes1 and Mash1, which may impact neuroprogenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. This is consistent with increased AgRP in HF newborns. At 6 months of age, HF adult males had significantly increased energy sensors and decreased histone deactylases. In addition, the persistent decreased Hes1, Mash1 as well as Ngn3 are consistent with increased AgRP and decreased POMC. Thus, altered energy sensors and epigenetic responses which modulate gene expression and adult neuronal differentiation may contribute to hyperphagia and obesity in HF male offspring.

  20. Maternal arachidonic acid supplementation improves neurodevelopment in young adult offspring from rat dams with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinping; Del Bigio, Marc R; Weiler, Hope A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may compromise infant arachidonic acid (AA) status and development. This study tested if maternal AA supplementation improves neurodevelopment in adult offspring. Rat dams were randomized into 6 groups: Saline-Placebo, streptozotocin-induced diabetes with glucose controlled at <13mmol/L, or poorly controlled at 13-20mmol/L using insulin; and fed either a Control or AA (0.5% fat) diet throughout reproduction. Weaned-offspring were fed regular chow to 12 weeks of age. Testing included exploratory behavior, rota rod and water maze (WM). Poorly controlled offspring showed longer (p≤0.018) escape-latency on testing-day 1 WM but not thereafter (p>0.05). Maternal glucose concentration positively correlated with (p=0.006) male offspring testing-day 1 WM latency. The AA-diet offspring performed better in WM and rota rod (p≤0.032) and showed higher exploratory behavior (p=0.008) than Control-diet offspring. These data suggest maternal hyperglycemia has longstanding consequences to initial stages of learning in the offspring. Maternal AA supplementation and training positively influence learning outcomes.

  1. Protective effects of maternal methyl donor supplementation on adult offspring of high fat diet-fed dams.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Fei; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Yu, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Ou, Hailong; Yan, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to specific groups and given different nutrients (control diet, Control+Met, HFD and HFD+Met) throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring of each group were weaned onto a control diet at 3 weeks of age. Physiological (weight gain and adipose composition) and metabolic (plasma biochemical analyses) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression and DNA methylation profiles of obesogenic-related genes including PPAR γ, fatty acid synthase, leptin and adiponectin were also detected in visceral fat of offspring. The results showed that dietary supplementation with methyl donors can prevent the adverse effects of maternal HFD on offspring. Changes in the expression and DNA methylation of obesogenic-related genes indicated that epigenetic regulation may contribute to the effects of maternal dietary factors on offspring outcomes.

  2. Effects of zinc depletion and repletion during lactation on rat dams and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Dibi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of feeding 5 mg Zn/kg, 12 mg Zn/kg, 50 mg Zn/kg in egg white diets and 50 mg Zn/kg in defatted glandless cottonseed diet on postnatal growth and tissue zinc concentrations of dams and neonates were investigated. One or more of the following tissues were obtained on days 7, 14, 21, and 56 for analyses: femur, liver, brain, testes, spleen, and/or blood. Dams fed the cottonseed diet weighted more than dams fed the egg white diets. Dams fed zinc in cottonseed diet had higher blood zinc concentrations than dams fed zinc in the egg white diets. Dams and the offspring fed 50 mg zn/kg egg white diet had higher femur zinc levels than dams and the offspring fed 50 mg Zn/kg in the cottonseed diet. There was no difference in the weight gain/loss of dams fed 50 mg Zn/kg or 12 mg Zn/kg egg white diets. Femur zinc concentrations of pups suckling dams fed 50 mg Zn/kg egg white were higher than femur zinc concentrations of pups suckling dams fed 12 mg Zn/kg egg white diet. Body weights and tissue zinc concentrations of the neonates suckling dams fed 5 mg Zn/kg egg white diet and then repleted with zinc in either egg white or cottonseed diet were similar. There was complete recovery when rats were fed 5 mg Zn/kg and then repleted with zinc at 50 mg Zn/kg level. Therefore, the protein source did not have statistically significantly different effects on zinc availability to the rats.

  3. Camel whey protein improves lymphocyte function and protects against diabetes in the offspring of diabetic mouse dams.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal; El Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of health problems in the offspring of pregnant diabetic mothers has recently been verified. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary camel whey protein (CWP), administered as a supplement to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant mice, on the efficiency of the immune system of the offspring. Three groups of female mice (n = 10) were used: non-diabetic control mice, diabetic mice, and diabetic mice orally administered CWP during the pregnancy and lactation periods. We then tested the immune response of B and T cells in adult male offspring (n = 15 in each group) by using flow cytometry, western blotting, and ELISAs. Our data demonstrated that the offspring of diabetic dams exhibited several postpartum complications, such as significant aberrant overexpression of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), significant elevation of the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), marked decreases in the plasma levels of IL-2 and IL-7, significant inhibition of CCL21- and CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis of B- and T-lymphocytes, and a marked decrease in the proliferative capacity of antigen-stimulated B- and T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, administration of CWP to diabetic dams substantially restored the expression of ATF-3 and the levels of ROS, pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-2, and IL-7 in the offspring. Furthermore, the chemotaxis of B- and T-lymphocytes toward CCL21 and CXCL12 and the proliferative capacities of these lymphocytes were restored in the male offspring of diabetic mice administered CWP. Our data provide evidence of a protective role of CWP in decreasing the tendency of the offspring of diabetic mothers to develop diabetes and related complications.

  4. Evaluation of sodium arsenite exposure on reproductive competence in pregnant and postlactational dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Nadia Soledad; Bonaventura, María Marta; Rodríguez, Diego; Bizzozzero, Marianne; Ventura, Clara; Nuñez, Mariel; Lux-Lantos, Victoria Adela; Libertun, Carlos

    2017-01-07

    We investigated arsenite exposure on the reproductive axis of dams (during pregnancy and at cyclicity resumption) and their offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to 5 (A5) or 50ppm (A50) of sodium arsenite in drinking water from gestational day 1 (GD1) until sacrifice at GD18 or two months postpartum. Offspring were exposed to the same treatment as their mothers from weaning to adulthood. A50-pregnant rats gained less weight, showed increased testosterone and estradiol but pregnancy was unaffected. After lactation, arsenic-exposed dams presented compromised cyclicity, decreased estradiol, increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), less preovulatory follicles and presence of ovarian cysts, suggesting impaired reproduction. A50-offspring presented lower body weight; A50-female-offspring showed elevated gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), FSH and testosterone, while A50-males showed diminished GnRH/FSH, but normal testosterone. We conclude that arsenite at the present exposure levels did not compromise pregnancy outcome while it negatively affected reproductive physiology in postpartum dams and their offspring.

  5. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring. PMID:27127509

  6. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring.

  7. Long-term statin administration to dams on high-fat diet protects not only them but also their offspring from cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Elahi, M M; Cagampang, F R; Ohri, S K; Hanson, M A

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to study the effects of long-term statin administration to high fat (HF)-fed female mice from the time they were weaned through to pregnancy and lactation on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in their HF-fed offspring. Female C57 mice on HF (45% kcal fat) were given pravastatin in their drinking water from the time they were weaned, during pregnancy and lactation. Weaned offspring were then fed an HF diet until adulthood generating the dam/offspring dietary groups HF/HF and HF plus pravastatin from the time dams were weaned, during pregnancy and lactation/HF (HF+S/HF). These groups were compared with offspring from mothers fed standard chow (control) which were then fed a control diet up to adulthood (control/control; C/C). HF+S dams showed significantly reduced total cholesterol concentrations and systolic blood pressure (SBP) versus HF dams. The reduction in total cholesterol and SBP in the HF+S dams did not restore values to those observed in the C group. Both male and female HF+S/HF offspring were significantly lighter in weight, and had lower SBP and serum cholesterol concentrations versus HF/HF. HF/HF offspring had elevated C-reactive protein levels but HF+S/HF animals of both sexes had reduced levels similar to those found in the C/C group. Long-term pravastatin administration to dams not only protects them from the deleterious effects of an HF diet, but this long-term maternal statin protection also has an equal and permanent effect in both male and female offspring up to their adult life, which is a novel finding.

  8. Maternal postpartum learned helplessness (LH) affects maternal care by dams and responses to the LH test in adolescent offspring.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Akiko; Morinobu, Shigeru; Fuchikami, Manabu; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2009-06-01

    It is known that the early environment affects the mental development of rodent and human offspring. However, it is not known specifically whether a postpartum depressive state influences the depressive state in offspring. Using learned helplessness (LH) in rats as an animal model of depression, we examined the influence of maternal postpartum LH on responses to the LH test of offspring. Dam rats were judged as LH or non-helpless (nLH) on postnatal days (PN) 2-3, and maternal behavior was recorded during PN2-14. On PN 45-46, offspring were subjected to the LH test. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, hippocampal levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA were measured before and after the LH test in offspring. Active nursing in LH dams was significantly lower than that in nLH dams. Susceptibility to LH in the offspring of LH dams was significantly higher than in those of nLH dams, and was negatively correlated with active nursing by LH dams. The GR mRNA levels before and after the LH test were lower in the offspring of LH dams than in those of nLH dams, and the reduced basal GR mRNA and protein might have resulted in the higher CORT response after the LH test. There was no significant difference in BDNF mRNA in the offspring of LH and nLH dams. These findings suggest that early postpartum LH decreased active nursing and increased depression-like behavior in the adolescent offspring via dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  9. Rat Gestation During Space Flight: Outcomes for Dams and Their Offspring Born After Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andre M.; DeSantis, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to learn whether gestation in the near-zero gravity, high radiation environment of space impacts selected mammalian postnatal events. Ten rats spent days nine to twenty of pregnancy aboard the space shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-66). Their movement was studied shortly after return to Earth; subsequently, several of their offspring were cross-fostered and examined through postnatal day 81 (P81) for whole body growth and somatic motor development. Values for the flight animals were compared to ground-based control groups. Relative to controls, the pregnant flight rats showed a marked paucity of locomotion during the first few hours after returning to Earth. There was greater likelihood of perinatal morbidity for the offspring of flight dams when compared to the control groups. Whole body weight of surviving offspring, averaged for each group separately, showed typical sigmoidal growth curves when plotted against postnatal age. The flight group for our study had a larger ratio of female to male pups, and that was sufficient to account for the lower average daily weight gained by the flight animals when compared to the control groups. Walking was universally achieved by P13 and preceded eye opening, which was complete in all pups by P17. Thus, both of these developmental horizons were attained on schedule in the flight as well as the control rats. Characteristic changes were observed in hind limb step length and gait width as the pups grew. These patterns occurred at the same time in each group of rats. Therefore, prenatal space flight from days nine to twenty of gestation did not interfere with the establishment of normal patterns for hind paw placement during walking.

  10. Rat gestation during space flight: outcomes for dams and their offspring born after return to Earth.

    PubMed

    Wong, A M; DeSantis, M

    1997-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to learn whether gestation in the near-zero gravity, high radiation environment of space impacts selected mammalian postnatal events. Ten rats spent days nine to twenty of pregnancy aboard the space shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-66). Their movement was studied shortly after return to Earth; subsequently, several of their offspring were cross-fostered and examined through postnatal day 81 (P81) for whole body growth and somatic motor development. Values for the flight animals were compared to ground-based control groups. Relative to controls, the pregnant flight rats showed a marked paucity of locomotion during the first few hours after returning to Earth. There was greater likelihood of perinatal morbidity for the offspring of flight dams when compared to the control groups. Whole body weight of surviving offspring, averaged for each group separately, showed typical sigmoidal growth curves when plotted against postnatal age. The flight group for our study had a larger ratio of female to male pups, and that was sufficient to account for the lower average daily weight gained by the flight animals when compared to the control groups. Walking was universally achieved by P13 and preceded eye opening, which was complete in all pups by P17. Thus, both of these developmental horizons were attained on schedule in the flight as well as the control rats. Characteristic changes were observed in hind limb step length and gait width as the pups grew. These patterns occurred at the same time in each group of rats. Therefore, prenatal space flight from days nine to twenty of gestation did not interfere with the establishment of normal patterns for hind paw placement during walking.

  11. Placental and lactational transfer of decabromodiphenyl ether and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether in dam-offspring pairs of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi-Yeon; Lee, Sunggyu; Choi, Hyeyoung; Jeong, Da-In; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon

    2017-01-31

    Although several studies have conducted maternal transfer of individual PBDE congener in experimental animals, there is a paucity of research on differences in maternal transfer of PBDE congeners. The purpose of the study was to investigate and compare placental and lactational transfer of BDE 47, -209 and its metabolites in rat dam-offspring pairs following repeated administration of BDE 47 and -209. (13)C-BDE 47, BDE 209 and its debrominated congeners were detected both in dam serum and offspring body, which indicates that PBDEs can be maternally transferred. In addition, BDE 196 and -197 appeared in offspring body earlier than in maternal serum, which suggests that debromination can be occur in offspring body. BDE 209 increased in both dam and offspring while levels of (13)C-BDE 47 was not increased in dam serum. 13C-BDE 47 seems to be stored in breast milk rather than in maternal serum, which can be assumed through the drastic increase of the congener in suckling pups. The magnitude of lactational transfer of the administered congeners was greater than that of placental transfer. And (13)C-BDE 47 was relatively more transferred to suckling pups than BDE 209 through breastfeeding.

  12. Gestational and postpartum corticosterone exposure to the dam affects behavioral and endocrine outcome of the offspring in a sexually-dimorphic manner.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids in utero and during the postpartum period has a detrimental effect on brain development. We created an animal model of postpartum stress/depression based on administering high levels of corticosterone (CORT) to the dams during the postpartum period which caused behavioral changes and reduced hippocampal cell proliferation in the offspring. As the consequences of early exposure to glucocorticoids may depend on the dose and the developmental stage of the offspring, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of low (10 mg/kg) or high levels of CORT (40 mg/kg) given to dams either during gestation, postpartum or across both gestation and postpartum on the outcome of the offspring. Male and female offspring were weighed throughout the experiment, tested in a series of behavioral tests (forced swim test, open field, elevated plus maze) and basal and restraint stress CORT levels were examined in adolescence or young adulthood. Results show that maternal CORT exposure, regardless of when administered, significantly attenuated body weight gain until adulthood in the offspring. Offspring exposed to low maternal CORT, but not high maternal CORT, during the postpartum had higher basal levels of CORT as young adults. Further, male and female offspring of dams exposed to high maternal CORT in utero showed more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, while males of dams exposed to high maternal CORT postpartum exhibited more anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Taken together, maternal glucocorticoid exposure have long lasting effects on male and female offspring's behavioral and neuroendocrine measures in adolescence and adulthood depending on the time of exposure to glucocorticoids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  13. Adult offspring of high-fat diet-fed dams can have normal glucose tolerance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Platt, K M; Charnigo, R J; Pearson, K J

    2014-06-01

    Maternal high-fat diet consumption and obesity have been shown to program long-term obesity and lead to impaired glucose tolerance in offspring. Many rodent studies, however, use non-purified, cereal-based diets as the control for purified high-fat diets. In this study, primiparous ICR mice were fed purified control diet (10-11 kcal% from fat of lard or butter origin) and lard (45 or 60 kcal% fat) or butter (32 or 60 kcal% fat)-based high-fat diets for 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and for 2 weeks of nursing. Before mating, female mice fed the 32 and 60% butter-based high-fat diets exhibited impaired glucose tolerance but those females fed the lard-based diets showed normal glucose disposal following a glucose challenge. High-fat diet consumption by female mice of all groups decreased lean to fat mass ratios during the 4th week of diet treatment compared with those mice consuming the 10-11% fat diets. All females were bred to male mice and pregnancy and offspring outcomes were monitored. The body weight of pups born to 45% lard-fed dams was significantly increased before weaning, but only female offspring born to 32% butter-fed dams exhibited long-term body weight increases. Offspring glucose tolerance and body composition were measured for at least 1 year. Minimal, if any, differences were observed in the offspring parameters. These results suggest that many variables should be considered when designing future high-fat diet feeding and maternal obesity studies in mice.

  14. Flaxseed bioactive compounds change milk, hormonal and biochemical parameters of dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Troina, A A; Figueiredo, M S; Passos, M C F; Reis, A M; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated maternal intake of SDG (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside), a compound from flaxseed, and flaxseed oil+SDG on biochemical and hormonal parameters of dams and male and female offspring during lactation. Dams were fed a standard diet (C); diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet (SDG) or diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet and 7% of flaxseed oil (OLSDG). SDG and OLSDG dams showed hyperprolactinemia. The OLSDG milk had lower lactose and protein, while the SDG milk had lower protein on the 14th day of lactation. At 14 days, OLSDG male and female pups showed lower body mass, SDG and OLSDG male pups had hypoprolactinemia and lower body fat mass, but higher visceral fat mass (VFM) and hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, male SDG and OLSDG presented hypotriglyceridemia. At 14 days, SDG and OLSDG female offspring showed higher serum 17-β estradiol (E2); OLSDG presented hypercholesterolemia and SDG presented hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, SDG and OLSDG female pups showed hypotriglyceridemia and OLSDG shower lower E2. Both maternal treatments changes maternal metabolism as well as hormonal and biochemical parameters of the offspring, which are gender-dependent. Maternal hyperprolactinemia may act as an imprint factor responsible for the hormonal and metabolic changes observed in the pups.

  15. Gestational and lactational exposure to atrazine via the drinking water causes specific behavioral deficits and selectively alters monoaminergic systems in C57BL/6 mouse dams, juvenile and adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Dodd, Celia A; Xiao, Shuo; Krishna, Saritha; Ye, Xiaoqin; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2014-09-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in the U.S. water supply. This study aimed to investigate neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of ATR in C57BL/6 mouse offspring and dams exposed to a relatively low (3 mg/l, estimated intake 1.4 mg/kg/day) concentration of ATR via the drinking water (DW) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Behavioral tests included open field, pole, grip strength, novel object recognition (NOR), forced swim, and marble burying tests. Maternal weight gain and offspring (PND21, 35, and 70) body or brain weights were not affected by ATR. However, ATR-treated dams exhibited decreased NOR performance and a trend toward hyperactivity. Juvenile offspring (PND35) from ATR-exposed dams were hyperactive (both sexes), spent less time swimming (males), and buried more marbles (females). In adult offspring (PND70), the only behavioral change was a sex-specific (females) decreased NOR performance by ATR. Neurochemically, a trend toward increased striatal dopamine (DA) in dams and a significant increase in juvenile offspring (both sexes) was observed. Additionally, ATR exposure decreased perirhinal cortex serotonin in the adult female offspring. These results suggest that perinatal DW exposure to ATR targets the nigrostriatal DA pathway in dams and, especially, juvenile offspring, alters dams' cognitive performance, induces sex-selective changes involving motor and emotional functions in juvenile offspring, and decreases cognitive ability of adult female offspring, with the latter possibly associated with altered perirhinal cortex serotonin homeostasis. Overall, ATR exposure during gestation and lactation may cause adverse nervous system effects to both offspring and dams. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cadmium, iron and zinc interaction and hematological parameters in rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Mikolić, Anja; Schönwald, Neala; Piasek, Martina

    2016-12-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) were evaluated in offspring exposed from birth until weaning (neonatal day 0-21) and 4 weeks after exposure cessation focusing on iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) levels in organs and hematological parameters. Wistar female rats were administered 50mg Cd/L in drinking water (Cd-exposed) for 4 weeks before mating and during 3 weeks of gestation plus 3 weeks of lactation. Controls were supplied drinking water. At birth, part of Cd-exposed dams' litters was cross-fostered to control dams (CCd group) and their control litters were cross-fostered to Cd-exposed dams (CdC group). This procedure enabled to discern the effects of gestational, lactational and gestational plus lactational Cd exposure until weaning in F1 offspring. Elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry; hematological parameters manually; and histopathological changes by light microscopy. Gestational plus lactational exposure in Cd-exposed dams and their offspring increased Cd and decreased Fe levels, increased Zn in dams and decreased Zn and body weights in 11- and 21-day pups. In 21-day weanling pups, decreased red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin and hematocrit values and increased reticulocytes in peripheral blood were also found with concomitant histopathological finding of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver. In cross-fostered pups with gestational exposure (CCd pups), Fe in the liver decreased on day 11 and Zn increased in the kidney on day 21 whereas in pups with lactational exposure (CdC pups) Zn in the brain decreased on day 11 and Fe decreased in the liver and brain on day 21. Regardless of exposure cessation at weaning, in offspring with gestational plus lactational exposure (Cd-exposed) body weights, kidney and brain Fe levels and RBC and hemoglobin remained decreased in blood until puberty. Furthermore Zn levels increased in the liver, kidney and brain. It was concluded that gestational plus lactational Cd exposure caused decreases in Fe and Zn levels

  17. Synthesizing Studies of Dam Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Jim; East, Amy

    2014-10-01

    Dam decommissioning is rapidly emerging as an important river restoration strategy in the United States. Hundreds of dams have been removed in the past few decades, including several large ones (>10-15 meters) impounding large sediment volumes (>106 cubic meters) in the past 3 years, notably Condit Dam and the Elwha River dams in Washington State. These removals and the associated studies provide for the first time an opportunity to evaluate the immediate and persistent consequences of these significant fluvial—and in some cases, coastal—perturbations. Understanding dam removal response not only improves understanding of landscape and ecosystem adjustment to profound sediment pulses but also provides important lessons for future watershed restoration efforts.

  18. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Atrazine via the Drinking Water Causes Specific Behavioral Deficits and Selectively Alters Monoaminergic Systems in C57BL/6 Mouse Dams, Juvenile and Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Saritha; Ye, Xiaoqin; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in the U.S. water supply. This study aimed to investigate neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of ATR in C57BL/6 mouse offspring and dams exposed to a relatively low (3 mg/l, estimated intake 1.4 mg/kg/day) concentration of ATR via the drinking water (DW) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Behavioral tests included open field, pole, grip strength, novel object recognition (NOR), forced swim, and marble burying tests. Maternal weight gain and offspring (PND21, 35, and 70) body or brain weights were not affected by ATR. However, ATR-treated dams exhibited decreased NOR performance and a trend toward hyperactivity. Juvenile offspring (PND35) from ATR-exposed dams were hyperactive (both sexes), spent less time swimming (males), and buried more marbles (females). In adult offspring (PND70), the only behavioral change was a sex-specific (females) decreased NOR performance by ATR. Neurochemically, a trend toward increased striatal dopamine (DA) in dams and a significant increase in juvenile offspring (both sexes) was observed. Additionally, ATR exposure decreased perirhinal cortex serotonin in the adult female offspring. These results suggest that perinatal DW exposure to ATR targets the nigrostriatal DA pathway in dams and, especially, juvenile offspring, alters dams’ cognitive performance, induces sex-selective changes involving motor and emotional functions in juvenile offspring, and decreases cognitive ability of adult female offspring, with the latter possibly associated with altered perirhinal cortex serotonin homeostasis. Overall, ATR exposure during gestation and lactation may cause adverse nervous system effects to both offspring and dams. PMID:24913803

  19. "Green odor" inhalation by stressed rat dams reduces behavioral and neuroendocrine signs of prenatal stress in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Sayaka; Ueki, Shiori; Miyoshi, Michio; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2010-07-01

    Chronic maternal stress during pregnancy results in the "prenatally stressed" offspring displaying behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations that persist into adulthood. We investigated how inhalation of green odor (a mixture of equal amounts of trans-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenol) by stressed dams might alter certain indices of prenatal stress in their offspring. These indices were depression-like behavior (increased immobility time in the forced-swim test) and acute restraint stress-induced changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity [plasma corticosterone (CORT) and ACTH levels and the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (an index of neuronal activity)]. Pregnant rats were exposed to restraint stress for 60 min/day for 10 days (gestational days 10-19). The prenatally stressed offspring exhibited significant increases in depression-like behavior and in restraint stress-induced ACTH, CORT, and Fos responses, unless their dam had been exposed to green odor. The behavioral effect of the odor was also seen in offspring that were fostered by unstressed dams. The results obtained in the dams themselves were as follows. In vehicle-exposed stressed dams, but not in green odor-exposed ones, total body and adrenal weights were significantly decreased or increased, respectively. Depression-like behavior was not observed in the vehicle-exposed stressed dams themselves. Green odor inhalation prevented the impairment of maternal behavior induced by restraint stress. Thus, exposure of dams to stress may affect both the fetal brain and fetal HPA axis, and also maternal behavior, leading to altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses in the offspring. Such effects may be prevented by the stressed dams inhaling green odor.

  20. Maternal Western diet increases adiposity even in male offspring of obesity-resistant rat dams: early endocrine risk markers.

    PubMed

    Frihauf, Jennifer B; Fekete, Éva M; Nagy, Tim R; Levin, Barry E; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2016-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition or associated complications putatively mediate the obesogenic effects of perinatal high-fat diet on developing offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a Western diet developmental environment increases adiposity not only in male offspring from obesity-prone (DIO) mothers, but also in those from obesity-resistant (DR) dams, implicating a deleterious role for the Western diet per se. Selectively bred DIO and DR female rats were fed chow (17% kcal fat) or Western diet (32%) for 54 days before mating and, thereafter, through weaning. As intended, despite chow-like caloric intake, Western diet increased prepregnancy weight gain and circulating leptin levels in DIO, but not DR, dams. Yet, in both genotypes, maternal Western diet increased the weight and adiposity of preweanlings, as early as in DR offspring, and increased plasma leptin, insulin, and adiponectin of weanlings. Although body weight normalized with chow feeding during adolescence, young adult Western diet offspring subsequently showed decreased energy expenditure and, in DR offspring, decreased lipid utilization as a fuel substrate. By mid-adulthood, maternal Western diet DR offspring ate more chow, weighed more, and were fatter than controls. Thus, maternal Western diet covertly programmed increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood, disrupted relations of energy regulatory hormones with body fat, and decreased energy expenditure in offspring of lean, genetically obesity-resistant mothers. Maternal Western diet exposure alone, without maternal obesity or overnutrition, can promote offspring weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Frihauf et al.

  1. Fluoxetine normalizes the effects of prenatal maternal stress on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mouse dams and male offspring.

    PubMed

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Fatehi-Gharehlar, Laleh; Motayagheni, Negar; Homberg, Judith R

    2016-09-15

    Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period (lactation) is a common debilitating condition affecting mother-fetus/-infant interactions, which can be a risk factor for cognitive and affective disorders in mothers and their children. Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-(SSRI) pharmacotherapy is known as the first-line treatment of maternal depression. However, its use during pregnancy and lactation is a topic of concern. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone or in combination with fluoxetine (FLX) on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity, anxiety-/depression-like behaviors in dams and in offspring. To do this, gestationally-stressed and non-stressed mouse dams were orally treated with FLX-(8/mg/kg/day) from gestational day 10 to lactation day 20. The behavioral outcomes of prenatal stress and FLX treatment in dams and male offspring were assessed using the sucrose preference, forced swim, zero maze, and light-dark box tests. Stress-induced corticosterone levels were also evaluated as indicative of abnormal HPA-axis function. Our findings indicated that maternal stress resulted in increased depression-like behavior and HPA axis hyperactivity in dams during pregnancy and lactation which were reversed by FLX. Furthermore, prenatal stress increased anxiety/depression-like behaviors and HPA-axis reactivity in male offspring. These effects were reversed by maternal FLX treatment. Developmental FLX exposure, without prenatal stress, did not have any adverse effects on the above measured parameters. Our results suggest that prenatal stress induces maternal depression-like behavior which affects the development of affective symptoms in male offspring, and that remediation of maternal depression-like behavior coincidences with the normalization of anxiety-and depression-like symptoms in male offspring.

  2. Effects of a maternal diet supplemented with chocolate and fructose beverage during gestation and lactation on rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yun; Zeng, Jin-Jing; Kjaergaard, Marina; Guan, Ni; Raun, Kirsten; Nilsson, Cecilia; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2011-09-01

    1. Consumption of a high-fat and high-energy diet during pregnancy leads to a risk of long-term consequences on fetal development, as well as on the postnatal health of offspring. To investigate the effects of such a diet on fetal programming, we established a high-energy intake pregnant rat model using chocolate and fructose beverage as supplements to a normal chow diet. 2. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either chow (control) or a diet supplemented with chocolate and fructose beverage throughout gestation and lactation. The male F(1) pups received normal chow diet after weaning. Physiological or pathological changes in dams and pups (e.g. glucose and lipid metabolism) were evaluated. 3. The results showed that dams offered the high-fat (mainly from chocolate) and high-calorie diet during gestation consumed more energy and gained more weight than chow-fed dams. Over-consumption of chocolate reduced chow intake in dams, leading to low maternal protein supply. As a result, pups from these dams exhibited reduced birth weight that lasted until adulthood. The high-energy diet during lactation led to increased total body fat, as well as impaired liver function, in offspring; thus, the lactational diet is suggested to be a stronger determinant of offspring fat metabolism than gestational diet. 4. The results of the study suggest that over-supply of carbohydrates, such as chocolate and fructose, either during gestation or lactation has a negative impact on the well-being of offspring.

  3. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Z. Y.; Muhlhausler, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal “junk-food” diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16±0.6 vs. 11±0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19±1.3 vs. 13±0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of μ-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life.—Ong, Z. Y., Muhlhausler, B. S. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring. PMID:21427213

  4. Gender differences in the expression of genes involved during cardiac development in offspring from dams on high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Maqsood M; Matata, Bashir M

    2014-11-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that maternal high fat diet (HF) during pregnancy increase cardiovascular risk in the offspring, and pharmacological intervention using statins in late pregnancy reduced these risk factors. However the effects of maternal HF-feeding and statin treatment during pregnancy on development of heart remain unknown. Hence we measured expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression (cyclin G1), ventricular remodelling brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and environmental stress response small proline-rich protein 1A (SPRR 1A) in the offspring left ventricle (LV) from dams on HF with or without statin treatment. Female C57 mice were fed a HF diet (45% kcal fat) 4 weeks prior to conception, during pregnancy and lactation. From the second half of the pregnancy and throughout lactation, half of the pregnant females on HF diet were given a water-soluble statin (Pravastatin) in their drinking water (HF + S). At weaning offspring were fed HF diet to adulthood (generating dam/offspring dietary groups HF/HF and HF + S/HF). These groups were compared with offspring from dams fed standard chow (C 21% kcal fat) and fed C diet from weaning (C/C). LV mRNA levels for cyclin G1, BNP and SPRR 1A were measured by RT-PCR. Heart weights and BP in HF/HF offspring were higher versus C/C group. Maternal Pravastatin treatment reduced BP and heart weights in HF + S/HF female offspring to levels found in C/C group. LV cyclin G1 mRNA levels were lower in HF/HF versus both C/C and HF + S/HF offspring. BNP mRNA levels were elevated in HF/HF females but lower in males versus C/C. BNP gene expression in HF + S/HF offspring was similar to HF/HF. SPRR 1A mRNA levels were similar in all treatment groups. Statins given to HF-fed pregnant dams reduced cardiovascular risk in adult offspring, and this is accompanied by changes in expression of genes involved in adaptive remodelling in the offspring LV and that there is a gender difference.

  5. Exposure to the widely used fungicide mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine; Kiersgaard, Maria; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hass, Ulla

    2011-04-01

    The widely used fungicide mancozeb has been shown to cause hypothyroxinemia and other adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system in adult experimental animals. In humans, hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on the developing nervous system and can lead to impaired cognitive function and motor development in children. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether perinatal mancozeb exposure would cause developmental neurotoxicity in rats. Groups of 9-21 time-mated Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg mancozeb/kg body weight (bw)/day by gavage from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16, and total thyroxine (T(4)) levels were measured in dams during gestation. On PND 16, hormone levels and several organ weights were measured in the offspring, whereas motor activity, startle response, and cognitive function were assessed in the adult offspring. The dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused neurotoxicity in the pregnant dams and was therefore reduced to 100 mg/kg bw/day in mid study. T(4) levels showed a dose-dependent and significant decrease in dams from all three dose groups on GD 15, whereas offspring T(4) levels, thyroid weights, and histology were unaffected on PND 16. No effects on reproductive organ weights were seen, and no behavioral changes were observed. Taken together, these results indicate that in rats, moderate maternal hypothyroxinemia during gestation does not necessarily lead to hyperactivity or reduced special learning abilities in the offspring. Mancozeb exposure did, however, reduce T(4) levels in dams and may therefore still be a potential contributor to thyroid disruption in humans and in result adversely affects the developing brain.

  6. Unlimited access to low-energy diet causes acute malnutrition in dams and alters biometric and biochemical parameters in offspring.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, E; de Santana Muniz, G; das Graças de Santana Muniz, M; de Souza Alexandre, L; da Rocha, L S; Leandro, C G; de Castro, R M; Bolaños-Jimenez, F

    2014-02-01

    Here we analyze the outcomes of unlimited access to a low-energy (LE) diet in dams and their offspring. At 3 weeks' gestation, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) the control group received a normoenergetic diet; and (2) the experimental group received the LE diet. In dams, lactation outcomes, food intake, body weight, plasma IGF-1, prealbumin, transferrin and retinol-binding protein levels were evaluated; in offspring, biometric and biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated. No differences were observed during pregnancy. However, after lactation, dams that received the LE diet demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (P<0.05), plasma IGF-1 (P=0.01), prealbumin and visceral fat (P<0.001). Pups born to dams that received the LE diet demonstrated reduced body length and weight at weaning (P<0.001) and were lighter than the control animals at the end of the experimental period. Pups also demonstrated reduced plasma, low-density lipoprotein (P=0.04), triglycerides (P=0.002) and glucose levels (P<0.05), and differences were noted in visceral fat. These results indicate that feeding dams with LE diet during the reproductive period induces acute malnutrition and impairs the growth and development of offspring, as well as certain metabolic parameters.

  7. Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior.

  8. Microbial manipulation of the rat dam changes bacterial colonization and alters properties of the gut in her offspring.

    PubMed

    Fåk, Frida; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn

    2008-01-01

    The impact of an altered bacterial colonization on gut development has not been thoroughly studied, despite the increased risk of certain diseases with a disturbed microbiota after birth. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial manipulation, i.e., antibiotic treatment or Escherichia coli exposure, of the dam on bacterial colonization and gut development in the offspring. Pregnant rats were administered either broad-spectrum antibiotics 3 days before parturition or live nonpathogenic E. coli Culture Collection of University of Göteborg, Sweden type strain (CCUG 29300(T)) 1 wk before parturition and up to 14 days of lactation in the drinking water. Cecal bacterial levels, gut growth, intestinal permeability, digestive enzyme levels, and intestinal inflammation were studied in 2-wk-old rats. Pups from dams that were antibiotic-treated had higher densities of Enterobacteriaceae, which correlated with a decreased stomach growth and function, lower pancreatic protein levels, higher intestinal permeability, and increased plasma levels of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin, compared with pups from untreated mothers. Exposure of pregnant/lactating mothers to E. coli CCUG 29300(T), also resulting in increased Enterobacteriaceae levels, gave in the offspring similar results on the stomach and an increased small intestinal growth compared with the control pups. Furthermore, E. coli pups showed increased mucosal disaccharidase activities, increased liver, spleen, and adrenal weights, as well as increased plasma concentrations of haptoglobin. These findings indicate that disturbing the normal bacterial colonization after birth, by increasing the densities of cecal Enterobacteriaceae, appears to have lasting effects on the postnatal microflora, which affects gut growth and function.

  9. Prenatal acetaminophen induces liver toxicity in dams, reduces fetal liver stem cells, and increases airway inflammation in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Khalil; Keßler, Timo; Thiele, Kristin; Ramisch, Katherina; Erhardt, Annette; Huebener, Peter; Barikbin, Roja; Arck, Petra; Tiegs, Gisa

    2015-05-01

    During pregnancy, acetaminophen is one of the very few medications recommended by physicians to treat fever or pain. Recent insights from epidemiological studies suggest an association between prenatal acetaminophen medication and an increased risk for development of asthma in children later in life. The underlying pathogenesis of such association is still unknown. We aimed to develop a mouse model to provide insights into the effect of prenatal acetaminophen on maternal, fetal and adult offspring's health. The toxic effect of acetaminophen was studied in mice on 1) maternal liver; mirrored by biomarkers of liver injury, centrilobular necrosis, and infiltration of granulocytes; 2) fetal liver; reflected by the frequency of hematopoietic stem cells, and 3) postnatal health; evaluated by the severity of allergic airway inflammation among offspring. We observed an increased susceptibility towards acetaminophen-induced liver damage in pregnant mice compared to virgins. Moreover, hematopoietic stem cell frequency in fetal liver declined in response to acetaminophen. Furthermore, a greater severity of airway inflammation was observed in offspring of dams upon prenatal acetaminophen treatment, identified lung infiltration by leukocytes and eosinophil infiltration into the airways. Our newly developed mouse model on prenatal use of acetaminophen reflects findings from epidemiological studies in humans. The availability of this model will allow improvement in our understanding of how acetaminophen-related hepatotoxicity is operational in pregnant individuals and how an increased risk for allergic diseases in response to prenatal acetaminophen is mediated. Such insights, once available, may change the recommendations for prenatal acetaminophen use. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of rat odour and shelter on maternal behaviour in C57BL/6 dams and on fear and stress responses in their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Coutellier, Laurence; Friedrich, Anne-Christin; Failing, Klaus; Marashi, Vera; Würbel, Hanno

    2008-06-09

    Recent studies in rats and mice suggest that developmental plasticity of HPA-stress and fear responses could be mediated by environment-dependent variations in maternal behaviour. The present study was designed to examine this question further by varying the adversity of the maternal environment to study its effects on nest-attendance and maternal care and on the HPA and fear responses in the adult offspring. C57BL/6 dams and their litter were housed in a cage system composed of a nest cage (NC) and a foraging cage (FC) connected by a tunnel. Using a 2 x 2 factorial design, we varied the maternal foraging environment (FC) by the presence or absence of rat odour (feces) and shelters (MouseHouse and tube) from postnatal days 1-14 and assessed the adult offspring's corticosterone response to isolation/novelty stress and their behaviour in three tests of fearfulness (elevated-O-maze, open-field, free exploration). While the presence of shelters in the FC reduced time spent in the NC (nest site attendance), the presence of rat odour in the FC increased active maternal care without altering nest site attendance. Alterations of the offspring's HPA and fear responses were rather subtle. The presence of shelters in the dam's foraging environment decreased fearfulness in the offspring in the free exploration test. In addition, males reared by dams exposed to rat odour were less fearful in the open-field test, and both males and females reared by dams without shelters and rat odour in the FC showed a greater corticosterone response to isolation/novelty stress. Multiple regression analysis indicated a negative relationship between maternal licking/grooming and fearfulness in males and a positive relationship between nest site attendance and fearfulness in females. Taken together, these results indicate that mouse dams adjust specific aspects of maternal behaviour in response to the specific properties of their environment, and that active maternal care and nest site attendance

  11. Maternal "junk-food" feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2011-07-01

    Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal "junk-food" diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16 ± 0.6 vs. 11 ± 0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19 ± 1.3 vs. 13 ± 0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of μ-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life.

  12. Methyl donor supplementation alters cognitive performance and motivation in female offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sarah E; Grissom, Nicola M; Herdt, Christopher T; Reyes, Teresa M

    2017-02-16

    During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior. Given that extensive brain development occurs during early postnatal life-particularly within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region critical for executive function-we examined whether early life methyl donor supplementation (e.g., during adolescence) could ameliorate executive function deficits observed in offspring that were exposed to maternal HFD. By using operant testing, progressive ratio, and the PFC-dependent 5-choice serial reaction timed task (5-CSRTT), we determined that F1 female offspring (B6D2F1/J) from HFD-fed dams have decreased motivation (decreased progressive ratio breakpoint) and require a longer stimulus length to complete the 5-CSRTT task successfully, whereas early life methyl donor supplementation increased motivation and shortened the minimum stimulus length required for a correct response in the 5-CSRTT. Of interest, we found that expression of 2 chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL10, correlated with the median stimulus length in the 5-CSRTT. Furthermore, we found that acute adult supplementation of methyl donors increased motivation in HFD-fed offspring and those who previously received supplementation with methyl donors. These data point to early life as a sensitive time during which dietary methyl donor supplementation can alter PFC-dependent cognitive behaviors.-McKee, S. E., Grissom, N. M., Herdt, C. T., Reyes, T. M. Methyl donor supplementation alters

  13. Unexpected Long-Term Protection of Adult Offspring Born to High-Fat Fed Dams against Obesity Induced by a Sucrose-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Couvreur, Odile; Ferezou, Jacqueline; Gripois, Daniel; Serougne, Colette; Crépin, Delphine; Aubourg, Alain; Gertler, Arieh; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Taouis, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet), rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet) on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. Conclusions/Significance HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in the protective

  14. Impairment of male rat reproductive function in F1 offspring from dams exposed to 2-bromopropane during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sun; Li, Guang-Xun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) on the reproductive tracts of male F1 offspring from dams exposed to 2-BP during gestation and lactation were investigated. Ten pregnant (sperm-positive) Sprague-Dawley rats per group were exposed sc to 2-BP at 135, 405, and 1215 mg/kg/day from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20. 2-BP decreased the proportion of dams littering at the two highest doses. At the highest dose, the rate of delivery and surviving pups were significantly lower than in the controls (P < or = 0.05). The relative weights of testes vs. brain were significantly lower than the controls (P < or = 0.05) on PND 33 and 63 at 405 mg/kg/day, and on PND 90 at 1215 mg/kg/day in the F1 rats. Seminiferous tubule atrophy, germ cell loss, and increased Leydig cell proliferation were observed at the highest dose by histopathologic examination. Female offspring has a decrease in all follicle types at the high dose. These results suggest that gestational and lactational exposure to 2-BP at a high maternally toxic dose impairs the development of the reproductive organs of the offspring.

  15. Exposure to nicotine increases dopamine receptor content in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rat dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Lotufo, B M; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-09-01

    Nicotine exposure causes the release of dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We have previously shown that maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes hyperleptinemia in dams and pups, and leptin is known to decrease dopamine release from the VTA. Here we evaluated whether maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes changes in dopamine and leptin signaling pathways at the end of exposure and after 5days of withdrawal in the: VTA, NAc, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dorsal striatum (DS). On postnatal day (PN) 2, lactating Wistar rats were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC; 6mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14days. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field on PN14 or PN20, and euthanized on PN15 or PN21. Entries into the open arms and head dips in the EPM were reduced in NIC pups at P20. At weaning (PN21), NIC dams had: lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), higher OBRb and SOCS3 contents in VTA; lower TH, higher D1R, D2R and DAT contents in NAc; higher TH content in DS; and higher D2R and SOCS3 contents in ARC. On PN15, NIC offspring had higher D1R, D2R and lower DAT contents in NAc, while on PN21, they had lower DAT in DS, and lower pSTAT3 content in ARC. We evidenced that postnatal nicotine exposure induces relevant changes in the brain reward system of dams and pups, possibly associated with changes in leptinemia and increased offspring anxiety-like behavior.

  16. [Detection of auditory impairment in the offsprings caused by drug treatment of the dams].

    PubMed

    Kameyama, T; Nabeshima, T; Itoh, J

    1982-12-01

    To study the auditory impairment induced by prenatal administration of aminoglycosides in the offspring, the shuttle box method to measure the auditory threshold of rats (Kameyama et al., Folia pharmacol. japon. 77, 15, 1981) was employed. Four groups of pregnant rats were administered 200 mg/kg kanamycin sulfate (KM), 200 mg/kg dihydrostreptomycin sulfate (DHSM), 100 mg/kg neomycin sulfate (NM), or 1 ml/kg saline intramuscularly from the 10th to the 19th day of pregnancy. The auditory threshold of the offspring could be measured by the shuttle box method in about 90% of the live born rats at the age of 100 days. The auditory thresholds of the groups were as follows (mean +/- S.E.): saline group, 53.8 +/- 0.6 dB (N = 36); KM group, 63.8 +/- 1.1 dB (N = 34); DHSM group, 60.0 +/- 1.2 dB (N = 29); NM group, 62.4 +/- 1.2 dB (N = 24). Auditory thresholds of drug-treated groups were significantly higher than that of the saline group. However, no increase in the auditory threshold of the mother rat was detected after treatment with aminoglycosides. In addition, the experimental procedure of the shuttle box method is very easy, and the auditory threshold of a large number of rats could be measured in a short period. These findings suggest that this method is a very useful one for screening for auditory impairment induced by prenatal drug treatment in rat offspring.

  17. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  18. Effects on the reproductive parameters of two generations of Rattus norvegicus offspring from dams exposed to heptachlor during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, Alejandra; Morimoto, Sumiko; Cerbón, Marco; Prado-Flores, Guadalupe

    2017-03-01

    Heptachlor has been targeted for global elimination because of its toxicity and environmental persistence, in accordance with the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, there is no regulation of heptachlor use in Mexico, where relatively high levels have been found in maternal breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heptachlor on the reproductive system of offspring of two consecutive generations of rats (F1 and F2) from dams orally administered heptachlor during midgestation and lactation. Female offspring were analyzed for different phenotypic, reproductive, and molecular parameters. In the F1 generation, heptachlor treatment induced decreased body weight at weaning, increased female anogenital distance, and delayed vaginal opening. In both generations, serum progesterone levels decreased and estradiol levels remained unchanged, while overexpression of the progesterone receptor was observed in uterine epithelial cells on estrus day. In the F2 generation, expression of the estrogen receptor α increased in the glandular epithelium. Finally, heptachlor treatment did not affect apoptosis in the uterine epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that heptachlor induced female reproductive alterations when administered to dams during the perinatal period. Accordingly, exposure to heptachlor may represent a risk for the reproductive health of humans. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 856-868, 2017.

  19. Effects of maternal vitamin B6 deficiency and over-supplementation on DNA damage and oxidative stress in rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; Venâncio, Vinícius Paula; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; Pires Bianchi, Maria Lourdes; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor for more than 140 essential enzymes and plays an important role in maternal health and fetal development. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal vitamin B6 on DNA damage and oxidative stress status in rat dams and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three dietary groups fed a standard diet (control diet), a diet supplemented with 30 mg/kg of vitamin B6, or a deficient diet (0 mg/kg of vitamin B6) for 10 weeks before and during mating, pregnancy and lactation. The dams were euthanized at weaning, and their male pups were euthanized either 10 days or 100 days after birth. We found that maternal vitamin B6 deficiency increased the micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells and also increased the concentration of hepatic TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in newborn pups (10 days old). In conclusion, maternal 5- to 6-fold over-supplementation of vitamin B6 had no adverse effects, however its deficiency may induce chromosomal damage and hepatic lipid peroxidation in the offspring.

  20. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  1. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ ALTERS THE ONSET OF PARTURITION IN THE DAM AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN MALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prenatal Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz alters the onset of Parturition in
    the Dam and Sexual Differentiation in Male Rat Offspring.
    N. Noriega1; E. Gray1; J. Ostby1; C. Lambright1; V. Wilson1
    1. RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA;

    Prochloraz...

  2. Cardiac Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity and Contents of Submits 1 and 4 are Altered in Offspring by Low Prenatal Intake by Rat Dams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been reported previously that the offspring of rat dams consuming low dietary copper (Cu) during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) characterized by reduced catalytic activity and mitochondrial- and nuclear-subunit content after postnatal day...

  3. Large Litter Rearing Improves Leptin Sensitivity and Hypothalamic Appetite Markers in Offspring of Rat Dams Fed High-Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model. PMID:24926823

  4. Large litter rearing improves leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic appetite markers in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Moran, Timothy H; Yan, Jianqun

    2014-09-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model.

