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Sample records for dam offspring study

  1. Carotid Intima Media Thickness, Atherosclerosis, and 5-Year Decline in Odor Identification: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Ronald; Tsai, Michael Y.; Pinto, A. Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to determine if subclinical markers of atherosclerosis are associated with a decline in olfactory function. Methods. The San Diego Odor Identification Test was administered to 2,302 participants (age 21–84 years) at the baseline (2005–2008) and 5-year follow-up (2010–2013) examinations of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. A decline in odor identification was defined as a decrease in San Diego Odor Identification Test score of 2 or more (range 0–8) from Beaver Dam Offspring Study 1 to Beaver Dam Offspring Study 2. Carotid intima media thickness and plaque, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and body mass index were measured and other risk factor data were obtained by interview. Results. Overall 3.2% of participants had a decline in San Diego Odor Identification Test score at 5 years. In age- and sex-adjusted models, mean intima media thickness (odds ratio = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.34, per 0.1 mm) and number of sites (range 0–6) with carotid artery plaque (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.65, per site) at baseline were associated with an increased risk for decline. Plaque score (odds ratio = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.53) remained a significant independent predictor of olfactory decline in a model that included age, sex, hypertension, body mass index, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusions. Subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with an increased risk for olfactory decline indicating that atherosclerosis may be one of the risk factors for the decline in olfactory function seen with aging. Strategies to improve vascular health may also benefit olfactory health. PMID:25182599

  2. Self-Reported Hearing Difficulties Among Adults With Normal Audiograms: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Kelly L.; Pinto, Alex; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Levy, Sarah; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinicians encounter patients who report experiencing hearing difficulty (HD) even when audiometric thresholds fall within normal limits. When there is no evidence of audiometric hearing loss, it generates debate over possible biomedical and psychosocial etiologies. It is possible that self-reported HDs relate to variables within and/or outside the scope of audiology. The purpose of this study is to identify how often, on a population basis, people with normal audiometric thresholds self-report HD and to identify factors associated with such HDs. Design This was a cross-sectional investigation of participants in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. HD was defined as a self-reported HD on a four-item scale despite having pure-tone audiometric thresholds within normal limits (<20 dB HL0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz bilaterally, at each frequency). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions and word-recognition performance in quiet and with competing messages were also analyzed. In addition to hearing assessments, relevant factors such as sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, medical history, health-related quality of life, and symptoms of neurological disorders were also examined as possible risk factors. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression was used to probe symptoms associated with depression, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 mental score was used to quantify psychological stress and social and role disability due to emotional problems. The Visual Function Questionnaire-25 and contrast sensitivity test were used to query vision difficulties. Results Of the 2783 participants, 686 participants had normal audiometric thresholds. An additional grouping variable was created based on the available scores of HD (four self-report questions), which reduced the total dataset to n = 682 (age range, 21–67 years). The percentage of individuals with normal audiometric thresholds who self-reported HD was 12.0% (82 of 682). The

  3. Neurofunctional Evaluation of Young Male Offspring of Rat Dams with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Delascio Lopes, Carla; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Mazzola, Jacqueline; Camano, Luiz; Mattar, Rosiane

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance. PMID:22363880

  4. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed. PMID:27604865

  5. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  6. Transfer of Ga-67 from hamster dam to fetus and offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.L.; Byrd, B.L.

    1981-06-01

    We have studied the transfer of Ga-67 from the hamster dam to the fetus and also to the postpartum offspring. During gestation the concentration of Ga-67 in the mammary glands increased by approximately 20-fold, and Ga-67 was transferred across the placenta into the fetus. The concentration of Ga-67 in the fetus decreased during the terminal stages of gestation, partly due to a decreased transfer of Ga-67 itself and partly as the result of the rapid growth of the fetus. One-day-old offspring were able to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract the Ga-67 contained in ingested dam's milk, whereas 9-day-old offspring excrete essentially all such ingested Ga-67. The Ga-67 radiation hazards to the fetus during gestation and that resulting from the transfer of Ga-67 to the newborn through ingestion of the mother's milk should receive further investigation.

  7. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal. PMID:23831729

  8. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  9. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; P<0.05), and this difference could be normalized by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester treatment. In conclusion, perinatal maternal Resv supplementation mitigated the development of hypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  10. Hypercholesterolemic diet applied to rat dams protects their offspring against cognitive deficits. Simulated neonatal anoxia model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Iwo

    2004-09-30

    There is accumulating data suggesting a neuroprotective activity of cholesterol, especially in stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a protective activity of this lipid in simulated neonatal anoxia was investigated. Rats were subjected to high cholesterol by feeding their dams with a diet enriched with cholesterol. Half of these rats were subjected to anoxia. One and a half months later, the rats were tested for their ability to acquire a spatial memory, one group on the linear maze and the other on the Morris water maze. After these assessments, the level of total plasma cholesterol was measured. Rats from dams subjected to neonatal anoxia on standard diet performed worse than control rats in both types of behavioral experiments, whereas anoxic rats from dams were housed on hypercholesterolemic diet performed as control animals. It suggests that dietetic cholesterol applied by their dams protected rats against cognitive deficits elicited by neonatal anoxia. Furthermore, offspring of anoxic rats housed on standard diet had elevated levels of blood cholesterol in relation to control animals. Generally, anoxia affected the concentration of this lipid much stronger than hypercholesterolemic diet of their dams. It might mean that the anoxia-related rise of cholesterol could be involved in physiological phenomenon being an adaptive response to neurotoxic processes. This concept is discussed in relation to pathological mechanisms in AD.

  11. Effects of disturbed liver growth and oxidative stress of high-fat diet-fed dams on cholesterol metabolism in offspring mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Juhae

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Changes in nutritional status during gestation and lactation have detrimental effects on offspring metabolism. Several animal studies have shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) can predispose the offspring to development of obesity and metabolic diseases, however the mechanisms underlying these transgenerational effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of maternal HFD consumption on metabolic phenotype and hepatic expression of involved genes in dams to determine whether any of these parameters were associated with the metabolic outcomes in the offspring. MATERIALS/METHODS Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD: 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD: 45% calories from fat) for three weeks before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Dams and their male offspring were studied at weaning. RESULTS Dams fed an HFD had significantly higher body and adipose tissue weights and higher serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels than dams fed an LFD. Hepatic lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including LXRα, SREBP-2, FXR, LDLR, and ABCG8 were significantly changed by maternal HFD intake. Significantly lower total liver DNA and protein contents were observed in dams fed an HFD, implicating the disturbed liver adaptation in the pregnancy-related metabolic demand. HFD feeding also induced significant oxidative stress in serum and liver of dams. Offspring of dams fed an HFD had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels, which were negatively correlated with liver weights of dams and positively correlated with hepatic lipid peroxide levels in dams. CONCLUSIONS Maternal HFD consumption induced metabolic dysfunction, including altered liver growth and oxidative stress in dams, which may contribute to the disturbed cholesterol homeostasis in the early life of male mice offspring. PMID:27478544

  12. Programmed hyperphagia in offspring of obese dams: Altered expression of hypothalamic nutrient sensors, neurogenic factors and epigenetic modulators.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mina; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Maternal overnutrition results in programmed offspring obesity, mediated in part, by hyperphagia. This is remarkably similar to the effects of maternal undernutrition on offspring hyperphagia and obesity. In view of the marked differences in the energy environment of the over and under-nutrition exposures, we studied the expression of select epigenetic modifiers associated with energy imbalance including neurogenic factors and appetite/satiety neuropeptides which are indicative of neurogenic differentiation. HF offspring were exposed to maternal overnutrition (high fat diet; HF) during pregnancy and lactation. We determined the protein expression of energy sensors (mTOR, pAMPK), epigenetic factors (DNA methylase, DNMT1; histone deacetylase, SIRT1/HDAC1), neurogenic factors (Hes1, Mash1, Ngn3) and appetite/satiety neuropeptides (AgRP/POMC) in newborn hypothalamus and adult arcuate nucleus (ARC). Despite maternal obesity, male offspring born to obese dams had similar body weight at birth as Controls. However, when nursed by the same dams, male offspring of obese dams exhibited marked adiposity. At 1 day of age, HF newborn males had significantly decreased energy sensors, DNMT1 including Hes1 and Mash1, which may impact neuroprogenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. This is consistent with increased AgRP in HF newborns. At 6 months of age, HF adult males had significantly increased energy sensors and decreased histone deactylases. In addition, the persistent decreased Hes1, Mash1 as well as Ngn3 are consistent with increased AgRP and decreased POMC. Thus, altered energy sensors and epigenetic responses which modulate gene expression and adult neuronal differentiation may contribute to hyperphagia and obesity in HF male offspring. PMID:26785315

  13. Programmed hyperphagia in offspring of obese dams: Altered expression of hypothalamic nutrient sensors, neurogenic factors and epigenetic modulators.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mina; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Maternal overnutrition results in programmed offspring obesity, mediated in part, by hyperphagia. This is remarkably similar to the effects of maternal undernutrition on offspring hyperphagia and obesity. In view of the marked differences in the energy environment of the over and under-nutrition exposures, we studied the expression of select epigenetic modifiers associated with energy imbalance including neurogenic factors and appetite/satiety neuropeptides which are indicative of neurogenic differentiation. HF offspring were exposed to maternal overnutrition (high fat diet; HF) during pregnancy and lactation. We determined the protein expression of energy sensors (mTOR, pAMPK), epigenetic factors (DNA methylase, DNMT1; histone deacetylase, SIRT1/HDAC1), neurogenic factors (Hes1, Mash1, Ngn3) and appetite/satiety neuropeptides (AgRP/POMC) in newborn hypothalamus and adult arcuate nucleus (ARC). Despite maternal obesity, male offspring born to obese dams had similar body weight at birth as Controls. However, when nursed by the same dams, male offspring of obese dams exhibited marked adiposity. At 1 day of age, HF newborn males had significantly decreased energy sensors, DNMT1 including Hes1 and Mash1, which may impact neuroprogenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. This is consistent with increased AgRP in HF newborns. At 6 months of age, HF adult males had significantly increased energy sensors and decreased histone deactylases. In addition, the persistent decreased Hes1, Mash1 as well as Ngn3 are consistent with increased AgRP and decreased POMC. Thus, altered energy sensors and epigenetic responses which modulate gene expression and adult neuronal differentiation may contribute to hyperphagia and obesity in HF male offspring.

  14. Effects of zinc depletion and repletion during lactation on rat dams and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Dibi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of feeding 5 mg Zn/kg, 12 mg Zn/kg, 50 mg Zn/kg in egg white diets and 50 mg Zn/kg in defatted glandless cottonseed diet on postnatal growth and tissue zinc concentrations of dams and neonates were investigated. One or more of the following tissues were obtained on days 7, 14, 21, and 56 for analyses: femur, liver, brain, testes, spleen, and/or blood. Dams fed the cottonseed diet weighted more than dams fed the egg white diets. Dams fed zinc in cottonseed diet had higher blood zinc concentrations than dams fed zinc in the egg white diets. Dams and the offspring fed 50 mg zn/kg egg white diet had higher femur zinc levels than dams and the offspring fed 50 mg Zn/kg in the cottonseed diet. There was no difference in the weight gain/loss of dams fed 50 mg Zn/kg or 12 mg Zn/kg egg white diets. Femur zinc concentrations of pups suckling dams fed 50 mg Zn/kg egg white were higher than femur zinc concentrations of pups suckling dams fed 12 mg Zn/kg egg white diet. Body weights and tissue zinc concentrations of the neonates suckling dams fed 5 mg Zn/kg egg white diet and then repleted with zinc in either egg white or cottonseed diet were similar. There was complete recovery when rats were fed 5 mg Zn/kg and then repleted with zinc at 50 mg Zn/kg level. Therefore, the protein source did not have statistically significantly different effects on zinc availability to the rats.

  15. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring. PMID:27127509

  16. Rat Gestation During Space Flight: Outcomes for Dams and Their Offspring Born After Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andre M.; DeSantis, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to learn whether gestation in the near-zero gravity, high radiation environment of space impacts selected mammalian postnatal events. Ten rats spent days nine to twenty of pregnancy aboard the space shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-66). Their movement was studied shortly after return to Earth; subsequently, several of their offspring were cross-fostered and examined through postnatal day 81 (P81) for whole body growth and somatic motor development. Values for the flight animals were compared to ground-based control groups. Relative to controls, the pregnant flight rats showed a marked paucity of locomotion during the first few hours after returning to Earth. There was greater likelihood of perinatal morbidity for the offspring of flight dams when compared to the control groups. Whole body weight of surviving offspring, averaged for each group separately, showed typical sigmoidal growth curves when plotted against postnatal age. The flight group for our study had a larger ratio of female to male pups, and that was sufficient to account for the lower average daily weight gained by the flight animals when compared to the control groups. Walking was universally achieved by P13 and preceded eye opening, which was complete in all pups by P17. Thus, both of these developmental horizons were attained on schedule in the flight as well as the control rats. Characteristic changes were observed in hind limb step length and gait width as the pups grew. These patterns occurred at the same time in each group of rats. Therefore, prenatal space flight from days nine to twenty of gestation did not interfere with the establishment of normal patterns for hind paw placement during walking.

  17. Maternal postpartum learned helplessness (LH) affects maternal care by dams and responses to the LH test in adolescent offspring.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Akiko; Morinobu, Shigeru; Fuchikami, Manabu; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2009-06-01

    It is known that the early environment affects the mental development of rodent and human offspring. However, it is not known specifically whether a postpartum depressive state influences the depressive state in offspring. Using learned helplessness (LH) in rats as an animal model of depression, we examined the influence of maternal postpartum LH on responses to the LH test of offspring. Dam rats were judged as LH or non-helpless (nLH) on postnatal days (PN) 2-3, and maternal behavior was recorded during PN2-14. On PN 45-46, offspring were subjected to the LH test. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, hippocampal levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA were measured before and after the LH test in offspring. Active nursing in LH dams was significantly lower than that in nLH dams. Susceptibility to LH in the offspring of LH dams was significantly higher than in those of nLH dams, and was negatively correlated with active nursing by LH dams. The GR mRNA levels before and after the LH test were lower in the offspring of LH dams than in those of nLH dams, and the reduced basal GR mRNA and protein might have resulted in the higher CORT response after the LH test. There was no significant difference in BDNF mRNA in the offspring of LH and nLH dams. These findings suggest that early postpartum LH decreased active nursing and increased depression-like behavior in the adolescent offspring via dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:19341740

  18. Estimation of the environmental dam-offspring correlation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C

    2015-06-01

    A long standing controversy in animal breeding is related to the strong negative estimates of the direct-maternal genetic correlation obtained when fitting data on maternally influenced traits. In this article, we focused on a model that introduces a new correlation parameter among dam-offspring records. The extant theory allows estimation of the parameter when dams have at most a single offspring. Our goal was to develop an inferential procedure in a more general setting. To do so, we applied a Bayesian approach and we showed that the estimation could be accomplished by introducing a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) step embedded into a regular Gibbs sampler program. The procedure was implemented by means of an MCMC algorithm known as the Griddy-Gibbs sampler, and a Fortran 90 library was created to accomplish the task. The computer program is available from http://www.agro.uba.ar/catedras/mg_animal/software/RDBLK. With this tool at hand, we applied the inferential procedure to weaning weight records on beef cattle calves from an Argentinean Hereford herd, and we estimated the marginal distribution of the environmental dam-offspring correlation parameter. The distribution was unimodal and symmetric with a mean value of -0.14 (±0.03) and a 95% high posterior density interval between -0.20 and -0.07, indicating that the model placed a huge mass on negative values of the parameter. Noticeably, the magnitude of the direct-maternal genetic correlation diminished from -0.61 to -0.37 with respect to the standard maternal animal model. This result reinforces the idea that environmental covariances among dam-offspring records may bias the estimate of the direct-maternal genetic correlation. PMID:26115255

  19. Flaxseed bioactive compounds change milk, hormonal and biochemical parameters of dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Troina, A A; Figueiredo, M S; Passos, M C F; Reis, A M; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated maternal intake of SDG (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside), a compound from flaxseed, and flaxseed oil+SDG on biochemical and hormonal parameters of dams and male and female offspring during lactation. Dams were fed a standard diet (C); diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet (SDG) or diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet and 7% of flaxseed oil (OLSDG). SDG and OLSDG dams showed hyperprolactinemia. The OLSDG milk had lower lactose and protein, while the SDG milk had lower protein on the 14th day of lactation. At 14 days, OLSDG male and female pups showed lower body mass, SDG and OLSDG male pups had hypoprolactinemia and lower body fat mass, but higher visceral fat mass (VFM) and hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, male SDG and OLSDG presented hypotriglyceridemia. At 14 days, SDG and OLSDG female offspring showed higher serum 17-β estradiol (E2); OLSDG presented hypercholesterolemia and SDG presented hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, SDG and OLSDG female pups showed hypotriglyceridemia and OLSDG shower lower E2. Both maternal treatments changes maternal metabolism as well as hormonal and biochemical parameters of the offspring, which are gender-dependent. Maternal hyperprolactinemia may act as an imprint factor responsible for the hormonal and metabolic changes observed in the pups.

  20. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Atrazine via the Drinking Water Causes Specific Behavioral Deficits and Selectively Alters Monoaminergic Systems in C57BL/6 Mouse Dams, Juvenile and Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Saritha; Ye, Xiaoqin; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in the U.S. water supply. This study aimed to investigate neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of ATR in C57BL/6 mouse offspring and dams exposed to a relatively low (3 mg/l, estimated intake 1.4 mg/kg/day) concentration of ATR via the drinking water (DW) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Behavioral tests included open field, pole, grip strength, novel object recognition (NOR), forced swim, and marble burying tests. Maternal weight gain and offspring (PND21, 35, and 70) body or brain weights were not affected by ATR. However, ATR-treated dams exhibited decreased NOR performance and a trend toward hyperactivity. Juvenile offspring (PND35) from ATR-exposed dams were hyperactive (both sexes), spent less time swimming (males), and buried more marbles (females). In adult offspring (PND70), the only behavioral change was a sex-specific (females) decreased NOR performance by ATR. Neurochemically, a trend toward increased striatal dopamine (DA) in dams and a significant increase in juvenile offspring (both sexes) was observed. Additionally, ATR exposure decreased perirhinal cortex serotonin in the adult female offspring. These results suggest that perinatal DW exposure to ATR targets the nigrostriatal DA pathway in dams and, especially, juvenile offspring, alters dams’ cognitive performance, induces sex-selective changes involving motor and emotional functions in juvenile offspring, and decreases cognitive ability of adult female offspring, with the latter possibly associated with altered perirhinal cortex serotonin homeostasis. Overall, ATR exposure during gestation and lactation may cause adverse nervous system effects to both offspring and dams. PMID:24913803

  1. Fluoxetine normalizes the effects of prenatal maternal stress on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mouse dams and male offspring.

    PubMed

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Fatehi-Gharehlar, Laleh; Motayagheni, Negar; Homberg, Judith R

    2016-09-15

    Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period (lactation) is a common debilitating condition affecting mother-fetus/-infant interactions, which can be a risk factor for cognitive and affective disorders in mothers and their children. Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-(SSRI) pharmacotherapy is known as the first-line treatment of maternal depression. However, its use during pregnancy and lactation is a topic of concern. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone or in combination with fluoxetine (FLX) on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity, anxiety-/depression-like behaviors in dams and in offspring. To do this, gestationally-stressed and non-stressed mouse dams were orally treated with FLX-(8/mg/kg/day) from gestational day 10 to lactation day 20. The behavioral outcomes of prenatal stress and FLX treatment in dams and male offspring were assessed using the sucrose preference, forced swim, zero maze, and light-dark box tests. Stress-induced corticosterone levels were also evaluated as indicative of abnormal HPA-axis function. Our findings indicated that maternal stress resulted in increased depression-like behavior and HPA axis hyperactivity in dams during pregnancy and lactation which were reversed by FLX. Furthermore, prenatal stress increased anxiety/depression-like behaviors and HPA-axis reactivity in male offspring. These effects were reversed by maternal FLX treatment. Developmental FLX exposure, without prenatal stress, did not have any adverse effects on the above measured parameters. Our results suggest that prenatal stress induces maternal depression-like behavior which affects the development of affective symptoms in male offspring, and that remediation of maternal depression-like behavior coincidences with the normalization of anxiety-and depression-like symptoms in male offspring. PMID:27263073

  2. Effects of a maternal diet supplemented with chocolate and fructose beverage during gestation and lactation on rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yun; Zeng, Jin-Jing; Kjaergaard, Marina; Guan, Ni; Raun, Kirsten; Nilsson, Cecilia; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2011-09-01

    1. Consumption of a high-fat and high-energy diet during pregnancy leads to a risk of long-term consequences on fetal development, as well as on the postnatal health of offspring. To investigate the effects of such a diet on fetal programming, we established a high-energy intake pregnant rat model using chocolate and fructose beverage as supplements to a normal chow diet. 2. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either chow (control) or a diet supplemented with chocolate and fructose beverage throughout gestation and lactation. The male F(1) pups received normal chow diet after weaning. Physiological or pathological changes in dams and pups (e.g. glucose and lipid metabolism) were evaluated. 3. The results showed that dams offered the high-fat (mainly from chocolate) and high-calorie diet during gestation consumed more energy and gained more weight than chow-fed dams. Over-consumption of chocolate reduced chow intake in dams, leading to low maternal protein supply. As a result, pups from these dams exhibited reduced birth weight that lasted until adulthood. The high-energy diet during lactation led to increased total body fat, as well as impaired liver function, in offspring; thus, the lactational diet is suggested to be a stronger determinant of offspring fat metabolism than gestational diet. 4. The results of the study suggest that over-supply of carbohydrates, such as chocolate and fructose, either during gestation or lactation has a negative impact on the well-being of offspring.

  3. Increased expression of Hes5 protein in Notch signaling pathway in the hippocampus of mice offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet during pregnancy and suckling.

    PubMed

    Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano; Lemes, Simone Ferreira; Baliani, Tanyara da Silva; Versutti, Milena Diorio; Torsoni, Marcio Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) impairs hippocampal development of offspring promoting decreased proliferation of neural progenitors, in neuronal differentiation, in dendritic spine density and synaptic plasticity reducing neurogenic capacity. Notch signaling pathway participates in molecular mechanisms of the neurogenesis. The activation of Notch signaling leads to the upregulation of Hes5, which inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors. This study aimed to investigate the Notch/Hes pathway activation in the hippocampus of the offspring of dams fed an HFD. Female Swiss mice were fed a control diet (CD) and an HFD from pre-mating until suckling. The bodyweight and mass of adipose tissue in the mothers and pups were also measured. The mRNA and protein expression of Notch1, Hes5, Mash1, and Delta1 in the hippocampus was assessed by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Dams fed the HFD and their pups had an increased bodyweight and amount of adipose tissue. Furthermore, the offspring of mothers fed the HFD exhibited an increased Hes5 expression in the hippocampus compared with CD offspring. In addition, HFD offspring also expressed increased amounts of Notch1 and Hes5 mRNA, whereas Mash1 expression was decreased. However, the expression of Delta1 did not change significantly. We propose that the overexpression of Hes5, a Notch effector, downregulates the expression of the proneural gene Mash1 in the offspring of obese mothers, delaying cellular differentiation. These results provide further evidence that an offspring's hippocampus is molecularly susceptible to maternal HFD and suggest that Notch1 signaling in this brain region is important for neuronal differentiation.

  4. Unlimited access to low-energy diet causes acute malnutrition in dams and alters biometric and biochemical parameters in offspring.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, E; de Santana Muniz, G; das Graças de Santana Muniz, M; de Souza Alexandre, L; da Rocha, L S; Leandro, C G; de Castro, R M; Bolaños-Jimenez, F

    2014-02-01

    Here we analyze the outcomes of unlimited access to a low-energy (LE) diet in dams and their offspring. At 3 weeks' gestation, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) the control group received a normoenergetic diet; and (2) the experimental group received the LE diet. In dams, lactation outcomes, food intake, body weight, plasma IGF-1, prealbumin, transferrin and retinol-binding protein levels were evaluated; in offspring, biometric and biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated. No differences were observed during pregnancy. However, after lactation, dams that received the LE diet demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (P<0.05), plasma IGF-1 (P=0.01), prealbumin and visceral fat (P<0.001). Pups born to dams that received the LE diet demonstrated reduced body length and weight at weaning (P<0.001) and were lighter than the control animals at the end of the experimental period. Pups also demonstrated reduced plasma, low-density lipoprotein (P=0.04), triglycerides (P=0.002) and glucose levels (P<0.05), and differences were noted in visceral fat. These results indicate that feeding dams with LE diet during the reproductive period induces acute malnutrition and impairs the growth and development of offspring, as well as certain metabolic parameters. PMID:24847690

  5. Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior.

  6. Maternal "junk-food" feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2011-07-01

    Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal "junk-food" diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16 ± 0.6 vs. 11 ± 0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19 ± 1.3 vs. 13 ± 0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of μ-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life.

  7. Impairment of male rat reproductive function in F1 offspring from dams exposed to 2-bromopropane during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sun; Li, Guang-Xun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) on the reproductive tracts of male F1 offspring from dams exposed to 2-BP during gestation and lactation were investigated. Ten pregnant (sperm-positive) Sprague-Dawley rats per group were exposed sc to 2-BP at 135, 405, and 1215 mg/kg/day from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20. 2-BP decreased the proportion of dams littering at the two highest doses. At the highest dose, the rate of delivery and surviving pups were significantly lower than in the controls (P < or = 0.05). The relative weights of testes vs. brain were significantly lower than the controls (P < or = 0.05) on PND 33 and 63 at 405 mg/kg/day, and on PND 90 at 1215 mg/kg/day in the F1 rats. Seminiferous tubule atrophy, germ cell loss, and increased Leydig cell proliferation were observed at the highest dose by histopathologic examination. Female offspring has a decrease in all follicle types at the high dose. These results suggest that gestational and lactational exposure to 2-BP at a high maternally toxic dose impairs the development of the reproductive organs of the offspring.

  8. Exposure to nicotine increases dopamine receptor content in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rat dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Lotufo, B M; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-09-01

    Nicotine exposure causes the release of dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We have previously shown that maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes hyperleptinemia in dams and pups, and leptin is known to decrease dopamine release from the VTA. Here we evaluated whether maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes changes in dopamine and leptin signaling pathways at the end of exposure and after 5days of withdrawal in the: VTA, NAc, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dorsal striatum (DS). On postnatal day (PN) 2, lactating Wistar rats were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC; 6mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14days. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field on PN14 or PN20, and euthanized on PN15 or PN21. Entries into the open arms and head dips in the EPM were reduced in NIC pups at P20. At weaning (PN21), NIC dams had: lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), higher OBRb and SOCS3 contents in VTA; lower TH, higher D1R, D2R and DAT contents in NAc; higher TH content in DS; and higher D2R and SOCS3 contents in ARC. On PN15, NIC offspring had higher D1R, D2R and lower DAT contents in NAc, while on PN21, they had lower DAT in DS, and lower pSTAT3 content in ARC. We evidenced that postnatal nicotine exposure induces relevant changes in the brain reward system of dams and pups, possibly associated with changes in leptinemia and increased offspring anxiety-like behavior.

  9. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  10. Evaluation of glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic Wistar rats treated with Malpighia emarginata juice.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases.

  11. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ ALTERS THE ONSET OF PARTURITION IN THE DAM AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN MALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prenatal Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz alters the onset of Parturition in
    the Dam and Sexual Differentiation in Male Rat Offspring.
    N. Noriega1; E. Gray1; J. Ostby1; C. Lambright1; V. Wilson1
    1. RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA;

    Prochloraz...

  12. Blocking the postpartum mouse dam's CB1 receptors impairs maternal behavior as well as offspring development and their adult social-emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Michal; Pinhasov, Albert; Weller, Aron; Fride, Ester

    2012-01-15

    Maternal care is the newborns' first experience of social interaction, which affects their development and social competence throughout life. For the first time, we investigated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in mother-infant interaction in mice. We found that blocking the dam's CB1 receptors (CB1R) by the antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant (SR141716) during postpartum days 1-8 affected maternal behavior as well as the social and emotional characteristics of the offspring as adults. Pups of rimonabant treated dams (RTD) had lower body weight during the first week of life and emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) than vehicle treated dams (VTD). RTD crouched less over their pups and exhibited delayed pup retrieval. In Y-maze preference tests conducted at weaning age, females and males of both groups preferred their dam over milk. Males and females of RTD preferred dam over pup and pup over milk as opposed to the control group. At the age of 2.5 months, males of RTD displayed less motor activity. In the social behavior test, RTD male and female offspring were both more active, showing higher levels of active social interaction and rearing. These results indicate that the ECS is crucial for establishment of maternal behavior during the first postpartum week, with a long-term impact on the offspring's socio-emotional development. PMID:22020200

  13. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

  14. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  15. Early-Life Stress Paradigm Transiently Alters Maternal Behavior, Dam-Pup Interactions, and Offspring Vocalizations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heun-Johnson, Hanke; Levitt, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Animal models can help elucidate the mechanisms through which early-life stress (ELS) has pathophysiological effects on the developing brain. One model that has been developed for rodents consists of limiting the amount of bedding and nesting material during the first postnatal weeks of pup life. This ELS environment has been shown to induce “abusive” behaviors by rat dams towards pups, while mouse dams have been hypothesized to display “fragmented care”. Here, as part of an ongoing study of gene-environment interactions that impact brain development, we analyzed long observation periods of wild-type C57Bl/6J dams caring for wild-type and Met heterozygous pups. Met encodes for the MET receptor tyrosine kinase, which is involved in cortical and hippocampal synaptogenesis. Dams with limited resources from postnatal day (P)2 to P9 preserved regular long on-nest periods, and instead increased the number of discrete dam-pup interactions during regular off-nest periods. Immediately after dams entered the nest during off-nest periods in this ELS environment, pups responded to these qualitatively different interactions with an increased number of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and audible vocalizations (AV), communication signals that have been associated with aversive and painful stimuli. After returning to control conditions, nest entry behaviors normalized, and dams did not show altered anxiety-like or contextual fear learning behaviors after pup weaning. Furthermore, female mice that had undergone ELS as pups did not show atypical nest entry behaviors in control conditions in adulthood, suggesting that these specific maternal behaviors are not learned during the ELS period. The results suggest that atypical responses of both mother and pups during exposure to this ELS environment likely contribute to long-term negative outcomes in mice, and that these responses more closely resemble the effects of limited bedding on rat dams and pups than was previously

  16. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  17. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  18. Early and persistent up-regulation of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides in rat offspring born to dams fed a high-carbohydrate supplement during gestation.

    PubMed

    Beck, Bernard; Richy, Sébastien; Archer, Zoe A; Mercer, Julian G

    2012-10-01

    Maternal diet ingested during gestation can profoundly alter production and action of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in feeding and body weight regulation. In this study, we set out to simulate, in a rat model, modifications to feeding habit often observed in pregnant women. Gestating dams were fed a restricted normal diet with the opportunity to complete their energy requirements with either a high-fat (HF) or a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. Growth and hypothalamic feeding peptides were measured in the offspring at 3 (weaning) and 20 weeks of age. At weaning, body weight was lower in HC pups than in HF pups or control (Ca) pups born to dams fed control diet ad libitum. Expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and AgRP mRNA in the arcuate nucleus were increased in HC pups vs Ca and HF pups. By 20 weeks of age, body weight differentials had disappeared, and there was no differences in NPY and AgRP gene expression, although POMC expression was lower in HC rats than in HF rats. NPY and orexin peptide concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus at this age were higher in HC rats than in Ca and HF rats. In HC rats, there was also a greater positive gradient of peptide concentration between the zone of release and the zone of synthesis for NPY and orexin. The early up-regulation of orexigenic peptides in HC rats may be a compensatory adjustment to low body weight. This persisting overactive orexigenic drive might have deleterious metabolic effects in an obesogenic environment at adulthood. PMID:22922128

  19. Early and persistent up-regulation of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides in rat offspring born to dams fed a high-carbohydrate supplement during gestation.

    PubMed

    Beck, Bernard; Richy, Sébastien; Archer, Zoe A; Mercer, Julian G

    2012-10-01

    Maternal diet ingested during gestation can profoundly alter production and action of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in feeding and body weight regulation. In this study, we set out to simulate, in a rat model, modifications to feeding habit often observed in pregnant women. Gestating dams were fed a restricted normal diet with the opportunity to complete their energy requirements with either a high-fat (HF) or a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. Growth and hypothalamic feeding peptides were measured in the offspring at 3 (weaning) and 20 weeks of age. At weaning, body weight was lower in HC pups than in HF pups or control (Ca) pups born to dams fed control diet ad libitum. Expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and AgRP mRNA in the arcuate nucleus were increased in HC pups vs Ca and HF pups. By 20 weeks of age, body weight differentials had disappeared, and there was no differences in NPY and AgRP gene expression, although POMC expression was lower in HC rats than in HF rats. NPY and orexin peptide concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus at this age were higher in HC rats than in Ca and HF rats. In HC rats, there was also a greater positive gradient of peptide concentration between the zone of release and the zone of synthesis for NPY and orexin. The early up-regulation of orexigenic peptides in HC rats may be a compensatory adjustment to low body weight. This persisting overactive orexigenic drive might have deleterious metabolic effects in an obesogenic environment at adulthood.

  20. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  1. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Z.; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Møller, Peter; Brunborg, Gunnar; Gutzkow, Kristine Bjerve; Andersen, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Effects of maternal pulmonary exposure to carbon black (Printex 90) on gestation, lactation and DNA strand breaks were evaluated. Time-mated C57BL/6BomTac mice were exposed by inhalation to 42 mg/m3 Printex 90 for 1 h/day on gestation days (GD) 8-18, or by four intratracheal instillations on GD 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 (μg/animal. Dams were monitored until weaning and some offspring until adolescence. Inflammation was assessed in maternal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 3-5 days after exposure, and at weaning. Levels of DNA strand breaks were assessed in maternal BAL cells and liver, and in offspring liver. Persistent lung inflammation was observed in exposed mothers. Inhalation exposure induced more DNA strand breaks in the liver of mothers and their offspring, whereas intratracheal instillation did not. Neither inhalation nor instillation affected gestation and lactation. Maternal inhalation exposure to Printex 90-induced liver DNA damage in the mothers and the in utero exposed offspring. PMID:21649560

  2. Immunization with BLS-Stx2B chimera totally protects dams from early pregnancy loss induced by Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) and confers anti-Stx2 immunity to the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Mejías, María P; Bruballa, Andrea C; Alvarez, Romina Soledad; Amaral, María M; Palermo, Marina S; Ibarra, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacterial pathogens involved in food-borne diseases. Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of STEC and is responsible for systemic complications including Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). It has been previously demonstrated that Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) induces pregnancy loss in rats in early stage of pregnancy. The main purpose of this study was to determine if an active immunization prevents Stx2 mediated pregnancy loss and confers passive protective immunity to the offspring. For that purpose Sprague Dawley female rats were immunized with the chimera based on the enzyme lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) and the B subunit of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2B) named BLS-Stx2B. After immunization females were mated with males. At day 8 of gestation, dams were challenged intraperitoneally with a sublethal and abortifacient dose of Stx2. The immunization induced high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera and most important, prevented pregnancy loss. Pups born and breastfeed by immunized dams had high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera. Cross-fostering experiments indicated that passive protective immunity against Stx2 was transmitted through lactation. These results indicate that immunization of adult female rats with BLS-Stx2B prevents Stx2-induced pregnancy loss and confers anti Stx2 protective immunity to the offspring.

  3. Immunization with BLS-Stx2B chimera totally protects dams from early pregnancy loss induced by Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) and confers anti-Stx2 immunity to the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Mejías, María P; Bruballa, Andrea C; Alvarez, Romina Soledad; Amaral, María M; Palermo, Marina S; Ibarra, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacterial pathogens involved in food-borne diseases. Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of STEC and is responsible for systemic complications including Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). It has been previously demonstrated that Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) induces pregnancy loss in rats in early stage of pregnancy. The main purpose of this study was to determine if an active immunization prevents Stx2 mediated pregnancy loss and confers passive protective immunity to the offspring. For that purpose Sprague Dawley female rats were immunized with the chimera based on the enzyme lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) and the B subunit of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2B) named BLS-Stx2B. After immunization females were mated with males. At day 8 of gestation, dams were challenged intraperitoneally with a sublethal and abortifacient dose of Stx2. The immunization induced high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera and most important, prevented pregnancy loss. Pups born and breastfeed by immunized dams had high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera. Cross-fostering experiments indicated that passive protective immunity against Stx2 was transmitted through lactation. These results indicate that immunization of adult female rats with BLS-Stx2B prevents Stx2-induced pregnancy loss and confers anti Stx2 protective immunity to the offspring. PMID:27527816

  4. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  5. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G; Armitage, James A; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20-25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  6. Recent sediment studies refute Glen Canyon Dam hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joe; Kaplinski, Matt; Melis, Theodore S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of sedimentology hydrology, and geomorphology indicate that releases from Glen Canyon Dam are continuing to erode sandbars and beaches in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, despite attempts to restore these resources. The current strategy for dam operations is based on the hypothesis that sand supplied by tributaries of the Colorado River downstream from the dam will accumulate in the channel during normal dam operations and remain available for restoration floods. Recent work has shown that this hypothesis is false, and that tributary sand inputs are exported downstream rapidly typically within weeks or months under the current flow regime.

  7. Effects of maternal exposure to aflatoxin B1 during pregnancy on fertility output of dams and developmental, behavioral and reproductive consequences in female offspring using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Akhila, B; Pratap Reddy, K; Girish, B P; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2016-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse "programing" effects on the offspring. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the potent reproductive toxicants and currently detected in both milk and tissues. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal exposure to graded doses of aflatoxin B1 on the pregnancy outcomes of dams and postnatal developments of the female offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intramuscularly with vehicle or aflatoxin B1 (10, 20, 50 or 100 μg/kg body weight/day) on days 12-19 of gestation. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and survival. The female offspring were examined through a battery of tests in order to evaluate their developmental, behavioral and reproductive end points. All animals were born alive. The litter size of the aflatoxin B1 treated rats was comparable to the controls. However, the birth weight of the pups in the experimental group was significantly lower when compared to controls. Significant and persistent lags in cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity and ascending wire mesh, with a delay in elapsed time for vaginal opening were detected in the female progeny exposed to aflatoxin B1 during embryonic development. The locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in experimental females were significantly decreased than that of controls. Embryonic exposure to aflatoxin B1 also resulted in prolonged stress response, irregular estrus and suppressed fertility output in the progeny at their adulthood. These results indicate that in utero exposure to aflatoxin B1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats and caused irregular estrus that was accompanied by suppressed fertility output. PMID:26956420

  8. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring.

  9. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal. PMID:27180380

  10. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal.

  11. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. PMID:27255638

  12. The evolution of gravel bed channels after dam removal: Case study of the Anaconda and Union City Dam removals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, Laura A. S.; MacBroom, James G.

    2005-10-01

    The Anaconda and Union City Dams on the Naugatuck River in Connecticut were removed in February and October 1999. A detailed study of the sites prior to removal was undertaken including sediment testing and predictions of upstream channel formation post-dam removal. The 3.35-m-high timber crib/rock fill spillway of the Anaconda Dam partially breached during a storm prior to the dam's scheduled removal allowing a portion of the impounded sediment to move down through the river system. This event changed the removal plans and the remainder of the spillway was removed under an emergency order in the course of 4 days. The Union City Dam, a 2.44-m-high timber crib/rock fill dam capped with concrete and stone, was removed on schedule. A portion of the impounded sediment was removed by mechanical means during the deconstruction of the structure. The evolution of the two upstream channels post-project provided unique challenges and valuable insights as to what kind of channel transition can be expected in gravel bed river systems after a low head dam has been removed. This paper describes the initial engineering analysis and design, the subsequent removal of the two dams, and compares observations on the transition of the upstream channels following dam removal to the initial engineering predictions and other models. The relatively steep gravel bed channels evolved in a predictable manner, except where anthropogenic barriers (sanitary sewer, rock weir) interrupted.

  13. Administration of Non-Absorbable Antibiotics to Pregnant Mice to Perturb the Maternal Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Alterations in Offspring Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tochitani, Shiro; Matsuzaki, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota plays a major role in host health and disease. In this study, we examined whether perturbation of the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, induced by administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams, influences the behavior of offspring. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fecal bacterial composition showed that the relative abundance of the bacterial order Lactobacillales was lower in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (20.7±3.4%) than in control offspring (42.1±6.2%) at P24, while the relative abundance of the bacterial family Clostridium subcluster XIVa was higher in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (34.2±5.0%) than in control offspring (16.4±3.3%). Offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams exhibited low locomotor activity in both familiar and novel environments, and preferred to explore in the peripheral area of an unfamiliar field at postnatal week 4. At postnatal weeks 7–8, no difference was observed in the level of locomotor activity between control offspring and offspring from antibiotic-treated dams, while the tendency for the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams to be less engaged in exploring the inside area was still observed. The behavioral phenotypes of the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams at postnatal week 4 could be rescued to a considerable extent through fostering of these offspring by normal dams from postnatal day 1. Although the detailed underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated, the present results suggest that administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams to perturb the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy leads to alterations in the behavior of their offspring. PMID:26789865

  14. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring. PMID:25808815

  15. Deformation Monitoring Studies and GPR Application on Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Geometric changes at the dam surface and in the galleries are defined using geodetic methods. Physical and geometrical changes in embankment inside are defined using non-geodetic methods. This study provides information about the deformation monitoring techniques of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation monitoring of Atatürk Dam, 6th largest dam of world considering the reservoir volume, which was constructed on Euphrates (Fırat) River having importance for providing drinking water, hydroelectric power and irrigation. In the study, brief information is given about this dam and the methods of geodetic and non-geodetic deformation monitoring measurements applied by various disciplines. Bathymetric surveying techniques in the water covered area and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GNSS surveying technique on the other area were used in order to determine the topography of the embankment and reservoir surfaces. Contour maps were drawn to determine the slumping and heaving areas. Also Ground

  16. Increased Leptin Response and Inhibition of Apoptosis in Thymocytes of Young Rats Offspring from Protein Deprived Dams during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Simone Vargas; Salama, Carolina; Renovato-Martins, Mariana; Helal-Neto, Edward; Citelli, Marta; Savino, Wilson; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of mild maternal malnutrition in rat dams, in terms of thymocyte responses and the putative role of leptin. The young progeny of dams submitted to protein deprivation (PD) during lactation showed at 30 days of age lower body and thymus weights, significant alterations in CD4/CD8-defined T cell subsets without modifications in total thymocyte number as well as in proliferative response. Despite, the rats from PD group did not present alterations in leptin circulating levels, the expression of leptin receptor ObRb was enhanced in their thymocytes. This change was accompanied by an increase in leptin signaling response of thymocytes from PD rats, with an increase in JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation after leptin stimulation. Thymocytes from PD rats also presented a decreased rate of spontaneous apoptosis when compared to controls. Accordingly, higher expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and lower of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, with no change of pro-apoptotic Bad, and higher pro-caspase 3 content were detected in PD thymocytes. Moreover, thymocytes from PD group exhibited a constitutive higher nuclear content of p65 NF-kB associated to a lower IkB content in the cytoplasm. Finally, although there was no change in ob gene expression in PD thymocytes, a higher mRNA expression for the Ob gene was observed in the thymic microenvironment from PD animals. Taken together, the results show that mild maternal protein deprivation during lactation affects thymic homeostasis, enhancing leptin activity, which in turn protects thymocytes from apoptosis in the young progeny, with possible consequences upon the immune response of these animals in adult life. PMID:23675529

  17. Beaver Dam Effects on Gravel Transport Patterns - a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Swingle, K. W.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Beaver dams are numerous in mountain streams, but little is known about gravel transport in those streams. The dams may be fully functioning and retain all incoming sediment or partially permeable to sediment or be almost completely removed. Beaver dams in their various states of preservation can have a profound influence on stream morphology and bedload transport. During the spring of 2011, the authors made a time series study of bedload transport in a mountain stream dominated by beavers dams. Dams occurred with a frequency of one every 50 feet and showed a range of decay and fluvial influence. Gravel transport was sampled with bedload traps over a 2-month long snowmelt highflow season. The reach-average gradient was 0.03 and stream widths ranged from 3 to 8 m. The stream bed was incised 0.5 to 1.5 m deep into a floodplain and typically trapezoidal in its cross-sectional shape. Much of the floodplain consisted of filled-in beaver dams. Partially breached dams that were permeable to gravel transport acted as an obstacle, forcing the flow around sharp bends. Complex hydraulic conditions developed in the vicinity of the bends with backwater eddies upstream and downstream of the remnant dam. Wake eddies at the downstream side of dam remnants caused gravel deposits. The tortuous channel course around the bends caused strong secondary currents that forced gravel transport into a narrow pathway along one of the banks causing a strong lateral concentration of transport. The pathway had a bed of fine and medium gravel, while the remainder of the bed consisted mostly of coarse gravel and cobbles that became immobile shortly after peak flows. Tracer experiments indicated that most of the mobile gravel traveled along that bankward path, even though flow velocities and depths were considerably smaller than in the stream center. Over the highflow season, flows increased to about 160% of the 1.5 year recurrence interval (Q1.5) within about a week and then remained within the

  18. Geodetic and Non-Geodetic Methods for Deformation Monitoring of Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk DAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Water resources have to be controlled and supplied for agricultural uses, drinking and industrial purposes by the countries having limited water resources. This situation is also considerable for Turkey which has a location in the middle zone of World and having limited water sources. Dams are among the most important engineering structures which are used for these purposes. However, the functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Deformation measurements have an important status among various engineering surveying. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the horizontal and vertical small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. Ataturk Dam in Turkey is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Deformation of Ataturk Dam is being monitoring yearly since 2006 by Istanbul Technical University Department of Geomatics Engineering. We apply both GPS and conventional techniques. In this study, we present the result of radial deformations on Ataturk Dam between 2006 and 2010. The results show significant horizontal movements among the 72% of object points. Maximum movement is found as 14.12 cm (with a radial component of 14.08 cm) in 4.5 years.

  19. Region Specific Effects of Maternal Immune Activation on Offspring Neuroimmune Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that maternal immune activation has a significant impact on the immuno-competence of the offspring. The present study aimed to characterize region-specific effects of maternal immune activation on the offspring’s neuroimmune function. The offspring born to dams treated with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at gestational day 18 was stimulated with saline or LPS at postnatal day 21, and the mRNA expression of various inflammatory genes in different brain regions of the offspring was analyzed. The offspring born to saline-treated dams exhibited a typical neuroimmune response with elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines following LPS stimulation in all four brain regions examined. In contrast, the offspring born to LPS-treated dams exhibited significantly reduced mRNA induction of cytokines and chemokines following LPS stimulation in the prefrontal cortex but not in the brainstem when compared with pups born to saline-treated dams. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of LPS-induced I-κBζ was significantly attenuated in the prefrontal cortex when compared with pups born to saline-treated dams. These results suggest that maternal LPS may have differential effects on the neuroimmune function in different regions of the offspring brain, and highlight the importance of maternal milieu in the development of neuroimmune function in the offspring. PMID:26229739

  20. The impact study of a dam in a hydropower project

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, G.J.; Wu, S.J.; Huang, C.Y.