  5. Late N-acetylcysteine treatment prevents the deficits induced in the offspring of dams exposed to an immune stress during gestation.

    PubMed

    Lanté, Fabien; Meunier, Johann; Guiramand, Janique; De Jesus Ferreira, Marie-Céleste; Cambonie, Gilles; Aimar, Rose; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; Maurice, Tangui; Vignes, Michel; Barbanel, Gérard

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal infection is a major stressful experience leading to enhanced susceptibility for mental illnesses in humans. We recently reported in rats, that oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) shortage occurred in fetal male brain after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the dams and that these responses might be involved in the neurodevelopmental deficits observed in adolescent offspring. Furthermore, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) before LPS avoided both delayed synaptic plasticity and mnesic performance deficits. Since NAC is one of the few medications permitted in pregnant women, this study evaluated the ability of NAC to serve as a protective therapy even after the LPS challenge. Pregnant rats received a single ip injection of E. coli LPS, two days before delivery, and were given NAC in their tap water after the LPS. GSH was evaluated at the time of its expected drop in the hippocampus of male fetuses, whereas long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and spatial memory in the water-maze were recorded in 28-day-old male offspring. Post-treatment with NAC, four hours after the LPS challenge fully prevented the drop in the GSH hippocampal content. LTP, as well as spatial learning were completely protected. NAC administration at delivery also partially restored the LTP whereas post-treatment two days later was inefficient. Another set of dams were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol prior to LPS exposure, enhancing the alpha-tocopherol levels in fetal hippocampus. This treatment did not prevent the LPS-induced synaptic plasticity impairment. These results point to fetal hippocampal GSH as a major target of the detrimental effects of in utero LPS challenge. The therapeutic window of NAC extends up to birth, suggesting that this drug might be clinically useful even after an immuno-inflammatory episode. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Risk for Suicidal Ideation Among the Offspring of Bipolar Parents: Results from the Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS)

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Obreja, Mihaela; Shamseddeen, Wael; Iyengar, Satish; Axelson, David A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Kupfer, David J.; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine rates and identify risk factors for suicidal ideation among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Methods Subjects included 388 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and 250 offspring of matched community controls enrolled in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Results Offspring of bipolar probands displayed greater rates of lifetime suicidal ideation than offspring of controls (33% versus 20%). Factors most strongly associated with lifetime suicidal ideation in offspring of bipolar parents included offspring mood disorder, hostility, recent sexual abuse, and family conflict. Conclusions Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder are at elevated risk for suicidal ideation as compared with offspring of controls. Suicide risk assessment in this population should attend to specific risk factors identified. PMID:21827311

  7. Differences in metabolite burden of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in pregnant and postpartum dams and their offspring in relation to drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yumi; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Kamijima, Michihiro; Naito, Hisao; Nakajima, Tamie

    2012-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) induced adverse effects on mice offspring, and the metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) may be essential to determine the toxicity. In this experiment, we measured liver MEHP levels and the factors determining the metabolism, two enzyme activities [lipase and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] or expression of cytochrome P450 4A14 (CYP4A14) in dams (on gestational day 18 and postnatal day 2) and their offspring. MEHP concentrations in the liver from pregnant dams were 1.5 times higher than those of postpartum dams at exposure to 0.05% DEHP. Accordingly, MEHP concentrations were 1.7 times higher in fetuses than in pups at the dose. Interestingly, lipase activity was 1.8-fold higher in pregnant dams than postpartum ones, but no such difference was noted in the activity between fetuses and pups. UGT activity was also 1.5-fold higher in pregnant dams than postpartum ones, whereas the activity in the fetuses was 1/2 that of pups. No difference was noted in CYP4A14 levels between pregnant and postpartum mice, whereas the levels in the fetuses were <1/10 those of pups. DEHP exposure did not influence lipase activity, whereas it slightly enhanced UGT activity and exclusively increased CYP4A14 levels in pregnant and/or postpartum dams. Taken together, the higher MEHP levels in pregnant dams than postpartum ones may be primarily due to higher lipase activities in pregnant dams, which may closely reflect those in fetuses and pups.

  8. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  9. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  10. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  11. Early-Life Stress Paradigm Transiently Alters Maternal Behavior, Dam-Pup Interactions, and Offspring Vocalizations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heun-Johnson, Hanke; Levitt, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Animal models can help elucidate the mechanisms through which early-life stress (ELS) has pathophysiological effects on the developing brain. One model that has been developed for rodents consists of limiting the amount of bedding and nesting material during the first postnatal weeks of pup life. This ELS environment has been shown to induce “abusive” behaviors by rat dams towards pups, while mouse dams have been hypothesized to display “fragmented care”. Here, as part of an ongoing study of gene-environment interactions that impact brain development, we analyzed long observation periods of wild-type C57Bl/6J dams caring for wild-type and Met heterozygous pups. Met encodes for the MET receptor tyrosine kinase, which is involved in cortical and hippocampal synaptogenesis. Dams with limited resources from postnatal day (P)2 to P9 preserved regular long on-nest periods, and instead increased the number of discrete dam-pup interactions during regular off-nest periods. Immediately after dams entered the nest during off-nest periods in this ELS environment, pups responded to these qualitatively different interactions with an increased number of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and audible vocalizations (AV), communication signals that have been associated with aversive and painful stimuli. After returning to control conditions, nest entry behaviors normalized, and dams did not show altered anxiety-like or contextual fear learning behaviors after pup weaning. Furthermore, female mice that had undergone ELS as pups did not show atypical nest entry behaviors in control conditions in adulthood, suggesting that these specific maternal behaviors are not learned during the ELS period. The results suggest that atypical responses of both mother and pups during exposure to this ELS environment likely contribute to long-term negative outcomes in mice, and that these responses more closely resemble the effects of limited bedding on rat dams and pups than was previously

  12. Maternal glucose intolerance reduces offspring nephron endowment and increases glomerular volume in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Hokke, Stacey; Arias, Nicole; Armitage, James A; Puelles, Victor G; Fong, Karen; Geraci, Stefania; Gretz, Norbert; Bertram, John F; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A

    2016-11-01

    Animal studies report a nephron deficit in offspring exposed to maternal diabetes, yet are limited to models of severe hyperglycaemia which do not reflect the typical clinical condition and which are associated with foetal growth restriction that may confound nephron endowment. We aimed to assess renal morphology and function in offspring of leptin receptor deficient mice (Lepr(db) /+) and hypothesized that exposure to impaired maternal glucose tolerance (IGT) would be detrimental to the developing kidney. Nephron endowment was assessed in offspring of C57BKS/J Lepr(db) /+ and +/+ mice at embryonic day (E)18 and postnatal day (PN)21 using design-based stereology. Transcutaneous measurement of renal function and total glomerular volume were assessed in 6-month-old offspring. Only +/+ offspring of Lepr(db) /+ dams were analysed. Compared with +/+ dams, Lepr(db) /+ dams had a 20% and 35% decrease in glucose tolerance prior to pregnancy and at E17.5 respectively. Offspring of IGT Lepr(db) /+ dams had approximately 15% fewer nephrons at E18.5 and PN21 than offspring of +/+ dams. There was no difference in offspring bodyweight. Despite normal renal function, total glomerular volume was 13% greater in 6-month-old offspring of IGT Lepr(db) /+ dams than in +/+ offspring. IGT throughout gestation resulted in a nephron deficit that was established early in renal development. Maternal IGT was associated with glomerular hypertrophy in adult offspring, likely a compensatory response to maintain normal renal function. Given the increasing prevalence of IGT, monitoring glucose from early in gestation may be important to prevent altered kidney morphology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Consuming a low-fat diet from weaning to adulthood reverses the programming of food preferences in male, but not in female, offspring of 'junk food'-fed rat dams.

    PubMed

    Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the negative effects of maternal 'junk food' feeding on food preferences and gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system could be reversed by weaning the offspring onto a low-fat diet. Offspring of control (n = 11) and junk food-fed (JF, n = 12) dams were weaned onto a standard rodent chow until 6 weeks (juvenile) or 3 months (adult). They were then given free access to both chow and junk food for 3 weeks and food preferences determined. mRNA expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward system was determined by qRT-PCR at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months of age. In the juvenile group, both male and female JF offspring consumed more energy and carbohydrate during the junk food exposure at 6 weeks of age and had a higher body fat mass at 3 months (P < 0.05). Female juvenile JF offspring had higher tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptors and dopamine active transporter expression in the ventral tegmental area (P < 0.05). In the adult group, there was no difference between control and JF offspring in energy and macronutrient intakes during exposure to junk food; however, female JF offspring had a higher body fat mass at 6 months (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the effects of perinatal junk food exposure on food preferences and fat mass can be reversed by consuming a low-fat diet from weaning to adulthood in males. Females, however, retain a higher propensity for diet-induced obesity even after consuming a low-fat diet for an extended period after weaning. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. High saturated fat diet alters the lipid composition of triacylglycerol and polar lipids in the femur of dam and offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Previous work has shown that dietary lipids alter femur lipid composition. Specifically, we have shown that exposure to high saturated fatty acid (SFA) diets in utero, during suckling, or post-weaning alters femur total lipid composition, resulting in higher percent bone mass in males and females and bone mineral density (BMD) in female offspring with no effect on bone mineral outcomes in dams. Comparatively, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diets increase femur polar (PL) lipid n-3 content, which has been associated with increased bone mineral content and strength. However, the extent that PL or triacylglycerol (TAG) lipids change with high SFA diets is unknown. The current investigation examined the influence of a high SFA diet (20 % lard by weight) on femur PL and TAG lipid composition in 5-month old female Wistar rats (fed high SFA diet from age 28 days onwards; dams) and their 19-day old offspring (exposed to high SFA in utero and during suckling; pups). High SFA exposure resulted in increased monounsaturates and decreased n-3 and n-6 PUFA in the TAG fraction in both dams and pups, and higher SFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in dams only. The PL fraction showed decreased n-6 PUFA in both dams and pups. The magnitude of the diet-mediated responses, specifically TAG 18:1 and PL n-6 PUFA, may have contributed to the previously reported altered BMD, which was supported with correlation analysis. Future research should investigate the relationship of diet-induced changes in bone lipids on bone structure, as quantified through micro-computed tomography.

  15. A Calcium-Deficient Diet in Rat Dams during Gestation and Nursing Affects Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 Expression in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Junji; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal malnutrition can affect the phenotype of offspring by changing epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. We hypothesized that pregnant female rats fed a Ca-deficient diet would have offspring with altered hepatic glucocorticoid-related gene expression and that lactation would modify these alterations. Methodology We determined the effects of Ca deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (Hsd11b1) expression in offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient (D: 0.008% Ca) or control (C: 0.90% Ca) diet ad libitum from 3 weeks preconception to 21 days postparturition. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered to the same or opposite dams and divided into the following four groups: CC, DD, CD, and DC (first letter: original mother's diet; second letter: nursing mother's diet). All offspring were fed a control diet beginning at weaning (day 21) and were killed on day 200±7. Serum insulin and adipokines in offspring were measured using ELISA kits. Principal Findings In males, mean levels of insulin, glucose, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in the DD and DC groups than in the CC group. We found no difference in HOMA-IR between the CC and CD groups in either males or females. Expression of Hsd11b1 was lower in male DD rats than in CC rats. Hsd11b1 expression in male offspring nursed by cross-fostered dams was higher than that in those nursed by dams fed the same diet; CC vs. CD and DD vs. DC. In females, Hsd11b1 expression in DC rats was higher than that in CC rats. Conclusions These findings indicated that maternal Ca restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation alters postnatal growth, Hsd11b1 expression, and insulin resistance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:24427280

  16. Early exposure of dams to a westernized diet has long-term consequences on food intake and physiometabolic homeostasis of the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferro Cavalcante, Taisy Cinthia; Marcelino da Silva, Amanda Alves; Lira, Maria Cláudia Alheiros; do Amaral Almeida, Larissa Cavalcanti; Marques, Ana Patricia Jaques; do Nascimento, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a westernized diet during pregnancy and lactation. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were divided into two groups according to their food intake, namely, control (C) or westernized (W) diet, throughout pregnancy/lactation. On the 21st day, the male pups were weaned on a standard diet as follows: Control diet (CC) (n = 8) and westernized diet in perinatal life followed by control diet post weaning (WC) (n = 8). The levels of fasting (12 h) serum glucose, triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol and fraction in the pups were determined. During weaning, the WC group showed 14% greater body weight (p < 0.001). In the adulthood, the offspring from dams fed on westernized diet showed hyperphagia, hyperinsulinism, hypertriglyceridemia, higher fat visceral weight, higher very-low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol level, decreased high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol level, and altered glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, maternal western-style diet in early life altered long-term food intake, visceral fat pad, insulin, glucose and lipid serum, and increased risk of metabolic disorders.

  17. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Liang, Nu-Chu; Ewald, Erin R; Purcell, Ryan H; Boersma, Gretha J; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2013-11-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk, after which all rats remained sedentary, resulting in four groups: CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, HF-SED, and HF-RW. Male HF offspring gained more body weight by PND7 compared with CHOW pups and maintained this weight difference through the entire experiment. Three weeks of postweaning exercise did not affect body weight gain in either CHOW or HF offspring, but reduced adiposity in HF offspring. Plasma leptin was decreased at the end of the 3-wk running period in HF-RW rats but was not different from HF-SED 9 wk after the exercise period ended. At 14 wk of age, intracerebroventricular injection of leptin suppressed food intake in CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, and HF-RW, while it did not affect food intake in HF-SED group. At death, HF-RW rats also had higher leptin-induced phospho-STAT3 level in the arcuate nucleus than HF-SED rats. Both maternal HF diet and postweaning exercise had effects on hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor mRNA expression in adult offspring. Our data suggest that postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity and signaling in this model.

  18. Vitamin A supplementation in rats under pregnancy and nursing induces behavioral changes and oxidative stress upon striatum and hippocampus of dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Morrone, Maurílio; Simões-Pires, André; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2011-01-19

    Vitamin A is important for both development and maintenance of adult brain homeostasis. However, excessive vitamin A exposure has been linked to cognitive impairments and may induce congenital defects, including neuronal malformations. Recently, we demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation is able to alter behavioral parameters and induce a pro-oxidant state in hippocampus and striatum of adult male rat. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant and nursing rats on maternal and offspring striatum and hippocampus. Wistar female rats (7 per group) were orally supplemented with retinyl palmitate (2500, 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day) or saline (control) throughout pregnancy and nursing. Homing test was performed at postnatal days (PND) 5 and 10 for offspring, while open field test (OFT) was carried out at PND19 and 20 for dams and offspring, respectively. Redox parameters were evaluated at PND21 for both. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and nursing increased superoxide dismutase/catalase (SOD/CAT) ratio and oxidative damage in maternal and offspring striatum and hippocampus. Additionally, supplementation induced behavioral alterations. In conclusion, we suggest some caution regarding vitamin A intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding, since oxidative stress can disturb several biological phenomena, including neuronal signaling and neurotransmission, which may induce several behavioral deficits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent sediment studies refute Glen Canyon Dam hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joe; Kaplinski, Matt; Melis, Theodore S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of sedimentology hydrology, and geomorphology indicate that releases from Glen Canyon Dam are continuing to erode sandbars and beaches in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, despite attempts to restore these resources. The current strategy for dam operations is based on the hypothesis that sand supplied by tributaries of the Colorado River downstream from the dam will accumulate in the channel during normal dam operations and remain available for restoration floods. Recent work has shown that this hypothesis is false, and that tributary sand inputs are exported downstream rapidly typically within weeks or months under the current flow regime.

  20. Recent sediment studies refute Glen Canyon Dam Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joe; Kaplinski, Matt; Melis, Theodore S.

    Recent studies of sedimentology hydrology, and geomorphology indicate that releases from Glen Canyon Dam are continuing to erode sandbars and beaches in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, despite attempts to restore these resources. The current strategy for dam operations is based on the hypothesis that sand supplied by tributaries of the Colorado River downstream from the dam will accumulate in the channel during normal dam operations and remain available for restoration floods. Recent work has shown that this hypothesis is false, and that tributary sand inputs are exported downstream rapidly typically within weeks or months under the current flow regime.

  1. Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Alfaradhi, Maria Z; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPARγ and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring.

  2. Immunization with BLS-Stx2B chimera totally protects dams from early pregnancy loss induced by Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) and confers anti-Stx2 immunity to the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Mejías, María P; Bruballa, Andrea C; Alvarez, Romina Soledad; Amaral, María M; Palermo, Marina S; Ibarra, Cristina

    2016-09-07

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacterial pathogens involved in food-borne diseases. Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of STEC and is responsible for systemic complications including Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). It has been previously demonstrated that Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) induces pregnancy loss in rats in early stage of pregnancy. The main purpose of this study was to determine if an active immunization prevents Stx2 mediated pregnancy loss and confers passive protective immunity to the offspring. For that purpose Sprague Dawley female rats were immunized with the chimera based on the enzyme lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) and the B subunit of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2B) named BLS-Stx2B. After immunization females were mated with males. At day 8 of gestation, dams were challenged intraperitoneally with a sublethal and abortifacient dose of Stx2. The immunization induced high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera and most important, prevented pregnancy loss. Pups born and breastfeed by immunized dams had high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera. Cross-fostering experiments indicated that passive protective immunity against Stx2 was transmitted through lactation. These results indicate that immunization of adult female rats with BLS-Stx2B prevents Stx2-induced pregnancy loss and confers anti Stx2 protective immunity to the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  4. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G; Armitage, James A; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20-25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment.

  5. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  6. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  7. Parental longevity and offspring's home blood pressure: the Ohasama study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yumiko; Metoki, Hirohito; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Hirose, Takuo; Kikuya, Masahiro; Asayama, Kei; Inoue, Ryusuke; Hara, Azusa; Obara, Taku; Hoshi, Haruhisa; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-02-01

    Longevity is clustered in particular families. Some studies using conventional blood pressure (BP) reported an association between parental longevity and offspring's BP. No study has used self-measurement of BP at home (home BP). We examined the association between parental longevity and home BP values of adult Japanese offspring. Home and conventional BPs were measured in 1961 residents aged 40 years and over in the general population of Ohasama, Japan. Information about the ages of offspring's parents (age at death or current age) was obtained from a standardized questionnaire. The mean +/- SD values of systolic/diastolic home BP in offspring whose mothers died at less than 69 years of age, at 69-84 years of age, and in offspring whose mothers were alive at age 84 years were 127.4 +/- 13.2/76.2 +/- 9.1, 124.8 +/- 15.0/74.4 +/- 10.0, and 123.4 +/- 15.2/74.4 +/- 10.3 mmHg (P = 0.0002/0.009), respectively. Corresponding values in offspring whose fathers died at less than 66 years of age, at 66-80 years of age, and in offspring whose fathers were alive at age 80 years were 125.7 +/- 15.2/75.6 +/- 10.6, 124.7 +/- 14.1/75.0 +/- 9.2 and 122.4 +/- 14.6/73.6 +/- 9.5 mmHg (P = 0.001/0.003), respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated associations that were only weakly observed for conventional BP values (conventional BP: P = 0.3/0.4 for maternal and P = 0.3/0.3 for paternal longevity; home BP: P = 0.05/0.2 for maternal and P = 0.0004/0.007 for paternal longevity). Parental premature death was significantly associated with higher home BP levels in adult offspring, suggesting that parental longevity might be a useful additional marker for screening adult offspring at higher risk of hypertension.

  8. Female offspring of rat dams fed low boron diets during pregnancy and lactation exhibit signs of the metabolic syndrome during early adulthood: increased body weight, & serum triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To expand on reports from this laboratory that low dietary boron may affect energy substrate utilization, we determined whether low dietary boron during early development promotes manifestation of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either a boron-low (BL; ~0.1 mg...

  9. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bayrak, Temel

    2008-01-01

    Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam. PMID:27873819

  10. Effects of maternal exposure to aflatoxin B1 during pregnancy on fertility output of dams and developmental, behavioral and reproductive consequences in female offspring using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Akhila, B; Pratap Reddy, K; Girish, B P; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2016-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse "programing" effects on the offspring. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the potent reproductive toxicants and currently detected in both milk and tissues. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal exposure to graded doses of aflatoxin B1 on the pregnancy outcomes of dams and postnatal developments of the female offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intramuscularly with vehicle or aflatoxin B1 (10, 20, 50 or 100 μg/kg body weight/day) on days 12-19 of gestation. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and survival. The female offspring were examined through a battery of tests in order to evaluate their developmental, behavioral and reproductive end points. All animals were born alive. The litter size of the aflatoxin B1 treated rats was comparable to the controls. However, the birth weight of the pups in the experimental group was significantly lower when compared to controls. Significant and persistent lags in cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity and ascending wire mesh, with a delay in elapsed time for vaginal opening were detected in the female progeny exposed to aflatoxin B1 during embryonic development. The locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in experimental females were significantly decreased than that of controls. Embryonic exposure to aflatoxin B1 also resulted in prolonged stress response, irregular estrus and suppressed fertility output in the progeny at their adulthood. These results indicate that in utero exposure to aflatoxin B1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats and caused irregular estrus that was accompanied by suppressed fertility output.

  11. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring.

  12. Deformation Monitoring Studies and GPR Application on Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Geometric changes at the dam surface and in the galleries are defined using geodetic methods. Physical and geometrical changes in embankment inside are defined using non-geodetic methods. This study provides information about the deformation monitoring techniques of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation monitoring of Atatürk Dam, 6th largest dam of world considering the reservoir volume, which was constructed on Euphrates (Fırat) River having importance for providing drinking water, hydroelectric power and irrigation. In the study, brief information is given about this dam and the methods of geodetic and non-geodetic deformation monitoring measurements applied by various disciplines. Bathymetric surveying techniques in the water covered area and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GNSS surveying technique on the other area were used in order to determine the topography of the embankment and reservoir surfaces. Contour maps were drawn to determine the slumping and heaving areas. Also Ground

  13. Seismic performance of arch dams on non-homogeneous and discontinuous foundations (a case study: Karun 4 Dam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdousi, A.

    2017-06-01

    The present study set out to investigate the nonlinear seismic response of the dam-reservoir-rock foundation system, taking into consideration the effects of change in the material properties of discontinuous foundation. To this end, it is important to provide the proper modeling of truncated boundary conditions at the far-end of rock foundation and reservoir fluid domain and to correctly apply the in situ stresses for rock foundation. The nonlinear seismic response of an arch dam mainly depends on the opening and sliding of the dam body's contraction joints and foundation discontinuities, failure of the jointed rock and concrete materials, etc. In this paper, a time domain dynamic analysis of the 3D dam-reservoir-foundation interaction problem was performed by developing a nonlinear Finite Element program. The results of the analysis of Karun-4 Dam revealed the essential role of modeling discontinuities and boundary conditions of rock foundation under seismic excitation.

  14. Administration of Non-Absorbable Antibiotics to Pregnant Mice to Perturb the Maternal Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Alterations in Offspring Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tochitani, Shiro; Ikeno, Takahiro; Ito, Tatsuhito; Sakurai, Asuka; Yamauchi, Tomoki; Matsuzaki, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota plays a major role in host health and disease. In this study, we examined whether perturbation of the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, induced by administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams, influences the behavior of offspring. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fecal bacterial composition showed that the relative abundance of the bacterial order Lactobacillales was lower in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (20.7 ± 3.4%) than in control offspring (42.1 ± 6.2%) at P24, while the relative abundance of the bacterial family Clostridium subcluster XIVa was higher in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (34.2 ± 5.0%) than in control offspring (16.4 ± 3.3%). Offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams exhibited low locomotor activity in both familiar and novel environments, and preferred to explore in the peripheral area of an unfamiliar field at postnatal week 4. At postnatal weeks 7-8, no difference was observed in the level of locomotor activity between control offspring and offspring from antibiotic-treated dams, while the tendency for the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams to be less engaged in exploring the inside area was still observed. The behavioral phenotypes of the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams at postnatal week 4 could be rescued to a considerable extent through fostering of these offspring by normal dams from postnatal day 1. Although the detailed underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated, the present results suggest that administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams to perturb the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy leads to alterations in the behavior of their offspring.

  15. Administration of Non-Absorbable Antibiotics to Pregnant Mice to Perturb the Maternal Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Alterations in Offspring Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tochitani, Shiro; Matsuzaki, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota plays a major role in host health and disease. In this study, we examined whether perturbation of the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, induced by administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams, influences the behavior of offspring. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fecal bacterial composition showed that the relative abundance of the bacterial order Lactobacillales was lower in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (20.7±3.4%) than in control offspring (42.1±6.2%) at P24, while the relative abundance of the bacterial family Clostridium subcluster XIVa was higher in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (34.2±5.0%) than in control offspring (16.4±3.3%). Offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams exhibited low locomotor activity in both familiar and novel environments, and preferred to explore in the peripheral area of an unfamiliar field at postnatal week 4. At postnatal weeks 7–8, no difference was observed in the level of locomotor activity between control offspring and offspring from antibiotic-treated dams, while the tendency for the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams to be less engaged in exploring the inside area was still observed. The behavioral phenotypes of the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams at postnatal week 4 could be rescued to a considerable extent through fostering of these offspring by normal dams from postnatal day 1. Although the detailed underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated, the present results suggest that administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams to perturb the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy leads to alterations in the behavior of their offspring. PMID:26789865

  16. Beaver Dam Effects on Gravel Transport Patterns - a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Swingle, K. W.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Beaver dams are numerous in mountain streams, but little is known about gravel transport in those streams. The dams may be fully functioning and retain all incoming sediment or partially permeable to sediment or be almost completely removed. Beaver dams in their various states of preservation can have a profound influence on stream morphology and bedload transport. During the spring of 2011, the authors made a time series study of bedload transport in a mountain stream dominated by beavers dams. Dams occurred with a frequency of one every 50 feet and showed a range of decay and fluvial influence. Gravel transport was sampled with bedload traps over a 2-month long snowmelt highflow season. The reach-average gradient was 0.03 and stream widths ranged from 3 to 8 m. The stream bed was incised 0.5 to 1.5 m deep into a floodplain and typically trapezoidal in its cross-sectional shape. Much of the floodplain consisted of filled-in beaver dams. Partially breached dams that were permeable to gravel transport acted as an obstacle, forcing the flow around sharp bends. Complex hydraulic conditions developed in the vicinity of the bends with backwater eddies upstream and downstream of the remnant dam. Wake eddies at the downstream side of dam remnants caused gravel deposits. The tortuous channel course around the bends caused strong secondary currents that forced gravel transport into a narrow pathway along one of the banks causing a strong lateral concentration of transport. The pathway had a bed of fine and medium gravel, while the remainder of the bed consisted mostly of coarse gravel and cobbles that became immobile shortly after peak flows. Tracer experiments indicated that most of the mobile gravel traveled along that bankward path, even though flow velocities and depths were considerably smaller than in the stream center. Over the highflow season, flows increased to about 160% of the 1.5 year recurrence interval (Q1.5) within about a week and then remained within the

  17. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal.

  19. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring123

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal. PMID:27180380

  20. A Theoretical Study of Cold Air Damming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin

    1990-12-01

    The dynamics of cold air damming are examined analytically with a two-layer steady state model. The upper layer is a warm and saturated cross-mountain (easterly or southeasterly onshore) flow. The lower layer is a cold mountain-parallel (northerly) jet trapped on the windward (eastern) side of the mountain. The interface between the two layers represents a coastal front-a sloping inversion layer coupling the trapped cold dome with the warm onshore flow above through pressure continuity.An analytical expression is obtained for the inviscid upper-layer flow with hydrostatic and moist adiabatic approximations. Blackadar's PBL parameterization of eddy viscosity is used in the lower-layer equations. Solutions for the mountain-parallel jet and its associated secondary transverse circulation are obtained by expanding asymptotically upon a small parameter proportional to the square root of the inertial aspect ratio-the ratio between the mountain height and the radius of inertial oscillation. The geometric shape of the sloping interface is solved numerically from a differential-integral equation derived from the pressure continuity condition imposed at the interface.The observed flow structures and force balances of cold air damming events are produced qualitatively by the model. In the cold dome the mountain-parallel jet is controlled by the competition between the mountain-parallel pressure gradient and friction: the jet is stronger with smoother surfaces, higher mountains, and faster mountain-normal geostrophic winds. In the mountain-normal direction the vertically averaged force balance in the cold dome is nearly geostrophic and controls the geometric shape of the cold dome. The basic mountain-normal pressure gradient generated in the cold dome by the negative buoyancy distribution tends to flatten the sloping interface and expand the cold dome upstream against the mountain-normal pressure gradient (produced by the upper-layer onshore wind) and Coriolis force (induced

  1. Evaluation of Glycemic and Lipid Profile of Offspring of Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Malpighia emarginata Juice

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:21318139

  2. Dam design can impede adaptive management of environmental flows: a case study from the Opuha Dam, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lessard, JoAnna; Hicks, D Murray; Snelder, Ton H; Arscott, David B; Larned, Scott T; Booker, Doug; Suren, Alastair M

    2013-02-01

    The Opuha Dam was designed for water storage, hydropower, and to augment summer low flows. Following its commissioning in 1999, algal blooms (dominated first by Phormidium and later Didymosphenia geminata) downstream of the dam were attributed to the reduced frequency and magnitude of high-flow events. In this study, we used a 20-year monitoring dataset to quantify changes associated with the dam. We also studied the effectiveness of flushing flows to remove periphyton from the river bed. Following the completion of the dam, daily maximum flows downstream have exceeded 100 m(3) s(-1) only three times; two of these floods exceeded the pre-dam mean annual flood of 203 m(3) s(-1) (compared to 19 times >100 m(3) s(-1) and 6 times >203 m(3) s(-1) in the 8 years of record before the dam). Other changes downstream included increases in water temperature, bed armoring, frequency of algal blooms, and changes to the aquatic invertebrate community. Seven experimental flushing flows resulted in limited periphyton reductions. Flood wave attenuation, bed armoring, and a shortage of surface sand and gravel, likely limited the effectiveness of these moderate floods. Floods similar to pre-dam levels may be effective for control of periphyton downstream; however, flushing flows of that magnitude are not possible with the existing dam infrastructure. These results highlight the need for dams to be planned and built with the capacity to provide the natural range of flows for adaptive management, particularly high flows.

  3. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring. PMID:25808815

  4. Enhanced trimethylation of histone h3 mediates impaired expression of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase expression in offspring from rat dams exposed to hypoxia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Osumek, Jessica E; Revesz, Andrew; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T; Hardy, Daniel B

    2014-01-01

    Given that hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase, involved in gluconeogenesis) has been demonstrated to be altered long term in animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), we hypothesized that hypoxia in utero may regulate G6Pase expression via epigenetic mechanisms. To address this further, a rat model of maternal hypoxia leading to IUGR and impaired liver growth was utilized. In the 12-month-old male offspring of pregnant rat dams exposed to 11.5% atmospheric oxygen from gestational day (gd) 15 to gd 21, nonfasting glucose was lower in association with decreased hepatic G6Pase messenger RNA and protein levels. This was concomitant with enhanced methylation of histone H3 [K9] surrounding the promoter of G6Pase. Moreover, when McA-RH7777 hepatoma cells were exposed to various concentrations of oxygen for 48 hours, we observed an oxygen-dependent decrease in G6Pase expression associated with enhanced histone H3 [K9] methylation. Collectively, these results indicate that hypoxia directly and indirectly impairs G6Pase expression through enhanced methylation of histone H3 [K9].

  5. Multiparity leads to obesity and inflammation in mothers and obesity in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Rebholz, Sandra L; Jones, Thomas; Burke, Katie T; Jaeschke, Anja; Tso, Patrick; D'Alessio, David A; Woollett, Laura A

    2012-02-15

    Multiparity is an independent risk factor for obesity in parous females. In addition to being a health issue for the mother, offspring of multiparous females may also be at risk for obesity later in life. The aim of the current study was to establish a mouse model that mimics the human pathology of multiparity and determine the effects of multiparity-induced obesity (MIO) on offspring in adulthood. C57BL/6 mice were mated and studied when primiparous (1st pregnancy) or multiparous (4th pregnancy). Dams became obese with multiparity, an effect that was independent of the age of the dam. Multiparous dams also had increased markers of inflammation (JNK activation, cytokine expression) in adipose tissue and liver that was greater than inflammation in nulliparous females made obese with a high-fat diet. Placental inflammation was prevalent in multiparous vs. primiparous dams as well. Male offspring of the multiparous dams developed increased adiposity by 24 wk of age relative to the progeny of primiparous dams, although food consumption was similar in both groups. Lipid metabolism was altered in liver and fat in that mRNA levels of regulatory genes (PGC-1α) as well as metabolic genes (CPT I) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased in offspring of multiparous dams. Thus, in mice, as in humans, multiparity increases adiposity and is associated with hepatic and placental inflammation and abnormal glucose tolerance. Importantly, MIO leads to increased body fat and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring, suggesting a role in the propagation of obesity.

  6. Prenatally administered HMB modifies the enamel surface roughness in spiny mice offspring: An atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Świetlicka, Izabela; Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwaśniewska, Anita; Świetlicki, Michał; Skic, Anna; Gołacki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to check the effect of the prenatally administered β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the development of enamel surface of the spiny mice offspring. The spiny mice dams were randomly assigned into three groups: control group (not supplemented with HMB) and two experimental groups in which powdered HMB was given at the daily dosage of 0.2g/kg of body weight (group I) and 0.02g/kg of body weight (group II) during the last period of gestation. Newborn pups were euthanized by CO2 inhalation. The morphology of incisor teeth was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in semi-contact mode in the height, magnitude and phase domains. Height images became a basis for determination of surface roughness parameters. Conducted study indicated that maternal HMB administration markedly influences enamel development. Enamel of offspring's teeth in both experimental groups was characterized by significantly smaller values of indices describing surface roughness and profile. HMB supplementation influenced the calculated parameters regardless of the diet type and offspring sex, however higher dose of HMB caused stronger changes in enamel surface's physical properties and could be observed in higher intensity in the male group. HMB administration caused reduction in the irregularities of enamel surface, thereby possibly reducing the probability of bacteria adhesion and caries development. These observations may serve to improve nutrition and supplementation of animals and could be a lead for further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selenium-methionine and chromium-methionine supplementation of sheep around parturition: impacts on dam and offspring performance.

    PubMed

    Mousaie, Amir; Valizadeh, Reza; Chamsaz, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of maternal energy restriction along with selenium-methionine (Se-Met) and chromium-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation on performance of pregnant sheep and their offspring, the following treatments were allotted randomly to 40 multiparous Baluchi ewes (53.9 ± 1.15 kg of body weight [BW]) from 5 weeks prior to 5 weeks after parturition: (1) Control diet (60% and 100% of NRC energy requirements in pre- and post-partum, respectively); (2) Control diet plus 5 mg Se-Met/kg dry matter (DM); (3) Control diet plus 3 mg Cr-Met/kg DM and (4) Control diet plus 5 mg Se-Met and 3 mg Cr-Met/kg DM (Se-Cr-Met) of concentrate diet. The results indicated that Cr-Met alone or in combination with Se-Met increased average DM intake of ewes. In addition, Group Cr-Met had higher average BW than the Control (p < 0.05). Se-Met and/or Cr-Met supplementation led to decreased average serum cholesterol of the ewes (p < 0.05). Groups Cr-Met and Se-Cr-Met displayed decreased average serum malondialdehyde compared to the Control (p < 0.05). At 24 h post-partum, Group Se-Cr-Met had a greater serum Se content than the Control (p = 0.006). Compared with the Control, the Se concentration in milk was significantly increased from 30 to 138 µg/l and 197 µg/l in Groups Se-Met and Se-Cr-Met, respectively (p < 0.01), which proved that Se-Met supplementation can increase the Se concentration of ewe milk. Furthermore, feeding Cr-Met may attenuate BW loss post-partum and Se-Met and/or Cr-Met supplements may ameliorate oxidative stress condition in ewes around parturition.

  8. Hyperleptinemia During Pregnancy Decreases Adult Weight of Offspring and Is Associated With Increased Offspring Locomotor Activity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Kelly E; Stevens, Damaiyah; Pennington, Kathleen A; Thaisrivongs, Rose; Kaiser, Jennifer; Ellersieck, Mark R; Miller, Dennis K; Schulz, Laura Clamon

    2015-10-01

    Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes mellitus have elevated leptin levels and their children have an increased risk for child and adult obesity. The goals of this study were to determine whether offspring weights are altered by maternal hyperleptinemia, and whether this occurs via behavioral changes that influence energy balance. We used 2 hyperleptinemic mouse models. The first was females heterozygous for a leptin receptor mutation (DB/+), which were severely hyperleptinemic, and that were compared with wild-type females. The second model was wild-type females infused with leptin (LEP), which were moderately hyperleptinemic, and were compared with wild-type females infused with saline (SAL). Total food consumption, food preference, locomotor activity, coordinated motor skills, and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in wild-type offspring from each maternal group at 3 postnatal ages: 4-6, 11-13, and 19-21 weeks. Half the offspring from each group were then placed on a high-fat diet, and behaviors were reassessed. Adult offspring from both groups of hyperleptinemic dams weighed less than their respective controls beginning at 23 weeks of age, independent of diet or sex. Weight differences were not explained by food consumption or preference, because female offspring from hyperleptinemic dams tended to consume more food and had reduced preference for palatable, high-fat and sugar, food compared with controls. Offspring from DB/+ dams were more active than offspring of controls, as were female offspring of LEP dams. Maternal hyperleptinemia during pregnancy did not predispose offspring to obesity, and in fact, reduced weight gain.

  9. High dietary fat intake during lactation promotes development of diet-induced obesity in male offspring of mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Yasuna; Honma, Taro; Kijima, Ryo; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation influences the risk of obesity in offspring, but the details of this phenomenon are unclear. In particular, there is little information on the influence on the offspring of the maternal nutritional status during lactation only. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of high dietary fat intake in dams during lactation on the risk of obesity in offspring, using C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a control diet (CD) during pregnancy. After birth, dams were fed a CD or a high-fat diet (HD) during lactation (3 wk). Fat and energy were significantly increased in milk from dams fed a HD during lactation. Male offspring were weaned at 3 wk old and fed a CD for 4 wk, which resulted in no significant difference in their physique. Four weeks after weaning, the offspring (7 wk old) were fed a CD or HD for 4 wk to induce obesity. High dietary fat intake in dams and offspring promoted lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy in male offspring. The underlying mechanism may involve an increase in expression of Lpl and a decrease in expression of Hsl in white adipose tissue of offspring. In conclusion, our results show that high dietary fat intake during lactation promotes development of diet-induced obesity in male offspring.

  10. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  11. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with diverse and widespread commercial and industrial applications, has been detected in human and wildlife sera. Previous mouse studies linked prenatal PFOA exposure to decreased neonatal body weights (BWs) and survival in a dose-dependent manner. ...

  12. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a ubiquitous and persistent synthetic compound, has been detected in human serum. Previous studies in mice linked prenatal PFOA exposure to increased neonatal mortality and decreased pup weights, in a dose responsive manner. To determine whether dev...

  13. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a ubiquitous and persistent synthetic compound, has been detected in human serum. Previous studies in mice linked prenatal PFOA exposure to increased neonatal mortality and decreased pup weights, in a dose responsive manner. To determine whether dev...

  14. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with diverse and widespread commercial and industrial applications, has been detected in human and wildlife sera. Previous mouse studies linked prenatal PFOA exposure to decreased neonatal body weights (BWs) and survival in a dose-dependent manner. ...

  15. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Manhica, Hélio; Toivanen, Susanna; Hjern, Anders; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as “offspring of immigrants.” We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type. Results Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants. Conclusion The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants. PMID:25706297

  16. The combination of maternal and offspring high-fat diets causes marked oxidative stress and development of metabolic syndrome in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Ito, Junya; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kato, Shunji; Miyazawa, Taiki; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-04-15

    Maternal overnutrition (e.g., high-fat (HF) diet) during pregnancy and lactation is believed to cause oxidative stress and increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in offspring. In the present study, we investigated the effects of both maternal and offspring HF diets on metabolic syndrome risk and oxidative stress profiles in mice. Dams of the C57BL/6J mouse strain were fed a HF or control (CO) diet during gestation and lactation. Offspring were weaned at 3weeks of age. The female offspring were sacrificed at weaning, while the males were maintained on the HF or CO diet until 11weeks of age. Tissue samples, including those from liver, were collected from offspring at 3 and 11weeks of age, and lipids, phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH, an oxidative stress marker), and gene expression were evaluated. Accumulation of lipids, but not PCOOH, was found in the livers of 3-week-old offspring from dams fed the HF diet. When the offspring were maintained on a HF diet until 11weeks of age, marked accumulation of both liver lipids and PCOOH was observed. PCOOH manifestation was supported by the expression of genes such as Gpx4, encoding a PCOOH degrading enzyme. These results suggest that the combination of maternal and offspring overnutrition causes marked oxidative stress in offspring, which accelerates metabolic syndrome. The present findings in offspring from infancy to adulthood may be useful for better understanding the cause-and-effect relationships between oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome development.

  17. Dam's infection progress and within-herd prevalence as predictors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA response in Danish Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise; Kostoulas, Polychronis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the primary routes of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is pivotal to manage the pathogen in cattle herds. MAP is transmitted both vertically and horizontally, and both the dam's stage of infection and the prevalence in the population are therefore potentially important for MAP transmission control. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the dam's infection progress and the within-herd test-prevalence as predictors of MAP infection in Danish dairy cattle. MAP specific antibody ELISA records from 95,025 dam-offspring pairs were combined with test-prevalence estimates from 939 Danish Holstein herds. The odds of testing ELISA-positive given the within-herd test-prevalence and the time-period a dam had had MAP specific antibodies were estimated for the offspring. Both dams and offspring were tested as adults, and parity-group was used to correct for the effect of age. The results showed that both the within-herd test-prevalence and the dam's infection progress were significant predictors, while the dams that had tested positive when giving birth and up to 0.7 years after were more likely to have offspring that would test positive. The odds of testing positive were about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for these offspring, compared to offspring of dams that never tested positive. Furthermore, offspring born in high (>5% ELISA-positive) and medium (2.5 to 5% ELISA-positive) prevalence herds had 9 and 3, respectively, times higher odds of testing positive, compared to animals born in a low prevalence herd. The variance heterogeneity reduced 81% through the included predictors. The results of this study suggest that irrespective of the prevalence, offspring of dams with MAP specific antibodies should be considered as high-risk animals when managing the infection in cattle herds, but both the prevalence and the dam's infection status are important in MAP control.

  18. A Parent-Offspring Adoption Study of Cognitive Abilities in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; DeFries, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The present study is a behavioral genetic analysis of specific cognitive abilities in early childhood. Parent-offspring data for adopted children and nonadopted children in the Colorado Adoption Project were used. Significant correlations were found between biological mothers' IQ and the IQ of offspring, but not for specific cognitive abilities.…

  19. Maternal diabetes programs hypertension and kidney injury in offspring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Wen; Chenier, Isabelle; Tran, Stella; Scotcher, Michael; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2010-07-01

    We investigated whether maternal diabetes programs the offspring to develop hypertension and kidney injury in adulthood and examined potential underlying mechanisms. In a murine model we studied the offspring of three groups of dams (non-diabetic, diabetic, and diabetic treated with insulin). Mean systolic blood pressure in the offspring was monitored from 8 to 20 weeks. Body and kidney weights in the offspring of diabetic mothers were significantly lower than in offspring of non-diabetic mothers. Offspring of diabetic mothers developed hypertension, microalbuminuria, and glucose intolerance. Increased accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the glomeruli and marked upregulation of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression were evident in the renal cortex of hypertensive offspring of diabetic mothers. By contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) gene expression was lower in the hypertensive offspring of diabetic mothers than in that of non-diabetic mothers. These changes were prevented in the offspring of insulin-treated diabetic mothers. These data indicate that maternal diabetes induces perinatal programming of hypertension, renal injury, and glucose intolerance in the offspring and suggest a central role for the activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and TGF-beta1 gene expression in this process.

  20. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  1. Prenatal maternal depression is associated with offspring inflammation at 25 years: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Plant, D T; Pawlby, S; Sharp, D; Zunszain, P A; Pariante, C M

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother–offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986. Maternal prenatal depression was assessed in pregnancy at 20 and 36 weeks; offspring child maltreatment (birth 17 years) was assessed at offspring ages 11, 16 and 25; and offspring adulthood depression (18–25 years) was assessed at age 25. Exposure to maternal prenatal depression predicted significantly elevated offspring hs-CRP at age 25 (odds ratio=11.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 127.0), P=0.041), independently of child maltreatment and adulthood depression, known risk factors for adulthood inflammation. In contrast, maternal prenatal depression did not predict changes in offspring adulthood cortisol; however, offspring exposure to child maltreatment did, and was associated with elevated awakening cortisol levels (B=161.9, 95% CI (45.4, 278.4), P=0.007). Fetal exposure to maternal depression during pregnancy has effects on immune function that persist for up to a quarter of a century after birth. Findings are consistent with the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis for the biological embedding of gestational psychosocial adversity into vulnerability for future physical and mental illness. PMID:27801895

  2. Risk/protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Weissman, M M; McAvay, G; Goldstein, R B; Nunes, E V; Verdeli, H; Wickramaratne, P J

    1999-11-01

    There are few systematic studies of the school-aged offspring of drug-dependent patients, although this information is useful for planning evidence-based prevention programs. We have completed such a study, which we compare to a similar study independently conducted in 1998. In both studies, both the parent and offspring were assessed blindly and independently by direct diagnostic interviews, and parental assessment of offspring was also obtained. The similarity in design and methods between studies provided an opportunity for replication by reanalysis of data. The major findings are a replication in two independently conducted studies of school-aged offspring of opiate- and/or cocaine-addicted mothers of the high rates of any psychiatric disorder (60% in both studies), major depression (20%, 26%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (18%, 23%), conduct disorder (17%, 9%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (13%, 8%), and substance abuse (5%, 10%) among offspring. Both studies also found high rates of comorbid alcohol abuse, depression, and multiple drugs of abuse in the mothers. We conclude that efforts to replicate findings by analyses of independently conducted studies are an inexpensive way to test the sturdiness of findings that can provide the empirical basis for preventive efforts. Clinically, the data in both studies suggest that both drug dependence and associated psychopathology should be assessed and treated in opiate addicts with young offspring, and the offspring should be monitored for the development of conduct and mood disorders and substance use.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of porous check dam location on fine sediment retention (a case study).

    PubMed

    Hassanli, A M; Nameghi, A Esmaeli; Beecham, S

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of porous check dam location on the retention of fine sediments in the Droodzan watershed in Southern Iran. Five long streams with several porous check dams that were more than 27 years old were studied. In each stream three check dams: at the very upstream section, at the middle section and at the far downstream section were selected for analysis. A number of samples from trapped sediments and from the undisturbed soils in the stream banks (adjacent to the check dams) were collected. Laboratory analysis showed that the soil samples taken from undisturbed banks have smaller particle sizes compared to the trapped sediments. The results indicated that the check dams located at the far downstream sections were more efficient at trapping fine sediment than those located at the middle sections. Also the check dams located at the middle sections were more effective than those located at the upstream sections. Comparison of sediment texture also showed that the portion of clay and silt trapped by the check dams decreased from the downstream sections toward the upstream sections. Hence, whenever, the retention of fine sediments is the primary function of the check dams, it appears that they should be located in the far downstream sections of a stream. The experimental analysis indicated that using broken and angular rocks instead of rounded rocks in porous check dam's construction improves the effectiveness of the check dams for the retention of fine sediments. The analysis of the failed check dams also showed that erosion of the bank sides underneath the check dams is the primary cause of dam collapse.