    1995-12-31

    Due to the steepness in terrain and the non-uniform distribution of rainfall, the development of water resources is always an important issue in Taiwan. Large number of dams, reservoirs and mobile barrages have been implemented in rivers for water resources and hydropower development, which will require a similar tendency in the future aspect. These hydraulic structures make more or less environmental and ecological impacts to the regions, due to few concerns about environmental impact assessment prior to the construction of these structures. In order to mitigate or reduce the environmental impacts caused by these projects, quantitative assessment of the impacts and environmental protection facilities are essential. A case study, which is a dam built for the purpose of hydropower generation and water supply, is presented in this paper. The construction of this dam will cause the discontinuity of sediment transport in the corresponding river and will also form an obstruction to migratory fishes from migrating to upstream for spawning or breeding. A quantitative impact assessment of the sediment problem is performed by numerical flow simulations as well as hydraulic model test. A passing facility for fish migration is also provided in this dam for the purpose of mitigating environmental impact.

  1. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a ubiquitous and persistent synthetic compound, has been detected in human serum. Previous studies in mice linked prenatal PFOA exposure to increased neonatal mortality and decreased pup weights, in a dose responsive manner. To determine whether dev...

  2. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with diverse and widespread commercial and industrial applications, has been detected in human and wildlife sera. Previous mouse studies linked prenatal PFOA exposure to decreased neonatal body weights (BWs) and survival in a dose-dependent manner. ...

  3. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations.

  4. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  5. Parental Age and Lifespan Influence Offspring Recruitment: A Long-Term Study in a Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  6. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: A national cohort study across 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother’s age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960–1989 (N=3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N=485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide, teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers. PMID:23632141

  7. Dietary sodium manipulation during critical periods in development sensitize adult offspring to amphetamines.

    PubMed

    McBride, Shawna M; Culver, Bruce; Flynn, Francis W

    2008-09-01

    This study examined critical periods in development to determine when offspring were most susceptible to dietary sodium manipulation leading to amphetamine sensitization. Wistar dams (n = 6-8/group) were fed chow containing low (0.12% NaCl; LN), normal (1% NaCl; NN), or high sodium (4% NaCl; HN) during the prenatal or early postnatal period (birth to 5 wk). Offspring were fed normal chow thereafter until testing at 6 mo. Body weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), fluid intake, salt preference, response to amphetamine, open field behavior, plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), plasma corticosterone (Cort), and adrenal gland weight were measured. BW was similar for all offspring. Offspring from the prenatal and postnatal HN group had increased BP, NaCl intake, and salt preference and decreased water intake relative to NN offspring. Prenatal HN offspring had greater BP than postnatal HN offspring. In response to amphetamine, both prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring had increased locomotor behavior compared with NN offspring. In a novel open field environment, locomotion was also increased in prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. ACTH and Cort levels 30 min after restraint stress and adrenal gland weight measurement were greater in LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. These results indicate that early life experience with low- and high-sodium diets, during the prenatal or early postnatal period, is a stress that produces long-term changes in responsiveness to amphetamines and to subsequent stressors.

  8. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  9. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the

  10. [Laryngeal hemiplegia in warmblood horses--a study of stallions, mares and their offspring].

    PubMed

    Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Miesner, K; Geldermann, H

    1993-03-01

    Laryngoscopic examination during sedation was performed on 24 stallions and on their offspring (240 foals and 474 adult horses). Additionally the dams (n = 308) of 35 foals and 216 horses were examined. With the bilateral comparison of the arytaenoid movements the function of the abductory and adductory laryngeal muscles were evaluated and the left abductory dysfunction (idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia, ILH) was divided into six degrees. The incidence and degree of ILH depended on age and the occurrence of the same dysfunction in the parents. Foals suffered in significantly lower number (24.7 per cent) than adult horses (49.7 per cent). The progeny of unaffected parents suffered significantly less from ILH (8.9 per cent of the foals, 39.6 per cent of the adult offspring) than did comparable progeny of affected parents (41 per cent of the foals, 60.9 per cent of the adult offspring). There was no correlation between the occurrence of ILH and sex. 120 horses were examined laryngoscopically and during work to get an information about the correlation between a visible ILH and the appearance of a typical inspiratory noise. 54.3 per cent of the horses with ILH had a typical inspiratory noise. 80.9 per cent of the horse with a typical inspiratory noise showed ILH.

  11. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight: A Prospective Cohort Study on Monozygotic Twin Mothers and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Rasmussen, Finn

    2016-08-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers born 1962-1975 were identified in national Swedish registers, and data on exposure and outcome variables was collected from medical records. We analyzed associations within and between twin pairs. We had complete data on the mothers' GWG and offspring BW for 82 pairs. The results indicated that total, and possibly also second and third trimester GWG were associated with offspring BW within the twin pairs in the fully adjusted model (β = 0.08 z-score units, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17; β = 1.32 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.29, 2.95; and β = 1.02 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.50, 2.54, respectively). Our findings, although statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account. Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27161254

  12. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

  13. Clinical Study Report on Milk Production in the Offspring of a Somatic Cell Cloned Holstein Cow

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; TSUCHIYA, Hideki; HAMANO, Seizo; INABA, Toshio; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAMADA, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production. PMID:23955271

  14. Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shaffer, Michele L; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal is believed to be a predisposing factor for insomnia; however, there is limited information on the association of familial vulnerability to insomnia and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of stress-related insomnia and examine whether parental vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is associated with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in their offspring. We studied a volunteer sample of 135 nuclear families comprised of 270 middle-aged (51.5 ± 5.4 years) fathers and mothers and one of their biological offspring (n = 135, 20.2 ± 1.1 years). We measured vulnerability to stress-related insomnia (i.e. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test: FIRST), perceived stress, depression and anxiety in all participants, and arousability, presleep cognitive and somatic arousal, coping and personality in the offspring. We found a heritability estimate of 29% for FIRST scores. High FIRST parents had three to seven times the odds of having offspring highly vulnerable to stress-related insomnia. Offspring of high FIRST parents showed higher arousability, presleep cognitive arousal and emotion-oriented coping. Furthermore, high FIRST mothers contributed to offspring's higher anxiety and lower task-oriented coping, while high FIRST fathers contributed to offspring's higher presleep somatic arousal and conscientiousness. Vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is significantly heritable. Parents vulnerable to stress-related insomnia have offspring with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal who rely upon emotion-oriented coping. These data give support to the notion that arousability and maladaptive coping are key factors in the aetiology of insomnia. PMID:24889269

  15. Baseline studies in the Elwha River ecosystem prior to dam removal: Introduction to the special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freilich, Jerry; Schreiner, Edward G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams that have been in place for over 95 years on the Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study dam removal effects. Among the largest dams ever considered for removal, this project is compelling because 83% of the watershed lies undisturbed in Olympic National Park. Eighteen million cubic meters of sediment have accumulated in and will be released from the reservoirs, and there is potential for rehabilitating depressed Pacific salmon runs. Researchers from academia, non-profit organizations, federal and state governments, and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe are currently assessing baseline ecological conditions of the Elwha River as part of dam removal studies. We introduce dam removal topics, provide a brief history of the dams, and summarize the ecology of the Elwha River basin as an introduction to a special issue devoted to research in the watershed.

  16. Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain inflammation and oxidative stress in male mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yik Lung; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Oliver, Brian; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Zaky, Amgad A; Jones, Nicole; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) during gestation can cause lifelong adverse effects in the offspring's brain. Several factors may contribute including inflammation, oxidative stress and hypoxia, whose changes in the developing brain are unknown. Female Balb/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were studied at postnatal day (P) 1, P20 and 13 weeks (W13). SE dams had reduced inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6 and toll like receptor (TLR)4 mRNA), antioxidant (manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)), and increased mitochondrial activities (OXPHOS-I, III and V) and protein damage marker nitrotyrosine. Brain hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α and its upstream signalling molecule early growth response factor (EGR)1 were not changed in the SE dams. In the SE offspring, brain IL-1R, IL-6 and TLR4 mRNA were increased at W13. The translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane, and MnSOD were reduced at W13 with higher nitrotyrosine staining. HIF-1α was also increased at W13, although EGR1 was only reduced at P1. In conclusion, maternal SE increased markers of hypoxia and oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunction and cell damage in both dams and offspring, and upregulated inflammatory markers in offspring, which may render SE dams and their offspring vulnerable to additional brain insults. PMID:27169932

  17. Interaction of Dams and Landslides--Case Studies and Mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering were in their infancy, and dams were often built where landslides provided valley constrictions, often without expert site investigation. Only the most important projects were subjected to careful geologic examination. Thus, dams were often built without complete understanding of the possible geotechnical problems occurring in foundations or abutments. Most of these dams still exist, although many have undergone costly repairs because of stability or leakage problems. Today, however, every effort is made in the selection of damsites, including those sited on landslides, to provide foundations and abutments that are generally impervious and capable of withstanding the stresses imposed by the proposed dam and reservoir, and possible landslides. By means of a literature search, technical interviews, and field inventory, I have located 254 large (at least 10 m high) dams worldwide that directly interact with landslides; that is, they have been built on pre-existing landslides or have been subjected to landslide activity during or after construction. A table (Appendix table A) summarizes dam characteristics, landslide conditions, and remedial measures at each of the dams. Of the 254 dams, 164 are earthfill, 23 are rockfill, and 18 are earthfill-rockfill; these are flexible dam types that generally perform better on the possibly unstable foundations provided by landslides than do more rigid concrete dams. Any pre-existing landslides that might impinge on the foundation or abutments of a dam should be carefully investigated. If a landslide is recognized in a dam foundation or abutment, the landslide deposits commonly are avoided in siting the dam or are removed during stripping of the dam foundation and abutment contacts. Contrarily, it has often been found to be technically feasible and economically desirable to site and construct dams on known landslides or on the remnants of these

  18. Personality disorders in offspring of mothers with mood disorders: results from a longitudinal family study.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Kathryn R; Eberly, Lynn E; Heller, Monika D; Schlesinger, Amanda; Gold, Phillip W; Martinez, Pedro E; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2014-08-30

    Offspring of mothers with mood disorders are known to be at risk for a range of adverse outcomes, but the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in this group is unknown. The goal of this study was to assess risk of PD diagnoses and symptoms in offspring of mothers with and without mood disorders, and to explore contributing factors to this risk. This longitudinal study assessed PDs and symptoms of PDs in offspring of mothers with bipolar disorder (O-BD), major depression (O-MDD), and no psychiatric diagnosis (O-WELL) in mid-adolescence and in early adulthood. O-BD were more likely to develop a Cluster B PD than O-MDD or O-WELL in adolescence, and more likely to develop a Cluster B PD then O-WELL in early adulthood. Dimensional analyses revealed that O-BD had elevated symptoms in PDs across all PD clusters at mid-adolescence and young adulthood. O-MDD showed elevated symptoms of antisocial PD at both time points, and of obsessive-compulsive PD at young adulthood. Offspring of mothers with mood disorders, especially O-BD, are at increased risk for PD diagnoses and symptoms in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Contributing factors to risk of PD symptoms in at-risk offspring are discussed.

  19. Microarray analysis reveals higher gestational folic Acid alters expression of genes in the cerebellum of mice offspring-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Chadman, Kathryn K; Brown, W Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development. PMID:25629700

  20. [The effect of ethanol consumption by dams on the offspring locomotion in the open field test and carboxypeptidase activities in the rat brain and adrenal medulla].

    PubMed

    Mukhina, E S; Saldaev, D A; Vernigora, A N; Gengin, M T

    2005-03-01

    Consumption of dams ethanol increased the posterity locomotion activity in open field test. The increase in female rats was higher then in male ones. Differences in the carboxypeptidase H and PMSF-inhibited carboxypeptidase activities between the brain regions and adrenal medulla of prenatally exposed to ethanol and intact rats were found. The changing of enzyme activities in female rats was higher then in male ones. It is possible that dams ethanol consumption induced profound changes in locomotion mediated, at least partially, by changes in the rate of proteolytic processing of neuropeptide precursors.

  1. Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP)—A map-based resource linking scientific studies and associated geospatial information about dam removals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Bristol, R. Sky; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Vittum, Katherine M.; Craig, Laura; Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2016-08-18

    The removal of dams has recently increased over historical levels due to aging infrastructure, changing societal needs, and modern safety standards rendering some dams obsolete. Where possibilities for river restoration, or improved safety, exceed the benefits of retaining a dam, removal is more often being considered as a viable option. Yet, as this is a relatively new development in the history of river management, science is just beginning to guide our understanding of the physical and ecological implications of dam removal. Ultimately, the “lessons learned” from previous scientific studies on the outcomes dam removal could inform future scientific understanding of ecosystem outcomes, as well as aid in decision-making by stakeholders. We created a database visualization tool, the Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP), to display map-based, interactive information about the scientific studies associated with dam removals. Serving both as a bibliographic source as well as a link to other existing databases like the National Hydrography Dataset, the derived National Dam Removal Science Database serves as the foundation for a Web-based application that synthesizes the existing scientific studies associated with dam removals. Thus, using the DRIP application, users can explore information about completed dam removal projects (for example, their location, height, and date removed), as well as discover sources and details of associated of scientific studies. As such, DRIP is intended to be a dynamic collection of scientific information related to dams that have been removed in the United States and elsewhere. This report describes the architecture and concepts of this “metaknowledge” database and the DRIP visualization tool.

  2. Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP)—A map-based resource linking scientific studies and associated geospatial information about dam removals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Bristol, R. Sky; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Vittum, Katherine M.; Craig, Laura; Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of dams has recently increased over historical levels due to aging infrastructure, changing societal needs, and modern safety standards rendering some dams obsolete. Where possibilities for river restoration, or improved safety, exceed the benefits of retaining a dam, removal is more often being considered as a viable option. Yet, as this is a relatively new development in the history of river management, science is just beginning to guide our understanding of the physical and ecological implications of dam removal. Ultimately, the “lessons learned” from previous scientific studies on the outcomes dam removal could inform future scientific understanding of ecosystem outcomes, as well as aid in decision-making by stakeholders. We created a database visualization tool, the Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP), to display map-based, interactive information about the scientific studies associated with dam removals. Serving both as a bibliographic source as well as a link to other existing databases like the National Hydrography Dataset, the derived National Dam Removal Science Database serves as the foundation for a Web-based application that synthesizes the existing scientific studies associated with dam removals. Thus, using the DRIP application, users can explore information about completed dam removal projects (for example, their location, height, and date removed), as well as discover sources and details of associated of scientific studies. As such, DRIP is intended to be a dynamic collection of scientific information related to dams that have been removed in the United States and elsewhere. This report describes the architecture and concepts of this “metaknowledge” database and the DRIP visualization tool.

  3. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Adiposity, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Methylation in Offspring, Grand-Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghai; Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Champagne, Frances A.; Wu, Licheng; McDonald, Jacob D.; Yan, Beizhan; Schwartz, Gary J.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Objectives We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. Materials and Methods Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. Findings Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. Conclusions Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny. PMID:25347678

  4. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M. V. Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications. PMID:21647314

  5. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint).

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M V Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications.

  6. Water-quality study of proposed reregulation dam downstream of Wolf Creek Dam, Cumberland River, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes the application of an unsteady, one-dimensional water-quality model to the Cumberland River below Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky. A hydropower upgrade of Wolf Creek Dam and construction of a reregulation dam, located approximately 10 miles below Wolf Creek Dam, are under consideration. Simulations were conducted under unreregulated conditions and projected conditions following impoundment to provide information concerning the effect of the reregulation dam on water quality in the Cumberland River. Under the conditions simulated, the reregulation dam was predicted to have little impact on temporally averaged water temperatures or dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Temporal variations in water temperatures were retarded under reregulation conditions.

  7. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction: A Case Study of Embankment Dam Safety Assessment in Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdos, F.; Dargahi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seepage, when excessive and unimpeded, can cause embankment dam failure. Such failures are often initiated by internal erosion and piping. Modelling these phenomena in embankment dams, accounting for the groundwater-surface water interactions, is crucial when performing dam safety assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of modelling seepage flows in multi-region dams using a finite element based multi-physics model. The model was applied to the Trängslet dam, the largest dam in Sweden. The objectives were to analyze the characteristics of both the flow and the surface-ground water interactions occurring in the dam, including: i) the saturated and unsaturated laminar flow regimes within the dam body, ii) the non-linear through-flow in the dam shoulders' coarse material, iii) the influence of the surface waves in the reservoir on the seepage flow by coupling the physics to a hydrodynamic interface, and iv) the influence of a conceptual "erosion tunnel" on the seepage flow and its interaction with the surface water flow by coupling the physics to a CFD interface. The focus of the study was on the influence of the transient water head boundary condition, surface waves and the internal erosion tunnel on the location of the phreatic line and the seepage flow rate. The simulated seepage flow of the dam in its original condition tallied with the monitoring measurements (40-70 l/s). The main feature found was the relatively high position of the phreatic line, which could compromise the stability of the dam. The combination of the seepage model with the reservoir hydrodynamics indicated a negligible influence of the surface waves on seepage flow. Results from the combination of the seepage model with fluid dynamics indicated that a conceptual "erosion tunnel" placed within the dam, even as high as in the unsaturated zone, significantly affects the phreatic line's position. This also causes the seepage flow to increase by several orders of

  8. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) coh...

  9. Carbon sequestration function of check-dams: a case study of the Loess plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie

    2014-11-01

    Check-dams are the most common structures for controlling soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, the effect of check-dams on carbon sequestration, along with sediment transport and deposition, has not been assessed over large areas. In this study, we evaluated the carbon sequestration function of check-dams in the Loess Plateau. The results indicate that there were approximately 11 000 check-dams distributed in the Loess Plateau, with an estimate of the amount of sediment of 21 × 10⁹ m³ and a soil organic carbon storage amount of 0.945 Pg. Our study reveals that check-dams in the Loess Plateau not only conserve soil and water but also sequester carbon.

  10. Persistent influence of maternal obesity on offspring health: Mechanisms from animal models and clinical studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consequences of excessive maternal weight and adiposity at conception for the offspring are now well recognized. Maternal obesity increases the risk of overweight and obesity even in children born with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) birth weights. Studies in animal models have employed bo...

  11. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to examine the relation between vitamin D status and incidence of T2D. We used a subsample of 1972 Framingham Offspring Study participants to develop a regression model to predict...

  12. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D Score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to examine the relation between vitamin D status and incidence of T2D. We used a subsample of 1972 Framingham Offspring Study participants to develop a regression model to predict...

  13. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  14. A Quasi-Experimental Study of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Langstrom, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The current study, based on all births in Sweden from 1983 to 1991 (N = 654,707), explored the processes underlying the association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring school grades and mathematic proficiency at age 15. The analyses compared relatives who varied in their exposure to SDP and who varied in their genetic relatedness.…

  15. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal emotional stress during pregnancy has previously been associated with congenital neural malformations, but most studies are based on data collected retrospectively. The objective of our study was to investigate associations between antenatal maternal bereavement due to death of a close relative and neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. Methods We performed a register-based cohort study including all live-born children (N = 1,734,190) from 1978–2008. Exposure was bereavement due to loss of a close relative from one year before conception to the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. The outcome was NTDs in the offspring according to the International Classification of Disease. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs). Results A total of 2% children were born to mothers who lost a close relative prenatally. During 30 years of follow-up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889), anencephaly (n = 85) and encephalocele (n = 164). And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring was seen (OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.52–1.33). Conclusion Overall maternal bereavement in the antenatal period was not related to NTDs in liveborn offspring. PMID:27685943

  16. Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain inflammation and oxidative stress in male mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yik Lung; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Oliver, Brian; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Zaky, Amgad A.; Jones, Nicole; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) during gestation can cause lifelong adverse effects in the offspring’s brain. Several factors may contribute including inflammation, oxidative stress and hypoxia, whose changes in the developing brain are unknown. Female Balb/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were studied at postnatal day (P) 1, P20 and 13 weeks (W13). SE dams had reduced inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6 and toll like receptor (TLR)4 mRNA), antioxidant (manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)), and increased mitochondrial activities (OXPHOS-I, III and V) and protein damage marker nitrotyrosine. Brain hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α and its upstream signalling molecule early growth response factor (EGR)1 were not changed in the SE dams. In the SE offspring, brain IL-1R, IL-6 and TLR4 mRNA were increased at W13. The translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane, and MnSOD were reduced at W13 with higher nitrotyrosine staining. HIF-1α was also increased at W13, although EGR1 was only reduced at P1. In conclusion, maternal SE increased markers of hypoxia and oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunction and cell damage in both dams and offspring, and upregulated inflammatory markers in offspring, which may render SE dams and their offspring vulnerable to additional brain insults. PMID:27169932

  17. Glucose metabolism and hepatic Igf1 DNA methylation are altered in the offspring of dams fed a low-salt diet during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Flavia R; Furukawa, Luzia N S; Oliveira, Ivone B; Heimann, Joel C

    2016-02-01

    A low-salt (LS) diet during pregnancy has been linked to insulin resistance in adult offspring, at least in the experimental setting. However, it remains unclear if this effect is due to salt restriction during early or late pregnancy. To better understand this phenomenon, 12-week-old female Wistar rats were fed a LS or normal-salt (NS) diet during gestation or a LS diet during either the first (LS10) or second (LS20) half of gestation. Glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR, gene expression analysis and DNA methylation measurements were conducted for the Insr, Igf1, Igf1r, Ins1 and Ins2 genes in the livers of neonates and in the liver, white adipose tissue and muscle of 20-week-old male offspring. Birth weight was lower in the LS20 and LS animals compared with the NS and LS10 rats. In the liver, the Igf1 levels in the LS10, LS20 and LS neonates were lower than those in the NS neonates. Methylation of the Insr, Igf1r, Ins1 and Ins2 genes was influenced in a variable manner by low salt intake during pregnancy. Increased liver Igf1 methylation was observed in the LS and LS20 neonates compared with their NS and LS10 counterparts. Glucose intolerance was observed in adult offspring as an effect of low salt intake over the duration of pregnancy. Compared to the NS animals, the HOMA-IR was higher in the 12-week-old LS and 20-week-old LS-10 rats. Based on these results, it appears that the reason a LS diet during pregnancy induces a low birth weight is its negative correlation with Igf1 DNA methylation in neonates. PMID:26596702

  18. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  19. A Genetically Informed Study of the Processes Underlying the Association between Parental Marital Instability and Offspring Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    Parental divorce is associated with problematic offspring adjustment, but the relation may be due to shared genetic or environmental factors. One way to test for these confounds is to study offspring of twins discordant for divorce. The current analyses used this design to separate the mechanisms responsible for the association between parental…

  20. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle; Larson, Martin G; Hamburg, Naomi M; Vita, Joseph A; Levy, Daniel; Benjamin, Emelia J; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2016-09-01

    High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compared arterial tonometry measures in a sample of 1564 nonhypertensive Framingham Heart Study third-generation cohort participants (mean age: 38 years; 55% women) whose parents were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. A total of 468, 715, and 381 participants had 0 (referent), 1, and 2 parents with hypertension. Parental hypertension was associated with greater offspring mean arterial pressure (multivariable-adjusted estimate=2.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.9, and 4.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-5.5, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively; P<0.001 for both) and with greater forward pressure wave amplitude (1.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.7, and 1.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-3.2, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively; P=0.003 for both). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index displayed similar dose-dependent relations with parental hypertension in sex-, age-, and height-adjusted models, but associations were attenuated on further adjustment. Offspring with at least 1 parent in the upper quartile of augmentation index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity had significantly higher values themselves (P≤0.02). In conclusion, in this community-based sample of young, nonhypertensive adults, we observed greater arterial stiffness in offspring of parents with hypertension. These observations are consistent with higher vascular stiffness at an early stage in the pathogenesis of hypertension. PMID:27456526

  1. Dam Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status does not predetermine calves for future shedding when raised in a contaminated environment: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2015-06-19

    Uptake of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by calves in the first days of life from colostrum, milk and faeces is regarded an important moment of transmission. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between the MAP status of dams as determined by the presence of MAP DNA and antibody in colostrum and that of DNA in faeces and the environment with subsequent MAP shedding of their daughters. A cohort of 117 dam-daughter pairs giving birth/being born on eight commercial dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis was followed where colostrum, faecal and environmental samples (dust) were analysed for the presence of MAP using an IS900 real-time PCR. Antibodies in colostrum were measured by ELISA. Analysis of dust samples showed that on all farms environmental MAP exposure occurred continuously. In significantly more colostrum samples (48%) MAP DNA was detected compared to faecal samples (37%). MAP specific antibodies were present in 34% of the colostrum samples. In total MAP DNA was present in faecal samples of 41% of the daughters at least once during the sampling period. The association between faecal shedding in the offspring and the dam MAP status defined by MAP PCR on colostrum, MAP PCR on faeces or ELISA on colostrum was determined by an exact cox regression analysis for discrete data. The model indicated that the hazard for faecal shedding in daughters born to MAP positive dams was not significantly different compared to daughters born to MAP negative dams. When born to a dam with DNA positive faeces the HR was 1.05 (CI 0.6; 1.8) and with DNA positive colostrum the HR was 1.17 (CI 0.6; 2.3). When dam status was defined by a combination of both PCR outcomes (faeces and colostrum) and the ELISA outcome the HR was 1.26 (CI 0.9; 1.9). Therefore, this study indicates that neither the presence of MAP DNA in colostrum, MAP DNA in faeces nor the presence of MAP antibodies in colostrum of the dam significantly influences the hazard of

  2. A prospective study of maternal prenatal weight and offspring cardiometabolic health in mid-childhood

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Gillman, Matthew W.; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with offspring cardiometabolic health. Design We studied 1,090 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston-area pre-birth cohort. We measured overall (DXA total fat; BMI z-score) and central adiposity (DXA trunk fat), and SBP in offspring at 6–10 years. Fasting bloods (n=687) were assayed for insulin and glucose (for calculation of HOMA-IR), triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin, hsCRP and IL-6. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined differences in offspring outcomes per 1 SD maternal ppBMI and GWG. Results After adjustment for confounders, each 5 kg/m2 higher ppBMI corresponded with 0.92 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.14) kg higher total fat, 0.27 (0.21, 0.32) BMI z-score, and 0.39 (0.29, 0.49) kg trunk fat. ppBMI was also positively associated with HOMA-IR, leptin, hsCRP, IL-6, and SBP; and lower adiponectin. Each 5 kg of GWG predicted greater adiposity (0.33 [0.11, 0.54] kg total fat; 0.14 [0.04, 0.23] kg trunk fat) and higher leptin (6% [0%, 13%]) in offspring after accounting for confounders and ppBMI. Conclusions Children born to heavier mothers have more overall and central fat and greater cardiometabolic risk. Offspring of women with higher GWG had greater adiposity and higher leptin. PMID:25263237

  3. Retinal emboli and cardiovascular disease: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Moss, Scot E; Meuer, Stacy M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the 10-year incidence of retinal emboli, the associated risk factors, and the relationship of retinal emboli to stroke and ischemic heart disease mortality. METHODS: The Beaver Dam Eye Study (n = 4,926) is a population-based study of persons 43 to 86 years of age. Retinal emboli were detected at baseline (1988-1990) and at a 5-year (1993-1995) and a 10-year (1998-2000) follow-up by grading of stereoscopic 30 degrees color fundus photographs using standardized protocols. Cause-specific mortality was determined from death certificates. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of retinal emboli was 1.5%. While adjusting for age and sex, the incidence of retinal emboli was associated with increased pulse pressure (odds ratio [OR] 4th versus 1st quartile range, 2.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-5.97; P test of trend = .03), higher serum total cholesterol (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.23; P = .03), higher leukocyte count (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.04-4.96; P = .05), smoking status (OR current versus never smoker, 4.60: 95% CI, 2.08-10.16; P < .001), and a history of coronary artery bypass surgery (OR, 7.17; 95% CI, 3.18-16.18; P < .001) at baseline. While controlling for age, sex, and systemic factors, a significantly higher hazard of dying with a mention of stroke on the death certificate was found in people with retinal emboli (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.16-4.99) compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: The data show an association of smoking and cardiovascular disease with the incidence of retinal emboli. Also, persons with retinal emboli are at increased risk of stroke-related death. PMID:14971575

  4. Moderate Exercise during Pregnancy in Wistar Rats Alters Bone and Body Composition of the Adult Offspring in a Sex-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Brielle V.; Blair, Hugh T.; Vickers, Mark H.; Dittmer, Keren E.; Morel, Patrick C. H.; Knight, Cameron G.; Firth, Elwyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  5. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Brielle V; Blair, Hugh T; Vickers, Mark H; Dittmer, Keren E; Morel, Patrick C H; Knight, Cameron G; Firth, Elwyn C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  6. The Dalles Dam, Columbia River: Spillway Improvement CFD Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2006-06-01

    This report documents development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that were applied to The Dalles spillway for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District. The models have been successfully validated against physical models and prototype data, and are suitable to support biological research and operations management. The CFD models have been proven to provide reliable information in the turbulent high-velocity flow field downstream of the spillway face that is typically difficult to monitor in the prototype. In addition, CFD data provides hydraulic information throughout the solution domain that can be easily extracted from archived simulations for later use if necessary. This project is part of an ongoing program at the Portland District to improve spillway survival conditions for juvenile salmon at The Dalles. Biological data collected at The Dalles spillway have shown that for the original spillway configuration juvenile salmon passage survival is lower than desired. Therefore, the Portland District is seeking to identify operational and/or structural changes that might be implemented to improve fish passage survival. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) went through a sequence of steps to develop a CFD model of The Dalles spillway and tailrace. The first step was to identify a preferred CFD modeling package. In the case of The Dalles spillway, Flow-3D was as selected because of its ability to simulate the turbulent free-surface flows that occur downstream of each spilling bay. The second step in development of The Dalles CFD model was to assemble bathymetric datasets and structural drawings sufficient to describe the dam (powerhouse, non-overflow dam, spillway, fish ladder entrances, etc.) and tailrace. These datasets are documented in this report as are various 3-D graphical representations of The Dalles spillway and tailrace. The performance of the CFD model was then validated for several cases as the third step. The validated model

  7. A Comparison of Three Rubber Dam Systems In Vivo--A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kapitán, Martin; Suchánková Kleplová, Tereza; Suchánek, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the isolation systems OptraDam® Plus and OptiDam™ with the conventional rubber dam in terms of objective and subjective parameters. The isolation systems were applied during the dental treatment of the patients. The time of preparation, placement, presence and removal were measured and the quality of isolation was evaluated. The median time of rubber dam placement was 76 s (Q1=62 s; Q3=111.25 s). The application time of OptraDam® Plus was significantly longer compared to the other systems (P ® plus. The results presented in this study could guide clinicians for choosing the most appropriate isolation system.

  8. Marib Dam: the importance of environmental and health impact studies for development projects.

    PubMed

    Basahi, I A

    2000-01-01

    Marib Dam was built without an environmental impact assessment study which created many conflicts. In 1995 and 1996 its impact on water quality, agriculture and groundwater recharge and socioeconomics was studied. Lake water could suffer severe eutrophication when floods are weak and algae growth is not controlled. Introducing Tilapia nilotica provided biological control of algae growth. The dam positively affected agriculture and groundwater within the designed irrigation scheme but negatively affected them beyond it. The dam also negatively affected health conditions and increased conflicts over water distribution. It positively affected women by allowing them to work in agriculture and participate in decision-making. The dam raised income levels of farmers and encouraged tourism.

  9. Maternal Glucocorticoid Deficit Affects Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function and Behavior of Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wilcoxon, Jennifer Slone; Redei, Eva E.

    2007-01-01

    Detrimental consequences of prenatal stress include increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, anxiety and depression-like behavior in adult offspring. To identify the role of maternal corticosterone milieu in the fetal programming of adult function, we measured these same behavioral and hormonal endpoints after maternal adrenalectomy (ADX) and replacement with normal or moderately high levels of corticosterone (CORT). Adult male and female offspring exhibited differing HPA responses to maternal ADX. In female offspring of ADX mothers, exaggerated plasma ACTH stress responses were reversed by the higher, but not the lower, dose of maternal CORT. In contrast, male offspring of both ADX and ADX dams with higher CORT replacement showed exaggerated ACTH stress responses. Hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression was decreased in these latter groups, while hippocampal GR increased only in the ADX offspring. Activity of young offspring of ADX dams replaced with the higher dose of CORT decreased in the open field test of exploration/anxiety, while immobility behavior of adult offspring in the forced swim test of depression increased following maternal ADX or higher levels of CORT replacement. Interestingly, for some measures, none or moderately high CORT replacement resulted in similar deficits in this study. These findings are in accord with consequences of prenatal stress or prenatal dexamethasone exposure, suggesting that a common mechanism may underlie the effects of too low or too high maternal glucocorticoids on adult HPA function and behavior. PMID:17275820

  10. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  11. Brief and long periods of maternal separation affect maternal behavior and offspring behavioral development in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bailoo, Jeremy D; Jordan, Richard L; Garza, Xavier J; Tyler, Amber N

    2014-05-01

    For rats, maternal mediation of brief and longer term dam-pup separations were thought to account for pup differences in adult "emotionality." In this study, early handling (EH), maternal separation (MS), and maternal peer separation (MPS) groups were compared to an animal facility reared (AFR) group for maternal behavior and offspring adult open-field behavior in C57BL/6 mice. Although MS and MPS dams displayed higher levels of maternal behavior upon reunion, these group differences did not predict offspring open-field behavior. However, when offspring behavior was analyzed as a function of specific aspects of maternal behavior, irrespective of treatment group, pups that received high levels of quiescent nursing and activity, but not licking, were less "emotional." Individual differences in maternal licking of pups predicted variability of "emotional" behavior for AFR and EH pups. Thus, for this strain of mouse, individual and not treatment differences in maternal care predict offspring "emotional" development.

  12. Antibiotic exposure in pregnancy and risk of coeliac disease in offspring: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The infant microbiota may play a pathogenic role in coeliac disease (CD). Antibiotic treatment in pregnancy is common and could significantly impact the infant microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and CD in offspring. Methods Prospective questionnaire data on antibiotic exposure in pregnancy were available in 8729 children participating in the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort study, and of these 46 developed CD until December 2006. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for CD in the offspring among mothers exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy, with adjustment for parent-reported diary data on breastfeeding, age at gluten introduction and number of infections in the child’s first year of life. Results Of the 1836 children exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy, 12 (0.7%) children developed CD as compared with 34/6893 (0.5%) unexposed children (HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 0.69-2.56). Risk estimates remained unchanged after adjustment for breastfeeding, age at gluten introduction and infection load in the child’s first year of life (HR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.66-2.48). Conclusions We found no statistically significant association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and CD in offspring. This lack of association may either be true or the result of limited statistical power. PMID:24731164

  13. A pilot study examining germline minisatellite mutations in the offspring of Danish childhood and adolescent cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    REES, GWEN S.; TRIKIC, MICHAEL Z.; WINTHER, JEANETTE F.; TAWN, E. JANET; STOVALL, MARILYN; OLSEN, JØRGEN H.; RECHNITZER, CATHERINE; SCHRØDER, HENRIK; GULDBERG, PER; BOICE, JOHN D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate germline mutation rate at eight minisatellite loci in 24 Danish families, where one parent is the survivor of childhood or adolescent cancer treated with radiotherapy. Materials and methods Parents and offspring were profiled for eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern blotting. Results Seven paternal mutations were observed for 130 informative alleles in 18 offspring from 11 radiation-exposed fathers (mean preconceptional dose for offspring 0.29 Gy, range <0.01 - 1.2 Gy), compared to six mutations for 146 informative alleles in 21 offspring from 13 unexposed fathers. No statistically significant difference between the total paternal mutation rates was observed (5.4% for exposed fathers and 4.1% for unexposed fathers). Three maternal mutations were observed for 148 informative alleles in 21 offspring from 13 radiation-exposed mothers (mean preconceptional dose for offspring 0.71 Gy, range <0.01 - 9.2 Gy), compared to one mutation for 130 informative alleles in 18 offspring from 11 unexposed mothers. Again, no statistically significant difference was observed between the total maternal mutation rates (2.0% for exposed mothers and 0.8% for unexposed mothers). Conclusions The data from this pilot study demonstrate no statistically significant increase in germline minisatellite mutation rate associated with radiotherapy for childhood and adolescent cancer. PMID:16638712

  14. Birthweight of Offspring and Mortality of Parents: The Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Yechiel; Paltiel, Ora; Manor, Orly; Deutsch, Lisa; Yanetz, Rivka; Calderon, Ronit; Siscovick, David S.; Harlap, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between birthweight in offspring and mortality in their parents. Distinguishing between risks of outcomes in mothers from fathers potentially provides clues as to the relative roles of genetic versus non-genetic mechanisms underlying these associations.. Methods We studied total and cause-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of 37,718 mothers and 38,002 fathers whose offspring were delivered in West Jerusalem during 1964–76, after an average follow-up of 34.12 years Results Hazard models controlling for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics indicated a U-shaped relationship between offspring’s birthweight and overall mortality, deaths from CHD, circulatory and other non-neoplastic causes in their mothers. Higher CHD mortality rates were observed among mothers who gave birth to babies with low (HR=2.13; 95%CI 1.40–3.25) and high birthweight (HR=1.98; 95%CI 1.36–2.88), as compared to mothers whose offspring weighed 2500–3999 gr at birth. Adjustment for maternal pre-eclampsia, slightly attenuated these results. Multivariate models indicated a negative linear relationship (HR=0.95, 95%CI 0.91–0.99) between offspring’s birthweight and overall mortality in their fathers. Unlike the association in mothers, the relation was noted primarily with deaths from “other causes”. Conclusions Birthweight of offspring is associated with parental mortality although the relation differs for fathers and mothers. These findings broaden previous observations that intra-uterine events have long-term consequences for adult health and support the need to explore genetic and/or environmental mechanisms underlying these associations. PMID:17855119

  15. Paternal care paradoxically increases offspring seizure susceptibility in the El mouse model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Orefice, Lauren L; Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2008-02-01

    The El mouse is a model of idiopathic epilepsy in which seizures emerge on Postnatal Days (PNDs) 80-90, although time to first seizure can be modified by experiential factors including handling during development and history of past seizures. This study tested the hypothesis that a significant increase in the amount of parental investment would impact seizure susceptibility in adult El offspring. The study used a single dam control, in which the litter was reared by a female biological parent, and a biparental experimental group, in which both biological parents reared the litter. Components of parental care and pup body weights were quantified on PNDs 2-21, and adult offspring were examined using a handling-induced seizure susceptibility (HISS) test on PNDs 80-90 to assess the long-term impact of alterations in the perinatal environment. As expected, presence of both parents did increase parental/pup contact time by 350% relative to single-mother parenting and also reduced body weight, an index of perinatal stressor exposure, in already underweight El offspring. Accordingly, HISS testing of adult El offspring revealed a deleterious effect of biparental rearing, which increased seizure incidence to 30% relative to 0% for the single dam condition. These results suggest that the presence of a second care provider in addition to the dam constitutes a form of stressor exposure in El pups and, as a consequence, reduces the time to first seizure in genetically susceptible offspring.

  16. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring.

  17. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. PMID:26289766

  18. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  19. Drug treatment of malaria infections can reduce levels of protection transferred to offspring via maternal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Staszewski, Vincent; Reece, Sarah E.; O'Donnell, Aidan J.; Cunningham, Emma J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Maternally transferred immunity can have a fundamental effect on the ability of offspring to deal with infection. However, levels of antibodies in adults can vary both quantitatively and qualitatively between individuals and during the course of infection. How infection dynamics and their modification by drug treatment might affect the protection transferred to offspring remains poorly understood. Using the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi, we demonstrate that curing dams part way through infection prior to pregnancy can alter their immune response, with major consequences for offspring health and survival. In untreated maternal infections, maternally transferred protection suppressed parasitaemia and reduced pup mortality by 75 per cent compared with pups from naïve dams. However, when dams were treated with anti-malarial drugs, pups received fewer maternal antibodies, parasitaemia was only marginally suppressed, and mortality risk was 25 per cent higher than for pups from dams with full infections. We observed the same qualitative patterns across three different host strains and two parasite genotypes. This study reveals the role that within-host infection dynamics play in the fitness consequences of maternally transferred immunity. Furthermore, it highlights a potential trade-off between the health of mothers and offspring suggesting that anti-parasite treatment may significantly affect the outcome of infection in newborns. PMID:22357264

  20. DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the

  1. Maternal immune activation leads to activated inflammatory macrophages in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Onore, Charity E.; Schwartzer, Jared J.; Careaga, Milo; Bennan, Robert F.; Ashwood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation (MIA) models. More recently, permanent changes in T cell cytokine responses were reported in children with autism and in offspring of MIA mice; however, the cytokine responses of other immune cell populations have not been thoroughly investigated in these MIA models. Similar to changes in T cell function, we hypothesized that following MIA, offspring will have long-term changes in macrophage function. To test this theory, we utilized the poly (I:C) MIA mouse model in C57BL/6J mice and examined macrophage cytokine production in adult offspring. Pregnant dams were given either a single injection of 20 mg/kg polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid, poly (I:C), or saline delivered intraperitoneally on gestational day 12.5. When offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams reached 10 weeks of age, femurs were collected and bone marrow-derived macrophages were generated. Cytokine production was measured in bone marrow-derived macrophages incubated for 24 h in either growth media alone, LPS, IL-4/LPS, or IFN-γ/LPS. Following stimulation with LPS alone, or the combination of IFN-γ/LPS, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams produced higher levels of IL-12(p40) (p < 0.04) suggesting an increased M1 polarization. In addition, even without the presence of a polarizing cytokine or LPS stimulus, macrophages from offspring of poly (I:C) treated dams exhibited a higher production of CCL3 (p = 0.05). Moreover, CCL3 levels were further increased when stimulated with LPS, or polarized with either IL-4/LPS or IFN-γ/LPS (p < 0.05) suggesting a general increase in production of this chemokine. Collectively, these data suggest that MIA can produce lasting

  2. Investigation on trophic state index by artificial neural networks (case study: Dez Dam of Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghi, H.; Karimi, L.; Javid, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Dam construction and surface runoff control is one of the most common approaches for water-needs supply of human societies. However, the increasing development of social activities and hence the subsequent increase in environmental pollutants leads to deterioration of water quality in dam reservoirs and eutrophication process could be intensified. So, the water quality of reservoirs is now one of the key factors in operation and water quality management of reservoirs. Hence, maintaining the quality of the stored water and identification and examination of changes along time has been a constant concern of humans that involves the water authorities. Traditionally, empirical trophic state indices of dam reservoirs often defined based on changes in concentration of effective factors (nutrients) and its consequences (increase in chlorophyll a), have been used as an efficient tool in the definition of dam reservoirs quality. In recent years, modeling techniques such as artificial neural networks have enhanced the prediction capability and the accuracy of these studies. In this study, artificial neural networks have been applied to analyze eutrophication process in the Dez Dam reservoir in Iran. In this paper, feed forward neural network with one input layer, one hidden layer and one output layer was applied using MATLAB neural network toolbox for trophic state index (TSI) analysis in the Dez Dam reservoir. The input data of this network are effective parameters in the eutrophication: nitrogen cycle parameters and phosphorous cycle parameters and parameters that will be changed by eutrophication: Chl a, SD, DO and the output data is TSI. Based on the results from estimation of modified Carlson trophic state index, Dez Dam reservoir is considered to be eutrophic in the early July to mid-November and would be mesotrophic with decrease in temperature. Therefore, a decrease in water quality of the dam reservoir during the warm seasons is expectable. The results indicated that

  3. Enrichment materials do not negatively affect reproductive success and offspring survival and weight in mice.

    PubMed

    Shair, Harry N; Nunez, Yasmin; Osman, Mohamed M

    2011-12-19

    Environmental enrichment is designed to improve the overall welfare of laboratory animals, including mice. Few studies have directly assessed the effects of different types of enrichment on mouse offspring survival and growth. The authors examined how survival and growth of C57BL/6 mouse pups are affected by three kinds of cage enrichment materials: compressed cotton squares, two-ply tissues and plastic igloos. During the last week of gestation and the first two weeks postpartum, the authors observed cages with litters and noted use of the enrichment materials, quality of nest construction, number of pups per litter and weight of pups. Both the first and second litters were evaluated for each dam. Dams and pups had continuous contact with the enrichment materials, especially cotton squares and tissues. Neither the presence nor the type of enrichment material influenced the survival and weight of offspring, suggesting that the use of such materials does not negatively impact reproductive success or offspring survival.

  4. Evaluation of community-driven smallholder irrigation in dryland South Pare Mountains, Tanzania: A case study of Manoo micro dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makurira, H.; Mul, M. L.; Vyagusa, N. F.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    Water is the main limiting factor for crop production in semi-arid sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of community-driven smallholder irrigation schemes using micro dams under current operational practices. The research site is the semi-arid Vudee sub-catchment within the Makanya Catchment, which is part of the Pangani River Basin (Northern Tanzania). A micro dam is presented as a case study. Micro dams are popular in the study area they have water sharing system between upstream and downstream users put in place with minimum input from external agencies. The effectiveness of micro dams on dry spell mitigation is investigated. The significance of dam size, total water diverted per season, system losses and approximate amounts of water received by each farmer in a given season is analysed. Local smallholder farmers have put up the micro dams to address their need for extra water for agriculture. The capacities of the micro dams are very small but without them there is insufficient water to allocate to at least one irrigation event per farmer in a season, the dams serve a useful purpose when operated as night storage reservoirs. The study found out that the micro dam system, under current operational rules, is inefficient as the high system losses put to question the wisdom of irrigating over scattered sites as opposed to one common irrigation plot near the dam site where each participant would be allocated a small piece of land to irrigate.

  5. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts. PMID:22943578

  6. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures: prospective study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Rasmussen, Morten A; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Strøm, Marin

    2015-04-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996-2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (< 16 year) (n = 53,922). In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01-1.23) of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06). The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research. PMID:25849947

  7. Diet-Induced Maternal Obesity Alters Insulin Signalling in Male Mice Offspring Rechallenged with a High-Fat Diet in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    de Fante, Thaís; Simino, Laís Angélica; Reginato, Andressa; Payolla, Tanyara Baliani; Vitoréli, Débora Cristina Gustavo; de Souza, Monique; Torsoni, Márcio Alberto; Milanski, Marciane; Torsoni, Adriana Souza

    2016-01-01

    Modern lifestyle has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in pregnant women and the young population. It has been well established that the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) has many direct effects on glucose metabolism. However, it is important to assess whether maternal consumption of a HFD during critical periods of development can lead to metabolic changes in the offspring metabolism. This study evaluated the potential effects of metabolic programming on the impairment of insulin signalling in recently weaned offspring from obese dams. Additionally, we investigated if early exposure to an obesogenic environment could exacerbate the impairment of glucose metabolism in adult life in response to a HFD. Swiss female mice were fed with Standard Chow (SC) or a HFD during gestation and lactation and tissues from male offspring were analysed at d28 and d82. Offspring from obese dams had greater weight gain and higher adiposity and food intake than offspring from control dams. Furthermore, they showed impairment in insulin signalling in central and peripheral tissues, which was associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Adipose tissue was ultimately the most affected in adult offspring after HFD rechallenge; this may have contributed to the metabolic deregulation observed. Overall, our results suggest that diet-induced maternal obesity leads to increased susceptibility to obesity and impairment of insulin signalling in offspring in early and late life that cannot be reversed by SC consumption, but can be aggravated by HFD re-exposure. PMID:27479001

  8. Experimental study on mechanism and shape characteristics of suspended flexible dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-zhong; Fan, Hong-xia; Zhu, Li-jun

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic structures such as groin, longitudinal dike and seawall are common in water conservancy and water transportation engineering projects at home and abroad, which have long been dominated by solid mass structural form. With brush and stone as building materials, this kind of structure has an obvious engineering effect. However, it not only requires huge capital investments, but also has negative impacts on the ecological environment. The suspended flexible dam is an innovative engineering measure, and few theoretical and experimental researches of this type dam can be found at present. This paper studies the mechanism and shape characteristics of this dam and obtains the dynamic equilibrium equation of flexible dam, the float buoyancy expression, and the condition for transformation among three forms of the underwater shape of the dam. The results are valuable in engineering application and can be used as the reference for the future work due to the distinctive design philosophy, the small negative effects on environment and the consistency for sustainable development.

  9. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-01

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  10. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-01

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  11. Maternal allergy acts synergistically with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy to induce hepatic fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Allina, Jorge; Grabowski, Jacquelin; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Fiel, M Isabel; Jackson, Christine E; Zelikoff, Judith T; Odin, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal environmental exposures during pregnancy are known to affect disease onset in adult offspring. For example, maternal asthma exacerbations during pregnancy can worsen adult asthma in the offspring. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with future onset of cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring susceptibility to liver disease. This pilot study examined the long-term effect of maternal allergen challenge and/or cigarette smoking during pregnancy on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in adult mouse offspring. Ovalbumin (OVA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-sensitized/challenged CD-1 dams were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) or filtered air from gestational day 4 until parturition. Eight weeks postnatally, offspring were sacrificed for comparison of hepatic histology and mRNA expression. Adult male offspring of OVA-sensitized/challenged dams exposed to MCS (OSM) displayed significantly increased liver fibrosis (9.2% collagen content vs. <4% for all other treatment groups). These mice also had 1.8-fold greater collagen 1A1 mRNA levels. From the results here, we concluded that maternal allergen challenge in combination with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may be an important risk factor for liver disease in adult male offspring.

  12. Effects of ethylene dibromide on hydra oligactis: parent and offspring toxicity study

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.A.; Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) has become increasingly prevalent in the environment due to its uses as soil, fruit, and grain fumigants, lead scavengers in petrol, and industrial solvent. Because of its increasing environmental prevalence and its proposed toxic effects of EDB on Hydras, parents (P1) which have been pre-exposed to an established sublethal concentration for 14 days. The effect of nonexposed offspring (F1/P2) taken from pre-exposed parents (P1) versus their untreated offspring (F2) will also be evaluated. This mortality study revealed that the LC50 of both parents and F1's shifted from 50 mg/L, to 106.25 mg/L and 118.75 mg/L respectively, which suggest that exposed Hydras possibly become more tolerant to EDB. In the F2 generation, after 48 and 72 hrs 10% mortality was observed in the 200 mg/L group, 30% at 250 mg/L and 20% at 300 mg/L which indicated that the resistance to EDB toxicity is inheritable. There is also a strong dose-response correlation between EDB concentration and mortality.

  13. The impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in adult offspring of diabetic pregnancy is restored by maternal melatonin treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Liang, Yan; Lin, Xian-Hua; Tan, Ya-Jing; Wu, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Zhu; Ye, Bo-Zhi; Kong, Fan-Qi; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic pregnancy, with ever increasing prevalence, adversely affects embryogenesis and increases vasculometabolic disorder risks in adult offspring. However, it remains poorly understood whether maternal diabetes increases the offspring's susceptibility to heart injuries in adulthood. In this study, we observed that cardiac function and structure were comparable between adult offspring born to diabetic mice and their counterparts born to nondiabetic mice at baseline. However, in response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR), diabetic mother offspring exhibited augmented infarct size, cardiac dysfunction, and myocardial apoptosis compared with control, in association with exaggerated activation of mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathways and oxidative stress. Molecular analysis showed that the impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in diabetic mother offspring was mainly attributable to blunted cardiac insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/Akt signaling. Furthermore, the effect of maternal melatonin administration on offspring's response to MIR was determined, and the results indicated that melatonin treatment in diabetic dams during pregnancy significantly improved the tolerance to MIR injury in their offspring, via restoring cardiac IRS-1/Akt signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to augmented MIR injury in adulthood, and maternal melatonin supplementation during diabetic pregnancy may hold promise for improving myocardial ischemic tolerance in the offspring. PMID:27299979

  14. Effect of inbreeding on weight gain of offspring from birth to 12 months after birth: a study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nafissi, Samane; Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Saadat, Mostafa

    2010-03-01

    Consanguinity, the marriage between relatives, has been associated with adverse child health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of consanguinity on offspring weight gain from birth to 12 months after birth. Data were collected on 250 consecutive live-born singleton newborns referred to a local health centre in Shiraz (Fars province, southern Iran). Collected data covered socio-demographic characteristics (such as parental age at delivery and parental education), sex, birth order, weights from birth to 12 months after birth and consanguinity of marriages of parents. Considering the low prevalence of double first cousin, first cousin once removed, second cousin, and beyond second cousin marriages, only first cousin and unrelated marriages were included in the study. The study population consisted of a total of 207 newborns (57 offspring of first cousins, 150 offspring of unrelated marriages). Based on the results of repeated measurements analysis of variance, weight gain was associated with type of marriage (p=0.018), sex of offspring (p=0.001) and paternal education (p<0.001). There was no interaction between type of marriage and sex (p=0.831). Birth weight was not affected by type of marriage (p=0.46). There was significant interaction between inbreeding and time (p=0.034). Offspring of consanguineous marriages showed lower weight gain in comparison with those of unrelated marriages during 3-12 months after birth.

  15. Hydrologic climate change: are the existing dams still safe? The Flumendosa case study in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, G.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 2000 years also accounting for possible climate change is developed, 2) an hydrologic model is implemented, and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study is the Flumendosa river basin (area of about 1300 km2) located in central-eastern Sardinia (Italy), whose reservoir system (3 dams) is the main water supply of southern Sardinia, including its largest city, Cagliari. The smallest dam is located in the upper part of the basin with a drainage area of about 50 km2. At this dam, during the December 2004 flood an extremely high peak discharge of around 2000 m3/s was observed (total daily rain was of 600 mm). In the basin the soils are generally of modest thickness, the vegetation throughout the basin has been in part altered by human activities, with many areas (before covered by scrubs) converted to pasture. Urbanized areas are a minor component. Rainfall and discharge data of historical floods (from 1940) were acquired so that a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model has been performed. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. The FEST model well simulates historical and recent floods. The results demonstrated that the dams are not safe for the estimated flood with return period of 2000 year, but also demonstrated the extreme uncertainty in the estimate of floods with

  16. Gestational heat stress alters postnatal offspring body composition indices and metabolic parameters in pigs.

    PubMed

    Boddicker, Rebecca L; Seibert, Jacob T; Johnson, Jay S; Pearce, Sarah C; Selsby, Joshua T; Gabler, Nicholas K; Lucy, Matthew C; Safranski, Timothy J; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Ross, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    The study objectives were to test the hypothesis that heat stress (HS) during gestational development alters postnatal growth, body composition, and biological response to HS conditions in pigs. To investigate this, 14 first parity crossbred gilts were exposed to one of four environmental treatments (TNTN, TNHS, HSTN, or HSHS) during gestation. TNTN and HSHS dams were exposed to thermal neutral (TN, cyclical 18-22°C) or HS conditions (cyclical 28-34°C) during the entire gestation, respectively. Dams assigned to HSTN and TNHS treatments were heat-stressed for the first or second half of gestation, respectively. Postnatal offspring were exposed to one of two thermal environments for an acute (24 h) or chronic (five weeks) duration in either constant TN (21°C) or HS (35°C) environment. Exposure to chronic HS during their growth phase resulted in decreased longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area (LDA) in offspring from HSHS and HSTN treated dams whereas LDA was larger in offspring from dams in TNTN and TNHS conditions. Irrespective of HS during prepubertal postnatal growth, pigs from dams that experienced HS during the first half of gestation (HSHS and HSTN) had increased (13.9%) subcutaneous fat thickness compared to pigs from dams exposed to TN conditions during the first half of gestation. This metabolic repartitioning towards increased fat deposition in pigs from dams heat-stressed during the first half of gestation was accompanied by elevated blood insulin concentrations (33%; P = 0.01). Together, these results demonstrate HS during the first half of gestation altered metabolic and body composition parameters during future development and in biological responses to a subsequent HS challenge.

  17. Gestational Heat Stress Alters Postnatal Offspring Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Parameters in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Seibert, Jacob T.; Johnson, Jay S.; Pearce, Sarah C.; Selsby, Joshua T.; Gabler, Nicholas K.; Lucy, Matthew C.; Safranski, Timothy J.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Baumgard, Lance H.; Ross, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    The study objectives were to test the hypothesis that heat stress (HS) during gestational development alters postnatal growth, body composition, and biological response to HS conditions in pigs. To investigate this, 14 first parity crossbred gilts were exposed to one of four environmental treatments (TNTN, TNHS, HSTN, or HSHS) during gestation. TNTN and HSHS dams were exposed to thermal neutral (TN, cyclical 18–22°C) or HS conditions (cyclical 28–34°C) during the entire gestation, respectively. Dams assigned to HSTN and TNHS treatments were heat-stressed for the first or second half of gestation, respectively. Postnatal offspring were exposed to one of two thermal environments for an acute (24 h) or chronic (five weeks) duration in either constant TN (21°C) or HS (35°C) environment. Exposure to chronic HS during their growth phase resulted in decreased longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area (LDA) in offspring from HSHS and HSTN treated dams whereas LDA was larger in offspring from dams in TNTN and TNHS conditions. Irrespective of HS during prepubertal postnatal growth, pigs from dams that experienced HS during the first half of gestation (HSHS and HSTN) had increased (13.9%) subcutaneous fat thickness compared to pigs from dams exposed to TN conditions during the first half of gestation. This metabolic repartitioning towards increased fat deposition in pigs from dams heat-stressed during the first half of gestation was accompanied by elevated blood insulin concentrations (33%; P = 0.01). Together, these results demonstrate HS during the first half of gestation altered metabolic and body composition parameters during future development and in biological responses to a subsequent HS challenge. PMID:25383953

  18. Appropriate small dam management for minimizing catchment-wide safety threats: International benchmarked guidelines and demonstrative cases studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne; Burritt, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Small dam safety is generally being ignored. The potential for dam failure resulting in catastrophic consequences for downstream communities, property, and the environment, warrants exploration of the threats and policy issues associated with the management of small/farm dams. The paper achieves this through a comparative analysis of differing levels of dam safety assurance policy: absent, driven, strong, and model. A strategic review is undertaken to establish international dam safety policy benchmarks and to identify a best practice model. A cost-effective engineering/accounting tool is presented to assist the policy selection process and complement the best practice model. The paper then demonstrates the significance of the small-dam safety problem with a case study of four Australian States,policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria, policy-strong New South Wales, and policy-modelTasmania. Surveys of farmer behavior practices provide empirical evidence of the importance of policy and its proper implementation. Both individual and cumulative farm dam failure threats are addressed and, with supporting empirical evidence, the need for "appropriate" supervision of small dams is demonstrated. The paper adds to the existing international dam policy literature by identifying acceptable minimum level practice in private/farm dam safety assurance policy as well as updated international best practice policy guidelines while providing case study demonstration of how to apply the guidelines and empirical reinforcement of the need for "appropriate" policy. The policy guidelines, cost-effective technology, and comparative lessons presented can assist any jurisdiction to determine and implement appropriate dam safety policy.

  19. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  20. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring. PMID:26147938

  1. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  2. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans’ offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring. PMID:26147938

  3. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (P<.05) at weaning (50.3, 29.6 vs 59.1±0.8 g) and at 18 weeks of age (420, 369 vs 464±10.9 g). At 18 weeks of age, offspring from fructose dams expressed greater quantities (P<.05) of intestinal Pgc1a messenger RNA compared with offspring from control or low-protein dams (1.31 vs 0.89, 0.85; confidence interval, 0.78-1.04). Similarly, maternal fructose (P=.09) and low-protein (P<.05) consumption increased expression of Pgc1a in offspring liver (7.24, 2.22 vs 1.22; confidence interval, 2.11-3.45). These data indicate that maternal fructose feeding is a programming model that shares some features of maternal protein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts.

  4. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (P<.05) at weaning (50.3, 29.6 vs 59.1±0.8 g) and at 18 weeks of age (420, 369 vs 464±10.9 g). At 18 weeks of age, offspring from fructose dams expressed greater quantities (P<.05) of intestinal Pgc1a messenger RNA compared with offspring from control or low-protein dams (1.31 vs 0.89, 0.85; confidence interval, 0.78-1.04). Similarly, maternal fructose (P=.09) and low-protein (P<.05) consumption increased expression of Pgc1a in offspring liver (7.24, 2.22 vs 1.22; confidence interval, 2.11-3.45). These data indicate that maternal fructose feeding is a programming model that shares some features of maternal protein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts. PMID:27632913

  5. Modelling the impact of dam removal on geomorphic channel response and sediment delivery: an Austrian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Coulthard, Tom; Keesstra, Saskia; Keiler, Margreth

    2015-04-01

    Dams are often considered to have the most significant impact on rivers as dam construction generally reduces downstream sediment fluxes which further involves geomorphic changes in the affected river reaches. Since many dams no longer fulfill their intended purpose (e.g. due to siltation), are dangerous (e.g. catastrophic dam failures) and/or are ecologically damaging (e.g. habitat destruction), within the last two decades several dams have been removed and many more are already proposed for removal. Unfortunately, there is still only little empirical knowledge about the geomorphic consequences of dam removals and the related sediment release which represents a big challenge for river management. Modelling is one way to approach this problem. In the presented study we modelled the impacts of dam removal on geomorphic channel processes, channel morphology and sediment delivery further considering the role of channel engineering measures and reservoir excavation within a river reach impacted by a series of dams using the landscape evolution model CAESAR-Lisflood. The model was run with data from a small catchment located in Lower Austria. Modelled geomorphic channel changes and sediment fluxes were spatio-temporally analyzed, related to real-world data and are discussed in the context of river management issues.

  6. Parental obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among their offspring in mid-life: findings from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R; Pinto Pereira, S M; Power, C; Hyppönen, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated whether parental adiposity is associated with offspring cardiovascular health or the underlying pathways. Studying these associations may help to illuminate the paradox of increasing prevalence of obesity and declining trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, which may be partially explained by beneficial adaptations to an obesogenic environment among people exposed to such environments from younger ages. Objective: To investigate associations between parental body mass index (BMI) and risk factors for CVD among their offspring in mid-life and to test whether associations of offspring BMI with CVD risk factors were modified by parental BMI. Methods: Data from parents and offspring in the 1958 British birth cohort were used (N=9328). Parental BMI was assessed when offspring were aged 11 years; offspring BMI, waist circumference and CVD risk factors (lipid levels, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and inflammatory and haemostatic markers) were measured at 44–45 years. Results: Higher parental BMI was associated with less favourable levels of offspring risk factors for CVD. Most associations were maintained after adjustment for offspring lifestyle and socioeconomic factors but were largely abolished or reversed after adjustment for offspring adiposity. For some CVD risk factors, there was evidence of effect modification; the association between higher BMI and an adverse lipid profile among offspring was weaker if maternal BMI had been higher. Conversely, offspring BMI was more strongly associated with HbA1c if parental BMI had been higher. Conclusions: Intergenerational influences may be important in conferring the effect of high BMI on CVD risk among offspring. PMID:23567929

  7. Mental health resilience in the adolescent offspring of parents with depression: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Sellers, Ruth; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nicholas; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon T; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Young people whose parents have depression have a greatly increased risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, but poor outcomes are not inevitable. Identification of the contributors to mental health resilience in young people at high familial risk is an internationally recognised priority. Our objectives were to identify protective factors that predict sustained good mental health in adolescents with a parent with depression and to test whether these contribute beyond what is explained by parent illness severity. Methods The Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression study (EPAD) is a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Parents with recurrent major depressive disorder, co-parents, and offspring (aged 9–17 years at baseline) were assessed three times over 4 years in a community setting. Offspring outcomes were operationalised as absence of mental health disorder, subthreshold symptoms, or suicidality on all three study occasions (sustained good mental health); and better than expected mental health (mood and behavioural symptoms at follow-up lower than predicted given severity of parental depression). Family, social, cognitive, and health behaviour predictor variables were assessed using interview and questionnaire measures. Findings Between February and June, 2007, we screened 337 families at baseline, of which 331 were eligible. Of these, 262 completed the three assessments and were included in the data for sustained mental health. Adolescent mental health problems were common, but 53 (20%) of the 262 adolescents showed sustained good mental health. Index parent positive expressed emotion (odds ratio 1·91 [95% CI 1·31–2·79]; p=0·001), co-parent support (1·90 [1·38–2·62]; p<0·0001), good-quality social relationships (2·07 [1·35–3·18]; p=0·001), self-efficacy (1·49 [1·05–2·11]; p=0·03), and frequent exercise (2·96 [1·26–6·92]; p=0·01) were associated with sustained good

  8. Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and overweight and obesity in offspring: a study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Lao, T T; Chen, Z; Du, M Y; Liang, K; Huang, Y K; Zhang, L; Yang, M H; Sun, Y H; Li, H; Ding, Z B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breast feeding on childhood overweight and obesity in a mainland Chinese population. The incidence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity were compared between children of mothers with (n=1068) and without (n=1756) GDM. The independent roles of the associated factors were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of overweight was higher (16.6 v. 12.6%, P=0.002) in the GDM group, but that of obesity was not different (10.7 v. 12.0%, P=0.315). At age 1-2 and 2-5 years, no difference in overweight (11.0 v. 12.0%, P=0.917, and 15.7 v. 14.6%, P=0.693, respectively) was found, while obesity (8.0 v. 13.6%, P=0.019, and 8.4 v. 13.4%, P=0.014, respectively) was less frequent in the GDM offspring. At age 5-10 years, increased overweight (22.2 v. 12.1%, P<0.001) and obesity (15.9 v. 9.0%, P=0.001) were found in the GDM group, which was associated with maternal obesity, being born large-for-gestational age, male gender and formula feeding. After adjusting for confounding factors, GDM remained an independent determinant of offspring overweight and obesity (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.61-3.22), suggesting that the effects of GDM were independent of breast feeding, as well as of maternal obesity and birth size.

  9. Abnormal aortic fatty acid composition and small artery function in offspring of rats fed a high fat diet in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P; Bitsanis, D; Ghebremeskel, K; Crawford, M A; Poston, L

    2001-01-01

    Disturbances of the in utero environment are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In this study we have determined whether abnormal vascular function in the adult offspring of rats fed a high saturated fat diet in pregnancy is associated with altered plasma lipids or vascular fatty acid content. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a breeding diet (4 % fat) or a diet high in saturated fat (20 % fat) for 10 days prior to and throughout pregnancy, and during weaning. Female offspring were then fed a maintenance diet (3 % fat) until 160 days of age. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was blunted in isolated branches of the femoral artery from 160-day-old female offspring of dams fed the saturated fat diet when compared with female offspring of dams fed the breeding diet. These offspring exhibited elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The fatty acid composition of the aortas was abnormal, with a marked reduction in the content of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. This study demonstrates that a high fat diet in pregnant rats produces abnormal vascular function, plasma lipid disturbances and altered vascular fatty acid content in their female offspring during adulthood. PMID:11410637

  10. Offspring, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offspring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

  11. Offspring, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Marilynn, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    These two 1996 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers and pertinent to the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to parents, teachers, and others and aim to provide a forum for views…

  12. Gestational Atrazine Exposure: Effects on Male Reproductive Development and Metabolite Distribution in the Dam, Fetus, and Neonate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of atrazine (ATR)following in utero exposure. We evaluated the effects of gestational exposure of Sprague Dawley dams to ATR (0, 1, 5.20, or 100 mg/Kg-d) on the reproductive development of male offspring. We also quantified the...

  13. Maternal obesity characterized by gestational diabetes increases the susceptibility of rat offspring to hepatic steatosis via a disrupted liver metabolome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Troy J; Fonseca, Mario A; Campbell, Kristyn E; Moyce, Brittany L; Cole, Laura K; Hatch, Grant M; Doucette, Christine A; Klein, Julianne; Aliani, Michel; Dolinsky, Vernon W

    2015-07-15

    Maternal obesity is associated with a high risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is a common complication of pregnancy. The influence of maternal obesity and GDM on the metabolic health of the offspring is poorly understood. We hypothesize that GDM associated with maternal obesity will cause obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in the offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (45%) and sucrose (HFS) diet to cause maternal obesity and GDM. Lean control pregnant rats received low-fat (LF; 10%) diets. To investigate the interaction between the prenatal environment and postnatal diets, rat offspring were assigned to LF or HFS diets for 12 weeks, and insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated. Pregnant GDM dams exhibited excessive gestational weight gain, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Offspring of GDM dams gained more weight than the offspring of lean dams due to excess adiposity. The offspring of GDM dams also developed hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. The postnatal consumption of a LF diet did not protect offspring of GDM dams against these metabolic disorders. Analysis of the hepatic metabolome revealed increased diacylglycerol and reduced phosphatidylethanolamine in the offspring of GDM dams compared to offspring of lean dams. Consistent with altered lipid metabolism, the expression of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase, and peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-α mRNA was reduced in the livers of GDM offspring. GDM exposure programs gene expression and hepatic metabolite levels and drives the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in young adult rat offspring.

  14. Mothers' Own Recollections Of Being Parented And Risk Of Offspring Depression 18 Years Later: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahedy, Liam; Heron, Jon; Stapinski, Lexine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Evans, Jonathan; Joinson, Carol; Bowes, Lucy; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the relationship between maternal bonding and risk of offspring depression has been demonstrated, it is unclear whether this risk exists for subsequent generations. This study examines the association between maternal reports of her own mother's parenting and later risk of depression in offspring at age 18. Method This study is based on data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers enrolled in the study, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument to provide an assessment of how they were parented by their own mothers up to the age of 16. Offspring depression was assessed at age of 18 using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. The sample comprised 10,405 respondents who had completed the Parental Bonding Instrument during the antenatal period. Results were adjusted for grandmother's history of depression, maternal depression, and a range of socioeconomic variables. Results A one standard deviation increase in mothers’ perceived lack of care in their own childhood was associated with a 16% increase in the odds of offspring depression at age 18 (odds ratios = 1.16, 95% confidence intervals = [1.04, 1.30]). This effect remained following adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratios = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals = [1.02, 1.27]). There was no evidence for an association between overprotection and offspring depression. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that sensitive caregiving is important to future risk of depression across generations. Preventative interventions could be aimed at promoting positive parenting practices, which may help to reduce the risk of depression in subsequent generations. PMID:24105778

  15. Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone.

  16. Effects of number and gender of offspring on quality of life among older adults: evidence from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlations between number and gender of offspring and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults. Setting We used data from the 2006–2012 data sets of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants There were 10 242, 8680, 7907 and 7480 participants in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, respectively. Interventions Number and gender of offspring. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured participants’ QoL and HRQoL using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korea Labour Institute and which is similar to the EQ-VAS, a European measure. Results We estimated the HRQoL and QoL of individuals with offspring. Estimates for the HRQoL and QoL of parents with no offspring were −7.762 and −9.384, respectively (both p<0.0001) versus parents with two offspring. For parents with five or more offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −1.529 and 0.885, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.017, respectively) compared with parents with two offspring. For fathers with no offspring compared with fathers with two offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −6.143 and −7.492, respectively (both p<0.0001). Conclusions These results suggest that number of offspring is associated with both HRQoL and QoL. Those with no offspring showed the lowest HRQoL and QoL. Although having five or more children had positive associations with QoL, it had negative associations with HRQoL. Public health services for those with poor quality of life should provide effective support programmes and services based on these findings. PMID:26063566

  17. Spatial multicriteria decision analysis of flood risks in aging-dam management in China: a framework and case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (<0.20) was found for some residential and commercial buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites.

  18. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams).

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mohammad; Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam's location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands.

  19. Maternal exposure to diets containing high fructose and saturated fats, low B vitamins, or their combination programs growth, adiposity, and insulin sensitivity in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early exposure to unfavorable nutrition programs increases risk of adult-onset diseases. In this rat study, we investigate morphological, metabolic and endocrinal phenotypes of offspring born to dams consuming isocaloric diets containing 30% fructose, 9.9% coconut fat and 0.5% cholesterol (F+SFA), m...

  20. Contributions of maternal and paternal adiposity and smoking to adult offspring adiposity and cardiovascular risk: the Midspan Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, T S; Hart, C L; Haig, C; Logue, J; Upton, M N; Watt, G C M; Lean, M E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obesity has some genetic basis but requires interaction with environmental factors for phenotypic expression. We examined contributions of gender-specific parental adiposity and smoking to adiposity and related cardiovascular risk in adult offspring. Design Cross-sectional general population survey. Setting Scotland. Participants 1456 of the 1477 first generation families in the Midspan Family Study: 2912 parents (aged 45–64 years surveyed between 1972 and 1976) who had 1025 sons and 1283 daughters, aged 30–59 years surveyed in 1996. Main measures Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk (lipids, blood pressure and glucose) and cardiovascular disease as outcome measures, and parental BMI and smoking as determinants. All analyses adjusted for age, socioeconomic status and family clustering and offspring birth weight. Results Regression coefficients for BMI associations between father–son (0.30) and mother–daughter (0.33) were greater than father–daughter (0.23) or mother–son (0.22). Regression coefficient for the non-genetic, shared-environment or assortative-mating relationship between BMIs of fathers and mothers was 0.19. Heritability estimates for BMI were greatest among women with mothers who had BMI either <25 or ≥30 kg/m2. Compared with offspring without obese parents, offspring with two obese parents had adjusted OR of 10.25 (95% CI 6.56 to 13.93) for having WC ≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm women, 2.46 (95% CI 1.33 to 4.57) for metabolic syndrome and 3.03 (95% CI 1.55 to 5.91) for angina and/or myocardial infarct (p<0.001). Neither parental adiposity nor smoking history determined adjusted offspring individual cardiometabolic risk factors, diabetes or stroke. Maternal, but not paternal, smoking had significant effects on WC in sons (OR=1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.01) and daughters (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84) and metabolic syndrome OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.40) in sons. Conclusions There are

  1. Maternal pinealectomy increases depressive-like responses in Siberian hamster offspring.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Weil, Zachary M; Tuthill, Christiana R; Nelson, Randy J

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal pinealectomy and postnatal pinealectomy on affective responses. Siberian hamsters were born to either pinealectomized or sham-operated dams and then underwent pinealectomy or a sham operation. Maternal pinealectomy increased depressive-like responses of offspring in the forced swim test. Maternal pinealectomy increased rearing behaviour and postnatal pinealectomy increased locomotor behaviour in the open field test. These results suggest that prenatal melatonin organizes adult affective responses.

  2. The role of mega dams in reducing sediment fluxes: A case study of large Asian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harish; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Dai, Minhan

    2012-09-01

    SummaryIn order to sustain the ever growing population and to meet water and energy requirements of the rapidly growing economies, most of the large rivers draining through East, Southern and Southeast (ESSE) Asian region have been regulated all along their courses, over the past few decades. For instance, ESSE Asian countries (China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) host about 250 mega dams and several tens of thousands of large and small reservoirs. The present study provides a revised estimate on annual suspended sediment fluxes of the large rivers draining through ESSE region, including the latest data of the Indian peninsula rivers. In the last 50 years, the combined annual sediment flux of the large Chinese rivers has been reduced from 1800 million tons (Mt) to about 370 Mt. We estimate that at present the Indian peninsular rivers collectively transport about 83 Mt of sediment annually. The Ganga-Brahmaputra and the Indus, contribute 850 and 13 Mt of sediments, respectively to the oceans. Our revised estimates suggest that at present the large rivers of ESSE region, collectively delivering ∼2150 Mt of sediment annually to the oceans. We show that at decadal scale, decline in sediment fluxes of the large Asian rivers are proportional to the number of mega dams present in the respective catchments. We also demonstrate that storage of sediment-laden water of major flood events (major-event), led to huge sediment trapping behind mega dams. Thus, ongoing and planned dam constructions activities across ESSE Asia may further reduce the annual sediment fluxes.

  3. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Vargas, Pilar; Manzano, Manuel; Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo; López-Pedrosa, Jose María

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength.

  4. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength. PMID:27115490

  5. Sleep deprivation during late pregnancy produces hyperactivity and increased risk-taking behavior in offspring.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Aswathy, B S; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Gulia, Kamalesh K

    2015-01-30

    Sleep deprivation in women resulting from their modern lifestyle, especially during pregnancy, is a serious concern as it can affect the health of the newborn. Anxiety disorders and cognitive deficits in the offspring are also on the rise. However, experimental studies on the effects of sleep loss during pregnancy, on emotional development and cognitive function of the newborn, are scanty in literature. In the current study, female rats were sleep-deprived for 5h by gentle handling, during the 6 days of the third trimester (days 14-19 of pregnancy). The effects of this sleep deprivation on anxiety-related behaviors of pups during their peri-adolescence age were studied using elevated plus maze (EPM). In addition to body weights of dams and offspring, the maternal behavior was also monitored. The weanlings of sleep-deprived dams showed heightened risk-taking behavior as they made increased explorations into the open arms of EPM. They also showed higher mobility in comparison to the control group. Though the body weights of sleep-deprived dams were comparable to those of the control group, their newborns had lower birth weight. Nevertheless, these pups gained weight and reached the control group values during the initial post-natal week. But after weaning, their rate of growth was lower than that of the control group. This is the first report providing evidences for the role of sleep during late pregnancy in shaping the neuropsychological development in offspring.

  6. Study of the influence of temperature and water level of the reservoir about the displacement of a concrete dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oro, S. R.; Mafioleti, T. R.; Chaves Neto, A.; Garcia, S. R. P.; Neumann Júnior, C.

    2016-02-01

    Multivariate techniques are used in this study to analyze the monitoring data displacements of a concrete dam, measured by means of pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rod extensometers, taking into account the action of environmental conditions, bounded by the surface temperature of the concrete at ambient temperature and the tank water level. The canonical correlation analysis is used to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and dam foundations. The factor analysis is used to identify data sources of variability and order the sensors according to the action of factors. The dates of the measurements are grouped according to similarities in the present observations, by applying the cluster analysis. Then the discriminant analysis is used to assess the groups as to their homogeneity. The results demonstrate that the techniques used for distinguishing the dam responses and identify the effects of changes in environmental conditions on the displacements of the structures and dam foundations.

  7. Maternal Overweight Programs Insulin and Adiponectin Signaling in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kartik; Kang, Ping; Harrell, Amanda; Zhong, Ying; Marecki, John C.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight and fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45% fat). In this report, we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced programming at postnatal d 21 before challenge with the high-fat diet. We conducted global transcriptome profiling, gene/protein expression analyses, and characterization of downstream signaling of insulin and adiponectin pathways in conjunction with endocrine and biochemical characterization. Offspring born to OW dams displayed increased serum insulin, leptin, and resistin levels (P < 0.05) at postnatal d 21 preceding changes in body composition. A lipogenic transcriptome signature in the liver, before development of obesity, was evident in OW-dam offspring. A coordinated locus of 20 sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1-regulated target genes was induced by maternal OW. Increased nuclear levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and recruitment to the fatty acid synthase promoter were confirmed via ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. Higher fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase protein and pAKT (Thr308) and phospho-insulin receptor-β were confirmed via immunoblotting. Maternal OW also attenuated AMP kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in the offspring liver, including transcriptional down-regulation of several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-regulated genes. Hepatic mRNA and circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 levels were significantly lower in OW-dam offspring. Furthermore, serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin (P < 0.05) were decreased in OW-dam offspring. Phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-kinase (Thr172) was significantly decreased in OW-dam offspring, along with lower AdipoR1 mRNA. Our results strongly suggest that gestational exposure to maternal

  8. Maternal Exercise During Pregnancy Reduces Risk of Mammary Tumorigenesis In Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Camarillo, Ignacio; Clah, Leon; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xuanzhu; Larrick, Brienna; Blaize, Nicole; Breslin, Emily; Patel, Neal; Johnson, Diamond; Teegarden, Dorothy; Donkin, Shawn S.; Gavin, Timothy P.; Newcomer, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Emerging research indicates that modifying lifestyle factors during pregnancy may convey long-term health benefits to offspring. This study was designed to determine whether maternal exercise during pregnancy leads to reduced mammary tumorigenesis in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to exercised and sedentary groups, with the exercised group having free access to a running wheel and the sedentary group housed with a locked wheel during pregnancy. Female pups from exercised or sedentary dams were weaned at 21 days of age and fed a high fat diet without access to a running wheel. At 6 weeks, all pups were injected with the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Mammary tumor development in all pups was monitored for 15 weeks. Pups from exercised dams had a substantially lower tumor incidence (42.9%) compared to pups from sedentary dams (100%). Neither tumor latency nor histological grade differed between the two groups. These data are the first to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy potentiates reduced tumorigenesis in offspring. This study provides an important foundation towards developing more effective modes of behavior modification for cancer prevention. PMID:24950432

  9. Maternal exercise during pregnancy reduces risk of mammary tumorigenesis in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Ignacio G; Clah, Leon; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xuanzhu; Larrick, Brienna; Blaize, Nicole; Breslin, Emily; Patel, Neal; Johnson, Diamond; Teegarden, Dorothy; Donkin, Shawn S; Gavin, Timothy P; Newcomer, Sean

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Emerging research indicates that modifying lifestyle factors during pregnancy may convey long-term health benefits to offspring. This study was designed to determine whether maternal exercise during pregnancy leads to reduced mammary tumorigenesis in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to exercised and sedentary groups, with the exercised group having free access to a running wheel and the sedentary group housed with a locked wheel during pregnancy. Female pups from exercised or sedentary dams were weaned at 21 days of age and fed a high fat diet without access to a running wheel. At 6 weeks, all pups were injected with the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Mammary tumor development in all pups was monitored for 15 weeks. Pups from exercised dams had a substantially lower tumor incidence (42.9%) compared with pups from sedentary dams (100%). Neither tumor latency nor histological grade differed between the two groups. These data are the first to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy potentiates reduced tumorigenesis in offspring. This study provides an important foundation towards developing more effective modes of behavior modification for cancer prevention. PMID:24950432

  10. Type 2 diabetes in grandparents and birth weight in offspring and grandchildren in the ALSPAC study

    PubMed Central

    McCarron, P; Davey, S; Hattersley, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between a history of type 2 diabetes and birth weight of offspring and grandchildren. Design: Prospective observational study. Diabetic status, as reported by mothers (F1 generation) was collected on grandparents (F0) of babies (F2) born to mothers (F1) who participated in a study of maternal and child health. Associations between risk of grandparental diabetes and birth weight in mothers (F1) and grandchildren (F2) were analysed using linear and logistic regression. Setting: Avon: comprising of the city of Bristol and surrounding areas. Participants: 12 076 singleton babies (F2), their parents (F1) and maternal and paternal grandparents (F0). Results: Women (F1) who had no parents with type 2 diabetes had lower birth weights than women with one or two diabetic parents, after controlling for the age of both parents. There was a U shaped association between maternal birth weight and grandmaternal diabetes, but no evidence of an association with grandpaternal diabetes. The grandchildren of maternal grandparents with type 2 diabetes were more likely to be in the top tertile of birth weight than grandchildren of non-diabetics. There was evidence for an inverted U shaped association between birth weight of grandchildren and diabetes in paternal grandmothers. Conclusions: This is the first study to show intergenerational associations between type 2 diabetes in one generation and birth weight in the subsequent two generations. While the study has limitations mainly because of missing data, the findings nevertheless provide some support for the role of developmental intrauterine effects and genetically determined insulin resistance in impaired insulin mediated growth in the fetus. PMID:15143122

  11. Experimental Study on Cracking, Reinforcement, and Overall Stability of the Xiaowan Super-High Arch Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Zhou, Weiyuan; Liu, Hongyuan

    2015-03-01

    The Xiaowan super-high arch dam has faced challenging construction problems. Here, we provide a scientifically-based reference for applying geomechanical model testing to support the nonlinear design of super-high arch dams. We applied experimental similarity theory and techniques. Based on four 3D geomechanical model tests, the dam stress characteristics, deformation distribution, and the safety factors of the dam foundation were identified and compared. We also analyzed cracking characteristics of the up- and downstream dam surfaces and induced joints in the dam heel, the rock mass failure process of the dam-foundation interface, and the abutments. We propose foundation reinforcement measures for weak rock masses, alteration zones, and other faults in the abutments based on the 3D and plane tests each at a different elevation. The results show that all dam deformations remained normal with no yielding or tensile cracking under a normal water load. The reinforced rock mass increased the crack initial safety in the dam heel and toe by ~20 %. The minimum crack initial safety factor ( K 1) of the dam heel was 1.4. The induced joint in the dam heel contributed to a reduction in tensile stress at the upstream dam heel, improving K 1. Compared with similar projects following reinforcement measures, the abutment stiffness and overall stability of the Xiaowan arch dam satisfy operational requirements. Four years of monitoring operations show that key areas near the dam remained normal and the dam foundation is functioning well. Our results may also be applicable to the design and construction of similar projects worldwide.

  12. Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation - Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams.

    PubMed

    Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  13. Effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fatty acid composition of milk and offspring red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Vithayathil, M A; Gugusheff, J R; Gibson, R A; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during the lactation period alone produces detrimental effects to offspring metabolic health comparable to exposure during the entire perinatal period. The present study used a rodent model to assess the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dams' milk, and to determine the degree to which this was related to the fatty acid status of offspring on postnatal day 1 (PND1), weaning and 3 weeks post-weaning onto a standard rodent diet. As expected, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) content of both the milk and pup red blood cells (RBCs) was lower in the cafeteria (CAF) group on PND1. At 2 weeks post-partum, milk produced by CAF dams had a higher total fat, saturated fat and n-6 PUFA content, however these differences were modest in comparison with the differences in maternal intake between groups. Offspring suckled by CAF dams had a lower n-3 LCPUFA and n-6 PUFA status at weaning and higher trans fatty acid levels at both weaning and 6 weeks of age. These findings indicate that the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dam's milk is altered by exposure to a cafeteria diet. While it appears that the dam has a significant capacity to buffer the transfer of most dietary lipids into the milk, the trans fatty acids in particular appear to be readily transferred, resulting in persistent increases in trans fatty acid status of the offspring after weaning. The potential physiological implications of this warrants further examination. PMID:27269714

  14. Effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fatty acid composition of milk and offspring red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Vithayathil, M A; Gugusheff, J R; Gibson, R A; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during the lactation period alone produces detrimental effects to offspring metabolic health comparable to exposure during the entire perinatal period. The present study used a rodent model to assess the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dams' milk, and to determine the degree to which this was related to the fatty acid status of offspring on postnatal day 1 (PND1), weaning and 3 weeks post-weaning onto a standard rodent diet. As expected, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) content of both the milk and pup red blood cells (RBCs) was lower in the cafeteria (CAF) group on PND1. At 2 weeks post-partum, milk produced by CAF dams had a higher total fat, saturated fat and n-6 PUFA content, however these differences were modest in comparison with the differences in maternal intake between groups. Offspring suckled by CAF dams had a lower n-3 LCPUFA and n-6 PUFA status at weaning and higher trans fatty acid levels at both weaning and 6 weeks of age. These findings indicate that the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dam's milk is altered by exposure to a cafeteria diet. While it appears that the dam has a significant capacity to buffer the transfer of most dietary lipids into the milk, the trans fatty acids in particular appear to be readily transferred, resulting in persistent increases in trans fatty acid status of the offspring after weaning. The potential physiological implications of this warrants further examination.

  15. A Children of Twins Study of Parental Divorce and Offspring Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although parental divorce is associated with increased substance use and internalizing problems, experiencing the separation of one's parents may not cause these outcomes. The relations may be due to genetic or environmental selection factors, characteristics that lead to both marital separation and offspring functioning. Method: We…

  16. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams)

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam’s location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands. PMID:27248152

  17. Pre-eclampsia and offspring cardiovascular health: mechanistic insights from experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Esther F; Newton, Laura; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lazdam, Merzaka; Kelly, Brenda A; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Leeson, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia is increasingly recognized as more than an isolated disease of pregnancy. Women who have had a pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia have a 4-fold increased risk of later cardiovascular disease. Intriguingly, the offspring of affected pregnancies also have an increased risk of higher blood pressure and almost double the risk of stroke in later life. Experimental approaches to identify the key features of pre-eclampsia responsible for this programming of offspring cardiovascular health, or the key biological pathways modified in the offspring, have the potential to highlight novel targets for early primary prevention strategies. As pre-eclampsia occurs in 2-5% of all pregnancies, the findings are relevant to the current healthcare of up to 3 million people in the U.K. and 15 million people in the U.S.A. In the present paper, we review the current literature that concerns potential mechanisms for adverse cardiovascular programming in offspring exposed to pre-eclampsia, considering two major areas of investigation: first, experimental models that mimic features of the in utero environment characteristic of pre-eclampsia, and secondly, how, in humans, offspring cardiovascular phenotype is altered after exposure to pre-eclampsia. We compare and contrast the findings from these two bodies of work to develop insights into the likely key pathways of relevance. The present review and analysis highlights the pivotal role of long-term changes in vascular function and identifies areas of growing interest, specifically, response to hypoxia, immune modification, epigenetics and the anti-angiogenic in utero milieu.

  18. Differential effects of habitual chow-based and semi-purified diets on lipid metabolism in lactating rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Del Bas, Josep Maria; Caimari, Antoni; Ceresi, Enzo; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Palou, Andreu; Arola, Lluís; Crescenti, Anna

    2015-03-14

    Diet during pregnancy and lactation is a critical factor in relation to the health of dams and their offspring. Currently, control diets used in metabolic imprinting studies differ in composition and type, i.e. semi-purified diets (SD) or chow-based diets (ND). The aim of the present study was to determine whether two widely used control diets, a SD and a ND, that mainly differ in fat content (5·08 and 3·26 %, respectively) and its sources (soyabean oil for the SD and cereals and fish for the ND), fibre (6 and 15 %, respectively), and cholesterol (26 and 69 mg/kg diet, respectively) can influence the lipid metabolism of dams and their offspring. Wistar rats were fed either the SD or the ND during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, SD-fed dams presented severe hepatic steatosis and increased levels of circulating TAG, NEFA and insulin. Importantly, the offspring presented an altered plasma lipid profile. In contrast, the ND allowed for a normal gestation and lactation process, and did not affect the metabolism of offspring. In parallel, virgin rats fed the SD showed no metabolic alterations. A higher intake of SFA and MUFA and a lower consumption of PUFA observed in SD-fed dams during the lactation period could contribute to explaining the observed effects. In conclusion, two different control diets produced very different outcomes in the lipid metabolism of lactating rats and their offspring. The present results highlight the importance of the assessment of the metabolic state of dams when interpreting the results of metabolic programming studies.

  19. Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that parental weight is a strong determinant of offspring weight status. The study used cross-sectional self-reported and measured data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adults (n = 2128) from Stage 3 (2008–10) of the North West Adelaide Health Study (1999–2003, baseline n = 4056) to investigate the association between midlife parental body shape and four indicators of obesity and fat distribution. The analysis used measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist height ratio (WHtR) of adult offspring, together with pictograms for recall of parental body shape. Compared to both parents being a healthy weight, offspring were more likely to be overweight or obese if both parents were an unhealthy weight at age 40 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.67–2.76) and further, those participants whose mother was an unhealthy weight were more likely to be overweight or obese themselves (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14–1.98). There were similar but lower results for those with an overweight/obese father (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.93). The effect of one or both parents being overweight or obese tended to be stronger for daughters than for sons across BMI, WC and WHtR. BMI showed the strongest association with parental body shape (OR 2.14), followed by WC (OR 1.78), WHtR (OR 1.71) and WHR (OR 1.45). WHtR (42–45%) and BMI (35–36%) provided the highest positive predictive values for overweight/obesity from parental body shape. Parental obesity increases the risk of obesity for adult offspring, both for overall body shape and central adiposity, particularly for daughters. Pictograms could potentially be used as a screening tool in primary care settings to promote healthy weight among young adults. PMID:26355742

  20. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  1. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats.