  4. Dietary sodium manipulation during critical periods in development sensitize adult offspring to amphetamines.

    PubMed

    McBride, Shawna M; Culver, Bruce; Flynn, Francis W

    2008-09-01

    This study examined critical periods in development to determine when offspring were most susceptible to dietary sodium manipulation leading to amphetamine sensitization. Wistar dams (n = 6-8/group) were fed chow containing low (0.12% NaCl; LN), normal (1% NaCl; NN), or high sodium (4% NaCl; HN) during the prenatal or early postnatal period (birth to 5 wk). Offspring were fed normal chow thereafter until testing at 6 mo. Body weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), fluid intake, salt preference, response to amphetamine, open field behavior, plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), plasma corticosterone (Cort), and adrenal gland weight were measured. BW was similar for all offspring. Offspring from the prenatal and postnatal HN group had increased BP, NaCl intake, and salt preference and decreased water intake relative to NN offspring. Prenatal HN offspring had greater BP than postnatal HN offspring. In response to amphetamine, both prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring had increased locomotor behavior compared with NN offspring. In a novel open field environment, locomotion was also increased in prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. ACTH and Cort levels 30 min after restraint stress and adrenal gland weight measurement were greater in LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. These results indicate that early life experience with low- and high-sodium diets, during the prenatal or early postnatal period, is a stress that produces long-term changes in responsiveness to amphetamines and to subsequent stressors.

  5. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the

  6. Differential Regulation of Hepatic Transcription Factors in the Wistar Rat Offspring Born to Dams Fed Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 Deficient Diets and Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at −80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors

  7. Proceedings of Dam Safety Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, D.T.; Sloan, R.C.; Tockstein, C.D.; Price, J.T.; Stone, S.D.; Newton, D.; Spearman, E.L.; Hodge, R.D.; Jenkins, C.; Chapman, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The papers included are titled: Assessment of Instrumentation Data, Design of Concrete Dams, Instrumentation of Dams, TVA's Dam Safety Program, Design of Earth Dams, Hydrologic Design of Dams, Emergency Action Plans, TVA Dam Safety Studies and Project Rehabilitation, Collection of Instrumentation Data, Structural Inspection at Non-Power Dams, Construction of Dams, and Site Selection and Geology.

  8. Little appetite for obesity: meta-analysis of the effects of maternal obesogenic diets on offspring food intake and body mass in rodents.

    PubMed

    Lagisz, M; Blair, H; Kenyon, P; Uller, T; Raubenheimer, D; Nakagawa, S

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that maternal effects contribute to variation in individual food intake and metabolism. For example, many experimental studies on model animals have reported the effect of a maternal obesogenic diet during pregnancy on the appetite of offspring. However, the consistency of effects and the causes of variation among studies remain poorly understood. After a systematic search for relevant publications, we selected 53 studies on rats and mice for a meta-analysis. We extracted and analysed data on the differences in food intake and body weight between offspring of dams fed obesogenic diets and dams fed standard diets during gestation. We used meta-regression to study predictors of the strength and direction of the effect sizes. We found that experimental offspring tended to eat more than control offspring but this difference was small and not statistically significant (0.198, 95% highest posterior density (HPD)=-0.118-0.627). However, offspring from dams on obesogenic diets were significantly heavier than offspring of control dams (0.591, 95% HPD=0.052-1.056). Meta-regression analysis revealed no significant influences of tested predictor variables (for example, use of choice vs no-choice maternal diet, offspring sex) on differences in offspring appetite. Dietary manipulations that extended into lactation had the largest effect on body weight. Subgroup analysis revealed that high protein to non-protein ratio of the maternal diet may promote increased body weight in experimental offspring in comparison with control offspring; low protein content in the maternal chow can have opposite effect. Exposure to maternal obesogenic diets in early life is not likely to result in a substantial change in offspring appetite. Nevertheless, we found an effect on offspring body weight, consistent with permanent alterations of offspring metabolism in response to maternal diet. Additionally, it appears that protein content of the obesogenic diet and timing

  9. Immune activation in lactating dams alters sucklings' brain cytokines and produces non-overlapping behavioral deficits in adult female and male offspring: A novel neurodevelopmental model of sex-specific psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Arad, Michal; Piontkewitz, Yael; Albelda, Noa; Shaashua, Lee; Weiner, Ina

    2017-02-08

    Early immune activation (IA) in rodents, prenatal through the mother or early postnatal directly to the neonate, is widely used to produce behavioral endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia and depression. Given that maternal immune response plays a crucial role in the deleterious effects of prenatal IA, and lactation is a critical vehicle of immunological support to the neonate, we predicted that immune activation of the lactating dam will produce long-term abnormalities in the sucklings. Nursing dams were injected on postnatal day 4 with the viral mimic poly-I:C (4mg/kg) or saline. Cytokine assessment was performed in dams' plasma and milk 2h, and in the sucklings' hippocampus, 6h and 24h following poly-I:C injection. Male and female sucklings were assessed in adulthood for: a) performance on behavioral tasks measuring constructs considered relevant to schizophrenia (selective attention and executive control) and depression (despair and anhedonia); b) response to relevant pharmacological treatments; c) brain structural changes. Maternal poly-I:C injection caused cytokine alterations in the dams' plasma and milk, as well as in the sucklings' hippocampus. Lactational poly-I:C exposure led to sex-dimorphic (non-overlapping) behavioral abnormalities in the adult offspring, with male but not female offspring exhibiting attentional and executive function abnormalities (manifested in persistent latent inhibition and slow reversal) and hypodopaminergia, and female but not male offspring exhibiting despair and anhedonia (manifested in increased immobility in the forced swim test and reduced saccharine preference) and hyperdopaminergia, mimicking the known sex-bias in schizophrenia and depression. The behavioral double-dissociation predicted distinct pharmacological profiles, recapitulating the pharmacology of negative/cognitive symptoms and depression. In-vivo imaging revealed hippocampal and striatal volume reductions in both sexes, as found in both disorders. This is

  10. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations.

  11. Parental Age and Lifespan Influence Offspring Recruitment: A Long-Term Study in a Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  12. Baseline studies in the Elwha River ecosystem prior to dam removal: Introduction to the special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freilich, Jerry; Schreiner, Edward G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams that have been in place for over 95 years on the Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study dam removal effects. Among the largest dams ever considered for removal, this project is compelling because 83% of the watershed lies undisturbed in Olympic National Park. Eighteen million cubic meters of sediment have accumulated in and will be released from the reservoirs, and there is potential for rehabilitating depressed Pacific salmon runs. Researchers from academia, non-profit organizations, federal and state governments, and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe are currently assessing baseline ecological conditions of the Elwha River as part of dam removal studies. We introduce dam removal topics, provide a brief history of the dams, and summarize the ecology of the Elwha River basin as an introduction to a special issue devoted to research in the watershed.

  13. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: A national cohort study across 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother’s age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960–1989 (N=3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N=485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide, teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers. PMID:23632141

  14. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: a national cohort study across 30 years.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-06-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother's age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960 to 1989 (N = 3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N = 485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors, but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and also target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers.

  15. Gestational exercise protects adult male offspring from high-fat diet induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ryan D.; Blaize, A. Nicole; Fletcher, Justin A.; Pearson, Kevin J.; Donkin, Shawn; Newcomer, Sean C.; Rector, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Mounting evidence indicates that maternal exercise confers protection to adult offspring against various diseases. Here we hypothesized that maternal exercise during gestation would reduce high fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in adult rat offspring. Methods Following conception, pregnant dams were divided into either voluntary wheel running exercise (GE) or wheel-locked sedentary (GS) groups throughout gestation (days 4-21). Post-weaning, offspring received either normal chow diet (ND; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat, 35% carbohydrate, and 20% protein) until sacrifice at 4-or 8-months of age. Results GE did not affect offspring birth weight or litter size. HFD feeding in offspring increased weight gain, % body fat, and glucose tolerance test area under the curve (GTT-AUC). Male offspring from GE dams had reduced % body fat across all ages (p < 0.05). In addition, 8-mo male offspring from GE dams were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, which was associated with increased markers of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and TFAM), autophagic potential (ATG12:ATG5 conjugation) and hepatic triacylglycerol secretion (MTTP). Conclusions The current study provides the first evidence that gestational exercise can reduce susceptibility to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis in adult male offspring. PMID:26325536

  16. Experimental Study on Impact Load on a Dam Due to Debris Flow

    Treesearch

    lwao Miyoshi

    1991-01-01

    When a dam is struck by mud or debris flow, it is put under a great impact load and sometimes is destroyed. To prevent such destruction, it is important to perform basic research about the impact load on a dam due to debris flow. Thus, we have made an experimental study and tried to establish a method to estimate such a impact load on the dam. The experiment was...

  17. Effect of maternal diabetes on longevity in offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Iwase, M; Wada, M; Shinohara, N; Yoshizumi, H; Yoshinari, M; Fujishima, M

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of maternal diabetes induced by neonatal streptozotocin treatment on the longevity of the male offspring in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Maternal diabetes significantly decreased the survival in the offspring as compared with the control (p < 0.01). Mean age at death was 14.9 +/- 0.6 months in the offspring from the diabetic dams and 17.9 +/- 1.1 months in that from the control. The life span was significantly correlated with the birth weight (rs = 0.55, p = 0.009). These findings suggest that a diabetic pregnancy may accelerate an age-related degenerative process of the offspring in SHR.

  18. Interaction of Dams and Landslides--Case Studies and Mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering were in their infancy, and dams were often built where landslides provided valley constrictions, often without expert site investigation. Only the most important projects were subjected to careful geologic examination. Thus, dams were often built without complete understanding of the possible geotechnical problems occurring in foundations or abutments. Most of these dams still exist, although many have undergone costly repairs because of stability or leakage problems. Today, however, every effort is made in the selection of damsites, including those sited on landslides, to provide foundations and abutments that are generally impervious and capable of withstanding the stresses imposed by the proposed dam and reservoir, and possible landslides. By means of a literature search, technical interviews, and field inventory, I have located 254 large (at least 10 m high) dams worldwide that directly interact with landslides; that is, they have been built on pre-existing landslides or have been subjected to landslide activity during or after construction. A table (Appendix table A) summarizes dam characteristics, landslide conditions, and remedial measures at each of the dams. Of the 254 dams, 164 are earthfill, 23 are rockfill, and 18 are earthfill-rockfill; these are flexible dam types that generally perform better on the possibly unstable foundations provided by landslides than do more rigid concrete dams. Any pre-existing landslides that might impinge on the foundation or abutments of a dam should be carefully investigated. If a landslide is recognized in a dam foundation or abutment, the landslide deposits commonly are avoided in siting the dam or are removed during stripping of the dam foundation and abutment contacts. Contrarily, it has often been found to be technically feasible and economically desirable to site and construct dams on known landslides or on the remnants of these

  19. The study of women, infant feeding and type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy and growth of their offspring (SWIFT Offspring study): prospective design, methodology and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Erica P; Hurston, Shanta R; Dewey, Kathryn G; Faith, Myles S; Charvat-Aguilar, Nancy; Khoury, Vicky C; Nguyen, Van T; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2015-07-17

    Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese later in life. Breastfed babies grow more slowly during infancy than formula-fed babies. Among offspring exposed in utero to maternal glucose intolerance, prospective data on growth during infancy have been unavailable. Thus, scientific evidence is insufficient to conclude that breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity among the offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM). To address this gap, we devised the Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM Pregnancy and Growth of their Offspring, also known as the SWIFT Offspring Study. This prospective, longitudinal study recruited mother-infant pairs from the SWIFT Study, a prospective study of women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The goal of the SWIFT Offspring Study is to determine whether breastfeeding intensity and duration, compared with formula feeding, are related to slower growth of GDM offspring during the first year life. This article details the study design, participant eligibility, data collection, and methodologies. We also describe the baseline characteristics of the GDM mother-infant pairs. The study enrolled 466 mother-infant pairs among GDM deliveries in northern California from 2009-2011. Participants attended three in-person study exams at 6-9 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after delivery for infant anthropometry (head circumference, body weight, length, abdominal circumference and skinfold thicknesses), as well as maternal anthropometry (body weight, waist circumference and percent body fat). Mothers also completed questionnaires on health and lifestyle behaviors, including infant diet, sleep and temperament. Breastfeeding intensity and duration were assessed via several sources (diaries, telephone interviews, monthly mailings and in-person exams) from birth through the first year of life. Pregnancy course, clinical perinatal and newborn outcomes were obtained from health plan electronic

  20. Are substance use, abuse and dependence associated with study participation? Predictors of offspring nonparticipation in a twin-family study.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Waterman, Brian M; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; True, William R; Jacob, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have reported that problem drinking is associated with nonresponse to surveys, it is unclear whether parents' alcoholism is associated with nonresponse in their offspring. This question is particularly important to family studies of alcoholism. In the current study we constructed a model of offspring nonparticipation in a twin-family design and computed weights to recapture the distribution of offspring alcohol abuse and dependence. In 1999, the first wave of a longitudinal study of offspring of alcoholic twins was conducted via telephone interview with members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. The target offspring sample consisted of 2,096 male and female children, of whom 1,270 were successfully interviewed. Offspring response status was classified as participation, refusal or unavailable/no consent. Stepwise logistic regression models were used to identify variables that were significantly associated with one or both types of offspring nonparticipation. A multinomial logit procedure with backward deletion was then used to build a model of the three levels of child response. Paternal alcoholism was not significantly associated with offspring nonresponse, although offspring nonparticipation because of not being located, or being deceased, disabled or unavailable was associated with current paternal smoking, paternal divorce and paternal marital status (after adjustment for other predictor variables). The most important conclusion to be drawn from current results is that the alcohol abuse and dependence history of fathers should not bias analyses in family studies of alcoholism when data are collected via telephone interview. Study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP)—A map-based resource linking scientific studies and associated geospatial information about dam removals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Bristol, R. Sky; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Vittum, Katherine M.; Craig, Laura; Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2016-08-18

    The removal of dams has recently increased over historical levels due to aging infrastructure, changing societal needs, and modern safety standards rendering some dams obsolete. Where possibilities for river restoration, or improved safety, exceed the benefits of retaining a dam, removal is more often being considered as a viable option. Yet, as this is a relatively new development in the history of river management, science is just beginning to guide our understanding of the physical and ecological implications of dam removal. Ultimately, the “lessons learned” from previous scientific studies on the outcomes dam removal could inform future scientific understanding of ecosystem outcomes, as well as aid in decision-making by stakeholders. We created a database visualization tool, the Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP), to display map-based, interactive information about the scientific studies associated with dam removals. Serving both as a bibliographic source as well as a link to other existing databases like the National Hydrography Dataset, the derived National Dam Removal Science Database serves as the foundation for a Web-based application that synthesizes the existing scientific studies associated with dam removals. Thus, using the DRIP application, users can explore information about completed dam removal projects (for example, their location, height, and date removed), as well as discover sources and details of associated of scientific studies. As such, DRIP is intended to be a dynamic collection of scientific information related to dams that have been removed in the United States and elsewhere. This report describes the architecture and concepts of this “metaknowledge” database and the DRIP visualization tool.

  2. Parents' perceptions on offspring risk and prevention of anxiety and depression: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Festen, Helma; Schipper, Karen; de Vries, Sybolt O; Reichart, Catrien G; Abma, Tineke A; Nauta, Maaike H

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of patients with anxiety or depression are at high risk for developing anxiety or depression. Despite the positive findings regarding effectiveness of prevention programs, recruitment for prevention activities and trials is notoriously difficult. Our randomized controlled prevention trial was terminated due to lack of patient inclusion. Research on mentally-ill parents' perceptions of offspring's risk and need for preventive intervention may shed light on this issue, and may enhance family participation in prevention activities and trials. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 parents (patients with anxiety or depression, or their partners). An inductive content analysis of the data was performed. Five research questions were investigated regarding parents' perceptions of anxiety, depression, and offspring risk; anxiety, depression, and parenting; the need for offspring intervention and prevention; and barriers to and experiences with participation in preventive research. Parental perceptions of the impact of parental anxiety and depression on offspring greatly differed. Parents articulated concerns about children's symptomatology, however, most parents did not perceive a direct link between parent symptoms and offspring quality of life. They experienced an influence of parental symptoms on family quality of life, but chose not to discuss that with their children in order to protect them. Parents were not well aware of the possibilities regarding professional help for offspring and preferred parent-focused rather than offspring-focused interventions such as parent psycho-education. Important barriers to participation in preventive research included parental overburden, shame and stigma, and perceived lack of necessity for intervention. This study highlights the importance of educating parents in adult health care. Providing psycho-education regarding offspring risk, communication in the family, and parenting in order

  3. Maternal cinnamon extract intake during lactation leads to sex-specific endocrine modifications in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Toste, Fernanda P; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2017-08-01

    Cinnamon supplementation has been associated with an improvement in glucose disposal and a reduction in fat mass in type 2 diabetes. Maternal nutrition during lactation impacts the health of the offspring throughout life. We hypothesize that cinnamon intake by lactating rats affects maternal physiology, leading to hormonal and metabolic changes in their offspring. To investigate this hypothesis, dams received aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg cinnamon kg(-1)  body mass day(-1) ) or water orally, during lactation. Maternal cinnamon intake did not affect the body mass gain or food intake of dams or their offspring, although it decreased visceral white adipose tissue mass in dams and in their adult offspring of both sexes. Cinnamon-treated dams exhibited no differences in serum insulin, adiponectin, leptin or estradiol levels, although they presented higher serum progesterone. At weaning, cinnamon male pups exhibited lower insulinemia, whereas cinnamon female pups exhibited lower glycemia. Interestingly, in adulthood, only the female offspring exhibited an altered hormonal profile, with reduced serum leptin, adiponectin and insulin levels accompanied by lower glycemia. The present study demonstrates that maternal cinnamon intake during lactation promotes mild changes in dams and can trigger sex-specific metabolic programming in pups that lasts into adulthood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction: A Case Study of Embankment Dam Safety Assessment in Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdos, F.; Dargahi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seepage, when excessive and unimpeded, can cause embankment dam failure. Such failures are often initiated by internal erosion and piping. Modelling these phenomena in embankment dams, accounting for the groundwater-surface water interactions, is crucial when performing dam safety assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of modelling seepage flows in multi-region dams using a finite element based multi-physics model. The model was applied to the Trängslet dam, the largest dam in Sweden. The objectives were to analyze the characteristics of both the flow and the surface-ground water interactions occurring in the dam, including: i) the saturated and unsaturated laminar flow regimes within the dam body, ii) the non-linear through-flow in the dam shoulders' coarse material, iii) the influence of the surface waves in the reservoir on the seepage flow by coupling the physics to a hydrodynamic interface, and iv) the influence of a conceptual "erosion tunnel" on the seepage flow and its interaction with the surface water flow by coupling the physics to a CFD interface. The focus of the study was on the influence of the transient water head boundary condition, surface waves and the internal erosion tunnel on the location of the phreatic line and the seepage flow rate. The simulated seepage flow of the dam in its original condition tallied with the monitoring measurements (40-70 l/s). The main feature found was the relatively high position of the phreatic line, which could compromise the stability of the dam. The combination of the seepage model with the reservoir hydrodynamics indicated a negligible influence of the surface waves on seepage flow. Results from the combination of the seepage model with fluid dynamics indicated that a conceptual "erosion tunnel" placed within the dam, even as high as in the unsaturated zone, significantly affects the phreatic line's position. This also causes the seepage flow to increase by several orders of

  5. Cocos nucifera water improves metabolic functions in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kunle-Alabi, Olufadekemi T; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Raji, Yinusa

    2017-10-09

    Maternal high fat diet has been implicated in the aetiology of metabolic diseases in their offspring. The hypolipidaemic actions of Cocos nucifera water improve metabolic indices of dams consuming a high fat diet during gestation. This study investigated the effects of C. nucifera water on metabolism of offspring of dams exposed to high fat diet during gestation. Four groups of pregnant Wistar rat dams (n=6) were treated orally from Gestation Day (GD) 1 to GD 21 as follows: standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (Control), standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water, high fat feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (high fat diet), and high fat feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water (high fat diet+C. nucifera water). The feeds were given ad libitum and all dams received standard rodent feed after parturition. Fasting blood glucose was measured in offspring before being euthanized on Postnatal Day (PND) 120. Serum insulin, leptin, lipid profile and liver enzymes were measured. Serum total cholesterol (TC), insulin, alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) in high fat diet offspring compared with controls. Similar changes were not observed in high fat diet+C. nucifera water offspring. Results suggest that the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring's metabolism can be ameliorated by C. nucifera water.

  6. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Mayodan Dam, Mayodan, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, Jr., T. G.

    1982-09-09

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Mayodan Dam near Mayodan, North Carolina for power generation was examined. This dam, which has a developable head of 20 ft., was built in 1920 for impounding a small run-of-the-river water reservoir. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site appears to be economically feasible. (LCL)

  7. Parental psychopathology and disorders in offspring. A study of relatives of drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Luthar, S S; Merikangas, K R; Rounsaville, B J

    1993-06-01

    Associations between psychopathology among parents and among their offspring were examined among families of drug abusers. Patterns of transmission of disorders were examined in the context of several potential moderator variables, including gender of parent, ethnicity, and type of drug abused by the proband relative. The sample consisted of 492 parents and 673 siblings of cocaine abusers, and 400 parents and 476 siblings of opioid addicts. Results indicated that a) maternal depression was associated with several psychiatric disorders among all groups of offspring; b) paternal alcoholism yielded less powerful effects, showing associations with offspring substance abuse among blacks but not Caucasians; c) incidence of disorders among offspring showed sequential increases depending on whether neither, one, or both parents were affected; and d) there was little evidence for specificity of aggregation of disorders among these families. Results are discussed in terms of implications for empirical studies as well as intervention programming.

  8. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

  9. Carbon sequestration function of check-dams: a case study of the Loess plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie

    2014-11-01

    Check-dams are the most common structures for controlling soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, the effect of check-dams on carbon sequestration, along with sediment transport and deposition, has not been assessed over large areas. In this study, we evaluated the carbon sequestration function of check-dams in the Loess Plateau. The results indicate that there were approximately 11 000 check-dams distributed in the Loess Plateau, with an estimate of the amount of sediment of 21 × 10⁹ m³ and a soil organic carbon storage amount of 0.945 Pg. Our study reveals that check-dams in the Loess Plateau not only conserve soil and water but also sequester carbon.

  10. Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shaffer, Michele L; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal is believed to be a predisposing factor for insomnia; however, there is limited information on the association of familial vulnerability to insomnia and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of stress-related insomnia and examine whether parental vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is associated with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in their offspring. We studied a volunteer sample of 135 nuclear families comprised of 270 middle-aged (51.5 ± 5.4 years) fathers and mothers and one of their biological offspring (n = 135, 20.2 ± 1.1 years). We measured vulnerability to stress-related insomnia (i.e. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test: FIRST), perceived stress, depression and anxiety in all participants, and arousability, presleep cognitive and somatic arousal, coping and personality in the offspring. We found a heritability estimate of 29% for FIRST scores. High FIRST parents had three to seven times the odds of having offspring highly vulnerable to stress-related insomnia. Offspring of high FIRST parents showed higher arousability, presleep cognitive arousal and emotion-oriented coping. Furthermore, high FIRST mothers contributed to offspring's higher anxiety and lower task-oriented coping, while high FIRST fathers contributed to offspring's higher presleep somatic arousal and conscientiousness. Vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is significantly heritable. Parents vulnerable to stress-related insomnia have offspring with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal who rely upon emotion-oriented coping. These data give support to the notion that arousability and maladaptive coping are key factors in the aetiology of insomnia.

  11. Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

  12. The early manifestations of bipolar disorder: a longitudinal prospective study of the offspring of bipolar parents.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Anne; Alda, Martin; Crawford, Leah; Milin, Robert; Grof, Paul

    2007-12-01

    A major aim of this longitudinal high-risk study is to identify reliable early indicators of emerging bipolar disorder (BD) among offspring from well-characterized parents. High-risk offspring were recruited from families in which one parent had BD diagnosed on the basis of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Lifetime version (SADS-L) interviews and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and the other parent was well. Bipolar parents were further subdivided on the basis of response or non-response to long-term lithium. A comparison group of offspring was recruited from well parents diagnosed on the basis of either SADS-L interviews or the family history method. All consenting offspring from high-risk and control families were assessed longitudinally with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-aged Children - Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL) interviews and DSM-IV diagnoses were made on a blind consensus review. The offspring were reassessed on average annually, as well as at any time symptoms developed. Antecedent conditions to BD in both high-risk groups included sleep and anxiety disorders, while attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and pre-psychotic conditions were antecedents among the offspring of lithium non-responders only. Among those offspring developing BD, the index mood episode was almost always depressive. Despite a specific genetic risk, BD began with non-specific psychopathology and/or depressive disorders in a majority of offspring. Therefore, diagnosis based only on cross-sectional assessment of symptoms appears to be insufficient for the accurate early detection of emerging BD. Other parameters such as family history and associated antecedents should be taken into account.

  13. Mortality among offspring of women diagnosed with cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Verkooijen, Helena M; Ang, Joella X; Liu, Jenny; Czene, Kamila; Salim, Agus; Hartman, Mikael

    2013-05-15

    One in five cancers in women is diagnosed prior to and during a woman's fertile years. Our study evaluates mortality risks in offspring of mothers with history of cancer. From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and the Cancer Register, we identified all 174,893 children whose mother had been diagnosed with cancer between 1958 and 2001. We categorized offspring into those born before (>1 year before), around (within 1 year before and after diagnosis) and after (>1 year after) their mother's cancer diagnosis and compared their risks of death (standardized mortality ratios, SMRs) and causes of death to the background population. Overall, offspring of mothers diagnosed with cancer had no increased mortality risk (SMR, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.03). Increased mortality risks were found in offspring of mothers with tobacco-related cancers (head and neck, thoracic and cervical) (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.33), in children born around their mother's diagnosis (SMR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.25-2.13) and in children born after their mother's hematopoietic cancer diagnosis (SMR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.10-3.35). Compared to the background population, children born around their mother's diagnosis were more likely to die of congenital and perinatal conditions. Overall, offspring of women diagnosed with cancer were not at increased risk of death, except for certain subgroups. Timing of pregnancy in relation to diagnosis and cancer site modifies mortality risks in the offspring.

  14. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G; Juel, Knud; Silverton, Leigh; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2009-09-01

    A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. The study population consisted of 7,177 adult offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4.40 with 95% CI 1.81-10.69). A stronger effect of parental suicide was observed in offspring without a history of psychiatric hospitalisation. Parental history of suicide is a risk factor for suicide in offspring, but primarily in offspring without psychiatric hospitalisation.

  15. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint).

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M V Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications.

  16. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M. V. Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications. PMID:21647314

  17. Intergenerational Transmission of Overweight and Obesity from Parents to Their Adolescent Offspring - The HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Næss, Marit; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Langaas, Mette; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Kvaløy, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine weight associations between parents and offspring at two time points: 1995-97 and 2006-08, taking into account body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. The study included 8425 parent-offspring trios who participated in the population based Health Study of Nord Trøndelag (the HUNT Study), Norway, at either the HUNT2 (1995-97) or the HUNT3 (2006-08) survey. We used linear mixed effects models with siblings clustered within mothers to analyze the associations between 1) parental grouped BMI and offspring BMI z-scores and 2) parental grouped waist circumference and offspring waist circumference z-scores. Adolescent and adult overweight and obesity were higher in 2006-08 than in 1995-97, with the greatest increase observed in waist circumference. Both mother's and father's BMI and waist circumference were strongly associated with corresponding measures in offspring. Compared with both parents being normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2), having two overweight or obese parents (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was associated with a higher offspring BMI z-score of 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.64 (95% CI; 0.48, 0.80) in daughters, and 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.69 (95% CI; 0.53, 0.80) in sons, in 1995-97 and 2006-08 respectively. Offspring with one parent being overweight/obese had BMI z-scores of approximately half of offspring with two parents categorized as overweight/obese. The results of the waist circumference based analyses did not differ substantially from the BMI based analyses. Parental overweight was strongly positively associated with offspring weight both in 1995-97 and 2006-08 where both parents being overweight/obese gave the largest effect. This seemingly stable association, strongly address the importance of public health initiatives towards preventing obesity in parents of both sexes to decrease further obesity expansion in offspring.

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Overweight and Obesity from Parents to Their Adolescent Offspring – The HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Langaas, Mette; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Kvaløy, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The main aim of this study was to examine weight associations between parents and offspring at two time points: 1995–97 and 2006–08, taking into account body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Methods The study included 8425 parent-offspring trios who participated in the population based Health Study of Nord Trøndelag (the HUNT Study), Norway, at either the HUNT2 (1995–97) or the HUNT3 (2006–08) survey. We used linear mixed effects models with siblings clustered within mothers to analyze the associations between 1) parental grouped BMI and offspring BMI z-scores and 2) parental grouped waist circumference and offspring waist circumference z-scores. Results Adolescent and adult overweight and obesity were higher in 2006–08 than in 1995–97, with the greatest increase observed in waist circumference. Both mother’s and father’s BMI and waist circumference were strongly associated with corresponding measures in offspring. Compared with both parents being normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2), having two overweight or obese parents (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was associated with a higher offspring BMI z-score of 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.64 (95% CI; 0.48, 0.80) in daughters, and 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.69 (95% CI; 0.53, 0.80) in sons, in 1995–97 and 2006–08 respectively. Offspring with one parent being overweight/obese had BMI z-scores of approximately half of offspring with two parents categorized as overweight/obese. The results of the waist circumference based analyses did not differ substantially from the BMI based analyses. Conclusions Parental overweight was strongly positively associated with offspring weight both in 1995–97 and 2006–08 where both parents being overweight/obese gave the largest effect. This seemingly stable association, strongly address the importance of public health initiatives towards preventing obesity in parents of both sexes to decrease further obesity expansion in offspring. PMID:27851798

  19. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Adiposity, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Methylation in Offspring, Grand-Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghai; Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Champagne, Frances A.; Wu, Licheng; McDonald, Jacob D.; Yan, Beizhan; Schwartz, Gary J.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Objectives We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. Materials and Methods Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. Findings Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. Conclusions Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny. PMID:25347678

  20. Influence of Pre-reproductive Maternal Enrichment on Coping Response to Stress and Expression of c-Fos and Glucocorticoid Receptors in Adolescent Offspring.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Berretta, Erica; Pasqualini, Greta; De Bartolo, Paola; Caporali, Paola; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Sampedro-Piquero, Patricia; Gelfo, Francesca; Pesoli, Matteo; Foti, Francesca; Begega, Azucena; Petrosini, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental setting broadly used for investigating the effects of complex social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations on brain structure and function. Recent studies point out that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects neural development and behavioral trajectories of the offspring. In the present study we investigated the influences of pre-reproductive EE of female rats on maternal behavior and adolescent male offspring's coping response to an inescapable stressful situation after chronic social isolation. For this purpose female Wistar rats were housed from weaning to breeding age in enriched or standard environments. Subsequently, all females were mated and housed in standard conditions until offspring weaning. On the first post partum day (ppd 1), mother-pup interactions in undisturbed conditions were recorded. Further, after weaning the male pups were reared for 2 weeks under social isolation or in standard conditions, and then submitted or not to a single-session Forced Swim Test (FST). Offspring's neuronal activation and plastic changes were identified by immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and assessed by using stereological analysis. The biochemical correlates were measured in the hippocampus, amygdala and cingulate cortex, structures involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis regulation. Enriched dams exhibited increased Crouching levels in comparison to standard reared dams. In the offspring of both kinds of dams, social isolation reduced body weight, decreased Immobility, and increased Swimming during FST. Moreover, isolated offspring of enriched dams exhibited higher levels of Climbing in comparison to controls. Interestingly, in the amygdala of both isolated and control offspring of enriched dams we found a lower number of c-Fos immunopositive cells in response to FST and a higher number of GRs in comparison to the offspring of

  1. Analysis of Level of Analysis: Data Design, Sampling, and Treatment for Dam Removal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D.; Kibler, K.

    2008-12-01

    Dam removal is increasingly implemented as a river restoration technique and yet substantial uncertainty exists regarding the short and long-term outcomes of this practice. While dam removal is largely considered a restorative action, many questions remain, including those regarding the effects of sediment release to downstream aquatic ecosystems. How will sediment evacuation influence downstream channel morphology and associated ecology? Over what temporal and spatial scales will the sediment signal persist? Unpredictability of dam removal timing and insufficient funding for monitoring has lead to inadequate rigor in study designs, which presents a substantial hurdle to resolving these questions with confidence. To begin addressing questions of impact magnitude and extent, we present an example that focuses on detecting physically and biologically significant changes in grain size distributions associated with downstream migration of reservoir sediments. In presenting a set of experimental methods and an analytical toolkit that may be applied to a variety of dam removal scenarios, we suggest utilization of exploratory baseline data and pre-emptive analyses of statistical power to provide guidance in prioritizing research hypotheses, craft monitoring strategies, and select appropriate analytical methods. Recognizing that constraints inherent to many dam removal studies will limit the experimental design choices that may be implemented, and thus the objectives that may be realized, the outcome is a branching of two strategies (descriptive and systematic) for monitoring and reporting results of dam removals. Data from the Brownsville, Chiloquin, and Savage Rapids dam removals in Oregon are used to demonstrate sampling design principles and analytical strategies.

  2. Dam Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status does not predetermine calves for future shedding when raised in a contaminated environment: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2015-06-19

    Uptake of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by calves in the first days of life from colostrum, milk and faeces is regarded an important moment of transmission. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between the MAP status of dams as determined by the presence of MAP DNA and antibody in colostrum and that of DNA in faeces and the environment with subsequent MAP shedding of their daughters. A cohort of 117 dam-daughter pairs giving birth/being born on eight commercial dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis was followed where colostrum, faecal and environmental samples (dust) were analysed for the presence of MAP using an IS900 real-time PCR. Antibodies in colostrum were measured by ELISA. Analysis of dust samples showed that on all farms environmental MAP exposure occurred continuously. In significantly more colostrum samples (48%) MAP DNA was detected compared to faecal samples (37%). MAP specific antibodies were present in 34% of the colostrum samples. In total MAP DNA was present in faecal samples of 41% of the daughters at least once during the sampling period. The association between faecal shedding in the offspring and the dam MAP status defined by MAP PCR on colostrum, MAP PCR on faeces or ELISA on colostrum was determined by an exact cox regression analysis for discrete data. The model indicated that the hazard for faecal shedding in daughters born to MAP positive dams was not significantly different compared to daughters born to MAP negative dams. When born to a dam with DNA positive faeces the HR was 1.05 (CI 0.6; 1.8) and with DNA positive colostrum the HR was 1.17 (CI 0.6; 2.3). When dam status was defined by a combination of both PCR outcomes (faeces and colostrum) and the ELISA outcome the HR was 1.26 (CI 0.9; 1.9). Therefore, this study indicates that neither the presence of MAP DNA in colostrum, MAP DNA in faeces nor the presence of MAP antibodies in colostrum of the dam significantly influences the hazard of

  3. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  4. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  5. Maternal high-fat hypercaloric diet during pregnancy results in persistent metabolic and respiratory abnormalities in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Pamela S.; Walton, Cheryl; Samsell, Lennie; Perez, Miriam K.; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have shown in a previous population-based study significant correlation between childhood asthma and early abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism. This study's specific aim was to determine whether maternal nutrition in pregnancy affects postnatal metabolic and respiratory outcomes in the offspring. Methods: On gestation day 1, dams were switched from standard chow to either high-fat hypercaloric diet or control diet. Terminal experiments were performed on newborn and weanling offspring of dams fed the study diet during gestation and lactation, and on adult offspring maintained on the same diet as their mother. Results: Pups born from high-fat hypercaloric diet (HFD) dams developed metabolic abnormalities persistent throughout development. Cytokine expression analysis of lung tissues from newborns born to HFD dams revealed a strong proinflammatory pattern. Gene expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors was upregulated in lungs of weanlings born to HFD dams, and this was associated to higher respiratory system resistance and lower compliance at baseline, as well as hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine. Furthermore, HFD dams delivered pups prone to develop more severe disease after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Conclusion: Maternal nutrition in pregnancy is a critical determinant of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in offspring and also increases risk for bronchiolitis independent from prepregnancy nutrition. PMID:26539661

  6. Maternal high-fat hypercaloric diet during pregnancy results in persistent metabolic and respiratory abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Pamela S; Walton, Cheryl; Samsell, Lennie; Perez, Miriam K; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    We have shown in a previous population-based study significant correlation between childhood asthma and early abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism. This study's specific aim was to determine whether maternal nutrition in pregnancy affects postnatal metabolic and respiratory outcomes in the offspring. On gestation day 1, dams were switched from standard chow to either high-fat hypercaloric diet or control diet. Terminal experiments were performed on newborn and weanling offspring of dams fed the study diet during gestation and lactation, and on adult offspring maintained on the same diet as their mother. Pups born from high-fat hypercaloric diet (HFD) dams developed metabolic abnormalities persistent throughout development. Cytokine expression analysis of lung tissues from newborns born to HFD dams revealed a strong proinflammatory pattern. Gene expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors was upregulated in lungs of weanlings born to HFD dams, and this was associated to higher respiratory system resistance and lower compliance at baseline, as well as hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine. Furthermore, HFD dams delivered pups prone to develop more severe disease after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Maternal nutrition in pregnancy is a critical determinant of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in offspring and also increases risk for bronchiolitis independent from prepregnancy nutrition.

  7. Personality of parents with bipolar disorder and interpersonal functioning among their offspring: a prospective 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Ostiguy, Caroline S; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2012-05-01

    A comparison of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD) and offspring of parents with no mental disorder (ONMD) showed that parents' neuroticism was associated with internalizing and externalizing problems among their children. The present study examined whether parents' neuroticism predicted poor interpersonal functioning among offspring 10 years later and whether the problems observed in middle childhood mediated the association between parents' neuroticism and offspring functioning. When offspring were in middle childhood, parents completed the revised NEO Personality Inventory and rated the child's behavior on the Child Behavior Checklist. Ten years later, 65 OBD and 59 ONMD completed interviews assessing mental disorders and interpersonal and noninterpersonal functioning. High neuroticism and low agreeableness in parents predicted poor interpersonal functioning in their offspring in late adolescence-early adulthood. The offspring's externalizing and internalizing problems in middle childhood partially mediated the association between parents' personality and offspring interpersonal functioning. Moreover, the association between parents' neuroticism and offspring internalizing problems was stronger among the OBD than the ONMD. Overall, the results suggested an intergenerational transmission of risk whereby high neuroticism and low agreeableness in parents were associated with behavioral problems among offspring in middle childhood that, in turn, predicted poor interpersonal functioning 10 years later.

  8. A Children of Twins Study of parental divorce and offspring psychopathology.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E; Maes, Hermine H; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon J

    2007-07-01

    Although parental divorce is associated with increased substance use and internalizing problems, experiencing the separation of one's parents may not cause these outcomes. The relations may be due to genetic or environmental selection factors, characteristics that lead to both marital separation and offspring functioning. We used the Children of Twins (CoT) Design to explore whether unmeasured genetic or environmental factors related to the twin parent, and measured characteristics of both parents, account for the association between parental divorce and offspring substance use and internalizing problems. The association between parental divorce and offspring substance use problems remained robust when controlling for genetic and environmental risk from the twin parent associated with parental divorce, and measured characteristics of both parents. The results do not prove, but are consistent with, a causal connection. In contrast, the analyses suggest that shared genetic liability in parents and their offspring accounts for the increased risk of internalizing problems in adult offspring from divorced families. The study illustrates that unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying parental divorce. In explaining associations between parental divorce and young-adult adjustment, our evidence suggests that selection versus causal mechanisms may operate differently for substance abuse (a causal relation) and internalizing problems (an artifact of selection). The CoT design only controls for the genetic and environmental characteristics of one parent; thus, additional genetically informed analyses are needed.

  9. Dam safety: Morris Sheppard Dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.D.; Waters, R.H.; Focht, J.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Morris Sheppard Dam is one of the world`s largest flat slab buttress dams. It is located on the Brazos River about 96 km (60 miles) west of Dallas - Fort Worth. Designed by Ambursen Dam Company, the dam was constructed between 1938 and 1941 at a cost of $8.7 million. In 1987, a maximum buttress movement of 114 mm (4.5 inches) was discovered. The dam was successfully rehabilitated between 1987 and 1994 at a cost of $36 million. This paper will describe: (1) the dam`s construction and operational history, (2) the lowering of the reservoir by 3.94 m (13 feet) as an emergency response when the movement was discovered, (3) the initial stabilization of the dam by the addition of relief wells and grouting, (4) the final stabilization using ballast to increase the weight of the dam, (5) the use of actual dam performance as a full-scale, long-term, load test to back-calculate realistic strength parameters, (6) the multiple sets of design stability criteria used to analyze the structure, and (7) the use of model studies to enlarge the dam`s stilling basin and design an emergency spillway to handle the PMF.

  10. Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain inflammation and oxidative stress in male mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yik Lung; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Oliver, Brian; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Zaky, Amgad A.; Jones, Nicole; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) during gestation can cause lifelong adverse effects in the offspring’s brain. Several factors may contribute including inflammation, oxidative stress and hypoxia, whose changes in the developing brain are unknown. Female Balb/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were studied at postnatal day (P) 1, P20 and 13 weeks (W13). SE dams had reduced inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6 and toll like receptor (TLR)4 mRNA), antioxidant (manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)), and increased mitochondrial activities (OXPHOS-I, III and V) and protein damage marker nitrotyrosine. Brain hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α and its upstream signalling molecule early growth response factor (EGR)1 were not changed in the SE dams. In the SE offspring, brain IL-1R, IL-6 and TLR4 mRNA were increased at W13. The translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane, and MnSOD were reduced at W13 with higher nitrotyrosine staining. HIF-1α was also increased at W13, although EGR1 was only reduced at P1. In conclusion, maternal SE increased markers of hypoxia and oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunction and cell damage in both dams and offspring, and upregulated inflammatory markers in offspring, which may render SE dams and their offspring vulnerable to additional brain insults. PMID:27169932

  11. Dover Dam Physical Model Study, Tuscarawas River, Dover OH

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    noted. Figure 2. Dover Dam Model The accepted equations of hydraulic similitude , based on Froudian rela- tions, were used to express mathematical ... similitude . All dimensions and results in this report are presented in prototype scale, with all elevations referenced to (MSL) unless otherwise

  12. Resilient offspring of alcoholics: a longitudinal study from birth to age 18.

    PubMed

    Werner, E E

    1986-01-01

    This study focuses on child characteristics and on the qualities of the caregiving environment that differentiated between offspring of alcoholics who did and those who did not develop serious coping problems by age 18. The 49 subjects (22 male) are members of a multiracial cohort of 698 children born in 1955 on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, who were followed at ages 1, 2, 10 and 18. In this group, males and the offspring of alcoholic mothers had higher rates of psychosocial problems in childhood and adolescence than females and the offspring of alcoholic fathers. Children of alcoholics who developed no serious coping problems by age 18 differed from those who did in characteristics of temperament, communication skills, self-concept and locus of control. They had also experienced fewer stressful life events disrupting their family unit in the first two years of life. Results of the study support a transactional model of human development and demonstrate bidirectionality of child-caregiver effects.

  13. Retinal emboli and cardiovascular disease: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Moss, Scot E; Meuer, Stacy M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the 10-year incidence of retinal emboli, the associated risk factors, and the relationship of retinal emboli to stroke and ischemic heart disease mortality. METHODS: The Beaver Dam Eye Study (n = 4,926) is a population-based study of persons 43 to 86 years of age. Retinal emboli were detected at baseline (1988-1990) and at a 5-year (1993-1995) and a 10-year (1998-2000) follow-up by grading of stereoscopic 30 degrees color fundus photographs using standardized protocols. Cause-specific mortality was determined from death certificates. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of retinal emboli was 1.5%. While adjusting for age and sex, the incidence of retinal emboli was associated with increased pulse pressure (odds ratio [OR] 4th versus 1st quartile range, 2.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-5.97; P test of trend = .03), higher serum total cholesterol (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.23; P = .03), higher leukocyte count (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.04-4.96; P = .05), smoking status (OR current versus never smoker, 4.60: 95% CI, 2.08-10.16; P < .001), and a history of coronary artery bypass surgery (OR, 7.17; 95% CI, 3.18-16.18; P < .001) at baseline. While controlling for age, sex, and systemic factors, a significantly higher hazard of dying with a mention of stroke on the death certificate was found in people with retinal emboli (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.16-4.99) compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: The data show an association of smoking and cardiovascular disease with the incidence of retinal emboli. Also, persons with retinal emboli are at increased risk of stroke-related death. PMID:14971575

  14. Preliminary study of mother-offspring conflict in black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya).

    PubMed

    Pavé, Romina; Kowalewski, Martin M; Peker, Silvana M; Zunino, Gabriel E

    2010-07-01

    Parent-offspring conflict has been scarcely studied in Neotropical primates. In this study, we explored mother-offspring conflict in a group of wild black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina. We used the all-occurrences technique to record behaviors, completing 712 h of observation. The results showed that all immature individuals between 2 and 23 months expressed conflict with regard to suckling or traveling with their mothers. Successful suckling attempts negatively correlated with the age of the immatures, occurring least frequently with the presence of newborns. In the juvenile period, the decline in successful attempts was a consequence of juveniles reducing suckling attempts and mother rejection.

  15. A Comparison of Three Rubber Dam Systems In Vivo--A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kapitán, Martin; Suchánková Kleplová, Tereza; Suchánek, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the isolation systems OptraDam® Plus and OptiDam™ with the conventional rubber dam in terms of objective and subjective parameters. The isolation systems were applied during the dental treatment of the patients. The time of preparation, placement, presence and removal were measured and the quality of isolation was evaluated. The median time of rubber dam placement was 76 s (Q1=62 s; Q3=111.25 s). The application time of OptraDam® Plus was significantly longer compared to the other systems (P ® plus. The results presented in this study could guide clinicians for choosing the most appropriate isolation system.

  16. Marib Dam: the importance of environmental and health impact studies for development projects.

    PubMed

    Basahi, I A

    2000-01-01

    Marib Dam was built without an environmental impact assessment study which created many conflicts. In 1995 and 1996 its impact on water quality, agriculture and groundwater recharge and socioeconomics was studied. Lake water could suffer severe eutrophication when floods are weak and algae growth is not controlled. Introducing Tilapia nilotica provided biological control of algae growth. The dam positively affected agriculture and groundwater within the designed irrigation scheme but negatively affected them beyond it. The dam also negatively affected health conditions and increased conflicts over water distribution. It positively affected women by allowing them to work in agriculture and participate in decision-making. The dam raised income levels of farmers and encouraged tourism.

  17. Suicidal risk in young adult offspring of mothers with bipolar or major depressive disorder: a longitudinal family risk study.