  2. Relations between circulating microRNAs and atrial fibrillation: data from the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    McManus, David D.; Lin, Honghuang; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Quercio, Michael; Yin, Xiaoyan; Larson, Martin G.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Levy, Daniel; Freedman, Jane E.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNA (miRNA) expression in atrial tissue has been implicated in pathologic susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF). Nevertheless, data are limited on how circulating levels relate to AF. Objective To test the hypothesis that circulating miRNAs would be associated with AF. Methods Among 2445 Framingham Heart Study Offspring participants, we measured the expression of 385 circulating whole blood miRNAs by high-throughput quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We related miRNA levels with prevalent and new-onset AF. Results The mean age in the cohort was 66.3 ± 8.9 years and 56% were women; 153 participants had clinically apparent AF at baseline and 107 developed AF during a median of 5.4 years of follow-up. miRNA-328 (miR-328) expression was lower among participants with prevalent AF [8.76 cycle threshold (Ct)] compared to individuals with no AF (7.75 Ct, p <0.001). The association between miR-328 and prevalent AF persisted after adjustment for age, sex, and technical covariates (OR=1.21, P = 1.8 × 10−4) but was attenuated in analyses adjusting for clinical AF risk factors (OR=1.14, P = 0.017). In contrast to the associations between miR-328 and prevalent AF, none of the circulating miRNAs were associated with incident AF. Conclusions Circulating levels of miR-328, a miRNA known to promote atrial electrical remodeling by reducing L-type Ca2+ channel density, were associated with prevalent AF. Adjustment for risk factors that promote atrial remodeling, including hypertension, attenuated the association between miR-328 and AF, potentially implicating miR-328 as a potential mediator of atrial remodeling and AF vulnerability. PMID:24444445

  3. 106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  4. Nutrition During Pregnancy Impacts Offspring's Epigenetic Status-Evidence from Human and Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Aisling A; Lindsay, Karen L; Alberdi, Goiuri; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring's epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins. Evidence suggests that maternal nutrition does not largely influence global methylation patterns, particularly in nutrient-replete populations; however, an important impact on gene-specific methylation is observed. A link is shown between maternal nutrition and the methylome of the offspring; however, there remains a paucity of research. With the potential to use DNA methylation patterns at birth to predict health of the child in later life, it is vital that further research be carried out. PMID:26917970

  5. Nutrition During Pregnancy Impacts Offspring's Epigenetic Status-Evidence from Human and Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Aisling A; Lindsay, Karen L; Alberdi, Goiuri; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring's epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins. Evidence suggests that maternal nutrition does not largely influence global methylation patterns, particularly in nutrient-replete populations; however, an important impact on gene-specific methylation is observed. A link is shown between maternal nutrition and the methylome of the offspring; however, there remains a paucity of research. With the potential to use DNA methylation patterns at birth to predict health of the child in later life, it is vital that further research be carried out.

  6. Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Education is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease incidence in developed countries. Blood pressure may be an explanatory biological mechanism. However few studies have investigated educational gradients in longitudinal blood pressure trajectories, particularly over substantial proportions of the life course. Study objectives were to determine whether low education was associated with increased blood pressure from multiple longitudinal assessments over 30 years. Furthermore, we aimed to separate antecedent effects of education, and other related factors, that might have caused baseline differences in blood pressure, from potential long-term effects of education on post-baseline blood pressure changes. Methods The study examined 3890 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age 36.7 years, 52.0% females at baseline) from 1971 through 2001 at up to 7 separate examinations using multivariable mixed linear models. Results Mixed linear models demonstrated that mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 30 years was higher for participants with ≤12 vs. ≥17 years education after adjusting for age (3.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.05 in females, 2.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.66 in males). Further adjustment for conventional covariates (antihypertensive medication, smoking, body mass index and alcohol) reduced differences in females and males (2.86, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.59, and 1.25, 95% CI: -0.16, 2.66 mmHg, respectively). Additional analyses adjusted for baseline SBP, to evaluate if there may be educational contributions to post-baseline SBP. In analyses adjusted for age and baseline SBP, females with ≤12 years education had 2.69 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.30) mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared with ≥17 years education. Further adjustment for aforementioned covariates slightly reduced effect strength (2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.14). Associations were weaker in males, where those with ≤12 years education had 1.20 (95% CI: -0.07, 2.46) mmHg higher SBP

  7. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-06-14

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971-1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0-46·8 %; P for trend < 0·001) and total sugars (18·2-16·6 %; P for trend < 0·001) decreased. There was a decrease in the percentage of energy from fructose (5·4-4·7 %; P for trend < 0·001) and sucrose (9·8-8·8 %; P for trend < 0·001). Dietary fibre intake increased (18·0-19·2 g/d; P for trend < 0·001). The number of weekly servings of yeast bread, soft drinks/soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend < 0·001), while the intake of ready-to-eat cereals, legumes, fruits, dairy products, candy and ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not

  8. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-06-14

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971-1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0-46·8 %; P for trend < 0·001) and total sugars (18·2-16·6 %; P for trend < 0·001) decreased. There was a decrease in the percentage of energy from fructose (5·4-4·7 %; P for trend < 0·001) and sucrose (9·8-8·8 %; P for trend < 0·001). Dietary fibre intake increased (18·0-19·2 g/d; P for trend < 0·001). The number of weekly servings of yeast bread, soft drinks/soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend < 0·001), while the intake of ready-to-eat cereals, legumes, fruits, dairy products, candy and ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not

  9. Familial Confounding of the Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Criminality: A Population-Based Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M.; Grann, Martin; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Context The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring disruptive behaviors has been well documented, but it is unclear whether exposure to SDP or the effects of factors correlated with SDP account for the increased risk. Objective To test whether the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions was consistent with a causal connection or due to familial background factors by controlling for measured covariates and using a quasi-experimental approach. Design We used a population-based study of children born in Sweden from 1983–1989 (N=609,372) to examine the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions, while controlling for measured traits of both parents. We also compared siblings differentially exposed to SDP (N=50,339) to account for unmeasured familial factors that could account for the association. Setting Population-based study of all children born in Sweden from 1983–1989 with information on maternal SDP and offspring criminal convictions, based on national registries collected by the Swedish government. Main Outcome Measures Violent and nonviolent convictions, based on the Swedish National Crime Register, a register with detailed information on all convictions in the country. Results Moderate (HR=2.47, CI=2.34–2.60) and high levels (HR=3.43, CI=3.25–3.63) of maternal SDP was associated with an increased risk for offspring violent convictions, even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. There was no association between SDP and violent convictions, however, when comparing differentially exposed siblings (HRmoderate=1.02, CI=0.79–1.30; HRhigh=1.03, CI=0.78–1.37). SDP also was associated with nonviolent convictions in the entire population (HRmoderate=1.62, CI=1.58–1.66; HRhigh=1.87, CI=1.82–1.92) and when controlling for covariates. But, there was no association when comparing siblings who were differentially exposed (HRmoderate=0.89, CI=0.78–1.01; HRhigh=0.89, CI=0.78–1

  10. Offspring's hydromineral adaptive responses to maternal undernutrition during lactation.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, P; Arguelles, J; Perillan, C

    2015-12-01

    Early development, throughout gestation and lactation, represents a period of extreme vulnerability during which susceptibility to later metabolic and cardiovascular injuries increases. Maternal diet is a major determinant of the foetal and newborn developmental environment; maternal undernutrition may result in adaptive responses leading to structural and molecular alterations in various organs and tissues, such as the brain and kidney. New nephron anlages appear in the renal cortex up to postnatal day 4 and the last anlages to be formed develop into functional nephrons by postnatal day 10 in rodents. We used a model of undernutrition in rat dams that were food-restricted during the first half of the lactation period in order to study the long-term effects of maternal diet on renal development, behaviour and neural hydromineral control mechanisms. The study showed that after 40% food restriction in maternal dietary intake, the dipsogenic responses for both water and salt intake were not altered; Fos expression in brain areas investigated involved in hydromineral homeostasis control was always higher in the offspring in response to isoproterenol. This was accompanied by normal plasma osmolality changes and typical renal histology. These results suggest that the mechanisms for the control of hydromineral balance were unaffected in the offspring of these 40% food-restricted mothers. Undernutrition of the pups may not be as drastic as suggested by dams' restriction. PMID:26234469

  11. Maternal obesity characterized by gestational diabetes increases the susceptibility of rat offspring to hepatic steatosis via a disrupted liver metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Troy J; Fonseca, Mario A; Campbell, Kristyn E; Moyce, Brittany L; Cole, Laura K; Hatch, Grant M; Doucette, Christine A; Klein, Julianne; Aliani, Michel; Dolinsky, Vernon W

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with a high risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is a common complication of pregnancy. The influence of maternal obesity and GDM on the metabolic health of the offspring is poorly understood. We hypothesize that GDM associated with maternal obesity will cause obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in the offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (45%) and sucrose (HFS) diet to cause maternal obesity and GDM. Lean control pregnant rats received low-fat (LF; 10%) diets. To investigate the interaction between the prenatal environment and postnatal diets, rat offspring were assigned to LF or HFS diets for 12 weeks, and insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated. Pregnant GDM dams exhibited excessive gestational weight gain, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Offspring of GDM dams gained more weight than the offspring of lean dams due to excess adiposity. The offspring of GDM dams also developed hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. The postnatal consumption of a LF diet did not protect offspring of GDM dams against these metabolic disorders. Analysis of the hepatic metabolome revealed increased diacylglycerol and reduced phosphatidylethanolamine in the offspring of GDM dams compared to offspring of lean dams. Consistent with altered lipid metabolism, the expression of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase, and peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-α mRNA was reduced in the livers of GDM offspring. GDM exposure programs gene expression and hepatic metabolite levels and drives the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in young adult rat offspring. Key points Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common complication of pregnancy, but its effects on the offspring are poorly understood. We developed a rat model of diet-induced gestational diabetes mellitus that recapitulates many of the clinical features of the disease, including excessive gestational

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Bereavement and Childbirths in the Offspring: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gómez, Guadalupe; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The decline in birth rates is a concern in public health. Fertility is partly determined before birth by the intrauterine environment and prenatal exposure to maternal stress could, through hormonal disturbance, play a role. There has been such evidence from animal studies but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring. Materials and Methods This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973 and follow-up started at the age of 12 years. Subjects were categorized as exposed if their mothers lost a close relative during pregnancy or the year before and unexposed otherwise. The main outcomes were age at first child and age-specific mean numbers of childbirths. Data was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazards models stratified by gender and adjusted for several covariates. Subanalyses were performed considering the type of relative deceased and timing of bereavement. Results A total of 4,121,596 subjects were followed-up until up to 41 years of age. Of these subjects, 93,635 (2.3%) were exposed and 981,989 (23.8%) had at least one child during follow-up time. Compared to unexposed, the hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval] of having at least one child for exposed males and females were 0.98 [0.96–1.01] and 1.01 [0.98–1.03], respectively. We found a slightly reduced probability of having children in females born to mothers who lost a parent with HR = 0.97 [0.94–0.99] and increased probability in females born to mothers who lost another child (HR = 1.09 [1.04–1.14]), the spouse (HR = 1.29 [1.12–1.48]) or a sibling (HR = 1.13 [1.01–1.27]). Conclusions Our results suggested no overall association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and having a child in early adulthood but a longer time of follow-up is necessary in order to reach a

  13. Ultraviolet light exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, K J; Klein, B E; Klein, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Exposure to sunlight may be a risk factor for the development of cataract. The relationships between exposure to sunlight and to the ultraviolet-B (UVB) component of light and the prevalence of lens opacities were examined in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. METHODS. Persons 43 to 84 years of age residing in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, were examined using standardized photographic assessments of lens opacities. A questionnaire about medical history and exposure to light was administered. RESULTS. After adjusting for other risk factors, men who had higher levels of average annual ambient UVB light were 1.36 times more likely to have more severe cortical opacities than men with lower levels. However, UVB exposure was not found to be associated with nuclear sclerosis or posterior subcapsular opacities in men. Moreover, no associations with UVB exposure were found for women, who were less likely to be exposed to UVB. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to UVB light may be associated with the severity of cortical opacities in men. However, the lack of an association in women, the group more likely to have cortical opacities, suggests that other factors may be more important in the pathogenesis of lens opacities. PMID:1456342

  14. A study of possible ground-motion amplification at the Coyote Lake Dam, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Graizer, V.M.; Tinsley, J.C.; Shakal, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    The abutment site at the Coyote Lake Dam recorded an unusually large peak acceleration of 1.29g during the 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake. Following this earthquake another strong-motion station was installed about 700 m downstream from the abutment station. We study all events (seven) recorded on these stations, using ratios of peak accelerations, spectral ratios, and particle motion polarization (using holograms) to investigate the relative ground motion at the two sites. We find that in all but one case the motion at the abutment site is larger than the downstream site over a broad frequency band. The polarizations are similar for the two sites for a given event, but can vary from one event to another. This suggests that the dam itself is not strongly influencing the records. Although we can be sure that the relative motion is usually larger at the abutment site, we cannot conclude that there is anomalous site amplification at the abutment site. The downstream site could have lower-than-usual near-surface amplifications. On the other hand, the geology near the abutment site is extremely complex and includes fault slivers, with rapid lateral changes in materials and presumably seismic velocities. For this reason alone, the abutment site should not be considered a normal free-field site.

  15. Perinatal exposure of female rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces central precocious puberty in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kakeyama, Masaki; Sone, Hideko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2008-05-01

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during the fetal and neonatal periods has been indicated to alter the development of the offspring later in life. In this study, we determined whether perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD affects the onset of puberty in the female offspring of Long-Evans hooded rats. On day 15 of gestation, pregnant female rats were administered TCDD by gavage at a single dose of 0 (vehicle), 200, or 800 ng/kg b.w. In the female offspring born to dams administered with TCDD at either 200 or 800 ng/kg b.w., the vaginal opening and first estrus occurred approximately 4-7 days earlier than in the offspring born to vehicle-treated animals. The ovarian weight gain was also accelerated following exposure to TCDD in a dose-dependent manner. We next examined the ovarian compensatory hypertrophy (OCH) as an indicator of the maturation of the LH/GnRH-generating system in the pituitary and the hypothalamus. Exposure to TCDD accelerated the onset of OCH in the female offspring in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, in the offspring born to the dams exposed to TCDD at 800 ng/kg b.w., hypertrophy, which is characterized by hyperovulation and a marked increase in the weight of the remaining ovary after hemi-ovariectomy, was observed on postnatal days 27-30, which was 10 days earlier than in the offspring born to the vehicle-treated dams. These results indicate that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD induces precocious puberty, including early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the gonads and genitals, in female Long-Evans hooded rats.

  16. Application of the contingent valuation method in a developing country: a case study of the Yusufeli dam in northeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alp, Emre; Yetiş, Ulkü

    2010-01-01

    Hydroelectric power plants and dams often play an important role in developing countries in terms of their contribution to economy. In accordance with the energy policies of Turkish Republic, Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Northeastern Turkey have been initiated. In this study, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was conducted in Yusufeli Village to determine the environmental costs of the Yusufeli Project. The purpose is to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) of Yusufeli Village residents for restoration of the environmental impacts of the dam project and also to investigate the underlying economic, psychological, and social motivations for WTP. WTP was calculated as US$761 per person which can further be used in the cost-benefit analysis. The results from the study suggest that application of the CVM in rural and urban areas located in the same region can show differences.

  17. Preliminary study of anxiety symptoms, family dysfunction, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Chang, Kiki D; Hallmayer, Joachim; Howe, Meghan E; Kim, Eunjoo; Hong, Seung Chul; Singh, Manpreet K

    2015-02-01

    Several genetic and environmental factors place youth offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) at high risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Recent studies suggest that anxiety symptoms, even at subclinical levels, have been associated with an increased risk for developing BD. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been implicated in the pathophysiology of both BD and anxiety disorders. We aimed to explore whether anxiety in BD offspring was associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. 64 BD offspring (mean age: 13.73 (S.D. 3.45) M = 30, F = 34) and 51 HC (mean age: 13.68 (S.D. 2.68) M = 23, F = 28) were compared on presence of the met allele and on scores from the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). To assess family function, we used the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-IV). The Baron & Kenny method was the statistical approach used to examine the moderating effects between variables. BD offspring showed higher levels of overall anxiety than did the HC group. BD offspring with the val/val genotype showed higher levels of anxiety than BD offspring with other genotypes. No significant levels of anxiety or its association with BDNF genotype were found in the HC group. BD offspring group showed significantly more family dysfunction when compared with the HC group and the family dysfunction moderated the association between the BDNF genotype and anxiety symptoms. This study demonstrated the potential interplay of three factors: BD offspring, anxiety symptoms and family dysfunction.

  18. Synthesis of Sensor Fish Data for Assessment of Fish Passage Conditions at Turbines, Spillways, and Bypass Facilities – Phase 1: The Dalles Dam Spillway Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Serkowski, John A.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the characterization of spillway passage conditions at The Dalles Dam in 2006 and the effort to complete a comprehensive database for data sets from The Dalles Dam spillway Sensor Fish and balloon-tagged live fish experiments. Through The Dalles Dam spillway case study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated the database as an efficient means for accessing and retrieving system-wide data for the U.S Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

  19. Prenatal and early postnatal stress exposure influences long bone length in adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Cao, Xiu Jing; Veru, Franz; Xu, Susan; Long, Hong; Yu, Chunbo; Laplante, David P.; Walker, Claire Dominique; King, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Stress during the prenatal and early postnatal periods (perinatal stress, PS) is known to impact offspring cognitive, behavioral, and physical development, but effects on skeletal growth are not clear. Our objective was to analyze effects of variable, mild, daily PS exposure on adult offspring long bone length. Twelve pregnant rat dams were randomly assigned to receive variable stress from gestational days 14-21 (Prenatal group), postpartum days 2-9 (Postnatal), both periods (Pre-Post), or no stress (Control). Differences in adult offspring tibia and femur length were analyzed among treatment groups. Mean tibia length differed among groups for males (p=0.016) and females (p=0.009), and differences for femur length approached significance for males (p=0.051). Long bone length was shorter among PS-exposed offspring, especially those exposed to postnatal stress (Postnatal and Pre-Post groups). Results persisted when controlling for nose-tail length. These differences might reflect early stunting that is maintained in adulthood, or delayed growth among PS-exposed offspring. This study suggests that PS results in shorter long bones in adulthood, independently of effects on overall body size. Stunting and growth retardation are major global health burdens. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that PS is a risk factor for poor linear growth. PMID:22826037

  20. Gestational weight gain and the risk of offspring obesity at 10 and 16 years: a prospective cohort study in low-income women

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, JC; Eckhardt, CL; Day, NL; Brooks, MM; Arslanian, SA; Bodnar, LM

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring obesity risk at ages chosen to approximate prepuberty (10 years) and postpuberty (16 years). Design Prospective pregnancy cohort. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Sample Low-income pregnant women (n = 514) receiving prenatal care at an obstetric residency clinic and their singleton offspring. Methods Gestational weight gain was classified based on maternal GWG-for-gestational-age Z-score charts and was modelled using flexible spline terms in modified multivariable Poisson regression models. Main outcome measures Obesity at 10 or 16 years, defined as body mass index (BMI) Z-scores ≥95th centile of the 2000 CDC references, based on measured height and weight. Results The prevalence of offspring obesity was 20% at 10 years and 22% at 16 years. In the overall sample, the risk of offspring obesity at 10 and 16 years increased when GWG exceeded a GWG Z-score of 0 SD (equivalent to 30 kg at 40 weeks); but for gains below a Z-score of 0 SD there was no relationship with child obesity risk. The association between GWG and offspring obesity varied by prepregnancy BMI. Among mothers with a pregravid BMI <25 kg/m2, the risk of offspring obesity increased when GWG Z-score exceeded 0 SD, yet among overweight women (BMI ≥25 kg/m2), there was no association between GWG Z-scores and offspring obesity risk. Conclusions Among lean women, higher GWG may have lasting effects on offspring obesity risk. PMID:26032698

  1. Blood genetic marker studies of a sheep-goat hybrid and its back-cross offspring.

    PubMed

    Tucker, E M; Denis, B; Kilgour, L

    1989-01-01

    Blood samples from a female sheep-goat hybrid and its back-cross male offspring were tested for electrophoretic variants of plasma albumin, transferrin and esterase, and of red cell carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside phosphorylase, NADH-diaphorase, 'X'-protein, superoxide dismutase, malic enzyme and haemoglobin. Red cells were also tested for blood group antigens. Both animals showed variants that could not be attributed to either sheep or goat alone, thus confirming previous chromosomal data that the female was a genuine sheep-goat hybrid. PMID:2757269

  2. Impacts of settlement, damming, and hydromanagement in two boreal lakes: A comparative paleolimnological study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serieyssol, C.A.; Edlund, M.B.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Namakan Lake, located in shared border waters in northeastern Minnesota and northwestern Ontario, was subjected to several anthropogenic impacts including logging, damming, water-level manipulations, and perhaps climate change. We used paleolimnology to determine how these stressors impacted Namakan Lake in comparison to a control lake (Lac La Croix) that was not subject to damming and hydromanagement. One core was retrieved from each lake for 210Pb dating and analysis of loss-on-ignition and diatom composition. 210Pb-derived chronologies from the cores indicated that sediment accumulation increased after logging and damming in Namakan Lake; Lac La Croix showed no significant change. Loss-on-ignition analysis also showed an increase in concentration and accumulation of inorganic material after damming in Namakan Lake; again, minimal changes were observed in Lac La Croix. Diatom communities in both lakes displayed community shifts at the peak of logging. Simultaneous, post-1970s diatom community changes may reflect regional climate warming. Taxonomic richness in Namakan Lake decreased sharply after damming and the peak of logging, and was followed by a slow recovery to taxonomic richness similar to that prior to damming. Ecological variability among post-damming diatom communities, however, was greater in Namakan Lake than in Lac La Croix. A diatom calibration set was used to reconstruct historical conductivity and total phosphorus (TP). Lac La Croix showed little historical change in conductivity and TP. In contrast, conductivity increased for several decades in Namakan Lake after damming, possibly in relation to several large fires and flooding. Total phosphorus also increased in Namakan Lake after damming, with a possible decrease in the last decade to pre-damming TP levels. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  3. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Pia; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Clemmensen, Lars; Munkholm, Anja; Rimvall, Martin Kristian; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; van Os, Jim; Petersen, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic experiences (PE) in individuals of the general population are hypothesized to mark the early expression of the pathology underlying psychosis. This notion of PE as an intermediate phenotype is based on the premise that PE share genetic liability with psychosis. We examined whether PE in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82-5.93). The risk increased for combined hallucinations and delusions (adjusted RR = 5.90, 95% CI: 2.64-13.16). A history of nonpsychotic mental disorders in first-degree relatives did not contribute to the risk of PE in offspring nor did any mental disorder among second-degree relatives. Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors.

  4. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life. PMID:27480608

  5. Proteomic Analysis of One-carbon Metabolism-related Marker in Liver of Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Ah; Lee, Ji Hye; Kwon, Eun Jin; Yoo, Jae Young; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Young Ju

    2015-11-01

    Maternal food intake has a significant effect on the fetal environment, and an inadequate maternal diet may result in intrauterine growth restriction. Intrauterine growth restriction newborn rat pups nursed by normal diet-fed dams exhibited rapid catch-up growth, which plays a critical role in the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease in later life. Specifically, one-carbon metabolism in the liver plays a critical role in placental and fetal growth. Impaired functioning of one-carbon metabolism is associated with increased homocysteine levels. In this study, we applied a comprehensive proteomic approach to identify differential expression of proteins related to one-carbon metabolism in the livers of rat offspring as an effect of maternal food restriction during gestation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002578. We determined that betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1, and ATP synthase subunit beta mitochondrial (ATP5B) expression levels were significantly reduced in the livers of rat offspring exposed to maternal food restriction during gestation compared with in the offspring of rats fed a normal diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression levels of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1, and ATP synthase subunit beta mitochondrial were negatively correlated with serum homocysteine concentration in male offspring exposed to maternal food restriction during gestation and normal diet during lactation. However, in female offspring only expression levels of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 were negatively correlated with homocysteine concentration. This study shows that maternal food restriction during late gestation and normal diet during lactation lead to increased homocysteine concentration through disturbance of one-carbon metabolism in the livers of male offspring. This suggests that male offspring have an increased gender

  6. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  7. Analysis of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after Historic Dam Removal - two French case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent

    2014-05-01

    IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary analysis of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, historical and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM

  8. Maternal Vitamin D Status at Week 30 of Gestation and Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Health at 20 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study over Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Grandström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant women and since the fetus relies exclusively on maternal supply, deficiency could potentially interfere with fetal development. Vitamin D blood concentrations during pregnancy have been associated with offspring cardio-metabolic health in a few previous studies but the evidence is still inconsistent and only one previous study has followed the offspring into adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal serum concentration of vitamin D (25(OH)D) in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at 20 years. Subjects/Methods A follow up study of a Danish birth cohort from 1988–89 (n = 965) was conducted. A blood sample was drawn from the women in week 30 of gestation. In 2008–2009, 95% of the original mother and child dyads could be identified in the central registration registry and were alive and living in Denmark. The offspring were followed up with self-reported anthropometrics (N = 629, 69%) and a clinical examination (N = 410, 45%). Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the association between maternal 25(OH)D and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors adjusting for potential confounders. Results No overall association was observed between maternal 25(OH)D in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, the analyses did suggest a possible inverse association with blood pressure in females. Conclusions No clear association between maternal 25(OH)D concentration in week 30 of gestation and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the 20 year old offspring was found. PMID:27764169

  9. Study on Optimal Grouting Timing for Controlling Uplift Deformation of a Super High Arch Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Li, Qingbin; Liu, Hongyuan; Yu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    A grouting model is developed for use during the grouting of the complex foundation of a super high arch dam. The purpose as to determine the optimal grouting timing and appropriate grouting pressure involved in controlling the uplift deformation of the dam. The model determines the optimal grouting time as the height of the arch dam increases with the concrete pouring, by checking the tensile stresses in the dam against standard specifications. The appropriate grouting pressures are given on the basis of the actual grouting pressures monitored during the upstream riverbed foundation grouting. An engineering procedure, applying the model, was then proposed and used during foundation grouting under the toe block of the Xiluodu super high-arch dam in south-western China. The quality of the foundation grouting was evaluated against the results from pressurized water permeability tests, acoustic wave velocity tests, elastic modulus tests and panoramic photographing of the rockmass on completion of the foundation grouting. The results indicated that the proposed grouting model can be applied to effectively reduce the uplift deformation and associated cracking risk for super high arch dams, and it can be concluded that the proposed engineering grouting procedure is a valuable tool for improving foundation grouting under the toe blocks of a super high arch dam.

  10. Water Management Models in Practice: A Case Study of the Aswan High Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ashry, M. T.; Alford, D. L.

    1984-04-01

    The stated purpose of this volume is the development and evaluation of operating policies for the Aswan High Dam and their relation to the development of water resources policy in Egypt. That objective is admirably fulfilled through discussions of water use in Egypt and the operation objectives of the High Dam, the behavior of the physical system and simulation of the reservoir, a realtime management model of the dam, management of water shortages and trade-offs between major uses, and coordinated operation of the dam with new upstream as well as downstream developments.The High Dam has been a source of controversy, particularly with regard to its environmental impacts. Its adverse effects include changes in the water table and attendant salt buildup in irrigated areas, excessive growth of aquatic plants below the dam, shoreline erosion, and increases in water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis (bilharzia). The dam was intended to offset rapid population growth by increasing food supplies through the transformation of irrigated land in southern Egypt from seasonal to perennial cultivation and by providing water for the reclamation of desert land. Unfortunately, such benefits have been outstripped by the rapidly growing population, and water shortages will be experienced by the end of the century.

  11. 78 FR 49735 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Dam Safety Study, Lake Lewisville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... flood risk management, ] water supply, recreation and non-Federal hydropower. Top of conservation pool... Safety Study, Lake Lewisville Dam, Elm Fork Trinity River, Denton County, Texas AGENCY: Department of the... conservation pool of Lewisville was raised from elevation 515 to 522 on November 30, 1988. At elevation...

  12. Maternal green tea extract supplementation to rats fed a high-fat diet ameliorates insulin resistance in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiying; Tse, Iris M Y; Li, Edmund T S

    2012-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition is associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders in the offspring. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal green tea (GT) supplementation can alleviate metabolic derangements in high-fat-diet-fed rats born of obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low-fat (LF, 7%), high-fat (HF, 30%) or HF diet containing 0.75% or 1.0% GT extract (GT1, GT2) prior to conception and throughout gestation and lactation. Both doses of GT significantly improved metabolic parameters of HF-fed lactating dams (P<.05). Birth weight and litter size of offspring from HF dams were similar, but GT supplementation led to lighter pups on day 21 (P<.05). The weaned male pups received HF, GT1 or GT2 diet (dam/pup diet groups: LF/HF, HF/HF, HF/GT1, HF/GT2, GT1/HF and GT2/HF). At week 13, they had similar weight but insulin resistance index (IRI), serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and liver triglyceride of rats born to GT dams were 57%, 23% and 26% lower, accompanied by improved gene/protein expressions related to lipid and glucose metabolism, compared with the HF/HF rats (P<.05). Although HF/GT1 and HF/GT2 rats had lower serum NEFA, their insulin and IRI were comparable to HF/HF rats. This study shows that metabolic derangements induced by an overnourished mother could be offset by supplementing GT to the maternal diet and that this approach is more effective than giving GT to offspring since weaning. Hence, adverse effects of developmental programming are reversible, at least in part, by supplementing bioactive food component(s) to the mother's diet.

  13. Lower levels of human milk adiponectin predict offspring weight for age: a study in a lean population of Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Justine; McKinley, Kassielle; Onugha, Jason; Duazo, Paulita; Chernoff, Meytal; Quinn, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have reported a significant, inverse association between adiponectin in human milk and offspring growth velocity. Less is known about this association in populations characterised by a loss of weight for age z-scores (WAZs) in early life. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk adiponectin in a sample of Filipino mothers. We then tested for an association between milk adiponectin and size for age in their infants. A total of 117 Filipino mothers nursing infants from 0 to 24 months were recruited from Cebu, Philippines. Anthropometrics, interviews and milk samples were collected and analysed using standard protocols. Mean milk adiponectin in this sample was 7.47 ± 5.75 ng mL(-1) . Mean infant WAZ and weight for length (WLZ) decreased with age. Maternal body composition was not associated with milk adiponectin content. Milk adiponectin had a significant, positive association with infant WAZ and WLZ. Prior reports have found an inverse association between milk adiponectin and infant WAZ. Here, we report that in lean populations with lower milk adiponectin, there is a positive association with infant WAZ, possibly reflecting pleiotropic biological functions of adiponectin for post-natal growth. This study increases the understanding of normal biological variation in milk adiponectin and the consequences of low levels of milk adiponectin for offspring growth.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the offspring following prenatal maternal bereavement: a nationwide follow-up study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2010-10-01

    Severe prenatal stress exposure has been found to increase the risk of neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia. We examined the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring following prenatal maternal bereavement, as a potential source of stress exposure. We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study including all 1,015,912 singletons born in Denmark from 1987 to 2001. A total of 29,094 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or up to 1 year before pregnancy. These children were included in the exposed cohort and other children were in the unexposed cohort. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for ADHD, defined as the first-time ADHD hospitalization or first-time ADHD medication after 3 years of age. Boys born to mothers who were bereaved by unexpected death of a child or a spouse, had a 72% increased risk of ADHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.73]. Boys born to mothers who lost a child or a spouse during 0-6 months before pregnancy and during pregnancy had a HR of 1.47 (95% CI 1.00-2.16) and 2.10 (95% CI 1.16-3.80), respectively. Our findings suggest that prenatal maternal exposure to severe stress may increase the risk of ADHD in the offspring.

  15. 107. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS - PLANS & SECTIONS (ML-8-52/3-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  16. Maternal dietary protein supplement confers long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of obesity resistance and glucose tolerance to the offspring in Brandt's voles.

    PubMed

    Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Maternal under- or over-nutrition not only alters neonatal body mass but also increases the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Little is known about how maternal dietary protein affects offspring fitness in wild rodents. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that maternal dietary protein supplement has a long-term beneficial effect on offspring fitness in Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii), a herbivorous rodent model. The vole dams were fed either a control (18% protein) or high-protein (36% protein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all offspring received a control diet till 14 weeks old. Energetic parameters, serum leptin concentration and glucose tolerance were measured. The adult offspring were fed high-fat diet for 8 weeks, and body weight and food intake were measured. No difference was observed in litter size, litter mass or pup mass before weaning. Maternal protein supplement increased body mass and the mass of reproductive organ but decreased digestibility and fat deposition and alleviated HFD-induced obesity especially in the males. Glucose tolerance was elevated in the offspring from maternal protein supplement, especially in the females. The accelerated growth may be associated with high serum leptin concentration at weaning, a state of leptin resistance, and the low digestibility may predispose obesity resistance especially in male offspring from maternal high-protein diet. These data demonstrate that maternal protein supplement confers the long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of accelerated growth and improved obesity resistance and glucose tolerance of their offspring.

  17. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure On Plasma Oxytocin Concentrations In Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rat dams and offspring were exposed to 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g hypergravity (hg) from Gestational day (G) 11 until Postnatal day (P) 10. To ascertain the role of maternal factors in reduced postnatal body weights of offspring developed in hg, the dams' lactational hormones were measured. Oxytocin (OT), the major hormone responsible for milk ejection, was reduced in hg dams whereas prolactin (Prl), involved in milk production, was unchanged. Video analyses of nursing behavior revealed that hg dams spent more time nursing relative to 1-g controls. We hypothesized impaired milk transfer from dam to pup, however pup body weight gains following a discrete suckling episode were comparable across conditions. Changes in lactational hormones and nursing behavior by dams exposed to hg do not account for reduced body masses of their offspring.

  18. Hydropower and the environment: A case study at Glen Canyon Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The management of hydroelectric resources in the Colorado River requires a balancing of hydrologic, social, natural and cultural resources. The resulting management often has to deal with inherently conflicting objectives, short and long-term goals, time frames and operational flexibility. Glen Canyon Dam, AZ, on the Colorado River, controls the release of water into the Grand Canyon. The dam has been under intense public scrutiny since it was completed in 1963. An Environmental Impact Statement evaluating the future operations and options for Glen Canyon Dam was initiated by the Department of the Interior in 1989 and completed in 1995. An Adaptive Management approach to future operational management has been developed as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement process. Future operations at Glen Canyon Dam will take into consideration the need to balance water movement and hydroelectricity development with natural, recreation, Native American and cultural needs. Future management of rivers requires acknowledgement of the dynamic nature of ecosystems and the need to link scientific information into the decision-making process. Lessons learned and programs developed at Glen Canyon Dam may be applied to other river systems.

  19. Erosion risk analysis by GIS in environmental impact assessments: a case study--Seyhan Köprü Dam construction.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Kurum, E

    2002-11-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a systematically constructed procedure whereby environmental impacts caused by proposed projects are examined. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are crucially efficient tools for impact assessment and their use is likely to dramatically increase in the near future. GIS have been applied to a wide range of different impact assessment projects and dams among them have been taken as the case work in this article. EIA Regulation in force in Turkey requires the analysis of steering natural processes that can be adversely affected by the proposed project, particularly in the section of the analysis of the areas with higher landscape value. At this point, the true potential value of GIS lies in its ability to analyze spatial data with accuracy. This study is an attempt to analyze by GIS the areas with higher landscape value in the impact assessment of dam constructions in the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal. A method needs to be defined before the overlapping step by GIS to analyze the areas with higher landscape value. In the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal of the present work, considering the geological conditions and the steep slopes of the area and the type of the project, the most important natural process is erosion. Therefore, the areas of higher erosion risk were considered as the Areas with Higher Landscape Value from the conservation demands points of view. PMID:12448403

  20. Maternal dietary intake of choline in mice regulates development of the cerebral cortex in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Surzenko, Natalia; Friday, Walter B; Zeisel, Steven H

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diets low in choline, an essential nutrient, increase the risk of neural tube defects and lead to low performance on cognitive tests in children. However, the consequences of maternal dietary choline deficiency for the development and structural organization of the cerebral cortex remain unknown. In this study, we fed mouse dams either control (CT) or low-choline (LC) diets and investigated the effects of choline on cortical development in the offspring. As a result of a low choline supply between embryonic day (E)11 and E17 of gestation, the number of 2 types of cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs)-radial glial cells and intermediate progenitor cells-was reduced in fetal brains (P< 0.01). Furthermore, the number of upper layer cortical neurons was decreased in the offspring of dams fed an LC diet at both E17 (P< 0.001) and 4 mo of age (P< 0.001). These effects of LC maternal diet were mediated by a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in NPCs related to the disruption of EGFR posttranscriptional regulation. Our findings describe a novel mechanism whereby low maternal dietary intake of choline alters brain development.-Wang, Y., Surzenko, N., Friday, W. B., Zeisel, S. H. Maternal dietary intake of choline in mice regulates development of the cerebral cortex in the offspring. PMID:26700730

  1. 1000 dams down and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff J.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Forty years ago, the demolition of large dams was mostly fiction, notably plotted in Edward Abbey's novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Its 1975 publication roughly coincided with the end of large-dam construction in the United States. Since then, dams have been taken down in increasing numbers as they have filled with sediment, become unsafe or inefficient, or otherwise outlived their usefulness (1) (see the figure, panel A). Last year's removals of the 64-m-high Glines Canyon Dam and the 32-m-high Elwha Dam in northwestern Washington State were among the largest yet, releasing over 10 million cubic meters of stored sediment. Published studies conducted in conjunction with about 100 U.S. dam removals and at least 26 removals outside the United States are now providing detailed insights into how rivers respond (2, 3).

  2. Maternal Copper Deficiency Perpetuates Altered Vascular Function in Sprague-Dawley Rat Offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the consequences of maternal Cu (Cu) deficiency on the vascular function of offspring or on perpetuation of vascular effects to a second generation. We examined vascular functional responses in mesenteric arteries from Cu-deficient Sprague-Dawley rat dams and from offspring dir...

  3. Impact of dam construction on river banks evolution and sediment dynamics. A case study from the Po River (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Pellegrini, C.; Crose, L.; Del Bianco, F.; Mercorella, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers draining densely populated landscapes are extremely impacted by modern human engineering: armored beds, artificial levees and dams modified natural fluvial dynamics, and consequently, the evolution of alluvial plains, deltas and coastal environments. Dams, in particular, segmented the longitudinal continuity of the river and reduced (or even interrupted) the export of sediment toward the sea. Here we investigate the impact of the Isola Serafini dam on the upstream portion of the Po River (Italy) influenced by backwater, by using an integrated approach of aerial and satellite images, longitudinal cross-sections, grain size analysis, backscatter data and multibeam bathymetry. The analysis of aerial photographs, acquired every 10 yr since the dam construction in 1960, and of longitudinal cross-sections, allows understanding how the river adjusts its profile in response to the backwater and quantifying areas of net river banks erosion and deposition in meanders. The drowning of the reaches influenced by backwater reduced the progradation of point bars and promoted the deposition of fine grained sediments, as highlighted by grain size analysis on surficial sediment sampled across and along the river course. Calibrated back-scatter data with grain-size distributions of two selected meanders, under the backwater effect and beyond, show how sands are progressively replaced by fine-grained sediments in the meander belt and in the river axis, mainly reflecting the reduction of flow velocity, inferred also by river bed roughness. The understanding of river and sediment dynamics under the influence of backwater due to dam construction is useful when studying pristine systems in which natural backwater affects their evolution, as in the case of the formation of standing water bodies during the drowning of an incised valley.

  4. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26844865

  5. Chronic prenatal stress epigenetically modifies spinal cord BDNF expression to induce sex specific visceral hypersensitivity in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Winston, John H.; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with abdomen pain as one of the primary symptoms. The etiology of IBS remains unknown. Epidemiological studies found that a subset of these patients have a history of adverse early-life events. We tested the hypothesis that chronic prenatal stress (CPS) epigenetically enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in spinal cord to aggravate colon sensitivity to colorectal distension (CRD) differentially in male and female offspring. Methods We used heterotypic intermittent chronic stress (HeICS) protocols in pregnant dams from E11 until delivery. Results CPS induced significant visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) to CRD in male and female offspring. A second exposure to HeICS in adult offspring exacerbated VHS greater in female offspring that persisted longer than in male offspring. CPS upregulated BDNF expression in the lumbar-sacral dorsal horn that correlated with the exacerbation of VHS in female, but not in male offspring. The upregulation of BDNF was due to a significant increase in RNA Pol II binding, histone H3 acetylation and significant decrease in histone deacetylase 1 association with the core promoter of BDNF in female offspring. Other chronic prenatal and neonatal stress protocols were less effective than HeICS. Conclusion & Inferences The development of visceral hypersensitivity, which contributes to the symptom of intermittent abdominal pain, is a two-step process, chronic in utero stress followed by chronic stress in adult-life. This two-step process induces aggravated and persistent colon hypersensitivity in female than in male offspring. Our preclinical model explains several clinical features in IBS patients. PMID:24588943

  6. Water storage under changing climates: A case study of small farm dams in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J.; Preston, N.; Jackson, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    In many regions of the world, climate change scenarios predict a trend towards drier conditions. In agricultural areas, less rainfall during planting and growing periods will exacerbate existing water supply issues, with communities striving to find alternative water storage options. In New Zealand, both government and agricultural interest groups are promoting the construction of storage ponds (both small-scale ponds for farm use and larger reservoirs for community use) to tackle this issue. This paper investigates the use of small farm dams as a means of providing secure water storage while also considering downstream environmental impacts. New Zealand has thousands of small stock water and irrigation dams that interrupt streamflow, primarily located on first-order streams. With climate change scenarios predicting a 3-4% decrease in annual precipitation in some regions, it is expected that dam numbers will increase in the future. However, little is known about the impact of these dams on the downstream environment in terms of water quantity, quality, sediment transfer, and stream morphology at either the local or regional scale. A combination of field-based methods and modelling is used to quantify the overall impact of farm dams on the downstream system in an agricultural catchment in the Hawke’s Bay region of New Zealand. Results show that farm dams reduce overall discharge and flood peaks, but sustain winter flows for a longer duration between rainfall events. The dams also create a lowering of water quality and a decrease in the transfer of sediment, with aggradation occurring in downstream channel reaches. Implications at the wider catchment scale are discussed, along with improved management practices which could allow for both water security and the protection of the environment. Results have implications for regions of the world which face drier conditions under changing climate regimes and need environmentally and socio-economically sustainable water

  7. Effectiveness of zinc in modulating perinatal effects of arsenic on the teratological effects in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Wadaa, Mohammad A M; Farooq, Muhammad; Daghestani, Maha H; Sami, Ahmed S

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is considered as a worldwide problem. Studies have shown that arsenic exposure during pregnancy affects embryogenesis and offspring development in rats and mice. Zinc as a micronutrient regulates many physiological functions, including an antioxidative role under various toxic conditions. However, studies on the perinatal protective effect of zinc on offspring need further attention. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc in mitigating the adverse effects in the offspring of arsenic exposure during pregnancy. The arsenic (40mg/kg body weight) and zinc (4% w/v) doses formed the only drinking fluid source for the experimental groups of dams during the perinatal period of the experiment. The early development of sensory motor coordination reflexes together with morphological development in the male pups was measured during the weaning period. In adolescence, the offspring were tested for their motor behavior. The enzyme γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) and the oxidative stress indices like reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were also estimated in the serum of the young adult male mice. Perinatal arsenic exposure caused depletion in body weight gain, delay in morphological development and retardation in the development of all sensory motor reflexes of the pups. In young adults, significant decrease in motor behavior with significant decrease in GSH level in the serum was observed. On the other hand, γ-GT and TBARS were significantly increased in the serum due to arsenic treatment. However, animals exposed to arsenic in the presence of zinc showed a remarkable ameliorating effect of zinc on all observed teratological and biochemical arsenic toxicity in male offspring. It was observed that zinc has an antioxidative role in the perinatal toxicity of arsenic. It is concluded from the present study that zinc consumed during the perinatal period of pregnancy can ameliorate

  8. Effectiveness of zinc in modulating perinatal effects of arsenic on the teratological effects in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Wadaa, Mohammad A M; Farooq, Muhammad; Daghestani, Maha H; Sami, Ahmed S

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is considered as a worldwide problem. Studies have shown that arsenic exposure during pregnancy affects embryogenesis and offspring development in rats and mice. Zinc as a micronutrient regulates many physiological functions, including an antioxidative role under various toxic conditions. However, studies on the perinatal protective effect of zinc on offspring need further attention. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc in mitigating the adverse effects in the offspring of arsenic exposure during pregnancy. The arsenic (40mg/kg body weight) and zinc (4% w/v) doses formed the only drinking fluid source for the experimental groups of dams during the perinatal period of the experiment. The early development of sensory motor coordination reflexes together with morphological development in the male pups was measured during the weaning period. In adolescence, the offspring were tested for their motor behavior. The enzyme γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) and the oxidative stress indices like reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were also estimated in the serum of the young adult male mice. Perinatal arsenic exposure caused depletion in body weight gain, delay in morphological development and retardation in the development of all sensory motor reflexes of the pups. In young adults, significant decrease in motor behavior with significant decrease in GSH level in the serum was observed. On the other hand, γ-GT and TBARS were significantly increased in the serum due to arsenic treatment. However, animals exposed to arsenic in the presence of zinc showed a remarkable ameliorating effect of zinc on all observed teratological and biochemical arsenic toxicity in male offspring. It was observed that zinc has an antioxidative role in the perinatal toxicity of arsenic. It is concluded from the present study that zinc consumed during the perinatal period of pregnancy can ameliorate

  9. Mothers' and fathers' birth characteristics and perinatal mortality in their offspring: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nordtveit, Tone I; Melve, Kari K; Skjaerven, Rolv

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the associations between parental birthweight and gestational age with their perinatal outcomes. We investigated perinatal mortality risk in offspring in relation to maternal and paternal gestational age and birthweight. We used population-based generational data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1967-2006. Singletons in both generations were included, forming 520,794 mother-offspring and 376,924 father-offspring units. Perinatal mortality in offspring was not significantly associated with paternal gestational age or birthweight, whereas it was inversely associated with maternal gestational age. A threefold increased risk in perinatal mortality was found among offspring of mothers born at 28-30 weeks of gestation relative to offspring of mothers born at term (37-43 weeks) (relative risk: 2.9, 95% CI 1.9, 4.6). There was also an overall association between maternal birthweight and offspring perinatal mortality. Relative risk for mothers whose birthweight was <2000 g was 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 1.9), relative to mothers whose birthweight was 3500-3999 g. However, confined to mothers born at >or=34 weeks of gestation, the birthweight association was not significant. Weight-specific perinatal mortality in offspring was dependent on the birthweight of the mother and the father, that is, offspring who were small relative to their mother's or father's birthweight had increased perinatal mortality. In conclusion, a mother's gestational age, and not her birthweight, was significantly associated with perinatal mortality in the offspring, while there was no such association for the father.

  10. Studying and understanding the environmental impacts of the Three Gorges Dam in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Althaus, Paul; Bi, Renneng; Bieger, Katrin; Buzzo, Giovanni; Dumperth, Christian; Fohrer, Nicola; Rohn, Joachim; Strehmel, Alexander; Udelhoven, Thomas; Wei, Xiang; Zimmermann, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    network and early-warning system including local and regional authorities. Thus, the studies will contribute to a better understanding of the dimensions and dynamics of the ecological consequences of such large dam projects at the Yangtze River and worldwide.

  11. Outcome of HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Their Offspring in Barbados: A Five-year Study

    PubMed Central

    St John, MA; Denny, F; Babb, D

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the outcome of HIV-infected pregnant women and their offspring during a five-year period. Methods: The medical records of HIV-infected pregnant women who delivered between January 2007 and December 2011 and their HIV-exposed infants were reviewed. Demographics, outcome of pregnancy and infants, and clinic attendance were analysed. Data were entered on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Results: One hundred and forty-three women, aged 17–45 years (mean 27.3 years), were included in the study with 143 pregnancies and 142 pregnancy outcomes being recorded. One woman migrated before delivery. There were 122 live births and 18 (13%) terminations: 13 (9%) elective and five (4%) spontaneous. There was one ectopic pregnancy and one stillbirth. One hundred and twenty-two (85%) women were unmarried. Women were prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy for prevention of motherto-child transmission from the time of booking, apart from those opting for terminations or those who had spontaneous abortions. For clinic follow-up, 105 (73%) had regular attendance, 30 (21%) defaulted and could not be located despite intense tracking, four attended irregularly, and one refused to attend clinic. Four (3%) migrated after delivery. Two (1%) mothers died during the period of study. Two successive DNA polymerase chain reaction tests done within four months of age did not substantiate any cases of infant infection. Conclusion: This study revealed that there was a good outcome and compliance with follow-up of HIVinfected pregnant women and their offspring. PMID:26035816

  12. Lock and Dam Number 8 hydropower study; Mississippi River near Lacrosse, Wisconsin. supplement. Technical report Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of constructing hydropower facilities at Lock and Dam no. 8, located on the Mississippi River, near La Crosse, Wisconsin. Several alternative powerhouse schemes were investigated. The 8.75 megawatt, 10-unit plant indicated in the 1981 reconnaissance is now considered economically infeasible. Two alternate developments using tubular generating units were selected for this new study. Because of relatively low overhead, the powerhouse costs are proportionally high and project feasibility falls below unity.

  13. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  14. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  15. Methods for noninvasive bathymetric and velocity surveys for impoundment safety--A case study of Herrington Lake at Dix Dam near Burgin, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruby, A. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created bathymetric-contour and water-velocity vector maps for portions of Lake Herrington within 600 feet of the face of Dix Dam near Burgin, Kentucky. The mapping was in support of a study of noninvasive acoustic technology for assessing structural integrity of dams, both as a routine inspection tool or as an emergency tool during hydrologic events, such as high water or flooding. In April 2010, scientists from the USGS used a boat-mounted transducer and echo sounder to obtain bathymetric data to characterize lakebed relief and sediment distribution under a closed-intake condition. Also in April 2010, an acoustic Doppler current profiler was employed to measure water velocity and flow direction in the lake to locate velocities moving toward the dam face and, possibly, dam leakage. The bathymetric survey showed the present condition of fill in the reservoir since the dam was completed, as well as provided an outline of the lake floor. The velocity survey indicated no discernible flow pattern or direction within the study area; only one transect had shown a difference from the others that was noticeable. The noninvasive acoustic bathymetric and velocity surveys used during the case study showed promise in locating potential dam or intake maintenance areas. Additional case studies throughout the Nation are needed to more clearly define whether the methods for noninvasive bathymetric and velocity surveys for dam safety will be successful in a variety of settings.

  16. Predicted vitamin D status during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures in childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Granström, Charlotta; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-12-14

    In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on characteristics, dietary factors and lifestyle factors were collected on several occasions during pregnancy. We analysed the association between predicted vitamin D status, based on a subsample with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) biomarker measurements (n 1497) from gestation week 25, and first-time forearm fractures among offspring between birth and end of follow-up. Diagnoses were extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between predicted vitamin D status (based on smoking, season, dietary and supplementary vitamin D intake, tanning bed use and outdoor physical activity) in pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. Likewise, measured 25(OH)D, tanning bed use and dietary vitamin D intake were not associated with offspring forearm fractures. In mid-pregnancy, 91 % of the women reported intake of vitamin D from dietary supplements. Offspring of women who took >10 µg/d in mid-pregnancy had a significantly increased risk for fractures compared with the reference level of zero intake (hazard ratios (HR) 1·31; 95% CI 1·06, 1·62), but this was solely among girls (HR 1·48; 95% CI 1·10, 2·00). Supplement use in the peri-conceptional period exhibited similar pattern, although not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data indicated no protective effect of maternal vitamin D status with respect to offspring forearm fractures.

  17. Programming Body Composition in Offspring by Maternal Obesity Is Associated with Increased Adipogenesis and Decreased WNT/ Beta-Catenin Signaling in the Adipose Tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy significantly influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. We recently demonstrated that maternal obesity at conception programs obesity in the offspring. Obese dam offspring when weaned on high-fat diets gain significantly greater body weight/adiposity (via NMR...

  18. Effects of maternal nutrition on conceptus growth and offspring performance: implications for beef cattle production.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Larson, D M; Vonnahme, K A

    2010-04-01

    Developmental programming is the concept that a maternal stimulus or insult at a critical period in fetal development has long-term effects on the offspring. Historically, considerable effort has been made to understand how nutrition influences health and productivity during the postnatal period. Whereas maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an essential role in proper fetal and placental development, less is known about how maternal nutrition affects the health and productivity of the offspring. Conceptus growth is sensitive to direct and indirect effects of maternal dietary intake. Even from the earliest stages of embryonic life, when nutrient requirements for conceptus growth are negligible, alterations in tissue composition can occur, influencing future growth of the compromised organ system. Not only is neonatal health compromised, but subsequent health may also be programmed because offspring from undernourished dams have exhibited poor growth and productivity and have developed significant diseases later in life. Although the literature is now evolving, with increasing evidence of how maternal nutrient restriction impairs several prenatal physiological variables, few studies have evaluated postnatal growth and development in livestock species, and fewer have evaluated it in beef cattle. In addition, very few studies have evaluated restriction of specific components of the diet during pregnancy (such as protein) on offspring growth and performance. This review focuses on how maternal nutrition affects conceptus growth and postnatal responses in beef cattle.

  19. Cocaine exposure prior to pregnancy alters the psychomotor response to cocaine and transcriptional regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Aya; Constantinof, Andrea; Pan, Pauline; Kupferschmidt, Dave A; McGowan, Patrick O; Erb, Suzanne

    2014-05-15

    There is evidence that maternal experience prior to pregnancy can play an important role in behavioral, physiological, and genetic programming of offspring. Likewise, exposure to cocaine in utero can result in marked changes in central nervous system function of offspring. In this study, we examined whether exposure of rat dams to cocaine prior to pregnancy subsequently alters indices of behavior, physiology, and gene expression in offspring. Multiple outcome measures were examined in adult male offspring: (1) behavioral expression of cocaine-induced psychomotor activation; (2) levels of corticosterone in response to immobilization stress; and (3) expression of multiple genes, including dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) and D2 (DRD2), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), in functionally relevant brain regions. Adult Sprague-Dawley females were exposed to cocaine (15-30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 10 days, and were then mated to drug naïve males of the same strain. Separate groups of adult male offspring were tested for their acute psychomotor response to cocaine (0, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), corticosterone responsivity to 20 min of immobilization stress, and expression of multiple genes using quantitative PCR. Offspring of dams exposed to cocaine prior to conception exhibited increased psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine, and upregulated gene expression of DRD1 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Neither stress-induced corticosterone levels nor gene expression of GR or CRF genes were altered. These data suggest that cocaine exposure before pregnancy can serve to enhance psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine in offspring, possibly via alterations in dopamine function that include upregulation of the DRD1. PMID:24583058

  20. Metabolic and Histopathological Effects of Fructose Intake During Pregestation, Gestation and Lactation in Rats and their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, Erkan; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Bolat, Ahmet; Topal, Turgut; Altan, Bilal; Fidancı, Kürşat; Saldır, Mehmet; Erdem, Galip; Gülgün, Mustafa; Gülcan Kurt, Yasemin; Güven, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between maternal fructose intake and metabolic outcome in their offspring. However, there is a paucity of data about the long-term effects of fructose intake on the offspring of fructose-fed dams. Therefore, we planned a study to evaluate the long-term effects of fructose intake on the offspring of dam rats fed a high-fructose diet. Methods: Sixteen virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 received a regular diet and Group 2 a high-fructose diet. Both groups received their experimental diets for 8 weeks before conception. They were mated and continued to feed with their experimental diet during mating and during their pregnancy and lactation periods. After weaning, the offspring from each group were divided into two groups. Group 1A received a regular diet, Group 1B - a fructose diet, Group 2A - a regular diet and Group 2B received a fructose diet. After weaning, the offspring were anesthetized and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver, kidney and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were harvested for histopathological examination. Primary antibodies against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined as early inflammation markers. Results: After weaning, while daily water consumption was found to be significantly higher in Groups 2B and 1B (p<0.01), daily laboratory chow consumption was significantly lower in Groups 1A and 2A (p<0.01). Body weight was significantly higher in Groups 1B and 2B (p<0.01). Serum glucose, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found to be increased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in Group 2B (p<0.05). The intensities of iNOS staining in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, COX-2 staining in the liver and both iNOS and COX-2 staining in the kidney were higher in Group 2B (p<0.05). Conclusion

  1. Maternal consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in rats produces behavioral changes in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Daly, H B; Stewart, P W; Lunkenheimer, L; Sargent, D

    1998-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of maternal, paternal, or combined parental consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in rats on the behavior of their offspring. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were put on a 30 day diet of either ground rat chow containing 30% Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE) or 30% Pacific Ocean salmon (OCEAN). These females were then mated with adult male rats similarly exposed (LAKE or OCEAN). An additional control group of males and females who were fed ground rat chow (MASH) only were also mated. These pairing combinations resulted in five offspring groups: LAKE-LAKE, LAKE-OCEAN, OCEAN-LAKE, OCEAN-OCEAN, MASH-MASH. When the offspring reached 80 days of age, they were tested for reactivity to frustrative nonreward using runway successive negative contrast, which has been repeatedly shown to be increased in adult rats fed Ontario salmon. Consistent with previous work, results showed that the behavior of the OCEAN-OCEAN rats did not differ from the MASH-MASH group, indicating that a salmon diet per se does not cause behavioral change. However, the offspring of dams who consumed Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE-LAKE and OCEAN-LAKE) showed an increased depression effect relative to controls. There was little evidence of a paternal effect. A follow-up experiment employed cross-fostering to determine the relative contribution of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to Lake Ontario salmon consumption on offspring behavior. Rat pups were cross-fostered to or from dams who consumed Lake Ontario salmon during gestation and parturition. Results from two separate replications indicated that prenatal (LAKE to OCEAN) exposure alone or postnatal (OCEAN to LAKE) exposure alone produced a large increase in successive negative contrast relative to controls (OCEAN to OCEAN). These data are strong evidence of behavioral changes produced by maternal consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in the offspring rat. Further, they indicate that either prenatal or postnatal exposure alone is

  2. Offspring of Prenatal IV Nicotine Exposure Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Steven B; Lacy, Ryan T; Morgan, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH) in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV) exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or prenatal saline (PS) 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1) or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2) procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion; fixed-ratio 3) and they were tested on varying doses of the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc) followed by 14 daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal's curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  3. Offspring of Prenatal IV Nicotine Exposure Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Steven B; Lacy, Ryan T; Morgan, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH) in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV) exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or prenatal saline (PS) 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1) or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2) procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion; fixed-ratio 3) and they were tested on varying doses of the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc) followed by 14 daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal's curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring. PMID:22719728

  4. Forebay Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling for The Dalles Dam to Support Behavior Guidance System Siting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2005-03-10

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to support the siting and design of a behavioral guidance system (BGS) structure in The Dalles Dam (TDA) forebay on the Columbia River. The work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (CENWP). The CFD results were an invaluable tool for the analysis, both from a Regional and Agency perspective (for the fish passage evaluation) and a CENWP perspective (supporting the BGS design and location). The new CFD model (TDA forebay model) included the latest bathymetry (surveyed in 1999) and a detailed representation of the engineered structures (spillway, powerhouse main, fish, and service units). The TDA forebay model was designed and developed in a way that future studies could easily modify or, to a large extent, reuse large portions of the existing mesh. This study resulted in these key findings: (1) The TDA forebay model matched well with field-measured velocity data. (2) The TDA forebay model matched observations made at the 1:80 general physical model of the TDA forebay. (3) During the course of this study, the methodology typically used by CENWP to contour topographic data was shown to be inaccurate when applied to widely-spaced transect data. Contouring methodologies need to be revisited--especially before such things as modifying the bathymetry in the 1:80 general physical model are undertaken. Future alignments can be evaluated with the model staying largely intact. The next round of analysis will need to address fish passage demands and navigation concerns. CFD models can be used to identify the most promising locations and to provide quantified metrics for biological, hydraulic, and navigation criteria. The most promising locations should then be further evaluated in the 1:80 general physical model.

  5. Inbreeding and Offspring Sex Ratio in the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Cheoropsis liberiensis) Population Kept in Zoological Gardens.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Cwiertnia, Piotr; Borowska, Alicja; Barczak, Elżbieta; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the inbreeding level and its impact on offspring sex ratio in the pygmy hippopotamus population kept in zoological gardens. Records of pygmy hippopotamus born between 1873-2013 were extracted from the international studbook. Totally, 1357 individuals originating from 148 breeding units were included (individuals with unknown sex were omitted). The offspring sex ratio is defined as the number of sons to the total number of progeny of each dam and sire. Spearman's rank correlation was employed to examine the relationships between the inbreeding level and offspring sex ratio. Inbreeding coefficients and individual increase in inbreeding coefficients (included as a linear co-variable) were examined as well as the geographic region and birth period using general linear models. The average inbreeding coefficient was 5.39%. The following sex proportion was observed for the inbred population: 57% and 43% for females and males, respectively. A significant relationship between inbreeding level of parents and their offspring sex ratio were estimated for European zoological gardens, whereas in others geographic regions the dependencies were insignificant.

  6. Inbreeding and Offspring Sex Ratio in the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Cheoropsis liberiensis) Population Kept in Zoological Gardens.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Cwiertnia, Piotr; Borowska, Alicja; Barczak, Elżbieta; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the inbreeding level and its impact on offspring sex ratio in the pygmy hippopotamus population kept in zoological gardens. Records of pygmy hippopotamus born between 1873-2013 were extracted from the international studbook. Totally, 1357 individuals originating from 148 breeding units were included (individuals with unknown sex were omitted). The offspring sex ratio is defined as the number of sons to the total number of progeny of each dam and sire. Spearman's rank correlation was employed to examine the relationships between the inbreeding level and offspring sex ratio. Inbreeding coefficients and individual increase in inbreeding coefficients (included as a linear co-variable) were examined as well as the geographic region and birth period using general linear models. The average inbreeding coefficient was 5.39%. The following sex proportion was observed for the inbred population: 57% and 43% for females and males, respectively. A significant relationship between inbreeding level of parents and their offspring sex ratio were estimated for European zoological gardens, whereas in others geographic regions the dependencies were insignificant. PMID:26103683

  7. Prenatal immune challenge affects growth, behavior, and brain dopamine in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Jan; Duncko, Roman; Makatsori, Aikaterini; Pirnik, Zdeno; Kiss, Alexander; Jezova, Daniela

    2004-06-01

    It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible consequences for offspring from chronic inflammation during pregnancy. Chronic inflammation was simulated by treatment with increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to dams on days 15 through 19 of pregnancy. Attempts were made to prevent possible negative alterations by keeping animals in an enriched environment (EE). Maternal exposure to LPS resulted in a significant reduction of body weight of male offspring during the weaning period. This difference remained until the age of 63 days in controls (C), but not in animals reared in EE. The content of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens was found to be lower in prenatally stressed (PS) adult males. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to maternal immune challenge was associated with lower locomotor activity in elevated plus maze and increased number of skips in the beam-walking test, as observed in female offspring. No differences in ACTH and corticosterone concentrations with regard to prenatal treatment were found; however, both groups kept in EE showed increased levels of corticosterone as well as enlarged adrenal glands. Thus, immune activation during pregnancy may induce long-term changes in brain catecholamines and behavior, but it is not harmful to basal hormone secretion in the offspring. PMID:15240379

  8. Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000 ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P450(17α) and 17β-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

  9. Juvenile Radio-Tag Study: Lower Granite Dam, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuehrenberg, Lowell C.

    1986-06-01

    The concept of using mass releases of juvenile radio tags represents a new and potentially powerful research tool that could be effectively applied to juvenile salmonid passage problems at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. A system of detector antennas, strategically located, would automatically detect and record individually tagged juvenile salmonids as they pass through the spillway, powerhouse, bypass system, or tailrace areas below the dam. Accurate measurements of spill effectiveness, fish guiding efficiency (FGE), collection efficiency (CE), spillway survival, powerhouse survival, and bypass survival would be possible without handling large numbers of unmarked fish. A prototype juvenile radio-tag system was developed and tested by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) at John Day Dam and at Lower Granite Dam. This report summarizes research to: (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the prototype juvenile radio-tag system in a field situation and (2) to test the basic assumptions inherent in using the juvenile radio tag as a research tool.

  10. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  11. Association between Maternal MTHFR Polymorphisms and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate in Offspring, A Meta-Analysis Based on 15 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xinjuan; Wang, Ping; Yin, Xinjuan; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Li, Di; Li, Xing; Wang, Yongchao; Li, Hongle; Yu, Zengli

    2015-01-01

    Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is thought to be involved in the development of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). However, conflicting results have been obtained when evaluating the association between maternal MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of NSCL/P. In light of this gap, a meta-analysis of all eligible case-control studies was conducted in the present study. Materials and Methods A total of 15 case-control studies were ultimately identified after a comprehensive literature search and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) examination. Cochrane’s Q test and index of heterogeneity (I2) indicated no obvious heterogeneity among studies. Results Fixed or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). The results showed that the TT genotype in mothers increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring 1.25 times (95% CI: 1.047-1.494) more than the CC homozygotes. Meanwhile, maternal TT genotype increased the risk of producing NSCL/P offspring in recessive model (OR=1.325, 95% CI: 1.124-1.562). However, the CT heterozygote and the CT+TT dominant models had no association with NSCL/P offspring compared with the CC wild-type homozygote model. Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity indicated that maternal TT genotype increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring in Whites (OR=1.308, 95% CI: 1.059-1.617) and Asians (OR=1.726, 95% CI: 1.090-2.733) in recessive model. Also, subgroup analyses based on source of control showed that mothers with the 677TT genotype had a significantly increased susceptibility of having NSCL/P children in hospital based population (HB) when compared with CC homozygotes (OR=1.248, 95% CI: 1.024-1.520) and un- der the recessive model (OR=1.324, 95% CI: 1.104-1.588). Furthermore, maternal A1298C polymorphism had no significant association with producing NSCL/P offspring (dominant model OR=0.952, 95% CI: 0.816-1.111, recessive model OR=0.766, 95% CI

  12. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Hanum Mansor, Faezah; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-06-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  13. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-12-20

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at P<0.05. Male offspring belonging to caffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during

  14. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at P<0.05. Male offspring belonging to caffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during

  15. Persistent organic pollutants measured in maternal serum and offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes--a prospective study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Marin; Hansen, Susanne; Olsen, Sjúrður Fróði; Haug, Line Småstuen; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi

    2014-07-01

    Fetal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to adverse neurodevelopment, but few studies have had follow-up beyond childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of maternal serum concentrations of two perfluoroalkyl acids (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) with offspring behavioural and affective disorders and scholastic achievement in a prebirth cohort study with 20 years of follow up. Between 1988 and 1989 pregnant women (n=965) were recruited for the prebirth Danish Fetal Origins 1988 (DaFO88) Cohort in Aarhus, Denmark. Perfluoroalkyl acids, PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and HCB were quantified in serum from week 30 of gestation (n=876 for perfluoroalkyl acids/872 for PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB). Offspring were followed up through national registries until 2011. We evaluated associations between maternal serum concentrations of these POPs and offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes, defined as: first admission diagnosis or prescription of medication until age >20 for (1) ADHD; (2) depression; and (3) scholastic achievement defined as mean grade on a standardized written examination given in the 9th grade (final exams of compulsory school in Denmark). Maternal concentrations of organochlorine substances and perfluoroalkyl acids were higher than present day levels. During the follow-up period there were 27 (3.1%) cases of ADHD and 104 (11.9%) cases of depression; the mean scholastic achievement was 6.7 (SD 2.3). Overall we found no association for maternal levels of any of the measured pollutants with offspring behavioural and affective disorders or with scholastic achievement. Our analyses based on biomarkers from a cohort of over 800 pregnant women with long-term close to complete follow-up through national registries showed little evidence of a programming effect of PFOA, PFOS, PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and

  16. Searching for an environmental effect of parental alcoholism on offspring alcohol use disorder: a genetically informed study of children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Slutske, Wendy S; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2008-08-01

    The children-of-twins design was used to isolate a potentially causal environmental impact of having an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder, by an examination of whether the children of alcoholics were at a higher risk for alcohol use disorders than were the children of nonalcoholic parents, even after correlated familial factors were controlled. Participants were 1,224 male and female twins from 836 twin pairs selected from the Australian Twin Registry, 2,334 of the twins' 18-39-year-old offspring, and 983 spouses of the twins. Lifetime histories of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) alcohol use disorders were obtained by structured, psychiatric, telephone interviews conducted individually with each of the family members. Comparisons of the offspring of twins who were discordant for alcoholism indicated that there was no longer a statistically significant difference between the children of alcoholics and the children of nonalcoholics after genetic and family environmental factors correlated with having an alcoholic parent were controlled. The results of this study suggest that the direct causal effect of being exposed to an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder is modest at best. PMID:18729607

  17. Maternal immunomodulation of the offspring's immunological system.

    PubMed

    Campos, Sylvia M N; de Oliveira, Vivian L; Lessa, Leonardo; Vita, Melissa; Conceição, Marcia; Andrade, Luiz Antonio Botelho; Teixeira, Gerlinde Agate Platais Brasil

    2014-11-01

    The mother's and the offspring's immunological system are closely related thus one can influence the other. This hypothesis drove our aim to study the impact of the mother's immunological status over the immunological response of their offspring. For this, female mice tolerant or allergic to peanuts were exposed or not to a challenge diet containing peanuts during the gestation-lactation period (TEP/AEP; TNEP/ANEP, respectively). After weaning the offspring was submitted to the peanut allergy or peanut tolerization protocol and then challenged with a peanut diet. Our results showed that when the offspring is submitted to the allergy induction protocol, they behave differently depending on their mother's immunological status. Offspring born to TEP mothers produced the lowest antibody titters while those born to AEP mothers produced the highest antibody titters compared to mice born to TNEP and ANEP. On the other hand when the offspring was submitted to the tolerization protocol all groups presented low antibody titers with no significant difference between groups, independent of the mothers immunological status and/or contact with peanuts during the gestation-lactation period. The analysis of the histological profile of the offspring correlates well to the serological response. In other words, offspring born to TEP mothers and submitted to the allergy induction protocol presented a normal histological profile, while the offspring born to AEP mothers produced the worst gut inflammation. These results indicate that mothers, exposed to the antigen (by the oral route) during gestation, actively influence the immune response of their offspring. This work sheds some light on the importance of the immunomodulation induced by dietary antigens during gestation and their influence on the immunological response of their offspring. However, more work is needed to elucidate the molecular and cellular components of this regulatory phenomenon.

  18. Interim results from a study of the behavior of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March--August 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of yearling juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder tags were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon. A total of 411 hatchery fish and 26 wild fish were tagged and released between March 7 and May 21, 2011. A series of 16 autonomous hydrophones placed throughout the reservoir were used to determine general fish movements over the life of the acoustic transmitter, which was expected to be 91 days. Movements within the reservoir were directional, and it was common for fish to migrate repeatedly from the head of the reservoir downstream to the dam outlet and back. The dam passage rate was 11.2 percent (95-percent confidence interval 7.8–14.6 percent) for hatchery fish and 15.4 percent (95-percent confidence interval -1.0–31.8 percent) for wild fish within 91 days from release. Most fish passage occurred at night. The median time from release to dam passage was 34.5 days for hatchery fish and 34.2 days for wild fish. A system of hydrophones near the dam outlet, a temperature control tower, was used to estimate positions of fish in three dimensions to enable detailed analyses of fish behavior near the tower. Analyses of these data indicate that hourly averaged depths of fish within a distance of 74 m from the upstream face of the tower ranged from 0.6 to 9.6 meters, with a median depth of 3.6 meters for hatchery fish and 3.4 meters for wild fish. Dam discharge rates and the diurnal period affected the rates of dam passage. Rates of dam passage were similar when the dam discharge rate was less than 1,200 cubic feet per second, but increased sharply at higher discharges. The rate of dam passage at night was 4.4–7.8 times greater than during the day, depending on the distance of fish from the dam. This report is an interim summary of data collected as of August 3, 2011, for planning purposes.

  19. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  20. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  1. Economic Efficiency and Equity in Dams Removal: Case studies in Northeastern Massachusetts Doina Oglavie, Ellen Douglas, David Terkla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglavie, D. R.; Douglas, E. M.; Terkla, D.

    2009-12-01

    According to American Rivers (www.americanrivers.org), Massachusetts has almost 3,000 dams under state regulation, 296 of which have been classified as high hazard, meaning they pose a serious threat to human life if they should fail. Most of these dams, however, are low head, “run-of-the-river” dams that no longer serve the purpose for which they were built. The presence of these dams has fragmented aquatic and riparian ecosystems, impeded fish passage and generally impacted the natural ecological and hydrological functioning of the streams in which they reside. Dam removal should be considered when a dam no longer serves its function. Although in many cases, the removal of a dam is environmentally beneficial (at least over the long term), sometimes the removal of a dam can incur environmental costs, such as release of contaminants that were sequestered behind the dam. Dam removal is a complex issue especially with respect to privately owned dams. In many cases, dam removal is less costly than dam maintenance or upgrade, hence dam removal decisions tend to be based on purely monetary considerations, and the environmental costs or benefits associated with the dam are not considered. Typically, the main objective for the dam owner is to incur the lowest possible cost (private cost), whether it be operating and maintenance or removal; external costs (environmental degradation) are rarely, if ever, considered, hence the true cost to society is not included in the economic analysis. If dam operation and removal decisions are to be economically efficient, then they have to include both the private costs as well as the external (environmental) costs. The purpose of this work is to 1) attempt to quantify the externalities associated with the maintenance and the removal of dams, 2) assess whether or not the current dam removal evaluation process maximizes social welfare (efficiency and equity) and 3) suggest ways in which this process can be improved by including the

  2. Effects of perinatal combined exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene and 1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene on rat male offspring.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yuji

    2005-05-01

    1,4-Dichlorobenzene (DCB) is used as an air deodorant or a moth repellent and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent metabolite of 1, 1, 1-trichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) which was used as a pesticide before. DCB concentrations of residential air and oral p,p'-DDE intake through marine products are demonstrated to be very high in Japan and consequently, foetuses and neonates may be exposed much more to DCB and/or p,p'-DDE via the maternal body. It has recently been reported that DCB is oestrogenic and that p,p'-DDE is antiandrogenic. Therefore, the combined effects of perinatal exposure to DCB and p,p'-DDE have been investigated in rat male offspring of dams ingesting these contaminants during the perinatal period from gestational day 1 to postpartum day 21 for 42 days. In this study, no obvious developmental effects on male offspring have been recognized until 6 weeks of age, following oral administration of 25 ppm DCB (approximately 2 mg/kg) and/or 125 ppm p,p'-DDE (approximately 10 mg/kg) to dams. In contrast to female offspring, the thymus weight in male offspring was not affected by DCB at 6 weeks of age, but there might be sexual differences concerning the effects of DCB on the thymus.

  3. Association between Parental Workaholism and Body Mass Index of Offspring: A Prospective Study among Japanese Dual Workers.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Shimazu, Akihito; Tokita, Masahito; Shimada, Kyoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Watai, Izumi; Iwata, Noboru; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI) among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0-5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2%) were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p < 0.001), while maternal workaholism was not associated with child BMI. Both maternal and paternal time spent with children did not mediate the association. Paternal work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring. PMID:27014678

  4. Association between Parental Workaholism and Body Mass Index of Offspring: A Prospective Study among Japanese Dual Workers

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Shimazu, Akihito; Tokita, Masahito; Shimada, Kyoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Watai, Izumi; Iwata, Noboru; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI) among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0–5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2%) were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p < 0.001), while maternal workaholism was not associated with child BMI. Both maternal and paternal time spent with children did not mediate the association. Paternal work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring. PMID:27014678

  5. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-05-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ∼P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed

  6. Loss of anti-contractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue in offspring of obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaborska, K E; Wareing, M; Edwards, G; Austin, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Maternal obesity pre-programmes offspring to develop obesity and associated cardiovascular disease. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anti-contractile effect on the vasculature, which is reduced in hypertension and obesity. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal obesity pre-programmes offspring to develop PVAT dysfunction in later life. Methods: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 10% (control) or 45% fat (high fat diet, HFD) for 12 weeks prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were killed at 12 or 24 weeks of age and tension in PVAT-intact or -denuded mesenteric artery segments was measured isometrically. Concentration–response curves were constructed to U46619 and norepinephrine. Results: Only 24-week-old HFD offspring were hypertensive (P<0.0001), although the anti-contractile effect of PVAT was lost in vessels from HFD offspring of each age. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with 100 μM l-NMMA attenuated the anti-contractile effect of PVAT and increased contractility of PVAT-denuded arteries (P<0.05, P<0.0001). The increase in contraction was smaller in PVAT-intact than PVAT-denuded vessels from 12-week-old HFD offspring, suggesting decreased PVAT-derived NO and release of a contractile factor (P<0.07). An additional, NO-independent effect of PVAT was evident only in norepinephrine-contracted vessels. Activation of AMP-activated kinase (with 10 μM A769662) was anti-contractile in PVAT-denuded (P<0.0001) and -intact (P<0.01) vessels and was due solely to NO in controls; the AMPK effect was similar in HFD offspring vessels (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively) but was partially NO-independent. Conclusions: The diminished anti-contractile effects of PVAT in offspring of HFD dams are primarily due to release of a PVAT-derived contractile factor and reduced NO bioavailability. PMID:27102050

  7. Folate supplementation during pregnancy improves offspring cardiovascular dysfunction induced by protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Christopher; Brawley, Lee; Anthony, Frederick W; Dance, Caroline S; Dunn, Rebecca; Jackson, Alan A; Poston, Lucilla; Hanson, Mark A

    2006-05-01

    Dietary protein restriction in the rat compromises the maternal cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and leads to raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction in the offspring. In this study we have hypothesized that dietary folate supplementation of the low-protein diet will improve maternal vascular function and also restore offspring cardiovascular function. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either a control (18% casein) or protein-restricted (9% casein) diet +/-5 mg/kg folate supplement. Function of isolated maternal uterine artery and small mesenteric arteries from adult male offspring was assessed, systolic blood pressure recorded, and offspring thoracic aorta levels of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase mRNA measured. In the uterine artery of late pregnancy dams, vasodilatation to vascular endothelial growth factor was attenuated in the protein-restricted group but restored with folate supplementation, as was isoprenaline-induced vasodilatation (P<0.05). In male offspring, protein restriction during pregnancy led to raised systolic blood pressure (P<0.01), impaired acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation (P<0.01), and reduced levels of endothelial NO synthase mRNA (P<0.05). Maternal folate supplementation during pregnancy prevented this elevated systolic blood pressure associated with a protein restriction diet. With folate supplementation, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and endothelial NO synthase mRNA levels were not significantly different from either the control or protein-restricted groups. Maternal folate supplementation of the control diet had no effect on blood pressure or vasodilatation. This study supports the hypothesis that folate status in pregnancy can influence fetal development and, thus, the risks of cardiovascular disease in the next generation. The concept of developmental origins of adult disease focuses predominately on fetal life but must also include a role for maternal cardiovascular function. PMID:16585422

  8. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Nuss, L K

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  9. Suitable Site Selection of Small Dams Using Geo-Spatial Technique: a Case Study of Dadu Tehsil, Sindh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Zahid

    2016-07-01

    Decision making about identifying suitable sites for any project by considering different parameters, is difficult. Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) can make it easy for those projects. This technology has proved to be an efficient and adequate in acquiring the desired information. In this study, GIS and MCA were employed to identify the suitable sites for small dams in Dadu Tehsil, Sindh. The GIS software is used to create all the spatial parameters for the analysis. The parameters that derived are slope, drainage density, rainfall, land use / land cover, soil groups, Curve Number (CN) and runoff index with a spatial resolution of 30m. The data used for deriving above layers include 30 meter resolution SRTM DEM, Landsat 8 imagery, and rainfall from National Centre of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and soil data from World Harmonized Soil Data (WHSD). Land use/Land cover map is derived from Landsat 8 using supervised classification. Slope, drainage network and watershed are delineated by terrain processing of DEM. The Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method is implemented to estimate the surface runoff from the rainfall. Prior to this, SCS-CN grid is developed by integrating the soil and land use/land cover raster. These layers with some technical and ecological constraints are assigned weights on the basis of suitability criteria. The pair wise comparison method, also known as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is took into account as MCA for assigning weights on each decision element. All the parameters and group of parameters are integrated using weighted overlay in GIS environment to produce suitable sites for the Dams. The resultant layer is then classified into four classes namely, best suitable, suitable, moderate and less suitable. This study reveals a contribution to decision making about suitable sites analysis for small dams using geo-spatial data with minimal amount of ground data. This suitability maps can be helpful for water resource

  10. Stress exposure during the preimplantation period affects blastocyst lineages and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Burkuš, Ján; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Kokošová, Natália; Fabianová, Kamila; Fabian, Dušan; Koppel, Juraj; Čikoš, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We found retardation of preimplantation embryo growth after exposure to maternal restraint stress during the preimplantation period in our previous study. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of preimplantation maternal restraint stress on the distribution of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in mouse blastocysts, and its possible effect on physiological development of offspring. We exposed spontaneously ovulating female mice to restraint stress for 30 min three times a day during the preimplantation period, and this treatment caused a significant increase in blood serum corticosterone concentration. Microscopic evaluation of embryos showed that restraint stress significantly decreased cell counts per blastocyst. Comparing the effect of restraint stress on the two blastocyst cell lineages, we found that the reduction in TE cells was more substantial than the reduction in ICM cells, which resulted in an increased ICM/TE ratio in blastocysts isolated from stressed dams compared with controls. Restraint stress reduced the number of implantation sites in uteri, significantly delayed eye opening in delivered mice, and altered their behavior in terms of two parameters (scratching on the base of an open field test apparatus, time spent in central zone) as well. Moreover, prenatally stressed offspring had significantly lower body weights and in 5-week old females delivered from stressed dams, fat deposits were significantly lower. Our results indicate that exposure to stress during very early pregnancy can have a negative impact on embryonic development with consequences reaching into postnatal life.

  11. 76 FR 25310 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam Safety Modification Study, Tuscarawas County, OH AGENCY: Department of the... with Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam. These high hazard structures do not meet current performance... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 1. Authority: Investigation and justification of modifications for dam...

  12. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina

    2015-06-12

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (p<0.0001). Provirus was detected in colostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission.

  13. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina

    2015-06-12

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (p<0.0001). Provirus was detected in colostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission. PMID:25829243

  14. Viremia during pregnancy and risk of childhood leukemia and lymphomas in the offspring: Nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Hultin, Emilie; Arroyo Mühr, Laila Sara; Ekström, Johanna; Lehtinen, Matti; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-05-01

    A possible role for infections of the pregnant mother in the development of childhood acute leukemias and lymphomas has been suggested. However, no specific infectious agent has been identified. Offspring of 74,000 mothers who had serum samples taken during pregnancy and stored in a large-scale biobank were followed up to the age of 15 years (750,000 person years) through over-generation linkages between the biobank files, the Swedish national population and cancer registers to identify incident leukemia/lymphoma cases in the offspring. First-trimester sera from mothers of 47 cases and 47 matched controls were retrieved and analyzed using next generation sequencing. Anelloviruses were the most common viruses detected, found in 37/47 cases and in 40/47 controls, respectively (OR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-1.9). None of the detected viruses was associated with leukemia/lymphoma in the offspring. Viremia during pregnancy was common, but no association with leukemia/lymphoma risk in the offspring was found.

  15. Implications of temporal variation in maternal care for the prediction of neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring.

    PubMed

    Jensen Peña, Catherine; Champagne, Frances A

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies in Long-Evans rats demonstrated a significant relationship between variation in pup licking/grooming and arched-back nursing (LG-ABN) and offspring development. However, maternal care is dynamic and exhibits significant temporal variation. In the current study, we assessed temporal variation in LG and ABN in lactating rats across the circadian cycle and determined the impact of these behaviors for the prediction of offspring hypothalamic gene expression, anxiety-like behavior, and responsiveness to a high fat diet (HFD). We find that distinguishing between dams that engage in stable individual differences in maternal behavior (Low, Mid, High) requires assessment across the light-dark phases of the light cycle and across multiple postpartum days. Among juvenile female offspring, we find a positive correlation between maternal LG and mRNA levels of estrogen receptor alpha and beta and the oxytocin receptor (when LG is assessed across the light-dark cycle or in the dark phase). In young adults, we find sex-specific effects, with female High LG offspring exhibiting increased exploration of a novel environment and increased latency to approach HFD, and male High LG offspring displaying increased activity in a novel environment and reduced HFD consumption. Importantly, these effects on behavior were primarily evident when LG was assessed across the light-dark cycle and ABN was not associated with these measures. Overall, our findings illustrate the dissociation between the effects of LG and ABN on offspring development and provide critical insights into the temporal characteristics of maternal behavior that have methodological implications for the study of maternal effects.

  16. Implications of temporal variation in maternal care for the prediction of neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Catherine Jensen; Champagne, Frances A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in Long-Evans rats demonstrated a significant relationship between variation in pup licking/grooming and arched-back nursing (LG-ABN) and offspring development. However, maternal care is dynamic and exhibits significant temporal variation. In the current study, we assessed temporal variation in LG and ABN in lactating rats across the circadian cycle and determined the impact of these behaviors for the prediction of offspring hypothalamic gene expression, anxiety-like behavior, and responsiveness to high fat diet (HFD). We find that distinguishing between dams that engage in stable individual differences in maternal behavior (Low, Mid, High) requires assessment across the light-dark phases of the light cycle and across multiple postpartum days. Amongst juvenile female offspring, we find a positive correlation between maternal LG and mRNA levels of estrogen receptor alpha and beta and the oxytocin receptor (when LG is assessed across the light-dark cycle or in the dark phase). In young adults, we find sex-specific effects, with female High LG offspring exhibiting increased exploration of a novel environment and increased latency to approach HFD and male High LG offspring displaying increased activity in a novel environment and reduced HFD consumption. Importantly, these effects on behavior were primarily evident when LG was assessed across the light-dark cycle and ABN was not associated with these measures. Overall, our findings illustrate the dissociation between the effects of LG and ABN on offspring development and provide critical insights into the temporal characteristics of maternal behavior that have methodological implications for the study of maternal effects. PMID:23398440

  17. Senna treatment in pregnant women and congenital abnormalities in their offspring--a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2009-07-01

    Previously, the possible teratogenic effect of frequently used laxative drug, senna has not been checked in case-control epidemiological study. Objective of the study was the comparison of cases with congenital abnormalities (CAs) and their matched controls without CAs in the population-based large data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities. Of 22,843 cases with CA, 506 (2.2%) had mothers with senna treatment, while of 38,151 control newborn infants without CA, 937 (2.5%) were born to mothers with senna treatment (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 1.0, 0.9-1.1), and of 834 malformed controls with Down syndrome, 26 (3.1%) had mothers with the use of senna (OR with 95% CI: 0.7, 0.5-1.1). The range of senna doses was between 10mg and 30 mg, but most pregnant women used 20mg daily. The mothers with senna treatment showed the characteristics of pregnant women with constipation (elder with larger proportion of primiparae). There was no higher risk for 23 different CA groups after the senna treatment during the second and/or third gestational month of 260 mothers, i.e. in the critical period of most major CAs, compared with their 500 matched controls. Gestational age at delivery was somewhat longer (0.2 week) and the rate of preterm birth was lower (6.6% vs. 9.2%) in newborn infants without CA born to mothers with senna treatment compared with babies born to mothers without senna treatment. In conclusion, senna treatment did not associate with a higher risk of CAs in the offspring of pregnant women with constipation.

  18. Multiple biomarkers and risk of clinical and subclinical vascular brain injury: the framingham offspring study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several biomarkers have been individually associated with vascular brain injury, but no prior study has explored the simultaneous association of a biologically plausible panel of biomarkers with the incidence of stroke/transient ischemic attack and the prevalence of subclinical brain injury. In 3127...

  19. A possible association between acute infectious diarrhoea in pregnant women and congenital abnormalities in their offspring--a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2010-05-01

    The possible association between Salmonella gastroenteritis (SGE) and infectious diarrhoea in pregnancy (IDP) and structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities (CA) in the offspring, has not been studied. The dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996 was evaluated. There were 15 (0.07%) and 82 (0.36%) out of 22,843 cases and 23 (0.06%) and 70 (0.18%) out of 38,151 (0.34%) controls with mothers who had medically recorded SGE and IDP, respectively. There was no association of SGE and a higher risk of CA. However, a higher risk of cleft lip +/- palate, congenital limb deficiencies, multiple CAs and cardiovascular CAs was found in the offspring of mothers with IDP. A possible explanation for the association of IDP with higher risk for some specific CAs may be the high fever in IDP.

  20. Is there a reduction of congenital abnormalities in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women after folic acid supplementation? A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Dakhlaoui, Abdallah; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew A E

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the preventive effect of folic acid for structural birth defects (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CAs]) in the offspring of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1). The occurrence of medically recorded DM-1 in pregnant women who had malformed fetuses/newborns (cases) and delivered healthy babies (controls) with or without folic acid supplementation was compared in the population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities. The case group included 22,843 offspring, and there were 79 (0.35%) pregnant women with DM-1, while the control group comprised of 38,151 newborns, and 88 (0.23%) had mothers with DM-1. Case mothers with DM-1 associated with a higher risk of total rate of CAs in their offspring (OR with 95% CI: 1.5, 1.1-2.0) compared to the total rate of CAs in the offspring of non-diabetic case mothers. This higher risk can be explained by four specific types/groups of CAs: isolated renal a/dysgenesis; obstructive CA of the urinary tract; cardiovascular CAs; and multiple CAs, namely caudal dysplasia sequence. However, there was no higher rate of total CAs in the children of pregnant women with DM-1 after folic acid supplementation; in addition, neural-tube defect and renal a/dysgenesis did not occur. However, this benefit cannot be explained by the CA reduction effect of folic acid during the critical period of major CAs. In conclusion, there was a certain reduction in maternal teratogenic effect of DM-1 after folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, but the explanation of this effect requires further study.

  1. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal, institutional and financial obstacles, and incentives to the development of hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam on the Monongahela River are analyzed. The study is one of five studies prepared by the Energy Law Institute pursuant to a contract with the National Conference of State Legislators. Each of the five studies views dam development by a different category of developer. These categories include a municipality, a public utility, a state, a private developer, and a cooperative. The Maxwell case study concerns potential development by Allegheny Electric Cooperative. Thus, the analysis of obstacles and incentives is focused on those factors which have particular impact on a cooperative. Subjects covered include a description of the site; developer description; the feasibility study; the economic feasibility; financing; Federal licensing by FERC; state licensing; local interest and requirements; the effect of locks and dam operation by the Army Corp of Engineers; and power marketing.

  2. Cancer in the offspring of radiation workers: a record linkage study.

    PubMed Central

    Draper, G. J.; Little, M. P.; Sorahan, T.; Kinlen, L. J.; Bunch, K. J.; Conquest, A. J.; Kendall, G. M.; Kneale, G. W.; Lancashire, R. J.; Muirhead, C. R.; O'Connor, C. M.; Vincent, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the "Gardner hypothesis" that childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma can be caused by fathers' exposure to ionising radiation before the conception of the child, and, more generally, to investigate whether such radiation exposure of either parent is a cause of childhood cancer. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Great Britain. SUBJECTS: 35,949 children diagnosed as having cancer, together with matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parental employment as radiation worker as defined by inclusion in the National Registry for Radiation Workers and being monitored for external radiation before conception of child; cumulative dose of external ionising radiation for various periods of employment before conception; dose during pregnancy. RESULTS: After cases studied by Gardner and colleagues were excluded, fathers of children with leukaemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were significantly more likely than fathers of controls to have been radiation workers (relative risk 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 3.03) but there was no dose-response relation for any of the exposure periods studied; indeed, the association was greatest for those with doses below the level of detection. No increased risk was found for fathers with a lifetime preconception dose of 100 mSv or more, or with a dose in the 6 months before conception of 10 mSv or more. There was no increased risk for the group of other childhood cancers. Mothers' radiation work was associated with a significant increase of childhood cancer (relative risk 5.00, 1.42 to 26.94; based on 15 cases and 3 controls). Only four of the case mothers and no controls were radiation workers during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the hypothesis that paternal preconception irradiation is a cause of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma; the observed associations may be chance findings or results from exposure to infective or other agents. If there is any increased risk for the

  3. Paternal radiation exposure and leukaemia in offspring: the Ontario case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, J R; King, W D; Anderson, T W; Clarke, E A; Ashmore, J P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To test the hypothesis that there is an association between childhood leukaemia and the occupational exposure of fathers to ionising radiation before a child's conception. DESIGN--Case-control study with eight matched controls per case. SETTING--Regions of Ontario, Canada, with an operating nuclear facility. SUBJECTS--Cases were children (age 0-14) who died from or were diagnosed as having leukaemia from 1950 to 1988 and were born to mothers living in the vicinity of an operating nuclear facility. Controls were identified from birth certificates, matched by date of birth and residence at birth. There were 112 cases and 890 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Paternal radiation exposure was determined by a record linkage to the Canadian National Dose Registry. RESULTS--Six fathers of cases and 53 fathers of controls had had a total whole body dose > 0.0 mSv before the child's conception, resulting in an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 2.34). There was no evidence of an increased leukaemia risk in relation to any exposure period (lifetime or six months or three months before conception) or exposure type (total whole body dose, external whole body dose, or tritium dose), except for radon exposure to uranium miners, which had a large odds ratio that was not significantly different from the null value. CONCLUSIONS--The findings of this study in Ontario did not support the hypothesis that childhood leukaemia is associated with the occupational exposure of fathers to ionising radiation before the child's conception. PMID:8241906

  4. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  5. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits.