    PubMed

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Lee, Chih-Yuan S; Ronsaville, Donna; Martinez, Pedro

    2008-04-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted suicidal risk associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Using a family risk approach, the goal of this study was to evaluate suicidal thoughts and behaviors longitudinally from childhood to young adulthood in children of mothers with BD, Major depressive disorder (MDD), and well mothers. Few group differences were found for cross-sectional assessments of suicidal thoughts and behavior in young adulthood; the offspring of MDD demonstrate an earlier onset and more persistent suicidality than other groups, but by young adulthood, BD offspring appear to be comparable to MDD offspring in their rates of suicidality. The longitudinal assessments reveal a pattern of higher suicidal risk in MDD offspring, more intermediate risk in BD offspring, and lower risk in well offspring. Precursors and correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors were also examined. These findings suggest diverse developmental trajectories based on family risk and have implications for planning preventive intervention.

  18. Glucose metabolism and hepatic Igf1 DNA methylation are altered in the offspring of dams fed a low-salt diet during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Flavia R; Furukawa, Luzia N S; Oliveira, Ivone B; Heimann, Joel C

    2016-02-01

    A low-salt (LS) diet during pregnancy has been linked to insulin resistance in adult offspring, at least in the experimental setting. However, it remains unclear if this effect is due to salt restriction during early or late pregnancy. To better understand this phenomenon, 12-week-old female Wistar rats were fed a LS or normal-salt (NS) diet during gestation or a LS diet during either the first (LS10) or second (LS20) half of gestation. Glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR, gene expression analysis and DNA methylation measurements were conducted for the Insr, Igf1, Igf1r, Ins1 and Ins2 genes in the livers of neonates and in the liver, white adipose tissue and muscle of 20-week-old male offspring. Birth weight was lower in the LS20 and LS animals compared with the NS and LS10 rats. In the liver, the Igf1 levels in the LS10, LS20 and LS neonates were lower than those in the NS neonates. Methylation of the Insr, Igf1r, Ins1 and Ins2 genes was influenced in a variable manner by low salt intake during pregnancy. Increased liver Igf1 methylation was observed in the LS and LS20 neonates compared with their NS and LS10 counterparts. Glucose intolerance was observed in adult offspring as an effect of low salt intake over the duration of pregnancy. Compared to the NS animals, the HOMA-IR was higher in the 12-week-old LS and 20-week-old LS-10 rats. Based on these results, it appears that the reason a LS diet during pregnancy induces a low birth weight is its negative correlation with Igf1 DNA methylation in neonates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Dalles Dam, Columbia River: Spillway Improvement CFD Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2006-06-01

    This report documents development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that were applied to The Dalles spillway for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District. The models have been successfully validated against physical models and prototype data, and are suitable to support biological research and operations management. The CFD models have been proven to provide reliable information in the turbulent high-velocity flow field downstream of the spillway face that is typically difficult to monitor in the prototype. In addition, CFD data provides hydraulic information throughout the solution domain that can be easily extracted from archived simulations for later use if necessary. This project is part of an ongoing program at the Portland District to improve spillway survival conditions for juvenile salmon at The Dalles. Biological data collected at The Dalles spillway have shown that for the original spillway configuration juvenile salmon passage survival is lower than desired. Therefore, the Portland District is seeking to identify operational and/or structural changes that might be implemented to improve fish passage survival. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) went through a sequence of steps to develop a CFD model of The Dalles spillway and tailrace. The first step was to identify a preferred CFD modeling package. In the case of The Dalles spillway, Flow-3D was as selected because of its ability to simulate the turbulent free-surface flows that occur downstream of each spilling bay. The second step in development of The Dalles CFD model was to assemble bathymetric datasets and structural drawings sufficient to describe the dam (powerhouse, non-overflow dam, spillway, fish ladder entrances, etc.) and tailrace. These datasets are documented in this report as are various 3-D graphical representations of The Dalles spillway and tailrace. The performance of the CFD model was then validated for several cases as the third step. The validated model

  20. Folate concentrations during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Roza, Sabine J

    2015-06-01

    In a population-based study, we examined the associations of maternal plasma folate concentrations at 13 weeks of gestation and prenatal folic acid supplement use with autistic traits in the offspring at the age of six years. Parent-reported autistic traits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form. Maternal folate was not associated with autistic traits in the offspring. In contrast, prenatal folic acid use was associated with less child autistic traits. Future research should focus on the timing of the potential effect of prenatal folate on the development of autistic traits in combination with clinical diagnosis of autism in the offspring. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Spray Dam, Eden, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1981-01-30

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Spray Dam near Eden, North Carolina for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 10 ft., was built in 1898 for hydroelectric power generation with one of 2 installed units currently operating. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site is possible and that the economics of retrofits will depend on whether existing equipment can be repaired or will have to be replaced. (LCL)

  2. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Craig Lake Dam, Asheville, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-02-08

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Craig Lake Dam near Asheville, NC for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 22 ft., was built in 1924 for water impoundment, but no water is currently impounded. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site is feasible if developed by a public agency which can borrow development cost money at municipal bond interest rates. (LCL)

  3. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  4. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) coh...

  5. The Relationship Between Stressful Life Events and Axis I Diagnoses Among Adolescent Offspring of Probands With Bipolar and Non-Bipolar Psychiatric Disorders and Healthy Controls: The Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS).

    PubMed

    Pan, Lisa A; Goldstein, Tina R; Rooks, Brian T; Hickey, Mary; Fan, Jie Yu; Merranko, John; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim S; Sakolsky, Dara J; Hafeman, Danella; Iyengar, Satish; Goldstein, Benjamin; Kupfer, David J; Axelson, David A; Brent, David A; Birmaher, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have explored the role of stressful life events in the development of mood disorders. We examined the frequency and nature of stressful life events as measured by the Stressful Life Events Schedule (SLES) among 3 groups of adolescent offspring of probands with bipolar (BD), with non-BD psychiatric disorders, and healthy controls. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between stressful life events and the presence of DSM-IV Axis I disorders in these offspring. Stressful life events were characterized as dependent, independent, or uncertain (neither dependent nor independent) and positive, negative, or neutral (neither positive nor negative). Offspring of probands with BD aged 13-18 years (n = 269), demographically matched offspring of probands with non-BD Axis I disorders (n = 88), and offspring of healthy controls (n = 81) from the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study were assessed from 2002 to 2007 with standardized instruments at intake. Probands completed the SLES for their offspring for life events within the prior year. Life events were evaluated with regard to current Axis I diagnoses in offspring after adjusting for confounds. After adjusting for demographic and clinical between-group differences (in probands and offspring), offspring of probands with BD had greater independent (χ² = 11.96, P < .04) and neutral (χ² = 17.99, P < .003) life events compared with offspring of healthy controls and greater number of more severe stressful life events than offspring of healthy controls, but not offspring of probands with non-BD. Offspring of BD probands with comorbid substance use disorder reported more independent stressful life events compared to those without comorbid substance use disorder (P = .024). Greater frequency and severity of stressful life events were associated with current Axis I disorder in offspring of both probands with BD and probands with other Axis I disorders regardless of dependency or valence. Greater frequency and

  6. Maternal age at childbirth and risk for ADHD in offspring: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Almqvist, Catarina; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women who give birth at younger ages (e.g. teenage mothers) are more likely to have children who exhibit behaviour problems, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is not clear whether young maternal age is causally associated with poor offspring outcomes or confounded by familial factors. Methods: The association between early maternal age at childbirth and offspring ADHD was studied using data from Swedish national registers. The sample included all children born in Sweden between 1988 and 2003 (N = 1 495 543), including 30 674 children with ADHD. We used sibling- and cousin-comparisons to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounding. Further, we used a children-of-siblings model to quantify the genetic and environmental contribution to the association between maternal age and offspring ADHD. Results: Maternal age at first birth (MAFB) was associated with offspring ADHD. Teenage childbirth (<20 years) was associated with 78% increased risk of ADHD. The association attenuated in cousin-comparison, suggesting unmeasured familial confounding. The children-of-siblings model indicated that the association between MAFB and ADHD was mainly explained by genetic confounding. Conclusions: All children born to mothers who bore their first child early in their reproductive lives were at increased risk of ADHD. The association was mainly explained by genetic factors transmitted from mothers to their offspring that contribute to both age at childbirth and ADHD in offspring. Our results highlight the importance of using family-based designs to understand how early life circumstances affect child development. PMID:25355726

  7. Moderate Exercise during Pregnancy in Wistar Rats Alters Bone and Body Composition of the Adult Offspring in a Sex-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Brielle V.; Blair, Hugh T.; Vickers, Mark H.; Dittmer, Keren E.; Morel, Patrick C. H.; Knight, Cameron G.; Firth, Elwyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  8. DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the

  9. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide: a population-based longitudinal case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D; Martens, Patricia J; Enns, Murray W; Roos, Leslie L; Katz, Laurence Y; Wilcox, Holly C; Erlangsen, Annette; Chateau, Dan; Walld, Randy; Spiwak, Rae; Seguin, Monique; Shear, Katherine; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2 years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2 years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.45), and low income (ARR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51) before their offspring's death. CONCLUSIONS Suicide bereavement is associated with adverse mental health and social outcomes

  10. Prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of brown adipose tissue in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Ping, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Liu, Han-Xiao; Zhang, Jing; Yan, You-E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure on the morphology and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in male rat offspring. We conducted a morphological assay and gene expression study of interscapular BAT (iBAT) in male rat offspring. The male offspring from nicotine-exposed dams exhibited higher body weight and iBAT weight. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that iBAT from nicotine-exposed male offspring presented a "whitening" phenotype characterized by lipid droplet accumulation and impaired mitochondria with a randomly oriented and fractured cristae. The expression of the iBAT structure and function-related genes all decreased in nicotine-exposed male offspring. These data indicate that prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of iBAT in male rat offspring.

  11. Determinants of Retinal Venular Diameter: the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Ronald; Knudtson, Michael D.; Lee, Kristine E.; Gangnon, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe how retinal venular diameter changes over time for an individual and to examine differences in these changes among people with different risk profiles. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants 4600 persons aged 43–86 years from the Beaver Dam Eye Study who participated in at least 1 examination and had venular diameter measured in the right eye. Methods Data from 4 examinations over 15 years were analyzed. Retinal venular diameter was measured from photographs at each examination by computer-assisted methods and summarized as the central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE). Associations of risk factors to concurrent CRVE measurements and changes in CRVE over time were determined using multivariate analyses. Main Outcome Measure CRVE. Results CRVE tended to narrow with age. Mean CRVE was about 5 µm smaller (225 vs. 230 µm) for the average 70-year-old compared to the average 50-year-old, and was about 13 µm smaller (217 vs. 230 µm) for the average 85-year-old compared to the average 50-year-old. Male sex (beta estimate [β]=5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.58, 6.90), current smoking (β=9.38; 95% CI 8.26, 10.49), and higher white blood cell count (per 1000/µL: β=0.95; 95% CI 0.74, 1.16) were independently associated with larger concurrent CRVE while higher mean arterial blood pressure (per 5 mmHg: β=−0.36; 95% CI −0.50, −0.23) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL: β=−0.89; 95% CI −1.15, −0.63) were independently associated with smaller concurrent CRVE. History of cardiovascular disease (β=−0.16; 95% CI −0.26, −0.06) and presence of chronic kidney disease (β=−0.20; 95% CI −0.34, −0.05) were associated with a greater decrease in CRVE over time. Conclusions These data show that retinal venular diameter tended to narrow with age, and that concurrent venular diameter is independently associated with sex, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, white blood cell

  12. Persistent influence of maternal obesity on offspring health: Mechanisms from animal models and clinical studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The consequences of excessive maternal weight and adiposity at conception for the offspring are now well recognized. Maternal obesity increases the risk of overweight and obesity even in children born with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) birth weights. Studies in animal models have employed bo...

  13. A Quasi-Experimental Study of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Langstrom, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The current study, based on all births in Sweden from 1983 to 1991 (N = 654,707), explored the processes underlying the association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring school grades and mathematic proficiency at age 15. The analyses compared relatives who varied in their exposure to SDP and who varied in their genetic relatedness.…

  14. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to examine the relation between vitamin D status and incidence of T2D. We used a subsample of 1972 Framingham Offspring Study participants to develop a regression model to predict...

  15. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D Score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to examine the relation between vitamin D status and incidence of T2D. We used a subsample of 1972 Framingham Offspring Study participants to develop a regression model to predict...

  16. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  17. Maternal high-fat feeding through pregnancy and lactation predisposes mouse offspring to molecular insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Nicole G; Saito, Karen N; Souza, Flavia D; Nakutz, Fernanda S; Roman, Erika A; Velloso, Licio A; Torsoni, Adriana S; Torsoni, Marcio A

    2012-04-01

    The exposure to an increased supply of nutrients before birth may contribute to offspring obesity. Offspring from obese dams that chronically consume a high-fat diet present clinical features of metabolic syndrome, liver lipid accumulation and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) consistent with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, in spite of the importance of the resistance to insulin for the development of NAFLD, the molecular alterations in the liver of adult offspring of obese dams are yet to be investigated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of excessive saturated fats during pregnancy and lactation contributes to adult hepatic metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Adult male offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet (HN) during pregnancy and lactation exhibited increased fat depot weight; increased serum insulin, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β; and reduced serum triglycerides. Liver showed increased JNK and I kappa B kinase phosphorylation and PEPCK expression in the adult. In addition, liver triglyceride content in the offspring 1 week after weaning and in the adult was increased. Moreover, basal ACC phosphorylation and insulin signaling were reduced in the liver from the HN group as compared to offspring of dams fed a standard laboratory chow (NN). Hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation (Ser565) was reduced in epididymal adipose tissue from the HN group as compared to the NN group. It is interesting that all changes observed were independent of postweaning diet in 14-week-old offspring. Therefore, these data further reinforce the importance of maternal nutrition to adult offspring health.

  18. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  19. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal emotional stress during pregnancy has previously been associated with congenital neural malformations, but most studies are based on data collected retrospectively. The objective of our study was to investigate associations between antenatal maternal bereavement due to death of a close relative and neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. Methods We performed a register-based cohort study including all live-born children (N = 1,734,190) from 1978–2008. Exposure was bereavement due to loss of a close relative from one year before conception to the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. The outcome was NTDs in the offspring according to the International Classification of Disease. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs). Results A total of 2% children were born to mothers who lost a close relative prenatally. During 30 years of follow-up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889), anencephaly (n = 85) and encephalocele (n = 164). And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring was seen (OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.52–1.33). Conclusion Overall maternal bereavement in the antenatal period was not related to NTDs in liveborn offspring. PMID:27685943

  20. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  1. A Genetically Informed Study of the Processes Underlying the Association between Parental Marital Instability and Offspring Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    Parental divorce is associated with problematic offspring adjustment, but the relation may be due to shared genetic or environmental factors. One way to test for these confounds is to study offspring of twins discordant for divorce. The current analyses used this design to separate the mechanisms responsible for the association between parental…

  2. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  3. A Genetically Informed Study of the Processes Underlying the Association between Parental Marital Instability and Offspring Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    Parental divorce is associated with problematic offspring adjustment, but the relation may be due to shared genetic or environmental factors. One way to test for these confounds is to study offspring of twins discordant for divorce. The current analyses used this design to separate the mechanisms responsible for the association between parental…

  4. Investigation on trophic state index by artificial neural networks (case study: Dez Dam of Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghi, H.; Karimi, L.; Javid, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Dam construction and surface runoff control is one of the most common approaches for water-needs supply of human societies. However, the increasing development of social activities and hence the subsequent increase in environmental pollutants leads to deterioration of water quality in dam reservoirs and eutrophication process could be intensified. So, the water quality of reservoirs is now one of the key factors in operation and water quality management of reservoirs. Hence, maintaining the quality of the stored water and identification and examination of changes along time has been a constant concern of humans that involves the water authorities. Traditionally, empirical trophic state indices of dam reservoirs often defined based on changes in concentration of effective factors (nutrients) and its consequences (increase in chlorophyll a), have been used as an efficient tool in the definition of dam reservoirs quality. In recent years, modeling techniques such as artificial neural networks have enhanced the prediction capability and the accuracy of these studies. In this study, artificial neural networks have been applied to analyze eutrophication process in the Dez Dam reservoir in Iran. In this paper, feed forward neural network with one input layer, one hidden layer and one output layer was applied using MATLAB neural network toolbox for trophic state index (TSI) analysis in the Dez Dam reservoir. The input data of this network are effective parameters in the eutrophication: nitrogen cycle parameters and phosphorous cycle parameters and parameters that will be changed by eutrophication: Chl a, SD, DO and the output data is TSI. Based on the results from estimation of modified Carlson trophic state index, Dez Dam reservoir is considered to be eutrophic in the early July to mid-November and would be mesotrophic with decrease in temperature. Therefore, a decrease in water quality of the dam reservoir during the warm seasons is expectable. The results indicated that

  5. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with adiposity in the offspring: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Sarah R; Harvey, Nicholas C; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and body composition in the offspring. Design Prospective mother-offspring cohort study. Setting Southampton, UK. Participants 977 pregnant women whose serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D) was measured in late pregnancy and their offspring, followed up within 3 weeks of birth, and at 4 and 6 years of age. Main outcome measures Offspring lean and fat mass assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. Results Median daily vitamin D intake (from food and supplements) in late pregnancy was 3.7μg/day (IQR 2.7 to 5.7). 22% of the women took vitamin D supplements in late pregnancy, but only 8.5% of the women complied with UK guidance to take 10μg per day. Median maternal serum 25(OH)D in late pregnancy was 62nmol/l (IQR 43-89); 35% of the women studied had values below 50 nmol/l. Lower vitamin D status was associated with lower fat mass in the offspring at birth, but with greater fat mass at 4 and 6 years. It was not associated with lean mass at any of the ages studied. The opposing associations seen between maternal 25(OH)D (SDs) and fat mass (SDs) in the offspring at birth and at 6 years were robust to adjustment for a range of confounding factors, including maternal BMI and weight gain in pregnancy (β (95% CI) 0.08 (0.02, 0.15) and −0.10 (−0.17, − 0.02 respectively). The key independent predictors of higher maternal vitamin D status were season of measurement and taking vitamin D in dietary supplements in late pregnancy. Conclusion These data suggest that insufficient maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy could result in programmed differences in offspring fat mass. The findings require replication but add to a growing evidence base for a role of vitamin D in the origins of adiposity. PMID:22623747

  6. Dam removal: Listening in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Melissa M.; Bellmore, James; O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff; East, Amy E.; Grant, Gordon G.; Anderson, Chauncey; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Collins, Mathias J.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Craig, Laura S.; Evans, James E.; Greene, Samantha; Magilligan, Francis J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Major, Jon J.; Pess, George R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Torgersen, Christian; Tullos, Desiree D.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  7. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  8. Effects of plane of nutrition of ewes in early and mid-pregnancy on performance of the offspring: female reproduction and male carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Carson, A F; McCoy, M A; Dawson, L E R; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of different planes of nutrition in early pregnancy (EP) and mid-pregnancy (MP) of crossbred ewes on carcass characteristics of male offspring and reproductive performance of female offspring. During EP (d 1 to 39 after synchronized mating) ewes were allocated 60% (low, L-EP), 100% (medium, M-EP), or 200% (high, H-EP) of their energy requirements for maintenance. Between d 40 and 90 (MP), ewes were then allocated 80% (M-MP) or 140% (H-MP) of their maintenance energy requirement. After d 90, all ewes were fed to fully meet energy requirements for late pregnancy. Male offspring (n = 83) were reared on a grass-based system and slaughtered at 42, 46, or 50 kg of BW. Female offspring (n = 60) were reared on a grass-based system, mated at 8 mo, and performance recorded until weaning of their first lamb crop. Concentrations of leptin, an adiposity indicator, in female offspring varied with the plane of maternal nutrition in early pregnancy. The L-EP offspring had greater leptin concentrations than H-EP offspring (P = 0.04), with M-EP offspring showing intermediate concentrations. Reproductive performance of female offspring was not affected by maternal plane of nutrition (P > or = 0.16). Female H-EP offspring gave birth to heavier lambs (generation 2 offspring) than M-EP (P = 0.006) with L-EP offspring intermediate. Male offspring of L-EP dams showed a trend toward poorer carcass conformation (P = 0.06) and increased fat classification (P = 0.07), consistent with increased fat depths over the loin (P = 0.02). There was a significant interaction between plane of nutrition in early pregnancy and mid-pregnancy for female offspring BW at 2 mo postmating and 16 wk postlambing (P < or = 0.04), and for male offspring perinephric and retroperitoneal fat and tissue depth (P < or = 0.02). For dams offered diet L-EP during early pregnancy, diet H-MP gave heavier offspring with more perinephric and retroperitoneal fat. In contrast, for dams offered

  9. Association of Parental Hypertension with Arterial Stiffness in Non-Hypertensive Offspring: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle; Larson, Martin G.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Vita, Joseph A.; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2016-01-01

    High arterial stiffness appears to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness prior to clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compared arterial tonometry measures in a sample of 1564 non-hypertensive Framingham Heart Study Third generation cohort participants (mean age 38 years, 55% women) whose parents were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. A totally of 468, 715, and 381 participants had 0 (referent), 1, and 2 parents with hypertension. Parental hypertension was associated with greater offspring mean arterial pressure (multivariable-adjusted estimate= 2.9 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-3.9, and 4.2 mm Hg, 95% CI 2.9-5.5, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively, p<0.001 for both), and with greater forward pressure wave amplitude (1.6 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.6-2.7, and 1.9 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.6-3.2, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively, p=0.003 for both). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index displayed similar dose-dependent relations with parental hypertension in sex, age, and height-adjusted models, but associations were attenuated upon further adjustment. Offspring with at least one parent in the upper quartile of augmentation index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity had significantly higher values themselves (p≤0.02). In conclusion, in this community-based sample of young, non-hypertensive adults, we observed greater arterial stiffness in offspring of parents with hypertension. These observations are consistent with higher vascular stiffness at an early stage in the pathogenesis of hypertension. PMID:27456526

  10. Parental weight status and offspring cardiovascular disease risks: a cross-sectional study of Chinese children.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Kayne; Ye, Yong-ling; Yuan, Shuai; He, Qi-qiang

    2015-01-08

    Prevalence of childhood obesity in China is increasing, and parental weight is a risk factor for the development of obesity in children. We examined the relationship of parental body weight status with risk of offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Chinese children. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China, during May and June 2010. Parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to self-reported height and weight. Offspring CVD risk factors, including BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk score (MRS), were assessed through anthropometric measures, blood samples, and a CRF test. Multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance were used to examine the effects of maternal and paternal weight status on offspring CVD risks. A total of 580 Chinese children (339 boys and 241 girls, mean [standard deviation] age, 9.6 [0.7] years) participated in the study. Maternal BMI was significantly associated with offspring elevated BMI (β = 0.134, P = .002), waist circumference (β = 0.253, P = .04), and decreased CRF (β = -0.134, P = .01). Paternal BMI was significantly associated with elevated offspring BMI (β = 0.161, P < .001), waist circumference (β = 0.404, P < .001), triglycerides (β = 0.017, P = .03), MRS (β = 0.084, P = .03), and decreased CRF (β = -0.174, P < .001). BMI (P < .001), waist circumference (P < .001), and MRS (P < .05) were positively associated with additional overweight/obese parents, whereas CRF was negatively associated (P < .001). Parental weight status was significantly associated with increased risk of CVD in their children, and the association was stronger for paternal weight status.

  11. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle; Larson, Martin G; Hamburg, Naomi M; Vita, Joseph A; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2016-09-01

    High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compared arterial tonometry measures in a sample of 1564 nonhypertensive Framingham Heart Study third-generation cohort participants (mean age: 38 years; 55% women) whose parents were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. A total of 468, 715, and 381 participants had 0 (referent), 1, and 2 parents with hypertension. Parental hypertension was associated with greater offspring mean arterial pressure (multivariable-adjusted estimate=2.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.9, and 4.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-5.5, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively; P<0.001 for both) and with greater forward pressure wave amplitude (1.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.7, and 1.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-3.2, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively; P=0.003 for both). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index displayed similar dose-dependent relations with parental hypertension in sex-, age-, and height-adjusted models, but associations were attenuated on further adjustment. Offspring with at least 1 parent in the upper quartile of augmentation index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity had significantly higher values themselves (P≤0.02). In conclusion, in this community-based sample of young, nonhypertensive adults, we observed greater arterial stiffness in offspring of parents with hypertension. These observations are consistent with higher vascular stiffness at an early stage in the pathogenesis of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Parental Weight Status and Offspring Cardiovascular Disease Risks: a Cross-Sectional Study of Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Kayne; Ye, Yong-ling; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of childhood obesity in China is increasing, and parental weight is a risk factor for the development of obesity in children. We examined the relationship of parental body weight status with risk of offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Chinese children. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China, during May and June 2010. Parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to self-reported height and weight. Offspring CVD risk factors, including BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk score (MRS), were assessed through anthropometric measures, blood samples, and a CRF test. Multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance were used to examine the effects of maternal and paternal weight status on offspring CVD risks. Results A total of 580 Chinese children (339 boys and 241 girls, mean [standard deviation] age, 9.6 [0.7] years) participated in the study. Maternal BMI was significantly associated with offspring elevated BMI (β = 0.134, P = .002), waist circumference (β = 0.253, P = .04), and decreased CRF (β = −0.134, P = .01). Paternal BMI was significantly associated with elevated offspring BMI (β = 0.161, P < .001), waist circumference (β = 0.404, P < .001), triglycerides (β = 0.017, P = .03), MRS (β = 0.084, P = .03), and decreased CRF (β = −0.174, P < .001). BMI (P < .001), waist circumference (P < .001), and MRS (P < .05) were positively associated with additional overweight/obese parents, whereas CRF was negatively associated (P < .001). Conclusion Parental weight status was significantly associated with increased risk of CVD in their children, and the association was stronger for paternal weight status. PMID:25569694

  13. Brief and long periods of maternal separation affect maternal behavior and offspring behavioral development in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bailoo, Jeremy D; Jordan, Richard L; Garza, Xavier J; Tyler, Amber N

    2014-05-01

    For rats, maternal mediation of brief and longer term dam-pup separations were thought to account for pup differences in adult "emotionality." In this study, early handling (EH), maternal separation (MS), and maternal peer separation (MPS) groups were compared to an animal facility reared (AFR) group for maternal behavior and offspring adult open-field behavior in C57BL/6 mice. Although MS and MPS dams displayed higher levels of maternal behavior upon reunion, these group differences did not predict offspring open-field behavior. However, when offspring behavior was analyzed as a function of specific aspects of maternal behavior, irrespective of treatment group, pups that received high levels of quiescent nursing and activity, but not licking, were less "emotional." Individual differences in maternal licking of pups predicted variability of "emotional" behavior for AFR and EH pups. Thus, for this strain of mouse, individual and not treatment differences in maternal care predict offspring "emotional" development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Etching characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samman, H.; Ashry, A. H.; Arafa, W.; Abou-leila, M.; Abdalla, A. M.; Tsuruta, T.

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector. Several important parameters that control the track formation such as, the bulk etch rate (VB), track etching rate (VT), dependence of VB and VT on etching concentration and temperature have been extensively studied. The activation energy (Eb) of the bulk etching rate for the DAM-ADC sheets has been calculated, the dependence of etching efficiency and sensitivity upon etchant concentrations and temperature has been investigated, registration efficiency of DAM-ADC detector etched at the optimum etching condition has been examined. The detailed studied results presented in this study provide various useful information about the mechanism of track formation in polymers.

  15. Birth outcomes among offspring of adult cancer survivors: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stensheim, Hanne; Klungsøyr, Kari; Skjaerven, Rolv; Grotmol, Tom; Fosså, Sophie D

    2013-12-01

    Do cancer and cancer treatment influence patients' subsequent pregnancies and outcomes for the offspring? In this study, we compared birth outcomes in 3,915 female and male survivors and 144,653 controls from the general population with similar parity, by merging data from the Cancer Registry and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The cancer survivors were diagnosed at age 16-45 in the period 1967-2004. Subgroups of nulliparous survivors (childless before cancer) and primiparous (one pregnancy before and one after cancer) were analyzed, using logistic regression to compare birth outcomes with controls, focusing perinatal death, congenital anomalies, preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks) and low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g). We adjusted for maternal age, birth period and educational level. Nulliparous female survivors' offspring had increased risk of preterm birth (OR = 1.30 [95% CI 1.05-1.61]) but similar risks of LBW and perinatal death as their controls. Primiparous female survivors differed from their controls, with higher frequency of preterm birth (OR = 1.89 [95% CI 1.40-2.56]) and LBW at term (OR = 2.02 [95% CI 1.15-3.55]). A borderline significant increase of perinatal death was seen among offspring of primiparous female survivors, with OR = 1.92 (95% CI 0.98-3.76). Offspring of male survivors did not differ from their controls. For all cancer types combined, no increased risk of congenital anomalies was seen among either female or male survivors' offspring. Pregnant female cancer survivors should be offered close follow-up, as there is an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, in particular among those with higher parities.

  16. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Experimental study on mechanism and shape characteristics of suspended flexible dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-zhong; Fan, Hong-xia; Zhu, Li-jun

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic structures such as groin, longitudinal dike and seawall are common in water conservancy and water transportation engineering projects at home and abroad, which have long been dominated by solid mass structural form. With brush and stone as building materials, this kind of structure has an obvious engineering effect. However, it not only requires huge capital investments, but also has negative impacts on the ecological environment. The suspended flexible dam is an innovative engineering measure, and few theoretical and experimental researches of this type dam can be found at present. This paper studies the mechanism and shape characteristics of this dam and obtains the dynamic equilibrium equation of flexible dam, the float buoyancy expression, and the condition for transformation among three forms of the underwater shape of the dam. The results are valuable in engineering application and can be used as the reference for the future work due to the distinctive design philosophy, the small negative effects on environment and the consistency for sustainable development.

  18. Maternal Hb during pregnancy and offspring's educational achievement: a prospective cohort study over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Fararouei, Mohammad; Robertson, Claire; Whittaker, John; Sovio, Ulla; Ruokonen, Aimo; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between maternal Hb levels during pregnancy and educational achievement of the offspring in later life. We analysed data obtained from the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort Study conducted in 1966, in which, data on mothers and offspring from pregnancy through to the age of 31 years were collected. The cohort comprised 11 656 individuals born from singleton births (51 % males and 49 % females). Maternal Hb levels were available from the third, seventh and ninth gestational months. Educational achievement was measured as school scores (range 4-10) taken at the ages of 14 (self-reported questionnaires) and 16 (school reports) years as well as the highest level of education at the age of 31 years. The present results showed a direct positive association between Hb levels and educational achievement in later life. After adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth month and a wide range of maternal factors (parity, smoking, mental status, whether pregnancy was wanted or not, education, social class and marital status), only maternal Hb levels that were measured at the ninth month were significantly associated with the offspring's school performance. If the levels were ≥ 110 g/l at all the three measurement points, offspring not only had better school scores at the ages of 14 and 16 years (β = 0·048, P = 0·04 and β = 0·68, P = 0·007, respectively), but also had an increased odds of having a higher level of education at the age of 31 years (OR = 1·14, P = 0·04). The present study suggests that low maternal Hb levels at the final stages of pregnancy are linked to the poorer educational achievement of the offspring. If our observation is confirmed, it would suggest that Fe prophylaxis even at fairly late stages of pregnancy may be beneficial for the subsequent health of the offspring. However, more studies are needed to fully establish the potential pathways and the clinical importance of the

  19. The impact of damming on riverine fluxes to the ocean: A case study from Eastern Iceland.

    PubMed

    Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Oelkers, Eric H; Hardardottir, Jorunn; Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir

    2017-04-15

    Anthropogenic water management has extensively altered the world's river systems through impoundments and channel diversions to meet the human's need for water, energy and transportation. To illuminate the effect of such activities on the environment, this study describes the impact of the installation of the Kárahnjúkar Dam in Eastern Iceland on the transport of riverine dissolved- and particulate material to the ocean by the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers. This dam, completed in 2007, collects water into the 2.2 km(3) Hálslón reservoir and diverts water from the glacial Jökulsá á Dal river into the partially glaciated Lagarfljót lagoon via a headrace tunnel. The impact of the damming was evaluated by sampling water from both the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers over a 15 year period spanning from 1998 to 2013. The annual flux of most dissolved elements increased substantially due to the damming. The fluxes of dissolved Zn, Al, Co, Ti and Fe increased most by damming; these fluxes increased by 46-391%. These differences can be attributed to changed saturation states of common secondary minerals in the Jökulsá á Dal due to reduced discharge, increased residence time and dissolution of suspended material, and, to a lesser degree, reduced photosynthesis due to less transparency in the Lagarfljót lagoon. The removal of particulate material and thus decreasing adsorption potential in the Jökulsá á Dal is the likely reason for the Fe flux increase. In contrast, approximately 85% of the original riverine transported mass of particulate material is trapped by the dam; that which passes tends to be relatively fine grained, increasing the average specific surface area of that which continues to flow towards the ocean. Consequently, the particulate geometric surface area flux is decreased by only 50% due to the damming. The blooming of silica diatoms during the spring consumes dissolved silica from the coastal waters until it becomes

  20. Parental history of lupus and rheumatoid arthritis and risk in offspring in a nationwide cohort study: does sex matter?

    PubMed

    Somers, Emily C; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2013-04-01

    To examine the familial risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including juvenile rheumatoid/idiopathic arthritis (JRA), in a population-based setting; and to determine whether patterns of transmission differ according to the sex of the parent or offspring, in order to provide insight into the potential impact of X-chromosomal factors on sex disparities in these autoimmune diseases. A population-based cohort of parent-offspring triads from Denmark (1977-2010) was established. SLE and RA incidence rates among offspring were calculated, and Cox regression was performed to assess the sex-specific risk of disease in offspring according to maternal or paternal disease history. Among 3 513 817 parent-offspring triads, there were 1258 SLE cases among offspring (1095 female, 163 male) and 9118 cases of RA/JRA (6086 female, 3032 male). Among female offspring, SLE risk was nearly the same according to maternal (HR 14.1) or paternal (HR 14.5) history (p=NS); likewise among male offspring, risk according to maternal (HR 5.5) and paternal (no cases) history were similar (p=NS). For RA, all risk estimates were similar, regardless of the sex of the offspring or parent (HR 2.6-2.9; p=NS). The authors quantified the familial risk of SLE and RA in a nationwide cohort study. For both diseases, transmission was comparable among both female and male offspring of maternal and paternal cases. These data provide evidence at the population level that X-chromosomal factors do not play a major role in sex disparities associated with the risk of SLE and RA.

  1. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile and offspring's lipids and glycaemic control at age 5-6 years: The ABCD study.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Noekie; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2016-10-15

    Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile might influence offspring's lipids and glycaemic control, through an increased offspring's fat percentage. This explorative study investigates whether maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipids and glycaemic control independently of offspring's fat percentage and if these associations are mediated by offspring's fat percentage. Possible sex differences in these associations are also examined. 1133 mother-child pairs of the prospective ABCD-study were included. Maternal non-fasting lipids were collected in early pregnancy: triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and free fatty acids (FFA). Fasting triglycerides, TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose and C-peptide were assessed in offspring aged 5-6 years and HOMA2-IR was calculated. After adjustment for covariates, strongest associations were found between maternal TC and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.141 (0.074-0.207); girls β(95%CI) = 0.268 (0.200; 0.336)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.114 (0.052; 0.176); girls β(95%CI) = 0.247 (0.181-0.312)), maternal ApoB and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.638 (0.311-0.965); girls β(95%CI) = 1.121 (0.766-1.475)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.699 (0.393-1.005); girls β(95%CI) = 1.198 (0.868-1.529)), and maternal ApoA1 and offspring's HDL (only boys β(95%CI) = 0.221 (0.101-0.341)). No significant association was found between maternal lipids and offspring's glycaemic control, and offspring's fat percentage played no mediating role. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipid profile in childhood, with overall stronger associations in girls. This study provides further evidence that lowering lipid levels during pregnancy might be beneficial for the long term health of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  2. Synthesis of juvenile salmonid passage studies at The Dalles Dam volume II: 2001 - 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.E.; Beeman, J.W.; Duran , I.N.; Puls, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. From 2001, when Ploskey et al. (2001a) completed their review of 1982-2000 research, through 2005, the USACE has funded over $20M of research in at least 40 studies. The purpose of this current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2005.

  3. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Craggy Dam, Asheville, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-02-08

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Craggy Dam near Asheville, NC for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 23 ft., was built in 1903 for electric power generation, and is currently unused. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site is feasible, that more power can be produced than can be used by the owner, i.e., the Metropolitan Sewer District of Asheville, and that excess power can be sold to the Carolina Power and Light Co. (LCL)

  4. Persistent influence of maternal obesity on offspring health: Mechanisms from animal models and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Wankhade, Umesh D; Thakali, Keshari M; Shankar, Kartik

    2016-11-05

    The consequences of excessive maternal weight and adiposity at conception for the offspring are now well recognized. Maternal obesity increases the risk of overweight and obesity even in children born with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) birth weights. Studies in animal models have employed both caloric excess and manipulation of macronutrients (especially high-fat) to mimic hypercaloric intake present in obesity. Findings from these studies show transmission of susceptibility to obesity, metabolic dysfunction, alterations in glucose homeostasis, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle metabolism and neuroendocrine changes in the offspring. This review summarizes the essential literature in this area in both experimental and clinical domains and focuses on the translatable aspects of these experimental studies. Moreover this review highlights emerging mechanisms broadly explaining maternal obesity-associated developmental programming. The roles of early developmental alterations and placental adaptations are also reviewed. Increasing evidence also points to changes in the epigenome and other emerging mechanisms such as alterations in the microbiome that may contribute to persistent changes in the offspring. Finally, we examine potential interventions that have been employed in clinical cohorts.

  5. Effects of maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents on offspring visual functioning: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Till, C; Westall, C A; Rovet, J F; Koren, G

    2001-09-01

    Previous studies in adults and animals with high level exposure to organic solvents suggested impairments in visual functioning. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effects of maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy on offspring color vision and visual acuity, the development of which may be especially vulnerable to organic solvent exposure. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 32 offspring of women who were exposed occupationally to organic solvents during pregnancy compared with 27 nonexposed children. Monocular and binocular color vision and visual acuity were assessed using the Minimalist Test and the Cardiff Cards, respectively. Children with known hereditary color vision loss were excluded. Solvent-exposed children had significantly higher error scores on red-green and blue-yellow color discrimination, as well as poorer visual acuity compared with the control group. Exposure index (an estimated measure of exposure intensity) was not significantly related to color discrimination or visual acuity score. Despite excluding all children with a known family history of color vision loss, clinical red-green color vision loss was found among 3 of the 32 exposed children compared with none of the matched controls. These preliminary findings suggest that occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of color vision and visual acuity impairment in offspring. The importance of routine visual function screening in risk assessment after prenatal exposure to chemicals warrants further attention. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Sleep characteristics in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Sebela, Antonin; Novak, Tomas; Kemlink, David; Goetz, Michal

    2017-05-26

    Impairment of sleep and circadian rhythm is a typical feature of bipolar disorder (BD). We carried out an exploratory cross-sectional case-control study to extend the knowledge of sleep characteristics in offspring at risk for BD. We investigated 42 offspring of bipolar parents (OB) (mean age 12.5 ± 3.2) and 42 sex and age matched comparison offspring of healthy parents. We administered the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire and The General Behavior Inventory Sleep Subscale (GBISS) to assess circadian preference, and to identify sleep impairment symptoms. In addition, the participants completed 14 days of actigraphy to characterise sleep and wake patterns. The current psychopathology profile was assessed using Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms was higher among OB than controls (headache after waking up, 17.9% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.03; excessive daytime sleepiness, 38.5% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.004; apparent tiredness at wake-up times, 43.6% vs. 15.0%, p = 0.007 and nightmares, 21.6% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.01), but the differences between groups were not significant after adjusting for current psychopathology. OB had higher GBISS total score (parental version, p < 0.001; self-assessment, p = 0.07) than the controls. OB had higher preference for eveningness than the controls (p = 0.047). According to the actigraphy, OB had longer sleep onset latency (p = 0.048) than the controls. Evidence suggests that the offspring of bipolar parents experience sleep disturbance symptoms, which was associated with psychopathology in this study. Prospective longitudinal sleep studies would clarify whether sleep disturbance could be a predictor of mood disorder onset in this high-risk population.

  7. Childhood IQ of parents related to characteristics of their offspring: linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 to the Midspan Family Study.

    PubMed

    Hart, C L; Deary, I J; Smith, G Davey; Upton, M N; Whalley, L J; Starr, J M; Hole, D J; Wilson, V; Watt, G C M

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between childhood IQ of parents and characteristics of their adult offspring. It was a prospective family cohort study linked to a mental ability survey of the parents and set in Renfrew and Paisley in Scotland. Participants were 1921-born men and women who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey in 1932 and the Renfrew/Paisley study in the 1970s, and whose offspring took part in the Midspan Family study in 1996. There were 286 offspring from 179 families. Parental IQ was related to some, but not all characteristics of offspring. Greater parental IQ was associated with taller offspring. Parental IQ was inversely related to number of cigarettes smoked by offspring. Higher parental IQ was associated with better education, offspring social class and offspring deprivation category. There were no significant relationships between parental IQ and offspring systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, lung function, weight, body mass index, waist hip ratio, housing, alcohol consumption, marital status, car use and exercise. Structural equation modelling showed parental IQ associated with offspring education directly and mediated via parental social class. Offspring education was associated with offspring smoking and social class. The smoking finding may have implications for targeting of health education.

  8. Family type and criminal behaviour of male offspring: the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sauvola, Anu; Koskinen, Outi; Jokelainen, Jari; Hakko, Helinä; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2002-06-01

    Unstable family environment during childhood is known to predispose to juvenile delinquency. This study explored whether childhood family structure is associated with violent behaviour of adult offspring. We used a large, unselected general population birth cohort (n = 5589 males) linked with the national crime registers (up to the age of 32 years). The Ministry of Justice provided information on registered offences for all subjects. A logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between family type and criminality (violent and non-violent crimes). We found that single-parent family "at birth" (adj. OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.8-7.0) and "all time" (up to the age of 14 years) (adj. OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.5-10.6) were risk factors for violent offences of an adult offspring. Also parental death (adj. OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.6) and divorce (adj. OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-3.7) doubled the risk for violence. Non-violent offences were associated only with parental death and, divorce. A single-parent family of origin is strongly associated with later violent criminality of male offspring. Further studies are needed to explore the psychosocial aspects of single-parent family environment which may promote the vulnerability to violent offending in adulthood.

  9. A pilot study examining germline minisatellite mutations in the offspring of Danish childhood and adolescent cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    REES, GWEN S.; TRIKIC, MICHAEL Z.; WINTHER, JEANETTE F.; TAWN, E. JANET; STOVALL, MARILYN; OLSEN, JØRGEN H.; RECHNITZER, CATHERINE; SCHRØDER, HENRIK; GULDBERG, PER; BOICE, JOHN D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate germline mutation rate at eight minisatellite loci in 24 Danish families, where one parent is the survivor of childhood or adolescent cancer treated with radiotherapy. Materials and methods Parents and offspring were profiled for eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern blotting. Results Seven paternal mutations were observed for 130 informative alleles in 18 offspring from 11 radiation-exposed fathers (mean preconceptional dose for offspring 0.29 Gy, range <0.01 - 1.2 Gy), compared to six mutations for 146 informative alleles in 21 offspring from 13 unexposed fathers. No statistically significant difference between the total paternal mutation rates was observed (5.4% for exposed fathers and 4.1% for unexposed fathers). Three maternal mutations were observed for 148 informative alleles in 21 offspring from 13 radiation-exposed mothers (mean preconceptional dose for offspring 0.71 Gy, range <0.01 - 9.2 Gy), compared to one mutation for 130 informative alleles in 18 offspring from 11 unexposed mothers. Again, no statistically significant difference was observed between the total maternal mutation rates (2.0% for exposed mothers and 0.8% for unexposed mothers). Conclusions The data from this pilot study demonstrate no statistically significant increase in germline minisatellite mutation rate associated with radiotherapy for childhood and adolescent cancer. PMID:16638712

  10. Association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with aerobic fitness of offspring in young adulthood: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hagnäs, M P; Cederberg, H; Jokelainen, J; Mikkola, I; Rajala, U; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and maternal smoking with aerobic fitness in young men aged 19-20 years. A 19-year prospective cohort study. Data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) and the Sodankylä Jaeger Brigade, Finland, in 2005-6. Mothers and the 508 offspring in the NFBC 1986 who entered military service at the Sodankylä Jaeger Brigade in 2005. Associations of weight, 12-minute running test (Cooper test), and muscle fitness index (MFI) of offspring on entry to military service were evaluated with antenatal factors, including maternal smoking, pre-pregnancy BMI, and GWG. Aerobic and muscle fitness of the offspring were evaluated by the Cooper test and MFI. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with lower aerobic fitness of male adolescents, measured by the Cooper test (2356 m; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 2265-2446 m), compared with the offspring of mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy (2537 m, 95% CI 2499-2574 m). This association was independent of the BMIs of both the mother and the offspring, GWG, and the smoking and physical activity of offspring (regression coefficient -140.6 m, 95% CI -273.1 to -8.0 m). High maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG were also associated with lower aerobic fitness of the offspring; however, this association was mediated via the weight of the offspring. Maternal smoking during pregnancy may have a negative impact on the aerobic fitness of the offspring. Study shows that young men have lower aerobic fitness if their mothers smoked during pregnancy. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Birthweight of Offspring and Mortality of Parents: The Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Yechiel; Paltiel, Ora; Manor, Orly; Deutsch, Lisa; Yanetz, Rivka; Calderon, Ronit; Siscovick, David S.; Harlap, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between birthweight in offspring and mortality in their parents. Distinguishing between risks of outcomes in mothers from fathers potentially provides clues as to the relative roles of genetic versus non-genetic mechanisms underlying these associations.. Methods We studied total and cause-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of 37,718 mothers and 38,002 fathers whose offspring were delivered in West Jerusalem during 1964–76, after an average follow-up of 34.12 years Results Hazard models controlling for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics indicated a U-shaped relationship between offspring’s birthweight and overall mortality, deaths from CHD, circulatory and other non-neoplastic causes in their mothers. Higher CHD mortality rates were observed among mothers who gave birth to babies with low (HR=2.13; 95%CI 1.40–3.25) and high birthweight (HR=1.98; 95%CI 1.36–2.88), as compared to mothers whose offspring weighed 2500–3999 gr at birth. Adjustment for maternal pre-eclampsia, slightly attenuated these results. Multivariate models indicated a negative linear relationship (HR=0.95, 95%CI 0.91–0.99) between offspring’s birthweight and overall mortality in their fathers. Unlike the association in mothers, the relation was noted primarily with deaths from “other causes”. Conclusions Birthweight of offspring is associated with parental mortality although the relation differs for fathers and mothers. These findings broaden previous observations that intra-uterine events have long-term consequences for adult health and support the need to explore genetic and/or environmental mechanisms underlying these associations. PMID:17855119

  12. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring: The GUSTO Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Lek, Ngee; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-11-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother-offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00-0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01-0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (-0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (-0.04 to 0.10; P = 0.35), and 0.05 (-0

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities among Offspring of Childhood-Cancer Survivors in Denmark: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Jeanette Falck; Boice Jr., John D.; Mulvihill, John J.; Stovall, Marilyn; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tawn, E. Janet; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and many cancer drugs have the potential to produce germ-cell mutations that might lead to genetic disease in the next generation. In a population-based study, we identified, from records in the Danish Cancer Registry, 4,676 children treated for cancer. Their 6,441 siblings provided a comparison cohort. The results of a search of the Central Population Register identified 2,630 live-born offspring of the survivors and 5,504 live-born offspring of their siblings. The occurrence of abnormal karyotypes diagnosed in these offspring and also in any pregnancies terminated following prenatal diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality was determined from the Danish Cytogenetic Registry. After exclusion of hereditary cases and inclusion of the prenatal cases, after correction for expected viability, the adjusted proportion of live-born children in survivor families with abnormal karyotypes (5.5/2,631.5 [0.21%]) was the same as that among the comparison sibling families (11.8/5,505.8 [0.21%]). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of Down syndrome (relative risk [RR]=1.07; 95% CI 0.16–5.47) or Turner syndrome (RR=1.32; 95% CI 0.17–7.96) among the children of cancer survivors, compared with the children of their siblings. These reassuring results are of importance to the survivors, to their families, and to genetic counselors. PMID:15106125

  14. Association of parental obesity with concentrations of select systemic biomarkers in nonobese offspring: the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Pencina, Michael J; Lanier, Katherine J; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Levy, Daniel; Fox, Caroline S; Wang, Thomas J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2009-01-01

    Parental obesity is a risk factor for offspring obesity. It is unclear whether parental obesity also confers risk for obesity-associated conditions (e.g., a proinflammatory or prothrombotic state) in the absence of offspring obesity. We compared concentrations of multiple biomarkers representing distinct biological pathways (C-reactive protein [CRP], aldosterone, renin, B-type natriuretic peptide, NH(2)-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) in nonobese Framingham Offspring Study participants with no parents (n = 665), one parent (n = 488), or two parents (n = 119) with obesity (BMI > or =30 kg/m(2)). Nonobese offspring with both parents with obesity had higher CRP levels (median 2.16 mg/l) than offspring with one parent (1.58 mg/l) or no parents (1.35 mg/l) with obesity. After multivariable adjustment, a nonlinear relationship with parental obesity became evident: compared with those without parental obesity, CRP levels were higher in offspring with two obese parents (P = 0.04) but not in offspring with only one obese parent (P = 0.76). Renin levels were more linearly related to parental obesity status, being significantly higher in offspring with one parent (P = 0.04) or two parents (P = 0.09) with obesity (P = 0.02 for trend). The other systemic biomarkers did not vary according to parental obesity status (all P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that offspring with a high risk of developing obesity have an altered biomarker profile, characterized by systemic inflammation and increased neurohormonal activity, even in the absence of obesity. This is consistent with the notion that parental obesity may confer an increased susceptibility to other adiposity-associated traits.

  15. Associations Between Depression and Obesity in Parents and Their Late-Adolescent Offspring: A Community-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R; Iacono, William G

    2016-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity are associated within individuals, but little is known about the association between MDD and obesity within families. We hypothesized that parental MDD would predict increased risk for adolescent obesity and that parental obesity would predict increased risk for adolescent MDD. Participants were drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 7307; 17 years old: n = 3774). Parents and their 17-year-old offspring were assessed for MDD using a structured diagnostic interview, and direct assessments of height and weight were conducted (and diagnoses of obesity were derived from these measurements). Parental MDD was associated with offspring obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24-2.46). ORs representing the risk associated with maternal and paternal MDD were similar (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.02-1.92; OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 0.88-2.20, respectively). This parental effect remained significant when adjusting for parental obesity and offspring MDD (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.18-2.37). Maternal obesity was associated with increased risk for MDD in offspring (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06-1.64), but paternal obesity was associated with decreased risk for MDD among offspring (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54-0.91). These effects remained significant when adjusting for parental MDD and offspring obesity (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.07-1.73; OR = 0.65, CI = 0.49-0.87, respectively). There were no differences in these findings by offspring sex (p values for all tests of a sex interaction term > .374). We found general support for hypothesized cross-disorder associations between MDD and obesity in parents and offspring, suggesting that a shared etiology may underlie these associations. Contrary to prediction, paternal obesity was associated with decreased risk for offspring MDD, a finding that requires further investigation.

  16. A study of suspended solids in the Requena Dam by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuara, P. R.; Hidalgo, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was applied to a preliminary study of suspended solids in the Requena Dam. Aerial and terrestrial photographs were analyzed by photointerpretation and microdensitometry. Field measurements and sampling were also made. A relationship between ground data for the concentration of suspended solids and the transmissibility of the aerial infrared film was suggested.

  17. Diet-Induced Maternal Obesity Alters Insulin Signalling in Male Mice Offspring Rechallenged with a High-Fat Diet in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fante, Thaís de; Simino, Laís Angélica; Reginato, Andressa; Payolla, Tanyara Baliani; Vitoréli, Débora Cristina Gustavo; Souza, Monique de; Torsoni, Márcio Alberto; Milanski, Marciane; Torsoni, Adriana Souza

    2016-01-01

    Modern lifestyle has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in pregnant women and the young population. It has been well established that the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) has many direct effects on glucose metabolism. However, it is important to assess whether maternal consumption of a HFD during critical periods of development can lead to metabolic changes in the offspring metabolism. This study evaluated the potential effects of metabolic programming on the impairment of insulin signalling in recently weaned offspring from obese dams. Additionally, we investigated if early exposure to an obesogenic environment could exacerbate the impairment of glucose metabolism in adult life in response to a HFD. Swiss female mice were fed with Standard Chow (SC) or a HFD during gestation and lactation and tissues from male offspring were analysed at d28 and d82. Offspring from obese dams had greater weight gain and higher adiposity and food intake than offspring from control dams. Furthermore, they showed impairment in insulin signalling in central and peripheral tissues, which was associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Adipose tissue was ultimately the most affected in adult offspring after HFD rechallenge; this may have contributed to the metabolic deregulation observed. Overall, our results suggest that diet-induced maternal obesity leads to increased susceptibility to obesity and impairment of insulin signalling in offspring in early and late life that cannot be reversed by SC consumption, but can be aggravated by HFD re-exposure.

  18. Diet-Induced Maternal Obesity Alters Insulin Signalling in Male Mice Offspring Rechallenged with a High-Fat Diet in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    de Fante, Thaís; Simino, Laís Angélica; Reginato, Andressa; Payolla, Tanyara Baliani; Vitoréli, Débora Cristina Gustavo; de Souza, Monique; Torsoni, Márcio Alberto; Milanski, Marciane; Torsoni, Adriana Souza

    2016-01-01

    Modern lifestyle has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in pregnant women and the young population. It has been well established that the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) has many direct effects on glucose metabolism. However, it is important to assess whether maternal consumption of a HFD during critical periods of development can lead to metabolic changes in the offspring metabolism. This study evaluated the potential effects of metabolic programming on the impairment of insulin signalling in recently weaned offspring from obese dams. Additionally, we investigated if early exposure to an obesogenic environment could exacerbate the impairment of glucose metabolism in adult life in response to a HFD. Swiss female mice were fed with Standard Chow (SC) or a HFD during gestation and lactation and tissues from male offspring were analysed at d28 and d82. Offspring from obese dams had greater weight gain and higher adiposity and food intake than offspring from control dams. Furthermore, they showed impairment in insulin signalling in central and peripheral tissues, which was associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Adipose tissue was ultimately the most affected in adult offspring after HFD rechallenge; this may have contributed to the metabolic deregulation observed. Overall, our results suggest that diet-induced maternal obesity leads to increased susceptibility to obesity and impairment of insulin signalling in offspring in early and late life that cannot be reversed by SC consumption, but can be aggravated by HFD re-exposure. PMID:27479001

  19. Appropriate small dam management for minimizing catchment-wide safety threats: International benchmarked guidelines and demonstrative cases studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne; Burritt, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Small dam safety is generally being ignored. The potential for dam failure resulting in catastrophic consequences for downstream communities, property, and the environment, warrants exploration of the threats and policy issues associated with the management of small/farm dams. The paper achieves this through a comparative analysis of differing levels of dam safety assurance policy: absent, driven, strong, and model. A strategic review is undertaken to establish international dam safety policy benchmarks and to identify a best practice model. A cost-effective engineering/accounting tool is presented to assist the policy selection process and complement the best practice model. The paper then demonstrates the significance of the small-dam safety problem with a case study of four Australian States,policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria, policy-strong New South Wales, and policy-modelTasmania. Surveys of farmer behavior practices provide empirical evidence of the importance of policy and its proper implementation. Both individual and cumulative farm dam failure threats are addressed and, with supporting empirical evidence, the need for "appropriate" supervision of small dams is demonstrated. The paper adds to the existing international dam policy literature by identifying acceptable minimum level practice in private/farm dam safety assurance policy as well as updated international best practice policy guidelines while providing case study demonstration of how to apply the guidelines and empirical reinforcement of the need for "appropriate" policy. The policy guidelines, cost-effective technology, and comparative lessons presented can assist any jurisdiction to determine and implement appropriate dam safety policy.

  20. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  1. Impact of earthquake-induced dammed lakes on channel evolution and bed mobility: Case study of the Tsaoling landslide dammed lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yin-Sung; Hsu, Yu-Hsiung

    2009-07-01

    SummaryOn May 12, 2008, a mega earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale hit Wenchuan, Sichuan province of China, causing severe casualties and damages. The tremor was felt by nearly all of Asia. The quake-induced landslides and sliding slopes also formed 34 dammed lakes of various sizes, each of which may bring serious potential disasters. Understandably, the earthquake-triggered dammed lakes and their ensuing disasters cause grave concerns worldwide. Similar devastation took place in Taiwan on September 21, 1999, when an earthquake of 7.3 on the Richter scale occurred with the epic center at Jiji in central Taiwan. The earthquake affected changes in the channel course and induced landslides to form several dammed lakes, among which a large dammed lake was created in the upstream Chingshui River with reservoir capacity of 42,000,000 m 3. Its size and potential problems therefore caused serious apprehension. A series of subsequent typhoon-induced torrential flooding events affected the channel forming processes to diverge drastically between the dammed lake and the landslide area, which presented a rare phenomenon for data observation and research. In the last century five dammed lakes had been formed in the area due to landslides, suggesting high possibility of future recurrence, particularly from earthquake activities. An investigation of the channel evolution in this area prior and post a quake, therefore, can assist in current disaster handling protocols and provide policy guidelines for future crisis management when landslides occur. Topographic changes in the study watershed, historical channel surveys, and past studies were gathered to aid the geomorphologic analysis. Channel evolution in the Tsaoling dammed lake and the landslide area was also investigated using a NETSTARS channel scour-deposition model by simulating the trends of erosion and deposition patterns under the influence of different recurrence interval flood peaks and streamflow time series

  2. Evaluation of the pseudostatic analyses of earth dams using Fe simulation and observed earthquake-induced deformations: case studies of Upper San Fernando and Kitayama dams.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Tohid; Nikkar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the accuracy of the pseudostatic approach is governed by the accuracy with which the simple pseudostatic inertial forces represent the complex dynamic inertial forces that actually exist in an earthquake. In this study, the Upper San Fernando and Kitayama earth dams, which have been designed using the pseudostatic approach and damaged during the 1971 San Fernando and 1995 Kobe earthquakes, were investigated and analyzed. The finite element models of the dams were prepared based on the detailed available data and results of in situ and laboratory material tests. Dynamic analyses were conducted to simulate the earthquake-induced deformations of the dams using the computer program Plaxis code. Then the pseudostatic seismic coefficient used in the design and analyses of the dams were compared with the seismic coefficients obtained from dynamic analyses of the simulated model as well as the other available proposed pseudostatic correlations. Based on the comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the pseudostatic seismic coefficients are evaluated and discussed.

  3. Evaluation of the Pseudostatic Analyses of Earth Dams Using FE Simulation and Observed Earthquake-Induced Deformations: Case Studies of Upper San Fernando and Kitayama Dams

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Tohid

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the accuracy of the pseudostatic approach is governed by the accuracy with which the simple pseudostatic inertial forces represent the complex dynamic inertial forces that actually exist in an earthquake. In this study, the Upper San Fernando and Kitayama earth dams, which have been designed using the pseudostatic approach and damaged during the 1971 San Fernando and 1995 Kobe earthquakes, were investigated and analyzed. The finite element models of the dams were prepared based on the detailed available data and results of in situ and laboratory material tests. Dynamic analyses were conducted to simulate the earthquake-induced deformations of the dams using the computer program Plaxis code. Then the pseudostatic seismic coefficient used in the design and analyses of the dams were compared with the seismic coefficients obtained from dynamic analyses of the simulated model as well as the other available proposed pseudostatic correlations. Based on the comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the pseudostatic seismic coefficients are evaluated and discussed. PMID:24616636

  4. Maternal Obesity during Gestation Impairs Fatty Acid Oxidation and Mitochondrial SIRT3 Expression in Rat Offspring at Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Borengasser, Sarah J.; Lau, Franchesca; Kang, Ping; Blackburn, Michael L.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.; Shankar, Kartik

    2011-01-01

    In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND)21. In the current study, we examined systemic and hepatic adaptations in male Sprague-Dawley offspring from lean and obese dams at PND21. Indirect calorimetry revealed decreases in energy expenditure (p<0.001) and increases in RER values (p<0.001), which were further exacerbated by high fat diet (45% kcals from fat) consumption indicating an impaired ability to utilize fatty acids in offspring of obese dams as analyzed by PRCF. Mitochondrial function is known to be associated with fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the liver. Several markers of hepatic mitochondrial function were reduced in offspring of obese dams. These included SIRT3 mRNA (p = 0.012) and mitochondrial protein content (p = 0.002), electron transport chain complexes (II, III, and ATPase), and fasting PGC-1α mRNA expression (p<0.001). Moreover, hepatic LCAD, a SIRT3 target, was not only reduced 2-fold (p<0.001) but was also hyperacetylated in offspring of obese dams (p<0.005) suggesting decreased hepatic FAO. In conclusion, exposure to maternal obesity contributes to early perturbations in whole body and liver energy metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be an underlying event that reduces hepatic fatty acid oxidation and precedes the development of detrimental obesity associated co-morbidities such as insulin resistance and NAFLD. PMID:21901160

  5. Modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure: a review of epidemiological studies of maternal age, diet, and smoking.

    PubMed

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2008-06-01

    Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero exposures on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal exposures were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: smoking during pregnancy, diet, and age at childbirth. Meta-analysis suggested there was a modest association between higher offspring BP and prenatal exposure to smoke (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.62 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.05, I = 16.4%). However, the level of confounder adjustment varied between studies, which in some studies attenuated the association to the null. There was no strong evidence that any component of maternal diet during pregnancy (maternal protein, energy, calcium, and various other nutrients) influences offspring BP. The results of studies of maternal age varied and there was strong evidence of heterogeneity in the pooled analysis. The association with maternal age, if present, was modest (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.09 mm Hg/y, 95% confidence interval: -0.03 to 0.21, I = 89.8%). In sum, there is little empirical evidence that the maternal exposures reviewed program offspring BP. Other components of offspring health may be more susceptible to effects of programming in utero.

  6. Modelling the Effects of Land-Use Changes on Climate: a Case Study on Yamula DAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köylü, Ü.; Geymen, A.

    2016-10-01

    Dams block flow of rivers and cause artificial water reservoirs which affect the climate and the land use characteristics of the river basin. In this research, the effect of the huge water body obtained by Yamula Dam in Kızılırmak Basin is analysed over surrounding spatial's land use and climate change. Mann Kendal non-parametrical statistical test, Theil&Sen Slope method, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) methods are integrated for spatial and temporal analysis of the research area. For this research humidity, temperature, wind speed, precipitation observations which are collected in 16 weather stations nearby Kızılırmak Basin are analyzed. After that these statistical information is combined by GIS data over years. An application is developed for GIS analysis in Python Programming Language and integrated with ArcGIS software. Statistical analysis calculated in the R Project for Statistical Computing and integrated with developed application. According to the statistical analysis of extracted time series of meteorological parameters, statistical significant spatiotemporal trends are observed for climate change and land use characteristics. In this study, we indicated the effect of big dams in local climate on semi-arid Yamula Dam.

  7. Modelling the impact of dam removal on geomorphic channel response and sediment delivery: an Austrian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Coulthard, Tom; Keesstra, Saskia; Keiler, Margreth

    2015-04-01

    Dams are often considered to have the most significant impact on rivers as dam construction generally reduces downstream sediment fluxes which further involves geomorphic changes in the affected river reaches. Since many dams no longer fulfill their intended purpose (e.g. due to siltation), are dangerous (e.g. catastrophic dam failures) and/or are ecologically damaging (e.g. habitat destruction), within the last two decades several dams have been removed and many more are already proposed for removal. Unfortunately, there is still only little empirical knowledge about the geomorphic consequences of dam removals and the related sediment release which represents a big challenge for river management. Modelling is one way to approach this problem. In the presented study we modelled the impacts of dam removal on geomorphic channel processes, channel morphology and sediment delivery further considering the role of channel engineering measures and reservoir excavation within a river reach impacted by a series of dams using the landscape evolution model CAESAR-Lisflood. The model was run with data from a small catchment located in Lower Austria. Modelled geomorphic channel changes and sediment fluxes were spatio-temporally analyzed, related to real-world data and are discussed in the context of river management issues.

  8. Social impacts of large dam projects: a comparison of international case studies and implications for best practice.

    PubMed

    Tilt, Bryan; Braun, Yvonne; He, Daming

    2009-07-01

    This paper applies the tool of social impact assessment (SIA) to understand the effects of large dam projects on human communities. We draw upon data from two recent SIA projects: the Lesotho Highlands Water Project in Southern Africa, and the Manwan Dam, located on the upper Mekong River in southwestern China. These two cases allow us to examine the social impacts of large dam projects through time and across various geographical scales. We focus on a range of social impacts common to many large-scale dam projects, including: the migration and resettlement of people near the dam sites; changes in the rural economy and employment structure; effects on infrastructure and housing; impacts on non-material or cultural aspects of life; and impacts on community health and gender relations. By identifying potential impacts in advance of a large dam project, agencies and policymakers can make better decisions about which interventions should be undertaken, and how. We conclude our analysis with an overview of lessons learned from the case studies and suggestions for best practice in assessing the social impacts of large dams. Conducting proper social impact assessments can help to promote development strategies that address the most important concerns for local populations, enhancing the long-term sustainability of dam projects.

  9. Gestational Heat Stress Alters Postnatal Offspring Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Parameters in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Seibert, Jacob T.; Johnson, Jay S.; Pearce, Sarah C.; Selsby, Joshua T.; Gabler, Nicholas K.; Lucy, Matthew C.; Safranski, Timothy J.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Ross, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    The study objectives were to test the hypothesis that heat stress (HS) during gestational development alters postnatal growth, body composition, and biological response to HS conditions in pigs. To investigate this, 14 first parity crossbred gilts were exposed to one of four environmental treatments (TNTN, TNHS, HSTN, or HSHS) during gestation. TNTN and HSHS dams were exposed to thermal neutral (TN, cyclical 18–22°C) or HS conditions (cyclical 28–34°C) during the entire gestation, respectively. Dams assigned to HSTN and TNHS treatments were heat-stressed for the first or second half of gestation, respectively. Postnatal offspring were exposed to one of two thermal environments for an acute (24 h) or chronic (five weeks) duration in either constant TN (21°C) or HS (35°C) environment. Exposure to chronic HS during their growth phase resulted in decreased longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area (LDA) in offspring from HSHS and HSTN treated dams whereas LDA was larger in offspring from dams in TNTN and TNHS conditions. Irrespective of HS during prepubertal postnatal growth, pigs from dams that experienced HS during the first half of gestation (HSHS and HSTN) had increased (13.9%) subcutaneous fat thickness compared to pigs from dams exposed to TN conditions during the first half of gestation. This metabolic repartitioning towards increased fat deposition in pigs from dams heat-stressed during the first half of gestation was accompanied by elevated blood insulin concentrations (33%; P = 0.01). Together, these results demonstrate HS during the first half of gestation altered metabolic and body composition parameters during future development and in biological responses to a subsequent HS challenge. PMID:25383953

  10. Maternal allergy acts synergistically with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy to induce hepatic fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Allina, Jorge; Grabowski, Jacquelin; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Fiel, M Isabel; Jackson, Christine E; Zelikoff, Judith T; Odin, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal environmental exposures during pregnancy are known to affect disease onset in adult offspring. For example, maternal asthma exacerbations during pregnancy can worsen adult asthma in the offspring. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with future onset of cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring susceptibility to liver disease. This pilot study examined the long-term effect of maternal allergen challenge and/or cigarette smoking during pregnancy on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in adult mouse offspring. Ovalbumin (OVA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-sensitized/challenged CD-1 dams were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) or filtered air from gestational day 4 until parturition. Eight weeks postnatally, offspring were sacrificed for comparison of hepatic histology and mRNA expression. Adult male offspring of OVA-sensitized/challenged dams exposed to MCS (OSM) displayed significantly increased liver fibrosis (9.2% collagen content vs. <4% for all other treatment groups). These mice also had 1.8-fold greater collagen 1A1 mRNA levels. From the results here, we concluded that maternal allergen challenge in combination with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may be an important risk factor for liver disease in adult male offspring.

  11. Effects of ethanol and folic acid consumption during pregnancy and lactation on basal enzymatic secretion in the duodenal juice of offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Cano, Ma José; Murillo, Ma Luisa; Delgado, Ma José; Carreras, Olimpia

    2003-09-01

    Studies on duodenal juice enzyme activities were carried out on suckling Wistar rats born to dams given ethanol during gestation and suckling. The results were compared with offspring of dams given diets containing no ethanol. Comparisons were also made with offspring of dams given ethanol and folic acid supplementation to observe whether a folate supplement could sufficiently reverse the negative effect of ethanol consumption. The dams were fed increased amounts of ethanol (5% to 20%, vol/vol) in tap water for 4 wk. The maximum quantity, 20% ethanol, was given to the dams during pregnancy and lactation. Offspring animals were randomized into three groups: control (CG), ethanol treated (EG), and ethanol plus folic acid (EFG). Body weight at birth and at 21 d after birth and pancreatic weight were lower in offspring after ethanol treatment. Folic acid supplement increased these parameters in the EFG. Under basal conditions, decreases in amylase, lipase, and chymotrypsin activities in the duodenal juice after ethanol treatment were detected. Serum and urine amylase activities also decreased in the EG and EFG. These changes were different in the ethanol-treated progenitors. In these progenitors, ethanol treatment increased serum amylase levels. In the offspring, amylase activities in the EFG decreased with respect to the CG; however, an increase in the EG was observed. In dams the folic acid supplement did not significantly alter the serum amylase activities. Lipase and chymotrypsin activities in the EFG were similar to those in the EG. An increase of serum and urine amylase in the EFG with respect to the EG was found. Our findings indicated that, under basal conditions, ethanol treatment during gestation and lactation negatively affects the digestive function in offspring. The effects of ethanol were slightly attenuated in rats supplemented with folic acid for amylase activities. Although extrapolation from animal studies can be tenuous, the present findings may

  12. Maternal anemia, iron intake in pregnancy, and offspring blood pressure in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Smith, George Davey; McArdle, Harry J; Ness, Andy R

    2008-10-01

    In animals, maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy results in elevated offspring blood pressure (BP). Studies in pregnant women are limited in number, have had inconsistent results, and have not accounted for maternal iron supplementation. The objective was to assess the association between maternal iron status during pregnancy and offspring BP. Maternal hemoglobin (n = 1255), iron supplementation (n = 7484), food-based iron intake (n = 7130), and offspring BP were assessed in a prospective cohort at 7 y of age. Maternal anemia during pregnancy was associated with lower systolic BP in the offspring at 7 y of age (third trimester, age- and sex-adjusted: beta = -1.09; 95% CI: -2.21, -0.05 mm Hg; P = 0.04). Adjustment for confounders attenuated this association (beta = -0.49; 95% CI: -1.71, 0.72 mm Hg; P = 0.4). In women who did not take iron supplements during pregnancy, the observed association with maternal anemia was even stronger: minimally adjusted models (beta = -2.11; 95% CI: -3.61, -0.61 mm Hg; P = 0.006) and fully adjusted models (beta = -1.48; 95% CI: -3.21, 0.25 mm Hg; P = 0.09). Iron supplementation was not associated with offspring BP after confounding by multivitamin intake was accounted for, and no association with iron intake from food was observed. In contrast with animal studies, maternal iron intake during pregnancy is not associated with offspring BP, and some evidence indicates that maternal anemia in contemporary pregnant women is associated with lower offspring BP. It is possible that, in well-nourished populations, low hemoglobin is more likely to reflect greater plasma volume expansion (and thus better maternal and offspring health) than iron deficiency.

  13. Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids affects body weight, serum leptin levels, and hypothalamic neuropeptide-Y expression in pre-pubertal female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Mikio; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    Glucocorticoid secretion is a key endocrine response to stress. It has been reported that prenatal stress induces long-lasting alterations in body weight regulation systems, which persist after the stress has ceased. In this study, the long-term effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on body weight changes and the expression of appetite-regulating factors were examined in female rats. Pregnant rats were given normal drinking water (control) or dexamethasone (1 μg/mL) dissolved in drinking water (DEX) from day 13 of pregnancy until delivery. Then, the body weight change, serum leptin levels, and hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels of their offspring were examined. The DEX dams gained significantly less body weight during pregnancy than the control dams. The DEX dams' offspring exhibited a significantly lower birth weight than the offspring of the control dams, and the same was true for body weight at postnatal days 20 and 28. The offspring of the DEX dams displayed significantly higher serum leptin levels and significantly lower hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels compared with the offspring of the control dams. Significant inverse correlations were detected between body weight and the serum leptin level, and between the serum leptin level and the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level. On the other hand, a significant positive correlation was detected between body weight and the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level. These results indicate that leptin production is increased in a long-lasting manner in offspring exposed to glucocorticoids during the prenatal period and that this results in attenuated body weight gain and hypothalamic NPY expression during the pre-pubertal period. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of the Seven Up Seven Down Inventory in bipolar offspring: screening and prediction of mood disorders. Findings from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Mesman, E; Youngstrom, E A; Juliana, N K; Nolen, W A; Hillegers, M H J

    2017-01-01

    To validate the Seven Up Seven Down (7U7D), an abbreviated version of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), as screener for mood disorders and test its ability to predict mood disorders over time in individuals at risk for bipolar disorder (BD). Bipolar offspring (n=108) were followed from adolescence into adulthood and assessed at baseline, 1-, 5- and 12 years follow-up (T1-T4 respectively). Offspring were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime Version, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the GBI. Performance of the GBI and 7U7D was functionally similar for the depression (7D) scale, but variable for the mania (7U) scale. As screener for mood disorders (T4), the 7D showed fair diagnostic efficiency (area under the curve (AUC) 0.68, p<0.01, OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.03). The discriminative validity for BD and unipolar disorder was only close to significant (7D AUC 0.66, p=0.078; 7U AUC 0.67, p=0.067). In terms of prediction of mood disorder onset between T1 and T4, the 7D, but not the 7U, was associated with new onset (AUC 0.67, p<0.05; HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.23). The 7U7D did not achieve significant prediction of BD. Relative small sample size and limited generalizability. Based on the current study, the 7U7D shows limited potential as screening instrument for mood disorders in bipolar offspring. The clinical utility of the 7U7D needs further exploration for use in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of obesity in offspring: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, D-K; Ferber, J R; Odouli, R

    2015-04-01

    In-utero exposures through adverse fetal programming are emerging as an important contributing factor to the epidemic of childhood obesity. This study examines the impact of in-utero exposure to caffeine on the risk of childhood obesity in offspring. A prospective study of pregnant women with 15 years follow-up of their offspring was conducted to examine the impact of in-utero exposure to caffeine on the risk of childhood obesity. Maternal caffeine intake was prospectively ascertained during pregnancy and outcome measures (body mass index (BMI)) were ascertained from medical charts, with 17 BMI measurements per child, on average, during the follow-up period. Potential confounders including known perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity were adjusted for using the generalized estimating equations model with repeated measurements. After controlling for potential confounders, compared with those without caffeine exposure, in-utero exposure to caffeine overall is associated with 87% increased risk of childhood obesity: odds ratio (OR) =1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-3.12. This association demonstrated a dose-response relationship: OR=1.77 (1.05-3.00) for maternal daily caffeine intake <150 mg per day, OR=2.37 (1.24-4.52) for caffeine intake ⩾150 mg per day during pregnancy, respectively. We also observed a linear relationship: every one unit increase (log10 scale) in the amount of maternal caffeine intake was associated with 23% increased risk of obesity in offspring. The dose-response relationship appears stronger for persistent obesity than for transitory obesity (occasional high BMI), and for girls than for boys. We observed an association of in-utero exposure to caffeine with increased risk of childhood obesity. If this observation is further replicated in other studies, the finding will contribute to the understanding of fetal programming of childhood diseases and development of intervention strategy to prevent childhood obesity.

  16. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts. PMID:22943578

  17. Maternal consumption of high-prebiotic fibre or -protein diets during pregnancy and lactation differentially influences satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Alannah D; Reimer, Raylene A

    2011-02-01

    Risk of developing the metabolic syndrome may be influenced by nutritional environment early in life. We examined the effects of high-fibre (HF) and high-protein (HP) diets consumed during pregnancy and lactation on satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring. Wistar dams were fed a control (C), HF or HP diets during pregnancy and lactation. At parturition, litters were culled to ten pups. At 21 d, all pups were weaned onto C diet. At 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d after birth, blood was analysed for satiety hormones and tissues for mRNA expression in offspring. No differences were observed in litter size or birth weight. At 21 d, offspring of HF dams had greater adjusted intestinal mass and lower liver weight than those of C but not of HP dams. Plasma glucose at 28 d and amylin at 7, 14 and 28 d were lower in HF v. C and HP offspring. Glucagon-like peptide-1 was higher in HP offspring than in HF offspring at 7 d but was higher in HF v. C offspring at 21 d. Offspring of HF dams had higher glucose transporter (GLUT2 and Na+-dependent glucose/galactose transporter) mRNA expression at 21 d v. C and HP offspring. In brown adipose tissue, HF and HP up-regulated uncoupling protein-1 and PPAR-γ coactivator. HP was associated with increased resistin and IL-6 mRNA expression. The present study demonstrates that maternal diet composition differentially regulates circulating satiety hormones and genes involved in glucose transport and energy metabolism in offspring. These early changes could have long-term consequences for obesity risk.

  18. Impact assessment of gilgel gibe hydroelectric dam on schitosomiasis: a cross sectional study in southwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yami, Alemeshet; Kebede, Sileshi; Mamo, Yoseph

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent in East Africa including Ethiopia. Constructed five years back, Gilgel Gibe dam is suspected to harbor the intermediate host for transmission of schistosomiasis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and risk factors among school children. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2008 in four Woredas bordering Gilgel Gibe dam, within 10 kilometers, and Bulbul, which is 30 Kms away from the dam. Children attending grades 1-8 in the schools located adjacent to the dam constituted the cases and those living in Bulbul constitute the controls. Using Epinfo version 6.0 for cross-sectional study, a sample size of 937 was determined. Sample size allocation was done 2:1 for cases and control. After interview, stool sample was collected and analyzed. Screening for the presence of intermediate host and physiochemical analyses of selected water bodies along the major water contact sites of the reservoir was also done Data were entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 13.0.1. Out of 624 sampled cases and 312 controls, 585 and 270 participated in the study giving a response rate of 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. Four hundred seventy four (81.0% of the cases and 203 (75.2%) controls use latrine regularly. On stool examination, 406 (47.5%) children, 295 (50.4%) cases and 111 (41.1%) controls) were positive to intestinal parasites but only two children, both from the control groups, were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The three river water samples on which malacological survey was done had similar physicochemical characteristics in many ways except high conductivity, pH and percent of dissolved oxygen concentration (milligram per liter) at one site where uninfected Biomphilaria Pfeifferi was found The study revealed that schistosomiasis is not yet a problem at Gilgel-Gibe dam. But, continuous surveying is required as the intermediate host is

  19. Gestational Atrazine Exposure: Effects on Male Reproductive Development and Metabolite Distribution in the Dam, Fetus, and Neonate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of atrazine (ATR)following in utero exposure. We evaluated the effects of gestational exposure of Sprague Dawley dams to ATR (0, 1, 5.20, or 100 mg/Kg-d) on the reproductive development of male offspring. We also quantified the...

  20. Gestational Atrazine Exposure: Effects on Male Reproductive Development and Metabolite Distribution in the Dam, Fetus, and Neonate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of atrazine (ATR)following in utero exposure. We evaluated the effects of gestational exposure of Sprague Dawley dams to ATR (0, 1, 5.20, or 100 mg/Kg-d) on the reproductive development of male offspring. We also quantified the...

  1. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure results in dysfunction of the renal dopamine D1 receptor in offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinquan; Luo, Hao; Chen, Caiyu; Chen, Ken; Wang, Jialiang; Cai, Yue; Zheng, Shuo; Yang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Lin; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu

    2014-11-01

    Adverse environment in early life can modulate the adult phenotype, including blood pressure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in utero results in increased blood pressure in the offspring, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. Studies have shown that the renal dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) plays an important role in maintaining sodium homeostasis and normal blood pressure; dysfunction of D1R is associated with oxidative stress and hypertension. In this study, we determined if dysfunction of the renal D1R is involved in fetal-programmed hypertension, and if oxidative stress contributes to this process. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) or saline at gestation days 8, 10, and 12. As compared with saline-injected (control) dams, offspring of LPS-treated dams had increased blood pressure, decreased renal sodium excretion, and increased markers of oxidative stress. In addition, offspring of LPS-treated dams had decreased renal D1R expression, increased D1R phosphorylation, and G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 2 (GRK2) and type 4 (GRK4) protein expression, and impaired D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis. All of the findings in the offspring of LPS-treated dams were normalized after treatment with TEMPOL, an oxygen free radical scavenger. In conclusion, prenatal LPS exposure, via an increase in oxidative stress, impairs renal D1R function and leads to hypertension in the offspring. Normalization of renal D1R function by amelioration of oxidative stress may be a therapeutic target of fetal programming of hypertension.

  2. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (P<.05) at weaning (50.3, 29.6 vs 59.1±0.8 g) and at 18 weeks of age (420, 369 vs 464±10.9 g). At 18 weeks of age, offspring from fructose dams expressed greater quantities (P<.05) of intestinal Pgc1a messenger RNA compared with offspring from control or low-protein dams (1.31 vs 0.89, 0.85; confidence interval, 0.78-1.04). Similarly, maternal fructose (P=.09) and low-protein (P<.05) consumption increased expression of Pgc1a in offspring liver (7.24, 2.22 vs 1.22; confidence interval, 2.11-3.45). These data indicate that maternal fructose feeding is a programming model that shares some features of maternal protein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Biomarker Profiles in Women with PCOS and PCOS Offspring; A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Daan, Nadine M. P.; Koster, Maria P. H.; de Wilde, Marlieke A.; Dalmeijer, Gerdien W.; Evelein, Annemieke M. V.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; de Jager, Wilco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study metabolic/inflammatory biomarker risk profiles in women with PCOS and PCOS offspring. Design Cross-sectional comparison of serum biomarkers. Setting University Medical Center Utrecht. Patients Hyperandrogenic PCOS women (HA-PCOS, n = 34), normoandrogenic PCOS women (NA-PCOS, n = 34), non-PCOS reference population (n = 32), PCOS offspring (n = 14, age 6–8 years), and a paedriatic reference population (n = 30). Main Outcome Measure(s) Clustering profile of adipocytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TNF-α, adiponectin, adipsin, leptin, chemerin, resistin, RBP4, DPP-IV/sCD26, CCL2/MCP-1), growth factors (PIGF, VEGF, sVEGF-R1), soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM-1/sCD54, sVCAM-1/sCD106), and other inflammatory related proteases (MMP-9, S100A8, Cathepsin S). Differences in median biomarker concentrations between groups, and associations with the free androgen index (FAI; Testosterone/SHBG x100). Results The cluster analysis identified leptin, RBP-4, DPP-IV and adiponectin as potential discriminative markers for HA-PCOS with a specifically strong correlation in cases with increased BMI. Leptin (R2 = 0.219) and adiponectin (R2 = 0.182) showed the strongest correlation with the FAI. When comparing median protein concentrations adult PCOS women with or without hyperandrogenemia, the most profound differences were observed for leptin (P < 0.001), DPP-IV (P = 0.005), and adiponectin (P < 0.001). Adjusting for age, BMI and multiple testing attenuated all differences. In PCOS offspring, MMP-9 (P = 0.001) and S100A8 (P < 0.001) concentrations were significantly higher compared to a healthy matched reference population, even after correcting for age and BMI and adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion In this preliminary investigation we observed significant differences in adipocytokines between women with or without hyperandrogenic PCOS and non-PCOS controls, mostly influenced by BMI. Leptin and adiponectin showed the strongest correlation with

  4. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring growth in childhood: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Brion, Marie-Jo; Menezes, Ana M; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring growth using three approaches: (1) multiple adjustments for socioeconomic and parental factors, (2) maternal–paternal comparisons as a test of putative intrauterine effects and (3) comparisons between two birth cohort studies. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993 and 2004. Cohort members were followed up at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between maternal and paternal prenatal smoking and offspring anthropometric indices. In the 2004 cohort, the association of smoking with trunk length, leg length and leg-to-sitting-height ratio at 48 months was also explored. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with reduced z scores of length/height-for-age at each follow-up in both cohorts and reduced leg length at 48 months in the 2004 cohort. Children older than 3 months born to smoking women showed a higher body mass index-for-age z score than children of non-smoking women. Conclusions The results of this study strongly support the hypothesis that maternal smoking during pregnancy impairs linear growth and promotes overweight in childhood. PMID:21377989

  5. Maternal trans fat intake during pregnancy or lactation impairs memory and alters BDNF and TrkB levels in the hippocampus of adult offspring exposed to chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Veit, Juliana Cristiana; Maurer, Luana Haselein; Duarte, Thiago; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Duarte, Marta; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy or lactation on memory of adult offspring after chronic mild stress (CMS) exposure. Female Wistar rats were supplemented daily with soybean oil/fish oil (SO/FO) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) by oral gavage (3.0g/kg body weight) during pregnancy or lactation. On post-natal day (PND) 60, half of the animals were exposed to CMS following behavioral assessments. While the adult offspring born under influence of SO/FO and HVF supplementations during pregnancy showed higher levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) series DHA and ARA metabolites, respectively, in the hippocampus, adult offspring born from supplemented dams during lactation showed higher levels of their precursors: ALA and LA. However, only HVF supplementation allowed TFA incorporation of adult offspring, and levels were higher in lactation period. Adult offspring born from dams supplemented with trans fat in both pregnancy and lactation showed short and long-term memory impairments before and after CMS. Furthermore, our study also showed higher memory impairment in offspring born from HVF-supplemented dams during lactation in comparison to pregnancy. BDNF expression was increased by stress exposure in offspring from both SO/FO- and HVF-supplemented dams during pregnancy. In addition, offspring from HVF-supplemented dams showed decreased TrkB expression in both supplemented periods, regardless of stress exposure. In conclusion, these findings show for the first time that the type of dietary FA as well as the period of brain development is able to change FA incorporation in brain neural membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of shoulder dystocia: associations with parity and offspring birthweight. A population study of 1 914 544 deliveries.

    PubMed

    Overland, Eva A; Vatten, Lars J; Eskild, Anne

    2012-04-01

    We estimated the associations of parity and offspring birthweight with the risk of shoulder dystocia, and studied whether the association of offspring birthweight differed by parity. Population-based register study. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was used to identify all deliveries between 1967 and 2006. All vaginal deliveries of a singleton offspring in cephalic presentation during the period 1967-2006 (n=1,914,544). Shoulder dystocia at delivery. Shoulder dystocia occurred in 0.68% (13,109/1,914,544) of all deliveries. There was a strong positive association of birthweight with risk of shoulder dystocia, and 75% (9765/13,109) of all cases occurred in deliveries of offspring weighing 4000g or more. The association of birthweight displayed similar patterns across parities, but the association was slightly stronger in parous than in primiparous women. Among first-time mothers, 0.12% (320/276,614) with offspring weighing 3000-3499g (reference) experienced shoulder dystocia, compared with 13.30% (169/1244) with offspring birthweight higher than 5000g [odds ratio (OR) 135.7, 95%CI 111.6-165.1]. The corresponding results for women with one previous delivery were 0.08% (161/201,572) and 16.45% (501/3054) (OR 246.4, 95%CI 205.4-295.5). High offspring birthweight is the major risk factor for shoulder dystocia, constituting most cases. The positive association of birthweight with shoulder dystocia showed similar patterns across parities, but high birthweight parous women were at greater risk of shoulder dystocia compared with primiparous women. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Flood Risks in Aging-Dam Management in China: A Framework and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (<0.20) was found for some residential and commercial buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites. PMID:21655125

  8. Spatial multicriteria decision analysis of flood risks in aging-dam management in China: a framework and case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (<0.20) was found for some residential and commercial buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites.

  9. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams).

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mohammad; Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam's location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands.

  10. Modifications of anxiety-like behavior in prenatally stressed male offspring with imbalance of androgens

    PubMed Central

    Fedotova, Julia; Akulova, Viktoria; Pivina, Svetlana; Dragasek, Jozef; Caprnda, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gonadal hormones have been well-known to affect brain regions known to be involved in the modulation of mood and affective-related behavior. Prenatal stress might alter hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, it could be a target for development of affective-related disorders in male offspring. The present study was designed to examine an anxiety-like behavior in the adult male offspring with low levels of endogenous androgens delivered from pregnant dams exposed to prenatal stress from gestation day 15 to gestation day 19. The non-stressed and prenatally stressed intact, gonadectomized (GDX) and GDX male offspring treated with oil solvent or testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5 mg/kg, s.c., 14 days, once daily) were used in all experiments. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field test (OFT), respectively. Also, testosterone levels in the blood serum were measured in all experimental groups of offspring. Prenatally stressed GDX offspring demonstrated a significant decrease for time spent into the open arms and increase for time spent into the closed arms as compared to the non-stressed offspring. Administration of TP to the prenatally stressed GDX offspring resulted in a more markedly decrease of the time spent into the open arms and significantly raised the time spent into the closed arms as compared to the non-stressed GDX offspring treated with TP, non-stressed/prenatally stressed GDX offspring. Prenatally stressed GDX offspring showed a significant increase of crossing, rearing, grooming and defecation as compared to the prenatally stressed control offspring. On the contrary, administration of TP to the prenatally stressed GDX offspring significantly decreased crossing behavior, frequency of rearing and grooming behavior as compared to the non-stressed GDX offspring treated with TP, non-stressed/prenatally stressed GDX offspring. Prenatally stressed GDX offspring demonstrated a significant decrease of testosterone levels

  11. Maternal butyrate supplementation induces insulin resistance associated with enhanced intramuscular fat deposition in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-02-21

    Maternal nutrition is important for the risk of the offspring to develop insulin resistance and adiposity later in life. The study was undertaken to determine effects of maternal butyrate supplementation on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the offspring skeletal muscle. The offspring of rats, fed a control diet or a butyrate diet (1% sodium butyrate) throughout gestation and lactation, was studied at weaning and at 60 days of age. The offspring of dams fed a butyrate diet had higher HOMA-insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. This was associated with elevated mRNA and protein expressions of lipogenic genes and decreased amounts of lipolytic enzyme. Simultaneously, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H3 lysine 27 modification on the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of adult offspring was observed. Higher concentration of serum insulin and intramuscular triglyceride in skeletal muscle of offspring from the butyrate group at weaning were accompanied by increasing levels of lipogenic genes and enrichment of acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27. Maternal butyrate supplementation leads to insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of offspring, indicating the importance of short chain fatty acids in the maternal diet on lipid metabolism.

  12. Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain and kidney health outcomes in female offspring.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yik L; Saad, Sonia; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Zaky, Amgad A; Oliver, Brian; Pollock, Carol; Li, Weihong; Jones, Nicole M; Chen, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Increased oxidative stress in the brain can lead to increased sympathetic tone that may further induce kidney dysfunction. Previously we have shown that maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) leads to significantly increased oxidative stress and inflammation in both brain and kidney, as well as reduced brain and kidney mitochondrial activity. This is closely associated with significant kidney underdevelopment and abnormal function in adulthood in the male offspring. This study aimed to investigate the impact of maternal SE on brain and kidney health in the female offspring. In this study, the mouse dams were exposed to two cigarettes, twice daily for 6 weeks prior to gestation, during pregnancy and lactation. Brains and kidneys from the female offspring were collected at 20 days (P20) and 13 weeks (W13) and were subject to further analysis. We found that mRNA expression of brain inflammatory markers interleukin-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 were significantly increased in the SE offspring at both P20 and W13. Their brain mitochondrial activity markers were however increased at W13 with increased antioxidant activity. Kidney development and function in the female SE offspring were not different from the control offspring. We concluded that although brain inflammatory markers were upregulated in the SE female offspring, they were protected from some of the indicators of brain oxidative stress, such as endogenous antioxidant and mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as abnormal kidney development and function in adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Effects of ethylene dibromide on hydra oligactis: parent and offspring toxicity study

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.A.; Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) has become increasingly prevalent in the environment due to its uses as soil, fruit, and grain fumigants, lead scavengers in petrol, and industrial solvent. Because of its increasing environmental prevalence and its proposed toxic effects of EDB on Hydras, parents (P1) which have been pre-exposed to an established sublethal concentration for 14 days. The effect of nonexposed offspring (F1/P2) taken from pre-exposed parents (P1) versus their untreated offspring (F2) will also be evaluated. This mortality study revealed that the LC50 of both parents and F1's shifted from 50 mg/L, to 106.25 mg/L and 118.75 mg/L respectively, which suggest that exposed Hydras possibly become more tolerant to EDB. In the F2 generation, after 48 and 72 hrs 10% mortality was observed in the 200 mg/L group, 30% at 250 mg/L and 20% at 300 mg/L which indicated that the resistance to EDB toxicity is inheritable. There is also a strong dose-response correlation between EDB concentration and mortality.

  14. Centrifuge study on volume changes and dynamic stability of earth dams

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandan, K. ); Seed, H.B. ); Yogachandran, C. ); Muraleetharan, K.K. ); Seed, R.B. ); Kabilamany, K. )

    1993-11-01

    A simplified method of analysis for determining the permanent displacement of a clay core in a heterogeneous earth dam subjected to dynamic excitation is discussed. Centrifuge studies on three identical models were used to determine the deformation characteristics of earth dams subjected to earthquakes large enough to produce flow slides. These studies suggest that the failure mode is considerably influenced by the reduction in shear strength caused by the void-ratio increase and the subsequent decrease in effective stress at the sand-clay interface. Conventional sliding block analysis does not consider this phenomenon. A simplified method using the concepts of critical-state soil mechanics is presented that may be used to estimate both the reduced shear strength and the redistributed void-ratio at the interface. Values predicted using this method were found to agree well with those observed in the centrifuge experiments. By integrating these quantities into Newmark's sliding block analysis, a better estimate of the permanent displacement of an earth dam may be obtained.