  6. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.; Kelley, Jennifer L.; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  7. Methamphetamine exposure during pregnancy at pharmacological doses produces neurodevelopmental and behavioural effects in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Donlon, Michelle; Kelly, John P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years methamphetamine (MA) use has become more prevalent, and of particular concern is its growing popularity of MA among women of childbearing age. However, to date, studies examining MA effects on the developing offspring in laboratory animals are limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if in utero MA exposure in rats at pharmacological doses can have a negative impact on neonatal neurodevelopment and behaviour. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams (n=10 dams/group) received MA (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5mg/kg) once daily via oral gavage from gestational day 7 to 21. Maternal body weight, food and water consumption were recorded daily. A range of standard neurodevelopment parameters was examined in the offspring during the neonatal period. There were no neurodevelopmental deficits observed with offspring exposed to 0.625mg/kg MA, in fact, there were enhancements of neurodevelopment in some parameters at this low dose. However, exposure to the 1.25mg/kg MA dose resulted in significant impairments in surface righting reflex and forelimb grip in both sexes. Exposure to the 2.5mg/kg MA dose resulted in a significant reduction in ano-genital distance in males, and in both sexes resulted in delayed fur appearance and eye opening, impairments in surface righting reflex and negative geotaxis, and a reduction in body length. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that pharmacologically relevant doses of MA can have profound dose-related effects on neonatal outcome. If extrapolated to the clinical scenario this will give cause for concern regarding the risks associated with this drug of abuse at relatively low doses.

  8. Naloxone treatment alters gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system in 'junk food' exposed offspring in a sex-specific manner but does not affect food preferences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gugusheff, J R; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-06-22

    We have previously reported that the opioid receptor blocker, naloxone, is less effective in reducing palatable food intake in offspring exposed to a maternal cafeteria diet during the perinatal period, implicating a desensitization of the central opioid pathway in the programming of food preferences. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet and naloxone treatment on the development of the mesolimbic reward pathway and food choices in adulthood. We measured mRNA expression of key components of the reward pathway (mu-opioid receptor, proenkephalin, tyrosine hydroxylase, D1 and D2 receptors and the dopamine active transporter (DAT)) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the offspring of control and cafeteria fed (JF) dams at weaning and after a 10-day naloxone treatment post-weaning and determined food preferences in adulthood in the remaining offspring. Naloxone treatment decreased the expression of DAT by 8.2 fold in female control offspring but increased it by 4.3 fold in female offspring of JF dams relative to the saline-injected reference groups. Proenkephalin mRNA expression was higher in the NAc of female JF offspring compared to controls, independent of naloxone treatment (P<0.05). There was no effect of naloxone treatment on food preferences in adulthood in either control or JF offspring. These data indicate that prenatal exposure to a cafeteria diet alters the impact of opioid signaling blockade in the early post-weaning period on gene expression in the central reward pathway in a sex specific manner, but that these changes in gene expression do not appear to have any persistent impact on food preferences in adulthood.

  9. Association of maternal and paternal IQ with offspring conduct, emotional and attention problem scores: trans-generational evidence from the 1958 British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Context Lower IQ individuals have an increased risk of psychological disorders, mental health problems, and suicide; similarly, children with low IQ scores are more likely to have behavioural, emotional and anxiety disorders. However, very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the mental health outcomes of their children. Objective To determine whether maternal and paternal IQ score is associated with offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores. Design Cohort. Setting General population. Participants Members of 1958 National Child Development Study and their offspring. Of 2,984 parent-offspring pairs, with non-adopted children aged 4+ years, 2,202 pairs had complete data on all variables of interest and were included in the analyses. Outcome measure Offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores based on Behavioural Problems Index for children aged 4-6 years or the Rutter A scale for children aged 7 and over. Results There was little evidence of any association of parental IQ with conduct or emotional problems in younger (aged 4-6) children. However, among children aged 7+, there was strong evidence from age- and sex-adjusted models to support a decrease in conduct, emotional and attention problems in those whose parents had higher IQ scores. These associations were linear across the full IQ range. Individual adjustments for socioeconomic status and child’s own IQ had limited impact while adjustments for Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores and parental malaise attenuated associations with mother’s IQ but, again, had little impact on associations with father’s IQ. Strong associations were no longer evident in models that simultaneously adjusted for all four potential mediating variables. Conclusions Children whose parents score poorly on IQ tests may have an increased risk of conduct, emotional and attention problems. Home environment, parental malaise, and child’s own IQ may have a role in explaining these

  10. Particle Clogging in Filter Media of Embankment Dams: A Numerical and Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoun, T.; Kanarska, Y.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Lomov, I.; Glascoe, L. G.; Smith, J.; Hall, R. L.; Woodson, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The safety of dam structures requires the characterization of the granular filter ability to capture fine-soil particles and prevent erosion failure in the event of an interfacial dislocation. Granular filters are one of the most important protective design elements of large embankment dams. In case of cracking and erosion, if the filter is capable of retaining the eroded fine particles, then the crack will seal and the dam safety will be ensured. Here we develop and apply a numerical tool to thoroughly investigate the migration of fines in granular filters at the grain scale. The numerical code solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and uses a Lagrange multiplier technique which enforces the correct in-domain computational boundary conditions inside and on the boundary of the particles. The numerical code is validated to experiments conducted at the US Army Corps of Engineering and Research Development Center (ERDC). These laboratory experiments on soil transport and trapping in granular media are performed in constant-head flow chamber filled with the filter media. Numerical solutions are compared to experimentally measured flow rates, pressure changes and base particle distributions in the filter layer and show good qualitative and quantitative agreement. To further the understanding of the soil transport in granular filters, we investigated the sensitivity of the particle clogging mechanism to various parameters such as particle size ratio, the magnitude of hydraulic gradient, particle concentration, and grain-to-grain contact properties. We found that for intermediate particle size ratios, the high flow rates and low friction lead to deeper intrusion (or erosion) depths. We also found that the damage tends to be shallower and less severe with decreasing flow rate, increasing friction and concentration of suspended particles. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  11. Summary of juvenile salmonid passage and survival at McNary Dam-Acoustic survival studies, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Evans, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Given the importance of these annual studies, the primary objectives of this report were to summarize the findings of these annual studies to ensure that passage and survival metrics are consistently calculated and reported across all years and to consolidate this information in a single document, thereby making it easier to reference. It is worth noting that this report does not contain all the information from all the annual reports. The intent of this report was to summarize the key findings from multiple years of research. The reader is encouraged to reference the annual reports if more detailed information is needed. Chapter 1 summarizes existing behavior, passage, and survival results for fish released 10 rkm upstream of McNary Dam and from the McNary Dam tailrace during 2006-09. Chapter 2 summarizes existing behavior, passage, and survival results for fish released in the mid-Columbia River and detected at McNary Dam during 2006-09. Results from 2006 indicated that higher spill discharge generally resulted in higher fish passage through spill, and in turn, higher fish survival through the entire dam. Within the spillway, passage effectiveness was highest for the south spill bays, adjacent to the powerhouse. Increased passage in this area, combined with detailed 3-dimensional approach paths, aided in the design and location of the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) at McNary Dam prior to the 2007 migration of juvenile salmonids. During the 2007 study, the TSWs were tested under two spill treatments during the spring and summer: a "2006 Modified spill," and a "2007 test spill." In the spring, slightly higher discharge through spill bays 14-17 was the primary difference between the spill

  12. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study. PMID:25914174

  13. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study.

  14. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  15. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  16. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity.

  17. Juvenile Radio-Tag Study: Lower Granite Dam, 1985-1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1988-03-01

    A prototype juvenile radio-tag system was developed and tested by the National Marine Fisheries Services (NMFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) at John Day Dam in 1984. Results indicated that the system could provide acceptable estimates of powerhouse and spillway passage. Research in 1986 continued testing of the tag system to further define its application and limitations. Field work included releases in the forebay and tailrace under a no-spill environment and testing of new systems to improve tag detection. Laboratory tests included the response of the tag in hostile environmental conditions (spillway passage) and the effects of the radio tag on fish buoyancy compensation. This report provides results of the work along with a summarization of the combined 1985--86 field and assumption testing. 12 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Comparison of the offspring of three serial pregnancies during voluntary alcohol consumption in Sinclair (S-1) miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Dexter, J D; Tumbleson, M E; Decker, J D; Middleton, C C

    1983-01-01

    The offspring of serial breedings of voluntary alcohol consuming Sinclair (S-1) miniature swine have been evaluated over the past three years. The first and second litters of 12 dams and the third litter of 6 dams were examined. All study animals had been consuming alcohol for at least 18 months prior to the first breeding. Alcohol consumption was continuous throughout the ninth study. Twelve non-alcohol-consuming sows were used as controls. The results of the study revealed a progressive decrease in mean litter size from controls of 6.66 in the control litters to 1.8 piglets per litter in the third litter born to alcohol-consuming dams. Perinatal deaths showed a progressive increase from 10% in the controls to 36.4% in the L3 litter. The birth weight showed a decline from a mean of 719 +/- 186 g in the control group to 467 +/- 122 g in the L3 litter. Abortions were not seen in control, first litter or second litter; however, there were 3 aborted fetuses in the third litter. Observation revealed no additional anomalies beyond the previous reports of anomalies seen in litters of alcohol-consuming S-1 miniature swine dams.

  19. The dam breakage of Baia Mare??a pilot study of magnetic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehland, F.; Panaiotu, C.; Appel, E.; Hoffmann, V.; Jordanova, D.; Jordanova, N.; Denut, I.

    Magnetic screening in the area of Baia Mare (Romania) was carried out in June 2000 in order to detect the degree of environmental pollution and to test the applicability of this method in this area. With a long tradition of mining activities, a gradual pollution of soil, air and rivers took place continuously in addition to smaller accidents in this area until the dam breakage on the 30.1.2000. During this accident, about 100,000 m 3 of mud containing cyanide and heavy metals leaked out and moved over fields and through a village into the river system of Lapûs, Someş, Tisza and Danube. Initial magnetic monitoring carried out during the translocation of the polluted waters along the Bulgarian part of the Danube revealed the effectiveness of the method for a proper and fast identification of pollution both in time and space even at remote distances from the source. For the later pilot project magnetic ( χ) screening was performed using a portable Bartington MS2 kappameter with a D-loop sensor. In addition fine-grained material (<0.5 mm) was sampled from the fields and river sediments and measured in the laboratory using a MS2 B-sensor. The results of the collected samples show a clear decrease in χ with increasing distance from the dams and mining areas in a regional and local scale, while the results gained by the MS2-D strongly depend on the nature of the ground. The dynamic geological setting around Baia Mare (fluvial sediments and valley fills), produces a heterogeneous background signal. A continuous monitoring system controlling the basic conditions could overcome these limitations.

  20. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  1. 78 FR 76288 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Dam Safety Modification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... and Dam Safety Modification Study Report for the Cherry Creek Project, Arapahoe County, Colorado... considers both the probability and consequences of a dam failure. Cherry Creek Dam received an elevated risk... action to remediate dam safety concerns at Cherry Creek Dam. The dam safety concerns are......

  2. Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Thomas J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Richardson, David B.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Herring, Amy H.; Anderka, Marlene; Botto, Lorenzo; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Langlois, Peter H.; Mosley, Bridget; Shaw, Gary M.; Siffel, Csaba; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    , Daniels JL, Fuentes M, Richardson DB, Aylsworth AS, Herring AH, Anderka M, Botto L, Correa A, Gilboa SM, Langlois PH, Mosley B, Shaw GM, Siffel C, Olshan AF, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. 2014. Maternal exposure to criteria air pollutants and congenital heart defects in offspring: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:863–872; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307289 PMID:24727555

  3. Maternal antioxidants prevent beta cell apoptosis and promote formation of dual hormone-expressing endocrine cells in male offspring following fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure

    PubMed Central

    BRUIN, Jennifer E; WOYNILLOWICZ, Amanda K; HETTINGA, Bart P; TARNOPOLSKY, Mark A; MORRISON, Katherine M; GERSTEIN, Hertzel C; HOLLOWAY, Alison C

    2013-01-01

    Aim Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure causes beta cell oxidative stress and apoptosis in neonates, leading to adult-onset dysglycemia. The goal of this study was to determine whether an antioxidant intervention could prevent nicotine-induced beta cell loss. Methods Nulliparous female Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of either saline or nicotine bitartrate (1.0 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. Nicotine-exposed dams received either normal chow or diet containing antioxidants (1000 IU/kg vitamin E, 0.25% w/w coenzyme Q10 and 0.1% w/w alpha-lipoic acid) during mating, pregnancy and lactation; saline-exposed dams received normal chow. Pancreas tissue was collected from male offspring at 3 weeks of age to measure beta cell fraction, apoptosis, proliferation and the presence of cells co-expressing insulin and glucagon. Results The birth weight of the offspring born to nicotine-exposed dams receiving dietary antioxidants was significantly reduced. Most interestingly, the antioxidant intervention to nicotine-exposed dams prevented the beta cell loss and apoptosis observed in nicotine exposed male offspring whose mothers did not receive antioxidants. Male pups born to nicotine-treated mothers receiving antioxidants also had a trend towards increased beta cell proliferation and a significant increase in islets containing insulin/glucagon bi-hormonal cells relative to the other two treatment groups. Conclusion This study demonstrates that exposure to maternal antioxidants protects beta cells from the damaging effects of nicotine thus preserving beta cell mass. PMID:22385833

  4. EPRI dam safety workshop summary: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, R.

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has an extensive history of working with utilities, federal and state agencies, consultants, and other interests to conduct a number of workshops and studies to improve the safety of dams. Through these efforts, EPRI has developed a number of tools to assist dam owners, particularly EPRI members, in the evaluation and modification of dams. Although a considerable amount of progress has been made toward improving dam safety, there remain among the over 75,000 dams in the US a significant number of structures that require in-depth evaluation and possible modifications. At the same time, there are pressures from several directions to prioritize dam safety issues and find cost-effective solutions to problems because there seems to be an ever-decreasing amount of funds to address dam safety. In that regard, EPRI is sensitive to those cost considerations in a changing utility environment. Therefore, EPRI recently entered into discussions with utilities, regulatory agencies, federal agencies (dam owners), and others interested in dam safety issues. From those discussions, a number of research ideas were developed, which were distilled into three primary topics and several secondary topics of importance. The three primary areas of concern included: penstocks, tunnels, and gates; instrumentation and monitoring; and post-tensioned anchors. This report will provide a review of the workshop and insight on ideas for future dam safety R and D.

  5. Three-Gorges-Dam: Studying the ecological impacts in a highly dynamic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, T.; Behrens, T.; Kaufmann, H.; King, L.; Rohn, J.; Schönbrodt, S.; Subklew, G.; Xiang, W.

    2009-04-01

    The impoundment of the Yangtze River in 2003 by the Three-Gorges-Dam (TGD) evokes ecological impacts alongside the Yangtze and its major tributaries that appear to be unforesseable in their dimension and dynamic. The scheduled water level elevation to 176 m in 2009 and the seasonal water level fluctuations at the TGD for the purpose of hydro power generation and flood control will still foster the typical aftermaths such as slope instability, mass movements, soil erosion, the expansion of infrastructure and land reclamation for subsistence agriculture and cash crops distant to the inundated area. Together, geoscientists from China and Germany try to develop an integrated risk assessment system for landslides, soil erosion, diffuse sediment and matter fluxes into the reservoir and land-use vulnerability. Since April 2008 the research activities take place within the Sino-German YANGTZE project funded by the German BMBF and initiated by the German Research Centre Juelich. The project proceeds in close collaboration with the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China (MRL). In four subprojects located at the universities of Erlangen, Giessen, Potsdam and Tuebingen main focus lies on the analysis and assessment of the mechanisms and trigger of landslides, the mechanisms of soil erosion for different landscape morphologies and soil associations and the multi-temporal land-use classification and land-use dynamic on the meso-scale. The research area is the highly dynamic and mountainous Xiangxi catchment (3.100 km²) close to the TGD. Using multi-level approaches by means of GIS, field investigations and remote sensing the Yangtze project aims to assess the spatial and temporal varying risk potential of soil erosion and the landslide susceptibility and risk for the infrastructure, people and agriculture. Finally, high-resolution risk potential maps will serve as a base for decision making. In close collaboration with our Chinese partner projects

  6. Young Adult Exposure to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Events Later in Life: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pletcher, Mark J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor exposure during early adulthood contributes to CHD risk later in life. Our objective was to analyze whether extent of early adult exposures to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, HDL) are independent predictors of CHD events later in life. Methods and Findings We used all available measurements of SBP, DBP, LDL, and HDL collected over 40 years in the Framingham Offspring Study to estimate risk factor trajectories, starting at age 20 years, for all participants. Average early adult (age 20–39) exposure to each risk factor was then estimated, and used to predict CHD events (myocardial infarction or CHD death) after age 40, with adjustment for risk factor exposures later in life (age 40+). 4860 participants contributed an average of 6.3 risk factor measurements from in-person examinations and 24.5 years of follow-up after age 40, and 510 had a first CHD event. Early adult exposures to high SBP, DBP, LDL or low HDL were associated with 8- to 30-fold increases in later life CHD event rates, but were also strongly correlated with risk factor levels later in life. After adjustment for later life levels and other risk factors, early adult DBP and LDL remained strongly associated with later life risk. Compared with DBP≤70 mmHg, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–5.7) for DBP = 71–80, 2.6 (0.9–7.2) for DBP = 81–90, and 3.6 (1.2–11) for DBP>90 (p-trend = 0.019). Compared with LDL≤100 mg/dl, adjusted HRs were 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for LDL = 101–130, 2.2 (1.2–4.0) for LDL = 131–160, and 2.4 (1.2–4.7) for LDL>160 (p-trend = 0.009). While current levels of SBP and HDL were also associated with CHD events, we did not detect an independent association with early adult exposure to either of these risk factors. Conclusions Using a mixed modeling approach to estimation of young adult exposures

  7. Maternal exposure to mercury chloride during pregnancy and lactation affects the immunity and social behavior of offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubin; Bolivar, Valerie J; Lawrence, David A

    2013-05-01

    Developmental HgCl2 exposures of F1 offspring (H-2(q/s)) from unsociable SJL/J (H-2(s)) dams with high susceptibility to Hg-induced autoimmunity (SFvF1) and from highly sociable FVB/NJ (FVB; H-2(q)) dams with lower susceptibility to Hg-induced autoimmunity (FvSF1) were investigated. Hg exposure increased the serum IgG levels of all offspring at postnatal day 21 (pnd21) and of SJL/J dams but not of FVB dams. Serum IgG anti-brain antibody (Ab) levels of pnd21 SFvF1 offspring and SJL dams were higher than those of the FvSF1 offspring and FVB dams, but Hg only increased the titers of the FVB dams and their offspring. Hg significantly elevated the presence of IgG in all brain regions of the pnd21 SFvF1 offspring, and the SFvF1 offspring had greater amounts of IgG in the brain than the FvSF1 offspring, which had Hg-induced increases in only two brain regions. Cytokine levels were elevated in the brain regions of Hg-treated pnd21 SFvF1 but not of FvSF1 offspring, and SFvF1 females had more brain regions expressing cytokines than the males. At pnd70, the serum IgG, serum antibrain Abs, amounts of brain IgG, and brain cytokine levels of all of the Hg-treated offspring were equivalent to those of their appropriate controls, suggesting that developmental Hg exposure did not induce chronic immunological effects. However, the social behaviors of Hg-exposed SFvF1 offspring at pnd70 were significantly impaired, and SFvF1 females displayed greater decline in social behaviors than males, suggesting that the higher neuroinflammation of SFvF1 females earlier in life is associated with the altered behavior. Thus, developmental Hg exposure induces long-lasting effects on social behavior of offspring, which is dependent on sex and genetics and the induction of neuroinflammation.

  8. Maternal Exposure to Mercury Chloride During Pregnancy and Lactation Affects the Immunity and Social Behavior of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yubin; Lawrence, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental HgCl2 exposures of F1 offspring (H-2q/s) from unsociable SJL/J (H-2s) dams with high susceptibility to Hg-induced autoimmunity (SFvF1) and from highly sociable FVB/NJ (FVB; H-2q) dams with lower susceptibility to Hg-induced autoimmunity (FvSF1) were investigated. Hg exposure increased the serum IgG levels of all offspring at postnatal day 21 (pnd21) and of SJL/J dams but not of FVB dams. Serum IgG anti-brain antibody (Ab) levels of pnd21 SFvF1 offspring and SJL dams were higher than those of the FvSF1 offspring and FVB dams, but Hg only increased the titers of the FVB dams and their offspring. Hg significantly elevated the presence of IgG in all brain regions of the pnd21 SFvF1 offspring, and the SFvF1 offspring had greater amounts of IgG in the brain than the FvSF1 offspring, which had Hg-induced increases in only two brain regions. Cytokine levels were elevated in the brain regions of Hg-treated pnd21 SFvF1 but not of FvSF1 offspring, and SFvF1 females had more brain regions expressing cytokines than the males. At pnd70, the serum IgG, serum antibrain Abs, amounts of brain IgG, and brain cytokine levels of all of the Hg-treated offspring were equivalent to those of their appropriate controls, suggesting that developmental Hg exposure did not induce chronic immunological effects. However, the social behaviors of Hg-exposed SFvF1 offspring at pnd70 were significantly impaired, and SFvF1 females displayed greater decline in social behaviors than males, suggesting that the higher neuroinflammation of SFvF1 females earlier in life is associated with the altered behavior. Thus, developmental Hg exposure induces long-lasting effects on social behavior of offspring, which is dependent on sex and genetics and the induction of neuroinflammation. PMID:23392568

  9. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed.

  10. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Amanda K; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-11-22

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects-larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed. PMID:26559952

  11. The effect of river damming on vegetation: is it always unfavourable? A case study from the River Tiber (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Simona; Tombolini, Ilaria; Abati, Silverio; Zuccarello, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    River damming leads to strong hydromorphological alterations of the watercourse, consequently affecting river vegetation pattern. A multitemporal and spatial analysis of the dam effect on composition, structure and dynamic of the upstream vegetation was performed on Tiber River at Nazzano-dam (Rome). The main research questions were as follows: How does plant landscape vary over time and along the river? Where does the dam effect on vegetation end? How does naturalistic importance of the vegetation affected by damming change over time? Data collection was performed mapping the vegetation in aerial photos related to the period before (1944), during (1954) and after dam construction (1984, 2000). The plant landscape has significantly changed over time and along the river, particularly as a result of the dam construction (1953). The major vegetation changes have involved riparian forests and macrophytes. Dam effect on vegetation is evident up to 3 km, and gradually decreases along an attenuation zone for about another 3 km. Despite the fact that the damming has caused strong local hydromorphological modification of the river ecosystem transforming it into a sub-lacustrine habitat, it has also led to the formation of wetlands of considerable naturalistic importance. Indeed, in these man-made wetlands, optimal hydrological conditions have been created by favouring both the expansion of pre-existing riparian communities and the rooting of new aquatic communities, albeit typical of lacustrine ecosystems. Some of these plant communities have become an important food resource, refuge or nesting habitats for aquatic fauna, while others fall into category of Natura 2000 habitats. Therefore, river damming seems to have indirectly had a "favourable" effect for habitat conservation and local biodiversity.

  12. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6-7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  13. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6–7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  14. Maternal dietary supplementation with saturated, but not monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, leads to tissue-specific inhibition of offspring Na+,K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, James A; Gupta, Sanjana; Wood, Caroline; Jensen, Runa I; Samuelsson, Anne-Maj; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    In rats, a maternal diet rich in lard is associated with reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity in adult offspring kidney. We have addressed the role of different fatty acids by evaluating Na+,K+-ATPase activity in offspring of dams fed diets rich in saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed, during pregnancy and suckling, a control diet (4% w/w corn oil) or a fatty acid supplemented diet (24% w/w). Offspring were reared on chow (4% PUFA) and studied at 6 months. mRNA expression (real-time PCR) of Na+,K+-ATPase α subunit and protein expression of Na+,K+-ATPase subunits (Western blot) were assessed in kidney and brain. Na+,K+-ATPase activity was reduced in kidney (P < 0.05 versus all groups) and brain (P < 0.05 versus control and MUFA offspring) of the SFA group. Neither Na+,K+-ATPase α1 subunit mRNA expression, nor protein expression of total α, α1, α2, α3 or β1 subunits were significantly altered in kidney in any dietary group. In brains of SFA offspring α1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05) was reduced compared with MUFA and PUFA offspring, but not controls. Also in brain, SFA offspring demonstrated reduced (P < 0.05) α1 subunit protein and increased phosphorylation (P < 0.05) of the Na+,K+-ATPase modulating protein phospholemman at serine residue 63 (S63 PLM). Na+,K+-ATPase activity was similar to controls in heart and liver. In utero and neonatal exposure to a maternal diet rich in saturated fatty acids is associated with altered activity and expression of Na+,K+-ATPase in adulthood, but mechanisms appear tissue specific. PMID:18718984

  15. Topics on distance correlation, feature screening and lifetime expectancy with application to Beaver Dam eye study data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jing

    This thesis includes 4 pieces of work. In Chapter 1, we present the work with a method for examining mortality as it is seen to run in families, and lifestyle factors that are also seen to run in families, in a subpopulation of the Beaver Dam Eye Study that has died by 2011. We find significant distance correlations between death ages, lifestyle factors, and family relationships. Considering only sib pairs compared to unrelated persons, distance correlation between siblings and mortality is, not surprisingly, stronger than that between more distantly related family members and mortality. Chapter 2 introduces a feature screening procedure with the use of distance correlation and covariance. We demonstrate a property for distance covariance, which is incorporated in a novel feature screening procedure based on distance correlation as a stopping criterion. The approach is further implemented to two real examples, namely the famous small round blue cell tumors data and the Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer data Chapter 3 pays attention to the right censored human longevity data and the estimation of lifetime expectancy. We propose a general framework of backward multiple imputation for estimating the conditional lifetime expectancy function and the variance of the estimator in the right censoring setting and prove the properties of the estimator. In addition, we apply the method to the Beaver Dam eye study data to study human longevity, where the expected human lifetime are modeled with smoothing spline ANOVA based on the covariates including baseline age, gender, lifestyle factors and disease variables. Chapter 4 compares two imputation methods for right censored data, namely the famous Buckley-James estimator and the backward imputation method proposed in Chapter 3 and shows that backward imputation method is less biased and more robust with heterogeneity.

  16. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  17. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-08

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  18. Hypergravity Effects on the Mother-Offspring System in Mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, ten pregnant female rats were launched on the Space Shuttle (STS-70) on Gestational day (G) 11 of their 22-day pregnancy as part of the NASA/NIH.Rodent (R)2 Experiment. Following landing on G20, fetuses were harvested from half of the dams, 0 g while the remaining five dams underwent birth. Spaceflight did not interrupt pregnancy, alter litter sizes, or affect body weights or gender ratios of the fetuses or neonates. Analyses of rats exposed to Hypergravity (HG) at 2.0-g, HG 1.75-g, HG 1.5-g were also conducted. Dams were exposed to continuous centrifugation from G I I through G20, with brief daily stops for animal health checks and maintenance. For both the G20 and Birth dams, comparable litter sizes and litter gender ratios were observed across gravity conditions. However, centrifugation-exposed (HG and RC) fetuses and neonates showed significantly lower body masses (p less than 0.05) relative to SC offspring. FIG 2.0-g offspring weighed significantly less than those in all other gravity conditions (p less than 0.05). Changes in the mothers care of the young will be discussed.

  19. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring: a population-based nationwide study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kosidou, K; Dalman, C; Widman, L; Arver, S; Lee, B K; Magnusson, C; Gardner, R M

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies indicate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms hampers the development of effective ways of detecting and preventing the disorder. Recent studies support the hypothesis that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to the development of ASD. This would suggest that maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with excess androgens, would increase the risk of ASD in the offspring. We conducted a matched case–control study nested within the total population of Sweden (children aged 4–17 who were born in Sweden from 1984 to 2007). The sample consisted of 23 748 ASD cases and 208 796 controls, matched by birth month and year, sex and region of birth. PCOS and ASD were defined from ICD codes through linkage to health-care registers. Maternal PCOS increased the odds of ASD in the offspring by 59%, after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.88). The odds of offspring ASD were further increased among mothers with both PCOS and obesity, a condition common to PCOS that is related to more severe hyperandrogenemia (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.46–3.10). Risk estimates did not differ between sexes. In conclusion, children of women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing ASD. This finding awaits confirmation, and exploration of potentially underlying mechanisms, including the role of sex steroids in the etiology of ASD. PMID:26643539

  20. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring: a population-based nationwide study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kosidou, K; Dalman, C; Widman, L; Arver, S; Lee, B K; Magnusson, C; Gardner, R M

    2016-10-01

    Although many studies indicate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms hampers the development of effective ways of detecting and preventing the disorder. Recent studies support the hypothesis that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to the development of ASD. This would suggest that maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with excess androgens, would increase the risk of ASD in the offspring. We conducted a matched case-control study nested within the total population of Sweden (children aged 4-17 who were born in Sweden from 1984 to 2007). The sample consisted of 23 748 ASD cases and 208 796 controls, matched by birth month and year, sex and region of birth. PCOS and ASD were defined from ICD codes through linkage to health-care registers. Maternal PCOS increased the odds of ASD in the offspring by 59%, after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-1.88). The odds of offspring ASD were further increased among mothers with both PCOS and obesity, a condition common to PCOS that is related to more severe hyperandrogenemia (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.46-3.10). Risk estimates did not differ between sexes. In conclusion, children of women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing ASD. This finding awaits confirmation, and exploration of potentially underlying mechanisms, including the role of sex steroids in the etiology of ASD.

  1. Reward processing deficits and impulsivity in high-risk offspring of alcoholics: A study of event-related potentials during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Bauer, Lance O.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. The goal of the present study is to elucidate reward processing deficits, externalizing disorders, and impulsivity as elicited by electrophysiological, clinical and behavioral measures in subjects at high risk for alcoholism from families densely affected by alcoholism in the context of brain maturation across age groups and gender. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs) and current source density (CSD) during a monetary gambling task (MGT) were measured in 12–25 year old offspring (N = 1864) of families in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) Prospective study; the high risk (HR, N = 1569) subjects were from families densely affected with alcoholism and the low risk (LR, N = 295) subjects were from community families. Externalizing disorders and impulsivity scores were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring from older (16–25 years) male and younger (12–15 years) female subgroups showed lower P3 amplitude than LR subjects. The amplitude decrement was most prominent in HR males during the loss condition. Overall, P3 amplitude increase at anterior sites and decrease at posterior areas were seen in older compared to younger subjects, suggesting frontalization during brain maturation. The HR subgroups also exhibited hypofrontality manifested as weaker CSD activity during both loss and gain conditions at frontal regions. Further, the HR subjects had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders. P3 amplitudes during the gain condition were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. Conclusions Older male and younger female HR offspring, compared to their LR counterparts, manifested reward processing deficits as indexed by lower P3 amplitude and weaker CSD activity, along with higher prevalence of externalizing disorders and higher impulsivity scores

  2. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring: a population-based nationwide study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kosidou, K; Dalman, C; Widman, L; Arver, S; Lee, B K; Magnusson, C; Gardner, R M

    2016-10-01

    Although many studies indicate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms hampers the development of effective ways of detecting and preventing the disorder. Recent studies support the hypothesis that prenatal androgen exposure contributes to the development of ASD. This would suggest that maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with excess androgens, would increase the risk of ASD in the offspring. We conducted a matched case-control study nested within the total population of Sweden (children aged 4-17 who were born in Sweden from 1984 to 2007). The sample consisted of 23 748 ASD cases and 208 796 controls, matched by birth month and year, sex and region of birth. PCOS and ASD were defined from ICD codes through linkage to health-care registers. Maternal PCOS increased the odds of ASD in the offspring by 59%, after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-1.88). The odds of offspring ASD were further increased among mothers with both PCOS and obesity, a condition common to PCOS that is related to more severe hyperandrogenemia (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.46-3.10). Risk estimates did not differ between sexes. In conclusion, children of women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing ASD. This finding awaits confirmation, and exploration of potentially underlying mechanisms, including the role of sex steroids in the etiology of ASD. PMID:26643539

  3. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  4. Study of Active Faults in the Three Gorges Dam region by Detecting and Relocating Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Zhu, L.; Xu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismicity in the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region and its adjacent areas increased dramatically as the water- level of the TGD reservoir rises since its completion in 2003. Accordingly, many efforts have been put forward to quantify the seismicity and geological hazards in the region. However, the precise detective of earthquakes, especially for the minor ones, remains difficulty because of sparse distribution of permanent seismic stations. From December 2013 to June 2014, we deployed 30 three-component broadband seismic stations in the TGD region. During the deployment, we recorded two earthquakes of magnitudes lager than 5.0, one occurred on December 16th 2013 in Badong and another on March 30th 2014 in Zigui. We firstly used a sliding-window cross-correlation (SCC) detection technique to supplement the events catalog from the China Earthquake Networks Center. Over 500 new events with ML lager than 0.5 were detected. We then relocated 502 events out of the total 987 events using the double-difference (DD) relocation algorithm. We also determined moment tensors of some large earthquakes using gCAP. The results clearly show two active faults along Yangtze River with dips of 50 degrees and 90 degrees to a maximum depth of 10 km, respectively. And they also reveal that water might have permeated to a depth of 6 km corresponds to the interface of sediments and metamorphic basement beneath Zigui Basin. We thus preliminarily judge that the quakes are triggered by local stress adjustment resulting of fluctuation of Three Gorges reservoir's loading.

  5. Different effects by sex on hypothalamic-pituitary axis of prepubertal offspring rats produced by in utero and lactational exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).

    PubMed

    Carbone, S; Samaniego, Y A; Cutrera, R; Reynoso, R; Cardoso, N; Scacchi, P; Moguilevsky, J A; Ponzo, O J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of pre and perinatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the neuroendocrine parameters that regulate reproduction in prepubertal male and female rats. DEHP at doses of 3 and 30mg/kgbw/day was administered orally in the drinking water to dam rats since pregnancy onset until the moment of pups sacrifice at 15 days of age. In these animals gonadotropin serum level and the hypothalamic contents of the amino acids aspartate, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid were determined. No changes in gonadotropin levels and amino acid neurotransmitters were detected at the low dose in both sexes. However, DEHP administered at high dose (30mg/kgbw/day) to dams produced a significant decrease in the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and an increase in the stimulatory neurotransmitter aspartate in prepubertal male offspring rats. These modifications were accompanied by gonadotropin serum levels increase. On the contrary, in treated female rats this chemical increased both, aspartate and GABA, which exert a characteristic stimulatory action on gonadotropin in 15-day-old normal females. This study provides new data about changes produced by DEHP on the hypothalamic amino acid neurotransmitters involved in the neuroendocrine reproductive regulation, in prepubertal male and female rat offspring from dams exposed during gestational and lactational periods. These alterations induced by DEHP exposure could be related to the gonadotropin modifications also described in this work, and with changes in the production of sexual hormones previously reported by other authors.

  6. The lost study: a 1998 adoption study of personality that found no genetic relationship between birthparents and their 240 adopted-away biological offspring.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, Robert Plomin and his Colorado Adoption Project (CAP) colleagues published the results of a longitudinal adoption study of personality. They found an average personality test score correlation of only 0.01 between birthparents and their 240 adopted-away 16-year-old biological offspring, suggesting no genetic influences on personality. However, the researchers interpreted their results in the context of previous twin studies, produced an average 14% heritability estimate, and concluded that nonadditive genetic factors underlie personality traits. The author challenges these conclusions and notes that the near-zero correlation stands in contrast to other types of behavioral genetic methods, such as twin studies, that are more vulnerable to environmental confounds and other biases. The author shows that authoritative psychology texts frequently fail to mention this 1998 CAP study. When it is mentioned, the original researchers' conclusions are usually accepted without critical analysis. The author also assesses the results in the context of the 20-year failure to discover the genes that behavioral geneticists believe underlie personality traits. He concludes that this 1998 investigation is a "lost study" in the sense that, although it is one of the most methodologically sound behavioral genetic studies ever performed, its results are largely unknown.

  7. PERSPECTIVE ON LANDSLIDE DAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Costa, John E.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and soil slumps and slides; mud, debris, and earth flows: and rock and debris avalanches. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snow melt, and earthquakes. Most landslide dams are remarkable short-lived. In a sample of 63 documented cases, 22 percent of the landslide dams failed in less than 1 day after formation, and half failed within 10 days. Overtopping was by far the most frequent cause of landslide-dam failure. Backwater flooding behind landslide dams can inundate communities and valuable agricultural land. Floods from the failure of landslide dams are smaller than floods from constructed dams impounding bodies of water with the same potential energy, but larger than floods from failure of ice dams. Secondary effects of landslide-dam failures include additional landslides as reservoir levels drop rapidly, aggradation of valleys upstream and downstream of the dams, and avulsive channel changes downstream.

  8. The offspring-development-time/offspring-number trade-off.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Juan; López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2012-06-01

    The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) states that metabolic rate, ruled mainly by individual mass and temperature, determines many other biological rates. This view of ecology as ruled by the laws of physics and thermodynamics contrasts with life-history-optimization (LHO) theories, where traits are shaped by evolutionary processes. Integrating the MTE and LHO can lead, however, to a synthetic theory of ecology. In this work, we link the two theories to show that offspring development time is the result of both maternal investment in offspring and the metabolic constraints on offspring growth. We formulate a model that captures how offspring development time is the consequence of both offspring growth rate, determined by temperature and allometric scaling in accordance with the MTE, and the size reached by offspring at the end of the developmental period, determined mainly by LHO and reproductive strategies. We first extend the trade-off between offspring size and offspring number to ectotherms, showing that increased body temperatures result in increased resources available for reproduction. We then combine this trade-off with the general ontogenetic growth model to show that there is a trade-off between the number of offspring produced and offspring development time. The model predicts a shorter developmental time in organisms producing larger numbers of offspring.

  9. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  10. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  11. Longitudinal sediment-connectivity in a dammed river system using fine sediment analyses - a case study in the Kaja river, Lower Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, R.; Poeppl, R. E.; Glade, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the recent past the concept of connectivity gained increased significance for the understanding of the linkage between different subsystems within river channels and catchments. Based on fine sediment (<2mm) analyses the main objective of the presented work is to analyse the impact of a dam on the longitudinal sediment connectivity in a river channel. The study sites are located alongside the "Kaja" river (lower Austria), which has a catchment area of about 21.3km2. The river is characterised by a series of dams whereof the present work deals with the so called "Sagteich". Measurements of suspended load as well as fine sediment samples from pool-sections were collected up- and downstream of the dam. The suspended load concentrations where analysed by weighting the water and sediment amount. The grain size distribution of the sediment samples from the pool-sections were measured with sieving as well as pipette analyses. The results of the suspended load analysis reveal that the dam is a strong disconnecting factor in longitudinal direction. This disconnectivity cannot be confirmed for fine sediments, which have been determined from the sediment samples collected in the pool-sections. It is argued, that the lateral input of sediments alters the grain size distribution in pool-sections and consequently, any interpretation of longitudinal sediment connectivity, or disconnectivity has to be regarded with reservation in this fraction.

  12. How to update design floods after the construction of small reservoirs and check dams: A case study from the Daqinghe river basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianzhu; Sun, Huafeng; Feng, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Several small reservoirs and a large number of check dams had been constructed in the Wangkuai reservoir watershed after 1970s, and flood time series lacked stationarity, which affected the original design flood hydrographs for the Wangkuai reservoir. Since the location, storage capacity and drainage area of the large number of check dams were unknown, we present a method to estimate their total storage capacities (TSC) and total drainage areas (TDA) by using the recorded rainstorm and flood data. On the basis of TSC and TDA, the flood events which occurred in an undisturbed period were reconstructed under current conditions to obtain a stationary flood series. A frequency analysis was subsequently performed to assess the design flood peak and volume for both small and medium design floods with a 10-200 year return period. For large and catastrophic floods, it was assumed that the upstream check dams and small reservoirs would be destroyed, and water stored in these hydraulic structures were re-routed to the Wangkuai reservoir by unit hydrograph. The modified flood peak and volume decreased for floods with a 10-200 year return period when compared to the current design flood. But for large design floods with a return period exceeding 500 years, peak discharge increased. This study provides a new method for design flood calculation or modification of the original design flood in watersheds with a large number of check dams.

  13. Floods from tailings dam failures.

    PubMed

    Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A

    2008-06-15

    This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes.

  14. Protective effect of rosemary on acrylamide motor neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rat offspring: postnatal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gholam, Marwa A.; El-Mehi, Abeer E.; El-Barbary, Abd El-Moneum; Fokar, Ahmed Zo El

    2016-01-01

    The direct interactive effects of rosemary and acrylamide on the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord remains unknown. Our goal is to confirm the protective effects of rosemary against motor neuronal degeneration induced by acrylamide in the developing postnatal rat spinal cord using a postnatal rat model. We assigned the offspring of treated female rats into control, rosemary; acrylamide group; and recovery groups. This work depended on clinical, histopathological, morphometrically, immunohistochemical and genetic methods. In the acrylamide group, we observed oxidation, motor neuron degeneration, apoptosis, myelin degeneration, neurofilament reduction, reactive gliosis. Whoever, concomitant rosemary intake and withdrawal of acrylamide modulate these effects. These findings proof that dietary rosemary can directly protect motor neuron against acrylamide toxicity in the mammalian developing spinal cord. PMID:27051566

  15. Protective effect of rosemary on acrylamide motor neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rat offspring: postnatal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Al-Gholam, Marwa A; Nooh, Hanaa Zakaria; El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Barbary, Abd El-Moneum; Fokar, Ahmed Zo El

    2016-03-01

    The direct interactive effects of rosemary and acrylamide on the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord remains unknown. Our goal is to confirm the protective effects of rosemary against motor neuronal degeneration induced by acrylamide in the developing postnatal rat spinal cord using a postnatal rat model. We assigned the offspring of treated female rats into control, rosemary; acrylamide group; and recovery groups. This work depended on clinical, histopathological, morphometrically, immunohistochemical and genetic methods. In the acrylamide group, we observed oxidation, motor neuron degeneration, apoptosis, myelin degeneration, neurofilament reduction, reactive gliosis. Whoever, concomitant rosemary intake and withdrawal of acrylamide modulate these effects. These findings proof that dietary rosemary can directly protect motor neuron against acrylamide toxicity in the mammalian developing spinal cord. PMID:27051566

  16. Protective effect of rosemary on acrylamide motor neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rat offspring: postnatal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Al-Gholam, Marwa A; Nooh, Hanaa Zakaria; El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Barbary, Abd El-Moneum; Fokar, Ahmed Zo El

    2016-03-01

    The direct interactive effects of rosemary and acrylamide on the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord remains unknown. Our goal is to confirm the protective effects of rosemary against motor neuronal degeneration induced by acrylamide in the developing postnatal rat spinal cord using a postnatal rat model. We assigned the offspring of treated female rats into control, rosemary; acrylamide group; and recovery groups. This work depended on clinical, histopathological, morphometrically, immunohistochemical and genetic methods. In the acrylamide group, we observed oxidation, motor neuron degeneration, apoptosis, myelin degeneration, neurofilament reduction, reactive gliosis. Whoever, concomitant rosemary intake and withdrawal of acrylamide modulate these effects. These findings proof that dietary rosemary can directly protect motor neuron against acrylamide toxicity in the mammalian developing spinal cord.

  17. High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Pedro S. P.; Dodington, David W.; Mollard, Rebecca C.; Reza-López, Sandra A.; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Cho, Clara E.; Kuk, Justin; Ward, Wendy E.; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol) have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol) or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol) amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P = 0.03) and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P = 0.03), compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P = 0.01) and density (4%, P = 0.002) of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P = 0.01) and stiffness (P = 0.002). However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring. PMID:23781391

  18. In-situ gamma-ray survey of rare-earth tailings dams--A case study in Baotou and Bayan Obo Districts, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baochuan; Wang, Nanping; Wan, Jianhua; Xiong, Shengqing; Liu, Hongtao; Li, Shijun; Zhao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer survey with a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75 mm × 75 mm) was carried out in the Baotou and Bayan Obo Districts in order to estimate the levels of natural radionuclides near rare-earth (RE) tailings dams. In the RE tailings dam of Baotou, the mean concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg (range: 1.9-4.6 mg/kg) and 321 ± 31 mg/kg (range: 294-355 mg/kg), respectively. In the Bayan Obo tailings dam, the mean concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were 5.7 ± 0.5 mg/kg (range: 5.3-6.1 mg/kg) and 276 ± 0.5 mg/kg (range: 275.5-276.3 mg/kg), respectively. The average (232)Th concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7 ± 7.5 and 26.2 ± 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. The (232)Th concentration recorded in the tailings dams was much higher than the global average (7.44 mg/kg). Our investigation shows that the (232)Th concentration in the tailings in the Baotou dam was 34.6 times greater than that in the local soil (in Guyang County); the average concentrations of (232)Th in the soil in the Baotou District and Bayan Obo Districts were about 1.35 and 2.82 times greater, respectively, than that in the soil in Guyang County. Based on our results, the highest estimated effective dose due to gamma irradiation was 1.15 mSv per year, estimated from the data observed in the Baotou tailings dams. The results of this preliminary study indicate the potential importance of radioactivity in RE tailings dams and that remedial measures may be required. PMID:26555365

  19. In-situ gamma-ray survey of rare-earth tailings dams--A case study in Baotou and Bayan Obo Districts, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baochuan; Wang, Nanping; Wan, Jianhua; Xiong, Shengqing; Liu, Hongtao; Li, Shijun; Zhao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer survey with a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75 mm × 75 mm) was carried out in the Baotou and Bayan Obo Districts in order to estimate the levels of natural radionuclides near rare-earth (RE) tailings dams. In the RE tailings dam of Baotou, the mean concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg (range: 1.9-4.6 mg/kg) and 321 ± 31 mg/kg (range: 294-355 mg/kg), respectively. In the Bayan Obo tailings dam, the mean concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were 5.7 ± 0.5 mg/kg (range: 5.3-6.1 mg/kg) and 276 ± 0.5 mg/kg (range: 275.5-276.3 mg/kg), respectively. The average (232)Th concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7 ± 7.5 and 26.2 ± 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. The (232)Th concentration recorded in the tailings dams was much higher than the global average (7.44 mg/kg). Our investigation shows that the (232)Th concentration in the tailings in the Baotou dam was 34.6 times greater than that in the local soil (in Guyang County); the average concentrations of (232)Th in the soil in the Baotou District and Bayan Obo Districts were about 1.35 and 2.82 times greater, respectively, than that in the soil in Guyang County. Based on our results, the highest estimated effective dose due to gamma irradiation was 1.15 mSv per year, estimated from the data observed in the Baotou tailings dams. The results of this preliminary study indicate the potential importance of radioactivity in RE tailings dams and that remedial measures may be required.

  20. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  1. [The effect of meclofenoxate on the growth, fertility and number of offspring in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Neumann, H J

    1985-01-01

    In experiments with rats concerning teratological aspects of meclofenoxate it was demonstrated that this drug reduces the teratogenicity in Wistar rats. Meclofenoxate leads in the fetuses of rats to a significant increase of the weight when the dams were treated prenatally with the ester. Besides, meclofenoxate causes in continuous series of generations an increase of fertility which results in a higher number of offsprings.