  15. Experimental study on the dam-break hydrographs at the gate location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Haijiang; Guo, Liheng; Lu, Senxun

    2017-08-01

    When studying the dam-break flow phenomenon, the basic hydrodynamic features of the dam-break flow at the gate location should be verified primarily. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed in a rectangular and horizontal flume with the same initial water head setting on the dry and wet downstream bed conditions. Water surface elevation was extracted through image analysis and validated by comparing with the data measured using a wave gauge. Temporal variation of the water surface elevation at the gate location, quantified in terms of high-speed video recorded images, can be divided into three stages, the sharp decreasing stage, the relatively steady stage, and the gradually decreasing stage. Applicability of several classic analytical solutions of the dam-break problem at the gate location was validated using present experimental data. Ritter's solution is effective for the dry bed condition while Stoker's solution could be applied to the wet bed case, and both are only applicable during the steady stage. Lin' solution reproduces the gate-site hydrographs well during both the relatively steady and the gradually decreasing stages, especially for the condition under which the down-upstream water depth ratio is smaller than 0.138.

  16. Effects of Chronic Social Stress and Maternal Intranasal Oxytocin and Vasopressin on Offspring Interferon-γ and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A.; Hicks-Nelson, Alexandria; Fink, Alexandria; Beamer, Gillian; Gurel, Kursat; Elnady, Fawzy; Pittet, Florent; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of early-life adversity and transgenerational stress on neural plasticity and behavior are mediated by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immune and behavioral programing effects of intranasal (IN) vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) treatment of chronic social stress (CSS)-exposed F1 dams on F2 juvenile female offspring. It was hypothesized that maternal AVP and OXT treatment would have preventative effects on social stress-induced deficits in offspring anxiety and social behavior and that these effects would be associated with changes in interferon-γ (IFNγ). Control and CSS-exposed F1 dams were administered IN saline, AVP, or OXT during lactation and the F2 juvenile female offspring were assessed for basal plasma IFNγ and perseverative, anxiety, and social behavior. CSS F2 female juvenile offspring had elevated IFNγ levels and exhibited increased repetitive/perseverative and anxiety behaviors and deficits in social behavior. These effects were modulated by AVP and OXT in a context- and behavior-dependent manner, with OXT exhibiting preventative effects on repetitive and anxiety behaviors and AVP possessing preventative effects on social behavior deficits and anxiety. Basal IFNγ levels were elevated in the F2 offspring of OXT-treated F1 dams, but IFNγ was not correlated with the behavioral effects. These results support the hypothesis that maternal AVP and OXT treatment have context- and behavior-specific effects on peripheral IFNγ levels and perseverative, anxiety, and social behaviors in the female offspring of early-life social stress-exposed dams. Both maternal AVP and OXT are effective at preventing social stress-induced increases in self-directed measures of anxiety, and AVP is particularly effective at preventing impairments in overall social contact. OXT is specifically effective at preventing repetitive/perseverative behaviors, yet is ineffective at

  17. Effects of Chronic Social Stress and Maternal Intranasal Oxytocin and Vasopressin on Offspring Interferon-γ and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Hicks-Nelson, Alexandria; Fink, Alexandria; Beamer, Gillian; Gurel, Kursat; Elnady, Fawzy; Pittet, Florent; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of early-life adversity and transgenerational stress on neural plasticity and behavior are mediated by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immune and behavioral programing effects of intranasal (IN) vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) treatment of chronic social stress (CSS)-exposed F1 dams on F2 juvenile female offspring. It was hypothesized that maternal AVP and OXT treatment would have preventative effects on social stress-induced deficits in offspring anxiety and social behavior and that these effects would be associated with changes in interferon-γ (IFNγ). Control and CSS-exposed F1 dams were administered IN saline, AVP, or OXT during lactation and the F2 juvenile female offspring were assessed for basal plasma IFNγ and perseverative, anxiety, and social behavior. CSS F2 female juvenile offspring had elevated IFNγ levels and exhibited increased repetitive/perseverative and anxiety behaviors and deficits in social behavior. These effects were modulated by AVP and OXT in a context- and behavior-dependent manner, with OXT exhibiting preventative effects on repetitive and anxiety behaviors and AVP possessing preventative effects on social behavior deficits and anxiety. Basal IFNγ levels were elevated in the F2 offspring of OXT-treated F1 dams, but IFNγ was not correlated with the behavioral effects. These results support the hypothesis that maternal AVP and OXT treatment have context- and behavior-specific effects on peripheral IFNγ levels and perseverative, anxiety, and social behaviors in the female offspring of early-life social stress-exposed dams. Both maternal AVP and OXT are effective at preventing social stress-induced increases in self-directed measures of anxiety, and AVP is particularly effective at preventing impairments in overall social contact. OXT is specifically effective at preventing repetitive/perseverative behaviors, yet is ineffective at

  18. Association of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with bone-mineral content in offspring: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Wills, Andrew K; Fraser, Abigail; Sayers, Adrian; Fraser, William D; Tobias, Jonathan H

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is a suggested determinant of bone-mineral content (BMC) in offspring, but has been assessed in small studies. We investigated this association in a large prospective study. Methods Eligible participants were mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs who had participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and in which the mother had recorded measurements of 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy and the offspring had undergone dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at age 9–10 years. 25(OH)D concentrations in pregnancy were assessed per 10·0 nmol/L and classified as sufficient (more than 50·00 nmol/L), insufficient (49·99–27·50 nmol/L), or deficient (lower than 27·50 nmol/L). Associations between maternal serum 25(OH)D concentrations and offspring total body less head (TBLH) and spinal BMC were assessed by trimester. Results 3960 mother-and-offspring pairs, mainly of white European origin, were assessed (TBLH BMC n=3960, spinal BMC n=3196). Mean offspring age was 9·9 years. 2644 (67%) mothers had sufficient, 1096 (28%) insufficient, and 220 (6%) deficient 25(OH)D concentrations in pregnancy, but TBLH and spinal BMC did not differ between offspring of mothers in the lower two groups versus sufficient 25(OH)D concentration. No associations with offspring BMC were found for any trimester, including the third trimester, which is thought to be most relevant (TBLH BMC confounder-adjusted mean difference −0·03 g per 10·0 nmol/L, 95% CI −1·71 to 1·65; spinal BMC 0·04 g per 10·0 nmol/L, 95% CI −0·12 to 0·21). Conclusions We found no relevant association between maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and offspring BMC in late childhood. Funding UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and University of Bristol. PMID:23518316

  19. Parental bereavement after the death of an offspring in a motor vehicle collision: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Walld, Randy; Chateau, Dan; Martens, Patricia J; Leslie, William D; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-15

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the leading cause of death in young people in North America. The effects of such deaths on parents have not been systematically studied. Administrative data sets were used to identify all parents (n = 1,458) who had an offspring die in a MVC between 1996 and 2008 in the province of Manitoba, Canada. They were matched to general population control parents who had not had offspring die from any sudden cause during the study period. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment utilization in the 2 parent groups in the 2 years before and after offspring death, with adjustment for confounding factors. The risk of depression among bereaved parents almost tripled (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.44, 3.33; P < 0.001) during the 2 years after death of an offspring. Significant increases in the risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.67; P < 0.001) were also observed. When compared with nonbereaved parents, bereaved parents had significant increases in the risks of depression (P < 0.001), anxiety disorders (P < 0.001), marital break-up (P = 0.015), and physician visits for mental illness (P < 0.001) in the post-death period. In conclusion, parents who lose an offspring in a MVC experience considerable mental illness and marital disruption.

  20. Maternal intake of fat in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health - A prospective study with 20 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H; Henriksen, Tine B; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2016-04-01

    Maternal fat intake during pregnancy in relation to offspring metabolic outcomes has been studied primarily in animal models, yet little is known about the association in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association of total and subtype of fat consumption in pregnancy with anthropometric measures and biomarkers of adiposity and glucose metabolism in the offspring. A source population was 965 Danish pregnant women recruited in 1988-1989 with offspring follow-up at 20 years. Information on fat intake was collected in the 30(th) week of gestation, and we subdivided fat according to saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat. Offspring body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were recorded at follow-up (n = 670-678), and biomarkers were quantified in a subset (n = 443) of participants. Multivariable linear and log-binomial regression were used to calculate effect estimates and 95% CI for a 1:1%energy substitution of carbohydrates for fat. The mean (standard deviation) BMI was 22.1 (3.3) and 22.8 (2.9) kg/m(2) in female and male offspring, respectively. The median (10th to 90th percentile) of maternal fat intake was 31% of energy [23,39]. We found no overall associations for maternal fat intake with female offspring anthropometry. However, for male offspring higher intake of MUFA during pregnancy was associated with higher insulin levels at 20 years (Q4 vs. Q1: %Δ: 37, 95% CI: 1, 86) accompanied by a non-significant 3.6 (95% CI: -1.1, 8.2) cm increase in WC. High maternal total fat intake (>=35% energy) was also associated with higher BMI (0.9, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.6) and WC (4.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.3) among male offspring. A high fat diet during pregnancy may increase adiposity in adult male offspring. We surmise that maternal MUFA intake during this time included both MUFA and trans fat misclassified as MUFA, and that the associations observed may be more reflective of the latter exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. Dietary protein deficiency in pregnant mice and offspring.

    PubMed

    Millis, Richard M; Offiah, Godwin U

    2007-03-06

    Previous studies suggest an association between dermal contact hypersensitivity and preterm delivery. We hypothesized that dietary protein deficiency produces cell-mediated immune hypersensitivity in pregnant animals and their offspring akin to those known to produce tissue damage. We compared the effects of feeding a 20% protein diet (controls) to those of feeding a 10% protein (deficient) diet ad libitum to pregnant BALB/c mice. We measured dermal contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) by the increment in ear skin thickness (swelling) 72 h after immunization and parity by the number of viable pups delivered. Dams fed the protein-deficient diet ingested less food, gained less weight and delivered fewer viable pups than the dams fed the control diet. Greater DNFB-stimulated increment in ear skin thickness was found in the protein-deficient mothers and in their offspring than in the control mothers and their offspring. We conclude that dietary protein deficiency limits parity and induces immune hypersensitivity. These findings suggest the potential for dietary protein deficiency to activate a T-cell-mediated branch of the immune response that may put pregnant animals at risk for preterm delivery.

  2. Maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation had gender difference effect on adiponectin in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Gregoraszczuk, E; Slupecka, M; Wolinski, J; Hejmej, A; Bilinska, B; Fiedor, E; Piwnicka, N; Rak, A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet on plasma adiponectin and steroid hormones levels, and the protein expression of adiponectin and its receptors, in the gonads and gonadal (periovarian and epididymal) white adipose tissue (WAT) of dams and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed a HF diet (30% fat) or a standard breeding (BD) diet (5% fat) during pregnancy and lactation. At 21 days of lactation, mothers and both sexes of prepubertal offspring were killed by decapitation. Plasma adiponectin, testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) levels were analyzed by ELISA. The protein expression of adiponectin and its receptors 1 (AdipoR1) and 2 (AdipoR2) was assayed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Plasma adiponectin levels in HF dams were lower compared to BD dams, and correlated with protein expression of adiponectin and its receptors, but not with steroid hormone levels. Female HF offspring had lower plasma adiponectin levels, reduced intensity of adiponectin and AdipoR1 in the ovary, and decreased E2 in parallel with increased T. In contrast, male HF offspring had higher plasma adiponectin levels, increased intensity of adiponectin and AdipoR1 in the testis, and decreased T in parallel with increased E2. In conclusion, feeding a HF diet to dams during pregnancy and lactation disturbs plasma adiponectin levels and protein expression, both in female and male offspring; it lowers adiponectin secretion and protein expression in the female whereas in male it is increased. As a consequence, there is disruption of steroid secretion in offspring, towards T in females, and E2 in males.

  3. Ante- and perinatal circumstances and risk of attempted suicides and suicides in offspring: the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966 study.

    PubMed

    Alaräisänen, Antti; Miettunen, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Isohanni, Matti; Räsänen, Pirkko; Mäki, Pirjo

    2012-11-01

    To investigate those ante- and perinatal circumstances preceding suicide attempts and suicides, which have so far not been studied intensively. Examination of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10,742), originally based on antenatal questionnaire data and now followed up from mid-pregnancy to age 39, to ascertain psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring and suicides or attempted suicides in the offspring using nationwide registers. A total of 121 suicide attempts (57 males) and 69 suicides (56 males) had occurred. Previously unstudied antenatal factors (maternal depressed mood and smoking, unwanted pregnancy) were not related to these after adjustment. Psychiatric disorders in the parents and offspring were the risk factors in both genders. When adjusted for these, the statistically significant risk factors among males were a single-parent family for suicide attempts (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.62-8.50) and grand multiparity for suicides (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.15-6.18). When a psychiatric disorder in females was included among possible risk factors for suicide attempts, it alone remained significant (OR 15.55, 8.78-27.53). A single-parent family was a risk factor for attempted suicides and grand multiparity for suicides in male offspring even after adjusting for other ante- and perinatal circumstances and mental disorders in the parents and offspring. Mothers' antenatal depressed mood and smoking and unwanted pregnancy did not increase the risk of suicide, which is a novel finding.

  4. Salivary cortisol and interpersonal functioning: an event-contingent recording study in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie; Santo, Jonathan B; aan het Rot, Marije; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Young, Simon N

    2013-07-01

    Despite a large body of research in non-human primates, the relationship between naturalistic patterns of social behaviour and basal cortisol levels has been understudied in humans. The present study examined the relationship between patterns of interpersonal functioning and cortisol levels in 23 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), at high risk for the development of an affective disorder, and 22 offspring of parents with no affective disorder (controls) in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using event-contingent recording, participants rated their dominance, submissiveness, quarrelsomeness, and agreeableness in naturally occurring social interactions over 14 consecutive days and provided salivary cortisol twice daily in the afternoon over the same period. In the full sample, multilevel modelling analyses revealed that dominance was a significant positive predictor of afternoon basal cortisol levels, t(35)=2.58, p<0.05. Moreover, risk group (having a parent with BD or parents with no affective disorder) significantly interacted with mean levels of quarrelsomeness to predict afternoon cortisol levels, t(29)=2.06, p<0.05. Offspring of parents with BD who reported more frequent quarrelsome behaviours exhibited lower levels of afternoon cortisol relative to high-risk offspring reporting few quarrelsome behaviours and control offspring. The results are consistent with evidence that dominance is associated with high cortisol levels in an unstable environment, and suggest that quarrelsomeness among high risk youth contributes to altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity.

  5. Invited Commentary: The Framingham Offspring Study-A Pioneering Investigation Into Familial Aggregation of Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Manson, JoAnn E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2017-06-01

    Launched in 1948, the Framingham Heart Study was a seminal prospective cohort study of 5,209 adult residents of Framingham, Massachusetts, that was designed to uncover the determinants and natural history of coronary heart disease. Data from this original cohort established the cardiac threat posed by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, and other factors. In the late 1960s, investigators conceived the innovative idea of assembling a second cohort that comprised the adult children of the original study population (and these children's spouses). From 1971 to 1975, a total of 5,124 individuals were recruited to form the Offspring Cohort. Studying successive generations in this fashion provided an efficient method for examining secular trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, as well as an opportunity to assess familial aggregation of risk without the threat of recall bias. In a paper published in the September 1979 issue of the Journal, then study director William Kannel et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110(3):281-290) described the sampling design of the Offspring Study and presented selected baseline characteristics of the cohort. The scientific questions addressed by this research provided the impetus for a decades-long effort-still in full force today both within the Framingham Study itself and in the broader cardiovascular epidemiologic community-to quantify the independent and synergistic effects of genetic, lifestyle, and other environmental factors on cardiovascular outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sex-Differences in the Metabolic Health of Offspring of Parents with Diabetes: A Record-Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Aldhous, Marian C; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Campbell, Archie; Linksted, Pamela; Lindsay, Robert S; Smith, Blair H; Seckl, Jonathan R; Porteous, David J; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diabetes in pregnancy affects offspring health. The impact of parental diabetes on offspring health is unclear. We investigated the impact of parental diabetes on the metabolic-health of adult-offspring who did not themselves have diabetes. Data from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study, a population-based family cohort, were record-linked to subjects' own diabetes medical records. From F0-parents, we identified F1-offspring of: mothers with diabetes (OMD, n = 409), fathers with diabetes (OFD, n = 468), no parent with diabetes (ONoPD, n = 2489). Metabolic syndrome, body, biochemical measurements and blood-pressures were compared between F1-offspring groups by sex. A higher proportion of female OMD had metabolic syndrome than female OFD or ONoPD (P<0.0001). In female offspring, predictors of metabolic syndrome were: having a mother with diabetes (OR = 1.78, CI 1.03-3.07, [reference ONoPD]), body mass index (BMI, OR = 1.21, CI 1.13-1.30) and age (OR = 1.03, CI 1.01-1.06). In male offspring, predictors of metabolic syndrome were: BMI (OR = 1.18, CI 1.09-1.29) and percent body-fat (OR = 1.12, CI 1.05-1.19). In both sexes, OMD had higher blood-pressures than OFD (P<0.0001). In females, OMD had higher glucose (P<0.0001) and percent body-fat (P<0.0001) compared with OFD or ONoPD. OMD and OFD both had increased waist-measurements (P<0.0001), BMI (P<0.0001) and percent body-fat (P<0.0001) compared with ONoPD. Female OMD and OFD had lower HDL-cholesterol levels (P<0.0001) than female ONoPD. Parental diabetes is associated with higher offspring-BMI and body-fat. In female offspring, maternal diabetes increased the odds of metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for BMI. Further investigations are required to determine the mechanisms involved.

  7. [Lifetime Psychiatric Disorders: a Comparision Study Between Offspring of Parents With Bipolar Disorder Type-I Versus the Offspring of Community Controls Parents].

    PubMed

    Palacio-Ortiz, Juan David; Peña-Quintero, Cristian Esteban; Gómez-Valero, María Alejandra; Bustamante-Gómez, Paula Andrea; Arroyave-Sierra, Pilar Helena; Vargas-Upeguí, Cristian David; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Literature reports show that Bipolar Offspring (BO) present with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Comparison between BO and Control Parent Offspring (CPO) may help to identify which psychopathological findings are specific to this high-risk group. To compare the psychopathological characteristics between a group of BO type-I and a group of CPO, by identifying the presence of psychiatric disorders according the DSM-IV-TR. A descriptive-correlational, cross-sectional and comparative study was conducted with 127 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder type-I from the multimodal intervention program (PRISMA) and with 150 CPO between 6 and 30 years of age. Subjects were evaluated with validated diagnostic interviews (K-SADS-PL and DIGS). The BO group showed higher frequencies for bipolar disorder (Prevalence Ratio [PR]=17.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.02 - 306.83), bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (PR=23.07, 95% CI; 2.8 - 189.0, P=.0001), disorders due to psychoactive substance use (PR=9.52, 95% CI; 2.93 -30.90), oppositional defiant disorder (PR=4.10, 95% CI; 1.70 -9.89), posttraumatic stress disorder (PR=3.90, 95% CI 1.30 -11.66), disorder due to alcohol use (PR=3.84, 95% CI; 1.28 -11.48), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (PR=2.26, 95% CI; 1.37 -3.75), and major depressive disorder (PR=2.25, 95% CI; 1.13 -4.50). Statistically significant differences were also found in the CGAS and GAF functional scales, with lower scores for the BO group. These findings confirm previous literature reports showing that BO have higher rates of affective and non-affective psychiatric disorders than control subjects, and also a lower level of global functioning. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic Testing and Numerical Correlation Studies For Folsom Dam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    report prepared with support from the National Research Council of the United States reviewed the state of practice on seismic design and evaluation of...excitations. This report describes a research study conducted by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center consisting of a series of field...Forced Vibration Tests .....................................................................................6 Overview

  9. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of obesity in offspring: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, D-K; Ferber, J R; Odouli, R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: In-utero exposures through adverse fetal programming are emerging as an important contributing factor to the epidemic of childhood obesity. This study examines the impact of in-utero exposure to caffeine on the risk of childhood obesity in offspring. Subjects/Methods: A prospective study of pregnant women with 15 years follow-up of their offspring was conducted to examine the impact of in-utero exposure to caffeine on the risk of childhood obesity. Maternal caffeine intake was prospectively ascertained during pregnancy and outcome measures (body mass index (BMI)) were ascertained from medical charts, with 17 BMI measurements per child, on average, during the follow-up period. Potential confounders including known perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity were adjusted for using the generalized estimating equations model with repeated measurements. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, compared with those without caffeine exposure, in-utero exposure to caffeine overall is associated with 87% increased risk of childhood obesity: odds ratio (OR) =1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–3.12. This association demonstrated a dose–response relationship: OR=1.77 (1.05–3.00) for maternal daily caffeine intake <150 mg per day, OR=2.37 (1.24–4.52) for caffeine intake ⩾150 mg per day during pregnancy, respectively. We also observed a linear relationship: every one unit increase (log10 scale) in the amount of maternal caffeine intake was associated with 23% increased risk of obesity in offspring. The dose–response relationship appears stronger for persistent obesity than for transitory obesity (occasional high BMI), and for girls than for boys. Conclusions: We observed an association of in-utero exposure to caffeine with increased risk of childhood obesity. If this observation is further replicated in other studies, the finding will contribute to the understanding of fetal programming of childhood diseases and

  10. Small dams need better management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  11. Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans’ offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring. PMID:26147938

  13. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  14. Influence of Pre-reproductive Maternal Enrichment on Coping Response to Stress and Expression of c-Fos and Glucocorticoid Receptors in Adolescent Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Berretta, Erica; Pasqualini, Greta; De Bartolo, Paola; Caporali, Paola; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Sampedro-Piquero, Patricia; Gelfo, Francesca; Pesoli, Matteo; Foti, Francesca; Begega, Azucena; Petrosini, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental setting broadly used for investigating the effects of complex social, cognitive, and sensorimotor stimulations on brain structure and function. Recent studies point out that parental EE experience, even occurring in the pre-reproductive phase, affects neural development and behavioral trajectories of the offspring. In the present study we investigated the influences of pre-reproductive EE of female rats on maternal behavior and adolescent male offspring's coping response to an inescapable stressful situation after chronic social isolation. For this purpose female Wistar rats were housed from weaning to breeding age in enriched or standard environments. Subsequently, all females were mated and housed in standard conditions until offspring weaning. On the first post partum day (ppd 1), mother-pup interactions in undisturbed conditions were recorded. Further, after weaning the male pups were reared for 2 weeks under social isolation or in standard conditions, and then submitted or not to a single-session Forced Swim Test (FST). Offspring's neuronal activation and plastic changes were identified by immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and assessed by using stereological analysis. The biochemical correlates were measured in the hippocampus, amygdala and cingulate cortex, structures involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis regulation. Enriched dams exhibited increased Crouching levels in comparison to standard reared dams. In the offspring of both kinds of dams, social isolation reduced body weight, decreased Immobility, and increased Swimming during FST. Moreover, isolated offspring of enriched dams exhibited higher levels of Climbing in comparison to controls. Interestingly, in the amygdala of both isolated and control offspring of enriched dams we found a lower number of c-Fos immunopositive cells in response to FST and a higher number of GRs in comparison to the offspring of

  15. Maternal exposure to diets containing high fructose and saturated fats, low B vitamins, or their combination programs growth, adiposity, and insulin sensitivity in adult offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early exposure to unfavorable nutrition programs increases risk of adult-onset diseases. In this rat study, we investigate morphological, metabolic and endocrinal phenotypes of offspring born to dams consuming isocaloric diets containing 30% fructose, 9.9% coconut fat and 0.5% cholesterol (F+SFA), m...

  16. Parental obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among their offspring in mid-life: findings from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Pinto Pereira, S M; Power, C; Hyppönen, E

    2013-12-01

    Few studies have investigated whether parental adiposity is associated with offspring cardiovascular health or the underlying pathways. Studying these associations may help to illuminate the paradox of increasing prevalence of obesity and declining trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, which may be partially explained by beneficial adaptations to an obesogenic environment among people exposed to such environments from younger ages. To investigate associations between parental body mass index (BMI) and risk factors for CVD among their offspring in mid-life and to test whether associations of offspring BMI with CVD risk factors were modified by parental BMI. Data from parents and offspring in the 1958 British birth cohort were used (N=9328). Parental BMI was assessed when offspring were aged 11 years; offspring BMI, waist circumference and CVD risk factors (lipid levels, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and inflammatory and haemostatic markers) were measured at 44-45 years. Higher parental BMI was associated with less favourable levels of offspring risk factors for CVD. Most associations were maintained after adjustment for offspring lifestyle and socioeconomic factors but were largely abolished or reversed after adjustment for offspring adiposity. For some CVD risk factors, there was evidence of effect modification; the association between higher BMI and an adverse lipid profile among offspring was weaker if maternal BMI had been higher. Conversely, offspring BMI was more strongly associated with HbA1c if parental BMI had been higher. Intergenerational influences may be important in conferring the effect of high BMI on CVD risk among offspring.

  17. Risk of mental illness in offspring of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of family high-risk studies.

    PubMed

    Rasic, Daniel; Hajek, Tomas; Alda, Martin; Uher, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of parents with severe mental illness (SMI; schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder) are at an increased risk of developing mental illness. We aimed to quantify the risk of mental disorders in offspring and determine whether increased risk extends beyond the disorder present in the parent. Meta-analyses of absolute and relative rates of mental disorders in offspring of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in family high-risk studies published by December 2012. We included 33 studies with 3863 offspring of parents with SMI and 3158 control offspring. Offspring of parents with SMI had a 32% probability of developing SMI (95% CI: 24%-42%) by adulthood (age >20). This risk was more than twice that of control offspring (risk ratio [RR] 2.52; 95% CI 2.08-3.06, P < .001). High-risk offspring had a significantly increased rate of the disorder present in the parent (RR = 3.59; 95% CI: 2.57-5.02, P < .001) and of other types of SMI (RR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.48-2.49, P < .001). The risk of mood disorders was significantly increased among offspring of parents with schizophrenia (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.02-2.58; P = .042). The risk of schizophrenia was significantly increased in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (RR = 6.42; 95% CI: 2.20-18.78, P < .001) but not among offspring of parents with depression (RR = 1.71; 95% CI: 0.19-15.16, P = .631). Offspring of parents with SMI are at increased risk for a range of psychiatric disorders and one third of them may develop a SMI by early adulthood.

  18. Strategies of offspring investment and dispersal in a spatially structured environment: a theoretical study using ants.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Adam L; Loeuille, Nicolas; Monnin, Thibaud

    2016-02-05

    Offspring investment strategies vary markedly between and within taxa, and much of this variation is thought to stem from the trade-off between offspring size and number. While producing larger offspring can increase their competitive ability, this often comes at a cost to their colonization ability. This competition-colonization trade-off (CCTO) is thought to be an important mechanism supporting coexistence of alternative strategies in a wide range of taxa. However, the relative importance of an alternative and possibly synergistic mechanism-spatial structuring of the environment-remains the topic of some debate. In this study, we explore the influence of these mechanisms on metacommunity structure using an agent-based model built around variable life-history traits. Our model combines explicit resource competition and spatial dynamics, allowing us to tease-apart the influence of, and explore the interaction between, the CCTO and the spatial structure of the environment. We test our model using two reproductive strategies which represent extremes of the CCTO and are common in ants. Our simulations show that colonisers outperform competitors in environments subject to higher temporal and spatial heterogeneity and are favoured when agents mature late and invest heavily in reproduction, whereas competitors dominate in low-disturbance, high resource environments and when maintenance costs are low. Varying life-history parameters has a marked influence on coexistence conditions and yields evolutionary stable strategies for both modes of reproduction. Nonetheless, we show that these strategies can coexist over a wide range of life-history and environmental parameter values, and that coexistence can in most cases be explained by a CCTO. By explicitly considering space, we are also able to demonstrate the importance of the interaction between dispersal and landscape structure. The CCTO permits species employing different reproductive strategies to coexist over a wide

  19. Effects of a maternal high-fat diet on offspring behavioral and metabolic parameters in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S A; Javurek, A B; Painter, M S; Murphy, C R; Conard, C M; Gant, K L; Howald, E C; Ellersieck, M R; Wiedmeyer, C E; Vieira-Potter, V J; Rosenfeld, C S

    2017-02-01

    Maternal diet-induced obesity can cause detrimental developmental origins of health and disease in offspring. Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) can lead to later behavioral and metabolic disturbances, but it is not clear which behaviors and metabolic parameters are most vulnerable. To address this critical gap, biparental and monogamous oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), which may better replicate most human societies, were used in the current study. About 2 weeks before breeding, adult females were placed on a control or HFD and maintained on the diets throughout gestation and lactation. F1 offspring were placed at weaning (30 days of age) on the control diet and spatial learning and memory, anxiety, exploratory, voluntary physical activity, and metabolic parameters were tested when they reached adulthood (90 days of age). Surprisingly, maternal HFD caused decreased latency in initial and reverse Barnes maze trials in male, but not female, offspring. Both male and female HFD-fed offspring showed increased anxiogenic behaviors, but decreased exploratory and voluntary physical activity. Moreover, HFD offspring demonstrated lower resting energy expenditure (EE) compared with controls. Accordingly, HFD offspring weighed more at adulthood than those from control fed dams, likely the result of reduced physical activity and EE. Current findings indicate a maternal HFD may increase obesity susceptibility in offspring due to prenatal programming resulting in reduced physical activity and EE later in life. Further work is needed to determine the underpinning neural and metabolic mechanisms by which a maternal HFD adversely affects neurobehavioral and metabolic pathways in offspring.

  20. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results from a Multigenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…

  1. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results from a Multigenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…

  2. Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation - Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams.

    PubMed

    Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  3. Prenatal copper deficiency in rat dams causes persistent reduction in nuclear-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits in cardiac mitochrondria of the first generation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have shown that the offspring of rat dams having low copper (Cu) intake during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) after postnatal day 10. The present study was undertaken to determine the relative influences of pre-and postnatal Cu ...

  4. Experimental Study on Cracking, Reinforcement, and Overall Stability of the Xiaowan Super-High Arch Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Zhou, Weiyuan; Liu, Hongyuan

    2015-03-01

    The Xiaowan super-high arch dam has faced challenging construction problems. Here, we provide a scientifically-based reference for applying geomechanical model testing to support the nonlinear design of super-high arch dams. We applied experimental similarity theory and techniques. Based on four 3D geomechanical model tests, the dam stress characteristics, deformation distribution, and the safety factors of the dam foundation were identified and compared. We also analyzed cracking characteristics of the up- and downstream dam surfaces and induced joints in the dam heel, the rock mass failure process of the dam-foundation interface, and the abutments. We propose foundation reinforcement measures for weak rock masses, alteration zones, and other faults in the abutments based on the 3D and plane tests each at a different elevation. The results show that all dam deformations remained normal with no yielding or tensile cracking under a normal water load. The reinforced rock mass increased the crack initial safety in the dam heel and toe by ~20 %. The minimum crack initial safety factor ( K 1) of the dam heel was 1.4. The induced joint in the dam heel contributed to a reduction in tensile stress at the upstream dam heel, improving K 1. Compared with similar projects following reinforcement measures, the abutment stiffness and overall stability of the Xiaowan arch dam satisfy operational requirements. Four years of monitoring operations show that key areas near the dam remained normal and the dam foundation is functioning well. Our results may also be applicable to the design and construction of similar projects worldwide.

  5. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams)

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam’s location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands. PMID:27248152

  6. Associations Between Substance Use Disorders and Major Depression in Parents and Late Adolescent-Emerging Adult Offspring: An Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Aims To examine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance use disorders (SUDs: specifically, nicotine dependence (ND), alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and cannabis use disorders (CUDs)) in parents predicted increased risk for these disorders in late adolescent–emerging adult offspring and, specifically, the extent to which the pattern of risk differed for adopted and non-adopted youth. Participants Late adolescent and emerging adult participants from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (mean age=18.8), a community-based investigation of adopted and non-adopted adolescents, and their parents (adoptive parents of adopted youth, biological parents of non-adopted adolescents) were included. Measurements Structured interviews were used to assess these disorders. Findings (1) when the same disorder in parents and adolescents was examined, parental MDD was associated with increased risk for MDD among both adopted (p<.001) and non-adopted (p<.01) adolescents; in contrast, SUDs were associated with increased risk for the same SUD in non-adopted offspring (all p<.01). (2) When cross-SUD effects were examined, for the most part, each SUD was associated with increased risk for other SUDs among non-adopted but not adopted offspring (most p<.05). (3) When MDD-SUD associations were examined, parental ND and CUDs predicted increased risk for MDD in non-adopted (p<.001), but not adopted, adolescents. These effects tended to remain significant when adjusting for within-person comorbidity (p<.05). Conclusions Major depressive disorder in parents appears to be a risk factor for late adolescent-emerging adult major depressive disorder but not substance use disorder in offspring, with this risk being environmentally mediated. Substance use disorder in parents appears, via genetic mediation, to increase risk of substance use disorder in adolescent offspring, and cannabis and nicotine use disorders in parents similarly contribute to major depressive disorder in those

  7. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength. PMID:27115490

  8. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Vargas, Pilar; Manzano, Manuel; Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo; López-Pedrosa, Jose María

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength.

  9. Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and overweight and obesity in offspring: a study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Lao, T T; Chen, Z; Du, M Y; Liang, K; Huang, Y K; Zhang, L; Yang, M H; Sun, Y H; Li, H; Ding, Z B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breast feeding on childhood overweight and obesity in a mainland Chinese population. The incidence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity were compared between children of mothers with (n=1068) and without (n=1756) GDM. The independent roles of the associated factors were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of overweight was higher (16.6 v. 12.6%, P=0.002) in the GDM group, but that of obesity was not different (10.7 v. 12.0%, P=0.315). At age 1-2 and 2-5 years, no difference in overweight (11.0 v. 12.0%, P=0.917, and 15.7 v. 14.6%, P=0.693, respectively) was found, while obesity (8.0 v. 13.6%, P=0.019, and 8.4 v. 13.4%, P=0.014, respectively) was less frequent in the GDM offspring. At age 5-10 years, increased overweight (22.2 v. 12.1%, P<0.001) and obesity (15.9 v. 9.0%, P=0.001) were found in the GDM group, which was associated with maternal obesity, being born large-for-gestational age, male gender and formula feeding. After adjusting for confounding factors, GDM remained an independent determinant of offspring overweight and obesity (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.61-3.22), suggesting that the effects of GDM were independent of breast feeding, as well as of maternal obesity and birth size.

  10. 106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  11. Offspring, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offspring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

  12. Offspring, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Marilynn, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    These two 1996 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers and pertinent to the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to parents, teachers, and others and aim to provide a forum…

  13. Intercomparison of global river discharge simulations focusing on dam operation—multiple models analysis in two case-study river basins, Missouri-Mississippi and Green-Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Hanasaki, Naota; Biemans, Hester; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Tang, Qiuhong; Wada, Yoshihide; Gosling, Simon N.; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki

    2017-05-01

    We performed an intercomparison of river discharge regulated by dams under four meteorological forcings among five global hydrological models for a historical period by simulation. This is the first global multimodel intercomparison study on dam-regulated river flow. Although the simulations were conducted globally, the Missouri-Mississippi and Green-Colorado Rivers were chosen as case-study sites in this study. The hydrological models incorporate generic schemes of dam operation, not specific to a certain dam. We examined river discharge on a longitudinal section of river channels to investigate the effects of dams on simulated discharge, especially at the seasonal time scale. We found that the magnitude of dam regulation differed considerably among the hydrological models. The difference was attributable not only to dam operation schemes but also to the magnitude of simulated river discharge flowing into dams. That is, although a similar algorithm of dam operation schemes was incorporated in different hydrological models, the magnitude of dam regulation substantially differed among the models. Intermodel discrepancies tended to decrease toward the lower reaches of these river basins, which means model dependence is less significant toward lower reaches. These case-study results imply that, intermodel comparisons of river discharge should be made at different locations along the river's course to critically examine the performance of hydrological models because the performance can vary with the locations.

  14. Sleep deprivation during late pregnancy produces hyperactivity and increased risk-taking behavior in offspring.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Aswathy, B S; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Gulia, Kamalesh K

    2015-01-30

    Sleep deprivation in women resulting from their modern lifestyle, especially during pregnancy, is a serious concern as it can affect the health of the newborn. Anxiety disorders and cognitive deficits in the offspring are also on the rise. However, experimental studies on the effects of sleep loss during pregnancy, on emotional development and cognitive function of the newborn, are scanty in literature. In the current study, female rats were sleep-deprived for 5h by gentle handling, during the 6 days of the third trimester (days 14-19 of pregnancy). The effects of this sleep deprivation on anxiety-related behaviors of pups during their peri-adolescence age were studied using elevated plus maze (EPM). In addition to body weights of dams and offspring, the maternal behavior was also monitored. The weanlings of sleep-deprived dams showed heightened risk-taking behavior as they made increased explorations into the open arms of EPM. They also showed higher mobility in comparison to the control group. Though the body weights of sleep-deprived dams were comparable to those of the control group, their newborns had lower birth weight. Nevertheless, these pups gained weight and reached the control group values during the initial post-natal week. But after weaning, their rate of growth was lower than that of the control group. This is the first report providing evidences for the role of sleep during late pregnancy in shaping the neuropsychological development in offspring.

  15. The causes of parent-offspring transmission of drug abuse: a Swedish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J

    2015-01-01

    While drug abuse (DA) is strongly familial, we still have limited knowledge about the causes of its cross-generational transmission. We examined DA ascertained from national registers in offspring of three family types from the Swedish population [intact (n = 2,111,074), 'not-lived-with' (n = 165,315, where biological parents never lived with their offspring) and 'step' (n = 124,800 offspring)], which reflected, respectively, the effects of genes + rearing, genes only and rearing only. We replicated these results in three high-risk co-relative designs. Combined across mothers and fathers, the hazard ratio (HR) for DA in offspring given DA in parents was 3.52 in intact, 2.73 in 'not-lived-with' and 1.79 in stepfamilies. In 968 biological full or half-sibling pairs one of whom was reared by and the other never lived with their parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in the reared than 'not-lived-with' child (HR 1.57). In 64 offspring pairs of a parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in a reared biological v. step-parented non-biological child (HR 3.33). In 321 pairs of offspring of a parent with DA one of whom was a not-lived-with biological child and the second a step-parented non-biological child, the HR for DA was greater in the biological v. stepchild (HR 1.80). Both genetic and environmental factors contribute substantially to parent-offspring resemblance for DA. The general population contains informative family constellations that can complement more traditional adoption designs in clarifying the sources of parent-offspring resemblance.

  16. The causes of parent–offspring transmission of drug abuse: a Swedish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Ohlsson, H.; Sundquist, K.; Sundquist, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background While drug abuse (DA) is strongly familial, we still have limited knowledge about the causes of its cross-generational transmission. Method We examined DA ascertained from national registers in offspring of three family types from the Swedish population [intact (n=2111074), ‘not-lived-with’ (n = 165315, where biological parents never lived with their offspring) and ‘step’ (n = 124800 offspring)], which reflected, respectively, the effects of genes+rearing, genes only and rearing only. We replicated these results in three high-risk co-relative designs. Results Combined across mothers and fathers, the hazard ratio (HR) for DA in offspring given DA in parents was 3.52 in intact, 2.73 in ‘not-lived-with’ and 1.79 in stepfamilies. In 968 biological full or half-sibling pairs one of whom was reared by and the other never lived with their parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in the reared than ‘not-lived-with’ child (HR 1.57). In 64 offspring pairs of a parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in a reared biological v. step-parented non-biological child (HR 3.33). In 321 pairs of offspring of a parent with DA one of whom was a not-lived-with biological child and the second a step-parented non-biological child, the HR for DA was greater in the biological v. stepchild (HR 1.80). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute substantially to parent–offspring resemblance for DA. The general population contains informative family constellations that can complement more traditional adoption designs in clarifying the sources of parent–offspring resemblance. PMID:25066684

  17. Maternal Caloric Restriction Implemented during the Preconceptional and Pregnancy Period Alters Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Overweight and Increased Adiposity at Adulthood in Male Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosarío Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet) during pre-gestational and gestational periods on: (a) neonatal outcomes; (b) endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth; (c) metabolism-related parameters; and (d) behavior in adult male offspring. We found that calorie-restricted dams tended to have a reduced litter size, although the offspring showed normal weight at birth. Pups from calorie-restricted dams also exhibited a strong decrease in the levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the hypothalamus at birth. Additionally, pups from diet-restricted dams displayed reduced levels of AEA in the hippocampus without significant differences in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, offspring exhibited increased weight gain, body weight and adiposity in adulthood as well as increased anxiety-related responses. We propose that endocannabinoid signaling is altered by a maternal caloric restriction implemented during the preconceptional and pregnancy periods, which might lead to modifications of the hypothalamic and hippocampal circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term effects found in the adult offspring.

  18. Maternal Caloric Restriction Implemented during the Preconceptional and Pregnancy Period Alters Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Overweight and Increased Adiposity at Adulthood in Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosarío Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet) during pre-gestational and gestational periods on: (a) neonatal outcomes; (b) endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth; (c) metabolism-related parameters; and (d) behavior in adult male offspring. We found that calorie-restricted dams tended to have a reduced litter size, although the offspring showed normal weight at birth. Pups from calorie-restricted dams also exhibited a strong decrease in the levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the hypothalamus at birth. Additionally, pups from diet-restricted dams displayed reduced levels of AEA in the hippocampus without significant differences in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, offspring exhibited increased weight gain, body weight and adiposity in adulthood as well as increased anxiety-related responses. We propose that endocannabinoid signaling is altered by a maternal caloric restriction implemented during the preconceptional and pregnancy periods, which might lead to modifications of the hypothalamic and hippocampal circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term effects found in the adult offspring. PMID:27847471

  19. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings

  20. Maternal Overweight Programs Insulin and Adiponectin Signaling in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kartik; Kang, Ping; Harrell, Amanda; Zhong, Ying; Marecki, John C.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight and fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45% fat). In this report, we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced programming at postnatal d 21 before challenge with the high-fat diet. We conducted global transcriptome profiling, gene/protein expression analyses, and characterization of downstream signaling of insulin and adiponectin pathways in conjunction with endocrine and biochemical characterization. Offspring born to OW dams displayed increased serum insulin, leptin, and resistin levels (P < 0.05) at postnatal d 21 preceding changes in body composition. A lipogenic transcriptome signature in the liver, before development of obesity, was evident in OW-dam offspring. A coordinated locus of 20 sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1-regulated target genes was induced by maternal OW. Increased nuclear levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and recruitment to the fatty acid synthase promoter were confirmed via ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. Higher fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase protein and pAKT (Thr308) and phospho-insulin receptor-β were confirmed via immunoblotting. Maternal OW also attenuated AMP kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in the offspring liver, including transcriptional down-regulation of several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-regulated genes. Hepatic mRNA and circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 levels were significantly lower in OW-dam offspring. Furthermore, serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin (P < 0.05) were decreased in OW-dam offspring. Phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-kinase (Thr172) was significantly decreased in OW-dam offspring, along with lower AdipoR1 mRNA. Our results strongly suggest that gestational exposure to maternal

  1. Offspring predisposition to obesity due to maternal-diet-induced obesity in rats is preventable by dietary normalization before mating.

    PubMed

    Castro, Heriberto; Pomar, Catalina Amadora; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina; Sánchez, Juana

    2017-03-01

    We studied in rats whether the expected detrimental effects in offspring associated to maternal dietary obesity may be reverted by obesogenic diet removal 1 month before mating. Female rats were fed a cafeteria diet (CD) from days 10 to 100 and then a standard diet (SD) (postcafeteria rats). One month after CD removal, postcafeteria rats and a group of SD-fed female rats (controls) were mated with males. At weaning, offspring were fed SD and followed until 4 months old. CD was effective at inducing obesity in dams. Its removal led to a reduction in body weight, although, after 30 days, rats retained excess body weight and fat than controls. During lactation, postcafeteria dams showed greater body fat, and higher leptin and adiponectin levels in milk than controls. From 2 months of life, offspring of postcafeteria dams displayed lower body weight than controls, with no differences in the percentage of fat, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, or circulating parameters. Removal of CD in obese rats before gestation, although without complete reversion of body weight excess, may prevent the expected detrimental effects in offspring associated to an excess fat accumulation in adulthood and the related metabolic disturbances. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effects of number and gender of offspring on quality of life among older adults: evidence from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlations between number and gender of offspring and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults. Setting We used data from the 2006–2012 data sets of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants There were 10 242, 8680, 7907 and 7480 participants in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, respectively. Interventions Number and gender of offspring. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured participants’ QoL and HRQoL using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korea Labour Institute and which is similar to the EQ-VAS, a European measure. Results We estimated the HRQoL and QoL of individuals with offspring. Estimates for the HRQoL and QoL of parents with no offspring were −7.762 and −9.384, respectively (both p<0.0001) versus parents with two offspring. For parents with five or more offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −1.529 and 0.885, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.017, respectively) compared with parents with two offspring. For fathers with no offspring compared with fathers with two offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −6.143 and −7.492, respectively (both p<0.0001). Conclusions These results suggest that number of offspring is associated with both HRQoL and QoL. Those with no offspring showed the lowest HRQoL and QoL. Although having five or more children had positive associations with QoL, it had negative associations with HRQoL. Public health services for those with poor quality of life should provide effective support programmes and services based on these findings. PMID:26063566

  3. Transgenerational effects of parental cardiovascular disease and risk factors on offspring mortality: family-linkage data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Vik, Kirsti L; Romundstad, Pål; Carslake, David; Davey Smith, George; Nilsen, Tom I L

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors are known to be associated between parents and offspring. However, whether these associations are reflected in increased offspring mortality has not been extensively studied. This was a family study of 32,536 father-offspring and 39,614 mother-offspring pairs who participated in the HUNT Study, Norway. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for offspring total and cardiovascular mortality associated with parental levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors were estimated using Cox regression. Fathers' and mothers' reporting of cardiovascular disease (HRs: 1.18; 95% CI 1.04-1.32 and 1.20; 1.07-1.35, respectively), diabetes (HRs: 1.22; 95% CI 1.00-1.49 and 1.21; 1.05-1.40, respectively), and current smoking (HRs: 1.21; 95% CI 1.08-1.36 and 1.30; 1.15-1.47, respectively) was associated with total mortality in offspring. An inverse association was found with maternal height (HR: 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99), and a suggestive inverse association with paternal height (HR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93-1.03). Relations with offspring cardiovascular mortality were less clear and consistent. Offspring whose parents both had a risk factor did not seem to have higher mortality than would be expected from the independent effects of each parent. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  4. Effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fatty acid composition of milk and offspring red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Vithayathil, M A; Gugusheff, J R; Gibson, R A; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during the lactation period alone produces detrimental effects to offspring metabolic health comparable to exposure during the entire perinatal period. The present study used a rodent model to assess the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dams' milk, and to determine the degree to which this was related to the fatty acid status of offspring on postnatal day 1 (PND1), weaning and 3 weeks post-weaning onto a standard rodent diet. As expected, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) content of both the milk and pup red blood cells (RBCs) was lower in the cafeteria (CAF) group on PND1. At 2 weeks post-partum, milk produced by CAF dams had a higher total fat, saturated fat and n-6 PUFA content, however these differences were modest in comparison with the differences in maternal intake between groups. Offspring suckled by CAF dams had a lower n-3 LCPUFA and n-6 PUFA status at weaning and higher trans fatty acid levels at both weaning and 6 weeks of age. These findings indicate that the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dam's milk is altered by exposure to a cafeteria diet. While it appears that the dam has a significant capacity to buffer the transfer of most dietary lipids into the milk, the trans fatty acids in particular appear to be readily transferred, resulting in persistent increases in trans fatty acid status of the offspring after weaning. The potential physiological implications of this warrants further examination.

  5. Differential effects of habitual chow-based and semi-purified diets on lipid metabolism in lactating rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Del Bas, Josep Maria; Caimari, Antoni; Ceresi, Enzo; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Palou, Andreu; Arola, Lluís; Crescenti, Anna

    2015-03-14

    Diet during pregnancy and lactation is a critical factor in relation to the health of dams and their offspring. Currently, control diets used in metabolic imprinting studies differ in composition and type, i.e. semi-purified diets (SD) or chow-based diets (ND). The aim of the present study was to determine whether two widely used control diets, a SD and a ND, that mainly differ in fat content (5·08 and 3·26 %, respectively) and its sources (soyabean oil for the SD and cereals and fish for the ND), fibre (6 and 15 %, respectively), and cholesterol (26 and 69 mg/kg diet, respectively) can influence the lipid metabolism of dams and their offspring. Wistar rats were fed either the SD or the ND during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, SD-fed dams presented severe hepatic steatosis and increased levels of circulating TAG, NEFA and insulin. Importantly, the offspring presented an altered plasma lipid profile. In contrast, the ND allowed for a normal gestation and lactation process, and did not affect the metabolism of offspring. In parallel, virgin rats fed the SD showed no metabolic alterations. A higher intake of SFA and MUFA and a lower consumption of PUFA observed in SD-fed dams during the lactation period could contribute to explaining the observed effects. In conclusion, two different control diets produced very different outcomes in the lipid metabolism of lactating rats and their offspring. The present results highlight the importance of the assessment of the metabolic state of dams when interpreting the results of metabolic programming studies.

  6. Perinatal exercise improves glucose homeostasis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G.; Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Wilkerson, Donald C.; Tobia, Christine M.; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y.; Shridas, Preetha; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wolff, Gretchen; Andrade, Francisco H.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Esser, Karyn A.; Egan, Josephine M.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has shown that subtle factors during pregnancy and gestation can influence long-term health in offspring. In an attempt to be proactive, we set out to explore whether a nonpharmacological intervention, perinatal exercise, might improve offspring health. Female mice were separated into sedentary or exercise cohorts, with the exercise cohort having voluntary access to a running wheel prior to mating and during pregnancy and nursing. Offspring were weaned, and analyses were performed on the mature offspring that did not have access to running wheels during any portion of their lives. Perinatal exercise caused improved glucose disposal following an oral glucose challenge in both female and male adult offspring (P < 0.05 for both). Blood glucose concentrations were reduced to lower values in response to an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test for both female and male adult offspring of parents with access to running wheels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Male offspring from exercised dams showed increased percent lean mass and decreased fat mass percent compared with male offspring from sedentary dams (P < 0.01 for both), but these parameters were unchanged in female offspring. These data suggest that short-term maternal voluntary exercise prior to and during healthy pregnancy and nursing can enhance long-term glucose homeostasis in offspring. PMID:22932781

  7. Perinatal exercise improves glucose homeostasis in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lindsay G; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Wilkerson, Donald C; Tobia, Christine M; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Shridas, Preetha; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wolff, Gretchen; Andrade, Francisco H; Charnigo, Richard J; Esser, Karyn A; Egan, Josephine M; de Cabo, Rafael; Pearson, Kevin J

    2012-10-15

    Emerging research has shown that subtle factors during pregnancy and gestation can influence long-term health in offspring. In an attempt to be proactive, we set out to explore whether a nonpharmacological intervention, perinatal exercise, might improve offspring health. Female mice were separated into sedentary or exercise cohorts, with the exercise cohort having voluntary access to a running wheel prior to mating and during pregnancy and nursing. Offspring were weaned, and analyses were performed on the mature offspring that did not have access to running wheels during any portion of their lives. Perinatal exercise caused improved glucose disposal following an oral glucose challenge in both female and male adult offspring (P < 0.05 for both). Blood glucose concentrations were reduced to lower values in response to an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test for both female and male adult offspring of parents with access to running wheels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Male offspring from exercised dams showed increased percent lean mass and decreased fat mass percent compared with male offspring from sedentary dams (P < 0.01 for both), but these parameters were unchanged in female offspring. These data suggest that short-term maternal voluntary exercise prior to and during healthy pregnancy and nursing can enhance long-term glucose homeostasis in offspring.

  8. Maternal flaxseed diet during lactation changes adrenal function in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2015-10-14

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been a focus of interest in the field of functional foods because of its potential health benefits. However, we hypothesised that maternal flaxseed intake during lactation could induce several metabolic dysfunctions in adult offspring. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the adrenal function of adult offspring whose dams were supplemented with whole flaxseed during lactation. At birth, lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: rats from dams fed the flaxseed diet (FLAX) with 25% of flaxseed and controls dams. Pups received standard diet after weaning and male offspring were killed at age 180 days old to collect blood and tissues. We evaluated body weight and food intake during development, corticosteronaemia, adrenal catecholamine content, hepatic cholesterol, TAG and glycogen contents, and the protein expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and adrenaline β2 receptor at postnatal day 180 (PN180). After weaning, pups from the FLAX group had a higher body weight (+10 %) and food intake (+10%). At PN180, the FLAX offspring exhibited higher serum corticosterone (+48%) and lower adrenal catecholamine ( - 23%) contents, lower glycogen ( - 30%), higher cholesterol (4-fold increase) and TAG (3-fold-increase) contents in the liver, and higher 11β-HSD1 (+62%) protein expression. Although the protein expression of hypothalamic CRH was unaffected, the FLAX offspring had lower protein expression of pituitary ACTH ( - 34%). Therefore, induction of hypercorticosteronaemia by dietary flaxseed during lactation may be due to an increased hepatic activation of 11β-HSD1 and suppression of ACTH. The changes in the liver fat content of the FLAX group are suggestive of steatosis, in which hypercorticosteronaemia may play an important role. Thus, it is recommended that lactating women restrict the intake of flaxseed during

  9. Offspring of female brindled mice fed a copper-deficient diet develop anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, J.R.; Bailey, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Female C57BL mice heterozygous for the brindled gene (Mo/sup br/+/) were mated to normal males and fed a purified diet low in copper(-Cu)(0.5 ppm), modified AIN-76A, throughout gestation and lactation to investigate copper-dependent anemia. Half the females were given deionized water and half copper-supplemented water (20 ppm Cu as CuSO/sub 4/). Four groups of 12 day old male offspring were compared (Dunn-Bonferroni t-test ..cap alpha.. = 0.05): I = +Cu(Mo/sup +/y/), II = -Cu(Mo/sup +/y/), III = +Cu(Mo/sup br/y/), IV = -Cu(Mo/sup br/y/). Offspring in I and III were equivalent to those in earlier studies when dams were fed Mouse-Chow. Liver Cu levels in I are below normal. Compared to III the mice in IV were smaller and had lower hematocrits, however, liver Cu and Fe levels were similar. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was lower in IV compared to III. Compared to II, mice in IV were smaller and thus had higher hematocrits and liver Fe. Liver Cu and SOD activities were similar but plasma ceruloplasmin activities were higher in IV. Offspring of brindled female mice exhibit lower liver copper levels compared to offspring from normal females. This is true whether dams are fed a nonpurified diet or the -Cu diet with or without a Cu supplement in the water. Thus, all offspring of brindled dams have abnormal copper homeostasis during perinatal development. When copper is limiting brindled mice will develop anemia.

  10. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  11. Antidepressants during pregnancy and autism in offspring: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K; Dalman, Christina; Newschaffer, Craig; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2017-07-19

    Objectives To study the association between maternal use of antidepressants during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring.Design Observational prospective cohort study with regression methods, propensity score matching, sibling controls, and negative control comparison.Setting Stockholm County, Sweden.Participants 254 610 individuals aged 4-17, including 5378 with autism, living in Stockholm County in 2001-11 who were born to mothers who did not take antidepressants and did not have any psychiatric disorder, mothers who took antidepressants during pregnancy, or mothers with psychiatric disorders who did not take antidepressants during pregnancy. Maternal antidepressant use was recorded during first antenatal interview or determined from prescription records.Main outcome measure Offspring diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, with and without intellectual disability.Results Of the 3342 children exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy, 4.1% (n=136) had a diagnosis of autism compared with a 2.9% prevalence (n=353) in 12 325 children not exposed to antidepressants whose mothers had a history of a psychiatric disorder (adjusted odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.85). Propensity score analysis led to similar results. The results of a sibling control analysis were in the same direction, although with wider confidence intervals. In a negative control comparison, there was no evidence of any increased risk of autism in children whose fathers were prescribed antidepressants during the mothers' pregnancy (1.13, 0.68 to 1.88). In all analyses, the risk increase concerned only autism without intellectual disability.Conclusions The association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and autism, particularly autism without intellectual disability, might not solely be a byproduct of confounding. Study of the potential underlying biological mechanisms could help the understanding of modifiable mechanisms in the aetiology of

  12. Medical augmentation of labor and the risk of ADHD in offspring: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Lonny; Wu, Chun Sen; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Obel, Carsten; Juhl, Mette

    2015-03-01

    Oxytocin for labor augmentation is widely used in obstetric care in Western countries. Two recent, smaller studies found opposing results regarding the association between prenatal exposure to oxytocin for labor augmentation and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In Denmark, oxytocin is the medication used for nearly all medical augmentations of labor, and we examined the association between medical augmentation of labor and ADHD in a large cohort study based on national register data. All singletons born after spontaneous onset of labor in Denmark between 2000 and 2008 (N = 546 146) were included in the study. Data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry on medical augmentation of labor (yes/no) were used to identify exposed children. ADHD was defined based on the diagnostic codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, for hyperkinetic disorder and information on dispensed ADHD medication. A multivariate proportional hazards regression model was used to test the association. Among 546 146 deliveries, 26% included medical augmentation of labor, and 0.9% of the children were identified as having ADHD (n = 4617). We found no association between augmentation of labor and ADHD in the offspring (hazard ratio: 1.05 [95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.13]). Our study does not support an association between medical augmentation of labor and ADHD in the child. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. A study of possible ground-motion amplification at the Coyote Lake Dam, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Graizer, V.M.; Tinsley, J.C.; Shakal, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    The abutment site at the Coyote Lake Dam recorded an unusually large peak acceleration of 1.29g during the 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake. Following this earthquake another strong-motion station was installed about 700 m downstream from the abutment station. We study all events (seven) recorded on these stations, using ratios of peak accelerations, spectral ratios, and particle motion polarization (using holograms) to investigate the relative ground motion at the two sites. We find that in all but one case the motion at the abutment site is larger than the downstream site over a broad frequency band. The polarizations are similar for the two sites for a given event, but can vary from one event to another. This suggests that the dam itself is not strongly influencing the records. Although we can be sure that the relative motion is usually larger at the abutment site, we cannot conclude that there is anomalous site amplification at the abutment site. The downstream site could have lower-than-usual near-surface amplifications. On the other hand, the geology near the abutment site is extremely complex and includes fault slivers, with rapid lateral changes in materials and presumably seismic velocities. For this reason alone, the abutment site should not be considered a normal free-field site.

  14. Gestational Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Offspring Psychiatric Disorders: A National Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Heli; Brown, Alan S.; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W.; Weissman, Myrna; Wickramaratne, Priya; Artama, Miia; Gingrich, Jay A.; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on offspring neurodevelopment. Method This is a cohort study using national register data in Finland between the years 1996-2010. Pregnant women and their offspring were categorized into four groups: SSRI exposed (n=15,729); exposed to psychiatric disorder, no antidepressants (n=9,651); exposed to SSRIs only before pregnancy (n=7,980); and unexposed to antidepressants and psychiatric disorders (n=31,394). We investigated the cumulative incidence of offspring diagnoses of depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) for the four groups from birth to 14 years, adjusting for confounders. Results The cumulative incidence of depression among offspring exposed prenatally to SSRIs was 8.2% (95% CI, 3.1-13.3%) by age 14.9, compared to 1.9% (95% CI, 0.9-2.9%) in the psychiatric disorder, no medication group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.78; 95% CI, 1.12-2.82; p=.02) and to 2.8% (95% CI, 1.4-4.3%) in the SSRI discontinued group (HR 1.84; 95% CI, 1.14-2.97; p=.01). Rates of anxiety, ASD, and ADHD diagnoses were comparable to rates in offspring of mothers with a psychiatric disorder but no medication during pregnancy. Comparing SSRI exposed to unexposed, the HRs were significantly elevated for each outcome. Conclusion Prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with increased rates of depression diagnoses in early adolescence but not with ASD or ADHD. Until confirmed, these findings must be balanced against the substantial adverse consequences of untreated maternal depression. PMID:27126849

  15. Gestational Exposure to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Offspring Psychiatric Disorders: A National Register-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Malm, Heli; Brown, Alan S; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W; Weissman, Myrna; Wickramaratne, Priya; Artama, Miia; Gingrich, Jay A; Sourander, Andre

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the impact of gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on offspring neurodevelopment. This is a cohort study using national register data in Finland between the years 1996 and 2010. Pregnant women and their offspring were categorized into 4 groups: SSRI exposed (n = 15,729); exposed to psychiatric disorder, no antidepressants (n = 9,651); exposed to SSRIs only before pregnancy (n = 7,980); and unexposed to antidepressants and psychiatric disorders (n = 31,394). We investigated the cumulative incidence of offspring diagnoses of depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for the 4 groups from birth to 14 years, adjusting for confounders. The cumulative incidence of depression among offspring exposed prenatally to SSRIs was 8.2% (95% CI = 3.1-13.3%) by age 14.9 years, compared with 1.9% (95% CI = 0.9-2.9%) in the psychiatric disorder, no medication group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.12-2.82; p = .02) and to 2.8% (95% CI = 1.4-4.3%) in the SSRI discontinued group (HR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.14-2.97; p = .01). Rates of anxiety, ASD, and ADHD diagnoses were comparable to rates in offspring of mothers with a psychiatric disorder but no medication during pregnancy. Comparing SSRI exposed to unexposed individuals, the HRs were significantly elevated for each outcome. Prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with increased rates of depression diagnoses in early adolescence but not with ASD or ADHD. Until confirmed, these findings must be balanced against the substantial adverse consequences of untreated maternal depression. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of Sensor Fish Data for Assessment of Fish Passage Conditions at Turbines, Spillways, and Bypass Facilities – Phase 1: The Dalles Dam Spillway Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Serkowski, John A.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the characterization of spillway passage conditions at The Dalles Dam in 2006 and the effort to complete a comprehensive database for data sets from The Dalles Dam spillway Sensor Fish and balloon-tagged live fish experiments. Through The Dalles Dam spillway case study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated the database as an efficient means for accessing and retrieving system-wide data for the U.S Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

  17. Diagnostic Precursors to Bipolar Disorder among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Yu, Haifeng; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Merranko, John; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identify diagnostic risk factors of mania/hypomania in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (“high-risk offspring”). Method High-risk offspring aged 6-18 years (n=391) and demographically-matched offspring (n=248) of community parents without bipolar disorder were assessed longitudinally with standardized diagnostic instruments by staff blind to parental diagnoses. Follow-up assessments were completed in 91% of the offspring (mean interval 2.5 years; mean duration 6.8 years). Results High-risk offspring, as compared to community offspring, had significantly higher rates of subthreshold (hypo)manic (13.3% vs. 1.2%, p<.0001), manic/hypomanic (9.2% vs. 0.8%, p=.0003) and major depressive episodes (32.0% vs. 14.9%, p<.0001). They also had higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity (30.7% vs. 18.2%, p=.01), disruptive behavior (27.4% vs. 15.3%, p=.03), anxiety (39.9% vs. 21.8%, p=.0002), and substance use disorders (20.0% vs. 10.1%, p=.008), but not unipolar major depressive disorder (major depression with no bipolarity; 18.9% vs. 13.7%; p=.10). Multivariate Cox regressions in the high-risk offspring showed that subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes (Hazard Ratio 2.29, p=.03), major depressive episodes (Hazard Ratio 1.99, p=.05), and disruptive behavior disorders (Hazard Ratio 2.12, p=.03) were associated with subsequent mania/hypomania. Only subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes (Hazard Ratio 7.57, p<.0001) were associated when analyses were restricted to prospective data. Conclusions Subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes were a diagnostic risk factor for the development of mania/hypomania in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, and should be a target for clinical assessment and future treatment research. Major depressive episodes and disruptive behavior disorders are also indications for close clinical monitoring of emergent bipolarity in high-risk offspring. PMID:25734353

  18. Geo-environmental Study to Identify the Affecting Factors on Dohuk's Dam and the city (Northren Iraq) by Use Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdon, Alaa

    2010-05-01

    The Dohuk's dam is one of the most important Aggregated dams in Iraq, located about 1 km from Dohuk city in northern Iraq, So; this vital project provides Dohuk city by water while the city formerly dependent on wells water prior to the establishing of the dam, and this is one of the main reasons for land-use expansion in Dohuk city and its vicinity,which is meant that the Dohuk's dam safety factor ,it is the key of the city safety factor .This dam has initiated the establishment of the dam in 1980 and was established in 1988, and it's capacity is 47.5 million cubic meters. This study aims to analyze the morphometric or geometric properties and the environmental factors at drainage systems and drainage network for Dohuk area's drainage basins (which recharges water of Dohuk Dam's Lake and it is accumulated by rainfall and spring water) scientifically and geometrically. Study of the geology of construction area of the dam Structuraly and tectonically. Satellite image, topographic maps and aerial photographs used in this study for merging its results together and preparing a drainage basin's maps and a geologic interpretation map for the study area to recognize the important geologic impact on the river which comes out from dam lake, also some of the field work investigation has been depended in this study. As a final result from morphometric analysis of drainage basins, tectonic analysis and geological investigations for study area, found as the following: 1 - Determining the amount of the accumulated sediments on the dam body, which has been carried by the collected rain-full water from the drainage basins, snow and spring water (the resources of Dam Lake). Study of the impact of these deposits on dam stability and evaluate the risk of these deposits on dam body and on its safety. 2 - Identification of geological features, which are that threaten the safety of the river of city which concern the only resource for the city and stability of dam body and its related

  19. Intellectual performance of kidney transplant recipients' offspring: a cross-sectional, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Buenrostro, Luis Eduardo; Alberu, Josefina; Mancilla-Urrea, Eduardo; Vélez-García, Alicia; Espinoza-Pérez, Ramon; Cruz-Santiago, Jose; Parra-Michel, Renato; Parra-Avila, Idalia; Flores-Nava, Gerardo; Caballero-Andrade, Gabriela; Niebla-Cardenas, Alfonssina; Pérez-Avendaño, Roberto; Angulo-Dominguez, Alejandro; Lascarez, Silvia; Sánchez-Román, Sofía

    2017-10-08

    The number of successful pregnancies in kidney transplant (KT) recipients has increased in recent years. Little evidence is available about the risk of in utero immunosuppressive exposure for long-term cognitive consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of immunosuppression during pregnancy on intellectual performance of children born to KT recipients. Using a cross-sectional design, women who had undergone KT and their children (aged 4+ years) were recruited at the outpatient follow-up in five transplant centers. Women who did not receive immunosuppression during pregnancy with similar distributions of socioeconomic status and length of gestation and their children were also recruited. Children were assessed with Wechsler Intelligence Scales. The study sample included 50 exposed and 50 unexposed children. No differences between groups in all the proposed confounding factors were found. Full-scale IQ did not differ significantly between both groups. Also, significant differences in any index or subscale score were not observed, with the exception of time required to complete the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI) Zoo locations subtest, which was done quicker in the unexposed group (p = .007). Exposure to immunosuppression during pregnancy was not a significant predictor of low IQ in logistic regression after adjustment for other factors. Immunosuppression therapy during pregnancy of KT women did not affect global intellectual performance of their offspring, except maybe for visuospatial working memory in preschool children.

  20. In vivo longitudinal micro-CT study of bent long limb bones in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Delille, Peter; Geys, Helena; Boehringer-Shahidi, Christian; Vanhove, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been reported as a reliable method to assess ex vivo rat and rabbit fetal skeletons in embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies. Since micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality it has the potential for longitudinal, in vivo investigation of postnatal skeletal development. This is the first paper using micro-CT to assess the reversibility of drug-induced bent long bones in a longitudinal study from birth to early adulthood in rat offspring. Analysis of the scans obtained on postnatal Day 0, 7, 21 and 80 showed complete recovery or repair of the bent long limb bones (including the scapula) within the first 3 weeks. When assessing risk the ability to demonstrate recovery is highly advantageous when interpreting such transient skeletal change. In summary, in vivo micro-CT of small laboratory animals can aid in non-clinical safety assessment, particularly for specific mechanistic purposes or to address a particular concern in developmental biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of handling cytotoxic drugs and risk of birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Shirangi, Adeleh; Bower, Carol; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Preen, David B; Bruce, Neville

    2014-06-12

    We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies) who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05-4.15)). Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03) and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00-3.48) and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18-5.42). This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  2. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-11-16

    Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams and sires will

  3. Application of the contingent valuation method in a developing country: a case study of the Yusufeli dam in northeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alp, Emre; Yetiş, Ulkü

    2010-01-01

    Hydroelectric power plants and dams often play an important role in developing countries in terms of their contribution to economy. In accordance with the energy policies of Turkish Republic, Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Northeastern Turkey have been initiated. In this study, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was conducted in Yusufeli Village to determine the environmental costs of the Yusufeli Project. The purpose is to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) of Yusufeli Village residents for restoration of the environmental impacts of the dam project and also to investigate the underlying economic, psychological, and social motivations for WTP. WTP was calculated as US$761 per person which can further be used in the cost-benefit analysis. The results from the study suggest that application of the CVM in rural and urban areas located in the same region can show differences.

  4. The Bacon Chow study: maternal nutrition supplementation and birth weight of offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonald, E C; Pollitt, E; Mueller, W; Hsueh, A M; Sherwin, R

    1981-10-01

    This study is a randomized controlled double-blind trial on the effects of nutrition supplement of pregnant and lactating women on their offspring. The study was conducted by the late Dr. Bacon Chow in 14 villages in Sui-Lin township, a farming area about 180 miles from Taipei, Taiwan. Two hundred ninety-four women were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The daily supplement for one group provided 800 kcal and 40 g of protein/day; for the other group it only provided 80 kcal/day. Supplementation began after 3 wk of the delivery of a first study infant, continued throughout lactation, and through the pregnancy and lactation of a second study infant. Between group comparisons on the birth weight, number of low birth weight infants, or incidence of fetal deaths showed no statistically significant findings. However, the birth weight of the second study infant was statistically different and higher than that of the first study infant in the high supplement group. Moreover, in the low supplement group there was a correlation of 0.22 (p = 0.06) between the change scores for birth weight from the first to the second study infant and the quantity of supplements consumed during the last trimester of pregnancy. There was also in this same group a significant slope in a linear regression of birth weight on total daily caloric intake during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy for the male second study infants. These findings are partly in agreement with findings from three other large supplementation studies in Colombia, Guatemala, and New York. In this study the findings indicate that caloric supplementation does result in a small yet statistically meaningful increment in birth weight within a population which is not nutritionally at risk.

  5. A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-11-14

    The negative effects of malnourishment in utero have been widely explored; the effects of increased maternal macronutrient intake are not known in relation to high fibre, and have been inconclusive with regard to high protein. In the present study, virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21·6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14·5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed and plasma satiety hormones measured. The final body weight and the percentage of body fat were significantly affected by the interaction between maternal diet and offspring sex: weight and fat mass were higher in the female offspring of the HP v. HF dams. No differences in body weight or fat mass were seen in the male offspring. There was a significant sex effect for fasting and total AUC for ghrelin and fasting GIP, with females having higher levels than males. Liver TAG content and plasma NEFA were lower in the offspring of high-prebiotic fibre dams (HF1) than in those of high-protein dams (HP1) and control dams (C1). Intestinal expression of GLUT2 was decreased in HF1 and HP1 v. C1. The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood.

  6. Gestational and postnatal protein deficiency affects postnatal development and histomorphometry of liver, kidneys, and ovaries of female rats' offspring.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fernanda R C L; Silva, Gerluza A B; Fiúza, Aparecida T L; Chianca, Deoclécio A; Ferreira, Anderson J; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio

    2012-04-01

    Pre- and postnatal protein deficiency may lead to decreased foetal intra-uterine development and postnatal growth, which is common in developing countries. The present study aimed to investigate the consequences of a low-protein intake during gestation and postnatally on adult female rats' offspring. Female rats were given either a control or a protein-deficient diet throughout the gestation and lactation periods. A subset of females was killed at day 20 of pregnancy for foetal and placental measurements. Another subset of females farrowed and the number, length, and weight of the offspring were measured. After weaning, the offspring received the same diet as their dams until 70 days of age. They were sacrificed, and some organs were weighed and collected for histomorphometrical analyses. Placental weight and size and foetal weight were lower in protein-deficient dams. The weight and length of pups at birth were also lower in the deficient group. The organs to body weight ratio were higher in the deficient animals at 70 days of age. The protein-deficient female offspring had a smaller ovarian area, greater numbers of primordial follicles and developing follicles per square millimetres of ovarian cortex, and no corpora lutea. The liver showed smaller nuclear diameter of the hepatocytes and height of the hepatocytes cords. The kidneys showed smaller cortical area with reduced glomerular number and diameter. These results provide the first evidence of the histomorphological changes of the association between gestational and postnatal protein deficiency in female rats' offspring.

  7. Impact of maternal chromium restriction on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and oxidative stress in WNIN rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Raghunath, Manchala

    2011-12-01

    Robust evidence suggests that nutritional insult during fetal development could program the offspring to glucose intolerance, impaired insulin response and insulin resistance (IR). Considering the importance of chromium (Cr) in maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, this study determined the effect of maternal Cr restriction (CrR) on glucose metabolism and plasma insulin in Wistar/NIN (WNIN) rat offspring and the associated biochemical and/or molecular mechanisms. Female, weanling WNIN rats received ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet or the same with 65% restriction of Cr and mated with control males. Some of the Cr-restricted dams were rehabilitated from conception or parturition and their pups weaned on to control diet. At the time of weaning, half of the Cr restricted offspring were rehabilitated to control diet while others continued on Cr-restricted diet. Maternal CrR increased fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of IR, and area under the curve of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test in the offspring. Expression and activity of rate-limiting enzymes of glucose metabolism were comparable among different groups and expression of genes involved in insulin secretion was increased albeit in male offspring whereas antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased in offspring of both genders. Rehabilitation, in general, corrected the changes albeit partially. Maternal dietary CrR induced IR, impaired glucose tolerance in WNIN rat offspring and was associated with increased oxidative stress, which may predispose them to type 2 diabetes in their later life.

  8. Sexual dimorphism in offspring glucose-sensitive hypothalamic gene expression and physiological responses to maternal high-fat diet feeding.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Laura; Balthasar, Nina

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, we investigated offspring physiological and transcriptomic consequences of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding during pregnancy and/or lactation. We demonstrate that female offspring of high-fat/high-sugar diet-fed dams are particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbation with body weight increases due to postnatal processes, whereas in utero effects of the diet ultimately lead to glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Furthermore, glucose- and maternal-diet sensitive gene expression modulation in the paraventricular hypothalamus is strikingly sexually dimorphic. In summary, we uncover female-specific, maternal diet-mediated in utero misprogramming of offspring glucose homeostasis and a striking sexual dimorphism in glucose- and maternal diet-sensitive paraventricular hypothalamus gene expression adjustment. Notably, female offspring metabolic vulnerability to maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet propagates a vicious cycle of obesity and type 2 diabetes in subsequent generations.

  9. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and hypospadias in male offspring: a population-based study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ane Birgitte Telén; Ehrenstein, Vera; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Background The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and hypospadias has been concurrently increasing, possibly through shared environmental risk factors such as endocrine disrupting compounds. Also, maternal IBD may disturb the normal development of the fetal reproductive tract. However, whether maternal IBD increases the risk of hypospadias in male offspring is unknown. We compared hypospadias risk in sons of mothers with and without IBD. Methods We used Danish nationwide population-based registries to conduct a longitudinal prevalence study including all live-born boys from 1979 through 2009. We computed HRs, as estimates of prevalence ratios (PRs), with 95% CIs for hypospadias, using Cox proportional hazards regression, while adjusting for measured confounding. Results Among 966 038 live-born boys, 4688 (0.5%) had a mother with a history of IBD diagnosis before the relevant childbirth. Among the boys with maternal IBD, 36 (0.8%) were diagnosed with hypospadias any time after birth, whereas 6112 (0.6%) sons of mothers without IBD diagnosis had hypospadias (adjusted PR: 1.20, (95% CI 0.86 to 1.67). Adjusted PRs for maternal Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were 1.38 (95% CI 0.83 to 2.29) and 1.10 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.68), respectively. Analyses defining hypospadias diagnosis recorded <6 months postpartum showed similar results. Conclusions We found no convincing evidence of an association between maternal IBD and hypospadias. PMID:27933203

  10. Profiles by Sex of Brain MRI and Cognitive Function in The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark; Massaro, Joseph; DeCarli, Charles; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether there are sex-specific associations between brain MRI measures and neuropsychological test performance. Background Differences in cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) have been linked to decreased total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Although brain morphology has been related to cognitive performance, few studies have addressed sex-specific effects in this relationship. Methods Framingham Offspring who were stroke and dementia-free underwent a brain MRI scan and neuropsychological (NP) testing (n=2,085; 978 men). Factor analysis identified four domain-specific neuropsychological factors. MRI participants were divided into four MRI subgroups based on measures of TCBV and combinations of the presence of WMH and silent cerebral infarcts (≥3mm; SCI). Results Overall, the relationship between MRI and NP measures was similar between the sexes. The exception was that only men showed a positive relationship between executive function (EF) and cerebrovascular disease defined as large white matter hyperintensity volume plus SCI. This finding was attributed only among men with FSRP scores > 90th percentile range (p=0.0019). Conclusions Measures of brain atrophy and subclinical markers of vascular disease showed that sex does not significantly alter the relationship between MRI and NP, except among men and women who are at high risk for stroke; these men show poorer performance on EF, whereas the women do not. PMID:20505436

  11. Maternal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion and offspring neurodevelopment: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Yu, Xiaodan; Liu, Jihong; Biasini, Fred J; Hong, Chuan; Jiang, Xu; Nong, Yanfen; Cheng, Yue; Korrick, Susan A

    2016-11-01

    Dietary methylmercury intake can occur not only through fish ingestion but also through rice ingestion; however, rice does not contain the same beneficial micronutrients as fish. In rural China, where rice is a staple food, associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure (assessed using maternal hair mercury) and impacts on offspring neurodevelopment were investigated. A total of 398 mothers were recruited at parturition at which time a sample of scalp hair was collected. Offspring (n=270, 68%) were assessed at 12 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, yielding age-adjusted scores for the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI). Among 270 mothers, 85% ingested rice daily, 41% never or rarely ingested fish/shellfish and 11% ingested fish/shellfish at least twice/weekly. Maternal hair mercury averaged 0.41μg/g (median: 0.39μg/g, range: 0.079-1.7μg/g). In unadjusted models, offspring neurodevelopment (both MDI and PDI) was inversely correlated with hair mercury. Associations were strengthened after adjustment for fish/shellfish ingestion, rice ingestion, total energy intake (kcal), and maternal/offspring characteristics for both the MDI [Beta: -4.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -9.7, -0.12] and the PDI (Beta: -2.7, 95% CI: -8.3, 2.9), although confidence intervals remained wide for the latter. For 12-month old offspring living in rural China, prenatal methylmercury exposure was associated with statistically significant decrements in offspring cognition, but not psychomotor development. Results expose potential new vulnerabilities for communities depending on rice as a staple food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional impairment due to bereavement after the death of adolescent or young adult offspring in a national population study of 1,051,515 parents.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Holly C; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Alexanderson, Kristina; Runeson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    This study addresses the burden of grief after the death of an adolescent or young adult offspring. Parental bereavement following the death of an adolescent or young adult offspring is associated with considerable psychiatric and somatic impairment. Our aim is to fill a research gap by examining offspring death due to suicide, accidents, or natural causes in relation to risk of parental sickness absence with psychiatric or somatic disorders. This whole population-based prospective study included mothers and fathers of all offspring aged 16-24 years in Sweden on December 31, 2004 (n = 1,051,515). This study had no loss to follow-up and exposure, confounders, and the outcome were recorded independently of each other. Cox survival analysis was used to model time to sickness absence exceeding 30 days, adjusting for parental demographic characteristics, previous parental sickness absence and disability pension, and inpatient and outpatient psychiatric and somatic healthcare prior to offspring death in 2001-2004. This large study population provided satisfactory statistical power for stratification by parents' sex and adolescent and young adults' cause of death. Mothers and fathers of offspring suicide and accident decedents both had over tenfold higher risk for psychiatric sickness absence exceeding 30 days as compared to parents of live offspring. Fathers of suicide decedents were at 40 % higher risk for somatic sickness absence. This is the largest study to date of parents who survived their offspring's death and the first study of work-related outcomes in bereaved parents. This study uses a broad metric of work-related functional impairment, sickness absence, for capturing the burden of sudden offspring death.

  13. Diagnostic x-ray exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B E; Klein, R; Linton, K L; Franke, T

    1993-01-01

    The Beaver Dam Eye Study is a population-based study of common age-related eye diseases. During the standardized medical history, the 4926 subjects were asked whether they had ever had a chest x-ray, computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan of the head, other x-rays of the head, x-rays of the abdomen, or other diagnostic x-rays. The eye examination included photographs of the lenses of the eyes, which were subsequently graded according to protocol. Nuclear sclerosis and posterior subcapsular opacity were significantly associated with CAT scans. If these relationships are causal, it would highlight the importance of minimizing such exposure to the lens of the eye. PMID:8460743

  14. Maternal obesity characterized by gestational diabetes increases the susceptibility of rat offspring to hepatic steatosis via a disrupted liver metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Troy J; Fonseca, Mario A; Campbell, Kristyn E; Moyce, Brittany L; Cole, Laura K; Hatch, Grant M; Doucette, Christine A; Klein, Julianne; Aliani, Michel; Dolinsky, Vernon W

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with a high risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is a common complication of pregnancy. The influence of maternal obesity and GDM on the metabolic health of the offspring is poorly understood. We hypothesize that GDM associated with maternal obesity will cause obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in the offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (45%) and sucrose (HFS) diet to cause maternal obesity and GDM. Lean control pregnant rats received low-fat (LF; 10%) diets. To investigate the interaction between the prenatal environment and postnatal diets, rat offspring were assigned to LF or HFS diets for 12 weeks, and insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated. Pregnant GDM dams exhibited excessive gestational weight gain, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Offspring of GDM dams gained more weight than the offspring of lean dams due to excess adiposity. The offspring of GDM dams also developed hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. The postnatal consumption of a LF diet did not protect offspring of GDM dams against these metabolic disorders. Analysis of the hepatic metabolome revealed increased diacylglycerol and reduced phosphatidylethanolamine in the offspring of GDM dams compared to offspring of lean dams. Consistent with altered lipid metabolism, the expression of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase, and peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-α mRNA was reduced in the livers of GDM offspring. GDM exposure programs gene expression and hepatic metabolite levels and drives the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in young adult rat offspring. Key points Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common complication of pregnancy, but its effects on the offspring are poorly understood. We developed a rat model of diet-induced gestational diabetes mellitus that recapitulates many of the clinical features of the disease, including excessive gestational

  15. Maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy, but not during suckling, induced altered expression of an increasing number of hepatic genes in adult mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-04-01

    Indirect effects of a high-protein maternal diet are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed short-term and sustainable effects of a prenatal versus early postnatal maternal high-protein diet on growth and hepatic gene expression in mouse offspring. Dams were exposed to an isoenergetic high-protein (HP, 40 % w/w) diet during pregnancy or lactation. Growth and hepatic expression profiles of male offspring were evaluated directly after weaning and 150 days after birth. Offspring from two dietary groups, high-protein diet during pregnancy and control diet during lactation (HPC), and control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation (CHP), were compared with offspring (CC) from control-fed dams. Maternal CHP treatment was associated with sustained offspring growth retardation, but decreased numbers of affected hepatic genes in adults compared to weanlings. In contrast, offspring of the HPC group did not show persistent effects on growth parameters, but the number of affected hepatic genes was even increased at adult age. In both dietary groups, however, only a small subset of genes was affected in weanlings as well as in adults. We conclude that (1) prenatal and early postnatal maternal HP diet caused persistent, but (2) different effects and partially complementary trends on growth characteristics and on the hepatic transcriptome and associated pathways and that (3) only a small number of genes and associated upstream regulators might be involved in passing early diet-induced imprints to adulthood.

  16. Impacts of settlement, damming, and hydromanagement in two boreal lakes: A comparative paleolimnological study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serieyssol, C.A.; Edlund, M.B.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Namakan Lake, located in shared border waters in northeastern Minnesota and northwestern Ontario, was subjected to several anthropogenic impacts including logging, damming, water-level manipulations, and perhaps climate change. We used paleolimnology to determine how these stressors impacted Namakan Lake in comparison to a control lake (Lac La Croix) that was not subject to damming and hydromanagement. One core was retrieved from each lake for 210Pb dating and analysis of loss-on-ignition and diatom composition. 210Pb-derived chronologies from the cores indicated that sediment accumulation increased after logging and damming in Namakan Lake; Lac La Croix showed no significant change. Loss-on-ignition analysis also showed an increase in concentration and accumulation of inorganic material after damming in Namakan Lake; again, minimal changes were observed in Lac La Croix. Diatom communities in both lakes displayed community shifts at the peak of logging. Simultaneous, post-1970s diatom community changes may reflect regional climate warming. Taxonomic richness in Namakan Lake decreased sharply after damming and the peak of logging, and was followed by a slow recovery to taxonomic richness similar to that prior to damming. Ecological variability among post-damming diatom communities, however, was greater in Namakan Lake than in Lac La Croix. A diatom calibration set was used to reconstruct historical conductivity and total phosphorus (TP). Lac La Croix showed little historical change in conductivity and TP. In contrast, conductivity increased for several decades in Namakan Lake after damming, possibly in relation to several large fires and flooding. Total phosphorus also increased in Namakan Lake after damming, with a possible decrease in the last decade to pre-damming TP levels. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  17. Maternal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of triclocarban results in perinatal exposure and potential alterations in offspring development in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Enright, Heather A; Falso, Miranda J S; Malfatti, Michael A; Lao, Victoria; Kuhn, Edward A; Hum, Nicholas; Shi, Yilan; Sales, Ana Paula; Haack, Kurt W; Kulp, Kristen S; Buchholz, Bruce A; Loots, Gabriela G; Bench, Graham; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2017-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is among the top 10 most commonly detected wastewater contaminants in both concentration and frequency. Its presence in water, as well as its propensity to bioaccumulate, has raised numerous questions about potential endocrine and developmental effects. Here, we investigated whether exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC could result in transfer from mother to offspring in CD-1 mice during gestation and lactation using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 14C-TCC (100 nM) was administered to dams through drinking water up to gestation day 18, or from birth to post-natal day 10. AMS was used to quantify 14C-concentrations in offspring and dams after exposure. We demonstrated that TCC does effectively transfer from mother to offspring, both trans-placentally and via lactation. TCC-related compounds were detected in the tissues of offspring with significantly higher concentrations in the brain, heart and fat. In addition to transfer from mother to offspring, exposed offspring were heavier in weight than unexposed controls demonstrating an 11% and 8.5% increase in body weight for females and males, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to examine changes in gene expression in liver and adipose tissue in exposed offspring. qPCR suggested alterations in genes involved in lipid metabolism in exposed female offspring, which was consistent with the observed increased fat pad weights and hepatic triglycerides. This study represents the first report to quantify the transfer of an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC from mother to offspring in the mouse model and evaluate bio-distribution after exposure using AMS. Our findings suggest that early-life exposure to TCC may interfere with lipid metabolism and could have implications for human health.

  18. Maternal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of triclocarban results in perinatal exposure and potential alterations in offspring development in the mouse model

    DOE PAGES

    Enright, Heather A.; Falso, Miranda J. S.; Malfatti, Michael A.; ...

    2017-08-09

    Triclocarban (TCC) is among the top 10 most commonly detected wastewater contaminants in both concentration and frequency. Its presence in water, as well as its propensity to bioaccumulate, has raised numerous questions about potential endocrine and developmental effects. Here in this paper, we investigated whether exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC could result in transfer from mother to offspring in CD-1 mice during gestation and lactation using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 14C-TCC (100 nM) was administered to dams through drinking water up to gestation day 18, or from birth to post-natal day 10. AMS was used to quantifymore » 14C-concentrations in offspring and dams after exposure. We demonstrated that TCC does effectively transfer from mother to offspring, both trans-placentally and via lactation. TCC-related compounds were detected in the tissues of offspring with significantly higher concentrations in the brain, heart and fat. In addition to transfer from mother to offspring, exposed offspring were heavier in weight than unexposed controls demonstrating an 11% and 8.5% increase in body weight for females and males, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to examine changes in gene expression in liver and adipose tissue in exposed offspring. qPCR suggested alterations in genes involved in lipid metabolism in exposed female offspring, which was consistent with the observed increased fat pad weights and hepatic triglycerides. This study represents the first report to quantify the transfer of an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC from mother to offspring in the mouse model and evaluate bio-distribution after exposure using AMS. Our findings suggest that early-life exposure to TCC may interfere with lipid metabolism and could have implications for human health.« less

  19. Sedimentological downstream effects of dam failure and the role of sediment connectivity: a case study from the Bohemian Massif, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurster, Maria-Theresia; Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Pichler-Scheder, Christian; Hein, Thomas; Pöppl, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Sediment connectivity describes the potential for sediment transport through catchment systems, further defining locality and characteristics of sedimentation in river channels. Dams generally decrease sediment connectivity and act as temporary sediment sinks. When dams are removed these sediments are being reworked and released downstream. During dam restoration works along a small-sized stream in the Bohemian Massif of Austria in December 2015 a dam failure occurred which led to the entrainment of several tons of fine-grained reservoir sediments further entering and depositing in the downstream channel reaches, located in the Thayatal National Park. Aiming to remove these fine sediment deposits the National Park Authority decided to initiate a flushing event in April 2016. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dam failure-induced fine sediment release and reservoir flushing on downstream bed sediment characteristics by applying geomorphological mapping (incl. volumetric surveys) and sedimentological analyses (freeze-core sampling and granulometry), further discussing the role of in-channel sediment connectivity. The obtained results have shown that immediately after the dam failure event a total of ca. 18 m3 of fine-grained sediments have accumulated as in-channel sediment bars which were primarily formed in zones of low longitudinal connectivity (e.g. in the backwater areas of woody debris jams, or at slip-off bank locations). The flushing event has been shown to have caused remobilization and downstream translocation of these deposits, further reducing their total volume by approx. 60%. The results of the granulometric analyses of the freeze-core samples have revealed fine sediment accumulation and storage in the upper parts of the channel bed, having further increased after the flushing event. Additionally, effects on chemical conditions and invertebrate community have been observed. These observations clearly indicate a

  20. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms and offspring psychopathology: evidence from a children-of-twins study and an adoption study.

    PubMed

    McAdams, T A; Rijsdijk, F V; Neiderhiser, J M; Narusyte, J; Shaw, D S; Natsuaki, M N; Spotts, E L; Ganiban, J M; Reiss, David; Leve, L D; Lichtenstein, P; Eley, T C

    2015-01-01

    Parental depressive symptoms are associated with emotional and behavioural problems in offspring. However, genetically informative studies are needed to distinguish potential causal effects from genetic confounds, and longitudinal studies are required to distinguish parent-to-child effects from child-to-parent effects. We conducted cross-sectional analyses on a sample of Swedish twins and their adolescent offspring (n = 876 twin families), and longitudinal analyses on a US sample of children adopted at birth, their adoptive parents, and their birth mothers (n = 361 adoptive families). Depressive symptoms were measured in parents, and externalizing and internalizing problems measured in offspring. Structural equation models were fitted to the data. Results of model fitting suggest that associations between parental depressive symptoms and offspring internalizing and externalizing problems remain after accounting for genes shared between parent and child. Genetic transmission was not evident in the twin study but was evident in the adoption study. In the longitudinal adoption study child-to-parent effects were evident. We interpret the results as demonstrating that associations between parental depressive symptoms and offspring emotional and behavioural problems are not solely attributable to shared genes, and that bidirectional effects may be present in intergenerational associations.

  1. Offspring's hydromineral adaptive responses to maternal undernutrition during lactation.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, P; Arguelles, J; Perillan, C

    2015-12-01

    Early development, throughout gestation and lactation, represents a period of extreme vulnerability during which susceptibility to later metabolic and cardiovascular injuries increases. Maternal diet is a major determinant of the foetal and newborn developmental environment; maternal undernutrition may result in adaptive responses leading to structural and molecular alterations in various organs and tissues, such as the brain and kidney. New nephron anlages appear in the renal cortex up to postnatal day 4 and the last anlages to be formed develop into functional nephrons by postnatal day 10 in rodents. We used a model of undernutrition in rat dams that were food-restricted during the first half of the lactation period in order to study the long-term effects of maternal diet on renal development, behaviour and neural hydromineral control mechanisms. The study showed that after 40% food restriction in maternal dietary intake, the dipsogenic responses for both water and salt intake were not altered; Fos expression in brain areas investigated involved in hydromineral homeostasis control was always higher in the offspring in response to isoproterenol. This was accompanied by normal plasma osmolality changes and typical renal histology. These results suggest that the mechanisms for the control of hydromineral balance were unaffected in the offspring of these 40% food-restricted mothers. Undernutrition of the pups may not be as drastic as suggested by dams' restriction.

  2. Parental Psychiatric Disease and Risks of Attempted Suicide and Violent Criminal Offending in Offspring: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mok, Pearl L H; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Springate, David; Astrup, Aske; Kapur, Nav; Antonsen, Sussie; Mors, Ole; Webb, Roger T

    2016-10-01

    Self-directed and interpersonal violence share some common risk factors such as a parental history of mental illness. However, relationships between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and these 2 related outcomes are unclear. To examine associations between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and risks of attempted suicide and violent offending among offspring. Population-based cohort study of all persons born in Denmark 1967 through 1997, followed up from their 15th birthday until occurrence of adverse outcome or December 31, 2012, whichever came first. Array of parental psychiatric disorders and parental suicide attempt, delineated from records of secondary care treatments. Using survival analyses techniques, incidence rate ratios were estimated for offspring suicide attempt and violent offending. We examined 1 743 525 cohort members (48.7% female; total follow-up, 27.2 million person-years). Risks for offspring suicide attempt and violent offending were elevated across virtually the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease. Incidence rate ratios were the most elevated for parental diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder (suicide attempt, 3.96; 95% CI, 3.72-4.21; violent offending, 3.62; 95% CI, 3.41-3.84) and cannabis misuse (suicide attempt, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.25-3.92; violent offending, 4.05; 95% CI, 3.72-4.39), and for parental suicide attempt (suicide attempt, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.29-3.55; violent offending, 3.31; 95% CI, 3.19-3.44). Parental mood disorders (and bipolar disorder in particular) conferred more modest risk increases. A history of mental illness or suicide attempt in both parents was associated with double the risks compared with having just 1 affected parent. Associations between parental psychiatric disease and offspring violent offending were stronger for female than for male offspring, whereas little sex difference in risk was found for offspring suicide attempt. The similarities in risk patterns observed

  3. Analysis of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after Historic Dam Removal - two French case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent

    2014-05-01

    IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary analysis of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, historical and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM

  4. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

  5. A Children of Twins Study of Parental Divorce and Offspring Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although parental divorce is associated with increased substance use and internalizing problems, experiencing the separation of one's parents may not cause these outcomes. The relations may be due to genetic or environmental selection factors, characteristics that lead to both marital separation and offspring functioning. Method: We…

  6. A Children of Twins Study of Parental Divorce and Offspring Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although parental divorce is associated with increased substance use and internalizing problems, experiencing the separation of one's parents may not cause these outcomes. The relations may be due to genetic or environmental selection factors, characteristics that lead to both marital separation and offspring functioning. Method: We…

  7. Neck/upper back and low back pain in parents and their adult offspring: Family linkage data from the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Lier, R; Nilsen, T I L; Vasseljen, O; Mork, P J

    2015-07-01

    Chronic pain in the neck and low back is highly prevalent. Although heritable components have been identified, knowledge about generational transmission of spinal pain between parents and their adult offspring is sparse. This study examined the intergenerational association of spinal pain using data from 11,081 parent-offspring trios participating in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for offspring spinal pain associated with parental spinal pain. In total, 3654 (33%) offspring reported spinal pain at participation. Maternal and paternal spinal pain was consistently associated with higher ORs for offspring spinal pain. The results suggest a slightly stronger association for parental multilevel spinal pain (i.e., both neck/upper back pain and low back pain) than for pain localized to the neck/upper back or low back. Multilevel spinal pain in both parents was associated with ORs of 2.6 (95% CI, 2.1-3.3), 2.4 (95% CI, 1.9-3.1) and 3.1 (95% CI, 2.2-4.4) for offspring neck/upper back, low back and multilevel spinal pain, respectively. Parental chronic spinal pain was consistently associated with increased occurrence of chronic spinal pain in their adult offspring, and this association was particularly strong for multilevel spinal pain. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  8. The development of thought problems: a longitudinal family risk study of offspring of bipolar, unipolar, and well parents.

    PubMed

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Desjardins, Christopher David; James, Matthew G; Narayan, Angela J; Long, Jeffrey D; Cullen, Kathryn R; Gold, Philip W; Martinez, Pedro E

    2013-11-01

    There is growing evidence that many offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) will develop moderate to severe forms of psychopathology during childhood and adolescence, including thought problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the developmental progression of thought problems within the context of a family risk study. Repeated assessments of thought problems, spanning approximately 15 years, were conducted in offspring (N = 192 from 98 families) of parents diagnosed with BD (O-BD), unipolar depression (O-UNI), or no significant psychiatric or medical problems (O-WELL). Survival analysis showed that the O-BD group had the greatest estimated probability of developing thought problems over time, followed by O-UNI, and then O-WELL and O-BD exhibiting higher levels of persistence than O-WELL. Parent-reported thought problems in childhood and adolescence predicted a range of problems in young adulthood. Disturbances in reality testing and other atypical behaviors are likely to disrupt progression through important developmental periods and to associate with poor outcomes. These findings are likely relevant to preventing the occurrence or progression of problems in offspring of bipolar parents. The study of thought problems across development represents an important area of continued research in children at risk for development of affective disorders.

  9. Study of lipid status in the euglycemic offsprings of diabetic parents with sex, age matched controls among South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Carlton Johnny, J; Anuratha, N

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has a silent but a fatal course. So, if we are able to identify the subjects in the early course of the disease then we will be able to prevent them from fatal complications later. To study the lipid status among euglycemic offspring of diabetic parents by appropriately matching for sex, and age in controls. It is a case control study involving 52 subjects and 25 controls done in a tertiary care center in Chennai. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria 52 euglycemic offspring as subjects and 25 controls were taken. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL), serum triglycerides, blood pressure and waist circumference we obtained. The results were tabulated and studied. Student t test was employed. Siblings of diabetic parents had lower levels of serum HDL. Odds ratio showed that offspring's of diabetic parents had the odds of having low HDL 4.67 times when compared to the controls with a confidence interval of 1.6001-13.6563, P value of 0.0048. The other parameters did not show any gross variation. Siblings of diabetic fathers had a more deranged profile than the siblings of diabetic mothers. There is significant association between parental diabetic status and dyslipidemia. If they are detected early then progress to complications can be delayed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in the offspring: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, C S; Deshpande, S S; Jackson, A A; Refsum, H; Rao, S; Fisher, D J; Bhat, D S; Naik, S S; Coyaji, K J; Joglekar, C V; Joshi, N; Lubree, H G; Deshpande, V U; Rege, S S; Fall, C H D

    2008-01-01

    Raised maternal plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations predict small size at birth, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the association between maternal vitamin B12, folate and tHcy status during pregnancy, and offspring adiposity and insulin resistance at 6 years. In the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study we studied 700 consecutive eligible pregnant women in six villages. We measured maternal nutritional intake and circulating concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, tHcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) at 18 and 28 weeks of gestation. These were correlated with offspring anthropometry, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-R]) at 6 years. Two-thirds of mothers had low vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/l), 90% had high MMA (>0.26 micromol/l) and 30% had raised tHcy concentrations (>10 micromol/l); only one had a low erythrocyte folate concentration. Although short and thin (BMI), the 6-year-old children were relatively adipose compared with the UK standards (skinfold thicknesses). Higher maternal erythrocyte folate concentrations at 28 weeks predicted higher offspring adiposity and higher HOMA-R (both p < 0.01). Low maternal vitamin B12 (18 weeks; p = 0.03) predicted higher HOMA-R in the children. The offspring of mothers with a combination of high folate and low vitamin B12 concentrations were the most insulin resistant. Low maternal vitamin B12 and high folate status may contribute to the epidemic of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in India.

  11. Maternal Low-Protein Diet Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Hepatic MicroRNAs Expression in the Early Life of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Tong; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from maternal low-protein diet (LPD) is associated with perturbed miRNAs expression in offspring as early as the weaning age. We examined the metabolic effects on the C57BL/6J mice male offspring at weaning from dams fed with LPD or normal chow diet (NCD) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Maternal LPD feeding impaired metabolic health in offspring. Microarray profiling indicated that mmu-miR-615, mmu-miR-124, mmu-miR-376b, and mmu-let-7e were significantly downregulated, while, mmu-miR-708 and mmu-miR-879 were upregulated in LPD offspring. Bioinformatic analysis showed target genes were mapped to inflammatory-related pathways. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were higher and interleukin 6 (IL-6) had a tendency to be elevated in the LPD group. Finally, both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in the LPD group. Our findings provide novel evidence that maternal LPD can regulate miRNAs expression, which may be associated with chronic inflammation status and metabolic health in offspring as early as the weaning age. PMID:28264458

  12. Maternal Low-Protein Diet Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Hepatic MicroRNAs Expression in the Early Life of Offspring †.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Tong; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping

    2017-02-27

    Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from maternal low-protein diet (LPD) is associated with perturbed miRNAs expression in offspring as early as the weaning age. We examined the metabolic effects on the C57BL/6J mice male offspring at weaning from dams fed with LPD or normal chow diet (NCD) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Maternal LPD feeding impaired metabolic health in offspring. Microarray profiling indicated that mmu-miR-615, mmu-miR-124, mmu-miR-376b, and mmu-let-7e were significantly downregulated, while, mmu-miR-708 and mmu-miR-879 were upregulated in LPD offspring. Bioinformatic analysis showed target genes were mapped to inflammatory-related pathways. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were higher and interleukin 6 (IL-6) had a tendency to be elevated in the LPD group. Finally, both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in the LPD group. Our findings provide novel evidence that maternal LPD can regulate miRNAs expression, which may be associated with chronic inflammation status and metabolic health in offspring as early as the weaning age.

  13. Fever in pregnancy and offspring mortality - a longitudinal study of a cohort from 1927 to 1937 on the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Helmsdal, Gunnhild; Olsen, Sjúrour F

    2009-01-01

    In a birth cohort from 1927 to 1937 consisting of 4,208 individuals, we examined the relation between complications in pregnancy and offspring adult mortality. Patterns of increased mortality were observed in the group of males whose mothers had experienced fever during pregnancy, i.e. with all-cause mortality (rate ratio 1.505; 95% CI 1.084-1.926; p=0.057), premature death (rate ratio 1.943; 95% CI 1.486-2.400; p=0.004), and with cancer (rate ratio 2.625; 95% CI 1.845-3.405; p=0.015). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fever in pregnancy and offspring mortality.

  14. Differential effects of repeated long and brief maternal separation on behaviour and neuroendocrine parameters in Wistar dams.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Malin B; Johansson, Linda M; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Arborelius, Lotta

    2009-10-12

    Repeated, prolonged maternal separation has been suggested to model the development of a depression-like syndrome in rats. The long separations from the pups have been proposed to be stressful for the dams, which in turn could mediate the changes seen in adult offspring. In the present study we investigated whether prolonged maternal separation really is stressful for rat dams by studying parameters known to be affected by long-term stress such as spontaneous motor activity, anxiety-like behaviour, adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels. Dams were separated from their litter for either 4 h (MS240) or 15 min (MS15) on eight random days during postnatal day 1-14, or left undisturbed (animal facility reared, AFR). After weaning MS240 dams showed decreased peripheral activity and habituated slower in horizontal activity. On the contrary, MS15 dams showed more peripheral activity and less rearing activity compared to both AFR and MS240 dams when habituated to the testing apparatus, suggesting that MS15 dams are more anxious. The adrenal glands from MS15 dams weighed significantly less and plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher compared to AFR and MS240 dams. These results suggest that repeated brief maternal separations from pups could be stressful for rat mothers, whereas prolonged separations are not. Since these results are in contrast to the current notion that the short separation procedure may be considered as a safe milieu, whereas the prolonged separations have been suggested to be stressful for both dams and pups, further studies in this field are warranted.

  15. The stroke offspring study: is parental stroke history of value in targeted risk factor screening?

    PubMed

    Hart, Nigel D; Cupples, Margaret E; Wiggam, M Ivan; Patterson, Christopher C; Yarnell, John W G

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the prevalence of stroke risk factors among people with a parental history of stroke to those in a control group of individuals, of similar age, gender and social class, with no parental stroke history. Parental stroke increases an individual's risk of stroke, but little is known of the potential value of using this information in targeted screening for primary prevention in general practice. We sent questionnaires to 300 randomly selected individuals aged 40-65 years, in each of 11 different general practices in Northern Ireland. Among 1061 responses received within six weeks, 332 reported a parental history of stroke (31.3%). We matched respondents with (cases) and without (controls) a parental history of stroke on characteristics of age, gender and socioeconomic status. Matched pairs were invited to attend a consultation at which their diet and exercise habits were assessed using validated questionnaires and height, weight, blood pressure and serum lipids and glucose were measured. Matched data were available for 199 case-control pairs (398 individuals). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in cases than in paired controls (systolic 146.3 versus 140.6 mmHg (P < 0.01); diastolic 87.7 versus 85.0 mmHg (P = 0.014)). Cases consumed more alcohol than their paired controls (13.8 versus 10.1 U/week (P < 0.01)), but their measures of body mass index, lipids, diabetes, diet and exercise did not differ significantly. The results of this study suggest that screening offspring of patients with stroke in respect of blood pressure has potential value in identifying people likely to benefit from primary prevention, but do not support the adoption of a targeted screening strategy for other commonly cited stroke risk factors.

  16. Alterations in cholesterol absorption/synthesis markers characterize Framingham offspring study participants with CHD.

    PubMed

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Pencina, Michael; LaRocque, Jane M; Jacques, Paul F; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Schaefer, Ernst J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-09-01

    Data is limited on measures influencing cholesterol homeostasis in subjects at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) relative to established risk factors. To address this, we quantified circulating indicators of cholesterol homeostasis (plasma phytosterols and cholesterol precursor concentrations as surrogate measures of cholesterol absorption and synthesis, respectively) in Framingham Offspring Study Cycle-6 participants diagnosed with established CVD and/or >or=50% carotid stenosis not taking lipid lowering medication (cases, N = 155) and matched controls (N = 414). Cases and controls had similar plasma LDL-cholesterol; HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in males, while triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in female cases relative to their respective controls. Cholesterol absorption markers were significantly higher (229 +/- 7 vs. 196 +/- 4, 169 +/- 6 vs. 149 +/- 3 and 144 +/- 5 vs. 135 +/- 3 for campesterol, sitosterol, and cholestanol, respectively), whereas cholesterol synthesis markers were significantly lower (116 +/- 4 vs. 138 +/- 3, 73 +/- 3 vs. 75 +/- 2 for lathosterol and desmosterol, respectively) in cases compared with controls, irrespective of sex. After controlling for standard risk factors, campesterol (2.47 [1.71-3.56]; P < 0.0001), sitosterol (1.86 [1.38-2.50]; P < 0.0001), cholestanol (1.57 [1.09-2.27]; P = 0.02), desmosterol (0.59 [0.42-0.84]; P = 0.003), and lathosterol (0.58 [0.43-0.77]; P = 0.0002) were significantly associated with CVD (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]). These data suggest that impaired cholesterol homeostasis, reflected by lower synthesis and higher absorption marker concentrations, are highly significant independent predictors of prevalent CVD in this study population.

  17. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    Shirangi, Adeleh; Bower, Carol; Holman, C. D’Arcy J.; Preen, David B.; Bruce, Neville

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies) who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15)). Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03) and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48) and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42). This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs. PMID:24927037

  18. Pre-eclampsia and offspring cardiovascular health: mechanistic insights from experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Esther F.; Newton, Laura; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Lazdam, Merzaka; Kelly, Brenda A.; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Leeson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is increasingly recognized as more than an isolated disease of pregnancy. Women who have had a pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia have a 4-fold increased risk of later cardiovascular disease. Intriguingly, the offspring of affected pregnancies also have an increased risk of higher blood pressure and almost double the risk of stroke in later life. Experimental approaches to identify the key features of pre-eclampsia responsible for this programming of offspring cardiovascular health, or the key biological pathways modified in the offspring, have the potential to highlight novel targets for early primary prevention strategies. As pre-eclampsia occurs in 2–5% of all pregnancies, the findings are relevant to the current healthcare of up to 3 million people in the U.K. and 15 million people in the U.S.A. In the present paper, we review the current literature that concerns potential mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular programming in offspring exposed to pre-eclampsia, considering two major areas of investigation: first, experimental models that mimic features of the in utero environment characteristic of pre-eclampsia, and secondly, how, in humans, offspring cardiovascular phenotype is altered after exposure to pre-eclampsia. We compare and contrast the findings from these two bodies of work to develop insights into the likely key pathways of relevance. The present review and analysis highlights the pivotal role of long-term changes in vascular function and identifies areas of growing interest, specifically, response to hypoxia, immune modification, epigenetics and the anti-angiogenic in utero milieu. PMID:22455350

  19. Water Management Models in Practice: A Case Study of the Aswan High Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ashry, M. T.; Alford, D. L.

    1984-04-01

    The stated purpose of this volume is the development and evaluation of operating policies for the Aswan High Dam and their relation to the development of water resources policy in Egypt. That objective is admirably fulfilled through discussions of water use in Egypt and the operation objectives of the High Dam, the behavior of the physical system and simulation of the reservoir, a realtime management model of the dam, management of water shortages and trade-offs between major uses, and coordinated operation of the dam with new upstream as well as downstream developments.The High Dam has been a source of controversy, particularly with regard to its environmental impacts. Its adverse effects include changes in the water table and attendant salt buildup in irrigated areas, excessive growth of aquatic plants below the dam, shoreline erosion, and increases in water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis (bilharzia). The dam was intended to offset rapid population growth by increasing food supplies through the transformation of irrigated land in southern Egypt from seasonal to perennial cultivation and by providing water for the reclamation of desert land. Unfortunately, such benefits have been outstripped by the rapidly growing population, and water shortages will be experienced by the end of the century.

  20. Study on Optimal Grouting Timing for Controlling Uplift Deformation of a Super High Arch Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Li, Qingbin; Liu, Hongyuan; Yu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    A grouting model is developed for use during the grouting of the complex foundation of a super high arch dam. The purpose as to determine the optimal grouting timing and appropriate grouting pressure involved in controlling the uplift deformation of the dam. The model determines the optimal grouting time as the height of the arch dam increases with the concrete pouring, by checking the tensile stresses in the dam against standard specifications. The appropriate grouting pressures are given on the basis of the actual grouting pressures monitored during the upstream riverbed foundation grouting. An engineering procedure, applying the model, was then proposed and used during foundation grouting under the toe block of the Xiluodu super high-arch dam in south-western China. The quality of the foundation grouting was evaluated against the results from pressurized water permeability tests, acoustic wave velocity tests, elastic modulus tests and panoramic photographing of the rockmass on completion of the foundation grouting. The results indicated that the proposed grouting model can be applied to effectively reduce the uplift deformation and associated cracking risk for super high arch dams, and it can be concluded that the proposed engineering grouting procedure is a valuable tool for improving foundation grouting under the toe blocks of a super high arch dam.

  1. 78 FR 49735 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Dam Safety Study, Lake Lewisville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Safety Study, Lake Lewisville Dam, Elm Fork Trinity River, Denton County, Texas AGENCY: Department of the... flood risk management, ] water supply, recreation and non-Federal hydropower. Top of conservation pool... rapid growth in the Lewisville, Grapevine, Dallas, Texas corridor along the Elm Fork and...

  2. 107. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS - PLANS & SECTIONS (ML-8-52/3-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  3. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  4. Cardiovascular Health Status and Incidence of Heart Failure in the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayor, Matthew; Enserro, Danielle M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Xanthakis, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association Cardiovascular Health (CVH) score is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, but its relations to cardiac remodeling traits and to heart failure (HF) incidence have not been examined. Methods and Results A 14-point score was constructed for each participant based on the presence of poor, intermediate or ideal status on each of the 7 CVH metrics (ideal score=14). We related the CVH score to echocardiographic traits cross-sectionally, and to HF incidence prospectively in the Framingham Offspring Study. In age- and sex-adjusted models, a higher CVH score was associated with lower left ventricular (LV) mass, LV wall thickness, LV diastolic dimension, and left atrial dimension (p<0.01 for all; N=2392, mean age 58 years, 56% women), and with a 12-15% lower odds of prevalent LV concentric remodeling and concentric hypertrophy, respectively (p<0.0001 for both). On follow-up (mean 12.3 years), 188 incident HF events were observed in 3201 participants (mean age 59 years, 53% women). In age- and sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the CVH score was inversely associated with HF incidence (hazards ratio [HR] per 1-point higher CVH score 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.83). This association was partially attenuated upon adjustment for LV mass and interim myocardial infarction (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93) and was consistent for HF with preserved and reduced ejection fractions. Conclusions In our community-based sample, comprised predominantly of middle-aged white individuals of European descent, better CVH was associated with lower HF incidence, in part due to a lower prevalence of adverse cardiac remodeling. PMID:26699391

  5. Maternal epilepsy and offsprings' adult intelligence: a population-based study from Norway.

    PubMed

    Oyen, Nina; Vollset, Stein E; Eide, Martha G; Bjerkedal, Tor; Skjaerven, Rolv

    2007-09-01

    We examined if children of mothers with epilepsy had normal intelligence, speculating that either epilepsy or its therapy might affect this parameter. In a population-based cohort study in Norway, information on maternal epilepsy reported to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1967-1979 was linked to information on 18-19-year-old men's intellectual ability and anthropometric measures ascertained by the Norwegian Conscripts Service, 1984-1999. The standardized intelligence test (IQ score) was reported as single-digit standard scores with values from 1 to 9. No individual information on antiepileptic drug therapy was available. Mean IQ score was lower in 1,207 conscripts whose mothers had epilepsy reported on the birth notification form, as compared with 316,554 conscripts of mothers without epilepsy; 4.8 (standard deviation 1.8) versus 5.2(1.8), p < 0.001, respectively. This difference remained after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, birth order, marital status, year of birth, and weight and length at birth. When comparing men with and without reported maternal epilepsy, the odds ratio of having an IQ score < or = 3 was 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-1.8), which was unaffected by adjustment for confounding factors. Mean height among conscripts of mothers with and without epilepsy measured 178.6 and 179.9 cm, respectively, a difference of 1.3 cm (p < 0.001). We observed that almost 20 years after birth, maternal epilepsy was associated with reduced IQ score and also shorter adult height in male offspring. We do not know whether these findings will persist when epilepsy is better treated with the newer and safer generation of antiepileptic drugs.

  6. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition: The Healthy Start Study.

    PubMed

    Crume, Tessa L; Brinton, John T; Shapiro, Allison; Kaar, Jill; Glueck, Deborah H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2016-11-01

    Consistent evidence of an influence of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy on infant body size and composition in human populations is lacking, despite robust evidence in animal models. We sought to evaluate the influence of maternal macronutrient intake and balance during pregnancy on neonatal body size and composition, including fat mass and fat-free mass. The analysis was conducted among 1040 mother-offspring pairs enrolled in the prospective prebirth observational cohort: the Healthy Start Study. Diet during pregnancy was collected using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 8). Direct measures of body composition were obtained using air displacement plethysmography. The National Cancer Institute measurement error model was used to estimate usual dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable partition (nonisocaloric) and nutrient density (isocaloric) linear regression models were used to test the associations between maternal dietary intake and neonatal body composition. The median macronutrient composition during pregnancy was 32.2% from fat, 15.0% from protein, and 47.8% from carbohydrates. In the partition multivariate regression model, individual macronutrient intake values were not associated with birthweight or fat-free mass, but were associated with fat mass. Respectively, 418 kJ increases in total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates were associated with 4.2-g (P = .03), 11.1-g (P = .003), 5.9-g (P = .04), and 2.9-g (P = .02) increases in neonatal fat mass, independent of prepregnancy body mass index. In the nutrient density multivariate regression model, macronutrient balance was not associated with fat mass, fat-free mass, or birthweight after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Neonatal adiposity, but not birthweight, is independently associated with increased maternal intake of total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates, but not protein, suggesting that most forms of increased

  7. Association of Plasma ADMA Levels with MRI Markers of Vascular Brain Injury: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pikula, Aleksandra; Böger, Rainer H.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Maas, Renke; DeCarli, Charles; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Himali, Jayandra J.; Schulze, Friedrich; Au, Rhoda; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kase, Carlos S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Elevated circulating ADMA concentrations have been associated with systemic and carotid atherosclerosis, an elevated risk of developing stroke and with MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH). The relation of plasma ADMA to subclinical vascular brain injury has not been previously studied in a middle-aged, community-based sample. Methods In 2013 stroke-free Framingham Offspring (mean age 58±9.5yrs, 53% women) we related baseline plasma ADMA levels (1995–98) to subsequent brain MRI (1999–2004) measures of subclinical vascular injury: presence of silent brain infarcts (SBI) and large white matter hyperintensity volume (LWMH; defined as >1SD above age-specific mean). Results Prevalence of SBI and LWMH were 10.7% and 12.6%, respectively. In multivariable analyses adjusting for age-, sex- and traditional stroke risk factors, higher ADMA levels were associated with an increased risk of prevalent SBI (OR per SD increase in ADMA: 1.16, 95%CI: 1.01–1.33, p= 0.04).We observed that participants in the upper three age-specific quartiles of plasma ADMA had an increased prevalence of SBI (OR for Q2–4 versus Q1:1.43, 95%CI: 1.00–2.04, p<0.05). Prevalence of SBI in Q1and Q2–4 was 8.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Prevalence of LWMH did not differ according to ADMA concentrations. Conclusion Higher plasma ADMA was associated with increased prevalence of SBI after adjustment for traditional stroke risk factors. Thus, ADMA may be a potentially useful new biomarker of subclinical vascular brain injury, which is an important correlate of vascular cognitive impairment and risk of stroke. PMID:19644064

  8. Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to high-saturated-fat diet represses Wnt signaling and myogenic genes in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke-Feng; Shen, Xiu-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2012-08-01

    The prenatal and early postnatal period is a key developmental window for nutrition status, and high-fat exposure in this period has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity and other features of metabolic disorders later in life. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and role of relative genes involved in this process. We investigated the impact of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet on the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway and myogenic genes in skeletal muscle of rat offspring as well as the serum and muscle physiological outcomes. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (C, 16% kcal fat) or high-saturated-fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, female offspring were fed a control diet to generate two offspring groups: control diet-fed offspring of control diet-fed dams (C/C) and control diet-fed offspring of HF diet-fed dams (HF/C). The serum glucose of the HF/C offspring (5.58 ± 0.26 mmol/L) was significantly higher than that of C/C offspring (4.97 ± 0.28 mmol/L), and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance of HF/C offspring (2.00 ± 0.11) was also significantly higher when compared with C/C (1.84 ± 0.09). Furthermore, HF/C offspring presented excessive intramuscular fat accumulation (1.8-fold, P < 0.05) and decreased muscle glycogen (1.3-fold, P < 0.05), as well as impairment of muscle development at the age of 12 weeks. Meanwhile, we observed the repression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and myogenic genes in HF/C offspring. The present study indicates that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet suppresses the development of skeletal muscle and myogenic genes via Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and the inappropriate muscle development could potentially contribute to the predisposition of offspring to develop metabolic-syndrome-like phenotype in adulthood.

  9. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-07-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C-C, HF-C, C-HF and HF-HF (n=8 in each group). The C-C offspring had lower body weight than C-HF group at 16 weeks of age (P<0.01) and both C-HF and HF-HF offspring had higher body weight than C-C group at 24 and 32 weeks of age (P<0.001 respectively). The blood glucose (BG) levels of the male offspring from the C and HF dams weaned HF diet were significantly higher at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min (P<0.001) after intraperitoneal glucose administration compared with those of the C-C group. The C-HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF-HF group (P<0.01). Furthermore, area under the curve (AUC) in C-HF and HF-HF groups was also significantly larger than C-C group (P<0.001). Fasting BG and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of the offspring were significantly higher in C-HF and HF-HF groups than C-C group at 32 weeks of age (P<0.05). Operational taxonomic unit (OTU), Chao and Shannon indexes showed a significantly lower diversity in C-HF offspring compared with HF-C and C-C groups (P<0.05). The dominant phyla of all the groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (P<0.05). Furthermore, it is indicated that Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were significantly associated with glucose response to a glucose load (P<0.05). In conclusion, maternal and post-weaning diet interaction predisposes the

  10. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C–C, HF–C, C–HF and HF–HF (n=8 in each group). The C–C offspring had lower body weight than C–HF group at 16 weeks of age (P<0.01) and both C–HF and HF–HF offspring had higher body weight than C–C group at 24 and 32 weeks of age (P<0.001 respectively). The blood glucose (BG) levels of the male offspring from the C and HF dams weaned HF diet were significantly higher at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min (P<0.001) after intraperitoneal glucose administration compared with those of the C–C group. The C–HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF–HF group (P<0.01). Furthermore, area under the curve (AUC) in C–HF and HF–HF groups was also significantly larger than C–C group (P<0.001). Fasting BG and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of the offspring were significantly higher in C–HF and HF–HF groups than C–C group at 32 weeks of age (P<0.05). Operational taxonomic unit (OTU), Chao and Shannon indexes showed a significantly lower diversity in C–HF offspring compared with HF–C and C–C groups (P<0.05). The dominant phyla of all the groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (P<0.05). Furthermore, it is indicated that Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were significantly associated with glucose response to a glucose load (P<0.05). In conclusion, maternal and post

  11. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Offspring Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adulthood: Prospective and Sibling Studies in the HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Alsnes, Ingvild V; Vatten, Lars J; Fraser, Abigail; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Romundstad, Pål R; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2017-04-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Seven hundred and six participants were born after exposure to maternal hypertension in pregnancy: 336 mothers had gestational hypertension, 343 had term preeclampsia, and 27 had preterm preeclampsia. Offspring whose mothers had hypertension in pregnancy had 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, 1.5 (0.9-2.1) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure, 0.66 (0.31-1.01) kg/m(2) higher body mass index, and 1.49 (0.65-2.33) cm wider waist circumference, compared with offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Similar differences were observed for gestational hypertension and term preeclampsia. Term preeclampsia was also associated with higher concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L, 0.03-0.25) and triglycerides (0.13 mmol/L, 0.06-0.21). Siblings born after a normotensive pregnancy had nearly identical risk factor levels as siblings born after maternal hypertension. Offspring born after maternal hypertension in pregnancy have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood than offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Their siblings, born after a normotensive pregnancy, have a similar risk profile, suggesting that shared genes or lifestyle may account for the association, rather than an intrauterine effect. All children of mothers who have experienced hypertension in pregnancy may be at increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. 1000 dams down and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff J.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Forty years ago, the demolition of large dams was mostly fiction, notably plotted in Edward Abbey's novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Its 1975 publication roughly coincided with the end of large-dam construction in the United States. Since then, dams have been taken down in increasing numbers as they have filled with sediment, become unsafe or inefficient, or otherwise outlived their usefulness (1) (see the figure, panel A). Last year's removals of the 64-m-high Glines Canyon Dam and the 32-m-high Elwha Dam in northwestern Washington State were among the largest yet, releasing over 10 million cubic meters of stored sediment. Published studies conducted in conjunction with about 100 U.S. dam removals and at least 26 removals outside the United States are now providing detailed insights into how rivers respond (2, 3).

  13. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  14. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure On Plasma Oxytocin Concentrations In Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rat dams and offspring were exposed to 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g hypergravity (hg) from Gestational day (G) 11 until Postnatal day (P) 10. To ascertain the role of maternal factors in reduced postnatal body weights of offspring developed in hg, the dams' lactational hormones were measured. Oxytocin (OT), the major hormone responsible for milk ejection, was reduced in hg dams whereas prolactin (Prl), involved in milk production, was unchanged. Video analyses of nursing behavior revealed that hg dams spent more time nursing relative to 1-g controls. We hypothesized impaired milk transfer from dam to pup, however pup body weight gains following a discrete suckling episode were comparable across conditions. Changes in lactational hormones and nursing behavior by dams exposed to hg do not account for reduced body masses of their offspring.

  15. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Bone Fractures: Prospective Study over Two Decades in Aarhus City, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian; Granström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Vestergaard, Peter; Strøm, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. Purpose We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. Methods The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988–89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Results Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th–95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0–152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11–2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12–2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P = 0.054). Conclusion Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough

  16. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures: prospective study over two decades in Aarhus City, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian; Granström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Vestergaard, Peter; Strøm, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th-95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12-2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P = 0.054). Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough to allow for subdivision of fractures.

  17. Maternal chromium restriction modulates miRNA profiles related to lipid metabolism disorder in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence shows that maternal nutrition status has a vital effect on offspring susceptibility to obesity. MicroRNAs are related to lipid metabolism processes. This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal chromium restriction could affect miRNA expression involved in lipid metabolism in offspring. Weaning C57BL/6J mice born from mothers fed with normal control diet or chromium-restricted diet were fed for 13 weeks. The adipose miRNA expression profile was analyzed by miRNA array analysis. At 16 weeks old, pups from dams fed with chromium-restricted diet exhibit higher body weight, fat weight, and serum TC, TG levels. Six miRNAs were identified as upregulated in the RC group compared with the CC group, whereas eight miRNAs were lower than the threshold level set in the RC group. In the validated target genes of these differentially expressed miRNA, the MAPK signaling pathway serves an important role in the influence of early life chromium-restricted diet on lipid metabolism through miRNA. Long-term programming on various specific miRNA and MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in maternal chromium restriction in the adipose of female offspring. Impact statement For the first time, our study demonstrates important miRNA differences in the effect of maternal chromium restriction in offspring. These miRNAs may serve as "bridges" between the mother and the offspring by affecting the MAPK pathway.

  18. Objectively-Verified Parental Non-Hip Major Osteoporotic Fractures and Offspring Osteoporotic Fracture Risk: A Population-Based Familial Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuman; Leslie, William D; Walld, Randy; Roos, Leslie L; Morin, Suzanne N; Majumdar, Sumit R; Lix, Lisa M

    2017-04-01

    Parental hip fracture (HF) is associated with increased risk of offspring major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs; comprising hip, forearm, clinical spine or humerus fracture). Whether other sites of parental fracture should be used for fracture risk assessment is uncertain. The current study tested the association between objectively-verified parental non-hip MOF and offspring incident MOF. Using population-based administrative healthcare data for the province of Manitoba, Canada, we identified 255,512 offspring with linkage to at least one parent (238,054 mothers and 209,423 fathers). Parental non-hip MOF (1984-2014) and offspring MOF (1997-2014) were ascertained with validated case definitions. Time-dependent multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During a median of 12 years of offspring follow-up, we identified 7045 incident MOF among offspring (3.7% and 2.5% for offspring with and without a parental non-hip MOF, p < 0.001). Maternal non-hip MOF (HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.35), paternal non-hip MOF (HR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.48), and any parental non-hip MOF (HR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.36) were significantly associated with offspring MOF after adjusting for covariates. The risk of MOF was even greater for offspring with both maternal and paternal non-hip MOF (adjusted HR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.02). All HRs were similar for male and female offspring (all pinteraction >0.1). Risks associated with parental HF only (adjusted HR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.40) and non-hip MOF only (adjusted HR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.34) were the same. The strength of association between any parental non-hip MOF and offspring MOF decreased with older parental age at non-hip MOF (ptrend  = 0.028). In summary, parental non-hip MOF confers an increased risk for offspring MOF, but the strength of the relationship decreases with older parental age at fracture. © 2016 American

  19. Erosion risk analysis by GIS in environmental impact assessments: a case study--Seyhan Köprü Dam construction.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Kurum, E

    2002-11-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a systematically constructed procedure whereby environmental impacts caused by proposed projects are examined. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are crucially efficient tools for impact assessment and their use is likely to dramatically increase in the near future. GIS have been applied to a wide range of different impact assessment projects and dams among them have been taken as the case work in this article. EIA Regulation in force in Turkey requires the analysis of steering natural processes that can be adversely affected by the proposed project, particularly in the section of the analysis of the areas with higher landscape value. At this point, the true potential value of GIS lies in its ability to analyze spatial data with accuracy. This study is an attempt to analyze by GIS the areas with higher landscape value in the impact assessment of dam constructions in the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal. A method needs to be defined before the overlapping step by GIS to analyze the areas with higher landscape value. In the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal of the present work, considering the geological conditions and the steep slopes of the area and the type of the project, the most important natural process is erosion. Therefore, the areas of higher erosion risk were considered as the Areas with Higher Landscape Value from the conservation demands points of view.

  20. Nutrition During Pregnancy Impacts Offspring's Epigenetic Status-Evidence from Human and Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Aisling A; Lindsay, Karen L; Alberdi, Goiuri; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring's epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins. Evidence suggests that maternal nutrition does not largely influence global methylation patterns, particularly in nutrient-replete populations; however, an important impact on gene-specific methylation is observed. A link is shown between maternal nutrition and the methylome of the offspring; however, there remains a paucity of research. With the potential to use DNA methylation patterns at birth to predict health of the child in later life, it is vital that further research be carried out.

  1. Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminality: a population-based study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Singh, Amber L; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M; Grann, Martin; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2010-05-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring disruptive behaviors has been well documented, but it is unclear whether exposure to SDP or the effects of factors correlated with SDP account for the increased risk. To test whether the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions was consistent with a causal connection or due to familial background factors by controlling for measured covariates and using a quasi-experimental approach. We used a population-based study of children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N = 609,372) to examine the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions while controlling for measured traits of both parents. We also compared siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n = 50,339) to account for unmeasured familial factors that could account for the association. Population-based study of all children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 with information on maternal SDP and offspring criminal convictions based on national registries collected by the Swedish government. Children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N = 609,372) and siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n = 50,339). Violent and nonviolent convictions, based on the Swedish National Crime Register, a register with detailed information on all convictions in the country. Moderate (hazard rate [HR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.34-2.60) and high (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 3.25-3.63) levels of maternal SDP were associated with an increased risk for offspring violent convictions, even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. There was no association between SDP and violent convictions, however, when comparing differentially exposed siblings (HR(moderate), 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79-1.30; HR(high), 1.03; 95% CI, 0.78-1.37). Smoking during pregnancy also was associated with nonviolent convictions in the entire population (HR(moderate), 1.62; 95% CI, 1.58-1.66; HR(high), 1.87; 95% CI, 1.82-1.92) and when controlling for covariates

  2. Familial Confounding of the Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Criminality: A Population-Based Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M.; Grann, Martin; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Context The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring disruptive behaviors has been well documented, but it is unclear whether exposure to SDP or the effects of factors correlated with SDP account for the increased risk. Objective To test whether the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions was consistent with a causal connection or due to familial background factors by controlling for measured covariates and using a quasi-experimental approach. Design We used a population-based study of children born in Sweden from 1983–1989 (N=609,372) to examine the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions, while controlling for measured traits of both parents. We also compared siblings differentially exposed to SDP (N=50,339) to account for unmeasured familial factors that could account for the association. Setting Population-based study of all children born in Sweden from 1983–1989 with information on maternal SDP and offspring criminal convictions, based on national registries collected by the Swedish government. Main Outcome Measures Violent and nonviolent convictions, based on the Swedish National Crime Register, a register with detailed information on all convictions in the country. Results Moderate (HR=2.47, CI=2.34–2.60) and high levels (HR=3.43, CI=3.25–3.63) of maternal SDP was associated with an increased risk for offspring violent convictions, even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. There was no association between SDP and violent convictions, however, when comparing differentially exposed siblings (HRmoderate=1.02, CI=0.79–1.30; HRhigh=1.03, CI=0.78–1.37). SDP also was associated with nonviolent convictions in the entire population (HRmoderate=1.62, CI=1.58–1.66; HRhigh=1.87, CI=1.82–1.92) and when controlling for covariates. But, there was no association when comparing siblings who were differentially exposed (HRmoderate=0.89, CI=0.78–1.01; HRhigh=0.89, CI=0.78–1

  3. Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Education is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease incidence in developed countries. Blood pressure may be an explanatory biological mechanism. However few studies have investigated educational gradients in longitudinal blood pressure trajectories, particularly over substantial proportions of the life course. Study objectives were to determine whether low education was associated with increased blood pressure from multiple longitudinal assessments over 30 years. Furthermore, we aimed to separate antecedent effects of education, and other related factors, that might have caused baseline differences in blood pressure, from potential long-term effects of education on post-baseline blood pressure changes. Methods The study examined 3890 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age 36.7 years, 52.0% females at baseline) from 1971 through 2001 at up to 7 separate examinations using multivariable mixed linear models. Results Mixed linear models demonstrated that mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 30 years was higher for participants with ≤12 vs. ≥17 years education after adjusting for age (3.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.05 in females, 2.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.66 in males). Further adjustment for conventional covariates (antihypertensive medication, smoking, body mass index and alcohol) reduced differences in females and males (2.86, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.59, and 1.25, 95% CI: -0.16, 2.66 mmHg, respectively). Additional analyses adjusted for baseline SBP, to evaluate if there may be educational contributions to post-baseline SBP. In analyses adjusted for age and baseline SBP, females with ≤12 years education had 2.69 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.30) mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared with ≥17 years education. Further adjustment for aforementioned covariates slightly reduced effect strength (2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.14). Associations were weaker in males, where those with ≤12 years education had 1.20 (95% CI: -0.07, 2.46) mmHg higher SBP

  4. Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Eric B; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Xiao, Yongling; Lynch, John W

    2011-02-28

    Education is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease incidence in developed countries. Blood pressure may be an explanatory biological mechanism. However few studies have investigated educational gradients in longitudinal blood pressure trajectories, particularly over substantial proportions of the life course. Study objectives were to determine whether low education was associated with increased blood pressure from multiple longitudinal assessments over 30 years. Furthermore, we aimed to separate antecedent effects of education, and other related factors, that might have caused baseline differences in blood pressure, from potential long-term effects of education on post-baseline blood pressure changes. The study examined 3890 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age 36.7 years, 52.0% females at baseline) from 1971 through 2001 at up to 7 separate examinations using multivariable mixed linear models. Mixed linear models demonstrated that mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 30 years was higher for participants with ≤12 vs. ≥17 years education after adjusting for age (3.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.05 in females, 2.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.66 in males). Further adjustment for conventional covariates (antihypertensive medication, smoking, body mass index and alcohol) reduced differences in females and males (2.86, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.59, and 1.25, 95% CI: -0.16, 2.66 mmHg, respectively). Additional analyses adjusted for baseline SBP, to evaluate if there may be educational contributions to post-baseline SBP. In analyses adjusted for age and baseline SBP, females with ≤12 years education had 2.69 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.30) mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared with ≥17 years education. Further adjustment for aforementioned covariates slightly reduced effect strength (2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.14). Associations were weaker in males, where those with ≤12 years education had 1.20 (95% CI: -0.07, 2.46) mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared to

  5. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-01-01

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971–1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ≥25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0–46·8 %; P for trend<0·001) and total sugars (18·2–16·6 %; P for trend<0·001) decreased. There was a decrease in the percentage of energy from fructose (5·4–4·7 %; P for trend<0·001) and sucrose (9·8–8·8 %; P for trend<0·001). Dietary fibre intake increased (18·0–19·2 g/d; P for trend<0·001). The number of weekly servings of yeast bread, soft drinks/soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend<0·001), while the intake of ready-to-eat cereals, legumes, fruits, dairy products, candy and ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not

  6. Maternal Preeclampsia and Androgens in the Offspring around Puberty: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Janszky, Imre; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Økland, Inger; Forman, Michele R.; Vatten, Lars J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children born after preeclampsia may have a dominant androgen profile in puberty compared with other children. Circulating androgen concentrations at 11–12 years of age were compared between offspring born after preeclampsia, and children whose mothers did not have preeclampsia. Methods A total of 611 mother-offspring pairs were followed up 11 (daughters) or 12 (sons) years after birth: 218 pairs in the preeclampsia group, and 383 pairs without preeclampsia. Circulating total testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in the children. In boys, testicular volume was also measured. Results Among girls born after preeclampsia, DHEAS concentrations were higher than in unexposed girls (p<0.001), however, girls born after preeclampsia with severe features had the lowest DHEAS levels. In contrast, testosterone concentrations were highest in girls born after preeclampsia with severe features, both compared to other girls in the preeclampsia group, and compared to unexposed girls (p<0.001). For boys, testosterone concentrations were higher in the preeclampsia group compared with unexposed boys (p<0.001), and boys born after preeclampsia with severe features had the lowest concentrations of DHEAS. Compared with unexposed boys, testicular volume (p = 0.015) and IGF-I (p = 0.004) were higher for boys in the preeclampsia group, except for boys in the clinically severe preeclampsia group. Conclusions In utero exposure to preeclampsia is associated with androgen hormonal patterns in early puberty that depend on clinical severity of preeclampsia and sex of the offspring. The hormonal differences may reflect different timing of pubertal development, and may have consequences for future health of the offspring. PMID:27992610

  7. Hydropower and the environment: A case study at Glen Canyon Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The management of hydroelectric resources in the Colorado River requires a balancing of hydrologic, social, natural and cultural resources. The resulting management often has to deal with inherently conflicting objectives, short and long-term goals, time frames and operational flexibility. Glen Canyon Dam, AZ, on the Colorado River, controls the release of water into the Grand Canyon. The dam has been under intense public scrutiny since it was completed in 1963. An Environmental Impact Statement evaluating the future operations and options for Glen Canyon Dam was initiated by the Department of the Interior in 1989 and completed in 1995. An Adaptive Management approach to future operational management has been developed as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement process. Future operations at Glen Canyon Dam will take into consideration the need to balance water movement and hydroelectricity development with natural, recreation, Native American and cultural needs. Future management of rivers requires acknowledgement of the dynamic nature of ecosystems and the need to link scientific information into the decision-making process. Lessons learned and programs developed at Glen Canyon Dam may be applied to other river systems.

  8. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  9. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: A sibling-comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly due to increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Since severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers’ age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born 1958–1979 (n=2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course-persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending. PMID:22781852

  10. Maternal obese-type gut microbiota differentially impact cognition, anxiety and compulsive behavior in male and female offspring in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Townsend, R. Leigh; Kruger, Claudia; Carmouche, Richard; Newman, Susan; Salbaum, J. Michael; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked. While maternal behavior was unaffected, neonatal offspring from HFD dams vocalized less upon maternal separation than pups from CD dams. Furthermore, weaned male offspring from HFD dams had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical/compulsive behavior compared to male offspring from CD dams; while female offspring from HFD dams had increases in body weight and adiposity. 16S metagenomic analyses confirmed establishment of divergent microbiota in CD and HFD dams, with alterations in diversity and taxonomic distribution throughout pregnancy and lactation. Likewise, significant alterations in gut microbial diversity and distribution were noted in offspring from HFD dams compared to CD dams, and in males compared to females. Regression analyses of behavioral performance against differentially represented taxa suggest that decreased representation of specific members of the Firmicutes phylum predict behavioral decline in male offspring. Collectively, these data establish that high fat diet-induced maternal dysbiosis is sufficient to disrupt behavioral function in murine offspring in a sex-specific manner. Thus these data reinforce the essential link between maternal diet and neurologic programming in offspring and suggest that intestinal dysbiosis could link unhealthy modern diets to the increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental and

  11. Maternal obese-type gut microbiota differentially impact cognition, anxiety and compulsive behavior in male and female offspring in mice.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Townsend, R Leigh; Kruger, Claudia; Carmouche, Richard; Newman, Susan; Salbaum, J Michael; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked. While maternal behavior was unaffected, neonatal offspring from HFD dams vocalized less upon maternal separation than pups from CD dams. Furthermore, weaned male offspring from HFD dams had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical/compulsive behavior compared to male offspring from CD dams; while female offspring from HFD dams had increases in body weight and adiposity. 16S metagenomic analyses confirmed establishment of divergent microbiota in CD and HFD dams, with alterations in diversity and taxonomic distribution throughout pregnancy and lactation. Likewise, significant alterations in gut microbial diversity and distribution were noted in offspring from HFD dams compared to CD dams, and in males compared to females. Regression analyses of behavioral performance against differentially represented taxa suggest that decreased representation of specific members of the Firmicutes phylum predict behavioral decline in male offspring. Collectively, these data establish that high fat diet-induced maternal dysbiosis is sufficient to disrupt behavioral function in murine offspring in a sex-specific manner. Thus these data reinforce the essential link between maternal diet and neurologic programming in offspring and suggest that intestinal dysbiosis could link unhealthy modern diets to the increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental and

  12. High Dietary Fat Intake during Lactation Promotes the Development of Social Stress-Induced Obesity in the Offspring of Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazushi; E, Shuang; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu

    2015-07-17

    This study examined how a maternal high-fat diet (HD) during lactation and exposure of offspring to isolation stres