  2. Maternal overweight induces integrative changes in gene expression in the offspring in metabolically active tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW rat dams (Sprague Dawley) gain greater body weight (p less than 0.005), fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45 percent fat). Hepatic microarray analyses ...

  3. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  4. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  5. Studies on the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-06-01

    The Buffalo River and its dams are major surface water sources used for fresh produce irrigation, raw water abstraction and recreation in parts of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Over a 12-month period (August 2010 to July 2011), we assessed the bacteriological qualities of water from the river and 3 source water dams along its course. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC) and enterococci (ENT) counts, were high and ranged as follows: 1.9 × 10(2)-3.8 × 10(7), 0-3.0 × 10(5) and 0-5.3 × 10(5) cfu/100 ml for TC, FC and ENT, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher concentrations of FC and ENT were observed at the sampling sites located at the lower reaches of the river compared to the upper reaches, and at Bridle Drift Dam compared to the other two dams. FIB counts mostly exceeded the recommended maximum values suggested by national and international guidelines for safe fresh produce irrigation, domestic applications, full-contact recreation and livestock watering. These results show that the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and dams were poor, and suggest that sewage was dumped into the Buffalo River during the study period. Urban runoffs and effluents of wastewater treatment plants appear to be important sources of faecal contamination in the river. We conclude that these water bodies represent significant public health hazards. Provision of adequate sanitary infrastructure will help prevent source water contamination, and public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is imperative.

  6. Using seasonal forecasts in a drought forecasting system for water management: case-study of the Arzal dam in Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochemore, Louise; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Perrin, Charles; Penasso, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    The Arzal dam is located at the outlet of the Vilaine River basin (10,000 km2) in Brittany, France. It controls a reservoir (50 hm3) managed for multiple water uses: drinking water, flood control, irrigation, sailing and fish by-passing. Its location in the estuary creates a physical divide between upstream freshwater and downstream saline water. The reservoir thus plays an essential role in the regional water management system. Its operational management during the summer season poses several challenges, mainly related to the quantification of future water inflows and the risks of having restricted water availability for its different uses. Indeed, the occurrence of severe drought periods between May and October may increase the risk of salt intrusion and drinking water contamination due to lock operations. Therefore it is important to provide decision-makers with reliable low-flow forecasts and risk-based visualization tools, which will support their choice of the best strategy for allocation of water among different users and stakeholders. This study focuses on an integrated hydro-meteorological forecasting system developed to forecast low flows upstream the Arzal dam and based on a lumped hydrological model. Medium-range meteorological forecasts from the ECMWF ensemble prediction system (51 scenarios up to 9 days ahead) are combined with seasonal meteorological forecasts also from ECMWF to provide extended streamflow forecasts for the summer period. The performance of the forecasts obtained by this method is compared with the performance of two benchmarks: (i) flow forecasts obtained using an ensemble of past observed precipitation series as precipitation scenarios, i.e. without any use of forecasts from meteorological models and (ii) flow forecasts obtained using the seasonal forecasts only, i.e. without medium-term information. First, the performance of ensemble forecasts is evaluated and compared by means of probabilistic scores. Then, a risk

  7. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  8. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Søren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T(4)), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T(4)) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T(4) deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the reproductive and

  9. Toward policies and decision-making for dam removal.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Harbor, Jon M; Stanley, Emily H

    2003-04-01

    Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and most agencies faced with dam removal lack a coherent purpose for removing dams. These shortcomings can be overcome by the implementation of two policies by agencies faced with dam removal: (1) the development and adoption of a prioritization scheme for what constitutes an important dam removal, and (2) the establishment of minimum levels of analysis prior to decision-making about a dam removal. Federal and state agencies and the scientific community must encourage an initial experimental phase of dam removal during which only a few dams are removed, and these are studied intensively. This will allow for the development of the fundamental scientific understanding needed to support effective decision-making in the future and minimize the risk of disasters arising from poorly thought out dam removal decisions. PMID:12677292

  10. Toward policies and decision-making for dam removal.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Harbor, Jon M; Stanley, Emily H

    2003-04-01

    Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and most agencies faced with dam removal lack a coherent purpose for removing dams. These shortcomings can be overcome by the implementation of two policies by agencies faced with dam removal: (1) the development and adoption of a prioritization scheme for what constitutes an important dam removal, and (2) the establishment of minimum levels of analysis prior to decision-making about a dam removal. Federal and state agencies and the scientific community must encourage an initial experimental phase of dam removal during which only a few dams are removed, and these are studied intensively. This will allow for the development of the fundamental scientific understanding needed to support effective decision-making in the future and minimize the risk of disasters arising from poorly thought out dam removal decisions.

  11. Gestational and lactational exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254 modulates retinoid homeostasis in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Javier; Elabbas, Lubna E; Borg, Daniel; Herlin, Maria; Åkesson, Agneta; Barber, Xavier; Hamscher, Gerd; Nau, Heinz; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Viluksela, Matti; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-08-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a broad spectrum of biochemical and toxic effects in mammals including alterations of the vital retinoid (vitamin A) system. The aim of this study was to characterize alterations of tissue retinoid levels in rat offspring and their dams following gestational and lactational exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) and to assess the interrelationship of these changes with other established sensitive biochemical and toxicological endpoints. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were exposed orally to 0 or 15 mg/kg body weight/day of A1254 from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Livers, kidneys and serum were collected from the offspring on PNDs 35, 77 and 350. Tissue and serum retinoid levels, hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and serum thyroid hormones were analyzed. A multivariate regression between A1254 treatment, hepatic retinoid levels, hepatic CYP enzymes activities, thyroid hormone levels and body/liver weights was performed using an orthogonal partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. The contribution of dioxin-like (DL) components of A1254 to the observed effects was also estimated using the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concept. In both male and female offspring short-term alterations in tissue retinoid levels occurred at PND35, i.e. decreased levels of hepatic retinol and retinoic acid (RA) metabolite 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA with concurrent increases in hepatic and renal all-trans-RA levels. Long-term changes consisted of decreased hepatic retinyl palmitate and increased renal retinol levels that were apparent until PND350. Retinoid system alterations were associated with altered CYP enzyme activities and serum thyroid hormone levels as well as body and liver weights in both offspring and dams. The estimated DL activity was within an order of magnitude of the theoretical TEQ for different endpoints, indicating significant involvement of DL congeners in the observed effects. This study shows that tissue retinoid

  12. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children: a study of mother–offspring pairs from two cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew; Gaunt, Tom R.; Lyttleton, Oliver; Mcardle, Wendy L.; Ring, Susan M.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Tilling, Kate; Horvath, Steve; Kunze, Sonja; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ward-Caviness, Cavin; Nohr, Ellen A.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Relton, Caroline L.; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation-based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration (AA) in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental determinants of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time-points in 1018 mother–child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples. AA was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal characteristics in pregnancy, namely smoking, weight, BMI, selenium and cholesterol level. Offspring of non-drinkers had higher AA on average but this difference appeared to resolve during childhood. The associations between sex, birth weight and AA found in ARIES were replicated in an independent cohort (GOYA). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding of aging. PMID:26546615

  13. Metyrapone Blocks Maternal Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Female Rat Offspring Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yishi; Corral, Julia; Saraswat, Aditi; Husain, Sumair; Dhar, Ankita; Sakurai, Reiko; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) during pregnancy affects pulmonary surfactant production in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring through unknown mechanisms. Since pulmonary surfactant production is regulated by maternal and fetal corticosteroid levels, both known to be increased in IUGR pregnancies, we hypothesized that metyrapone (MTP), a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, would block the effects of MFR on surfactant production in the offspring. Three groups of pregnant rat dams were used (1) control dams fed ad libitum; (2) MFR (50% reduction in calories) from days 10 to 22 of gestation; and (3) MFR + MTP in drinking water (0.5 mg/mL), days 11 to 22 of gestation. At 5 months, the MFR offspring weighed significantly more, had reduced alveolar number, increased septal thickness, and decreased surfactant protein and phospholipid synthesis. These MFR-induced effects were normalized by the antiglucocorticoid MTP, suggesting that the stress of MFR causes hypercorticoidism, altering lung structure and function in adulthood. PMID:24023031

  14. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to triphenyltin chloride on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Grote, Konstanze; Hobler, Carolin; Andrade, Anderson J M; Grande, Simone Wichert; Gericke, Christine; Talsness, Chris E; Appel, Klaus E; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2007-09-01

    The organotin compound (OTC) triphenyltin (TPT) is used extensively as a herbicide, pesticide and fungicide in agriculture as well as, together with tributyltin (TBT), in marine antifouling paints. We studied the effects of in utero exposure to 2 or 6 mg triphenyltinchloride (TPTCl)/kgb.w. on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring. Gravid Wistar rats were treated per gavage from gestational day 6 until the end of lactation. In the 6 mg TPTCl dose group gestational mortality in dams as well as an increased incidence of anticipated and delayed parturition was observed. Furthermore, treatment resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality, a decrease in lactational body weight gain as well as in delayed physical maturation of offspring. Similarily, exposure to 2mg TPTCl/kgb.w. resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality and in delayed eye opening. Lactational body weight gain and other landmarks of physical maturation were unaffected in the low dose group. We conclude, that in utero exposure to TPTCl at the described dose levels severely affected pregnancy outcome and perinatal survival of offspring. These results were unexpected, as in two earlier studies with pubertal rats TPTCl at the same dose levels no signs of general toxicity were observed. PMID:17644232

  15. Prenatal Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water and Selected Birth Defects in Offspring of Participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Peter J.; Romitti, Paul A.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shinde, Mayura U.; Vuong, Ann M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A.; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C.; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Griesenbeck, John S.; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H.; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. Objectives: We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. Methods: With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses of 3,300 case mothers and 1,121 control mothers from the Iowa and Texas sites to public water supplies and respective nitrate measurements. We assigned nitrate levels for bottled water from collection of representative samples and standard laboratory testing. Daily nitrate consumption was estimated from self-reported water consumption at home and work. Results: With the lowest tertile of nitrate intake around conception as the referent group, mothers of babies with spina bifida were 2.0 times more likely (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) to ingest ≥ 5 mg nitrate daily from drinking water (vs. < 0.91 mg) than control mothers. During 1 month preconception through the first trimester, mothers of limb deficiency, cleft palate, and cleft lip cases were, respectively, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.1), 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.1) times more likely than control mothers to ingest ≥ 5.42 mg of nitrate daily (vs. < 1.0 mg). Higher water nitrate intake did not increase associations between prenatal nitrosatable drug use and birth defects. Conclusions: Higher water nitrate intake was associated with several birth defects in offspring, but did not strengthen associations between nitrosatable drugs and birth defects. Citation: Brender JD, Weyer PJ, Romitti PA, Mohanty BP, Shinde MU, Vuong AM, Sharkey JR, Dwivedi D, Horel SA, Kantamneni J, Huber JC Jr., Zheng Q, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Griesenbeck JS, Zhan FB, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Canfield MA, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

  16. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 51. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- TAINTER GATE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT. M-L 26(R) 45/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  18. Preconception Alcohol Increases Offspring Vulnerability to Stress.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Shaima; Chastain, Lucy G; Gangisetty, Omkaram; Cabrera, Miguel A; Sochacki, Kamil; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-10-01

    The effect of preconception drinking by the mother on the life-long health outcomes of her children is not known, and therefore, in this study using an animal model, we determined the impact of preconception alcohol drinking of the mother on offspring stress response during adulthood. In our preconception alcohol exposure model, adult female rats were fed with 6.7% alcohol in their diet for 4 weeks, went without alcohol for 3 weeks and were bred to generate male and female offspring. Preconception alcohol-exposed offsprings' birth weight, body growth, stress response, anxiety-like behaviors, and changes in stress regulatory gene and protein hormone levels were evaluated. In addition, roles of epigenetic mechanisms in preconception alcohol effects were determined. Alcohol feeding three weeks prior to conception significantly affected pregnancy outcomes of female rats, with respect to delivery period and birth weight of offspring, without affecting maternal care behaviors. Preconception alcohol negatively affected offspring adult health, producing an increased stress hormone response to an immune challenge. In addition, preconception alcohol was associated with changes in expression and methylation profiles of stress regulatory genes in various brain areas. These changes in stress regulatory genes were normalized following treatment with a DNA methylation blocker during the postnatal period. These data highlight the novel possibility that preconception alcohol affects the inheritance of stress-related diseases possibly by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27296153

  19. Maternal exposure to fish oil primes offspring to harbor intestinal pathobionts associated with altered immune cell balance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D L; Gill, S K; Brown, K; Tasnim, N; Ghosh, S; Innis, S; Jacobson, K

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that offspring from rat dams fed fish oil (at 8% and 18% energy), developed impaired intestinal barriers sensitizing the colon to exacerbated injury later in life. To discern the mechanism, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to fish oil, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), caused abnormal intestinal reparative responses to mucosal injury through differences in intestinal microbiota and the presence of naïve immune cells. To identify such mechanisms, gut microbes and naïve immune cells were compared between rat pups born to dams fed either n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA or breeder chow. Maternal exposure to either of the PUFA rich diets altered the development of the intestinal microbiota with an overall reduction in microbial density. Using qPCR, we found that each type of PUFA differentially altered the major gut phyla; fish oil increased Bacteroidetes and safflower oil increased Firmicutes. Both PUFA diets reduced microbes known to dominate the infant gut like Enterobacteriaceae and Bifidobacteria spp. when compared to the chow group. Uniquely, maternal fish oil diets resulted in offspring showing blooms of opportunistic pathogens like Bilophila wadsworthia, Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides fragilis in their gut microbiota. As well, fish oil groups showed a reduction in colonic CD8+ T cells, CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells and arginase+ M2 macrophages. In conclusion, fish oil supplementation in pharmacological excess, at 18% by energy as shown in this study, provides an example where excess dosing in utero can prime offspring to harbor intestinal pathobionts and alter immune cell homeostasis. PMID:25559197

  20. Supplementation of the maternal diet during pregnancy with chocolate and fructose interacts with the high-fat diet of the young to facilitate the onset of metabolic disorders in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yun; Dai, Yun-Bin; Wang, Hao-Nan; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the most common metabolic disorders in society today. Previously, we found that supplementing the maternal diet during pregnancy with chocolate and fructose has negative effects on the well-being of the offspring that were ameliorated if the offspring were fed a normal diet during postnatal life. In the present study, we investigated whether feeding offspring a high-fat diet would augment the maternal programming effects and whether extra protein supply can correct the low birth weight resulting from the chocolate-supplemented maternal diet. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed either standard chow (normal nutrition; NN), chocolate- and fructose-supplemented standard chow with casein sodium (overnutrition; ON) or the supplemented standard chow without casein sodium (malnutrition; MN) throughout pregnancy. Male offspring were weaned on either standard or high-fat chow. Dams in the MN group exhibited moderate weight gain, consumed 50% less protein (P < 0.001) but more carbohydrates during gestation and delivered pups with a 12% lower birth weight (P < 0.05) than pups in the NN group, results that are consistent with previous findings. When fed on a high-fat diet after birth, pups from dams in the MN group (MNHD) had 30% more body fat (P = 0.023) and liver triglyceride (TG) levels that were double (P < 0.01) those in offspring in the other groups, leading to fatty livers in these offspring at 14 weeks of age. Hepatic expression of the PPARα, ApoB100, MTTP, CPT1 and SREBP1c genes was significantly downregulated in the MNHD group (P < 0.05 for all), indicating changes in lipid metabolism. Although dams in the ON group exhibited marked gestational weight gain (P < 0.01), they gave birth to normal weight pups that only manifested mild increases in body fat and liver TG content (P < 0.05), without significant changes in the expression of most genes when fed with the high-fat diet. The results

  1. Maternal exposure to environmental enrichment before and during gestation influences behaviour of rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Zuena, Anna Rita; Zinni, Manuela; Giuli, Chiara; Cinque, Carlo; Alemà, Giovanni Sebastiano; Giuliani, Alessandro; Catalani, Assia; Casolini, Paola; Cozzolino, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The beneficial effects of Environmental Enrichment (EE) applied immediately after weaning or even in adulthood have been widely demonstrated. Less is known about the possible changes in behaviour and brain development of the progeny following the exposure of dams to EE. In order to further investigate this matter, female rats were reared in EE for 12weeks, from weaning until delivery. After having confirmed the presence of relevant behavioural effects of EE, both control and EE females underwent mating. Maternal behaviour was observed and male and female offspring were then administered a battery of behavioural test at different ages. EE mothers showed a decreased frequency of total nursing and, during the first 2days of lactation, an increase in licking/grooming behaviour. Maternal exposure to EE affected offspring behaviour in a sex-specific manner: social play behaviour and anxiety-like behaviour were increased in males but not in females and learning ability was improved only in females. As a general trend, maternal EE had a marked influence on motility in male and female offspring in both locomotor activity and swimming speed. Overall, this study highlights the importance of environmental stimulation, not only in the animals directly experiencing EE, but for their progeny too, opening the way to new hypothesis on the heritability mechanisms of behavioural traits.

  2. Intake of grape procyanidins during gestation and lactation impairs reverse cholesterol transport and increases atherogenic risk indexes in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Del Bas, Josep Maria; Crescenti, Anna; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Arola, Lluís; Caimari, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases in humans. Different studies have identified dietary procyanidins as bioactive compounds with beneficial properties against CVD by improving lipid homeostasis, among other mechanisms. The aim of this work was to assess whether grape seed procyanidin consumption at a physiological dose during the perinatal period could influence the CVD risk of the offspring. Wistar rat dams were treated with a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE; 25mg/kg of body weight per day) or vehicle during gestation and lactation. The adult male offspring of GSPE-treated dams presented decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased total cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratios and an exacerbated fasting triglyceride-to-HDL-C ratios (atherogenic index of plasma) compared to the control group. Impaired reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) was evidenced by the accumulation of cholesterol in skeletal muscle and by decreased fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, which was consistent with the observed mRNA down-regulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the hepatic bile acid synthesis pathway Cyp7A1. Conversely, GSPE programming also resulted in up-regulated gene expression of different key components of the RCT process, such as hepatic Npc1, Abcg1, Abca1, Lxra, Srebp2, Lcat, Scarb1 and Pltp, and the repression of microRNA miR-33a expression, a key negative controller of hepatic RCT at the gene expression level. Our results show that maternal intake of grape procyanidins during the perinatal period impacts different components of the RCT process, resulting in increased CVD risk in the adult offspring. PMID:26365577

  3. Foster dams rear fighters: strain-specific effects of within-strain fostering on aggressive behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; So, Nina L T; Rissman, Emilie F

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering"). In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering") is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (DBA). We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species.

  4. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  5. Experimental research on the dam-break mechanisms of the Jiadanwan landslide dam triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Zhou, Jia-wen; Hao, Ming-hui

    2013-01-01

    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation.

  6. Experimental Research on the Dam-Break Mechanisms of the Jiadanwan Landslide Dam Triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Hao, Ming-hui

    2013-01-01

    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:23844387

  7. Dammed or Damned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes issues raised at a workshop on "People and Dams" organized by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia. Objectives were to (1) understand problems created by dams for people, (2) consider forces affecting displaced populations and rehabilitation efforts, and (3) gain a perspective on popular education efforts among affected…

  8. The association between maternal-reported responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and 6 months and offspring depression at 18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine J; Kessler, David; Fernyhough, Charles; Lewis, Glyn; Pearson, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between maternal response to infant crying and the psychological health of the child in later life. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort, consisting of 15,247 pregnancies, 10,278 with exposure variables and 3201 complete cases were identified as having exposure, covariate and outcome data. Using a postal questionnaire, mothers were asked regarding their infant at 4 weeks and 6 months, 'If they cry what do you do?': (a) pick them up immediately; (b) if they cry, leave them for a while, and if they do not stop, pick them up; or (c) never pick them up until you are ready. Outcome was an International Statistical Classification-10th revision criteria (ICD-10) diagnosis of depression at 18 years for the infant. Offspring of mothers who at 4 weeks reported that they never picked their infants up until they were ready were more likely to have depression at 18 years (OR = 2.06, CI 0.95-4.47, adjusted for sociodemographic confounding variables). There was no evidence for an association at 6 months. Including adjustment variables reduced the strength of our association; an observed objective measure of maternal response rather than a self-report may have more accurately determined the mother's actual responses. There is some evidence for an association between maternal reporting of responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and risk of developing depression at 18 years. If this association is found to be causal, interventions encouraging mothers to represent and respond to their infants' emotional states may help prevent offspring depression. PMID:26837614

  9. The association between maternal-reported responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and 6 months and offspring depression at 18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine J; Kessler, David; Fernyhough, Charles; Lewis, Glyn; Pearson, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between maternal response to infant crying and the psychological health of the child in later life. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort, consisting of 15,247 pregnancies, 10,278 with exposure variables and 3201 complete cases were identified as having exposure, covariate and outcome data. Using a postal questionnaire, mothers were asked regarding their infant at 4 weeks and 6 months, 'If they cry what do you do?': (a) pick them up immediately; (b) if they cry, leave them for a while, and if they do not stop, pick them up; or (c) never pick them up until you are ready. Outcome was an International Statistical Classification-10th revision criteria (ICD-10) diagnosis of depression at 18 years for the infant. Offspring of mothers who at 4 weeks reported that they never picked their infants up until they were ready were more likely to have depression at 18 years (OR = 2.06, CI 0.95-4.47, adjusted for sociodemographic confounding variables). There was no evidence for an association at 6 months. Including adjustment variables reduced the strength of our association; an observed objective measure of maternal response rather than a self-report may have more accurately determined the mother's actual responses. There is some evidence for an association between maternal reporting of responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and risk of developing depression at 18 years. If this association is found to be causal, interventions encouraging mothers to represent and respond to their infants' emotional states may help prevent offspring depression.

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Aortic and Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Sonka, Milan; Blecha, Mary Beth; Lin, Wenjiao; Davis, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults. Background Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program. Results The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score. Conclusions Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:19520251

  11. Landslide-dammed lakes detection via ALOS/PALSAR InSAR DEM: A case study of the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Tomohito; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Keishi; Kudou, Katsuteru; Fujii, Hisao; Nishikawa, Hajime; Sensing Specialist Yukihiro Suzuoki, Remote

    On 14th June 2008, the Japan Meteorological Agency recorded a 7.2 magnitude (Richter scale) earthquake with an epicenter depth of 8 km in the southern Iwate prefecture of the Tohoku region of Japan. In the hardest hit prefectures of Iwate and Miyagi, the earthquake produced 15 new landslide-dammed lakes; a phenomenon common when the earthquake hypocenter is within inland areas. In our last study, we demonstrated that interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique can detect surface displacements within centimeter accuracy and create detailed three-dimensional terrain information. In this study, we developed a new methodology to detect landslide-dammed lakes using Digital Drainage Models (DDMs) generated from the DEM's cre-ated with InSAR data. Using our technique, small scale topographical change was detected by comparing pre-earthquake DEM's such as created from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data and post-earthquake DEM's created from the Advanced Land Observing System (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data. Pre-and post-earthquake changes in the drainage networks were detected by comparing DDM features derived from an existing DEM to DDM features derived from a post-earthquake DEM created from ALOS InSAR data. It was verified that landslide-dammed lakes were detected specifically in the area where drainage network with more than three of the river-order computed from DDM's shifted before and after the earthquake. Thus, InSAR DEM generated from ALOS/PALSAR can provide timely and useful spatial information for detecting landslide-dammed lakes.

  12. Postmagmatic magnetite-apatite assemblage in mafic intrusions: a case study of dolerite at Olympic Dam, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apukhtina, Olga B.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; McPhie, Jocelyn; Maas, Roland; Meffre, Sebastien; Goemann, Karsten; Rodemann, Thomas; Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of magnetite and apatite is common worldwide in different ore deposit types, including disparate members of the iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) clan. The Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite deposits, a subtype of the IOCG family, are recognized as economic targets as well. A wide range of competing genetic models exists for magnetite-apatite deposits, including magmatic, magmatic-hydrothermal, hydrothermal(-metasomatic), and sedimentary(-exhalative). The sources and mechanisms of transport and deposition of Fe and P remain highly debatable. This study reports petrographic and geochemical features of the magnetite-apatite-rich vein assemblages in the dolerite dykes of the Gairdner Dyke Swarm (~0.82 Ga) that intruded the Roxby Downs Granite (~0.59 Ga), the host of the supergiant Olympic Dam IOCG deposit. These symmetrical, only few mm narrow veins are prevalent in such dykes and comprise besides usually colloform magnetite and prismatic apatite also further minerals (e.g., calcite, quartz). The genetic relationships between the veins and host dolerite are implied based on alteration in the immediate vicinity (~4 mm) of the veins. In particular, Ti-magnetite-ilmenite is partially to completely transformed to titanite and magmatic apatite disappears. We conclude that the mafic dykes were a local source of Fe and P re-concentrated in the magnetite-apatite veins. Uranium-Pb ages for vein apatite and titanite associated with the vein in this case study suggest that alteration of the dolerite and healing of the fractures occurred shortly after dyke emplacement. We propose that in this particular case the origin of the magnetite-apatite assemblage is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration of the host mafic magmatic rocks.

  13. Socioeconomic and Institutional Dimensions of Dam Removals: The Wisconsin Experience

    PubMed

    Born; Genskow; Filbert; Hernandez-Mora; Keefer; White

    1998-05-01

    / There are tens of thousands of small dams in the United States; many of these aging structures are deteriorating. Governments and dam owners face decisions regarding repair or removal of these structures. Along with the many benefits society derives from dams and their impoundments, numerous recent ecological studies are revealing the extensive alteration and degradation of river ecosystems by dams. Dam removal-a principal restoration strategy-is an infrequent event. The major reasons for removal have been public safety and the high costs associated with repair; the goal of river ecosystem restoration now warrants greater attention. Substantial study is being given to the environmental aspects of dams and dam removals, but very little attention has been given to the socioeconomic and institutional dimensions associated with the removal of dams, although these factors play a significant role in the removal decision-making process. Based on a case study of dam removals in Wisconsin-where more than 30 of the state's 3600 small dams have been removed in the past few decades-legal, financial, and socioeconomic issues associated with dam removal are documented and assessed. Dam removal has been complex and contentious, with limited community-based support for removal and loss of the impounded waters. In cases examined here, the estimated costs of repairing a dam averaged more than three times the cost of removal. The availability of governmental financing has been a key determinant in removal decisions. Watershed-scale ecological considerations are not major factors for most local interests. As watershed management and restoration increasingly include dam removal options as part of an integrated strategy, more attention will need to be focused on socioeconomic factors and stakeholder perspectives-variables that strongly influence the viability of this management alternative.KEY WORDS: Dam removal; River restoration; Institutions; Stakeholders

  14. NMR studies of muscle glycogen synthesis in insulin-resistant offspring of parents with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus immediately after glycogen-depleting exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Price, T B; Perseghin, G; Duleba, A; Chen, W; Chase, J; Rothman, D L; Shulman, R G; Shulman, G I

    1996-01-01

    To examine the impact of insulin resistance on the insulin-dependent and insulin-independent portions of muscle glycogen synthesis during recovery from exercise, we studied eight young, lean, normoglycemic insulin-resistant (IR) offspring of individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and eight age-weight matched control (CON) subjects after plantar flexion exercise that lowered muscle glycogen to approximately 25% of resting concentration. After approximately 20 min of exercise, intramuscular glucose 6-phosphate and glycogen were simultaneously monitored with 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The postexercise rate of glycogen resynthesis was nonlinear. Glycogen synthesis rates during the initial insulin independent portion (0-1 hr of recovery) were similar in the two groups (IR, 15.5 +/- 1.3 mM/hr and CON, 15.8 +/- 1.7 mM/hr); however, over the next 4 hr, insulin-dependent glycogen synthesis was significantly reduced in the IR group [IR, 0.1 +/- 0.5 mM/hr and CON, 2.9 +/- 0.2 mM/hr; (P < or = 0.001)]. After exercise there was an initial rise in glucose 6-phosphate concentrations that returned to baseline after the first hour of recovery in both groups. In summary, we found that following muscle glycogen-depleting exercise, IR offspring of parents with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had (i) normal rates of muscle glycogen synthesis during the insulin-independent phase of recovery from exercise and (ii) severely diminished rates of muscle glycogen synthesis during the subsequent recovery period (2-5 hr), which has previously been shown to be insulin-dependent in normal CON subjects. These data provide evidence that exercise and insulin stimulate muscle glycogen synthesis in humans by different mechanisms and that in the IR subjects the early response to stimulation by exercise is normal. PMID:8643574

  15. Modeling an ancient Iranian dam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; De Schacht, Tijs

    2013-04-01

    In Iran, along the northern and eastern fringes of the Pasargadae plain, five dam remains from the Achaemenid period (550-330 BCE) present an important footprint of the human impact and reshaping of the region. The dams are predominantly found in dry wadi beds. In the framework of the Joint Iranian-French Archaeological Project at Pasargadae, these dam sites were studied and excavated. Located 22 km to the north of Pasargadae in a small wadi, the Sad-i Didegan dam has a watershed of circa 46 square km, small compared with catchments of other known Achaemenid dams. It is an earth built gravity dam of circa 90 m wide, 21 m high and with a crown length of about 150 m. In the lower body of the dam, remains of a feeder canal and an accessible control infrastructure at the downstream flank of the dam were found. To the northwest, the dam site of Sad-i Shahidabad can be found, another large Achaemenid dam, which stored water from the perennial river of the Rud-i Polvar. This dam also had a similar canal and control structure. Close to the Sad-i Didegan area is a large earthwork, found to cross the watershed divide between Didegan and Shahidabad, consisting of a wide V-shaped trench of remarkable size: up to 100 m wide, a total length of at least 900 m and a maximum present day depth of 7.5 m. Even though the construction of the system in this case clearly was left unfinished, the remains echo the major investment of available labor. Given the contemporaneity of both dam sites, it is clear evidence of the more regionally and elaborately planned character of the hydrological endeavors in the Pasargadae area. Only through further study and future fieldwork (also obtaining absolute dating material), this impressive feature will be fully understood. This contribution proposes a possible use of the two dam system using a modern control simulation model. This analysis will also shed light on the question why the system probably never functioned.

  16. Adult exercise effects on oxidative stress and reproductive programming in male offspring of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mery; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Ibáñez, Carlos; Vega, Claudia C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Exercise improves health but few data are available regarding benefits of exercise in offspring exposed to developmental programming. There is currently a worldwide epidemic of obesity. Obesity in pregnant women predisposes offspring to obesity. Maternal obesity has well documented effects on offspring reproduction. Few studies address ability of offspring exercise to reduce adverse outcomes. We observed increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm function in rat offspring of obese mothers. We hypothesized that regular offspring exercise reverses adverse effects of maternal obesity on offspring sperm quality and fertility. Female Wistar rats ate chow (C) or high-energy, obesogenic diet (MO) from weaning through lactation, bred at postnatal day (PND) 120, and ate their pregnancy diet until weaning. All offspring ate C diet from weaning. Five male offspring (different litters) ran on a wheel for 15 min, 5 times/week from PND 330 to 450 and were euthanized at PND 450. Average distance run per session was lower in MO offspring who had higher body weight, adiposity index, and gonadal fat and showed increases in testicular oxidative stress biomarkers. Sperm from MO offspring had reduced antioxidant enzyme activity, lower sperm quality, and fertility. Exercise in MO offspring decreased testicular oxidative stress, increased sperm antioxidant activity and sperm quality, and improved fertility. Exercise intervention has beneficial effects on adiposity index, gonadal fat, oxidative stress markers, sperm quality, and fertility. Thus regular physical exercise in male MO offspring recuperates key male reproductive functions even at advanced age: it's never too late. PMID:25502750

  17. The influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on beef offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mohrhauser, D A; Taylor, A R; Underwood, K R; Pritchard, R H; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Blair, A D

    2015-02-01

    Research has suggested that maternal undernutrition may cause the development of a thrifty phenotype in the offspring, potentially resulting in greater adiposity and reduced muscle mass. These alterations in adipose and muscle development could have lasting impacts on offspring growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. However, limited research exists evaluating the impact of maternal energy status on these economically important traits of the offspring. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of maternal energy status during midgestation on offspring carcass characteristics and meat quality. To alter maternal energy status, cows either grazed dormant, winter range (positive energy status [PES]) or were fed in a drylot at 80% of the energy requirements for BW maintenance (negative energy status [NES]) during a mean period of 102 ± 10.9 to 193 ± 10.9 d of gestation. Changes in BCS, BW, LM area (LMA), and 12th rib backfat were measured throughout midgestation. At the end of midgestation, cows in the NES group had a reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in BCS, BW, LMA, and 12th rib backfat when compared with PES dams. Cows and calves were managed similarly after midgestation through weaning and calves were managed and fed a common diet through the receiving, backgrounding, and finishing phases in the feedlot. Calves were harvested after 208 d in the feedlot, carcass characteristics were recorded, and strip loins were recovered for analysis of objective color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Maternal energy status had no influence on offspring HCW, dressing percent, LMA, percent KPH, marbling score, percent intramuscular fat, objective color, or WBSF (P > 0.10). Progeny of NES cows tended to have improvements in 12th rib backfat and USDA yield grade (P < 0.10). Greater ratio of marbling score to 12th rib fat thickness and ratio of percent intramuscular fat to 12th rib fat thickness (P < 0.05) were discovered in progeny from cows

  18. A gestational ketogenic diet alters maternal metabolic status as well as offspring physiological growth and brain structure in the neonatal mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the ketogenic diet (KD) among women of child-bearing age has been increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying the diet’s suitability during gestation. To date, no studies have thoroughly investigated the effect of a gestational KD on offspring growth. Since ketones have been reported to play a role in cerebral lipid and myelin synthesis, it is particularly important to investigate the diet’s impact on brain anatomy of the offspring. Methods To fill this knowledge gap we imaged CD-1 mouse neonates whose mothers were fed either a standard diet (SD) or a KD prior to and during gestation. Images were collected at postnatal (P) 11.5 and 21.5 using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Maternal metabolic status was also tracked during lactation, by following their body weight, blood glucose, ketone, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. Results The KD dams exhibit a significant reduction in maternal fertility and litter size, as well as a high risk of developing fatal ketoacidosis by mid-lactation. To increase survival of the KD dams and offspring, fostering of P2.5 pups (from both KD and SD litters) by SD-foster dams was carried out. This resulted in stabilization of blood ketones of the KD dams, and aversion of the fatal ketoacidosis. We also note a slower and smaller weight loss for the KD compared with the SD dams. The average fostered KD pup exhibits retarded growth by P21.5 compared with the average fostered SD pup. An anatomical comparison of their brains further revealed significant structural differences at P11.5, and particularly at P21.5. The KD brain shows a relative bilateral decrease in the cortex, fimbria, hippocampus, corpus callosum and lateral ventricle, but a relative volumetric enlargement of the hypothalamus and medulla. Conclusion A gestational ketogenic diet deleteriously affects maternal fertility and increases susceptibility to fatal ketoacidosis during lactation. Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to

  19. 1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  20. Effects of prenatal stress on male offspring sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nancy; Mayer, Nora; Gauna, Héctor F

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stimulations have been shown to have long-term effects on at reproductive activity. We evaluated the influence of the prenatal stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis in male offsprings from mothers with high number of offsprings per litter (HNL) and low number of offsprings per litter (LNL) after hypothesizing that the number of offsprings per litter may modify the effect of the prenatal stress on the HPG of adult offsprings. Pregnant Wistar rats were used for this study. Immobilization (IMO) stress was used, 30 min, 3 times per week, from the 5th to 21st day of pregnancy. The weight of adrenal and gonads, and the corticosterone (COR), testosterone (TES) and luteinizing hormone (LH) plasmatic levels were analyzed in the male offspring at 30, 45 and 70 days of age. The offspring males coming from LNL showed a decrease in testicle weight and TES levels, without changes in the plasmatic LH levels. However, the offspring of HNL showed a decrease of LH levels. It is possible to conclude that in LNL prenatal stress would produce alterations to gonadal level, while in HNL the effect of stress would be evident at pituitary level.

  1. Effects of prenatal exposure to antipsychotic risperidone on developmental neurotoxicity, apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral sequelae in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Singh, Manoj Kr; Singh, Manish

    2016-08-01

    A tremendous increase has been documented in the recent past in prescribing second generation atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) to the pregnant women with psychosis, considering their reproductive and teratogenic safety. Among AAPDs, risperidone (RIS) ranked third after olanzapine (OLZ) and quetiapine (QUE) used during pregnancy, as OLZ is associated to substantial weight gain in adults and offspring. Although teratogenic safety of RIS has been established, its potential role in developmental neurotoxicity and related neurobehavioral impairments in adolescents has not been documented so far. Therefore, present study has been undertaken to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to risperidone (RIS) on developmental neurotoxicity and apoptotic neurodegeneration in neocortical region of fetal brain; and related functional sequelae in young rat offspring. The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to RIS at 0.8, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg, at equivalent therapeutic doses, orally from GD 6 to 21. Half of the pregnant rats were sacrificed and their brains were collected, weighed, and processed for neurohistopathological and apoptotic neurodegenerative evaluation. The remaining dams were allowed to deliver naturally, and their offspring were reared up to 10 weeks for neurobehavioral study. Prenatal exposure to RIS induced significant stunting of fetal body and brain weight, substantial reduction in the thickness of neocortical layers and apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal brains, and delayed postnatal development and growth of the offspring; as well as long- lasting impact on anxiety like impaired behavioral responses on explorative mazes. Therefore, health care providers should be careful in prescribing atypical antipsychotics in general and RIS in particular, to the pregnant psychotic population. PMID:27184437

  2. The consequences of prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine exposure on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has become a popular drug of abuse in recent years not only in the general population but also amongst pregnant women. Although there is a growing body of preclinical investigations of MA exposure during pregnancy, there has been little investigation of the consequences of such exposure via the breast milk during the neonatal period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the consequences of MA exposure during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment and behaviour in the rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) once daily via oral gavage from gestation day 7-21, postnatal day 1-21 or gestation day 7- postnatal day 21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. Prenatal MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain, with a concomitant reduction in food intake. A significant increase in neonatal pup mortality was observed, being most marked in the prenatal/postnatal MA group. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were also evident in all MA treatment groups including somatic development (e.g. pinna unfolding, fur appearance, eye opening) and behavioural development (e.g. surface righting, inclined plane test, forelimb grip). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to MA during any of these exposure periods (prenatal and/or postnatal) can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, suggesting that regardless of the exposure period MA is associated with detrimental consequences in the offspring. These results indicate that in the clinical scenario, exposure during lactation needs to be considered when assessing the potential harmful effects of MA on offspring development. PMID:26391019

  3. The consequences of prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine exposure on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has become a popular drug of abuse in recent years not only in the general population but also amongst pregnant women. Although there is a growing body of preclinical investigations of MA exposure during pregnancy, there has been little investigation of the consequences of such exposure via the breast milk during the neonatal period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the consequences of MA exposure during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment and behaviour in the rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) once daily via oral gavage from gestation day 7-21, postnatal day 1-21 or gestation day 7- postnatal day 21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. Prenatal MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain, with a concomitant reduction in food intake. A significant increase in neonatal pup mortality was observed, being most marked in the prenatal/postnatal MA group. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were also evident in all MA treatment groups including somatic development (e.g. pinna unfolding, fur appearance, eye opening) and behavioural development (e.g. surface righting, inclined plane test, forelimb grip). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to MA during any of these exposure periods (prenatal and/or postnatal) can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, suggesting that regardless of the exposure period MA is associated with detrimental consequences in the offspring. These results indicate that in the clinical scenario, exposure during lactation needs to be considered when assessing the potential harmful effects of MA on offspring development.

  4. Face-Emotion Processing in Offspring at Risk for Panic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Moulton, John L., III; Lissek, Shmuel; Guardino, Mary; Woldehawariat, Girma

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Panic disorder (PD) has been linked to perturbed processing of threats. This study tested the hypotheses that offspring of parents with PD and offspring with anxiety disorders display relatively greater sensitivity and attention allocation to fear provocation. Method: Offspring of adults with PD, major depressive disorder (MDD), or no…

  5. A maternal "junk-food" diet reduces sensitivity to the opioid antagonist naloxone in offspring postweaning.

    PubMed

    Gugusheff, Jessica R; Ong, Zhi Yi; Muhlhausler, Beverly S

    2013-03-01

    Perinatal exposure to a maternal "junk-food" diet has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable diets in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether this increased preference could be attributed to changes in μ-opioid receptor expression within the mesolimbic reward pathway. We report here that mRNA expression of the μ-opioid receptor in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) at weaning was 1.4-fold (males) and 1.9-fold (females) lower in offspring of junk-food (JF)-fed rat dams than in offspring of dams fed a standard rodent diet (control) (P<0.05). Administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone to offspring given a palatable diet postweaning significantly reduced fat intake in control offspring (males: 7.7 ± 0.7 vs. 5.4 ± 0.6 g/kg/d; females: 6.9 ± 0.3 vs. 3.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/d; P<0.05), but not in male JF offspring (8.6 ± 0.6 vs. 7.1 ± 0.5 g/kg/d) and was less effective at reducing fat intake in JF females (42.2 ± 6.0 vs. 23.1 ± 4.1% reduction, P<0.05). Similar findings were observed for total energy intake. Naloxone treatment did not affect intake of standard rodent feed in control or JF offspring. These findings suggest that exposure to a maternal junk-food diet results in early desensitization of the opioid system which may explain the increased preference for junk food in these offspring.

  6. Dam failure analysis for the Lago de Matrullas Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Results from the simulated dam failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam using the HEC–RAS model for the 6- and 24-hour PMP events showed peak discharges at the dam of 3,149.33 and 3,604.70 m3/s, respectively. Dam failure during the 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event resulted in a peak discharge of 2,103.12 m3/s directly downstream from the dam. Dam failure under sunny day conditions produced a peak discharge of 1,695.91 m3/s at the dam assuming the antecedent lake level was at the morning-glory spillway invert elevation. Flood-inundation maps prepared as part of the study depict the flood extent and provide valuable information for preparing an Emergency Action Plan. Results of the failure analysis indicate that a failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam could cause flooding to many of the inhabited areas along stream banks from the Lago de Matrullas Dam to the mouth of the Río Grande de Manatí. Among the areas most affected are the low-lying regions in the vicinity of the towns of Ciales, Manatí, and Barceloneta. The delineation of the flood boundaries near the town of Barceloneta considered the effects of a levee constructed during 2000 at Barceloneta in the flood plain of the Río Grande de Manatí to provide protection against flooding to the near-by low-lying populated areas. The results showed overtopping can be expected in the aforementioned levee during 6- and 24-hour probable-maximum-precipitation dam failure scenarios. No overtopping of the levee was simulated, however, during dam failure scenarios under the 100-year recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event or sunny day conditions.

  7. Maternal nutrient restriction affects properties of skeletal muscle in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei J; Ford, Stephen P; Means, Warrie J; Hess, Bret W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Du, Min

    2006-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) affects fetal development with long-term consequences on postnatal health of offspring, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. Most studies have been conducted in fetuses in late gestation, and little information is available on the persistent impact of NR from early to mid-gestation on properties of offspring skeletal muscle, which was the aim of this study. Pregnant ewes were subjected to 50% NR from day 28–78 of gestation and allowed to deliver. The longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled from 8-month-old offspring. Maternal NR during early to mid-gestation decreased the number of myofibres in the offspring and increased the ratio of myosin IIb to other isoforms by 17.6 ± 4.9% (P < 0.05) compared with offspring of ad libitum fed ewes. Activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation, was reduced by 24.7 ± 4.5% (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of offspring of NR ewes and would contribute to increased fat accumulation observed in offspring of NR ewes. Intramuscular triglyceride content (IMTG) was increased in skeletal muscle of NR lambs, a finding which may be linked to predisposition to diabetes in offspring of NR mothers, since enhanced IMTG predisposes to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated downregulation of several catabolic enzymes in 8-month-old offspring of NR ewes. These data demonstrate that the early to mid-gestation period is important for skeletal muscle development. Impaired muscle development during this stage of gestation affects the number and composition of fibres in offspring which may lead to long-term physiological consequences, including predisposition to obesity and diabetes. PMID:16763001

  8. High folate gestational and post-weaning diets alter hypothalamic feeding pathways by DNA methylation in Wistar rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Cho, Clara E; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Reza-López, Sandra A; Huot, Pedro S P; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-07-01

    Excess vitamins, especially folate, are consumed during pregnancy but later-life effects on the offspring are unknown. High multivitamin (10-fold AIN-93G, HV) gestational diets increase characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rat offspring. We hypothesized that folate, the vitamin active in DNA methylation, accounts for these effects through epigenetic modification of food intake regulatory genes. Male offspring of dams fed 10-fold folate (HFol) diet during pregnancy and weaned to recommended vitamin (RV) or HFol diets were compared with those born to RV dams and weaned to RV diet for 29 weeks. Food intake and body weight were highest in offspring of HFol dams fed the RV diet. In contrast, the HFol pup diet in offspring of HFol dams reduced food intake (7%, p = 0.02), body weight (9%, p = 0.03) and glucose response to a glucose load (21%, p = 0.02), and improved glucose response to an insulin load (20%, p = 0.009). HFol alone in either gestational or pup diet modified gene expression of feeding-related neuropeptides. Hypomethylation of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter occurred with the HFol pup diet. POMC-specific methylation was positively associated with glucose response to a glucose load (r = 0.7, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the obesogenic phenotype of offspring from dams fed the HFol gestational diet can be corrected by feeding them a HFol diet. Our work is novel in showing post-weaning epigenetic plasticity of the hypothalamus and that in utero programming by vitamin gestational diets can be modified by vitamin content of the pup diet. PMID:23803567

  9. High folate gestational and post-weaning diets alter hypothalamic feeding pathways by DNA methylation in Wistar rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Cho, Clara E; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Reza-López, Sandra A; Huot, Pedro S P; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-07-01

    Excess vitamins, especially folate, are consumed during pregnancy but later-life effects on the offspring are unknown. High multivitamin (10-fold AIN-93G, HV) gestational diets increase characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rat offspring. We hypothesized that folate, the vitamin active in DNA methylation, accounts for these effects through epigenetic modification of food intake regulatory genes. Male offspring of dams fed 10-fold folate (HFol) diet during pregnancy and weaned to recommended vitamin (RV) or HFol diets were compared with those born to RV dams and weaned to RV diet for 29 weeks. Food intake and body weight were highest in offspring of HFol dams fed the RV diet. In contrast, the HFol pup diet in offspring of HFol dams reduced food intake (7%, p = 0.02), body weight (9%, p = 0.03) and glucose response to a glucose load (21%, p = 0.02), and improved glucose response to an insulin load (20%, p = 0.009). HFol alone in either gestational or pup diet modified gene expression of feeding-related neuropeptides. Hypomethylation of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter occurred with the HFol pup diet. POMC-specific methylation was positively associated with glucose response to a glucose load (r = 0.7, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the obesogenic phenotype of offspring from dams fed the HFol gestational diet can be corrected by feeding them a HFol diet. Our work is novel in showing post-weaning epigenetic plasticity of the hypothalamus and that in utero programming by vitamin gestational diets can be modified by vitamin content of the pup diet.

  10. Excess maternal salt or fructose intake programmes sex-specific, stress- and fructose-sensitive hypertension in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clint; Gardiner, Sheila M; Elmes, Matthew; Gardner, David S

    2016-02-28

    The Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose, which have pressor activity. Maternal diet can affect offspring blood pressure, but the extent to which maternal intake of excess salt and fructose may influence cardiovascular function of the offspring is unknown. We sought to determine the effect of moderate maternal dietary intake of salt and/or fructose on resting and stimulated cardiovascular function of the adult male and female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed purified diets (± 4% salt) and water (± 10% fructose) before and during gestation and through lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto standard laboratory chow. From 9 to 14 weeks of age, cardiovascular parameters (basal, circadian and stimulated) were assessed continuously by radiotelemetry. Maternal salt intake rendered opposite-sex siblings with a 25-mmHg difference in blood pressure as adults; male offspring were hypertensive (15 mmHg mean arterial pressure (MAP)) and female offspring were hypotensive (10 mmHg MAP) above and below controls, respectively. Sex differences were unrelated to endothelial nitric oxide activity in vivo, but isolation-induced anxiety revealed a significantly steeper coupling between blood pressure and heart rate in salt-exposed male offspring but not in female offspring. MAP of all offspring was refractory to salt loading but sensitive to subsequent dietary fructose, an effect exacerbated in female offspring from fructose-fed dams. Circadian analyses of pressure in all offspring revealed higher mean set-point for heart rate and relative non-dipping of nocturnal pressure. In conclusion, increased salt and fructose in the maternal diet has lasting effects on offspring cardiovascular function that is sex-dependent and related to the offspring's stress-response axis.

  11. Excess maternal salt or fructose intake programmes sex-specific, stress- and fructose-sensitive hypertension in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clint; Gardiner, Sheila M; Elmes, Matthew; Gardner, David S

    2016-02-28

    The Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose, which have pressor activity. Maternal diet can affect offspring blood pressure, but the extent to which maternal intake of excess salt and fructose may influence cardiovascular function of the offspring is unknown. We sought to determine the effect of moderate maternal dietary intake of salt and/or fructose on resting and stimulated cardiovascular function of the adult male and female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed purified diets (± 4% salt) and water (± 10% fructose) before and during gestation and through lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto standard laboratory chow. From 9 to 14 weeks of age, cardiovascular parameters (basal, circadian and stimulated) were assessed continuously by radiotelemetry. Maternal salt intake rendered opposite-sex siblings with a 25-mmHg difference in blood pressure as adults; male offspring were hypertensive (15 mmHg mean arterial pressure (MAP)) and female offspring were hypotensive (10 mmHg MAP) above and below controls, respectively. Sex differences were unrelated to endothelial nitric oxide activity in vivo, but isolation-induced anxiety revealed a significantly steeper coupling between blood pressure and heart rate in salt-exposed male offspring but not in female offspring. MAP of all offspring was refractory to salt loading but sensitive to subsequent dietary fructose, an effect exacerbated in female offspring from fructose-fed dams. Circadian analyses of pressure in all offspring revealed higher mean set-point for heart rate and relative non-dipping of nocturnal pressure. In conclusion, increased salt and fructose in the maternal diet has lasting effects on offspring cardiovascular function that is sex-dependent and related to the offspring's stress-response axis. PMID:26653028

  12. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  13. Maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-17

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I(2) = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  14. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs. PMID:25687545

  15. Diet-induced changes in maternal gut microbiota and metabolomic profiles influence programming of offspring obesity risk in rats.

    PubMed

    Paul, Heather A; Bomhof, Marc R; Vogel, Hans J; Reimer, Raylene A

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation can program an increased risk of obesity in offspring. In this context, improving maternal metabolism may help reduce the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Here we show that, in Sprague-Dawley rats, selectively altering obese maternal gut microbial composition with prebiotic treatment reduces maternal energy intake, decreases gestational weight gain, and prevents increased adiposity in dams and their offspring. Maternal serum metabolomics analysis, along with satiety hormone and gut microbiota analysis, identified maternal metabolic signatures that could be implicated in programming offspring obesity risk and highlighted the potential influence of maternal gut microbiota on maternal and offspring metabolism. In particular, the metabolomic signature of insulin resistance in obese rats normalized when dams consumed the prebiotic. In summary, prebiotic intake during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal metabolism in diet-induced obese rats in a manner that attenuates the detrimental nutritional programming of offspring associated with maternal obesity. Overall, these findings contribute to our understanding of the maternal mechanisms influencing the developmental programming of offspring obesity and provide compelling pre-clinical evidence for a potential strategy to improve maternal and offspring metabolic outcomes in human pregnancy.

  16. Diet-induced changes in maternal gut microbiota and metabolomic profiles influence programming of offspring obesity risk in rats

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Heather A.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Vogel, Hans J.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and overnutrition during pregnancy and lactation can program an increased risk of obesity in offspring. In this context, improving maternal metabolism may help reduce the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Here we show that, in Sprague-Dawley rats, selectively altering obese maternal gut microbial composition with prebiotic treatment reduces maternal energy intake, decreases gestational weight gain, and prevents increased adiposity in dams and their offspring. Maternal serum metabolomics analysis, along with satiety hormone and gut microbiota analysis, identified maternal metabolic signatures that could be implicated in programming offspring obesity risk and highlighted the potential influence of maternal gut microbiota on maternal and offspring metabolism. In particular, the metabolomic signature of insulin resistance in obese rats normalized when dams consumed the prebiotic. In summary, prebiotic intake during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal metabolism in diet-induced obese rats in a manner that attenuates the detrimental nutritional programming of offspring associated with maternal obesity. Overall, these findings contribute to our understanding of the maternal mechanisms influencing the developmental programming of offspring obesity and provide compelling pre-clinical evidence for a potential strategy to improve maternal and offspring metabolic outcomes in human pregnancy. PMID:26868870

  17. Moderate caloric restriction during gestation in rats alters adipose tissue sympathetic innervation and later adiposity in offspring.

    PubMed

    García, Ana Paula; Palou, Mariona; Sánchez, Juana; Priego, Teresa; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Maternal prenatal undernutrition predisposes offspring to higher adiposity in adulthood. Mechanisms involved in these programming effects, apart from those described in central nervous system development, have not been established. Here we aimed to evaluate whether moderate caloric restriction during early pregnancy in rats affects white adipose tissue (WAT) sympathetic innervation in the offspring, and its relationship with adiposity development. For this purpose, inguinal and retroperitoneal WAT (iWAT and rpWAT, respectively) were analyzed in male and female offspring of control and 20% caloric-restricted (from 1-12 d of pregnancy) (CR) dams. Body weight (BW), the weight, DNA-content, morphological features and the immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase and Neuropeptide Y area (TH+ and NPY+ respectively, performed by immunohistochemistry) of both fat depots, were studied at 25 d and 6 m of age, the latter after 2 m exposure to high fat diet. At 6 m of life, CR males but not females, exhibited greater BW, and greater weight and total DNA-content in iWAT, without changes in adipocytes size, suggesting the development of hyperplasia in this depot. However, in rpWAT, CR males but not females, showed larger adipocyte diameter, with no changes in DNA-content, suggesting the development of hypertrophy. These parameters were not different between control and CR animals at the age of 25 d. In iWAT, both at 25 d and 6 m, CR males but not females, showed lower TH(+) and NPY(+), suggesting lower sympathetic innervation in CR males compared to control males. In rpWAT, at 6 m but not at 25 d, CR males but not females, showed lower TH(+) and NPY(+). Thus, the effects of caloric restriction during gestation on later adiposity and on the differences in the adult phenotype between internal and subcutaneous fat depots in the male offspring may be associated in part with specific alterations in sympathetic innervation, which may impact on WAT architecture.

  18. The use of rubber dam among Czech dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kapitán, Martin; Sustová, Zdenka

    2011-01-01

    Rubber dam is considered an ideal device for tooth isolation. Nevertheless, its usage is quite rare in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study was: firstly, to gather and evaluate information regarding the use of rubber dam by dentists in the Czech Republic and to compare it with other countries; secondly to find out whether there are any influencing factors as to rubber dam usage; and finally to find out frequency of rubber dam use separately in endodontic treatment and in placing fillings of different materials. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. Dentists filled in the questionnaires during dental conventions, educational events, conferences and congresses. Rubber dam was routinely used by less than eight per cent of the respondents (n = 35); less than twenty-two per cent of the respondents (n = 97) used rubber dam occasionally, and more than seventy per cent of the respondents (n = 317) has never use it. The results showed that rubber dam is not used frequently in the Czech Republic. If rubber dam is used, then it is typically for endodontic treatment or composite fillings. There were several factors with a statistically significant influence on the usage of rubber dam, such as gender, length of professional career, percentage of direct payments, previous experience in using rubber dam, and undergraduate training in rubber dam use.

  19. Learning deficits and suppression of the cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of offspring are attenuated by maternal chewing during prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Mika; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal stress in dams induces learning deficits and suppresses neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of offspring via increasing corticosterone levels in the dam. Chewing under stressful conditions prevents stress-induced behavioral impairments and morphologic changes. Here, we examined whether chewing during prenatal stress prevents the stress-induced learning deficits and the suppression of cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress beginning on day 12 of pregnancy and continuing until delivery. Half of the dams were given a wooden stick to chew on during restraint. The pups were raised to adulthood, and learning ability and cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG were assessed. In dams, chewing during prenatal stress attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. In the adult offspring, prenatal stress impaired learning and decreased cell proliferation in the DG, whereas maternal chewing during prenatal stress significantly attenuated the prenatal stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in the DG in their offspring. These findings suggest that maternal chewing during prenatal stress is an effective stress-coping method for the dam to prevent learning deficits and suppression of cell proliferation in offspring.

  20. Late-onset exercise in female rat offspring ameliorates the detrimental metabolic impact of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Hasnah; Caruso, Vanni; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-10-01

    Rising rates of maternal obesity/overweight bring the need for effective interventions in offspring. We observed beneficial effects of postweaning exercise, but the question of whether late-onset exercise might benefit offspring exposed to maternal obesity is unanswered. Thus we examined effects of voluntary exercise implemented in adulthood on adiposity, hormone profiles, and genes involved in regulating appetite and metabolism in female offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed either normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 5 weeks before mating and throughout gestation/lactation. At weaning, female littermates received either chow or HFD and, after 7 weeks, half were exercised (running wheels) for 5 weeks. Tissues were collected at 15 weeks. Maternal obesity was associated with increased hypothalamic inflammatory markers, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression in the arcuate nucleus. In the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Y1 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor, and TNF-α mRNA were elevated. In the hippocampus, maternal obesity was associated with up-regulated fat mass and obesity-associated gene and TNF-α mRNA. We observed significant hypophagia across all exercise groups. In female offspring of lean dams, the reduction in food intake by exercise could be related to altered signaling at the PVN melanocortin 4 receptor whereas in offspring of obese dams, this may be related to up-regulated TNF-α. Late-onset exercise ameliorated the effects of maternal obesity and postweaning HFD in reducing body weight, adiposity, plasma leptin, insulin, triglycerides, and glucose intolerance, with greater beneficial effects in offspring of obese dams. Overall, hypothalamic inflammation was increased by maternal obesity or current HFD, and the effect of exercise was dependent on maternal diet. In conclusion, even after a significant sedentary period, many of the negative impacts of maternal obesity could be improved by

  1. Maternal Milk T Cells Drive Development of Transgenerational Th1 Immunity in Offspring Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Nguyen, Virginia; Muller, H. Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Using multiple murine foster-nursing protocols, thereby eliminating placental transfer and allowing a distinction between dam- and pup-derived cells, we show that foster nursing by an immunized dam results in development of CD8+ T cells in nonimmunized foster pups that are specific for Ags against which the foster dam was immunized (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Candida albicans). We have dubbed this process “maternal educational immunity” to distinguish it from passive cellular immunity. Of the variety of maternal immune cells present in milk, only T cells were detected in pup tissues. Maternal T cells, a substantial percentage of which were CD4+MHC class II+, accumulated in the pup thymus and spleen during the nursing period. Further analysis of maternal cells in the pup thymus showed that a proportion was positive for maternal immunogen-specific MHC class II tetramers. To determine the outcome of Ag presentation in the thymus, the maternal or foster pup origin of immunogen-responding CD8+ cells in foster pup spleens was assessed. Whereas ∼10% were maternally derived in the first few weeks after weaning, all immunogen-responding CD8+ T cells were pup derived by 12 wk of age. Pup-derived immunogen-responsive CD8+ cells persisted until at least 1 y of age. Passive cellular immunity is well accepted and has been demonstrated in the human population. In this study, we show an arguably more important role for transferred immune cells: the direction of offspring T cell development. Harnessing maternal educational immunity through prepregnancy immunization programs has potential for improvement of infant immunity. PMID:27496970

  2. Maternal Milk T Cells Drive Development of Transgenerational Th1 Immunity in Offspring Thymus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mrinal K; Nguyen, Virginia; Muller, H Konrad; Walker, Ameae M

    2016-09-15

    Using multiple murine foster-nursing protocols, thereby eliminating placental transfer and allowing a distinction between dam- and pup-derived cells, we show that foster nursing by an immunized dam results in development of CD8(+) T cells in nonimmunized foster pups that are specific for Ags against which the foster dam was immunized (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Candida albicans). We have dubbed this process "maternal educational immunity" to distinguish it from passive cellular immunity. Of the variety of maternal immune cells present in milk, only T cells were detected in pup tissues. Maternal T cells, a substantial percentage of which were CD4(+)MHC class II(+), accumulated in the pup thymus and spleen during the nursing period. Further analysis of maternal cells in the pup thymus showed that a proportion was positive for maternal immunogen-specific MHC class II tetramers. To determine the outcome of Ag presentation in the thymus, the maternal or foster pup origin of immunogen-responding CD8(+) cells in foster pup spleens was assessed. Whereas ∼10% were maternally derived in the first few weeks after weaning, all immunogen-responding CD8(+) T cells were pup derived by 12 wk of age. Pup-derived immunogen-responsive CD8(+) cells persisted until at least 1 y of age. Passive cellular immunity is well accepted and has been demonstrated in the human population. In this study, we show an arguably more important role for transferred immune cells: the direction of offspring T cell development. Harnessing maternal educational immunity through prepregnancy immunization programs has potential for improvement of infant immunity. PMID:27496970

  3. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  4. Quantifying and Generalizing Hydrologic Responses to Dam Regulation using a Statistical Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at

  5. Periodic maternal deprivation may modulate offspring anxiety-like behavior through mechanisms involving neuroplasticity in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Berman, Ariel Kupfer; Lott, Rhonda B; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2014-02-01

    Maternal care has been shown to affect the development of behavioral and endocrine systems. In rats, periodic maternal deprivation (PMD) serves as an early life stressor that directly influences maternal care by promoting more pup-directed behaviors in stressed dams. To further assess the qualities of PMD that may ameliorate long-term anxiety effects in trait anxiety animals, we coded behaviors across lactation (postnatal day (PND) 5, 16, 21) in dams phenotyped as high (HAn) and low-anxiety (LAn). We assessed anxiety-like behavior in male offspring using the elevated plus maze (EPM), focusing on percent open arm (%OA) time and latency to enter OA (OA LAT) as measures of anxiety-like behavior. Finally, we examined the brains of representative male pups to determine if the stress-related protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) might show persistent changes in the amygdala. Dams phenotyped as HAn had lower %OA time and longer OA LAT relative to dams designated as LAn. During PMD, HAn dams had higher incidences of licking-grooming (L/G) and more pup-directed behaviors on PND 5 and 16 compared to LAn dams. Further, as adults, HAn male offspring exhibited less anxiety traits than their maternal line with greater %OA time and %OA entries relative to LAn. HAn offspring showed markedly more BDNF immunoreacted cells in the amygdala than LAn. The combination of these findings suggests that the mild stressor, PMD alters anxiety-like behavior in offspring likely by influencing HAn dams' L/G activity and altering stress related proteins in the amygdala.

  6. Exposure in utero to 2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) impairs sperm function and alters testicular apoptosis-related gene expression in rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.-C.; Pan, M.-H.; Li, L.-A.; Chen, C.-J.; Tsai, S.-S.; Guo, Y.L. . E-mail: leonguo@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-05-15

    Toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depends on their molecular structure. Mechanisms by prenatal exposure to a non-dioxin-like PCB, 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) that may act on reproductive pathways in male offspring are relatively unknown. The purpose was to determine whether epididymal sperm function and expression of apoptosis-related genes were induced or inhibited by prenatal exposure to PCB 132. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of PCB 132 at 1 or 10 mg/kg on gestational day 15. Male offspring were killed and the epididymal sperm counts, motility, velocity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sperm-oocyte penetration rate (SOPR), testicular histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression and caspase activation were assessed on postnatal day 84. Prenatal exposure to PCB 132 with a single dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg decreased cauda epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motile epididymal sperm count in adult offspring. The spermatozoa of PCB 132-exposed offspring produced significantly higher levels of ROS than the controls; ROS induction and SOPR reduction were dose-related. In the low-dose PCB 132 group, p53 was significantly induced and caspase-3 was inhibited. In the high-dose group, activation of caspase-3 and -9 was significantly increased, while the expressions of Fas, Bax, bcl-2, and p53 genes were significantly decreased. Gene expression and caspase activation data may provide insight into the mechanisms by which exposure to low-dose or high-dose PCB 132 affects reproduction in male offspring in rats. Because the doses of PCB 132 administered to the dams were approximately 625-fold in low-dose group and 6250-fold higher in high-dose group than the concentration in human tissue levels, the concentrations are not biologically or environmentally relevant. Further studies using environmentally relevant doses are needed for hazard identification.

  7. Long-term effects of maternal undernutrition on offspring carotid artery remodeling: role of miR-29c.

    PubMed

    Khorram, O; Chuang, T D; Pearce, W J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that excess maternal glucocorticoids in response to maternal undernutrition programs the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components potentially by miR-29c. We measured the expression of mRNA (qRT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) for collagen 3A1, collagen 4A5 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in offspring carotid arteries from three groups of dams: 50% food-restricted in latter half of gestation [maternal undernutrition (MUN)], MUN dams who received metyrapone (MET) (500 mg/ml ) in drinking water from day 10 of gestation to term, and control dams fed an ad libitum diet. The expression of miR-29c was significantly decreased at 3 weeks, 3 months and 9 months in MUN carotid arteries, and these decreases in expression were partially blocked by treatment of dams with MET. The expression pattern of ECM genes that are targets of miR-29c correlated with miR-29c expression. Expression of mRNA was increased for elastin (ELN) and MMP2 mRNA in 3-week MUN carotids; in 9-month carotids there were also significant increases in expression of Col3A1 and Col4A5. These changes in mRNA expression of ECM genes at 3 weeks and 9 months were blocked by MET treatment. Similarly, the expression of ELN and MMP2 proteins at 3 weeks were increased in MUN carotids, and by 9 months there were also increases in expression of Col3A1 and Col4A5, which were blocked by MET in MUN carotids. Overall, the results demonstrate a close correlation between expression of miR-29c and the ECM proteins that are its targets thus supporting our central hypothesis. PMID:26008599

  8. Life after childhood cancer: marriage and offspring in adult long-term survivors--a population-based study in the Piedmont region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Dama, Elisa; Maule, Milena M; Mosso, Maria L; Alessi, Daniela; Ghisleni, Micaela; Pivetta, Emanuele; Pisani, Paola; Magnani, Corrado; Pastore, Guido; Merletti, Franco

    2009-11-01

    The majority of childhood cancer cases survive to adulthood. We describe the experience of marriage and reproduction as indicators of quality of life, in a population-based cohort of adult long-term survivors after early cancer reported to the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont. The study included 1237 survivors with a malignant neoplasm diagnosed during 1967-2000 when aged 0-14 years, who attained age 18 years. Vital and marital status and number of offspring were assessed through the Vital Statistics Offices. Marriage and fertility deficits were estimated by comparison with the Piedmont population. Among the individuals included in this study, 919 (74.3%) never married and never lived as married. The marriage deficit was 32% [observed/expected 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.83] in men and 18% (observed/expected 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.98) in women. A total of 179 children were born to 120 women, with a fertility deficit of 41% (observed/expected 0.59; 95% CI: 0.51-0.69). In conclusion, the observed decrements in marriage in men and women and fertility in women suggest that efforts should be made to improve the recovery from physical and psychological traumas related to diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  9. Could gender equality in parental leave harm off-springs' mental health? a registry study of the Swedish parental/child cohort of 1988/89

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mental ill-health among children and young adults is a growing public health problem and research into causes involves consideration of family life and gender practice. This study aimed at exploring the association between parents' degree of gender equality in childcare and children's mental ill-health. Methods The population consisted of Swedish parents and their firstborn child in 1988-1989 (N = 118 595 family units) and the statistical method was multiple logistic regression. Gender equality of childcare was indicated by the division of parental leave (1988-1990), and child mental ill-health was indicated by outpatient mental care (2001-2006) and drug prescription (2005-2008), for anxiety and depression. Results The overall finding was that boys with gender traditional parents (mother dominance in childcare) have lower risk of depression measured by outpatient mental care than boys with gender-equal parents, while girls with gender traditional and gender untraditional parents (father dominance in childcare) have lower risk of anxiety measured by drug prescription than girls with gender-equal parents. Conclusions This study suggests that unequal parenting regarding early childcare, whether traditional or untraditional, is more beneficial for offspring's mental health than equal parenting. However, further research is required to confirm our findings and to explore the pathways through which increased gender equality may influence child health. PMID:22463683

  10. Alterations in hepatic gene expression and genome-wide DNA methylation in rat offspring exposed to maternal obesity in utero

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult offspring from obese (OB) rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass than controls when fed HFD. At PND21, we examined energy expenditure (EE) (indirect calorimetry), hepatic gene expression (microarrays), and changes in genome-wide and global DNA methylation (enrichment-coupled DNA seque...

  11. Maternal obesity during gestation impairs fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial SIRT3 expression in rat offspring at weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring’s risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND) 21. In the current s...

  12. Effects of supplementing holstein heifers with dietary melatonin during late gestation on growth and cardiovascular measurements of their offspring.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplementing dams with dietary melatonin during late gestation on offspring growth and cardiovascular measurements. On day 190 of gestation, heifers (n = 20) were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments consisting of ...

  13. Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.

    PubMed

    Barrier, A C; Ruelle, E; Haskell, M J; Dwyer, C M

    2012-03-01

    The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed continuously from videos following twelve natural calvings and sixteen calvings assisted by farm staff (including four malpresentations) from Holstein cows. Calvings were balanced within groups for parity of the dam, genetic group, sex and birth weight of the calf, calving pen and calving season. Assisted calves were less vigorous with higher latencies to attempt to stand, achieve standing, walk and reach the udder than unassisted calves (P<0.05). Furthermore, assisted calves also tended to be less likely to stand and walk within the first 3h after birth (P<0.1), spent more time lying on their flank (P=0.019) and had more frequent bouts of this behaviour (P=0.033). Assisted dams did not take longer to lick the calf and performed as much licking as unassisted dams (P>0.05), indicating no delayed onset or impaired expression of maternal behaviour in dams given assistance at delivery. Study of potential pain-related behaviours revealed that assisted dams spent less time self-grooming (P=0.033) than dams delivering naturally, which could suggest greater pain. However, there were no significant differences in any of the other pain-related behaviours. Our results suggest that, although maternal behaviour was unaffected by a difficult delivery, dairy calves born following difficult calvings have lower vigour in the first 3h after birth than unassisted calves. This might have longer-term effects on the health and survival of the calves. PMID:21958900

  14. Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.

    PubMed

    Barrier, A C; Ruelle, E; Haskell, M J; Dwyer, C M

    2012-03-01

    The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed continuously from videos following twelve natural calvings and sixteen calvings assisted by farm staff (including four malpresentations) from Holstein cows. Calvings were balanced within groups for parity of the dam, genetic group, sex and birth weight of the calf, calving pen and calving season. Assisted calves were less vigorous with higher latencies to attempt to stand, achieve standing, walk and reach the udder than unassisted calves (P<0.05). Furthermore, assisted calves also tended to be less likely to stand and walk within the first 3h after birth (P<0.1), spent more time lying on their flank (P=0.019) and had more frequent bouts of this behaviour (P=0.033). Assisted dams did not take longer to lick the calf and performed as much licking as unassisted dams (P>0.05), indicating no delayed onset or impaired expression of maternal behaviour in dams given assistance at delivery. Study of potential pain-related behaviours revealed that assisted dams spent less time self-grooming (P=0.033) than dams delivering naturally, which could suggest greater pain. However, there were no significant differences in any of the other pain-related behaviours. Our results suggest that, although maternal behaviour was unaffected by a difficult delivery, dairy calves born following difficult calvings have lower vigour in the first 3h after birth than unassisted calves. This might have longer-term effects on the health and survival of the calves.

  15. The Remains of the Dam: What Have We Learned From 10 Years of Dam Removals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, G. E.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 10 years in the U.S., dam removal has evolved from an occasionally implemented, rarely studied, and poorly understood intervention to improve rivers, to a much more frequently accomplished and better studied and understood approach to river restoration. Over that same time period, the numbers and sizes of dams and volumes of sediment released have dramatically increased. By some estimates close to 1000 dams have been removed over the last 100 years, with most of those occurring within the last 10. While most of these are small (less than 15 m high) dams, removals of dams up to 70 m high are presently underway. Releases of sediment associated with these removals over the past 10 years have also increased by close to four orders of magnitude; for example removal of the Elwha River dams in Washington is estimated to release almost 107 m3 of sediment into the lower Elwha River. Given a decade's worth of dam removals and, in some cases, well-orchestrated case studies of the effects of removal on the geomorphology and (to a lesser extent) ecology of rivers, what have we learned? More specifically, where do we now stand with respect to being able to predict the consequences of future dam removals? Drawing on both field examples and numerical models of dam removals in the western U.S., several key lessons stand out. Although every dam removal and river are different, removals initiate very rapid upstream river response and reservoir erosion and evacuation of sediment by various mechanisms that are strongly controlled by grain size of the deposit, volumes of residual sediment relative to total reservoir volume, and style of dam removal (instantaneous versus staged). Erosion of sediment accumulations in fully and partially filled (by sediment) reservoirs proceeds by different trajectories and rates, with full reservoirs releasing sediment primarily by upstream knickpoint retreat while erosion and sediment release in partially-filled reservoirs proceeds by

  16. Egypt: after the Aswan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Ten years after its completion, the controversial Aswan High Dam's hydrologic and human consequences are clearer because of a joint US-Egyptian interdisciplinary study. Water supply and distribution is emerging as a major world resource problem with the recognition that unsafe drinking water and inadequate sanitation contribute to health problems. Dams provide water supplies, but they also create conditions favorable to the spread of water-borne diseases. The Aswan Dam solved problems of flooding and drought by opening 2.5 million acres to year-round irrigation, although some of the reclaimed land has been lost to urban expansion and shoreline erosion, and provides hydroelectric power. The negative effects include increasing soil salinity, changes in the water table, excessive downstream water plant growth, and diseases such as schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasites, and the social impact on the Nubians, whose homeland was flooded. Planners must use the information gathered in this study to see that the benefits outweigh the human costs. 22 references, 7 figures.

  17. The intranasal vaccination of pregnant dams with Intimin and EspB confers protection in neonatal mice from Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 infection.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, B C; Larzábal, M; Vilte, D A; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C

    2016-05-27

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is responsible for intestinal disease and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious systemic complication which particularly affects children. In this study, we evaluated whether passive immunization protects from EHEC O157:H7 colonization and renal damage, by using a weaned BALB/c mouse model of infection. Recombinant proteins EspB and the carboxyl-terminal fragment of 280 amino acids of γ-intimin (γ-IntC280) were used in combination with a macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP) adjuvant to immunize pregnant mice by the intranasal route. Neonatal mice were allowed to suckle vaccinated or sham-vaccinated dams until weaning when they were challenged by the oral route with a suspension of an E. coli O157:H7 Stx2+ strain. The excretion of the inoculated strain was followed for 72h. All vaccinated dams exhibited elevated serum IgG response against both γ-Int C280 and EspB. Passive immunization of newborn mice resulted in a significant increase in serum IgG titers against γ-Int C280 and a slight increase in EspB-specific antibodies. The neonates from vaccinated dams showed a significant reduction in EHEC O157:H7 colonization 48h post challenge. In addition, the level of plasma urea concentration, a marker of renal failure, was significantly higher in offsprings of sham-vaccinated mice. In conclusion, vaccination of pregnant dams with γ-Int C280 and EspB could reduce colonization and systemic toxicity of EHEC O157:H7 in their suckling offsprings.

  18. The intranasal vaccination of pregnant dams with Intimin and EspB confers protection in neonatal mice from Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 infection.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, B C; Larzábal, M; Vilte, D A; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C

    2016-05-27

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is responsible for intestinal disease and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious systemic complication which particularly affects children. In this study, we evaluated whether passive immunization protects from EHEC O157:H7 colonization and renal damage, by using a weaned BALB/c mouse model of infection. Recombinant proteins EspB and the carboxyl-terminal fragment of 280 amino acids of γ-intimin (γ-IntC280) were used in combination with a macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP) adjuvant to immunize pregnant mice by the intranasal route. Neonatal mice were allowed to suckle vaccinated or sham-vaccinated dams until weaning when they were challenged by the oral route with a suspension of an E. coli O157:H7 Stx2+ strain. The excretion of the inoculated strain was followed for 72h. All vaccinated dams exhibited elevated serum IgG response against both γ-Int C280 and EspB. Passive immunization of newborn mice resulted in a significant increase in serum IgG titers against γ-Int C280 and a slight increase in EspB-specific antibodies. The neonates from vaccinated dams showed a significant reduction in EHEC O157:H7 colonization 48h post challenge. In addition, the level of plasma urea concentration, a marker of renal failure, was significantly higher in offsprings of sham-vaccinated mice. In conclusion, vaccination of pregnant dams with γ-Int C280 and EspB could reduce colonization and systemic toxicity of EHEC O157:H7 in their suckling offsprings. PMID:27129423

  19. Maternal Obesity Promotes Diabetic Nephropathy in Rodent Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Tsang, Michael; Teh, Rachel; Chen, Hui; McGrath, Rachel T.; Zaky, Amgad A.; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. Though diabetes is a key risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the relationship between maternal obesity and CKD has not been clearly defined. In this study, a mouse model of maternal obesity was employed to determine the impact of maternal obesity on development of diabetic nephropathy in offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow diet. At postnatal Week 8, offspring were randomly administered low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg/day for five days) to induce diabetes. Assessment of renal damage took place at postnatal Week 32. We found that offspring of obese mothers had increased renal fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Importantly, offspring exposed to maternal obesity had increased susceptibility to renal damage when an additional insult, such as STZ-induced diabetes, was imposed. Specifically, renal inflammation and oxidative stress induced by diabetes was augmented by maternal obesity. Our findings suggest that developmental programming induced by maternal obesity has implications for renal health in offspring. Maternal obesity should be considered a risk factor for CKD. PMID:27277011

  20. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  1. Dietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cédric; Scholl, Georges; Bohn, Torsten; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Eppe, Gauthier; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

    2014-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g., mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (Σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ng kg(-1) d(-1). Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants.

  2. Longitudinal Variability of Phosphorus Fractions in Sediments of a Canyon Reservoir Due to Cascade Dam Construction: A Case Study in Lancang River, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Shiliang; Zhao, Haidi; Deng, Li; Wang, Cong; Zhao, Qinghe; Dong, Shikui

    2013-01-01

    Dam construction causes the accumulation of phosphorus in the sediments of reservoirs and increases the release rate of internal phosphorus (P) loading. This study investigated the longitudinal variability of phosphorus fractions in sediments and the relationship between the contents of phosphorus fractions and its influencing factors of the Manwan Reservoir, Lancang River, Yunnan Province, China. Five sedimentary phosphorus fractions were quantified separately: loosely bound P (ex-P); reductant soluble P (BD-P); metal oxide-bound P (NaOH-P); calcium-bound P (HCl-P), and residual-P. The results showed that the total phosphorus contents ranged from 623 to 899 µg/g and were correlated positively with iron content in the sediments of the reservoir. The rank order of P fractions in sediments of the mainstream was HCl-P>NaOH-P>residual-P>BD-P>ex-P, while it was residual-P>HCl-P>NaOH-P>BD-P>ex-P in those of the tributaries. The contents of bio-available phosphorus in the tributaries, including ex-P, BD-P and NaOH-P, were significantly lower than those in the mainstream. The contents of ex-P, BD-P, NaOH-P showed a similar increasing trend from the tail to the head of the Manwan Reservoir, which contributed to the relatively higher content of bio-available phosphorus, and represents a high bio-available phosphorus releasing risk within a distance of 10 km from Manwan Dam. Correlation and redundancy analyses showed that distance to Manwan Dam and the silt/clay fraction of sediments were related closely to the spatial variation of bio-available phosphorus. PMID:24386180

  3. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  4. Floodplain Hyporheic Response under Dam Release Hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Ward, A. S.; O'Connor, B. L.; Endreny, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Hydropower operations cause altered hydrograph patterns downstream of dams, which regulates the direction and magnitude of floodplain and riverbed hyporheic flux. Periodic adjustments in river stage changes temporal and spatial patterns in hydraulic pressure, initiates propagation of lateral and vertical hyporheic flux, and affects the riparian ecological system by changing the hyporheic penetration distance, hyporheic flux rate, and thermal conditions in river banks. While this issue has been largely neglected by watershed scientists and managers, there is the potential to use hyporheic metrics in setting dam release rules and restoring downstream river reaches. In order to evaluate the hyporheic feedbacks of various dam release patterns, this study applied a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the interaction of open water hydrographs on porous media lateral hyporheic exchange for the Green River, Utah, downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam. The CFD initially represented the river as a straight channel with a thick porous media extending from the channel banks and bottom. The dam release hydrographs changed the patterns of hyporheic flux at the river banks, the penetration distance of the hyporheic flux, the subsurface thermal patterns, and the residence time of water in the subsurface. The results suggest the undulating river stage downstream of dam releases can initiate patterns of hyporheic exchange similar to those induced by restoration of river bed morphology.

  5. Maternal Parity and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Jin; Tong, Xing; Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Shen, Shutong; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and March 8, 2014; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal parity and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. From the 11272 references, a total of 16 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Results The overall relative risk of CHD in parous versus nulliparous women was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06; Q = 32.34; P = 0.006; I2 = 53.6%). Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the highest versus lowest parity number, with an overall RR = 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10–1.31; (Q = 74.61, P<0.001, I2 = 82.6%). A dose–response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal parity on CHD risk, and the overall increase in relative risk per one live birth was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02–1.09); Q = 68.09; P<0.001; I2 = 80.9%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies. A Galbraith plot was created to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis provided a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal parity and risk of CHD. PMID:25295723

  6. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

    2012-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  7. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories <0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1.0-1.4, and ≥1.5μmol/L, respectively, as compared to population comparison). Parental psychosis, paternal age and offspring language were associated with offspring risk. The findings suggest that paternal exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. PMID:27318522

  8. International small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks to avoid dam failure flood disasters in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Dam, Tuyet Thi; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries small dam failure disasters are common yet research on their dam safety management is lacking. This paper reviews available small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks from international literature, synthesises them for applicability in developing countries, and provides example application through a case study of Vietnam. Generic models from 'minimum' to 'best' practice (Pisaniello, 1997) are synthesised with the World Bank's 'essential' and 'desirable' elements (Bradlow et al., 2002) leading to novel policy analysis and design criteria for developing countries. The case study involved 22 on-site dam surveys finding micro level physical and management inadequacies that indicates macro dam safety management policy performs far below the minimum benchmark in Vietnam. Moving assurance policy towards 'best practice' is necessary to improve the safety of Vietnam's considerable number of hazardous dams to acceptable community standards, but firstly achieving 'minimum practice' per the developed guidance is essential. The policy analysis/design process provides an exemplar for other developing countries to follow for avoiding dam failure flood disasters.

  9. Uranium and Sm isotope studies of the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchenbaur, Maria; Maas, Roland; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Strub, Erik; Ballhaus, Chris; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag deposit in the Archean-Proterozoic Gawler Craton (South Australia) is a type example of the iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) spectrum of deposits and one of the largest Cu-U-Au resources known. Mineralization is hosted in a lithologically and texturally diverse, hematite-rich breccia complex developed within a granite of the 1.59 Ga Gawler Silicic Province. Emerging evidence indicates that both the breccia complex and its metal content developed over ∼1000 Ma, responding to major tectonic events, e.g., at 1300-1100, 825 and 500 Ma. However, metal sources and exact mechanism/s of ore formation remain poorly known. New high-precision 238U/235U data for a set of 40 whole rock samples representing all major lithological facies of the breccia complex show a narrow range (δ238UCRM112a = -0.56‰ to +0.04‰). At the scale of sampling, there is no correlation of δ238U with lithology, degree of alteration or U mineralogy, although ores with U > 5 wt.% have subtly higher δ238U values (-0.20‰ to 0.00) than the majority of samples (<0.7 wt.% U, -0.56‰ to -0.23‰). The new U isotope data are consistent with published data for uraninites from Olympic Dam, and with published results from high-temperature U deposits. They overlap completely with the range of δ238U values in granitoids (including the host granite, -0.18‰ to -0.32‰) and with estimates of the upper continental crust in general. This similarity suggests that Olympic Dam δ238U values reflects the crustal sources of U, which probably include felsic volcanic rocks and granitoids. The isotopic homogeneity suggests depositional mechanisms that involve minimal isotopic fractionation of U; alternatively, primary fractionation signatures may have been erased during the long history of the U mineralization. High-grade U ores may record isotopic neutron-capture effects related to fissionogenic neutrons. High-precision Sm isotope data for five high-U (>5 wt.% U, U/Sm ≫ 500) Olympic Dam

  10. Interaction does Count: A Cross-Fostering Study on Transgenerational Effects of Pre-reproductive Maternal Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Gelfo, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Angelucci, Francesco; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of female rats influences sensorimotor development and spatial behavior of the offspring, possibly through the changed maternal nurturing. Nevertheless, maternal care could be not the solely responsible for changing offspring developmental trajectories. To disentangle the specific contribution to the transgenerational inheritance of pre- and post-natal factors, a cross-fostering study was performed. Female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while control female rats were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. Immediately after delivery, in- or cross-fostering manipulations were performed so that any foster dams received pups born to another dam of the same (in-fostering) or the opposite (cross-fostering) pre-reproductive rearing condition. In lactating dams maternal care and nesting activities were assessed, while in their male pups spatial abilities were assessed through Morris Water Maze (MWM) test at post-natal day 45. Moreover, the expression of Brain-Derived-Neurotrophic-Factor (BDNF) was evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of dams and pups at weaning. Pre-reproductive maternal environmental enrichment, followed by adoption procedures, loosened its potential in modifying maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories, as indicated by the lack of differences between in-fostered groups of dams and pups. In addition, enriched dams rearing standard pups showed the least complex maternal repertoire (the highest sniffing duration and the lowest nest quality), and their pups showed a reduced spatial learning in the MWM. Nevertheless, pre-reproductive maternal enrichment kept influencing neurotrophic pattern, with enriched dams expressing increased frontal BDNF levels (regardless of the kind of fostered pups), and their offspring expressing increased hippocampal BDNF levels. The present

  11. Interaction does Count: A Cross-Fostering Study on Transgenerational Effects of Pre-reproductive Maternal Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Gelfo, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Angelucci, Francesco; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of female rats influences sensorimotor development and spatial behavior of the offspring, possibly through the changed maternal nurturing. Nevertheless, maternal care could be not the solely responsible for changing offspring developmental trajectories. To disentangle the specific contribution to the transgenerational inheritance of pre- and post-natal factors, a cross-fostering study was performed. Female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while control female rats were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. Immediately after delivery, in- or cross-fostering manipulations were performed so that any foster dams received pups born to another dam of the same (in-fostering) or the opposite (cross-fostering) pre-reproductive rearing condition. In lactating dams maternal care and nesting activities were assessed, while in their male pups spatial abilities were assessed through Morris Water Maze (MWM) test at post-natal day 45. Moreover, the expression of Brain-Derived-Neurotrophic-Factor (BDNF) was evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of dams and pups at weaning. Pre-reproductive maternal environmental enrichment, followed by adoption procedures, loosened its potential in modifying maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories, as indicated by the lack of differences between in-fostered groups of dams and pups. In addition, enriched dams rearing standard pups showed the least complex maternal repertoire (the highest sniffing duration and the lowest nest quality), and their pups showed a reduced spatial learning in the MWM. Nevertheless, pre-reproductive maternal enrichment kept influencing neurotrophic pattern, with enriched dams expressing increased frontal BDNF levels (regardless of the kind of fostered pups), and their offspring expressing increased hippocampal BDNF levels. The present

  12. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Clemmensen, Line Harder; Axelstad, Marta

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase in gestation length was seen, while in male offspring increased nipple retention and increased incidence and severity of genital malformations were observed. Severe mixture effects on gestation length, nipple retention and genital malformations were seen at dose levels where the individual pesticides caused no or smaller effects when given alone. Generally, the mixture effect predictions based on dose-additivity were in good agreement with the observed effects. The results indicate that there is a need for modification of risk assessment procedures for pesticides, in order to take account of the mixture effects and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans. PMID:22659286

  13. Persistent developmental toxicity in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Isling, Louise Krag; Christiansen, Sofie; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Berthelsen, Line Olrik; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2012-09-01

    There is growing concern of permanent damage to the endocrine and nervous systems after developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this study the permanent reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of combined exposure to five endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, were examined. Pregnant and lactating rat dams were dosed with a mixture of the five pesticides at three different doses, or with the individual pesticides at one of two doses. Adverse effects were observed in young and adult male offspring from the group exposed to the highest dose of the mixture. These included reduced prostate and epididymis weights, increased testes weights, altered prostate histopathology, increased density of mammary glands, reduced sperm counts, and decreased spatial learning. As no significant effects were seen following single compound exposure at the doses included in the highest mixture dose, these results indicate cumulative adverse effects of the pesticide mixture. PMID:22677472

  14. Distribution of Silver Nanoparticles to Breast Milk and Their Biological Effects on Breast-Fed Offspring Mice.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Takimura, Yuya; Shimizu, Yuki; Namba, Yuki; Nojiri, Nao; Ishizaka, Takuya; Takao, Keizo; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Ago, Yukio; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Saito, Shigeru; Matsuda, Toshio; Hashida, Mitsuru; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2016-09-27

    Recent rodent studies have shown that nanoparticles are distributed to breast milk, and more-detailed safety information regarding nanoparticle consumption by lactating mothers is required. Here, we used mice to investigate the safety of nanoparticle use during lactation. When Ag and Au nanoparticles were intravenously administered to lactating mice, the nanoparticles were distributed to breast milk without producing apparent damage to the mammary gland, and the amount of Ag nanoparticles distributed to breast milk increased with decreasing particle size. Orally administered Ag nanoparticles were also distributed to breast milk and subsequently to the brains of breast-fed pups. Ten-nanometer Ag nanoparticles were retained longer in the pups' brains than in their livers and lungs. Nevertheless, no significant behavioral changes were observed in offspring breast-fed by dams that had received orally administered 10 nm Ag nanoparticles. These data provide basic information for evaluating the safety of nanoparticle use during lactation. PMID:27498759

  15. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) increases aggression and modulates maternal behavior in offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Svirsky, Natali; Levy, Sigal; Avitsur, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs in pregnant women. SSRIs cross the placental barrier and affect serotonergic neurotransmission in the fetus. Although no gross SSRI-related teratogenic effects were reported, infants born following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are at higher risk for various developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal SSRI on social and maternal behavior in mice. To this end, pregnant female dams were exposed to saline or fluoxetine (FLX) throughout pregnancy, and the behavior of the offspring was examined. The results indicate that in utero FLX increased aggression in adult males and delayed emergence of maternal behavior in adult females. Social exploration and recognition memory were not affected by prenatal FLX exposure. These findings support the notion that alterations in the development of serotonergic pathways following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are associated with changes in social and maternal behavior throughout life.

  16. Maternal undernutrition upregulates apoptosis in offspring nephrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tafti, S A; Nast, C C; Desai, M; Amaya, K E; Ross, M G; Magee, T R

    2011-08-01

    Maternal undernutrition (MUN) results in growth-restricted newborns with reduced nephron numbers that is associated with increased risk of hypertension and renal disease. The total adult complement of nephrons is set during nephrogenesis suggesting that MUN affects the staged development of nephrons in as yet unknown manner. A possible cause may be the increased renal apoptosis; therefore, we investigated whether apoptotic signaling and cell death were increased in MUN rat kidneys. Pregnant rat dams were fed an ad libitum diet [control] or were 50% food restricted (MUN) starting at embryonic day (E) 10. Male offspring kidneys (n = 5 each, MUN and control) were analyzed for mRNA using quantitative PCR (E20) and for protein expression using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (E20 and postnatal day 1, P1). Apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Upregulation of pro-apoptotic protein expression was detected at E20 (Fas receptor, caspase 9) and at P1 (caspase 3, Bax). The anti-apoptotic factor Bcl2 was significantly decreased in P1 kidneys. Kidney TUNEL showed apoptotic nuclei significantly increased in the P1 nephrogenic zone (MUN 3.3 + 0.3 v. C 1.6 + 0.5, P = 0.002). The majority of apoptotic nuclei co-localized to mesenchyme and pretubular aggregates in the nephrogenic zone. Differential regulation of apoptosis in mesenchyme and pretubular aggregates following parturition suggests a mechanism for nephropenia in gestational programming of the kidney.

  17. 52. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- TAINTER GATE HOIST-ASSEMBLY -- PLANS AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 46/2 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  18. ECHETA DAM RIPRAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ECHETA DAM RIP-RAP ON RESERVOIR SIDE OF THE DAM AT BREACH. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Echeta Dam & Reservoir, 2.9 miles east of Echeta Road at Echeta Railroad Siding at County Road 293, Echeta, Campbell County, WY

  19. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF TIETON DAM, UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM (Trashrack-structure for outlet at lower left in reservoir, spillway at upper left. Reservoir nearly empty due to drought.) - Tieton Dam, South & East of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  20. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    PubMed

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system.

  1. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    PubMed

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing