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Sample records for dam offspring study

  1. Measuring Taste Impairment in Epidemiologic Studies – The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, KJ; Schubert, CR; Snyder, DJ; Bartoshuk, LM; Huang, GH; Klein, BEK; Klein, R; Nieto, FJ; Pankow, JS; Tweed, TS; Krantz, EM; Moy, GS

    2008-01-01

    Taste or gustatory function may play an important role in determining diet and nutritional status and therefore indirectly impact health. Yet there have been few attempts to study the spectrum of taste function and dysfunction in human populations. Epidemiological studies are needed to understand the impact of taste function and dysfunction on public health, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to develop and test strategies to prevent clinically significant dysfunction. However, measuring taste function in epidemiological studies is challenging and requires repeatable, efficient methods which can measure change over time. Insights gained from translating laboratory-based methods to a population-based study, the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS) will be shared. In this study, a generalized labeled magnitude scale (gLMS) method was used to measure taste intensity of filter paper disks saturated with salt, sucrose, citric acid, quinine, or 6-n-propylthiouracil and a gLMS measure of taste preferences was administered. In addition, a portable, inexpensive camera system to capture digital images of fungiform papillae and a masked grading system to measure the density of fungiform papillae were developed. Adult children of participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin are eligible for this on-going study. The parents were residents of Beaver Dam and 43–84 years of age in 1987–88; offspring range in age from 21–84 years in 2005–2008. Methods will be described in detail and preliminary results about the distributions of taste function in the BOSS cohort will be presented. PMID:19686191

  2. Olfactory impairment in an adult population: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pankow, James S; Nondahl, David M

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of olfactory impairment and associated risk factors and the effects of olfactory impairment on dietary choices and quality of life. Odor identification was measured in 2838 participants aged 21-84 years (mean 49 years) in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. The overall prevalence of olfactory impairment was 3.8%, increased with age (from 0.6% in those<35 years to 13.9% among those≥65 years) and was more common in men than women. In a multivariate model age (odds ratio [OR]=1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.33, 1.64 for every 5-year increase), nasal polyps or deviated septum (OR=2.69, 95% CI=1.62, 4.48), ankle-brachial index<0.9 (OR=3.62, 95% CI=1.45, 9.01), and smoking (women only) (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.19, 4.98 ever smoked vs. never) were associated with an increased odds of olfactory impairment, whereas higher household income, ≥$50,000 versus <$50,000 per year, was associated with a decreased odds of olfactory impairment (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.31, 0.73). Participants with olfactory impairment were less likely to report that food tasted as good as it used to, or that they experienced food flavors the same. There was no association between olfactory impairment and general health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, or dietary choices. The prevalence of olfactory impairment was low in this largely middle-aged cohort, and some factors associated with olfactory impairment are potentially modifiable.

  3. Neurofunctional Evaluation of Young Male Offspring of Rat Dams with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Delascio Lopes, Carla; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Mazzola, Jacqueline; Camano, Luiz; Mattar, Rosiane

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance. PMID:22363880

  4. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed.

  5. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  6. Transfer of Ga-67 from hamster dam to fetus and offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.L.; Byrd, B.L.

    1981-06-01

    We have studied the transfer of Ga-67 from the hamster dam to the fetus and also to the postpartum offspring. During gestation the concentration of Ga-67 in the mammary glands increased by approximately 20-fold, and Ga-67 was transferred across the placenta into the fetus. The concentration of Ga-67 in the fetus decreased during the terminal stages of gestation, partly due to a decreased transfer of Ga-67 itself and partly as the result of the rapid growth of the fetus. One-day-old offspring were able to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract the Ga-67 contained in ingested dam's milk, whereas 9-day-old offspring excrete essentially all such ingested Ga-67. The Ga-67 radiation hazards to the fetus during gestation and that resulting from the transfer of Ga-67 to the newborn through ingestion of the mother's milk should receive further investigation.

  7. Changes in liveweight and behaviour of alpaca dams and offspring following weaning.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J C; Littlejohn, R P; Davis, G H

    1993-12-01

    The effects of offspring sex, weight, age, and level of interaction with the dam on responses to weaning were examined to assist in the development of a weaning protocol for alpacas. In the first study, preand post-weaning activities, and weight change over Days -12-0,0-7 and 7-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 20 dam-offspring (hembra-cria) pairs aged 81-200 days. Pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (P<0.05). Although heavier crias tended to be found closer to their dams than lighter crias (P<0.05) no additional effect of age on the dam-offspring relationship was found. Following weaning, cria growth rates were low over Days 0-7 but improved over Days 7-16, and hembra weight change followed the same pattern. Over Days 0-2, grazing and sitting activities of hembras and crias were replaced by standing and walking along paddock fencelines, although by Day 2 fenceline activities had decreased (P<0.05). Crias which were more frequently observed at fencelines had lower post-weaning growth rates (P<0.05). In the second study, pre-weaning sucking behaviour, and weight change over Days -30-0, 0-8 and 8-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 19 hembra-cria pairs aged 124-160 days. During 10 hours of observation on Days -5 and -4, the total duration of sucking by individual crias varied from 0-18 minutes, and the mean +/- SEM duration of sucking was 1.94 +/- 0.113 minutes. Cria sucking behaviour was positively related to growth rate prior to and weight at weaning (P<0.05). As in the first study, pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (P<0.05). Following weaning, growth rates of the crias were depressed and the hembras lost weight over Days 0-8 and 8-16. The changes in growth rate and behaviour in Studies 1 and 2 indicated that weaning can be stressful for hembras and crias. However, there was no evidence from either study that pre-weaning behavioural or physical characteristics were

  8. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  9. Effect of dam weight and pregnancy nutrition on average lactation performance of ewe offspring over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Paten, A M; Pain, S J; Peterson, S W; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2016-11-21

    The foetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal weight and nutrition during gestation, which could affect offspring milk production. It has previously been shown that ewes born to dams offered maintenance nutrition during pregnancy (day 21 to 140 of gestation) produced greater milk, lactose and CP yields in their first lactation when compared with ewes born to dams offered ad libitum nutrition. In addition, ewes born to heavier dams produced greater milk and lactose yields when compared with ewes born to lighter dams. The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the 5-year lactation performance of the previously mentioned ewes, born to heavy or light dams that were offered maintenance or ad libitum pregnancy nutrition. Ewes were milked once per week, for the first 6 weeks of their lactation, for 5 years. Using milk yield and composition data, accumulated yields were calculated over a 42-day period for each year for milk, milk fat, CP, true protein, casein and lactose using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Over the 5-year period, ewes born to heavy dams produced greater average milk (P=0.04), lactose (P=0.01) and CP (P=0.04) yields than offspring born to light dams. In contrast, over the 5-year period dam nutrition during pregnancy did not affect average (P>0.05) offspring milk yields or composition, but did increase milk and lactose accumulated yield (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively) in the first lactation. These results indicate that maternal gestational nutrition appears to only affect the first lactational performance of ewe offspring. Neither dam nutrition nor size affected grand-offspring live weight gain to, or live weight at weaning (P>0.05). Combined these data indicate that under the conditions of the present study, manipulating dam weight or nutrition in pregnancy can have some effects of offspring lactational performance, however, these effects are not large enough to alter grand-offspring growth to weaning. Therefore, such manipulations

  10. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; P<0.05), and this difference could be normalized by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester treatment. In conclusion, perinatal maternal Resv supplementation mitigated the development of hypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  11. Cardiac cytochrome C oxidase activity and contents of subunits 1 and 4 are altered in offspring by low prenatal copper intake by rat dams.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W Thomas; Anderson, Cindy M

    2008-07-01

    It has been reported previously that the offspring of rat dams consuming low dietary copper (Cu) during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) characterized by reduced catalytic activity and mitochondrial and nuclear subunit content after postnatal d 10. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the cardiac CCO deficiency was caused directly by low postnatal Cu intake or whether it was a prenatal effect of low Cu intake by the dams that became manifest postnatally. Dams were fed either a Cu-adequate diet (6 mg Cu/kg) or Cu-deficient diet (1 mg Cu/kg) beginning 3 wk before conception and throughout gestation and lactation. One day following parturition, several litters from Cu-adequate dams were cross fostered to Cu-deficient dams and several litters from Cu-deficient dams were cross fostered to Cu-adequate dams. Litters that remained with their birth dams served as controls. CCO activity, the content of the mitochondrial-encoded CCO subunit 1 (COX1), and the content of the nuclear-encoded subunit COX4 in cardiac mitochondria were reduced in the 21-d-old offspring of Cu-deficient dams. COX1 content was normal in the 21-d-old cross-fostered offspring of Cu-deficient dams, but CCO activity and COX4 were reduced. Cross fostering the offspring of Cu-adequate dams to Cu-deficient dams did not significantly affect CCO activity, COX1 content, or COX4 content in cardiac mitochondria of 21-d-old offspring. These data indicate that low prenatal Cu intake by dams was the determinant of CCO activity in cardiac mitochondria of the 21-d-old offspring and may have led to the assembly of a less-than-fully active holoenzyme.

  12. Protective effects of maternal methyl donor supplementation on adult offspring of high fat diet-fed dams.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Fei; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Yu, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Ou, Hailong; Yan, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to specific groups and given different nutrients (control diet, Control+Met, HFD and HFD+Met) throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring of each group were weaned onto a control diet at 3 weeks of age. Physiological (weight gain and adipose composition) and metabolic (plasma biochemical analyses) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression and DNA methylation profiles of obesogenic-related genes including PPAR γ, fatty acid synthase, leptin and adiponectin were also detected in visceral fat of offspring. The results showed that dietary supplementation with methyl donors can prevent the adverse effects of maternal HFD on offspring. Changes in the expression and DNA methylation of obesogenic-related genes indicated that epigenetic regulation may contribute to the effects of maternal dietary factors on offspring outcomes.

  13. Maternal arachidonic acid supplementation improves neurodevelopment in young adult offspring from rat dams with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinping; Del Bigio, Marc R; Weiler, Hope A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may compromise infant arachidonic acid (AA) status and development. This study tested if maternal AA supplementation improves neurodevelopment in adult offspring. Rat dams were randomized into 6 groups: Saline-Placebo, streptozotocin-induced diabetes with glucose controlled at <13mmol/L, or poorly controlled at 13-20mmol/L using insulin; and fed either a Control or AA (0.5% fat) diet throughout reproduction. Weaned-offspring were fed regular chow to 12 weeks of age. Testing included exploratory behavior, rota rod and water maze (WM). Poorly controlled offspring showed longer (p≤0.018) escape-latency on testing-day 1 WM but not thereafter (p>0.05). Maternal glucose concentration positively correlated with (p=0.006) male offspring testing-day 1 WM latency. The AA-diet offspring performed better in WM and rota rod (p≤0.032) and showed higher exploratory behavior (p=0.008) than Control-diet offspring. These data suggest maternal hyperglycemia has longstanding consequences to initial stages of learning in the offspring. Maternal AA supplementation and training positively influence learning outcomes.

  14. Programmed hyperphagia in offspring of obese dams: Altered expression of hypothalamic nutrient sensors, neurogenic factors and epigenetic modulators.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mina; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Maternal overnutrition results in programmed offspring obesity, mediated in part, by hyperphagia. This is remarkably similar to the effects of maternal undernutrition on offspring hyperphagia and obesity. In view of the marked differences in the energy environment of the over and under-nutrition exposures, we studied the expression of select epigenetic modifiers associated with energy imbalance including neurogenic factors and appetite/satiety neuropeptides which are indicative of neurogenic differentiation. HF offspring were exposed to maternal overnutrition (high fat diet; HF) during pregnancy and lactation. We determined the protein expression of energy sensors (mTOR, pAMPK), epigenetic factors (DNA methylase, DNMT1; histone deacetylase, SIRT1/HDAC1), neurogenic factors (Hes1, Mash1, Ngn3) and appetite/satiety neuropeptides (AgRP/POMC) in newborn hypothalamus and adult arcuate nucleus (ARC). Despite maternal obesity, male offspring born to obese dams had similar body weight at birth as Controls. However, when nursed by the same dams, male offspring of obese dams exhibited marked adiposity. At 1 day of age, HF newborn males had significantly decreased energy sensors, DNMT1 including Hes1 and Mash1, which may impact neuroprogenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. This is consistent with increased AgRP in HF newborns. At 6 months of age, HF adult males had significantly increased energy sensors and decreased histone deactylases. In addition, the persistent decreased Hes1, Mash1 as well as Ngn3 are consistent with increased AgRP and decreased POMC. Thus, altered energy sensors and epigenetic responses which modulate gene expression and adult neuronal differentiation may contribute to hyperphagia and obesity in HF male offspring.

  15. Food restriction during pregnancy alters brain's antioxidant network in dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vinícius; August, Pauline M; Stocher, Daniela P; Klein, Caroline P; Couto, Pablo R G; Silva, Yasmini D; Sagini, João P; Salomon, Tiago B; Benfato, Mara S; Matté, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction increases life span and protects distinct organisms against a series of diseases, among which, those related to oxidative stress, like neurodegenerative diseases. Interferences in the maternal environment are known to reprogram the offspring metabolism response, impacting in the risk of chronic diseases development in adulthood. We aimed to assess the effects of 40% food restriction on reactive species levels, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses, and oxidative damage parameters in the cerebellum and total cerebral cortex of pregnant rats and their offspring. Dams and pups showed oxidative modulation caused by food restriction in both structures. Dichlorofluorescein oxidation, reflecting reactive species levels, was reduced in the cerebellum of dams and offspring, while the cerebral cortex was not affected. Decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels were found in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of pups, while nitric oxide was increased in the cortex. We also measured the activities of important antioxidant enzymes responsible by reactive oxygen species elimination. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in the cerebellum of dams and in both structures of pups, while it was decreased in dams' cerebral cortex. Both brain structures were affected concerning to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutaredoxin activities, which were reduced in pups and dams. Non-enzymatic defenses were decreased in pups, while dams showed an adaptive pattern in the cerebellum and no alteration in the cerebral cortex. Even though the results suggest increased oxidative status, lipids and proteins were not oxidatively affected. Our data suggest that intrauterine food restriction may disrupt oxidative status, impairing the antioxidant network.

  16. Effects of zinc depletion and repletion during lactation on rat dams and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Dibi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of feeding 5 mg Zn/kg, 12 mg Zn/kg, 50 mg Zn/kg in egg white diets and 50 mg Zn/kg in defatted glandless cottonseed diet on postnatal growth and tissue zinc concentrations of dams and neonates were investigated. One or more of the following tissues were obtained on days 7, 14, 21, and 56 for analyses: femur, liver, brain, testes, spleen, and/or blood. Dams fed the cottonseed diet weighted more than dams fed the egg white diets. Dams fed zinc in cottonseed diet had higher blood zinc concentrations than dams fed zinc in the egg white diets. Dams and the offspring fed 50 mg zn/kg egg white diet had higher femur zinc levels than dams and the offspring fed 50 mg Zn/kg in the cottonseed diet. There was no difference in the weight gain/loss of dams fed 50 mg Zn/kg or 12 mg Zn/kg egg white diets. Femur zinc concentrations of pups suckling dams fed 50 mg Zn/kg egg white were higher than femur zinc concentrations of pups suckling dams fed 12 mg Zn/kg egg white diet. Body weights and tissue zinc concentrations of the neonates suckling dams fed 5 mg Zn/kg egg white diet and then repleted with zinc in either egg white or cottonseed diet were similar. There was complete recovery when rats were fed 5 mg Zn/kg and then repleted with zinc at 50 mg Zn/kg level. Therefore, the protein source did not have statistically significantly different effects on zinc availability to the rats.

  17. Camel whey protein improves lymphocyte function and protects against diabetes in the offspring of diabetic mouse dams.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal; El Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of health problems in the offspring of pregnant diabetic mothers has recently been verified. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary camel whey protein (CWP), administered as a supplement to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant mice, on the efficiency of the immune system of the offspring. Three groups of female mice (n = 10) were used: non-diabetic control mice, diabetic mice, and diabetic mice orally administered CWP during the pregnancy and lactation periods. We then tested the immune response of B and T cells in adult male offspring (n = 15 in each group) by using flow cytometry, western blotting, and ELISAs. Our data demonstrated that the offspring of diabetic dams exhibited several postpartum complications, such as significant aberrant overexpression of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), significant elevation of the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), marked decreases in the plasma levels of IL-2 and IL-7, significant inhibition of CCL21- and CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis of B- and T-lymphocytes, and a marked decrease in the proliferative capacity of antigen-stimulated B- and T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, administration of CWP to diabetic dams substantially restored the expression of ATF-3 and the levels of ROS, pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-2, and IL-7 in the offspring. Furthermore, the chemotaxis of B- and T-lymphocytes toward CCL21 and CXCL12 and the proliferative capacities of these lymphocytes were restored in the male offspring of diabetic mice administered CWP. Our data provide evidence of a protective role of CWP in decreasing the tendency of the offspring of diabetic mothers to develop diabetes and related complications.

  18. Evaluation of sodium arsenite exposure on reproductive competence in pregnant and postlactational dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Nadia Soledad; Bonaventura, María Marta; Rodríguez, Diego; Bizzozzero, Marianne; Ventura, Clara; Nuñez, Mariel; Lux-Lantos, Victoria Adela; Libertun, Carlos

    2017-01-07

    We investigated arsenite exposure on the reproductive axis of dams (during pregnancy and at cyclicity resumption) and their offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to 5 (A5) or 50ppm (A50) of sodium arsenite in drinking water from gestational day 1 (GD1) until sacrifice at GD18 or two months postpartum. Offspring were exposed to the same treatment as their mothers from weaning to adulthood. A50-pregnant rats gained less weight, showed increased testosterone and estradiol but pregnancy was unaffected. After lactation, arsenic-exposed dams presented compromised cyclicity, decreased estradiol, increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), less preovulatory follicles and presence of ovarian cysts, suggesting impaired reproduction. A50-offspring presented lower body weight; A50-female-offspring showed elevated gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), FSH and testosterone, while A50-males showed diminished GnRH/FSH, but normal testosterone. We conclude that arsenite at the present exposure levels did not compromise pregnancy outcome while it negatively affected reproductive physiology in postpartum dams and their offspring.

  19. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring.

  20. Long-term statin administration to dams on high-fat diet protects not only them but also their offspring from cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Elahi, M M; Cagampang, F R; Ohri, S K; Hanson, M A

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to study the effects of long-term statin administration to high fat (HF)-fed female mice from the time they were weaned through to pregnancy and lactation on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in their HF-fed offspring. Female C57 mice on HF (45% kcal fat) were given pravastatin in their drinking water from the time they were weaned, during pregnancy and lactation. Weaned offspring were then fed an HF diet until adulthood generating the dam/offspring dietary groups HF/HF and HF plus pravastatin from the time dams were weaned, during pregnancy and lactation/HF (HF+S/HF). These groups were compared with offspring from mothers fed standard chow (control) which were then fed a control diet up to adulthood (control/control; C/C). HF+S dams showed significantly reduced total cholesterol concentrations and systolic blood pressure (SBP) versus HF dams. The reduction in total cholesterol and SBP in the HF+S dams did not restore values to those observed in the C group. Both male and female HF+S/HF offspring were significantly lighter in weight, and had lower SBP and serum cholesterol concentrations versus HF/HF. HF/HF offspring had elevated C-reactive protein levels but HF+S/HF animals of both sexes had reduced levels similar to those found in the C/C group. Long-term pravastatin administration to dams not only protects them from the deleterious effects of an HF diet, but this long-term maternal statin protection also has an equal and permanent effect in both male and female offspring up to their adult life, which is a novel finding.

  1. Maternal postpartum learned helplessness (LH) affects maternal care by dams and responses to the LH test in adolescent offspring.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Akiko; Morinobu, Shigeru; Fuchikami, Manabu; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2009-06-01

    It is known that the early environment affects the mental development of rodent and human offspring. However, it is not known specifically whether a postpartum depressive state influences the depressive state in offspring. Using learned helplessness (LH) in rats as an animal model of depression, we examined the influence of maternal postpartum LH on responses to the LH test of offspring. Dam rats were judged as LH or non-helpless (nLH) on postnatal days (PN) 2-3, and maternal behavior was recorded during PN2-14. On PN 45-46, offspring were subjected to the LH test. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, hippocampal levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA were measured before and after the LH test in offspring. Active nursing in LH dams was significantly lower than that in nLH dams. Susceptibility to LH in the offspring of LH dams was significantly higher than in those of nLH dams, and was negatively correlated with active nursing by LH dams. The GR mRNA levels before and after the LH test were lower in the offspring of LH dams than in those of nLH dams, and the reduced basal GR mRNA and protein might have resulted in the higher CORT response after the LH test. There was no significant difference in BDNF mRNA in the offspring of LH and nLH dams. These findings suggest that early postpartum LH decreased active nursing and increased depression-like behavior in the adolescent offspring via dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  2. Rat gestation during space flight: outcomes for dams and their offspring born after return to Earth.

    PubMed

    Wong, A M; DeSantis, M

    1997-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to learn whether gestation in the near-zero gravity, high radiation environment of space impacts selected mammalian postnatal events. Ten rats spent days nine to twenty of pregnancy aboard the space shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-66). Their movement was studied shortly after return to Earth; subsequently, several of their offspring were cross-fostered and examined through postnatal day 81 (P81) for whole body growth and somatic motor development. Values for the flight animals were compared to ground-based control groups. Relative to controls, the pregnant flight rats showed a marked paucity of locomotion during the first few hours after returning to Earth. There was greater likelihood of perinatal morbidity for the offspring of flight dams when compared to the control groups. Whole body weight of surviving offspring, averaged for each group separately, showed typical sigmoidal growth curves when plotted against postnatal age. The flight group for our study had a larger ratio of female to male pups, and that was sufficient to account for the lower average daily weight gained by the flight animals when compared to the control groups. Walking was universally achieved by P13 and preceded eye opening, which was complete in all pups by P17. Thus, both of these developmental horizons were attained on schedule in the flight as well as the control rats. Characteristic changes were observed in hind limb step length and gait width as the pups grew. These patterns occurred at the same time in each group of rats. Therefore, prenatal space flight from days nine to twenty of gestation did not interfere with the establishment of normal patterns for hind paw placement during walking.

  3. Rat Gestation During Space Flight: Outcomes for Dams and Their Offspring Born After Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andre M.; DeSantis, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to learn whether gestation in the near-zero gravity, high radiation environment of space impacts selected mammalian postnatal events. Ten rats spent days nine to twenty of pregnancy aboard the space shuttle orbiter Atlantis (STS-66). Their movement was studied shortly after return to Earth; subsequently, several of their offspring were cross-fostered and examined through postnatal day 81 (P81) for whole body growth and somatic motor development. Values for the flight animals were compared to ground-based control groups. Relative to controls, the pregnant flight rats showed a marked paucity of locomotion during the first few hours after returning to Earth. There was greater likelihood of perinatal morbidity for the offspring of flight dams when compared to the control groups. Whole body weight of surviving offspring, averaged for each group separately, showed typical sigmoidal growth curves when plotted against postnatal age. The flight group for our study had a larger ratio of female to male pups, and that was sufficient to account for the lower average daily weight gained by the flight animals when compared to the control groups. Walking was universally achieved by P13 and preceded eye opening, which was complete in all pups by P17. Thus, both of these developmental horizons were attained on schedule in the flight as well as the control rats. Characteristic changes were observed in hind limb step length and gait width as the pups grew. These patterns occurred at the same time in each group of rats. Therefore, prenatal space flight from days nine to twenty of gestation did not interfere with the establishment of normal patterns for hind paw placement during walking.

  4. Placental and lactational transfer of decabromodiphenyl ether and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether in dam-offspring pairs of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi-Yeon; Lee, Sunggyu; Choi, Hyeyoung; Jeong, Da-In; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon

    2017-01-31

    Although several studies have conducted maternal transfer of individual PBDE congener in experimental animals, there is a paucity of research on differences in maternal transfer of PBDE congeners. The purpose of the study was to investigate and compare placental and lactational transfer of BDE 47, -209 and its metabolites in rat dam-offspring pairs following repeated administration of BDE 47 and -209. (13)C-BDE 47, BDE 209 and its debrominated congeners were detected both in dam serum and offspring body, which indicates that PBDEs can be maternally transferred. In addition, BDE 196 and -197 appeared in offspring body earlier than in maternal serum, which suggests that debromination can be occur in offspring body. BDE 209 increased in both dam and offspring while levels of (13)C-BDE 47 was not increased in dam serum. 13C-BDE 47 seems to be stored in breast milk rather than in maternal serum, which can be assumed through the drastic increase of the congener in suckling pups. The magnitude of lactational transfer of the administered congeners was greater than that of placental transfer. And (13)C-BDE 47 was relatively more transferred to suckling pups than BDE 209 through breastfeeding.

  5. Gestational and postpartum corticosterone exposure to the dam affects behavioral and endocrine outcome of the offspring in a sexually-dimorphic manner.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids in utero and during the postpartum period has a detrimental effect on brain development. We created an animal model of postpartum stress/depression based on administering high levels of corticosterone (CORT) to the dams during the postpartum period which caused behavioral changes and reduced hippocampal cell proliferation in the offspring. As the consequences of early exposure to glucocorticoids may depend on the dose and the developmental stage of the offspring, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of low (10 mg/kg) or high levels of CORT (40 mg/kg) given to dams either during gestation, postpartum or across both gestation and postpartum on the outcome of the offspring. Male and female offspring were weighed throughout the experiment, tested in a series of behavioral tests (forced swim test, open field, elevated plus maze) and basal and restraint stress CORT levels were examined in adolescence or young adulthood. Results show that maternal CORT exposure, regardless of when administered, significantly attenuated body weight gain until adulthood in the offspring. Offspring exposed to low maternal CORT, but not high maternal CORT, during the postpartum had higher basal levels of CORT as young adults. Further, male and female offspring of dams exposed to high maternal CORT in utero showed more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, while males of dams exposed to high maternal CORT postpartum exhibited more anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Taken together, maternal glucocorticoid exposure have long lasting effects on male and female offspring's behavioral and neuroendocrine measures in adolescence and adulthood depending on the time of exposure to glucocorticoids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  6. Adult offspring of high-fat diet-fed dams can have normal glucose tolerance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Platt, K M; Charnigo, R J; Pearson, K J

    2014-06-01

    Maternal high-fat diet consumption and obesity have been shown to program long-term obesity and lead to impaired glucose tolerance in offspring. Many rodent studies, however, use non-purified, cereal-based diets as the control for purified high-fat diets. In this study, primiparous ICR mice were fed purified control diet (10-11 kcal% from fat of lard or butter origin) and lard (45 or 60 kcal% fat) or butter (32 or 60 kcal% fat)-based high-fat diets for 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and for 2 weeks of nursing. Before mating, female mice fed the 32 and 60% butter-based high-fat diets exhibited impaired glucose tolerance but those females fed the lard-based diets showed normal glucose disposal following a glucose challenge. High-fat diet consumption by female mice of all groups decreased lean to fat mass ratios during the 4th week of diet treatment compared with those mice consuming the 10-11% fat diets. All females were bred to male mice and pregnancy and offspring outcomes were monitored. The body weight of pups born to 45% lard-fed dams was significantly increased before weaning, but only female offspring born to 32% butter-fed dams exhibited long-term body weight increases. Offspring glucose tolerance and body composition were measured for at least 1 year. Minimal, if any, differences were observed in the offspring parameters. These results suggest that many variables should be considered when designing future high-fat diet feeding and maternal obesity studies in mice.

  7. Effect of caffeine on rat offspring from treated dams.

    PubMed

    Aeschbacher, H U; Milon, H; Poot, A; Würzner, H P

    1980-11-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given caffeine at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/kg diet during gestation and lactation. At birth, half of the pups from control and treated rats at each dose level were exchanged and cross fostered. Two litters were produced by each animal from each of the experimental groups. Caffeine at dietary concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 g/kg throughout gestation and lactation had no significant effect on birth weight, litter size or development. There was also no effect at these doses following treatment during either gestation alone, or lactation alone. At 1.0 g/kg there was a slight reduction of birth weight, as well as a trend towards lower weight gain in litters from dams fed the test diet throughout gestation and lactation.

  8. Flaxseed bioactive compounds change milk, hormonal and biochemical parameters of dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Troina, A A; Figueiredo, M S; Passos, M C F; Reis, A M; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated maternal intake of SDG (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside), a compound from flaxseed, and flaxseed oil+SDG on biochemical and hormonal parameters of dams and male and female offspring during lactation. Dams were fed a standard diet (C); diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet (SDG) or diet added 40 mg of SDG/100g diet and 7% of flaxseed oil (OLSDG). SDG and OLSDG dams showed hyperprolactinemia. The OLSDG milk had lower lactose and protein, while the SDG milk had lower protein on the 14th day of lactation. At 14 days, OLSDG male and female pups showed lower body mass, SDG and OLSDG male pups had hypoprolactinemia and lower body fat mass, but higher visceral fat mass (VFM) and hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, male SDG and OLSDG presented hypotriglyceridemia. At 14 days, SDG and OLSDG female offspring showed higher serum 17-β estradiol (E2); OLSDG presented hypercholesterolemia and SDG presented hypertriglyceridemia. At 21 days, SDG and OLSDG female pups showed hypotriglyceridemia and OLSDG shower lower E2. Both maternal treatments changes maternal metabolism as well as hormonal and biochemical parameters of the offspring, which are gender-dependent. Maternal hyperprolactinemia may act as an imprint factor responsible for the hormonal and metabolic changes observed in the pups.

  9. Gestational and lactational exposure to atrazine via the drinking water causes specific behavioral deficits and selectively alters monoaminergic systems in C57BL/6 mouse dams, juvenile and adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Dodd, Celia A; Xiao, Shuo; Krishna, Saritha; Ye, Xiaoqin; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2014-09-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in the U.S. water supply. This study aimed to investigate neurobehavioral and neurochemical effects of ATR in C57BL/6 mouse offspring and dams exposed to a relatively low (3 mg/l, estimated intake 1.4 mg/kg/day) concentration of ATR via the drinking water (DW) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Behavioral tests included open field, pole, grip strength, novel object recognition (NOR), forced swim, and marble burying tests. Maternal weight gain and offspring (PND21, 35, and 70) body or brain weights were not affected by ATR. However, ATR-treated dams exhibited decreased NOR performance and a trend toward hyperactivity. Juvenile offspring (PND35) from ATR-exposed dams were hyperactive (both sexes), spent less time swimming (males), and buried more marbles (females). In adult offspring (PND70), the only behavioral change was a sex-specific (females) decreased NOR performance by ATR. Neurochemically, a trend toward increased striatal dopamine (DA) in dams and a significant increase in juvenile offspring (both sexes) was observed. Additionally, ATR exposure decreased perirhinal cortex serotonin in the adult female offspring. These results suggest that perinatal DW exposure to ATR targets the nigrostriatal DA pathway in dams and, especially, juvenile offspring, alters dams' cognitive performance, induces sex-selective changes involving motor and emotional functions in juvenile offspring, and decreases cognitive ability of adult female offspring, with the latter possibly associated with altered perirhinal cortex serotonin homeostasis. Overall, ATR exposure during gestation and lactation may cause adverse nervous system effects to both offspring and dams.

  10. Cadmium, iron and zinc interaction and hematological parameters in rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Mikolić, Anja; Schönwald, Neala; Piasek, Martina

    2016-12-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) were evaluated in offspring exposed from birth until weaning (neonatal day 0-21) and 4 weeks after exposure cessation focusing on iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) levels in organs and hematological parameters. Wistar female rats were administered 50mg Cd/L in drinking water (Cd-exposed) for 4 weeks before mating and during 3 weeks of gestation plus 3 weeks of lactation. Controls were supplied drinking water. At birth, part of Cd-exposed dams' litters was cross-fostered to control dams (CCd group) and their control litters were cross-fostered to Cd-exposed dams (CdC group). This procedure enabled to discern the effects of gestational, lactational and gestational plus lactational Cd exposure until weaning in F1 offspring. Elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry; hematological parameters manually; and histopathological changes by light microscopy. Gestational plus lactational exposure in Cd-exposed dams and their offspring increased Cd and decreased Fe levels, increased Zn in dams and decreased Zn and body weights in 11- and 21-day pups. In 21-day weanling pups, decreased red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin and hematocrit values and increased reticulocytes in peripheral blood were also found with concomitant histopathological finding of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver. In cross-fostered pups with gestational exposure (CCd pups), Fe in the liver decreased on day 11 and Zn increased in the kidney on day 21 whereas in pups with lactational exposure (CdC pups) Zn in the brain decreased on day 11 and Fe decreased in the liver and brain on day 21. Regardless of exposure cessation at weaning, in offspring with gestational plus lactational exposure (Cd-exposed) body weights, kidney and brain Fe levels and RBC and hemoglobin remained decreased in blood until puberty. Furthermore Zn levels increased in the liver, kidney and brain. It was concluded that gestational plus lactational Cd exposure caused decreases in Fe and Zn levels

  11. "Green odor" inhalation by stressed rat dams reduces behavioral and neuroendocrine signs of prenatal stress in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Sayaka; Ueki, Shiori; Miyoshi, Michio; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2010-07-01

    Chronic maternal stress during pregnancy results in the "prenatally stressed" offspring displaying behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations that persist into adulthood. We investigated how inhalation of green odor (a mixture of equal amounts of trans-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenol) by stressed dams might alter certain indices of prenatal stress in their offspring. These indices were depression-like behavior (increased immobility time in the forced-swim test) and acute restraint stress-induced changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity [plasma corticosterone (CORT) and ACTH levels and the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (an index of neuronal activity)]. Pregnant rats were exposed to restraint stress for 60 min/day for 10 days (gestational days 10-19). The prenatally stressed offspring exhibited significant increases in depression-like behavior and in restraint stress-induced ACTH, CORT, and Fos responses, unless their dam had been exposed to green odor. The behavioral effect of the odor was also seen in offspring that were fostered by unstressed dams. The results obtained in the dams themselves were as follows. In vehicle-exposed stressed dams, but not in green odor-exposed ones, total body and adrenal weights were significantly decreased or increased, respectively. Depression-like behavior was not observed in the vehicle-exposed stressed dams themselves. Green odor inhalation prevented the impairment of maternal behavior induced by restraint stress. Thus, exposure of dams to stress may affect both the fetal brain and fetal HPA axis, and also maternal behavior, leading to altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses in the offspring. Such effects may be prevented by the stressed dams inhaling green odor.

  12. Fluoxetine normalizes the effects of prenatal maternal stress on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mouse dams and male offspring.

    PubMed

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Fatehi-Gharehlar, Laleh; Motayagheni, Negar; Homberg, Judith R

    2016-09-15

    Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period (lactation) is a common debilitating condition affecting mother-fetus/-infant interactions, which can be a risk factor for cognitive and affective disorders in mothers and their children. Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-(SSRI) pharmacotherapy is known as the first-line treatment of maternal depression. However, its use during pregnancy and lactation is a topic of concern. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone or in combination with fluoxetine (FLX) on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity, anxiety-/depression-like behaviors in dams and in offspring. To do this, gestationally-stressed and non-stressed mouse dams were orally treated with FLX-(8/mg/kg/day) from gestational day 10 to lactation day 20. The behavioral outcomes of prenatal stress and FLX treatment in dams and male offspring were assessed using the sucrose preference, forced swim, zero maze, and light-dark box tests. Stress-induced corticosterone levels were also evaluated as indicative of abnormal HPA-axis function. Our findings indicated that maternal stress resulted in increased depression-like behavior and HPA axis hyperactivity in dams during pregnancy and lactation which were reversed by FLX. Furthermore, prenatal stress increased anxiety/depression-like behaviors and HPA-axis reactivity in male offspring. These effects were reversed by maternal FLX treatment. Developmental FLX exposure, without prenatal stress, did not have any adverse effects on the above measured parameters. Our results suggest that prenatal stress induces maternal depression-like behavior which affects the development of affective symptoms in male offspring, and that remediation of maternal depression-like behavior coincidences with the normalization of anxiety-and depression-like symptoms in male offspring.

  13. Effects of a maternal diet supplemented with chocolate and fructose beverage during gestation and lactation on rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yun; Zeng, Jin-Jing; Kjaergaard, Marina; Guan, Ni; Raun, Kirsten; Nilsson, Cecilia; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2011-09-01

    1. Consumption of a high-fat and high-energy diet during pregnancy leads to a risk of long-term consequences on fetal development, as well as on the postnatal health of offspring. To investigate the effects of such a diet on fetal programming, we established a high-energy intake pregnant rat model using chocolate and fructose beverage as supplements to a normal chow diet. 2. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either chow (control) or a diet supplemented with chocolate and fructose beverage throughout gestation and lactation. The male F(1) pups received normal chow diet after weaning. Physiological or pathological changes in dams and pups (e.g. glucose and lipid metabolism) were evaluated. 3. The results showed that dams offered the high-fat (mainly from chocolate) and high-calorie diet during gestation consumed more energy and gained more weight than chow-fed dams. Over-consumption of chocolate reduced chow intake in dams, leading to low maternal protein supply. As a result, pups from these dams exhibited reduced birth weight that lasted until adulthood. The high-energy diet during lactation led to increased total body fat, as well as impaired liver function, in offspring; thus, the lactational diet is suggested to be a stronger determinant of offspring fat metabolism than gestational diet. 4. The results of the study suggest that over-supply of carbohydrates, such as chocolate and fructose, either during gestation or lactation has a negative impact on the well-being of offspring.

  14. Gender differences in the expression of genes involved during cardiac development in offspring from dams on high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Maqsood M; Matata, Bashir M

    2014-11-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that maternal high fat diet (HF) during pregnancy increase cardiovascular risk in the offspring, and pharmacological intervention using statins in late pregnancy reduced these risk factors. However the effects of maternal HF-feeding and statin treatment during pregnancy on development of heart remain unknown. Hence we measured expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression (cyclin G1), ventricular remodelling brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and environmental stress response small proline-rich protein 1A (SPRR 1A) in the offspring left ventricle (LV) from dams on HF with or without statin treatment. Female C57 mice were fed a HF diet (45% kcal fat) 4 weeks prior to conception, during pregnancy and lactation. From the second half of the pregnancy and throughout lactation, half of the pregnant females on HF diet were given a water-soluble statin (Pravastatin) in their drinking water (HF + S). At weaning offspring were fed HF diet to adulthood (generating dam/offspring dietary groups HF/HF and HF + S/HF). These groups were compared with offspring from dams fed standard chow (C 21% kcal fat) and fed C diet from weaning (C/C). LV mRNA levels for cyclin G1, BNP and SPRR 1A were measured by RT-PCR. Heart weights and BP in HF/HF offspring were higher versus C/C group. Maternal Pravastatin treatment reduced BP and heart weights in HF + S/HF female offspring to levels found in C/C group. LV cyclin G1 mRNA levels were lower in HF/HF versus both C/C and HF + S/HF offspring. BNP mRNA levels were elevated in HF/HF females but lower in males versus C/C. BNP gene expression in HF + S/HF offspring was similar to HF/HF. SPRR 1A mRNA levels were similar in all treatment groups. Statins given to HF-fed pregnant dams reduced cardiovascular risk in adult offspring, and this is accompanied by changes in expression of genes involved in adaptive remodelling in the offspring LV and that there is a gender difference.

  15. Exposure to the widely used fungicide mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine; Kiersgaard, Maria; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hass, Ulla

    2011-04-01

    The widely used fungicide mancozeb has been shown to cause hypothyroxinemia and other adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system in adult experimental animals. In humans, hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on the developing nervous system and can lead to impaired cognitive function and motor development in children. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether perinatal mancozeb exposure would cause developmental neurotoxicity in rats. Groups of 9-21 time-mated Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg mancozeb/kg body weight (bw)/day by gavage from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16, and total thyroxine (T(4)) levels were measured in dams during gestation. On PND 16, hormone levels and several organ weights were measured in the offspring, whereas motor activity, startle response, and cognitive function were assessed in the adult offspring. The dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused neurotoxicity in the pregnant dams and was therefore reduced to 100 mg/kg bw/day in mid study. T(4) levels showed a dose-dependent and significant decrease in dams from all three dose groups on GD 15, whereas offspring T(4) levels, thyroid weights, and histology were unaffected on PND 16. No effects on reproductive organ weights were seen, and no behavioral changes were observed. Taken together, these results indicate that in rats, moderate maternal hypothyroxinemia during gestation does not necessarily lead to hyperactivity or reduced special learning abilities in the offspring. Mancozeb exposure did, however, reduce T(4) levels in dams and may therefore still be a potential contributor to thyroid disruption in humans and in result adversely affects the developing brain.

  16. Unlimited access to low-energy diet causes acute malnutrition in dams and alters biometric and biochemical parameters in offspring.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, E; de Santana Muniz, G; das Graças de Santana Muniz, M; de Souza Alexandre, L; da Rocha, L S; Leandro, C G; de Castro, R M; Bolaños-Jimenez, F

    2014-02-01

    Here we analyze the outcomes of unlimited access to a low-energy (LE) diet in dams and their offspring. At 3 weeks' gestation, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) the control group received a normoenergetic diet; and (2) the experimental group received the LE diet. In dams, lactation outcomes, food intake, body weight, plasma IGF-1, prealbumin, transferrin and retinol-binding protein levels were evaluated; in offspring, biometric and biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated. No differences were observed during pregnancy. However, after lactation, dams that received the LE diet demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (P<0.05), plasma IGF-1 (P=0.01), prealbumin and visceral fat (P<0.001). Pups born to dams that received the LE diet demonstrated reduced body length and weight at weaning (P<0.001) and were lighter than the control animals at the end of the experimental period. Pups also demonstrated reduced plasma, low-density lipoprotein (P=0.04), triglycerides (P=0.002) and glucose levels (P<0.05), and differences were noted in visceral fat. These results indicate that feeding dams with LE diet during the reproductive period induces acute malnutrition and impairs the growth and development of offspring, as well as certain metabolic parameters.

  17. Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior.

  18. Microbial manipulation of the rat dam changes bacterial colonization and alters properties of the gut in her offspring.

    PubMed

    Fåk, Frida; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn

    2008-01-01

    The impact of an altered bacterial colonization on gut development has not been thoroughly studied, despite the increased risk of certain diseases with a disturbed microbiota after birth. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial manipulation, i.e., antibiotic treatment or Escherichia coli exposure, of the dam on bacterial colonization and gut development in the offspring. Pregnant rats were administered either broad-spectrum antibiotics 3 days before parturition or live nonpathogenic E. coli Culture Collection of University of Göteborg, Sweden type strain (CCUG 29300(T)) 1 wk before parturition and up to 14 days of lactation in the drinking water. Cecal bacterial levels, gut growth, intestinal permeability, digestive enzyme levels, and intestinal inflammation were studied in 2-wk-old rats. Pups from dams that were antibiotic-treated had higher densities of Enterobacteriaceae, which correlated with a decreased stomach growth and function, lower pancreatic protein levels, higher intestinal permeability, and increased plasma levels of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin, compared with pups from untreated mothers. Exposure of pregnant/lactating mothers to E. coli CCUG 29300(T), also resulting in increased Enterobacteriaceae levels, gave in the offspring similar results on the stomach and an increased small intestinal growth compared with the control pups. Furthermore, E. coli pups showed increased mucosal disaccharidase activities, increased liver, spleen, and adrenal weights, as well as increased plasma concentrations of haptoglobin. These findings indicate that disturbing the normal bacterial colonization after birth, by increasing the densities of cecal Enterobacteriaceae, appears to have lasting effects on the postnatal microflora, which affects gut growth and function.

  19. Maternal "junk-food" feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2011-07-01

    Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal "junk-food" diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16 ± 0.6 vs. 11 ± 0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19 ± 1.3 vs. 13 ± 0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of μ-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life.

  20. Methyl donor supplementation alters cognitive performance and motivation in female offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sarah E; Grissom, Nicola M; Herdt, Christopher T; Reyes, Teresa M

    2017-02-16

    During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior. Given that extensive brain development occurs during early postnatal life-particularly within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region critical for executive function-we examined whether early life methyl donor supplementation (e.g., during adolescence) could ameliorate executive function deficits observed in offspring that were exposed to maternal HFD. By using operant testing, progressive ratio, and the PFC-dependent 5-choice serial reaction timed task (5-CSRTT), we determined that F1 female offspring (B6D2F1/J) from HFD-fed dams have decreased motivation (decreased progressive ratio breakpoint) and require a longer stimulus length to complete the 5-CSRTT task successfully, whereas early life methyl donor supplementation increased motivation and shortened the minimum stimulus length required for a correct response in the 5-CSRTT. Of interest, we found that expression of 2 chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL10, correlated with the median stimulus length in the 5-CSRTT. Furthermore, we found that acute adult supplementation of methyl donors increased motivation in HFD-fed offspring and those who previously received supplementation with methyl donors. These data point to early life as a sensitive time during which dietary methyl donor supplementation can alter PFC-dependent cognitive behaviors.-McKee, S. E., Grissom, N. M., Herdt, C. T., Reyes, T. M. Methyl donor supplementation alters

  1. Impairment of male rat reproductive function in F1 offspring from dams exposed to 2-bromopropane during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sun; Li, Guang-Xun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) on the reproductive tracts of male F1 offspring from dams exposed to 2-BP during gestation and lactation were investigated. Ten pregnant (sperm-positive) Sprague-Dawley rats per group were exposed sc to 2-BP at 135, 405, and 1215 mg/kg/day from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20. 2-BP decreased the proportion of dams littering at the two highest doses. At the highest dose, the rate of delivery and surviving pups were significantly lower than in the controls (P < or = 0.05). The relative weights of testes vs. brain were significantly lower than the controls (P < or = 0.05) on PND 33 and 63 at 405 mg/kg/day, and on PND 90 at 1215 mg/kg/day in the F1 rats. Seminiferous tubule atrophy, germ cell loss, and increased Leydig cell proliferation were observed at the highest dose by histopathologic examination. Female offspring has a decrease in all follicle types at the high dose. These results suggest that gestational and lactational exposure to 2-BP at a high maternally toxic dose impairs the development of the reproductive organs of the offspring.

  2. [Detection of auditory impairment in the offsprings caused by drug treatment of the dams].

    PubMed

    Kameyama, T; Nabeshima, T; Itoh, J

    1982-12-01

    To study the auditory impairment induced by prenatal administration of aminoglycosides in the offspring, the shuttle box method to measure the auditory threshold of rats (Kameyama et al., Folia pharmacol. japon. 77, 15, 1981) was employed. Four groups of pregnant rats were administered 200 mg/kg kanamycin sulfate (KM), 200 mg/kg dihydrostreptomycin sulfate (DHSM), 100 mg/kg neomycin sulfate (NM), or 1 ml/kg saline intramuscularly from the 10th to the 19th day of pregnancy. The auditory threshold of the offspring could be measured by the shuttle box method in about 90% of the live born rats at the age of 100 days. The auditory thresholds of the groups were as follows (mean +/- S.E.): saline group, 53.8 +/- 0.6 dB (N = 36); KM group, 63.8 +/- 1.1 dB (N = 34); DHSM group, 60.0 +/- 1.2 dB (N = 29); NM group, 62.4 +/- 1.2 dB (N = 24). Auditory thresholds of drug-treated groups were significantly higher than that of the saline group. However, no increase in the auditory threshold of the mother rat was detected after treatment with aminoglycosides. In addition, the experimental procedure of the shuttle box method is very easy, and the auditory threshold of a large number of rats could be measured in a short period. These findings suggest that this method is a very useful one for screening for auditory impairment induced by prenatal drug treatment in rat offspring.

  3. Exposure to nicotine increases dopamine receptor content in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rat dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Lotufo, B M; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-09-01

    Nicotine exposure causes the release of dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We have previously shown that maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes hyperleptinemia in dams and pups, and leptin is known to decrease dopamine release from the VTA. Here we evaluated whether maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes changes in dopamine and leptin signaling pathways at the end of exposure and after 5days of withdrawal in the: VTA, NAc, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dorsal striatum (DS). On postnatal day (PN) 2, lactating Wistar rats were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC; 6mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14days. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field on PN14 or PN20, and euthanized on PN15 or PN21. Entries into the open arms and head dips in the EPM were reduced in NIC pups at P20. At weaning (PN21), NIC dams had: lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), higher OBRb and SOCS3 contents in VTA; lower TH, higher D1R, D2R and DAT contents in NAc; higher TH content in DS; and higher D2R and SOCS3 contents in ARC. On PN15, NIC offspring had higher D1R, D2R and lower DAT contents in NAc, while on PN21, they had lower DAT in DS, and lower pSTAT3 content in ARC. We evidenced that postnatal nicotine exposure induces relevant changes in the brain reward system of dams and pups, possibly associated with changes in leptinemia and increased offspring anxiety-like behavior.

  4. Effects on the reproductive parameters of two generations of Rattus norvegicus offspring from dams exposed to heptachlor during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, Alejandra; Morimoto, Sumiko; Cerbón, Marco; Prado-Flores, Guadalupe

    2017-03-01

    Heptachlor has been targeted for global elimination because of its toxicity and environmental persistence, in accordance with the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, there is no regulation of heptachlor use in Mexico, where relatively high levels have been found in maternal breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heptachlor on the reproductive system of offspring of two consecutive generations of rats (F1 and F2) from dams orally administered heptachlor during midgestation and lactation. Female offspring were analyzed for different phenotypic, reproductive, and molecular parameters. In the F1 generation, heptachlor treatment induced decreased body weight at weaning, increased female anogenital distance, and delayed vaginal opening. In both generations, serum progesterone levels decreased and estradiol levels remained unchanged, while overexpression of the progesterone receptor was observed in uterine epithelial cells on estrus day. In the F2 generation, expression of the estrogen receptor α increased in the glandular epithelium. Finally, heptachlor treatment did not affect apoptosis in the uterine epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that heptachlor induced female reproductive alterations when administered to dams during the perinatal period. Accordingly, exposure to heptachlor may represent a risk for the reproductive health of humans. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 856-868, 2017.

  5. Effects of maternal vitamin B6 deficiency and over-supplementation on DNA damage and oxidative stress in rat dams and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; Venâncio, Vinícius Paula; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; Pires Bianchi, Maria Lourdes; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor for more than 140 essential enzymes and plays an important role in maternal health and fetal development. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal vitamin B6 on DNA damage and oxidative stress status in rat dams and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three dietary groups fed a standard diet (control diet), a diet supplemented with 30 mg/kg of vitamin B6, or a deficient diet (0 mg/kg of vitamin B6) for 10 weeks before and during mating, pregnancy and lactation. The dams were euthanized at weaning, and their male pups were euthanized either 10 days or 100 days after birth. We found that maternal vitamin B6 deficiency increased the micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells and also increased the concentration of hepatic TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in newborn pups (10 days old). In conclusion, maternal 5- to 6-fold over-supplementation of vitamin B6 had no adverse effects, however its deficiency may induce chromosomal damage and hepatic lipid peroxidation in the offspring.

  6. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  7. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  8. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ ALTERS THE ONSET OF PARTURITION IN THE DAM AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN MALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prenatal Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz alters the onset of Parturition in
    the Dam and Sexual Differentiation in Male Rat Offspring.
    N. Noriega1; E. Gray1; J. Ostby1; C. Lambright1; V. Wilson1
    1. RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA;

    Prochloraz...

  9. Cardiac Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity and Contents of Submits 1 and 4 are Altered in Offspring by Low Prenatal Intake by Rat Dams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been reported previously that the offspring of rat dams consuming low dietary copper (Cu) during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) characterized by reduced catalytic activity and mitochondrial- and nuclear-subunit content after postnatal day...

  10. Large litter rearing improves leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic appetite markers in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Moran, Timothy H; Yan, Jianqun

    2014-09-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model.

  11. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  12. Differences in metabolite burden of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in pregnant and postpartum dams and their offspring in relation to drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yumi; Ito, Yuki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Kamijima, Michihiro; Naito, Hisao; Nakajima, Tamie

    2012-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) induced adverse effects on mice offspring, and the metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) may be essential to determine the toxicity. In this experiment, we measured liver MEHP levels and the factors determining the metabolism, two enzyme activities [lipase and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] or expression of cytochrome P450 4A14 (CYP4A14) in dams (on gestational day 18 and postnatal day 2) and their offspring. MEHP concentrations in the liver from pregnant dams were 1.5 times higher than those of postpartum dams at exposure to 0.05% DEHP. Accordingly, MEHP concentrations were 1.7 times higher in fetuses than in pups at the dose. Interestingly, lipase activity was 1.8-fold higher in pregnant dams than postpartum ones, but no such difference was noted in the activity between fetuses and pups. UGT activity was also 1.5-fold higher in pregnant dams than postpartum ones, whereas the activity in the fetuses was 1/2 that of pups. No difference was noted in CYP4A14 levels between pregnant and postpartum mice, whereas the levels in the fetuses were <1/10 those of pups. DEHP exposure did not influence lipase activity, whereas it slightly enhanced UGT activity and exclusively increased CYP4A14 levels in pregnant and/or postpartum dams. Taken together, the higher MEHP levels in pregnant dams than postpartum ones may be primarily due to higher lipase activities in pregnant dams, which may closely reflect those in fetuses and pups.

  13. Early-Life Stress Paradigm Transiently Alters Maternal Behavior, Dam-Pup Interactions, and Offspring Vocalizations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heun-Johnson, Hanke; Levitt, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Animal models can help elucidate the mechanisms through which early-life stress (ELS) has pathophysiological effects on the developing brain. One model that has been developed for rodents consists of limiting the amount of bedding and nesting material during the first postnatal weeks of pup life. This ELS environment has been shown to induce “abusive” behaviors by rat dams towards pups, while mouse dams have been hypothesized to display “fragmented care”. Here, as part of an ongoing study of gene-environment interactions that impact brain development, we analyzed long observation periods of wild-type C57Bl/6J dams caring for wild-type and Met heterozygous pups. Met encodes for the MET receptor tyrosine kinase, which is involved in cortical and hippocampal synaptogenesis. Dams with limited resources from postnatal day (P)2 to P9 preserved regular long on-nest periods, and instead increased the number of discrete dam-pup interactions during regular off-nest periods. Immediately after dams entered the nest during off-nest periods in this ELS environment, pups responded to these qualitatively different interactions with an increased number of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and audible vocalizations (AV), communication signals that have been associated with aversive and painful stimuli. After returning to control conditions, nest entry behaviors normalized, and dams did not show altered anxiety-like or contextual fear learning behaviors after pup weaning. Furthermore, female mice that had undergone ELS as pups did not show atypical nest entry behaviors in control conditions in adulthood, suggesting that these specific maternal behaviors are not learned during the ELS period. The results suggest that atypical responses of both mother and pups during exposure to this ELS environment likely contribute to long-term negative outcomes in mice, and that these responses more closely resemble the effects of limited bedding on rat dams and pups than was previously

  14. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  15. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  16. High saturated fat diet alters the lipid composition of triacylglycerol and polar lipids in the femur of dam and offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Previous work has shown that dietary lipids alter femur lipid composition. Specifically, we have shown that exposure to high saturated fatty acid (SFA) diets in utero, during suckling, or post-weaning alters femur total lipid composition, resulting in higher percent bone mass in males and females and bone mineral density (BMD) in female offspring with no effect on bone mineral outcomes in dams. Comparatively, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diets increase femur polar (PL) lipid n-3 content, which has been associated with increased bone mineral content and strength. However, the extent that PL or triacylglycerol (TAG) lipids change with high SFA diets is unknown. The current investigation examined the influence of a high SFA diet (20 % lard by weight) on femur PL and TAG lipid composition in 5-month old female Wistar rats (fed high SFA diet from age 28 days onwards; dams) and their 19-day old offspring (exposed to high SFA in utero and during suckling; pups). High SFA exposure resulted in increased monounsaturates and decreased n-3 and n-6 PUFA in the TAG fraction in both dams and pups, and higher SFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in dams only. The PL fraction showed decreased n-6 PUFA in both dams and pups. The magnitude of the diet-mediated responses, specifically TAG 18:1 and PL n-6 PUFA, may have contributed to the previously reported altered BMD, which was supported with correlation analysis. Future research should investigate the relationship of diet-induced changes in bone lipids on bone structure, as quantified through micro-computed tomography.

  17. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  18. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  19. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Liang, Nu-Chu; Ewald, Erin R; Purcell, Ryan H; Boersma, Gretha J; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2013-11-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk, after which all rats remained sedentary, resulting in four groups: CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, HF-SED, and HF-RW. Male HF offspring gained more body weight by PND7 compared with CHOW pups and maintained this weight difference through the entire experiment. Three weeks of postweaning exercise did not affect body weight gain in either CHOW or HF offspring, but reduced adiposity in HF offspring. Plasma leptin was decreased at the end of the 3-wk running period in HF-RW rats but was not different from HF-SED 9 wk after the exercise period ended. At 14 wk of age, intracerebroventricular injection of leptin suppressed food intake in CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, and HF-RW, while it did not affect food intake in HF-SED group. At death, HF-RW rats also had higher leptin-induced phospho-STAT3 level in the arcuate nucleus than HF-SED rats. Both maternal HF diet and postweaning exercise had effects on hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor mRNA expression in adult offspring. Our data suggest that postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity and signaling in this model.

  20. Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Alfaradhi, Maria Z; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Musial, Barbara; Fowden, Abigail; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPARγ and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring.

  1. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  2. Immunization with BLS-Stx2B chimera totally protects dams from early pregnancy loss induced by Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) and confers anti-Stx2 immunity to the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Mejías, María P; Bruballa, Andrea C; Alvarez, Romina Soledad; Amaral, María M; Palermo, Marina S; Ibarra, Cristina

    2016-09-07

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacterial pathogens involved in food-borne diseases. Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of STEC and is responsible for systemic complications including Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). It has been previously demonstrated that Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) induces pregnancy loss in rats in early stage of pregnancy. The main purpose of this study was to determine if an active immunization prevents Stx2 mediated pregnancy loss and confers passive protective immunity to the offspring. For that purpose Sprague Dawley female rats were immunized with the chimera based on the enzyme lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) and the B subunit of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2B) named BLS-Stx2B. After immunization females were mated with males. At day 8 of gestation, dams were challenged intraperitoneally with a sublethal and abortifacient dose of Stx2. The immunization induced high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera and most important, prevented pregnancy loss. Pups born and breastfeed by immunized dams had high anti-Stx2B-specific antibody titers in sera. Cross-fostering experiments indicated that passive protective immunity against Stx2 was transmitted through lactation. These results indicate that immunization of adult female rats with BLS-Stx2B prevents Stx2-induced pregnancy loss and confers anti Stx2 protective immunity to the offspring.

  3. Recent sediment studies refute Glen Canyon Dam Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joe; Kaplinski, Matt; Melis, Theodore S.

    Recent studies of sedimentology hydrology, and geomorphology indicate that releases from Glen Canyon Dam are continuing to erode sandbars and beaches in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, despite attempts to restore these resources. The current strategy for dam operations is based on the hypothesis that sand supplied by tributaries of the Colorado River downstream from the dam will accumulate in the channel during normal dam operations and remain available for restoration floods. Recent work has shown that this hypothesis is false, and that tributary sand inputs are exported downstream rapidly typically within weeks or months under the current flow regime.

  4. Recent sediment studies refute Glen Canyon Dam hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joe; Kaplinski, Matt; Melis, Theodore S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies of sedimentology hydrology, and geomorphology indicate that releases from Glen Canyon Dam are continuing to erode sandbars and beaches in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, despite attempts to restore these resources. The current strategy for dam operations is based on the hypothesis that sand supplied by tributaries of the Colorado River downstream from the dam will accumulate in the channel during normal dam operations and remain available for restoration floods. Recent work has shown that this hypothesis is false, and that tributary sand inputs are exported downstream rapidly typically within weeks or months under the current flow regime.

  5. Female offspring of rat dams fed low boron diets during pregnancy and lactation exhibit signs of the metabolic syndrome during early adulthood: increased body weight, & serum triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To expand on reports from this laboratory that low dietary boron may affect energy substrate utilization, we determined whether low dietary boron during early development promotes manifestation of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either a boron-low (BL; ~0.1 mg...

  6. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bayrak, Temel

    2008-01-01

    Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam. PMID:27873819

  7. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring.

  8. Administration of Non-Absorbable Antibiotics to Pregnant Mice to Perturb the Maternal Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Alterations in Offspring Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tochitani, Shiro; Ikeno, Takahiro; Ito, Tatsuhito; Sakurai, Asuka; Yamauchi, Tomoki; Matsuzaki, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota plays a major role in host health and disease. In this study, we examined whether perturbation of the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, induced by administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams, influences the behavior of offspring. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fecal bacterial composition showed that the relative abundance of the bacterial order Lactobacillales was lower in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (20.7 ± 3.4%) than in control offspring (42.1 ± 6.2%) at P24, while the relative abundance of the bacterial family Clostridium subcluster XIVa was higher in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (34.2 ± 5.0%) than in control offspring (16.4 ± 3.3%). Offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams exhibited low locomotor activity in both familiar and novel environments, and preferred to explore in the peripheral area of an unfamiliar field at postnatal week 4. At postnatal weeks 7-8, no difference was observed in the level of locomotor activity between control offspring and offspring from antibiotic-treated dams, while the tendency for the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams to be less engaged in exploring the inside area was still observed. The behavioral phenotypes of the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams at postnatal week 4 could be rescued to a considerable extent through fostering of these offspring by normal dams from postnatal day 1. Although the detailed underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated, the present results suggest that administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams to perturb the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy leads to alterations in the behavior of their offspring.

  9. Administration of Non-Absorbable Antibiotics to Pregnant Mice to Perturb the Maternal Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Alterations in Offspring Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tochitani, Shiro; Matsuzaki, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota plays a major role in host health and disease. In this study, we examined whether perturbation of the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, induced by administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams, influences the behavior of offspring. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fecal bacterial composition showed that the relative abundance of the bacterial order Lactobacillales was lower in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (20.7±3.4%) than in control offspring (42.1±6.2%) at P24, while the relative abundance of the bacterial family Clostridium subcluster XIVa was higher in offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams (34.2±5.0%) than in control offspring (16.4±3.3%). Offspring born from antibiotic-treated dams exhibited low locomotor activity in both familiar and novel environments, and preferred to explore in the peripheral area of an unfamiliar field at postnatal week 4. At postnatal weeks 7–8, no difference was observed in the level of locomotor activity between control offspring and offspring from antibiotic-treated dams, while the tendency for the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams to be less engaged in exploring the inside area was still observed. The behavioral phenotypes of the offspring from antibiotic-treated dams at postnatal week 4 could be rescued to a considerable extent through fostering of these offspring by normal dams from postnatal day 1. Although the detailed underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated, the present results suggest that administration of non-absorbable antibiotics to pregnant dams to perturb the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy leads to alterations in the behavior of their offspring. PMID:26789865

  10. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal.

  11. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring123

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal. PMID:27180380

  12. Deformation Monitoring Studies and GPR Application on Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Geometric changes at the dam surface and in the galleries are defined using geodetic methods. Physical and geometrical changes in embankment inside are defined using non-geodetic methods. This study provides information about the deformation monitoring techniques of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation monitoring of Atatürk Dam, 6th largest dam of world considering the reservoir volume, which was constructed on Euphrates (Fırat) River having importance for providing drinking water, hydroelectric power and irrigation. In the study, brief information is given about this dam and the methods of geodetic and non-geodetic deformation monitoring measurements applied by various disciplines. Bathymetric surveying techniques in the water covered area and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GNSS surveying technique on the other area were used in order to determine the topography of the embankment and reservoir surfaces. Contour maps were drawn to determine the slumping and heaving areas. Also Ground

  13. Evaluation of Glycemic and Lipid Profile of Offspring of Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Malpighia emarginata Juice

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:21318139

  14. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring. PMID:25808815

  15. Beaver Dam Effects on Gravel Transport Patterns - a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Swingle, K. W.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Beaver dams are numerous in mountain streams, but little is known about gravel transport in those streams. The dams may be fully functioning and retain all incoming sediment or partially permeable to sediment or be almost completely removed. Beaver dams in their various states of preservation can have a profound influence on stream morphology and bedload transport. During the spring of 2011, the authors made a time series study of bedload transport in a mountain stream dominated by beavers dams. Dams occurred with a frequency of one every 50 feet and showed a range of decay and fluvial influence. Gravel transport was sampled with bedload traps over a 2-month long snowmelt highflow season. The reach-average gradient was 0.03 and stream widths ranged from 3 to 8 m. The stream bed was incised 0.5 to 1.5 m deep into a floodplain and typically trapezoidal in its cross-sectional shape. Much of the floodplain consisted of filled-in beaver dams. Partially breached dams that were permeable to gravel transport acted as an obstacle, forcing the flow around sharp bends. Complex hydraulic conditions developed in the vicinity of the bends with backwater eddies upstream and downstream of the remnant dam. Wake eddies at the downstream side of dam remnants caused gravel deposits. The tortuous channel course around the bends caused strong secondary currents that forced gravel transport into a narrow pathway along one of the banks causing a strong lateral concentration of transport. The pathway had a bed of fine and medium gravel, while the remainder of the bed consisted mostly of coarse gravel and cobbles that became immobile shortly after peak flows. Tracer experiments indicated that most of the mobile gravel traveled along that bankward path, even though flow velocities and depths were considerably smaller than in the stream center. Over the highflow season, flows increased to about 160% of the 1.5 year recurrence interval (Q1.5) within about a week and then remained within the

  16. Enhanced trimethylation of histone h3 mediates impaired expression of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase expression in offspring from rat dams exposed to hypoxia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Osumek, Jessica E; Revesz, Andrew; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T; Hardy, Daniel B

    2014-01-01

    Given that hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase, involved in gluconeogenesis) has been demonstrated to be altered long term in animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), we hypothesized that hypoxia in utero may regulate G6Pase expression via epigenetic mechanisms. To address this further, a rat model of maternal hypoxia leading to IUGR and impaired liver growth was utilized. In the 12-month-old male offspring of pregnant rat dams exposed to 11.5% atmospheric oxygen from gestational day (gd) 15 to gd 21, nonfasting glucose was lower in association with decreased hepatic G6Pase messenger RNA and protein levels. This was concomitant with enhanced methylation of histone H3 [K9] surrounding the promoter of G6Pase. Moreover, when McA-RH7777 hepatoma cells were exposed to various concentrations of oxygen for 48 hours, we observed an oxygen-dependent decrease in G6Pase expression associated with enhanced histone H3 [K9] methylation. Collectively, these results indicate that hypoxia directly and indirectly impairs G6Pase expression through enhanced methylation of histone H3 [K9].

  17. Multiparity leads to obesity and inflammation in mothers and obesity in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Rebholz, Sandra L; Jones, Thomas; Burke, Katie T; Jaeschke, Anja; Tso, Patrick; D'Alessio, David A; Woollett, Laura A

    2012-02-15

    Multiparity is an independent risk factor for obesity in parous females. In addition to being a health issue for the mother, offspring of multiparous females may also be at risk for obesity later in life. The aim of the current study was to establish a mouse model that mimics the human pathology of multiparity and determine the effects of multiparity-induced obesity (MIO) on offspring in adulthood. C57BL/6 mice were mated and studied when primiparous (1st pregnancy) or multiparous (4th pregnancy). Dams became obese with multiparity, an effect that was independent of the age of the dam. Multiparous dams also had increased markers of inflammation (JNK activation, cytokine expression) in adipose tissue and liver that was greater than inflammation in nulliparous females made obese with a high-fat diet. Placental inflammation was prevalent in multiparous vs. primiparous dams as well. Male offspring of the multiparous dams developed increased adiposity by 24 wk of age relative to the progeny of primiparous dams, although food consumption was similar in both groups. Lipid metabolism was altered in liver and fat in that mRNA levels of regulatory genes (PGC-1α) as well as metabolic genes (CPT I) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased in offspring of multiparous dams. Thus, in mice, as in humans, multiparity increases adiposity and is associated with hepatic and placental inflammation and abnormal glucose tolerance. Importantly, MIO leads to increased body fat and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring, suggesting a role in the propagation of obesity.

  18. A Theoretical Study of Cold Air Damming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin

    1990-12-01

    The dynamics of cold air damming are examined analytically with a two-layer steady state model. The upper layer is a warm and saturated cross-mountain (easterly or southeasterly onshore) flow. The lower layer is a cold mountain-parallel (northerly) jet trapped on the windward (eastern) side of the mountain. The interface between the two layers represents a coastal front-a sloping inversion layer coupling the trapped cold dome with the warm onshore flow above through pressure continuity.An analytical expression is obtained for the inviscid upper-layer flow with hydrostatic and moist adiabatic approximations. Blackadar's PBL parameterization of eddy viscosity is used in the lower-layer equations. Solutions for the mountain-parallel jet and its associated secondary transverse circulation are obtained by expanding asymptotically upon a small parameter proportional to the square root of the inertial aspect ratio-the ratio between the mountain height and the radius of inertial oscillation. The geometric shape of the sloping interface is solved numerically from a differential-integral equation derived from the pressure continuity condition imposed at the interface.The observed flow structures and force balances of cold air damming events are produced qualitatively by the model. In the cold dome the mountain-parallel jet is controlled by the competition between the mountain-parallel pressure gradient and friction: the jet is stronger with smoother surfaces, higher mountains, and faster mountain-normal geostrophic winds. In the mountain-normal direction the vertically averaged force balance in the cold dome is nearly geostrophic and controls the geometric shape of the cold dome. The basic mountain-normal pressure gradient generated in the cold dome by the negative buoyancy distribution tends to flatten the sloping interface and expand the cold dome upstream against the mountain-normal pressure gradient (produced by the upper-layer onshore wind) and Coriolis force (induced

  19. Dam design can impede adaptive management of environmental flows: a case study from the Opuha Dam, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lessard, JoAnna; Hicks, D Murray; Snelder, Ton H; Arscott, David B; Larned, Scott T; Booker, Doug; Suren, Alastair M

    2013-02-01

    The Opuha Dam was designed for water storage, hydropower, and to augment summer low flows. Following its commissioning in 1999, algal blooms (dominated first by Phormidium and later Didymosphenia geminata) downstream of the dam were attributed to the reduced frequency and magnitude of high-flow events. In this study, we used a 20-year monitoring dataset to quantify changes associated with the dam. We also studied the effectiveness of flushing flows to remove periphyton from the river bed. Following the completion of the dam, daily maximum flows downstream have exceeded 100 m(3) s(-1) only three times; two of these floods exceeded the pre-dam mean annual flood of 203 m(3) s(-1) (compared to 19 times >100 m(3) s(-1) and 6 times >203 m(3) s(-1) in the 8 years of record before the dam). Other changes downstream included increases in water temperature, bed armoring, frequency of algal blooms, and changes to the aquatic invertebrate community. Seven experimental flushing flows resulted in limited periphyton reductions. Flood wave attenuation, bed armoring, and a shortage of surface sand and gravel, likely limited the effectiveness of these moderate floods. Floods similar to pre-dam levels may be effective for control of periphyton downstream; however, flushing flows of that magnitude are not possible with the existing dam infrastructure. These results highlight the need for dams to be planned and built with the capacity to provide the natural range of flows for adaptive management, particularly high flows.

  20. Hyperleptinemia During Pregnancy Decreases Adult Weight of Offspring and Is Associated With Increased Offspring Locomotor Activity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Kelly E; Stevens, Damaiyah; Pennington, Kathleen A; Thaisrivongs, Rose; Kaiser, Jennifer; Ellersieck, Mark R; Miller, Dennis K; Schulz, Laura Clamon

    2015-10-01

    Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes mellitus have elevated leptin levels and their children have an increased risk for child and adult obesity. The goals of this study were to determine whether offspring weights are altered by maternal hyperleptinemia, and whether this occurs via behavioral changes that influence energy balance. We used 2 hyperleptinemic mouse models. The first was females heterozygous for a leptin receptor mutation (DB/+), which were severely hyperleptinemic, and that were compared with wild-type females. The second model was wild-type females infused with leptin (LEP), which were moderately hyperleptinemic, and were compared with wild-type females infused with saline (SAL). Total food consumption, food preference, locomotor activity, coordinated motor skills, and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in wild-type offspring from each maternal group at 3 postnatal ages: 4-6, 11-13, and 19-21 weeks. Half the offspring from each group were then placed on a high-fat diet, and behaviors were reassessed. Adult offspring from both groups of hyperleptinemic dams weighed less than their respective controls beginning at 23 weeks of age, independent of diet or sex. Weight differences were not explained by food consumption or preference, because female offspring from hyperleptinemic dams tended to consume more food and had reduced preference for palatable, high-fat and sugar, food compared with controls. Offspring from DB/+ dams were more active than offspring of controls, as were female offspring of LEP dams. Maternal hyperleptinemia during pregnancy did not predispose offspring to obesity, and in fact, reduced weight gain.

  1. Selenium-methionine and chromium-methionine supplementation of sheep around parturition: impacts on dam and offspring performance.

    PubMed

    Mousaie, Amir; Valizadeh, Reza; Chamsaz, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of maternal energy restriction along with selenium-methionine (Se-Met) and chromium-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation on performance of pregnant sheep and their offspring, the following treatments were allotted randomly to 40 multiparous Baluchi ewes (53.9 ± 1.15 kg of body weight [BW]) from 5 weeks prior to 5 weeks after parturition: (1) Control diet (60% and 100% of NRC energy requirements in pre- and post-partum, respectively); (2) Control diet plus 5 mg Se-Met/kg dry matter (DM); (3) Control diet plus 3 mg Cr-Met/kg DM and (4) Control diet plus 5 mg Se-Met and 3 mg Cr-Met/kg DM (Se-Cr-Met) of concentrate diet. The results indicated that Cr-Met alone or in combination with Se-Met increased average DM intake of ewes. In addition, Group Cr-Met had higher average BW than the Control (p < 0.05). Se-Met and/or Cr-Met supplementation led to decreased average serum cholesterol of the ewes (p < 0.05). Groups Cr-Met and Se-Cr-Met displayed decreased average serum malondialdehyde compared to the Control (p < 0.05). At 24 h post-partum, Group Se-Cr-Met had a greater serum Se content than the Control (p = 0.006). Compared with the Control, the Se concentration in milk was significantly increased from 30 to 138 µg/l and 197 µg/l in Groups Se-Met and Se-Cr-Met, respectively (p < 0.01), which proved that Se-Met supplementation can increase the Se concentration of ewe milk. Furthermore, feeding Cr-Met may attenuate BW loss post-partum and Se-Met and/or Cr-Met supplements may ameliorate oxidative stress condition in ewes around parturition.

  2. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Manhica, Hélio; Toivanen, Susanna; Hjern, Anders; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as “offspring of immigrants.” We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type. Results Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants. Conclusion The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants. PMID:25706297

  3. The combination of maternal and offspring high-fat diets causes marked oxidative stress and development of metabolic syndrome in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Ito, Junya; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kato, Shunji; Miyazawa, Taiki; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-04-15

    Maternal overnutrition (e.g., high-fat (HF) diet) during pregnancy and lactation is believed to cause oxidative stress and increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in offspring. In the present study, we investigated the effects of both maternal and offspring HF diets on metabolic syndrome risk and oxidative stress profiles in mice. Dams of the C57BL/6J mouse strain were fed a HF or control (CO) diet during gestation and lactation. Offspring were weaned at 3weeks of age. The female offspring were sacrificed at weaning, while the males were maintained on the HF or CO diet until 11weeks of age. Tissue samples, including those from liver, were collected from offspring at 3 and 11weeks of age, and lipids, phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH, an oxidative stress marker), and gene expression were evaluated. Accumulation of lipids, but not PCOOH, was found in the livers of 3-week-old offspring from dams fed the HF diet. When the offspring were maintained on a HF diet until 11weeks of age, marked accumulation of both liver lipids and PCOOH was observed. PCOOH manifestation was supported by the expression of genes such as Gpx4, encoding a PCOOH degrading enzyme. These results suggest that the combination of maternal and offspring overnutrition causes marked oxidative stress in offspring, which accelerates metabolic syndrome. The present findings in offspring from infancy to adulthood may be useful for better understanding the cause-and-effect relationships between oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome development.

  4. Risk/protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Weissman, M M; McAvay, G; Goldstein, R B; Nunes, E V; Verdeli, H; Wickramaratne, P J

    1999-11-01

    There are few systematic studies of the school-aged offspring of drug-dependent patients, although this information is useful for planning evidence-based prevention programs. We have completed such a study, which we compare to a similar study independently conducted in 1998. In both studies, both the parent and offspring were assessed blindly and independently by direct diagnostic interviews, and parental assessment of offspring was also obtained. The similarity in design and methods between studies provided an opportunity for replication by reanalysis of data. The major findings are a replication in two independently conducted studies of school-aged offspring of opiate- and/or cocaine-addicted mothers of the high rates of any psychiatric disorder (60% in both studies), major depression (20%, 26%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (18%, 23%), conduct disorder (17%, 9%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (13%, 8%), and substance abuse (5%, 10%) among offspring. Both studies also found high rates of comorbid alcohol abuse, depression, and multiple drugs of abuse in the mothers. We conclude that efforts to replicate findings by analyses of independently conducted studies are an inexpensive way to test the sturdiness of findings that can provide the empirical basis for preventive efforts. Clinically, the data in both studies suggest that both drug dependence and associated psychopathology should be assessed and treated in opiate addicts with young offspring, and the offspring should be monitored for the development of conduct and mood disorders and substance use.

  5. Prenatal maternal depression is associated with offspring inflammation at 25 years: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Plant, D T; Pawlby, S; Sharp, D; Zunszain, P A; Pariante, C M

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother–offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986. Maternal prenatal depression was assessed in pregnancy at 20 and 36 weeks; offspring child maltreatment (birth 17 years) was assessed at offspring ages 11, 16 and 25; and offspring adulthood depression (18–25 years) was assessed at age 25. Exposure to maternal prenatal depression predicted significantly elevated offspring hs-CRP at age 25 (odds ratio=11.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 127.0), P=0.041), independently of child maltreatment and adulthood depression, known risk factors for adulthood inflammation. In contrast, maternal prenatal depression did not predict changes in offspring adulthood cortisol; however, offspring exposure to child maltreatment did, and was associated with elevated awakening cortisol levels (B=161.9, 95% CI (45.4, 278.4), P=0.007). Fetal exposure to maternal depression during pregnancy has effects on immune function that persist for up to a quarter of a century after birth. Findings are consistent with the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis for the biological embedding of gestational psychosocial adversity into vulnerability for future physical and mental illness. PMID:27801895

  6. Maternal diabetes programs hypertension and kidney injury in offspring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Wen; Chenier, Isabelle; Tran, Stella; Scotcher, Michael; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2010-07-01

    We investigated whether maternal diabetes programs the offspring to develop hypertension and kidney injury in adulthood and examined potential underlying mechanisms. In a murine model we studied the offspring of three groups of dams (non-diabetic, diabetic, and diabetic treated with insulin). Mean systolic blood pressure in the offspring was monitored from 8 to 20 weeks. Body and kidney weights in the offspring of diabetic mothers were significantly lower than in offspring of non-diabetic mothers. Offspring of diabetic mothers developed hypertension, microalbuminuria, and glucose intolerance. Increased accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the glomeruli and marked upregulation of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression were evident in the renal cortex of hypertensive offspring of diabetic mothers. By contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) gene expression was lower in the hypertensive offspring of diabetic mothers than in that of non-diabetic mothers. These changes were prevented in the offspring of insulin-treated diabetic mothers. These data indicate that maternal diabetes induces perinatal programming of hypertension, renal injury, and glucose intolerance in the offspring and suggest a central role for the activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and TGF-beta1 gene expression in this process.

  7. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations.

  8. Parental Age and Lifespan Influence Offspring Recruitment: A Long-Term Study in a Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  9. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: A national cohort study across 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother’s age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960–1989 (N=3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N=485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide, teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers. PMID:23632141

  10. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: a national cohort study across 30 years.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-06-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother's age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960 to 1989 (N = 3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N = 485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors, but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and also target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers.

  11. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with diverse and widespread commercial and industrial applications, has been detected in human and wildlife sera. Previous mouse studies linked prenatal PFOA exposure to decreased neonatal body weights (BWs) and survival in a dose-dependent manner. ...

  12. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a ubiquitous and persistent synthetic compound, has been detected in human serum. Previous studies in mice linked prenatal PFOA exposure to increased neonatal mortality and decreased pup weights, in a dose responsive manner. To determine whether dev...

  13. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  14. Dietary sodium manipulation during critical periods in development sensitize adult offspring to amphetamines.

    PubMed

    McBride, Shawna M; Culver, Bruce; Flynn, Francis W

    2008-09-01

    This study examined critical periods in development to determine when offspring were most susceptible to dietary sodium manipulation leading to amphetamine sensitization. Wistar dams (n = 6-8/group) were fed chow containing low (0.12% NaCl; LN), normal (1% NaCl; NN), or high sodium (4% NaCl; HN) during the prenatal or early postnatal period (birth to 5 wk). Offspring were fed normal chow thereafter until testing at 6 mo. Body weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), fluid intake, salt preference, response to amphetamine, open field behavior, plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), plasma corticosterone (Cort), and adrenal gland weight were measured. BW was similar for all offspring. Offspring from the prenatal and postnatal HN group had increased BP, NaCl intake, and salt preference and decreased water intake relative to NN offspring. Prenatal HN offspring had greater BP than postnatal HN offspring. In response to amphetamine, both prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring had increased locomotor behavior compared with NN offspring. In a novel open field environment, locomotion was also increased in prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. ACTH and Cort levels 30 min after restraint stress and adrenal gland weight measurement were greater in LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring. These results indicate that early life experience with low- and high-sodium diets, during the prenatal or early postnatal period, is a stress that produces long-term changes in responsiveness to amphetamines and to subsequent stressors.

  15. Dam's infection progress and within-herd prevalence as predictors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA response in Danish Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise; Kostoulas, Polychronis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the primary routes of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is pivotal to manage the pathogen in cattle herds. MAP is transmitted both vertically and horizontally, and both the dam's stage of infection and the prevalence in the population are therefore potentially important for MAP transmission control. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the dam's infection progress and the within-herd test-prevalence as predictors of MAP infection in Danish dairy cattle. MAP specific antibody ELISA records from 95,025 dam-offspring pairs were combined with test-prevalence estimates from 939 Danish Holstein herds. The odds of testing ELISA-positive given the within-herd test-prevalence and the time-period a dam had had MAP specific antibodies were estimated for the offspring. Both dams and offspring were tested as adults, and parity-group was used to correct for the effect of age. The results showed that both the within-herd test-prevalence and the dam's infection progress were significant predictors, while the dams that had tested positive when giving birth and up to 0.7 years after were more likely to have offspring that would test positive. The odds of testing positive were about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for these offspring, compared to offspring of dams that never tested positive. Furthermore, offspring born in high (>5% ELISA-positive) and medium (2.5 to 5% ELISA-positive) prevalence herds had 9 and 3, respectively, times higher odds of testing positive, compared to animals born in a low prevalence herd. The variance heterogeneity reduced 81% through the included predictors. The results of this study suggest that irrespective of the prevalence, offspring of dams with MAP specific antibodies should be considered as high-risk animals when managing the infection in cattle herds, but both the prevalence and the dam's infection status are important in MAP control.

  16. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  17. Gestational exercise protects adult male offspring from high-fat diet induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ryan D.; Blaize, A. Nicole; Fletcher, Justin A.; Pearson, Kevin J.; Donkin, Shawn; Newcomer, Sean C.; Rector, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Mounting evidence indicates that maternal exercise confers protection to adult offspring against various diseases. Here we hypothesized that maternal exercise during gestation would reduce high fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in adult rat offspring. Methods Following conception, pregnant dams were divided into either voluntary wheel running exercise (GE) or wheel-locked sedentary (GS) groups throughout gestation (days 4-21). Post-weaning, offspring received either normal chow diet (ND; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat, 35% carbohydrate, and 20% protein) until sacrifice at 4-or 8-months of age. Results GE did not affect offspring birth weight or litter size. HFD feeding in offspring increased weight gain, % body fat, and glucose tolerance test area under the curve (GTT-AUC). Male offspring from GE dams had reduced % body fat across all ages (p < 0.05). In addition, 8-mo male offspring from GE dams were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, which was associated with increased markers of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and TFAM), autophagic potential (ATG12:ATG5 conjugation) and hepatic triacylglycerol secretion (MTTP). Conclusions The current study provides the first evidence that gestational exercise can reduce susceptibility to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis in adult male offspring. PMID:26325536

  18. Effect of maternal diabetes on longevity in offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Iwase, M; Wada, M; Shinohara, N; Yoshizumi, H; Yoshinari, M; Fujishima, M

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of maternal diabetes induced by neonatal streptozotocin treatment on the longevity of the male offspring in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Maternal diabetes significantly decreased the survival in the offspring as compared with the control (p < 0.01). Mean age at death was 14.9 +/- 0.6 months in the offspring from the diabetic dams and 17.9 +/- 1.1 months in that from the control. The life span was significantly correlated with the birth weight (rs = 0.55, p = 0.009). These findings suggest that a diabetic pregnancy may accelerate an age-related degenerative process of the offspring in SHR.

  19. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the

  20. Immune activation in lactating dams alters sucklings' brain cytokines and produces non-overlapping behavioral deficits in adult female and male offspring: A novel neurodevelopmental model of sex-specific psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Arad, Michal; Piontkewitz, Yael; Albelda, Noa; Shaashua, Lee; Weiner, Ina

    2017-02-08

    Early immune activation (IA) in rodents, prenatal through the mother or early postnatal directly to the neonate, is widely used to produce behavioral endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia and depression. Given that maternal immune response plays a crucial role in the deleterious effects of prenatal IA, and lactation is a critical vehicle of immunological support to the neonate, we predicted that immune activation of the lactating dam will produce long-term abnormalities in the sucklings. Nursing dams were injected on postnatal day 4 with the viral mimic poly-I:C (4mg/kg) or saline. Cytokine assessment was performed in dams' plasma and milk 2h, and in the sucklings' hippocampus, 6h and 24h following poly-I:C injection. Male and female sucklings were assessed in adulthood for: a) performance on behavioral tasks measuring constructs considered relevant to schizophrenia (selective attention and executive control) and depression (despair and anhedonia); b) response to relevant pharmacological treatments; c) brain structural changes. Maternal poly-I:C injection caused cytokine alterations in the dams' plasma and milk, as well as in the sucklings' hippocampus. Lactational poly-I:C exposure led to sex-dimorphic (non-overlapping) behavioral abnormalities in the adult offspring, with male but not female offspring exhibiting attentional and executive function abnormalities (manifested in persistent latent inhibition and slow reversal) and hypodopaminergia, and female but not male offspring exhibiting despair and anhedonia (manifested in increased immobility in the forced swim test and reduced saccharine preference) and hyperdopaminergia, mimicking the known sex-bias in schizophrenia and depression. The behavioral double-dissociation predicted distinct pharmacological profiles, recapitulating the pharmacology of negative/cognitive symptoms and depression. In-vivo imaging revealed hippocampal and striatal volume reductions in both sexes, as found in both disorders. This is

  1. Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shaffer, Michele L; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal is believed to be a predisposing factor for insomnia; however, there is limited information on the association of familial vulnerability to insomnia and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of stress-related insomnia and examine whether parental vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is associated with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in their offspring. We studied a volunteer sample of 135 nuclear families comprised of 270 middle-aged (51.5 ± 5.4 years) fathers and mothers and one of their biological offspring (n = 135, 20.2 ± 1.1 years). We measured vulnerability to stress-related insomnia (i.e. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test: FIRST), perceived stress, depression and anxiety in all participants, and arousability, presleep cognitive and somatic arousal, coping and personality in the offspring. We found a heritability estimate of 29% for FIRST scores. High FIRST parents had three to seven times the odds of having offspring highly vulnerable to stress-related insomnia. Offspring of high FIRST parents showed higher arousability, presleep cognitive arousal and emotion-oriented coping. Furthermore, high FIRST mothers contributed to offspring's higher anxiety and lower task-oriented coping, while high FIRST fathers contributed to offspring's higher presleep somatic arousal and conscientiousness. Vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is significantly heritable. Parents vulnerable to stress-related insomnia have offspring with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal who rely upon emotion-oriented coping. These data give support to the notion that arousability and maladaptive coping are key factors in the aetiology of insomnia.

  2. Mortality among offspring of women diagnosed with cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Verkooijen, Helena M; Ang, Joella X; Liu, Jenny; Czene, Kamila; Salim, Agus; Hartman, Mikael

    2013-05-15

    One in five cancers in women is diagnosed prior to and during a woman's fertile years. Our study evaluates mortality risks in offspring of mothers with history of cancer. From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and the Cancer Register, we identified all 174,893 children whose mother had been diagnosed with cancer between 1958 and 2001. We categorized offspring into those born before (>1 year before), around (within 1 year before and after diagnosis) and after (>1 year after) their mother's cancer diagnosis and compared their risks of death (standardized mortality ratios, SMRs) and causes of death to the background population. Overall, offspring of mothers diagnosed with cancer had no increased mortality risk (SMR, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.03). Increased mortality risks were found in offspring of mothers with tobacco-related cancers (head and neck, thoracic and cervical) (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.33), in children born around their mother's diagnosis (SMR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.25-2.13) and in children born after their mother's hematopoietic cancer diagnosis (SMR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.10-3.35). Compared to the background population, children born around their mother's diagnosis were more likely to die of congenital and perinatal conditions. Overall, offspring of women diagnosed with cancer were not at increased risk of death, except for certain subgroups. Timing of pregnancy in relation to diagnosis and cancer site modifies mortality risks in the offspring.

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Overweight and Obesity from Parents to Their Adolescent Offspring – The HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Langaas, Mette; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Kvaløy, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The main aim of this study was to examine weight associations between parents and offspring at two time points: 1995–97 and 2006–08, taking into account body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Methods The study included 8425 parent-offspring trios who participated in the population based Health Study of Nord Trøndelag (the HUNT Study), Norway, at either the HUNT2 (1995–97) or the HUNT3 (2006–08) survey. We used linear mixed effects models with siblings clustered within mothers to analyze the associations between 1) parental grouped BMI and offspring BMI z-scores and 2) parental grouped waist circumference and offspring waist circumference z-scores. Results Adolescent and adult overweight and obesity were higher in 2006–08 than in 1995–97, with the greatest increase observed in waist circumference. Both mother’s and father’s BMI and waist circumference were strongly associated with corresponding measures in offspring. Compared with both parents being normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2), having two overweight or obese parents (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was associated with a higher offspring BMI z-score of 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.64 (95% CI; 0.48, 0.80) in daughters, and 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.69 (95% CI; 0.53, 0.80) in sons, in 1995–97 and 2006–08 respectively. Offspring with one parent being overweight/obese had BMI z-scores of approximately half of offspring with two parents categorized as overweight/obese. The results of the waist circumference based analyses did not differ substantially from the BMI based analyses. Conclusions Parental overweight was strongly positively associated with offspring weight both in 1995–97 and 2006–08 where both parents being overweight/obese gave the largest effect. This seemingly stable association, strongly address the importance of public health initiatives towards preventing obesity in parents of both sexes to decrease further obesity expansion in offspring. PMID:27851798

  4. Baseline studies in the Elwha River ecosystem prior to dam removal: Introduction to the special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freilich, Jerry; Schreiner, Edward G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams that have been in place for over 95 years on the Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study dam removal effects. Among the largest dams ever considered for removal, this project is compelling because 83% of the watershed lies undisturbed in Olympic National Park. Eighteen million cubic meters of sediment have accumulated in and will be released from the reservoirs, and there is potential for rehabilitating depressed Pacific salmon runs. Researchers from academia, non-profit organizations, federal and state governments, and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe are currently assessing baseline ecological conditions of the Elwha River as part of dam removal studies. We introduce dam removal topics, provide a brief history of the dams, and summarize the ecology of the Elwha River basin as an introduction to a special issue devoted to research in the watershed.

  5. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 6. Evaluation of Three Watering and Mulching Techniques on Transplanted Trees at Adobe Dam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at Ddobe Dam". This...report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6 "Evaluation of three...8217,- ,_ _ .. _. ,’ .’ .’.- .. .. . . .’ .’. -" ". INTRODUCTION On denuded lands, harsh site conditions may render revegetation by seeding risky and the probability of seeding failure high

  6. Revegetation Study of Adobe Dam, Phoenix, Arizona. Task 3. Revision. Revegetation Methods for Arid Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-18

    This report describes the site characteristics of the Adobe Dam Study Area. Task No. 5 & 7 Seeding Success on Topsoiled and Hard Topspoles Slopes at...Ddobe Dam". This report presents statisfied analysis of the relative success of several seeding methods used at the Adobe Dam site. Task No.6...to moisture stress , soil fertility and toxicity problems are also common on areas in need of revegetation. Several agencies deal successfully with

  7. Interaction of Dams and Landslides--Case Studies and Mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering were in their infancy, and dams were often built where landslides provided valley constrictions, often without expert site investigation. Only the most important projects were subjected to careful geologic examination. Thus, dams were often built without complete understanding of the possible geotechnical problems occurring in foundations or abutments. Most of these dams still exist, although many have undergone costly repairs because of stability or leakage problems. Today, however, every effort is made in the selection of damsites, including those sited on landslides, to provide foundations and abutments that are generally impervious and capable of withstanding the stresses imposed by the proposed dam and reservoir, and possible landslides. By means of a literature search, technical interviews, and field inventory, I have located 254 large (at least 10 m high) dams worldwide that directly interact with landslides; that is, they have been built on pre-existing landslides or have been subjected to landslide activity during or after construction. A table (Appendix table A) summarizes dam characteristics, landslide conditions, and remedial measures at each of the dams. Of the 254 dams, 164 are earthfill, 23 are rockfill, and 18 are earthfill-rockfill; these are flexible dam types that generally perform better on the possibly unstable foundations provided by landslides than do more rigid concrete dams. Any pre-existing landslides that might impinge on the foundation or abutments of a dam should be carefully investigated. If a landslide is recognized in a dam foundation or abutment, the landslide deposits commonly are avoided in siting the dam or are removed during stripping of the dam foundation and abutment contacts. Contrarily, it has often been found to be technically feasible and economically desirable to site and construct dams on known landslides or on the remnants of these

  8. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Adiposity, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Methylation in Offspring, Grand-Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghai; Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Champagne, Frances A.; Wu, Licheng; McDonald, Jacob D.; Yan, Beizhan; Schwartz, Gary J.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Objectives We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. Materials and Methods Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. Findings Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. Conclusions Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny. PMID:25347678

  9. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint).

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M V Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications.

  10. Metabolic Profile of Offspring from Diabetic Wistar Rats Treated with Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho, Sandra M.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Machado, Flávia M. V. Farinazzi; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating glycemia and lipid profile of offspring from diabetic Wistar rats treated with Mentha piperita (peppermint) juice. Male offspring from nondiabetic dams (control group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) and from dams with streptozotocin-induced severe diabetes (diabetic group: 10 animals treated with water and 10 treated with peppermint juice) were used. They were treated during 30 days, and, after the treatment period, levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions were analyzed in the adult phase. The offspring from diabetic dams treated with peppermint showed significantly reduced levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides and significant increase in HDL-c levels. The use of the M. piperita juice has potential as culturally appropriate strategy to aid in the prevention of DM, dyslipidemia, and its complications. PMID:21647314

  11. Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP)—A map-based resource linking scientific studies and associated geospatial information about dam removals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Bristol, R. Sky; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Vittum, Katherine M.; Craig, Laura; Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2016-08-18

    The removal of dams has recently increased over historical levels due to aging infrastructure, changing societal needs, and modern safety standards rendering some dams obsolete. Where possibilities for river restoration, or improved safety, exceed the benefits of retaining a dam, removal is more often being considered as a viable option. Yet, as this is a relatively new development in the history of river management, science is just beginning to guide our understanding of the physical and ecological implications of dam removal. Ultimately, the “lessons learned” from previous scientific studies on the outcomes dam removal could inform future scientific understanding of ecosystem outcomes, as well as aid in decision-making by stakeholders. We created a database visualization tool, the Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP), to display map-based, interactive information about the scientific studies associated with dam removals. Serving both as a bibliographic source as well as a link to other existing databases like the National Hydrography Dataset, the derived National Dam Removal Science Database serves as the foundation for a Web-based application that synthesizes the existing scientific studies associated with dam removals. Thus, using the DRIP application, users can explore information about completed dam removal projects (for example, their location, height, and date removed), as well as discover sources and details of associated of scientific studies. As such, DRIP is intended to be a dynamic collection of scientific information related to dams that have been removed in the United States and elsewhere. This report describes the architecture and concepts of this “metaknowledge” database and the DRIP visualization tool.

  12. Personality of parents with bipolar disorder and interpersonal functioning among their offspring: a prospective 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Ostiguy, Caroline S; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2012-05-01

    A comparison of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD) and offspring of parents with no mental disorder (ONMD) showed that parents' neuroticism was associated with internalizing and externalizing problems among their children. The present study examined whether parents' neuroticism predicted poor interpersonal functioning among offspring 10 years later and whether the problems observed in middle childhood mediated the association between parents' neuroticism and offspring functioning. When offspring were in middle childhood, parents completed the revised NEO Personality Inventory and rated the child's behavior on the Child Behavior Checklist. Ten years later, 65 OBD and 59 ONMD completed interviews assessing mental disorders and interpersonal and noninterpersonal functioning. High neuroticism and low agreeableness in parents predicted poor interpersonal functioning in their offspring in late adolescence-early adulthood. The offspring's externalizing and internalizing problems in middle childhood partially mediated the association between parents' personality and offspring interpersonal functioning. Moreover, the association between parents' neuroticism and offspring internalizing problems was stronger among the OBD than the ONMD. Overall, the results suggested an intergenerational transmission of risk whereby high neuroticism and low agreeableness in parents were associated with behavioral problems among offspring in middle childhood that, in turn, predicted poor interpersonal functioning 10 years later.

  13. Resilient offspring of alcoholics: a longitudinal study from birth to age 18.

    PubMed

    Werner, E E

    1986-01-01

    This study focuses on child characteristics and on the qualities of the caregiving environment that differentiated between offspring of alcoholics who did and those who did not develop serious coping problems by age 18. The 49 subjects (22 male) are members of a multiracial cohort of 698 children born in 1955 on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, who were followed at ages 1, 2, 10 and 18. In this group, males and the offspring of alcoholic mothers had higher rates of psychosocial problems in childhood and adolescence than females and the offspring of alcoholic fathers. Children of alcoholics who developed no serious coping problems by age 18 differed from those who did in characteristics of temperament, communication skills, self-concept and locus of control. They had also experienced fewer stressful life events disrupting their family unit in the first two years of life. Results of the study support a transactional model of human development and demonstrate bidirectionality of child-caregiver effects.

  14. Preliminary study of mother-offspring conflict in black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya).

    PubMed

    Pavé, Romina; Kowalewski, Martin M; Peker, Silvana M; Zunino, Gabriel E

    2010-07-01

    Parent-offspring conflict has been scarcely studied in Neotropical primates. In this study, we explored mother-offspring conflict in a group of wild black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina. We used the all-occurrences technique to record behaviors, completing 712 h of observation. The results showed that all immature individuals between 2 and 23 months expressed conflict with regard to suckling or traveling with their mothers. Successful suckling attempts negatively correlated with the age of the immatures, occurring least frequently with the presence of newborns. In the juvenile period, the decline in successful attempts was a consequence of juveniles reducing suckling attempts and mother rejection.

  15. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction: A Case Study of Embankment Dam Safety Assessment in Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdos, F.; Dargahi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seepage, when excessive and unimpeded, can cause embankment dam failure. Such failures are often initiated by internal erosion and piping. Modelling these phenomena in embankment dams, accounting for the groundwater-surface water interactions, is crucial when performing dam safety assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of modelling seepage flows in multi-region dams using a finite element based multi-physics model. The model was applied to the Trängslet dam, the largest dam in Sweden. The objectives were to analyze the characteristics of both the flow and the surface-ground water interactions occurring in the dam, including: i) the saturated and unsaturated laminar flow regimes within the dam body, ii) the non-linear through-flow in the dam shoulders' coarse material, iii) the influence of the surface waves in the reservoir on the seepage flow by coupling the physics to a hydrodynamic interface, and iv) the influence of a conceptual "erosion tunnel" on the seepage flow and its interaction with the surface water flow by coupling the physics to a CFD interface. The focus of the study was on the influence of the transient water head boundary condition, surface waves and the internal erosion tunnel on the location of the phreatic line and the seepage flow rate. The simulated seepage flow of the dam in its original condition tallied with the monitoring measurements (40-70 l/s). The main feature found was the relatively high position of the phreatic line, which could compromise the stability of the dam. The combination of the seepage model with the reservoir hydrodynamics indicated a negligible influence of the surface waves on seepage flow. Results from the combination of the seepage model with fluid dynamics indicated that a conceptual "erosion tunnel" placed within the dam, even as high as in the unsaturated zone, significantly affects the phreatic line's position. This also causes the seepage flow to increase by several orders of

  16. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) coh...

  17. Carbon sequestration function of check-dams: a case study of the Loess plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie

    2014-11-01

    Check-dams are the most common structures for controlling soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, the effect of check-dams on carbon sequestration, along with sediment transport and deposition, has not been assessed over large areas. In this study, we evaluated the carbon sequestration function of check-dams in the Loess Plateau. The results indicate that there were approximately 11 000 check-dams distributed in the Loess Plateau, with an estimate of the amount of sediment of 21 × 10⁹ m³ and a soil organic carbon storage amount of 0.945 Pg. Our study reveals that check-dams in the Loess Plateau not only conserve soil and water but also sequester carbon.

  18. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  19. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  20. Maternal high-fat hypercaloric diet during pregnancy results in persistent metabolic and respiratory abnormalities in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Pamela S.; Walton, Cheryl; Samsell, Lennie; Perez, Miriam K.; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have shown in a previous population-based study significant correlation between childhood asthma and early abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism. This study's specific aim was to determine whether maternal nutrition in pregnancy affects postnatal metabolic and respiratory outcomes in the offspring. Methods: On gestation day 1, dams were switched from standard chow to either high-fat hypercaloric diet or control diet. Terminal experiments were performed on newborn and weanling offspring of dams fed the study diet during gestation and lactation, and on adult offspring maintained on the same diet as their mother. Results: Pups born from high-fat hypercaloric diet (HFD) dams developed metabolic abnormalities persistent throughout development. Cytokine expression analysis of lung tissues from newborns born to HFD dams revealed a strong proinflammatory pattern. Gene expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors was upregulated in lungs of weanlings born to HFD dams, and this was associated to higher respiratory system resistance and lower compliance at baseline, as well as hyperreactivity to aerosolized methacholine. Furthermore, HFD dams delivered pups prone to develop more severe disease after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Conclusion: Maternal nutrition in pregnancy is a critical determinant of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in offspring and also increases risk for bronchiolitis independent from prepregnancy nutrition. PMID:26539661

  1. Impact of maternal cigarette smoke exposure on brain inflammation and oxidative stress in male mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yik Lung; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Oliver, Brian; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Zaky, Amgad A.; Jones, Nicole; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) during gestation can cause lifelong adverse effects in the offspring’s brain. Several factors may contribute including inflammation, oxidative stress and hypoxia, whose changes in the developing brain are unknown. Female Balb/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were studied at postnatal day (P) 1, P20 and 13 weeks (W13). SE dams had reduced inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6 and toll like receptor (TLR)4 mRNA), antioxidant (manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)), and increased mitochondrial activities (OXPHOS-I, III and V) and protein damage marker nitrotyrosine. Brain hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α and its upstream signalling molecule early growth response factor (EGR)1 were not changed in the SE dams. In the SE offspring, brain IL-1R, IL-6 and TLR4 mRNA were increased at W13. The translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane, and MnSOD were reduced at W13 with higher nitrotyrosine staining. HIF-1α was also increased at W13, although EGR1 was only reduced at P1. In conclusion, maternal SE increased markers of hypoxia and oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunction and cell damage in both dams and offspring, and upregulated inflammatory markers in offspring, which may render SE dams and their offspring vulnerable to additional brain insults. PMID:27169932

  2. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide: a population-based longitudinal case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D; Martens, Patricia J; Enns, Murray W; Roos, Leslie L; Katz, Laurence Y; Wilcox, Holly C; Erlangsen, Annette; Chateau, Dan; Walld, Randy; Spiwak, Rae; Seguin, Monique; Shear, Katherine; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2 years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2 years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.45), and low income (ARR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51) before their offspring's death. CONCLUSIONS Suicide bereavement is associated with adverse mental health and social outcomes

  3. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to examine the relation between vitamin D status and incidence of T2D. We used a subsample of 1972 Framingham Offspring Study participants to develop a regression model to predict...

  4. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D Score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to examine the relation between vitamin D status and incidence of T2D. We used a subsample of 1972 Framingham Offspring Study participants to develop a regression model to predict...

  5. Persistent influence of maternal obesity on offspring health: Mechanisms from animal models and clinical studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consequences of excessive maternal weight and adiposity at conception for the offspring are now well recognized. Maternal obesity increases the risk of overweight and obesity even in children born with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) birth weights. Studies in animal models have employed bo...

  6. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  7. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal emotional stress during pregnancy has previously been associated with congenital neural malformations, but most studies are based on data collected retrospectively. The objective of our study was to investigate associations between antenatal maternal bereavement due to death of a close relative and neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. Methods We performed a register-based cohort study including all live-born children (N = 1,734,190) from 1978–2008. Exposure was bereavement due to loss of a close relative from one year before conception to the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. The outcome was NTDs in the offspring according to the International Classification of Disease. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs). Results A total of 2% children were born to mothers who lost a close relative prenatally. During 30 years of follow-up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889), anencephaly (n = 85) and encephalocele (n = 164). And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring was seen (OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.52–1.33). Conclusion Overall maternal bereavement in the antenatal period was not related to NTDs in liveborn offspring. PMID:27685943

  8. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  9. A Genetically Informed Study of the Processes Underlying the Association between Parental Marital Instability and Offspring Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2006-01-01

    Parental divorce is associated with problematic offspring adjustment, but the relation may be due to shared genetic or environmental factors. One way to test for these confounds is to study offspring of twins discordant for divorce. The current analyses used this design to separate the mechanisms responsible for the association between parental…

  10. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with adiposity in the offspring: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Sarah R; Harvey, Nicholas C; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and body composition in the offspring. Design Prospective mother-offspring cohort study. Setting Southampton, UK. Participants 977 pregnant women whose serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D) was measured in late pregnancy and their offspring, followed up within 3 weeks of birth, and at 4 and 6 years of age. Main outcome measures Offspring lean and fat mass assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. Results Median daily vitamin D intake (from food and supplements) in late pregnancy was 3.7μg/day (IQR 2.7 to 5.7). 22% of the women took vitamin D supplements in late pregnancy, but only 8.5% of the women complied with UK guidance to take 10μg per day. Median maternal serum 25(OH)D in late pregnancy was 62nmol/l (IQR 43-89); 35% of the women studied had values below 50 nmol/l. Lower vitamin D status was associated with lower fat mass in the offspring at birth, but with greater fat mass at 4 and 6 years. It was not associated with lean mass at any of the ages studied. The opposing associations seen between maternal 25(OH)D (SDs) and fat mass (SDs) in the offspring at birth and at 6 years were robust to adjustment for a range of confounding factors, including maternal BMI and weight gain in pregnancy (β (95% CI) 0.08 (0.02, 0.15) and −0.10 (−0.17, − 0.02 respectively). The key independent predictors of higher maternal vitamin D status were season of measurement and taking vitamin D in dietary supplements in late pregnancy. Conclusion These data suggest that insufficient maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy could result in programmed differences in offspring fat mass. The findings require replication but add to a growing evidence base for a role of vitamin D in the origins of adiposity. PMID:22623747

  11. Prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of brown adipose tissue in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Ping, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Liu, Han-Xiao; Zhang, Jing; Yan, You-E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure on the morphology and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in male rat offspring. We conducted a morphological assay and gene expression study of interscapular BAT (iBAT) in male rat offspring. The male offspring from nicotine-exposed dams exhibited higher body weight and iBAT weight. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that iBAT from nicotine-exposed male offspring presented a "whitening" phenotype characterized by lipid droplet accumulation and impaired mitochondria with a randomly oriented and fractured cristae. The expression of the iBAT structure and function-related genes all decreased in nicotine-exposed male offspring. These data indicate that prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of iBAT in male rat offspring.

  12. Dam Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status does not predetermine calves for future shedding when raised in a contaminated environment: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2015-06-19

    Uptake of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by calves in the first days of life from colostrum, milk and faeces is regarded an important moment of transmission. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between the MAP status of dams as determined by the presence of MAP DNA and antibody in colostrum and that of DNA in faeces and the environment with subsequent MAP shedding of their daughters. A cohort of 117 dam-daughter pairs giving birth/being born on eight commercial dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis was followed where colostrum, faecal and environmental samples (dust) were analysed for the presence of MAP using an IS900 real-time PCR. Antibodies in colostrum were measured by ELISA. Analysis of dust samples showed that on all farms environmental MAP exposure occurred continuously. In significantly more colostrum samples (48%) MAP DNA was detected compared to faecal samples (37%). MAP specific antibodies were present in 34% of the colostrum samples. In total MAP DNA was present in faecal samples of 41% of the daughters at least once during the sampling period. The association between faecal shedding in the offspring and the dam MAP status defined by MAP PCR on colostrum, MAP PCR on faeces or ELISA on colostrum was determined by an exact cox regression analysis for discrete data. The model indicated that the hazard for faecal shedding in daughters born to MAP positive dams was not significantly different compared to daughters born to MAP negative dams. When born to a dam with DNA positive faeces the HR was 1.05 (CI 0.6; 1.8) and with DNA positive colostrum the HR was 1.17 (CI 0.6; 2.3). When dam status was defined by a combination of both PCR outcomes (faeces and colostrum) and the ELISA outcome the HR was 1.26 (CI 0.9; 1.9). Therefore, this study indicates that neither the presence of MAP DNA in colostrum, MAP DNA in faeces nor the presence of MAP antibodies in colostrum of the dam significantly influences the hazard of

  13. Analysis of Level of Analysis: Data Design, Sampling, and Treatment for Dam Removal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D.; Kibler, K.

    2008-12-01

    Dam removal is increasingly implemented as a river restoration technique and yet substantial uncertainty exists regarding the short and long-term outcomes of this practice. While dam removal is largely considered a restorative action, many questions remain, including those regarding the effects of sediment release to downstream aquatic ecosystems. How will sediment evacuation influence downstream channel morphology and associated ecology? Over what temporal and spatial scales will the sediment signal persist? Unpredictability of dam removal timing and insufficient funding for monitoring has lead to inadequate rigor in study designs, which presents a substantial hurdle to resolving these questions with confidence. To begin addressing questions of impact magnitude and extent, we present an example that focuses on detecting physically and biologically significant changes in grain size distributions associated with downstream migration of reservoir sediments. In presenting a set of experimental methods and an analytical toolkit that may be applied to a variety of dam removal scenarios, we suggest utilization of exploratory baseline data and pre-emptive analyses of statistical power to provide guidance in prioritizing research hypotheses, craft monitoring strategies, and select appropriate analytical methods. Recognizing that constraints inherent to many dam removal studies will limit the experimental design choices that may be implemented, and thus the objectives that may be realized, the outcome is a branching of two strategies (descriptive and systematic) for monitoring and reporting results of dam removals. Data from the Brownsville, Chiloquin, and Savage Rapids dam removals in Oregon are used to demonstrate sampling design principles and analytical strategies.

  14. Maternal high-fat feeding through pregnancy and lactation predisposes mouse offspring to molecular insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Nicole G; Saito, Karen N; Souza, Flavia D; Nakutz, Fernanda S; Roman, Erika A; Velloso, Licio A; Torsoni, Adriana S; Torsoni, Marcio A

    2012-04-01

    The exposure to an increased supply of nutrients before birth may contribute to offspring obesity. Offspring from obese dams that chronically consume a high-fat diet present clinical features of metabolic syndrome, liver lipid accumulation and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) consistent with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, in spite of the importance of the resistance to insulin for the development of NAFLD, the molecular alterations in the liver of adult offspring of obese dams are yet to be investigated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of excessive saturated fats during pregnancy and lactation contributes to adult hepatic metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Adult male offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet (HN) during pregnancy and lactation exhibited increased fat depot weight; increased serum insulin, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β; and reduced serum triglycerides. Liver showed increased JNK and I kappa B kinase phosphorylation and PEPCK expression in the adult. In addition, liver triglyceride content in the offspring 1 week after weaning and in the adult was increased. Moreover, basal ACC phosphorylation and insulin signaling were reduced in the liver from the HN group as compared to offspring of dams fed a standard laboratory chow (NN). Hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation (Ser565) was reduced in epididymal adipose tissue from the HN group as compared to the NN group. It is interesting that all changes observed were independent of postweaning diet in 14-week-old offspring. Therefore, these data further reinforce the importance of maternal nutrition to adult offspring health.

  15. Birth outcomes among offspring of adult cancer survivors: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stensheim, Hanne; Klungsøyr, Kari; Skjaerven, Rolv; Grotmol, Tom; Fosså, Sophie D

    2013-12-01

    Do cancer and cancer treatment influence patients' subsequent pregnancies and outcomes for the offspring? In this study, we compared birth outcomes in 3,915 female and male survivors and 144,653 controls from the general population with similar parity, by merging data from the Cancer Registry and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The cancer survivors were diagnosed at age 16-45 in the period 1967-2004. Subgroups of nulliparous survivors (childless before cancer) and primiparous (one pregnancy before and one after cancer) were analyzed, using logistic regression to compare birth outcomes with controls, focusing perinatal death, congenital anomalies, preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks) and low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 g). We adjusted for maternal age, birth period and educational level. Nulliparous female survivors' offspring had increased risk of preterm birth (OR = 1.30 [95% CI 1.05-1.61]) but similar risks of LBW and perinatal death as their controls. Primiparous female survivors differed from their controls, with higher frequency of preterm birth (OR = 1.89 [95% CI 1.40-2.56]) and LBW at term (OR = 2.02 [95% CI 1.15-3.55]). A borderline significant increase of perinatal death was seen among offspring of primiparous female survivors, with OR = 1.92 (95% CI 0.98-3.76). Offspring of male survivors did not differ from their controls. For all cancer types combined, no increased risk of congenital anomalies was seen among either female or male survivors' offspring. Pregnant female cancer survivors should be offered close follow-up, as there is an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, in particular among those with higher parities.

  16. Dover Dam Physical Model Study, Tuscarawas River, Dover OH

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    noted. Figure 2. Dover Dam Model The accepted equations of hydraulic similitude , based on Froudian rela- tions, were used to express mathematical ... similitude . All dimensions and results in this report are presented in prototype scale, with all elevations referenced to (MSL) unless otherwise

  17. Retinal emboli and cardiovascular disease: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Moss, Scot E; Meuer, Stacy M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the 10-year incidence of retinal emboli, the associated risk factors, and the relationship of retinal emboli to stroke and ischemic heart disease mortality. METHODS: The Beaver Dam Eye Study (n = 4,926) is a population-based study of persons 43 to 86 years of age. Retinal emboli were detected at baseline (1988-1990) and at a 5-year (1993-1995) and a 10-year (1998-2000) follow-up by grading of stereoscopic 30 degrees color fundus photographs using standardized protocols. Cause-specific mortality was determined from death certificates. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of retinal emboli was 1.5%. While adjusting for age and sex, the incidence of retinal emboli was associated with increased pulse pressure (odds ratio [OR] 4th versus 1st quartile range, 2.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-5.97; P test of trend = .03), higher serum total cholesterol (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.23; P = .03), higher leukocyte count (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.04-4.96; P = .05), smoking status (OR current versus never smoker, 4.60: 95% CI, 2.08-10.16; P < .001), and a history of coronary artery bypass surgery (OR, 7.17; 95% CI, 3.18-16.18; P < .001) at baseline. While controlling for age, sex, and systemic factors, a significantly higher hazard of dying with a mention of stroke on the death certificate was found in people with retinal emboli (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.16-4.99) compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: The data show an association of smoking and cardiovascular disease with the incidence of retinal emboli. Also, persons with retinal emboli are at increased risk of stroke-related death. PMID:14971575

  18. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  19. Effects of plane of nutrition of ewes in early and mid-pregnancy on performance of the offspring: female reproduction and male carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Carson, A F; McCoy, M A; Dawson, L E R; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of different planes of nutrition in early pregnancy (EP) and mid-pregnancy (MP) of crossbred ewes on carcass characteristics of male offspring and reproductive performance of female offspring. During EP (d 1 to 39 after synchronized mating) ewes were allocated 60% (low, L-EP), 100% (medium, M-EP), or 200% (high, H-EP) of their energy requirements for maintenance. Between d 40 and 90 (MP), ewes were then allocated 80% (M-MP) or 140% (H-MP) of their maintenance energy requirement. After d 90, all ewes were fed to fully meet energy requirements for late pregnancy. Male offspring (n = 83) were reared on a grass-based system and slaughtered at 42, 46, or 50 kg of BW. Female offspring (n = 60) were reared on a grass-based system, mated at 8 mo, and performance recorded until weaning of their first lamb crop. Concentrations of leptin, an adiposity indicator, in female offspring varied with the plane of maternal nutrition in early pregnancy. The L-EP offspring had greater leptin concentrations than H-EP offspring (P = 0.04), with M-EP offspring showing intermediate concentrations. Reproductive performance of female offspring was not affected by maternal plane of nutrition (P > or = 0.16). Female H-EP offspring gave birth to heavier lambs (generation 2 offspring) than M-EP (P = 0.006) with L-EP offspring intermediate. Male offspring of L-EP dams showed a trend toward poorer carcass conformation (P = 0.06) and increased fat classification (P = 0.07), consistent with increased fat depths over the loin (P = 0.02). There was a significant interaction between plane of nutrition in early pregnancy and mid-pregnancy for female offspring BW at 2 mo postmating and 16 wk postlambing (P < or = 0.04), and for male offspring perinephric and retroperitoneal fat and tissue depth (P < or = 0.02). For dams offered diet L-EP during early pregnancy, diet H-MP gave heavier offspring with more perinephric and retroperitoneal fat. In contrast, for dams offered

  20. Maternal Hb during pregnancy and offspring's educational achievement: a prospective cohort study over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Fararouei, Mohammad; Robertson, Claire; Whittaker, John; Sovio, Ulla; Ruokonen, Aimo; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between maternal Hb levels during pregnancy and educational achievement of the offspring in later life. We analysed data obtained from the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort Study conducted in 1966, in which, data on mothers and offspring from pregnancy through to the age of 31 years were collected. The cohort comprised 11 656 individuals born from singleton births (51 % males and 49 % females). Maternal Hb levels were available from the third, seventh and ninth gestational months. Educational achievement was measured as school scores (range 4-10) taken at the ages of 14 (self-reported questionnaires) and 16 (school reports) years as well as the highest level of education at the age of 31 years. The present results showed a direct positive association between Hb levels and educational achievement in later life. After adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth month and a wide range of maternal factors (parity, smoking, mental status, whether pregnancy was wanted or not, education, social class and marital status), only maternal Hb levels that were measured at the ninth month were significantly associated with the offspring's school performance. If the levels were ≥ 110 g/l at all the three measurement points, offspring not only had better school scores at the ages of 14 and 16 years (β = 0·048, P = 0·04 and β = 0·68, P = 0·007, respectively), but also had an increased odds of having a higher level of education at the age of 31 years (OR = 1·14, P = 0·04). The present study suggests that low maternal Hb levels at the final stages of pregnancy are linked to the poorer educational achievement of the offspring. If our observation is confirmed, it would suggest that Fe prophylaxis even at fairly late stages of pregnancy may be beneficial for the subsequent health of the offspring. However, more studies are needed to fully establish the potential pathways and the clinical importance of the

  1. A Comparison of Three Rubber Dam Systems In Vivo--A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kapitán, Martin; Suchánková Kleplová, Tereza; Suchánek, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the isolation systems OptraDam® Plus and OptiDam™ with the conventional rubber dam in terms of objective and subjective parameters. The isolation systems were applied during the dental treatment of the patients. The time of preparation, placement, presence and removal were measured and the quality of isolation was evaluated. The median time of rubber dam placement was 76 s (Q1=62 s; Q3=111.25 s). The application time of OptraDam® Plus was significantly longer compared to the other systems (P ® plus. The results presented in this study could guide clinicians for choosing the most appropriate isolation system.

  2. Marib Dam: the importance of environmental and health impact studies for development projects.

    PubMed

    Basahi, I A

    2000-01-01

    Marib Dam was built without an environmental impact assessment study which created many conflicts. In 1995 and 1996 its impact on water quality, agriculture and groundwater recharge and socioeconomics was studied. Lake water could suffer severe eutrophication when floods are weak and algae growth is not controlled. Introducing Tilapia nilotica provided biological control of algae growth. The dam positively affected agriculture and groundwater within the designed irrigation scheme but negatively affected them beyond it. The dam also negatively affected health conditions and increased conflicts over water distribution. It positively affected women by allowing them to work in agriculture and participate in decision-making. The dam raised income levels of farmers and encouraged tourism.

  3. The Dalles Dam, Columbia River: Spillway Improvement CFD Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2006-06-01

    This report documents development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that were applied to The Dalles spillway for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District. The models have been successfully validated against physical models and prototype data, and are suitable to support biological research and operations management. The CFD models have been proven to provide reliable information in the turbulent high-velocity flow field downstream of the spillway face that is typically difficult to monitor in the prototype. In addition, CFD data provides hydraulic information throughout the solution domain that can be easily extracted from archived simulations for later use if necessary. This project is part of an ongoing program at the Portland District to improve spillway survival conditions for juvenile salmon at The Dalles. Biological data collected at The Dalles spillway have shown that for the original spillway configuration juvenile salmon passage survival is lower than desired. Therefore, the Portland District is seeking to identify operational and/or structural changes that might be implemented to improve fish passage survival. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) went through a sequence of steps to develop a CFD model of The Dalles spillway and tailrace. The first step was to identify a preferred CFD modeling package. In the case of The Dalles spillway, Flow-3D was as selected because of its ability to simulate the turbulent free-surface flows that occur downstream of each spilling bay. The second step in development of The Dalles CFD model was to assemble bathymetric datasets and structural drawings sufficient to describe the dam (powerhouse, non-overflow dam, spillway, fish ladder entrances, etc.) and tailrace. These datasets are documented in this report as are various 3-D graphical representations of The Dalles spillway and tailrace. The performance of the CFD model was then validated for several cases as the third step. The validated model

  4. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  5. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Spray Dam, Eden, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1981-01-30

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Spray Dam near Eden, North Carolina for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 10 ft., was built in 1898 for hydroelectric power generation with one of 2 installed units currently operating. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site is possible and that the economics of retrofits will depend on whether existing equipment can be repaired or will have to be replaced. (LCL)

  6. Brief and long periods of maternal separation affect maternal behavior and offspring behavioral development in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bailoo, Jeremy D; Jordan, Richard L; Garza, Xavier J; Tyler, Amber N

    2014-05-01

    For rats, maternal mediation of brief and longer term dam-pup separations were thought to account for pup differences in adult "emotionality." In this study, early handling (EH), maternal separation (MS), and maternal peer separation (MPS) groups were compared to an animal facility reared (AFR) group for maternal behavior and offspring adult open-field behavior in C57BL/6 mice. Although MS and MPS dams displayed higher levels of maternal behavior upon reunion, these group differences did not predict offspring open-field behavior. However, when offspring behavior was analyzed as a function of specific aspects of maternal behavior, irrespective of treatment group, pups that received high levels of quiescent nursing and activity, but not licking, were less "emotional." Individual differences in maternal licking of pups predicted variability of "emotional" behavior for AFR and EH pups. Thus, for this strain of mouse, individual and not treatment differences in maternal care predict offspring "emotional" development.

  7. Persistent influence of maternal obesity on offspring health: Mechanisms from animal models and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Wankhade, Umesh D; Thakali, Keshari M; Shankar, Kartik

    2016-11-05

    The consequences of excessive maternal weight and adiposity at conception for the offspring are now well recognized. Maternal obesity increases the risk of overweight and obesity even in children born with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) birth weights. Studies in animal models have employed both caloric excess and manipulation of macronutrients (especially high-fat) to mimic hypercaloric intake present in obesity. Findings from these studies show transmission of susceptibility to obesity, metabolic dysfunction, alterations in glucose homeostasis, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle metabolism and neuroendocrine changes in the offspring. This review summarizes the essential literature in this area in both experimental and clinical domains and focuses on the translatable aspects of these experimental studies. Moreover this review highlights emerging mechanisms broadly explaining maternal obesity-associated developmental programming. The roles of early developmental alterations and placental adaptations are also reviewed. Increasing evidence also points to changes in the epigenome and other emerging mechanisms such as alterations in the microbiome that may contribute to persistent changes in the offspring. Finally, we examine potential interventions that have been employed in clinical cohorts.

  8. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring.

  9. Childhood IQ of parents related to characteristics of their offspring: linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 to the Midspan Family Study.

    PubMed

    Hart, C L; Deary, I J; Smith, G Davey; Upton, M N; Whalley, L J; Starr, J M; Hole, D J; Wilson, V; Watt, G C M

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between childhood IQ of parents and characteristics of their adult offspring. It was a prospective family cohort study linked to a mental ability survey of the parents and set in Renfrew and Paisley in Scotland. Participants were 1921-born men and women who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey in 1932 and the Renfrew/Paisley study in the 1970s, and whose offspring took part in the Midspan Family study in 1996. There were 286 offspring from 179 families. Parental IQ was related to some, but not all characteristics of offspring. Greater parental IQ was associated with taller offspring. Parental IQ was inversely related to number of cigarettes smoked by offspring. Higher parental IQ was associated with better education, offspring social class and offspring deprivation category. There were no significant relationships between parental IQ and offspring systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, lung function, weight, body mass index, waist hip ratio, housing, alcohol consumption, marital status, car use and exercise. Structural equation modelling showed parental IQ associated with offspring education directly and mediated via parental social class. Offspring education was associated with offspring smoking and social class. The smoking finding may have implications for targeting of health education.

  10. A pilot study examining germline minisatellite mutations in the offspring of Danish childhood and adolescent cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    REES, GWEN S.; TRIKIC, MICHAEL Z.; WINTHER, JEANETTE F.; TAWN, E. JANET; STOVALL, MARILYN; OLSEN, JØRGEN H.; RECHNITZER, CATHERINE; SCHRØDER, HENRIK; GULDBERG, PER; BOICE, JOHN D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate germline mutation rate at eight minisatellite loci in 24 Danish families, where one parent is the survivor of childhood or adolescent cancer treated with radiotherapy. Materials and methods Parents and offspring were profiled for eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern blotting. Results Seven paternal mutations were observed for 130 informative alleles in 18 offspring from 11 radiation-exposed fathers (mean preconceptional dose for offspring 0.29 Gy, range <0.01 - 1.2 Gy), compared to six mutations for 146 informative alleles in 21 offspring from 13 unexposed fathers. No statistically significant difference between the total paternal mutation rates was observed (5.4% for exposed fathers and 4.1% for unexposed fathers). Three maternal mutations were observed for 148 informative alleles in 21 offspring from 13 radiation-exposed mothers (mean preconceptional dose for offspring 0.71 Gy, range <0.01 - 9.2 Gy), compared to one mutation for 130 informative alleles in 18 offspring from 11 unexposed mothers. Again, no statistically significant difference was observed between the total maternal mutation rates (2.0% for exposed mothers and 0.8% for unexposed mothers). Conclusions The data from this pilot study demonstrate no statistically significant increase in germline minisatellite mutation rate associated with radiotherapy for childhood and adolescent cancer. PMID:16638712

  11. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  12. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring: The GUSTO Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Lek, Ngee; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-11-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother-offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00-0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01-0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (-0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (-0.04 to 0.10; P = 0.35), and 0.05 (-0

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities among Offspring of Childhood-Cancer Survivors in Denmark: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Jeanette Falck; Boice Jr., John D.; Mulvihill, John J.; Stovall, Marilyn; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tawn, E. Janet; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and many cancer drugs have the potential to produce germ-cell mutations that might lead to genetic disease in the next generation. In a population-based study, we identified, from records in the Danish Cancer Registry, 4,676 children treated for cancer. Their 6,441 siblings provided a comparison cohort. The results of a search of the Central Population Register identified 2,630 live-born offspring of the survivors and 5,504 live-born offspring of their siblings. The occurrence of abnormal karyotypes diagnosed in these offspring and also in any pregnancies terminated following prenatal diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality was determined from the Danish Cytogenetic Registry. After exclusion of hereditary cases and inclusion of the prenatal cases, after correction for expected viability, the adjusted proportion of live-born children in survivor families with abnormal karyotypes (5.5/2,631.5 [0.21%]) was the same as that among the comparison sibling families (11.8/5,505.8 [0.21%]). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of Down syndrome (relative risk [RR]=1.07; 95% CI 0.16–5.47) or Turner syndrome (RR=1.32; 95% CI 0.17–7.96) among the children of cancer survivors, compared with the children of their siblings. These reassuring results are of importance to the survivors, to their families, and to genetic counselors. PMID:15106125

  14. DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the

  15. Investigation on trophic state index by artificial neural networks (case study: Dez Dam of Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghi, H.; Karimi, L.; Javid, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Dam construction and surface runoff control is one of the most common approaches for water-needs supply of human societies. However, the increasing development of social activities and hence the subsequent increase in environmental pollutants leads to deterioration of water quality in dam reservoirs and eutrophication process could be intensified. So, the water quality of reservoirs is now one of the key factors in operation and water quality management of reservoirs. Hence, maintaining the quality of the stored water and identification and examination of changes along time has been a constant concern of humans that involves the water authorities. Traditionally, empirical trophic state indices of dam reservoirs often defined based on changes in concentration of effective factors (nutrients) and its consequences (increase in chlorophyll a), have been used as an efficient tool in the definition of dam reservoirs quality. In recent years, modeling techniques such as artificial neural networks have enhanced the prediction capability and the accuracy of these studies. In this study, artificial neural networks have been applied to analyze eutrophication process in the Dez Dam reservoir in Iran. In this paper, feed forward neural network with one input layer, one hidden layer and one output layer was applied using MATLAB neural network toolbox for trophic state index (TSI) analysis in the Dez Dam reservoir. The input data of this network are effective parameters in the eutrophication: nitrogen cycle parameters and phosphorous cycle parameters and parameters that will be changed by eutrophication: Chl a, SD, DO and the output data is TSI. Based on the results from estimation of modified Carlson trophic state index, Dez Dam reservoir is considered to be eutrophic in the early July to mid-November and would be mesotrophic with decrease in temperature. Therefore, a decrease in water quality of the dam reservoir during the warm seasons is expectable. The results indicated that

  16. Modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure: a review of epidemiological studies of maternal age, diet, and smoking.

    PubMed

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2008-06-01

    Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero exposures on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal exposures were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: smoking during pregnancy, diet, and age at childbirth. Meta-analysis suggested there was a modest association between higher offspring BP and prenatal exposure to smoke (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.62 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.05, I = 16.4%). However, the level of confounder adjustment varied between studies, which in some studies attenuated the association to the null. There was no strong evidence that any component of maternal diet during pregnancy (maternal protein, energy, calcium, and various other nutrients) influences offspring BP. The results of studies of maternal age varied and there was strong evidence of heterogeneity in the pooled analysis. The association with maternal age, if present, was modest (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.09 mm Hg/y, 95% confidence interval: -0.03 to 0.21, I = 89.8%). In sum, there is little empirical evidence that the maternal exposures reviewed program offspring BP. Other components of offspring health may be more susceptible to effects of programming in utero.

  17. Etching characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samman, H.; Ashry, A. H.; Arafa, W.; Abou-leila, M.; Abdalla, A. M.; Tsuruta, T.

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector. Several important parameters that control the track formation such as, the bulk etch rate (VB), track etching rate (VT), dependence of VB and VT on etching concentration and temperature have been extensively studied. The activation energy (Eb) of the bulk etching rate for the DAM-ADC sheets has been calculated, the dependence of etching efficiency and sensitivity upon etchant concentrations and temperature has been investigated, registration efficiency of DAM-ADC detector etched at the optimum etching condition has been examined. The detailed studied results presented in this study provide various useful information about the mechanism of track formation in polymers.

  18. Diet-Induced Maternal Obesity Alters Insulin Signalling in Male Mice Offspring Rechallenged with a High-Fat Diet in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    de Fante, Thaís; Simino, Laís Angélica; Reginato, Andressa; Payolla, Tanyara Baliani; Vitoréli, Débora Cristina Gustavo; de Souza, Monique; Torsoni, Márcio Alberto; Milanski, Marciane; Torsoni, Adriana Souza

    2016-01-01

    Modern lifestyle has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in pregnant women and the young population. It has been well established that the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) has many direct effects on glucose metabolism. However, it is important to assess whether maternal consumption of a HFD during critical periods of development can lead to metabolic changes in the offspring metabolism. This study evaluated the potential effects of metabolic programming on the impairment of insulin signalling in recently weaned offspring from obese dams. Additionally, we investigated if early exposure to an obesogenic environment could exacerbate the impairment of glucose metabolism in adult life in response to a HFD. Swiss female mice were fed with Standard Chow (SC) or a HFD during gestation and lactation and tissues from male offspring were analysed at d28 and d82. Offspring from obese dams had greater weight gain and higher adiposity and food intake than offspring from control dams. Furthermore, they showed impairment in insulin signalling in central and peripheral tissues, which was associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Adipose tissue was ultimately the most affected in adult offspring after HFD rechallenge; this may have contributed to the metabolic deregulation observed. Overall, our results suggest that diet-induced maternal obesity leads to increased susceptibility to obesity and impairment of insulin signalling in offspring in early and late life that cannot be reversed by SC consumption, but can be aggravated by HFD re-exposure. PMID:27479001

  19. Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts. PMID:22943578

  20. Experimental study on mechanism and shape characteristics of suspended flexible dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-zhong; Fan, Hong-xia; Zhu, Li-jun

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic structures such as groin, longitudinal dike and seawall are common in water conservancy and water transportation engineering projects at home and abroad, which have long been dominated by solid mass structural form. With brush and stone as building materials, this kind of structure has an obvious engineering effect. However, it not only requires huge capital investments, but also has negative impacts on the ecological environment. The suspended flexible dam is an innovative engineering measure, and few theoretical and experimental researches of this type dam can be found at present. This paper studies the mechanism and shape characteristics of this dam and obtains the dynamic equilibrium equation of flexible dam, the float buoyancy expression, and the condition for transformation among three forms of the underwater shape of the dam. The results are valuable in engineering application and can be used as the reference for the future work due to the distinctive design philosophy, the small negative effects on environment and the consistency for sustainable development.

  1. The impact of damming on riverine fluxes to the ocean: A case study from Eastern Iceland.

    PubMed

    Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Oelkers, Eric H; Hardardottir, Jorunn; Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir

    2017-04-15

    Anthropogenic water management has extensively altered the world's river systems through impoundments and channel diversions to meet the human's need for water, energy and transportation. To illuminate the effect of such activities on the environment, this study describes the impact of the installation of the Kárahnjúkar Dam in Eastern Iceland on the transport of riverine dissolved- and particulate material to the ocean by the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers. This dam, completed in 2007, collects water into the 2.2 km(3) Hálslón reservoir and diverts water from the glacial Jökulsá á Dal river into the partially glaciated Lagarfljót lagoon via a headrace tunnel. The impact of the damming was evaluated by sampling water from both the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers over a 15 year period spanning from 1998 to 2013. The annual flux of most dissolved elements increased substantially due to the damming. The fluxes of dissolved Zn, Al, Co, Ti and Fe increased most by damming; these fluxes increased by 46-391%. These differences can be attributed to changed saturation states of common secondary minerals in the Jökulsá á Dal due to reduced discharge, increased residence time and dissolution of suspended material, and, to a lesser degree, reduced photosynthesis due to less transparency in the Lagarfljót lagoon. The removal of particulate material and thus decreasing adsorption potential in the Jökulsá á Dal is the likely reason for the Fe flux increase. In contrast, approximately 85% of the original riverine transported mass of particulate material is trapped by the dam; that which passes tends to be relatively fine grained, increasing the average specific surface area of that which continues to flow towards the ocean. Consequently, the particulate geometric surface area flux is decreased by only 50% due to the damming. The blooming of silica diatoms during the spring consumes dissolved silica from the coastal waters until it becomes

  2. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-06

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  3. Maternal allergy acts synergistically with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy to induce hepatic fibrosis in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Allina, Jorge; Grabowski, Jacquelin; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Fiel, M Isabel; Jackson, Christine E; Zelikoff, Judith T; Odin, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Maternal environmental exposures during pregnancy are known to affect disease onset in adult offspring. For example, maternal asthma exacerbations during pregnancy can worsen adult asthma in the offspring. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with future onset of cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. However, little is known about the effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring susceptibility to liver disease. This pilot study examined the long-term effect of maternal allergen challenge and/or cigarette smoking during pregnancy on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in adult mouse offspring. Ovalbumin (OVA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-sensitized/challenged CD-1 dams were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) or filtered air from gestational day 4 until parturition. Eight weeks postnatally, offspring were sacrificed for comparison of hepatic histology and mRNA expression. Adult male offspring of OVA-sensitized/challenged dams exposed to MCS (OSM) displayed significantly increased liver fibrosis (9.2% collagen content vs. <4% for all other treatment groups). These mice also had 1.8-fold greater collagen 1A1 mRNA levels. From the results here, we concluded that maternal allergen challenge in combination with cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy may be an important risk factor for liver disease in adult male offspring.

  4. Synthesis of juvenile salmonid passage studies at The Dalles Dam volume II: 2001 - 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.E.; Beeman, J.W.; Duran , I.N.; Puls, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. From 2001, when Ploskey et al. (2001a) completed their review of 1982-2000 research, through 2005, the USACE has funded over $20M of research in at least 40 studies. The purpose of this current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2005.

  5. Biomarker Profiles in Women with PCOS and PCOS Offspring; A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Daan, Nadine M. P.; Koster, Maria P. H.; de Wilde, Marlieke A.; Dalmeijer, Gerdien W.; Evelein, Annemieke M. V.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; de Jager, Wilco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study metabolic/inflammatory biomarker risk profiles in women with PCOS and PCOS offspring. Design Cross-sectional comparison of serum biomarkers. Setting University Medical Center Utrecht. Patients Hyperandrogenic PCOS women (HA-PCOS, n = 34), normoandrogenic PCOS women (NA-PCOS, n = 34), non-PCOS reference population (n = 32), PCOS offspring (n = 14, age 6–8 years), and a paedriatic reference population (n = 30). Main Outcome Measure(s) Clustering profile of adipocytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TNF-α, adiponectin, adipsin, leptin, chemerin, resistin, RBP4, DPP-IV/sCD26, CCL2/MCP-1), growth factors (PIGF, VEGF, sVEGF-R1), soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM-1/sCD54, sVCAM-1/sCD106), and other inflammatory related proteases (MMP-9, S100A8, Cathepsin S). Differences in median biomarker concentrations between groups, and associations with the free androgen index (FAI; Testosterone/SHBG x100). Results The cluster analysis identified leptin, RBP-4, DPP-IV and adiponectin as potential discriminative markers for HA-PCOS with a specifically strong correlation in cases with increased BMI. Leptin (R2 = 0.219) and adiponectin (R2 = 0.182) showed the strongest correlation with the FAI. When comparing median protein concentrations adult PCOS women with or without hyperandrogenemia, the most profound differences were observed for leptin (P < 0.001), DPP-IV (P = 0.005), and adiponectin (P < 0.001). Adjusting for age, BMI and multiple testing attenuated all differences. In PCOS offspring, MMP-9 (P = 0.001) and S100A8 (P < 0.001) concentrations were significantly higher compared to a healthy matched reference population, even after correcting for age and BMI and adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion In this preliminary investigation we observed significant differences in adipocytokines between women with or without hyperandrogenic PCOS and non-PCOS controls, mostly influenced by BMI. Leptin and adiponectin showed the strongest correlation with

  6. Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids affects body weight, serum leptin levels, and hypothalamic neuropeptide-Y expression in pre-pubertal female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Mikio; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    Glucocorticoid secretion is a key endocrine response to stress. It has been reported that prenatal stress induces long-lasting alterations in body weight regulation systems, which persist after the stress has ceased. In this study, the long-term effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on body weight changes and the expression of appetite-regulating factors were examined in female rats. Pregnant rats were given normal drinking water (control) or dexamethasone (1 μg/mL) dissolved in drinking water (DEX) from day 13 of pregnancy until delivery. Then, the body weight change, serum leptin levels, and hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels of their offspring were examined. The DEX dams gained significantly less body weight during pregnancy than the control dams. The DEX dams' offspring exhibited a significantly lower birth weight than the offspring of the control dams, and the same was true for body weight at postnatal days 20 and 28. The offspring of the DEX dams displayed significantly higher serum leptin levels and significantly lower hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels compared with the offspring of the control dams. Significant inverse correlations were detected between body weight and the serum leptin level, and between the serum leptin level and the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level. On the other hand, a significant positive correlation was detected between body weight and the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level. These results indicate that leptin production is increased in a long-lasting manner in offspring exposed to glucocorticoids during the prenatal period and that this results in attenuated body weight gain and hypothalamic NPY expression during the pre-pubertal period.

  7. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  8. Maternal consumption of high-prebiotic fibre or -protein diets during pregnancy and lactation differentially influences satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Alannah D; Reimer, Raylene A

    2011-02-01

    Risk of developing the metabolic syndrome may be influenced by nutritional environment early in life. We examined the effects of high-fibre (HF) and high-protein (HP) diets consumed during pregnancy and lactation on satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring. Wistar dams were fed a control (C), HF or HP diets during pregnancy and lactation. At parturition, litters were culled to ten pups. At 21 d, all pups were weaned onto C diet. At 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d after birth, blood was analysed for satiety hormones and tissues for mRNA expression in offspring. No differences were observed in litter size or birth weight. At 21 d, offspring of HF dams had greater adjusted intestinal mass and lower liver weight than those of C but not of HP dams. Plasma glucose at 28 d and amylin at 7, 14 and 28 d were lower in HF v. C and HP offspring. Glucagon-like peptide-1 was higher in HP offspring than in HF offspring at 7 d but was higher in HF v. C offspring at 21 d. Offspring of HF dams had higher glucose transporter (GLUT2 and Na+-dependent glucose/galactose transporter) mRNA expression at 21 d v. C and HP offspring. In brown adipose tissue, HF and HP up-regulated uncoupling protein-1 and PPAR-γ coactivator. HP was associated with increased resistin and IL-6 mRNA expression. The present study demonstrates that maternal diet composition differentially regulates circulating satiety hormones and genes involved in glucose transport and energy metabolism in offspring. These early changes could have long-term consequences for obesity risk.

  9. Effects of ethylene dibromide on hydra oligactis: parent and offspring toxicity study

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.A.; Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) has become increasingly prevalent in the environment due to its uses as soil, fruit, and grain fumigants, lead scavengers in petrol, and industrial solvent. Because of its increasing environmental prevalence and its proposed toxic effects of EDB on Hydras, parents (P1) which have been pre-exposed to an established sublethal concentration for 14 days. The effect of nonexposed offspring (F1/P2) taken from pre-exposed parents (P1) versus their untreated offspring (F2) will also be evaluated. This mortality study revealed that the LC50 of both parents and F1's shifted from 50 mg/L, to 106.25 mg/L and 118.75 mg/L respectively, which suggest that exposed Hydras possibly become more tolerant to EDB. In the F2 generation, after 48 and 72 hrs 10% mortality was observed in the 200 mg/L group, 30% at 250 mg/L and 20% at 300 mg/L which indicated that the resistance to EDB toxicity is inheritable. There is also a strong dose-response correlation between EDB concentration and mortality.

  10. A study of suspended solids in the Requena Dam by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuara, P. R.; Hidalgo, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was applied to a preliminary study of suspended solids in the Requena Dam. Aerial and terrestrial photographs were analyzed by photointerpretation and microdensitometry. Field measurements and sampling were also made. A relationship between ground data for the concentration of suspended solids and the transmissibility of the aerial infrared film was suggested.

  11. Modifications of anxiety-like behavior in prenatally stressed male offspring with imbalance of androgens

    PubMed Central

    Fedotova, Julia; Akulova, Viktoria; Pivina, Svetlana; Dragasek, Jozef; Caprnda, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gonadal hormones have been well-known to affect brain regions known to be involved in the modulation of mood and affective-related behavior. Prenatal stress might alter hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, it could be a target for development of affective-related disorders in male offspring. The present study was designed to examine an anxiety-like behavior in the adult male offspring with low levels of endogenous androgens delivered from pregnant dams exposed to prenatal stress from gestation day 15 to gestation day 19. The non-stressed and prenatally stressed intact, gonadectomized (GDX) and GDX male offspring treated with oil solvent or testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5 mg/kg, s.c., 14 days, once daily) were used in all experiments. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field test (OFT), respectively. Also, testosterone levels in the blood serum were measured in all experimental groups of offspring. Prenatally stressed GDX offspring demonstrated a significant decrease for time spent into the open arms and increase for time spent into the closed arms as compared to the non-stressed offspring. Administration of TP to the prenatally stressed GDX offspring resulted in a more markedly decrease of the time spent into the open arms and significantly raised the time spent into the closed arms as compared to the non-stressed GDX offspring treated with TP, non-stressed/prenatally stressed GDX offspring. Prenatally stressed GDX offspring showed a significant increase of crossing, rearing, grooming and defecation as compared to the prenatally stressed control offspring. On the contrary, administration of TP to the prenatally stressed GDX offspring significantly decreased crossing behavior, frequency of rearing and grooming behavior as compared to the non-stressed GDX offspring treated with TP, non-stressed/prenatally stressed GDX offspring. Prenatally stressed GDX offspring demonstrated a significant decrease of testosterone levels

  12. Parental bereavement after the death of an offspring in a motor vehicle collision: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Walld, Randy; Chateau, Dan; Martens, Patricia J; Leslie, William D; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-15

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the leading cause of death in young people in North America. The effects of such deaths on parents have not been systematically studied. Administrative data sets were used to identify all parents (n = 1,458) who had an offspring die in a MVC between 1996 and 2008 in the province of Manitoba, Canada. They were matched to general population control parents who had not had offspring die from any sudden cause during the study period. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment utilization in the 2 parent groups in the 2 years before and after offspring death, with adjustment for confounding factors. The risk of depression among bereaved parents almost tripled (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.44, 3.33; P < 0.001) during the 2 years after death of an offspring. Significant increases in the risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 1.67; P < 0.001) were also observed. When compared with nonbereaved parents, bereaved parents had significant increases in the risks of depression (P < 0.001), anxiety disorders (P < 0.001), marital break-up (P = 0.015), and physician visits for mental illness (P < 0.001) in the post-death period. In conclusion, parents who lose an offspring in a MVC experience considerable mental illness and marital disruption.

  13. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure results in dysfunction of the renal dopamine D1 receptor in offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinquan; Luo, Hao; Chen, Caiyu; Chen, Ken; Wang, Jialiang; Cai, Yue; Zheng, Shuo; Yang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Lin; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu

    2014-11-01

    Adverse environment in early life can modulate the adult phenotype, including blood pressure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in utero results in increased blood pressure in the offspring, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. Studies have shown that the renal dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) plays an important role in maintaining sodium homeostasis and normal blood pressure; dysfunction of D1R is associated with oxidative stress and hypertension. In this study, we determined if dysfunction of the renal D1R is involved in fetal-programmed hypertension, and if oxidative stress contributes to this process. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) or saline at gestation days 8, 10, and 12. As compared with saline-injected (control) dams, offspring of LPS-treated dams had increased blood pressure, decreased renal sodium excretion, and increased markers of oxidative stress. In addition, offspring of LPS-treated dams had decreased renal D1R expression, increased D1R phosphorylation, and G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 2 (GRK2) and type 4 (GRK4) protein expression, and impaired D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis. All of the findings in the offspring of LPS-treated dams were normalized after treatment with TEMPOL, an oxygen free radical scavenger. In conclusion, prenatal LPS exposure, via an increase in oxidative stress, impairs renal D1R function and leads to hypertension in the offspring. Normalization of renal D1R function by amelioration of oxidative stress may be a therapeutic target of fetal programming of hypertension.

  14. Maternal protein intake in the pregnant rat programs the insulin axis and body composition in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Rees, William D; Hay, Susan M; Cruickshank, Morven; Reusens, Brigitte; Remacle, Claude; Antipatis, Christos; Grant, George

    2006-05-01

    Evidence to support an association between early nutrition and the development of obesity in the rat is equivocal. In this study we have investigated the postnatal growth, glucose tolerance, and adipocyte function of the offspring from pregnant rats fed with diets containing either 20% or 8% protein during gestation. By 25 weeks of age, the female offspring of dams fed with the diet containing 8% protein had a significantly lower adult body weight due in part to a decrease in body fat. The peak concentration of insulin after oral administration of a glucose dose was significantly lower in both the male and female offspring of the dams fed with the diet containing 8% protein. However, the ability of insulin to stimulate lipogenesis or suppress lipolysis in fat cells isolated from the offspring was not influenced by the prenatal diet. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was reduced in female offspring of dams fed with the diet containing 8% protein. These results show that adult body composition is determined during the prenatal period as a result of programming of the insulin axis. This metabolic programming influences hepatic metabolism; however, there is no evidence for a programmed change in adipocyte function.

  15. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (P<.05) at weaning (50.3, 29.6 vs 59.1±0.8 g) and at 18 weeks of age (420, 369 vs 464±10.9 g). At 18 weeks of age, offspring from fructose dams expressed greater quantities (P<.05) of intestinal Pgc1a messenger RNA compared with offspring from control or low-protein dams (1.31 vs 0.89, 0.85; confidence interval, 0.78-1.04). Similarly, maternal fructose (P=.09) and low-protein (P<.05) consumption increased expression of Pgc1a in offspring liver (7.24, 2.22 vs 1.22; confidence interval, 2.11-3.45). These data indicate that maternal fructose feeding is a programming model that shares some features of maternal protein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts.

  16. Impact of earthquake-induced dammed lakes on channel evolution and bed mobility: Case study of the Tsaoling landslide dammed lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yin-Sung; Hsu, Yu-Hsiung

    2009-07-01

    SummaryOn May 12, 2008, a mega earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale hit Wenchuan, Sichuan province of China, causing severe casualties and damages. The tremor was felt by nearly all of Asia. The quake-induced landslides and sliding slopes also formed 34 dammed lakes of various sizes, each of which may bring serious potential disasters. Understandably, the earthquake-triggered dammed lakes and their ensuing disasters cause grave concerns worldwide. Similar devastation took place in Taiwan on September 21, 1999, when an earthquake of 7.3 on the Richter scale occurred with the epic center at Jiji in central Taiwan. The earthquake affected changes in the channel course and induced landslides to form several dammed lakes, among which a large dammed lake was created in the upstream Chingshui River with reservoir capacity of 42,000,000 m 3. Its size and potential problems therefore caused serious apprehension. A series of subsequent typhoon-induced torrential flooding events affected the channel forming processes to diverge drastically between the dammed lake and the landslide area, which presented a rare phenomenon for data observation and research. In the last century five dammed lakes had been formed in the area due to landslides, suggesting high possibility of future recurrence, particularly from earthquake activities. An investigation of the channel evolution in this area prior and post a quake, therefore, can assist in current disaster handling protocols and provide policy guidelines for future crisis management when landslides occur. Topographic changes in the study watershed, historical channel surveys, and past studies were gathered to aid the geomorphologic analysis. Channel evolution in the Tsaoling dammed lake and the landslide area was also investigated using a NETSTARS channel scour-deposition model by simulating the trends of erosion and deposition patterns under the influence of different recurrence interval flood peaks and streamflow time series

  17. Evaluation of the pseudostatic analyses of earth dams using Fe simulation and observed earthquake-induced deformations: case studies of Upper San Fernando and Kitayama dams.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Tohid; Nikkar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the accuracy of the pseudostatic approach is governed by the accuracy with which the simple pseudostatic inertial forces represent the complex dynamic inertial forces that actually exist in an earthquake. In this study, the Upper San Fernando and Kitayama earth dams, which have been designed using the pseudostatic approach and damaged during the 1971 San Fernando and 1995 Kobe earthquakes, were investigated and analyzed. The finite element models of the dams were prepared based on the detailed available data and results of in situ and laboratory material tests. Dynamic analyses were conducted to simulate the earthquake-induced deformations of the dams using the computer program Plaxis code. Then the pseudostatic seismic coefficient used in the design and analyses of the dams were compared with the seismic coefficients obtained from dynamic analyses of the simulated model as well as the other available proposed pseudostatic correlations. Based on the comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the pseudostatic seismic coefficients are evaluated and discussed.

  18. Evaluation of the Pseudostatic Analyses of Earth Dams Using FE Simulation and Observed Earthquake-Induced Deformations: Case Studies of Upper San Fernando and Kitayama Dams

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Tohid

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the accuracy of the pseudostatic approach is governed by the accuracy with which the simple pseudostatic inertial forces represent the complex dynamic inertial forces that actually exist in an earthquake. In this study, the Upper San Fernando and Kitayama earth dams, which have been designed using the pseudostatic approach and damaged during the 1971 San Fernando and 1995 Kobe earthquakes, were investigated and analyzed. The finite element models of the dams were prepared based on the detailed available data and results of in situ and laboratory material tests. Dynamic analyses were conducted to simulate the earthquake-induced deformations of the dams using the computer program Plaxis code. Then the pseudostatic seismic coefficient used in the design and analyses of the dams were compared with the seismic coefficients obtained from dynamic analyses of the simulated model as well as the other available proposed pseudostatic correlations. Based on the comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the pseudostatic seismic coefficients are evaluated and discussed. PMID:24616636

  19. Salivary cortisol and interpersonal functioning: an event-contingent recording study in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie; Santo, Jonathan B; aan het Rot, Marije; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Young, Simon N

    2013-07-01

    Despite a large body of research in non-human primates, the relationship between naturalistic patterns of social behaviour and basal cortisol levels has been understudied in humans. The present study examined the relationship between patterns of interpersonal functioning and cortisol levels in 23 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), at high risk for the development of an affective disorder, and 22 offspring of parents with no affective disorder (controls) in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using event-contingent recording, participants rated their dominance, submissiveness, quarrelsomeness, and agreeableness in naturally occurring social interactions over 14 consecutive days and provided salivary cortisol twice daily in the afternoon over the same period. In the full sample, multilevel modelling analyses revealed that dominance was a significant positive predictor of afternoon basal cortisol levels, t(35)=2.58, p<0.05. Moreover, risk group (having a parent with BD or parents with no affective disorder) significantly interacted with mean levels of quarrelsomeness to predict afternoon cortisol levels, t(29)=2.06, p<0.05. Offspring of parents with BD who reported more frequent quarrelsome behaviours exhibited lower levels of afternoon cortisol relative to high-risk offspring reporting few quarrelsome behaviours and control offspring. The results are consistent with evidence that dominance is associated with high cortisol levels in an unstable environment, and suggest that quarrelsomeness among high risk youth contributes to altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity.

  20. Sex-Differences in the Metabolic Health of Offspring of Parents with Diabetes: A Record-Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Aldhous, Marian C; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Campbell, Archie; Linksted, Pamela; Lindsay, Robert S; Smith, Blair H; Seckl, Jonathan R; Porteous, David J; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diabetes in pregnancy affects offspring health. The impact of parental diabetes on offspring health is unclear. We investigated the impact of parental diabetes on the metabolic-health of adult-offspring who did not themselves have diabetes. Data from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study, a population-based family cohort, were record-linked to subjects' own diabetes medical records. From F0-parents, we identified F1-offspring of: mothers with diabetes (OMD, n = 409), fathers with diabetes (OFD, n = 468), no parent with diabetes (ONoPD, n = 2489). Metabolic syndrome, body, biochemical measurements and blood-pressures were compared between F1-offspring groups by sex. A higher proportion of female OMD had metabolic syndrome than female OFD or ONoPD (P<0.0001). In female offspring, predictors of metabolic syndrome were: having a mother with diabetes (OR = 1.78, CI 1.03-3.07, [reference ONoPD]), body mass index (BMI, OR = 1.21, CI 1.13-1.30) and age (OR = 1.03, CI 1.01-1.06). In male offspring, predictors of metabolic syndrome were: BMI (OR = 1.18, CI 1.09-1.29) and percent body-fat (OR = 1.12, CI 1.05-1.19). In both sexes, OMD had higher blood-pressures than OFD (P<0.0001). In females, OMD had higher glucose (P<0.0001) and percent body-fat (P<0.0001) compared with OFD or ONoPD. OMD and OFD both had increased waist-measurements (P<0.0001), BMI (P<0.0001) and percent body-fat (P<0.0001) compared with ONoPD. Female OMD and OFD had lower HDL-cholesterol levels (P<0.0001) than female ONoPD. Parental diabetes is associated with higher offspring-BMI and body-fat. In female offspring, maternal diabetes increased the odds of metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for BMI. Further investigations are required to determine the mechanisms involved.

  1. Maternal trans fat intake during pregnancy or lactation impairs memory and alters BDNF and TrkB levels in the hippocampus of adult offspring exposed to chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Veit, Juliana Cristiana; Maurer, Luana Haselein; Duarte, Thiago; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Duarte, Marta; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy or lactation on memory of adult offspring after chronic mild stress (CMS) exposure. Female Wistar rats were supplemented daily with soybean oil/fish oil (SO/FO) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) by oral gavage (3.0g/kg body weight) during pregnancy or lactation. On post-natal day (PND) 60, half of the animals were exposed to CMS following behavioral assessments. While the adult offspring born under influence of SO/FO and HVF supplementations during pregnancy showed higher levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) series DHA and ARA metabolites, respectively, in the hippocampus, adult offspring born from supplemented dams during lactation showed higher levels of their precursors: ALA and LA. However, only HVF supplementation allowed TFA incorporation of adult offspring, and levels were higher in lactation period. Adult offspring born from dams supplemented with trans fat in both pregnancy and lactation showed short and long-term memory impairments before and after CMS. Furthermore, our study also showed higher memory impairment in offspring born from HVF-supplemented dams during lactation in comparison to pregnancy. BDNF expression was increased by stress exposure in offspring from both SO/FO- and HVF-supplemented dams during pregnancy. In addition, offspring from HVF-supplemented dams showed decreased TrkB expression in both supplemented periods, regardless of stress exposure. In conclusion, these findings show for the first time that the type of dietary FA as well as the period of brain development is able to change FA incorporation in brain neural membranes.

  2. Modelling the Effects of Land-Use Changes on Climate: a Case Study on Yamula DAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köylü, Ü.; Geymen, A.

    2016-10-01

    Dams block flow of rivers and cause artificial water reservoirs which affect the climate and the land use characteristics of the river basin. In this research, the effect of the huge water body obtained by Yamula Dam in Kızılırmak Basin is analysed over surrounding spatial's land use and climate change. Mann Kendal non-parametrical statistical test, Theil&Sen Slope method, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) methods are integrated for spatial and temporal analysis of the research area. For this research humidity, temperature, wind speed, precipitation observations which are collected in 16 weather stations nearby Kızılırmak Basin are analyzed. After that these statistical information is combined by GIS data over years. An application is developed for GIS analysis in Python Programming Language and integrated with ArcGIS software. Statistical analysis calculated in the R Project for Statistical Computing and integrated with developed application. According to the statistical analysis of extracted time series of meteorological parameters, statistical significant spatiotemporal trends are observed for climate change and land use characteristics. In this study, we indicated the effect of big dams in local climate on semi-arid Yamula Dam.

  3. Modelling the impact of dam removal on geomorphic channel response and sediment delivery: an Austrian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Coulthard, Tom; Keesstra, Saskia; Keiler, Margreth

    2015-04-01

    Dams are often considered to have the most significant impact on rivers as dam construction generally reduces downstream sediment fluxes which further involves geomorphic changes in the affected river reaches. Since many dams no longer fulfill their intended purpose (e.g. due to siltation), are dangerous (e.g. catastrophic dam failures) and/or are ecologically damaging (e.g. habitat destruction), within the last two decades several dams have been removed and many more are already proposed for removal. Unfortunately, there is still only little empirical knowledge about the geomorphic consequences of dam removals and the related sediment release which represents a big challenge for river management. Modelling is one way to approach this problem. In the presented study we modelled the impacts of dam removal on geomorphic channel processes, channel morphology and sediment delivery further considering the role of channel engineering measures and reservoir excavation within a river reach impacted by a series of dams using the landscape evolution model CAESAR-Lisflood. The model was run with data from a small catchment located in Lower Austria. Modelled geomorphic channel changes and sediment fluxes were spatio-temporally analyzed, related to real-world data and are discussed in the context of river management issues.

  4. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  5. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans’ offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring. PMID:26147938

  6. Effects of Chronic Social Stress and Maternal Intranasal Oxytocin and Vasopressin on Offspring Interferon-γ and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A.; Hicks-Nelson, Alexandria; Fink, Alexandria; Beamer, Gillian; Gurel, Kursat; Elnady, Fawzy; Pittet, Florent; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of early-life adversity and transgenerational stress on neural plasticity and behavior are mediated by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immune and behavioral programing effects of intranasal (IN) vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) treatment of chronic social stress (CSS)-exposed F1 dams on F2 juvenile female offspring. It was hypothesized that maternal AVP and OXT treatment would have preventative effects on social stress-induced deficits in offspring anxiety and social behavior and that these effects would be associated with changes in interferon-γ (IFNγ). Control and CSS-exposed F1 dams were administered IN saline, AVP, or OXT during lactation and the F2 juvenile female offspring were assessed for basal plasma IFNγ and perseverative, anxiety, and social behavior. CSS F2 female juvenile offspring had elevated IFNγ levels and exhibited increased repetitive/perseverative and anxiety behaviors and deficits in social behavior. These effects were modulated by AVP and OXT in a context- and behavior-dependent manner, with OXT exhibiting preventative effects on repetitive and anxiety behaviors and AVP possessing preventative effects on social behavior deficits and anxiety. Basal IFNγ levels were elevated in the F2 offspring of OXT-treated F1 dams, but IFNγ was not correlated with the behavioral effects. These results support the hypothesis that maternal AVP and OXT treatment have context- and behavior-specific effects on peripheral IFNγ levels and perseverative, anxiety, and social behaviors in the female offspring of early-life social stress-exposed dams. Both maternal AVP and OXT are effective at preventing social stress-induced increases in self-directed measures of anxiety, and AVP is particularly effective at preventing impairments in overall social contact. OXT is specifically effective at preventing repetitive/perseverative behaviors, yet is ineffective at

  7. Effects of Chronic Social Stress and Maternal Intranasal Oxytocin and Vasopressin on Offspring Interferon-γ and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Hicks-Nelson, Alexandria; Fink, Alexandria; Beamer, Gillian; Gurel, Kursat; Elnady, Fawzy; Pittet, Florent; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of early-life adversity and transgenerational stress on neural plasticity and behavior are mediated by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immune and behavioral programing effects of intranasal (IN) vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) treatment of chronic social stress (CSS)-exposed F1 dams on F2 juvenile female offspring. It was hypothesized that maternal AVP and OXT treatment would have preventative effects on social stress-induced deficits in offspring anxiety and social behavior and that these effects would be associated with changes in interferon-γ (IFNγ). Control and CSS-exposed F1 dams were administered IN saline, AVP, or OXT during lactation and the F2 juvenile female offspring were assessed for basal plasma IFNγ and perseverative, anxiety, and social behavior. CSS F2 female juvenile offspring had elevated IFNγ levels and exhibited increased repetitive/perseverative and anxiety behaviors and deficits in social behavior. These effects were modulated by AVP and OXT in a context- and behavior-dependent manner, with OXT exhibiting preventative effects on repetitive and anxiety behaviors and AVP possessing preventative effects on social behavior deficits and anxiety. Basal IFNγ levels were elevated in the F2 offspring of OXT-treated F1 dams, but IFNγ was not correlated with the behavioral effects. These results support the hypothesis that maternal AVP and OXT treatment have context- and behavior-specific effects on peripheral IFNγ levels and perseverative, anxiety, and social behaviors in the female offspring of early-life social stress-exposed dams. Both maternal AVP and OXT are effective at preventing social stress-induced increases in self-directed measures of anxiety, and AVP is particularly effective at preventing impairments in overall social contact. OXT is specifically effective at preventing repetitive/perseverative behaviors, yet is ineffective at

  8. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results from a Multigenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…

  9. Gestational Atrazine Exposure: Effects on Male Reproductive Development and Metabolite Distribution in the Dam, Fetus, and Neonate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of atrazine (ATR)following in utero exposure. We evaluated the effects of gestational exposure of Sprague Dawley dams to ATR (0, 1, 5.20, or 100 mg/Kg-d) on the reproductive development of male offspring. We also quantified the...

  10. Associations Between Substance Use Disorders and Major Depression in Parents and Late Adolescent-Emerging Adult Offspring: An Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Aims To examine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance use disorders (SUDs: specifically, nicotine dependence (ND), alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and cannabis use disorders (CUDs)) in parents predicted increased risk for these disorders in late adolescent–emerging adult offspring and, specifically, the extent to which the pattern of risk differed for adopted and non-adopted youth. Participants Late adolescent and emerging adult participants from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (mean age=18.8), a community-based investigation of adopted and non-adopted adolescents, and their parents (adoptive parents of adopted youth, biological parents of non-adopted adolescents) were included. Measurements Structured interviews were used to assess these disorders. Findings (1) when the same disorder in parents and adolescents was examined, parental MDD was associated with increased risk for MDD among both adopted (p<.001) and non-adopted (p<.01) adolescents; in contrast, SUDs were associated with increased risk for the same SUD in non-adopted offspring (all p<.01). (2) When cross-SUD effects were examined, for the most part, each SUD was associated with increased risk for other SUDs among non-adopted but not adopted offspring (most p<.05). (3) When MDD-SUD associations were examined, parental ND and CUDs predicted increased risk for MDD in non-adopted (p<.001), but not adopted, adolescents. These effects tended to remain significant when adjusting for within-person comorbidity (p<.05). Conclusions Major depressive disorder in parents appears to be a risk factor for late adolescent-emerging adult major depressive disorder but not substance use disorder in offspring, with this risk being environmentally mediated. Substance use disorder in parents appears, via genetic mediation, to increase risk of substance use disorder in adolescent offspring, and cannabis and nicotine use disorders in parents similarly contribute to major depressive disorder in those

  11. Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and overweight and obesity in offspring: a study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Lao, T T; Chen, Z; Du, M Y; Liang, K; Huang, Y K; Zhang, L; Yang, M H; Sun, Y H; Li, H; Ding, Z B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breast feeding on childhood overweight and obesity in a mainland Chinese population. The incidence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity were compared between children of mothers with (n=1068) and without (n=1756) GDM. The independent roles of the associated factors were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of overweight was higher (16.6 v. 12.6%, P=0.002) in the GDM group, but that of obesity was not different (10.7 v. 12.0%, P=0.315). At age 1-2 and 2-5 years, no difference in overweight (11.0 v. 12.0%, P=0.917, and 15.7 v. 14.6%, P=0.693, respectively) was found, while obesity (8.0 v. 13.6%, P=0.019, and 8.4 v. 13.4%, P=0.014, respectively) was less frequent in the GDM offspring. At age 5-10 years, increased overweight (22.2 v. 12.1%, P<0.001) and obesity (15.9 v. 9.0%, P=0.001) were found in the GDM group, which was associated with maternal obesity, being born large-for-gestational age, male gender and formula feeding. After adjusting for confounding factors, GDM remained an independent determinant of offspring overweight and obesity (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.61-3.22), suggesting that the effects of GDM were independent of breast feeding, as well as of maternal obesity and birth size.

  12. Offspring, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offspring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

  13. Maternal exposure to diets containing high fructose and saturated fats, low B vitamins, or their combination programs growth, adiposity, and insulin sensitivity in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early exposure to unfavorable nutrition programs increases risk of adult-onset diseases. In this rat study, we investigate morphological, metabolic and endocrinal phenotypes of offspring born to dams consuming isocaloric diets containing 30% fructose, 9.9% coconut fat and 0.5% cholesterol (F+SFA), m...

  14. The causes of parent–offspring transmission of drug abuse: a Swedish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Ohlsson, H.; Sundquist, K.; Sundquist, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background While drug abuse (DA) is strongly familial, we still have limited knowledge about the causes of its cross-generational transmission. Method We examined DA ascertained from national registers in offspring of three family types from the Swedish population [intact (n=2111074), ‘not-lived-with’ (n = 165315, where biological parents never lived with their offspring) and ‘step’ (n = 124800 offspring)], which reflected, respectively, the effects of genes+rearing, genes only and rearing only. We replicated these results in three high-risk co-relative designs. Results Combined across mothers and fathers, the hazard ratio (HR) for DA in offspring given DA in parents was 3.52 in intact, 2.73 in ‘not-lived-with’ and 1.79 in stepfamilies. In 968 biological full or half-sibling pairs one of whom was reared by and the other never lived with their parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in the reared than ‘not-lived-with’ child (HR 1.57). In 64 offspring pairs of a parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in a reared biological v. step-parented non-biological child (HR 3.33). In 321 pairs of offspring of a parent with DA one of whom was a not-lived-with biological child and the second a step-parented non-biological child, the HR for DA was greater in the biological v. stepchild (HR 1.80). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute substantially to parent–offspring resemblance for DA. The general population contains informative family constellations that can complement more traditional adoption designs in clarifying the sources of parent–offspring resemblance. PMID:25066684

  15. Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Flood Risks in Aging-Dam Management in China: A Framework and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (<0.20) was found for some residential and commercial buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites. PMID:21655125

  16. Spatial multicriteria decision analysis of flood risks in aging-dam management in China: a framework and case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (<0.20) was found for some residential and commercial buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites.

  17. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams).

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mohammad; Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam's location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands.

  18. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength. PMID:27115490

  19. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Vargas, Pilar; Manzano, Manuel; Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo; López-Pedrosa, Jose María

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength.

  20. Effects of number and gender of offspring on quality of life among older adults: evidence from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlations between number and gender of offspring and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults. Setting We used data from the 2006–2012 data sets of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants There were 10 242, 8680, 7907 and 7480 participants in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, respectively. Interventions Number and gender of offspring. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured participants’ QoL and HRQoL using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korea Labour Institute and which is similar to the EQ-VAS, a European measure. Results We estimated the HRQoL and QoL of individuals with offspring. Estimates for the HRQoL and QoL of parents with no offspring were −7.762 and −9.384, respectively (both p<0.0001) versus parents with two offspring. For parents with five or more offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −1.529 and 0.885, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.017, respectively) compared with parents with two offspring. For fathers with no offspring compared with fathers with two offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −6.143 and −7.492, respectively (both p<0.0001). Conclusions These results suggest that number of offspring is associated with both HRQoL and QoL. Those with no offspring showed the lowest HRQoL and QoL. Although having five or more children had positive associations with QoL, it had negative associations with HRQoL. Public health services for those with poor quality of life should provide effective support programmes and services based on these findings. PMID:26063566

  1. Centrifuge study on volume changes and dynamic stability of earth dams

    SciTech Connect

    Arulanandan, K. ); Seed, H.B. ); Yogachandran, C. ); Muraleetharan, K.K. ); Seed, R.B. ); Kabilamany, K. )

    1993-11-01

    A simplified method of analysis for determining the permanent displacement of a clay core in a heterogeneous earth dam subjected to dynamic excitation is discussed. Centrifuge studies on three identical models were used to determine the deformation characteristics of earth dams subjected to earthquakes large enough to produce flow slides. These studies suggest that the failure mode is considerably influenced by the reduction in shear strength caused by the void-ratio increase and the subsequent decrease in effective stress at the sand-clay interface. Conventional sliding block analysis does not consider this phenomenon. A simplified method using the concepts of critical-state soil mechanics is presented that may be used to estimate both the reduced shear strength and the redistributed void-ratio at the interface. Values predicted using this method were found to agree well with those observed in the centrifuge experiments. By integrating these quantities into Newmark's sliding block analysis, a better estimate of the permanent displacement of an earth dam may be obtained.

  2. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  3. Sleep deprivation during late pregnancy produces hyperactivity and increased risk-taking behavior in offspring.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Aswathy, B S; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Gulia, Kamalesh K

    2015-01-30

    Sleep deprivation in women resulting from their modern lifestyle, especially during pregnancy, is a serious concern as it can affect the health of the newborn. Anxiety disorders and cognitive deficits in the offspring are also on the rise. However, experimental studies on the effects of sleep loss during pregnancy, on emotional development and cognitive function of the newborn, are scanty in literature. In the current study, female rats were sleep-deprived for 5h by gentle handling, during the 6 days of the third trimester (days 14-19 of pregnancy). The effects of this sleep deprivation on anxiety-related behaviors of pups during their peri-adolescence age were studied using elevated plus maze (EPM). In addition to body weights of dams and offspring, the maternal behavior was also monitored. The weanlings of sleep-deprived dams showed heightened risk-taking behavior as they made increased explorations into the open arms of EPM. They also showed higher mobility in comparison to the control group. Though the body weights of sleep-deprived dams were comparable to those of the control group, their newborns had lower birth weight. Nevertheless, these pups gained weight and reached the control group values during the initial post-natal week. But after weaning, their rate of growth was lower than that of the control group. This is the first report providing evidences for the role of sleep during late pregnancy in shaping the neuropsychological development in offspring.

  4. Prenatal copper deficiency in rat dams causes persistent reduction in nuclear-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits in cardiac mitochrondria of the first generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that the offspring of rat dams having low copper (Cu) intake during pregnancy and lactation experience a deficiency in cardiac cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) after postnatal day 10. The present study was undertaken to determine the relative influences of pre-and postnatal Cu ...

  5. In vivo longitudinal micro-CT study of bent long limb bones in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Delille, Peter; Geys, Helena; Boehringer-Shahidi, Christian; Vanhove, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been reported as a reliable method to assess ex vivo rat and rabbit fetal skeletons in embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies. Since micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality it has the potential for longitudinal, in vivo investigation of postnatal skeletal development. This is the first paper using micro-CT to assess the reversibility of drug-induced bent long bones in a longitudinal study from birth to early adulthood in rat offspring. Analysis of the scans obtained on postnatal Day 0, 7, 21 and 80 showed complete recovery or repair of the bent long limb bones (including the scapula) within the first 3 weeks. When assessing risk the ability to demonstrate recovery is highly advantageous when interpreting such transient skeletal change. In summary, in vivo micro-CT of small laboratory animals can aid in non-clinical safety assessment, particularly for specific mechanistic purposes or to address a particular concern in developmental biology.

  6. Dynamic Testing and Numerical Correlation Studies For Folsom Dam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    report prepared with support from the National Research Council of the United States reviewed the state of practice on seismic design and evaluation of...excitations. This report describes a research study conducted by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center consisting of a series of field...Forced Vibration Tests .....................................................................................6 Overview

  7. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings

  8. The Bacon Chow study: maternal nutrition supplementation and birth weight of offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonald, E C; Pollitt, E; Mueller, W; Hsueh, A M; Sherwin, R

    1981-10-01

    This study is a randomized controlled double-blind trial on the effects of nutrition supplement of pregnant and lactating women on their offspring. The study was conducted by the late Dr. Bacon Chow in 14 villages in Sui-Lin township, a farming area about 180 miles from Taipei, Taiwan. Two hundred ninety-four women were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The daily supplement for one group provided 800 kcal and 40 g of protein/day; for the other group it only provided 80 kcal/day. Supplementation began after 3 wk of the delivery of a first study infant, continued throughout lactation, and through the pregnancy and lactation of a second study infant. Between group comparisons on the birth weight, number of low birth weight infants, or incidence of fetal deaths showed no statistically significant findings. However, the birth weight of the second study infant was statistically different and higher than that of the first study infant in the high supplement group. Moreover, in the low supplement group there was a correlation of 0.22 (p = 0.06) between the change scores for birth weight from the first to the second study infant and the quantity of supplements consumed during the last trimester of pregnancy. There was also in this same group a significant slope in a linear regression of birth weight on total daily caloric intake during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy for the male second study infants. These findings are partly in agreement with findings from three other large supplementation studies in Colombia, Guatemala, and New York. In this study the findings indicate that caloric supplementation does result in a small yet statistically meaningful increment in birth weight within a population which is not nutritionally at risk.

  9. Maternal Overweight Programs Insulin and Adiponectin Signaling in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kartik; Kang, Ping; Harrell, Amanda; Zhong, Ying; Marecki, John C.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight and fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45% fat). In this report, we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced programming at postnatal d 21 before challenge with the high-fat diet. We conducted global transcriptome profiling, gene/protein expression analyses, and characterization of downstream signaling of insulin and adiponectin pathways in conjunction with endocrine and biochemical characterization. Offspring born to OW dams displayed increased serum insulin, leptin, and resistin levels (P < 0.05) at postnatal d 21 preceding changes in body composition. A lipogenic transcriptome signature in the liver, before development of obesity, was evident in OW-dam offspring. A coordinated locus of 20 sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1-regulated target genes was induced by maternal OW. Increased nuclear levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and recruitment to the fatty acid synthase promoter were confirmed via ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. Higher fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase protein and pAKT (Thr308) and phospho-insulin receptor-β were confirmed via immunoblotting. Maternal OW also attenuated AMP kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in the offspring liver, including transcriptional down-regulation of several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-regulated genes. Hepatic mRNA and circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 levels were significantly lower in OW-dam offspring. Furthermore, serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin (P < 0.05) were decreased in OW-dam offspring. Phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-kinase (Thr172) was significantly decreased in OW-dam offspring, along with lower AdipoR1 mRNA. Our results strongly suggest that gestational exposure to maternal

  10. Perinatal exercise improves glucose homeostasis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G.; Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Wilkerson, Donald C.; Tobia, Christine M.; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y.; Shridas, Preetha; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L.; Wolff, Gretchen; Andrade, Francisco H.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Esser, Karyn A.; Egan, Josephine M.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has shown that subtle factors during pregnancy and gestation can influence long-term health in offspring. In an attempt to be proactive, we set out to explore whether a nonpharmacological intervention, perinatal exercise, might improve offspring health. Female mice were separated into sedentary or exercise cohorts, with the exercise cohort having voluntary access to a running wheel prior to mating and during pregnancy and nursing. Offspring were weaned, and analyses were performed on the mature offspring that did not have access to running wheels during any portion of their lives. Perinatal exercise caused improved glucose disposal following an oral glucose challenge in both female and male adult offspring (P < 0.05 for both). Blood glucose concentrations were reduced to lower values in response to an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test for both female and male adult offspring of parents with access to running wheels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Male offspring from exercised dams showed increased percent lean mass and decreased fat mass percent compared with male offspring from sedentary dams (P < 0.01 for both), but these parameters were unchanged in female offspring. These data suggest that short-term maternal voluntary exercise prior to and during healthy pregnancy and nursing can enhance long-term glucose homeostasis in offspring. PMID:22932781

  11. Perinatal exercise improves glucose homeostasis in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lindsay G; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Wilkerson, Donald C; Tobia, Christine M; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Shridas, Preetha; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wolff, Gretchen; Andrade, Francisco H; Charnigo, Richard J; Esser, Karyn A; Egan, Josephine M; de Cabo, Rafael; Pearson, Kevin J

    2012-10-15

    Emerging research has shown that subtle factors during pregnancy and gestation can influence long-term health in offspring. In an attempt to be proactive, we set out to explore whether a nonpharmacological intervention, perinatal exercise, might improve offspring health. Female mice were separated into sedentary or exercise cohorts, with the exercise cohort having voluntary access to a running wheel prior to mating and during pregnancy and nursing. Offspring were weaned, and analyses were performed on the mature offspring that did not have access to running wheels during any portion of their lives. Perinatal exercise caused improved glucose disposal following an oral glucose challenge in both female and male adult offspring (P < 0.05 for both). Blood glucose concentrations were reduced to lower values in response to an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test for both female and male adult offspring of parents with access to running wheels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Male offspring from exercised dams showed increased percent lean mass and decreased fat mass percent compared with male offspring from sedentary dams (P < 0.01 for both), but these parameters were unchanged in female offspring. These data suggest that short-term maternal voluntary exercise prior to and during healthy pregnancy and nursing can enhance long-term glucose homeostasis in offspring.

  12. Maternal Caloric Restriction Implemented during the Preconceptional and Pregnancy Period Alters Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Overweight and Increased Adiposity at Adulthood in Male Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosarío Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet) during pre-gestational and gestational periods on: (a) neonatal outcomes; (b) endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth; (c) metabolism-related parameters; and (d) behavior in adult male offspring. We found that calorie-restricted dams tended to have a reduced litter size, although the offspring showed normal weight at birth. Pups from calorie-restricted dams also exhibited a strong decrease in the levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the hypothalamus at birth. Additionally, pups from diet-restricted dams displayed reduced levels of AEA in the hippocampus without significant differences in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, offspring exhibited increased weight gain, body weight and adiposity in adulthood as well as increased anxiety-related responses. We propose that endocannabinoid signaling is altered by a maternal caloric restriction implemented during the preconceptional and pregnancy periods, which might lead to modifications of the hypothalamic and hippocampal circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term effects found in the adult offspring.

  13. Maternal Caloric Restriction Implemented during the Preconceptional and Pregnancy Period Alters Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Overweight and Increased Adiposity at Adulthood in Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosarío Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to inadequate nutritional conditions in critical windows of development has been associated to disturbances on metabolism and behavior in the offspring later in life. The role of the endocannabinoid system, a known regulator of energy expenditure and adaptive behaviors, in the modulation of these processes is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposing rat dams to diet restriction (20% less calories than standard diet) during pre-gestational and gestational periods on: (a) neonatal outcomes; (b) endocannabinoid content in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb at birth; (c) metabolism-related parameters; and (d) behavior in adult male offspring. We found that calorie-restricted dams tended to have a reduced litter size, although the offspring showed normal weight at birth. Pups from calorie-restricted dams also exhibited a strong decrease in the levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the hypothalamus at birth. Additionally, pups from diet-restricted dams displayed reduced levels of AEA in the hippocampus without significant differences in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, offspring exhibited increased weight gain, body weight and adiposity in adulthood as well as increased anxiety-related responses. We propose that endocannabinoid signaling is altered by a maternal caloric restriction implemented during the preconceptional and pregnancy periods, which might lead to modifications of the hypothalamic and hippocampal circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term effects found in the adult offspring. PMID:27847471

  14. Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation - Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams.

    PubMed

    Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis.

  15. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and hypospadias in male offspring: a population-based study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ane Birgitte Telén; Ehrenstein, Vera; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Background The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and hypospadias has been concurrently increasing, possibly through shared environmental risk factors such as endocrine disrupting compounds. Also, maternal IBD may disturb the normal development of the fetal reproductive tract. However, whether maternal IBD increases the risk of hypospadias in male offspring is unknown. We compared hypospadias risk in sons of mothers with and without IBD. Methods We used Danish nationwide population-based registries to conduct a longitudinal prevalence study including all live-born boys from 1979 through 2009. We computed HRs, as estimates of prevalence ratios (PRs), with 95% CIs for hypospadias, using Cox proportional hazards regression, while adjusting for measured confounding. Results Among 966 038 live-born boys, 4688 (0.5%) had a mother with a history of IBD diagnosis before the relevant childbirth. Among the boys with maternal IBD, 36 (0.8%) were diagnosed with hypospadias any time after birth, whereas 6112 (0.6%) sons of mothers without IBD diagnosis had hypospadias (adjusted PR: 1.20, (95% CI 0.86 to 1.67). Adjusted PRs for maternal Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were 1.38 (95% CI 0.83 to 2.29) and 1.10 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.68), respectively. Analyses defining hypospadias diagnosis recorded <6 months postpartum showed similar results. Conclusions We found no convincing evidence of an association between maternal IBD and hypospadias. PMID:27933203

  16. Profiles by Sex of Brain MRI and Cognitive Function in The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark; Massaro, Joseph; DeCarli, Charles; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether there are sex-specific associations between brain MRI measures and neuropsychological test performance. Background Differences in cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) have been linked to decreased total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Although brain morphology has been related to cognitive performance, few studies have addressed sex-specific effects in this relationship. Methods Framingham Offspring who were stroke and dementia-free underwent a brain MRI scan and neuropsychological (NP) testing (n=2,085; 978 men). Factor analysis identified four domain-specific neuropsychological factors. MRI participants were divided into four MRI subgroups based on measures of TCBV and combinations of the presence of WMH and silent cerebral infarcts (≥3mm; SCI). Results Overall, the relationship between MRI and NP measures was similar between the sexes. The exception was that only men showed a positive relationship between executive function (EF) and cerebrovascular disease defined as large white matter hyperintensity volume plus SCI. This finding was attributed only among men with FSRP scores > 90th percentile range (p=0.0019). Conclusions Measures of brain atrophy and subclinical markers of vascular disease showed that sex does not significantly alter the relationship between MRI and NP, except among men and women who are at high risk for stroke; these men show poorer performance on EF, whereas the women do not. PMID:20505436

  17. Effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fatty acid composition of milk and offspring red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Vithayathil, M A; Gugusheff, J R; Gibson, R A; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during the lactation period alone produces detrimental effects to offspring metabolic health comparable to exposure during the entire perinatal period. The present study used a rodent model to assess the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet on the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dams' milk, and to determine the degree to which this was related to the fatty acid status of offspring on postnatal day 1 (PND1), weaning and 3 weeks post-weaning onto a standard rodent diet. As expected, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) content of both the milk and pup red blood cells (RBCs) was lower in the cafeteria (CAF) group on PND1. At 2 weeks post-partum, milk produced by CAF dams had a higher total fat, saturated fat and n-6 PUFA content, however these differences were modest in comparison with the differences in maternal intake between groups. Offspring suckled by CAF dams had a lower n-3 LCPUFA and n-6 PUFA status at weaning and higher trans fatty acid levels at both weaning and 6 weeks of age. These findings indicate that the fat content and fatty acid composition of the dam's milk is altered by exposure to a cafeteria diet. While it appears that the dam has a significant capacity to buffer the transfer of most dietary lipids into the milk, the trans fatty acids in particular appear to be readily transferred, resulting in persistent increases in trans fatty acid status of the offspring after weaning. The potential physiological implications of this warrants further examination.

  18. Differential effects of habitual chow-based and semi-purified diets on lipid metabolism in lactating rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Del Bas, Josep Maria; Caimari, Antoni; Ceresi, Enzo; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Palou, Andreu; Arola, Lluís; Crescenti, Anna

    2015-03-14

    Diet during pregnancy and lactation is a critical factor in relation to the health of dams and their offspring. Currently, control diets used in metabolic imprinting studies differ in composition and type, i.e. semi-purified diets (SD) or chow-based diets (ND). The aim of the present study was to determine whether two widely used control diets, a SD and a ND, that mainly differ in fat content (5·08 and 3·26 %, respectively) and its sources (soyabean oil for the SD and cereals and fish for the ND), fibre (6 and 15 %, respectively), and cholesterol (26 and 69 mg/kg diet, respectively) can influence the lipid metabolism of dams and their offspring. Wistar rats were fed either the SD or the ND during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, SD-fed dams presented severe hepatic steatosis and increased levels of circulating TAG, NEFA and insulin. Importantly, the offspring presented an altered plasma lipid profile. In contrast, the ND allowed for a normal gestation and lactation process, and did not affect the metabolism of offspring. In parallel, virgin rats fed the SD showed no metabolic alterations. A higher intake of SFA and MUFA and a lower consumption of PUFA observed in SD-fed dams during the lactation period could contribute to explaining the observed effects. In conclusion, two different control diets produced very different outcomes in the lipid metabolism of lactating rats and their offspring. The present results highlight the importance of the assessment of the metabolic state of dams when interpreting the results of metabolic programming studies.

  19. Optimization of Multiple and Multipurpose Reservoir System Operations by Using Matrix Structure (Case Study: Karun and Dez Reservoir Dams)

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Faridah; Taghieh, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of water resources in multiple and multipurpose reservoirs is very complicated. This is because of the number of dams, each dam’s location (Series and parallel), conflict in objectives and the stochastic nature of the inflow of water in the system. In this paper, performance optimization of the system of Karun and Dez reservoir dams have been studied and investigated with the purposes of hydroelectric energy generation and providing water demand in 6 dams. On the Karun River, 5 dams have been built in the series arrangements, and the Dez dam has been built parallel to those 5 dams. One of the main achievements in this research is the implementation of the structure of production of hydroelectric energy as a function of matrix in MATLAB software. The results show that the role of objective function structure for generating hydroelectric energy in weighting method algorithm is more important than water supply. Nonetheless by implementing ε- constraint method algorithm, we can both increase hydroelectric power generation and supply around 85% of agricultural and industrial demands. PMID:27248152

  20. Sexual dimorphism in offspring glucose-sensitive hypothalamic gene expression and physiological responses to maternal high-fat diet feeding.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Laura; Balthasar, Nina

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, we investigated offspring physiological and transcriptomic consequences of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding during pregnancy and/or lactation. We demonstrate that female offspring of high-fat/high-sugar diet-fed dams are particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbation with body weight increases due to postnatal processes, whereas in utero effects of the diet ultimately lead to glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Furthermore, glucose- and maternal-diet sensitive gene expression modulation in the paraventricular hypothalamus is strikingly sexually dimorphic. In summary, we uncover female-specific, maternal diet-mediated in utero misprogramming of offspring glucose homeostasis and a striking sexual dimorphism in glucose- and maternal diet-sensitive paraventricular hypothalamus gene expression adjustment. Notably, female offspring metabolic vulnerability to maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet propagates a vicious cycle of obesity and type 2 diabetes in subsequent generations.

  1. Impact of maternal chromium restriction on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and oxidative stress in WNIN rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Raghunath, Manchala

    2011-12-01

    Robust evidence suggests that nutritional insult during fetal development could program the offspring to glucose intolerance, impaired insulin response and insulin resistance (IR). Considering the importance of chromium (Cr) in maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, this study determined the effect of maternal Cr restriction (CrR) on glucose metabolism and plasma insulin in Wistar/NIN (WNIN) rat offspring and the associated biochemical and/or molecular mechanisms. Female, weanling WNIN rats received ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet or the same with 65% restriction of Cr and mated with control males. Some of the Cr-restricted dams were rehabilitated from conception or parturition and their pups weaned on to control diet. At the time of weaning, half of the Cr restricted offspring were rehabilitated to control diet while others continued on Cr-restricted diet. Maternal CrR increased fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of IR, and area under the curve of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test in the offspring. Expression and activity of rate-limiting enzymes of glucose metabolism were comparable among different groups and expression of genes involved in insulin secretion was increased albeit in male offspring whereas antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased in offspring of both genders. Rehabilitation, in general, corrected the changes albeit partially. Maternal dietary CrR induced IR, impaired glucose tolerance in WNIN rat offspring and was associated with increased oxidative stress, which may predispose them to type 2 diabetes in their later life.

  2. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

  3. A Children of Twins Study of Parental Divorce and Offspring Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although parental divorce is associated with increased substance use and internalizing problems, experiencing the separation of one's parents may not cause these outcomes. The relations may be due to genetic or environmental selection factors, characteristics that lead to both marital separation and offspring functioning. Method: We…

  4. Fever in pregnancy and offspring mortality - a longitudinal study of a cohort from 1927 to 1937 on the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Helmsdal, Gunnhild; Olsen, Sjúrour F

    2009-01-01

    In a birth cohort from 1927 to 1937 consisting of 4,208 individuals, we examined the relation between complications in pregnancy and offspring adult mortality. Patterns of increased mortality were observed in the group of males whose mothers had experienced fever during pregnancy, i.e. with all-cause mortality (rate ratio 1.505; 95% CI 1.084-1.926; p=0.057), premature death (rate ratio 1.943; 95% CI 1.486-2.400; p=0.004), and with cancer (rate ratio 2.625; 95% CI 1.845-3.405; p=0.015). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fever in pregnancy and offspring mortality.

  5. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  6. Cardiovascular Health Status and Incidence of Heart Failure in the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayor, Matthew; Enserro, Danielle M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Xanthakis, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association Cardiovascular Health (CVH) score is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, but its relations to cardiac remodeling traits and to heart failure (HF) incidence have not been examined. Methods and Results A 14-point score was constructed for each participant based on the presence of poor, intermediate or ideal status on each of the 7 CVH metrics (ideal score=14). We related the CVH score to echocardiographic traits cross-sectionally, and to HF incidence prospectively in the Framingham Offspring Study. In age- and sex-adjusted models, a higher CVH score was associated with lower left ventricular (LV) mass, LV wall thickness, LV diastolic dimension, and left atrial dimension (p<0.01 for all; N=2392, mean age 58 years, 56% women), and with a 12-15% lower odds of prevalent LV concentric remodeling and concentric hypertrophy, respectively (p<0.0001 for both). On follow-up (mean 12.3 years), 188 incident HF events were observed in 3201 participants (mean age 59 years, 53% women). In age- and sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the CVH score was inversely associated with HF incidence (hazards ratio [HR] per 1-point higher CVH score 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.83). This association was partially attenuated upon adjustment for LV mass and interim myocardial infarction (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93) and was consistent for HF with preserved and reduced ejection fractions. Conclusions In our community-based sample, comprised predominantly of middle-aged white individuals of European descent, better CVH was associated with lower HF incidence, in part due to a lower prevalence of adverse cardiac remodeling. PMID:26699391

  7. Association of Plasma ADMA Levels with MRI Markers of Vascular Brain Injury: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pikula, Aleksandra; Böger, Rainer H.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Maas, Renke; DeCarli, Charles; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Himali, Jayandra J.; Schulze, Friedrich; Au, Rhoda; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kase, Carlos S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Elevated circulating ADMA concentrations have been associated with systemic and carotid atherosclerosis, an elevated risk of developing stroke and with MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH). The relation of plasma ADMA to subclinical vascular brain injury has not been previously studied in a middle-aged, community-based sample. Methods In 2013 stroke-free Framingham Offspring (mean age 58±9.5yrs, 53% women) we related baseline plasma ADMA levels (1995–98) to subsequent brain MRI (1999–2004) measures of subclinical vascular injury: presence of silent brain infarcts (SBI) and large white matter hyperintensity volume (LWMH; defined as >1SD above age-specific mean). Results Prevalence of SBI and LWMH were 10.7% and 12.6%, respectively. In multivariable analyses adjusting for age-, sex- and traditional stroke risk factors, higher ADMA levels were associated with an increased risk of prevalent SBI (OR per SD increase in ADMA: 1.16, 95%CI: 1.01–1.33, p= 0.04).We observed that participants in the upper three age-specific quartiles of plasma ADMA had an increased prevalence of SBI (OR for Q2–4 versus Q1:1.43, 95%CI: 1.00–2.04, p<0.05). Prevalence of SBI in Q1and Q2–4 was 8.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Prevalence of LWMH did not differ according to ADMA concentrations. Conclusion Higher plasma ADMA was associated with increased prevalence of SBI after adjustment for traditional stroke risk factors. Thus, ADMA may be a potentially useful new biomarker of subclinical vascular brain injury, which is an important correlate of vascular cognitive impairment and risk of stroke. PMID:19644064

  8. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Offspring Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adulthood: Prospective and Sibling Studies in the HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Alsnes, Ingvild V; Vatten, Lars J; Fraser, Abigail; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Romundstad, Pål R; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2017-04-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Seven hundred and six participants were born after exposure to maternal hypertension in pregnancy: 336 mothers had gestational hypertension, 343 had term preeclampsia, and 27 had preterm preeclampsia. Offspring whose mothers had hypertension in pregnancy had 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, 1.5 (0.9-2.1) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure, 0.66 (0.31-1.01) kg/m(2) higher body mass index, and 1.49 (0.65-2.33) cm wider waist circumference, compared with offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Similar differences were observed for gestational hypertension and term preeclampsia. Term preeclampsia was also associated with higher concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L, 0.03-0.25) and triglycerides (0.13 mmol/L, 0.06-0.21). Siblings born after a normotensive pregnancy had nearly identical risk factor levels as siblings born after maternal hypertension. Offspring born after maternal hypertension in pregnancy have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood than offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Their siblings, born after a normotensive pregnancy, have a similar risk profile, suggesting that shared genes or lifestyle may account for the association, rather than an intrauterine effect. All children of mothers who have experienced hypertension in pregnancy may be at increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease.

  9. 106. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS & DIKE CONN. AT MOVABLE DAM (ML-8-52/2-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  10. Maternal Low-Protein Diet Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Hepatic MicroRNAs Expression in the Early Life of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Tong; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from maternal low-protein diet (LPD) is associated with perturbed miRNAs expression in offspring as early as the weaning age. We examined the metabolic effects on the C57BL/6J mice male offspring at weaning from dams fed with LPD or normal chow diet (NCD) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Maternal LPD feeding impaired metabolic health in offspring. Microarray profiling indicated that mmu-miR-615, mmu-miR-124, mmu-miR-376b, and mmu-let-7e were significantly downregulated, while, mmu-miR-708 and mmu-miR-879 were upregulated in LPD offspring. Bioinformatic analysis showed target genes were mapped to inflammatory-related pathways. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were higher and interleukin 6 (IL-6) had a tendency to be elevated in the LPD group. Finally, both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in the LPD group. Our findings provide novel evidence that maternal LPD can regulate miRNAs expression, which may be associated with chronic inflammation status and metabolic health in offspring as early as the weaning age. PMID:28264458

  11. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Bone Fractures: Prospective Study over Two Decades in Aarhus City, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian; Granström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Vestergaard, Peter; Strøm, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. Purpose We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. Methods The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988–89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Results Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th–95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0–152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11–2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12–2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P = 0.054). Conclusion Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough

  12. Maternal Preeclampsia and Androgens in the Offspring around Puberty: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Janszky, Imre; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Økland, Inger; Forman, Michele R.; Vatten, Lars J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children born after preeclampsia may have a dominant androgen profile in puberty compared with other children. Circulating androgen concentrations at 11–12 years of age were compared between offspring born after preeclampsia, and children whose mothers did not have preeclampsia. Methods A total of 611 mother-offspring pairs were followed up 11 (daughters) or 12 (sons) years after birth: 218 pairs in the preeclampsia group, and 383 pairs without preeclampsia. Circulating total testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in the children. In boys, testicular volume was also measured. Results Among girls born after preeclampsia, DHEAS concentrations were higher than in unexposed girls (p<0.001), however, girls born after preeclampsia with severe features had the lowest DHEAS levels. In contrast, testosterone concentrations were highest in girls born after preeclampsia with severe features, both compared to other girls in the preeclampsia group, and compared to unexposed girls (p<0.001). For boys, testosterone concentrations were higher in the preeclampsia group compared with unexposed boys (p<0.001), and boys born after preeclampsia with severe features had the lowest concentrations of DHEAS. Compared with unexposed boys, testicular volume (p = 0.015) and IGF-I (p = 0.004) were higher for boys in the preeclampsia group, except for boys in the clinically severe preeclampsia group. Conclusions In utero exposure to preeclampsia is associated with androgen hormonal patterns in early puberty that depend on clinical severity of preeclampsia and sex of the offspring. The hormonal differences may reflect different timing of pubertal development, and may have consequences for future health of the offspring. PMID:27992610

  13. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C–C, HF–C, C–HF and HF–HF (n=8 in each group). The C–C offspring had lower body weight than C–HF group at 16 weeks of age (P<0.01) and both C–HF and HF–HF offspring had higher body weight than C–C group at 24 and 32 weeks of age (P<0.001 respectively). The blood glucose (BG) levels of the male offspring from the C and HF dams weaned HF diet were significantly higher at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min (P<0.001) after intraperitoneal glucose administration compared with those of the C–C group. The C–HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF–HF group (P<0.01). Furthermore, area under the curve (AUC) in C–HF and HF–HF groups was also significantly larger than C–C group (P<0.001). Fasting BG and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of the offspring were significantly higher in C–HF and HF–HF groups than C–C group at 32 weeks of age (P<0.05). Operational taxonomic unit (OTU), Chao and Shannon indexes showed a significantly lower diversity in C–HF offspring compared with HF–C and C–C groups (P<0.05). The dominant phyla of all the groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (P<0.05). Furthermore, it is indicated that Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were significantly associated with glucose response to a glucose load (P<0.05). In conclusion, maternal and post

  14. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-07-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C-C, HF-C, C-HF and HF-HF (n=8 in each group). The C-C offspring had lower body weight than C-HF group at 16 weeks of age (P<0.01) and both C-HF and HF-HF offspring had higher body weight than C-C group at 24 and 32 weeks of age (P<0.001 respectively). The blood glucose (BG) levels of the male offspring from the C and HF dams weaned HF diet were significantly higher at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min (P<0.001) after intraperitoneal glucose administration compared with those of the C-C group. The C-HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF-HF group (P<0.01). Furthermore, area under the curve (AUC) in C-HF and HF-HF groups was also significantly larger than C-C group (P<0.001). Fasting BG and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of the offspring were significantly higher in C-HF and HF-HF groups than C-C group at 32 weeks of age (P<0.05). Operational taxonomic unit (OTU), Chao and Shannon indexes showed a significantly lower diversity in C-HF offspring compared with HF-C and C-C groups (P<0.05). The dominant phyla of all the groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (P<0.05). Furthermore, it is indicated that Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were significantly associated with glucose response to a glucose load (P<0.05). In conclusion, maternal and post-weaning diet interaction predisposes the

  15. Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to high-saturated-fat diet represses Wnt signaling and myogenic genes in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke-Feng; Shen, Xiu-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2012-08-01

    The prenatal and early postnatal period is a key developmental window for nutrition status, and high-fat exposure in this period has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity and other features of metabolic disorders later in life. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and role of relative genes involved in this process. We investigated the impact of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet on the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway and myogenic genes in skeletal muscle of rat offspring as well as the serum and muscle physiological outcomes. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (C, 16% kcal fat) or high-saturated-fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, female offspring were fed a control diet to generate two offspring groups: control diet-fed offspring of control diet-fed dams (C/C) and control diet-fed offspring of HF diet-fed dams (HF/C). The serum glucose of the HF/C offspring (5.58 ± 0.26 mmol/L) was significantly higher than that of C/C offspring (4.97 ± 0.28 mmol/L), and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance of HF/C offspring (2.00 ± 0.11) was also significantly higher when compared with C/C (1.84 ± 0.09). Furthermore, HF/C offspring presented excessive intramuscular fat accumulation (1.8-fold, P < 0.05) and decreased muscle glycogen (1.3-fold, P < 0.05), as well as impairment of muscle development at the age of 12 weeks. Meanwhile, we observed the repression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and myogenic genes in HF/C offspring. The present study indicates that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet suppresses the development of skeletal muscle and myogenic genes via Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and the inappropriate muscle development could potentially contribute to the predisposition of offspring to develop metabolic-syndrome-like phenotype in adulthood.

  16. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: A sibling-comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly due to increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Since severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers’ age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born 1958–1979 (n=2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course-persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending. PMID:22781852

  17. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  18. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-11-16

    Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams and sires will

  19. Bone mineral density and protein derived food clusters from the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary protein is beneficial to bone health; however, dietary patterns of protein intake and their relation with bone mineral density (BMD) have not been evaluated. Objective To examine the relation of dietary protein food clusters with BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total femur and lumbar spine among middle-aged and older men and women. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants and setting 2,758 community-dwelling individuals from the Framingham Offspring Study. Methods BMD was measured by Lunar DPX-L in 1996–2001. Dietary intakes were estimated using the Willett food frequency questionnaire in either 1995–1998 or 1998–2001, and the exam closest to a participant’s BMD measurement was used. Cluster analysis (fastclus procedure, k-means method) was used to classify participants into groups, determined by major sources of protein. Generalized linear regression was used to compare adjusted least-squares mean BMD across protein food clusters for all pairwise comparisons. Results From 2,758 participants (44% men; mean age 61 ± 9y, range 29–86y), five protein food clusters were identified (chicken, fish, processed foods, red meat, low-fat milk). Three of these food clusters showed associations with BMD. The red meat protein food cluster presented with significantly lower femoral neck BMD compared to the low-fat milk cluster (red meat: 0.898 ± 0.005 versus low-fat milk: 0.919 ± 0.007, p=0.04). Further, the processed foods protein cluster presented with significantly lower femoral neck BMD compared to the low fat milk cluster (processed foods: 0.897 ± 0.004 versus low-fat milk: 0.919 ± 0.007, p=0.02). A similar, yet non-significant trend was observed for other BMD sites examined. Conclusions Diets with the greatest proportion of protein intake from red meat and processed foods may not be as beneficial to the skeleton compared to dietary patterns where the highest proportion of protein is derived from low-fat milk. PMID:26038297

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Bereavement and Childbirths in the Offspring: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gómez, Guadalupe; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The decline in birth rates is a concern in public health. Fertility is partly determined before birth by the intrauterine environment and prenatal exposure to maternal stress could, through hormonal disturbance, play a role. There has been such evidence from animal studies but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring. Materials and Methods This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973 and follow-up started at the age of 12 years. Subjects were categorized as exposed if their mothers lost a close relative during pregnancy or the year before and unexposed otherwise. The main outcomes were age at first child and age-specific mean numbers of childbirths. Data was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazards models stratified by gender and adjusted for several covariates. Subanalyses were performed considering the type of relative deceased and timing of bereavement. Results A total of 4,121,596 subjects were followed-up until up to 41 years of age. Of these subjects, 93,635 (2.3%) were exposed and 981,989 (23.8%) had at least one child during follow-up time. Compared to unexposed, the hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval] of having at least one child for exposed males and females were 0.98 [0.96–1.01] and 1.01 [0.98–1.03], respectively. We found a slightly reduced probability of having children in females born to mothers who lost a parent with HR = 0.97 [0.94–0.99] and increased probability in females born to mothers who lost another child (HR = 1.09 [1.04–1.14]), the spouse (HR = 1.29 [1.12–1.48]) or a sibling (HR = 1.13 [1.01–1.27]). Conclusions Our results suggested no overall association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and having a child in early adulthood but a longer time of follow-up is necessary in order to reach a

  1. Synthesis of Sensor Fish Data for Assessment of Fish Passage Conditions at Turbines, Spillways, and Bypass Facilities – Phase 1: The Dalles Dam Spillway Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Serkowski, John A.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the characterization of spillway passage conditions at The Dalles Dam in 2006 and the effort to complete a comprehensive database for data sets from The Dalles Dam spillway Sensor Fish and balloon-tagged live fish experiments. Through The Dalles Dam spillway case study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated the database as an efficient means for accessing and retrieving system-wide data for the U.S Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

  2. Geo-environmental Study to Identify the Affecting Factors on Dohuk's Dam and the city (Northren Iraq) by Use Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdon, Alaa

    2010-05-01

    The Dohuk's dam is one of the most important Aggregated dams in Iraq, located about 1 km from Dohuk city in northern Iraq, So; this vital project provides Dohuk city by water while the city formerly dependent on wells water prior to the establishing of the dam, and this is one of the main reasons for land-use expansion in Dohuk city and its vicinity,which is meant that the Dohuk's dam safety factor ,it is the key of the city safety factor .This dam has initiated the establishment of the dam in 1980 and was established in 1988, and it's capacity is 47.5 million cubic meters. This study aims to analyze the morphometric or geometric properties and the environmental factors at drainage systems and drainage network for Dohuk area's drainage basins (which recharges water of Dohuk Dam's Lake and it is accumulated by rainfall and spring water) scientifically and geometrically. Study of the geology of construction area of the dam Structuraly and tectonically. Satellite image, topographic maps and aerial photographs used in this study for merging its results together and preparing a drainage basin's maps and a geologic interpretation map for the study area to recognize the important geologic impact on the river which comes out from dam lake, also some of the field work investigation has been depended in this study. As a final result from morphometric analysis of drainage basins, tectonic analysis and geological investigations for study area, found as the following: 1 - Determining the amount of the accumulated sediments on the dam body, which has been carried by the collected rain-full water from the drainage basins, snow and spring water (the resources of Dam Lake). Study of the impact of these deposits on dam stability and evaluate the risk of these deposits on dam body and on its safety. 2 - Identification of geological features, which are that threaten the safety of the river of city which concern the only resource for the city and stability of dam body and its related

  3. Application of the contingent valuation method in a developing country: a case study of the Yusufeli dam in northeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alp, Emre; Yetiş, Ulkü

    2010-01-01

    Hydroelectric power plants and dams often play an important role in developing countries in terms of their contribution to economy. In accordance with the energy policies of Turkish Republic, Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Northeastern Turkey have been initiated. In this study, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was conducted in Yusufeli Village to determine the environmental costs of the Yusufeli Project. The purpose is to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) of Yusufeli Village residents for restoration of the environmental impacts of the dam project and also to investigate the underlying economic, psychological, and social motivations for WTP. WTP was calculated as US$761 per person which can further be used in the cost-benefit analysis. The results from the study suggest that application of the CVM in rural and urban areas located in the same region can show differences.

  4. Early-Onset Paternal Smoking and Offspring Adiposity: Further Investigation of a Potential Intergenerational Effect Using the HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Romundstad, Pål; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Using the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) Study, we find that paternal smoking during pre-adolescence (study and we consider it improbable that early onset paternal smoking should influence specifically sons' BMI in one population and daughters' BMI in another. However, despite our considerable sample size (>45,000 offspring), we cannot rule out a weaker association, perhaps common to sons and daughters, which would be consistent with the ALSPAC study. Alternatively, we discuss whether confounding, chance in parallel tests, or sample selection effects might explain the observed associations of early paternal smoking with offspring BMI. PMID:27911909

  5. Preliminary study of anxiety symptoms, family dysfunction, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Chang, Kiki D; Hallmayer, Joachim; Howe, Meghan E; Kim, Eunjoo; Hong, Seung Chul; Singh, Manpreet K

    2015-02-01

    Several genetic and environmental factors place youth offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) at high risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Recent studies suggest that anxiety symptoms, even at subclinical levels, have been associated with an increased risk for developing BD. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been implicated in the pathophysiology of both BD and anxiety disorders. We aimed to explore whether anxiety in BD offspring was associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. 64 BD offspring (mean age: 13.73 (S.D. 3.45) M = 30, F = 34) and 51 HC (mean age: 13.68 (S.D. 2.68) M = 23, F = 28) were compared on presence of the met allele and on scores from the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). To assess family function, we used the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-IV). The Baron & Kenny method was the statistical approach used to examine the moderating effects between variables. BD offspring showed higher levels of overall anxiety than did the HC group. BD offspring with the val/val genotype showed higher levels of anxiety than BD offspring with other genotypes. No significant levels of anxiety or its association with BDNF genotype were found in the HC group. BD offspring group showed significantly more family dysfunction when compared with the HC group and the family dysfunction moderated the association between the BDNF genotype and anxiety symptoms. This study demonstrated the potential interplay of three factors: BD offspring, anxiety symptoms and family dysfunction.

  6. Gestational diabetes influences retinal Muller cells in rat’s offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tabasi, Akramsadat; Ghafari, Soraya; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Shekari, Majid Asadi; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The Muller cell is the principal glial cell of the vertebrate retina. The expression of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the Muller cells was used as a cellular marker for retinal damage. This study was done to evaluate the effect of gestational diabetes on retinal Muller cells in rat’s offspring. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 12 Wistar rat dams were randomly allocated in control and diabetic groups. Gestational diabetes was induced by 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin at the first day of gestation, intraperitoneally. Dams in control group received an equivalent volume normal saline. Eye of six offspring of each group were removed at postnatal day 28 (P28). The histopathological changes in retina were examined through H&E staining and ultrastructure transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of GFAP was examined using Immunohisto-chemical staining of GFAP in Muller cells. Photographs of retina were taken using Olympus BX51 microscope and a digital camera DP12 and EM LEO906; Zeiss, Germany. Results: In the control rat’s offspring, GFAP expression was not significant in Muller cells. According to the optical microscope images, GFAP expression was observed in the processes of the Muller cell in the inner plexiform layer of retina in offspring of diabetic mothers. In TEM technique, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were observed in Muller cell of diabetic offspring. Conclusion: This study showed that the uncontrolled gestational diabetes can increase GFAP expression in Muller cells and retinal thickness of retinal layer in rat offspring’s, therefore uncontrolled gestational can damage the Muller cells. PMID:28293400

  7. Diagnostic x-ray exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B E; Klein, R; Linton, K L; Franke, T

    1993-01-01

    The Beaver Dam Eye Study is a population-based study of common age-related eye diseases. During the standardized medical history, the 4926 subjects were asked whether they had ever had a chest x-ray, computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan of the head, other x-rays of the head, x-rays of the abdomen, or other diagnostic x-rays. The eye examination included photographs of the lenses of the eyes, which were subsequently graded according to protocol. Nuclear sclerosis and posterior subcapsular opacity were significantly associated with CAT scans. If these relationships are causal, it would highlight the importance of minimizing such exposure to the lens of the eye. PMID:8460743

  8. Mothers' birth weight and survival of their offspring: population based study.

    PubMed Central

    Skjaerven, R.; Wilcox, A. J.; Oyen, N.; Magnus, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a baby's survival is related to the mother's birth weight. DESIGN: Population based dataset for two generations. SETTING: Population registry in Norway. SUBJECTS: All birth records for women born in Norway since 1967 were linked to births during 1981-94, thereby forming 105104 mother-offspring units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perinatal mortality specific for weight for offspring in groups of maternal birth weight (with 500 g categories in both). RESULTS: A mother's birth weight was strongly associated with the weight of her baby. Maternal birth weight was associated with perinatal survival of her baby only for mothers with birth weights under 2000 g. These mothers were more likely to lose a baby in the perinatal period (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.7). Among mothers with a birth weight over 2000 g there was no overall association between mother's weight and infant survival. There was, however, a strong interaction between mother's birth weight, infant birth weight, and infant survival. Mortality among small babies was much higher for those whose mothers had been large at birth. For example, babies weighing 2500-2999 g had a threefold higher mortality if their mother's birth weight had been high (> or = 4000 g) than if the mother had been small (2500-2999 g). CONCLUSION: Mothers who weighed less than 2000 g at birth have a higher risk of losing their own babies. For mothers who weighed > or = 2000 g their birth weight provides a benchmark for judging the growth of their offspring. Babies who are small relative to their mother's birth weight are at increased risk of mortality. PMID:9161309

  9. The effect of maternal pravastatin therapy on adverse sensorimotor outcomes of the offspring in a murine model of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Carver, Alissa R; Tamayo, Esther; Perez-Polo, J Regino; Saade, George R; Hankins, Gary D V; Costantine, Maged M

    2014-04-01

    Animal and human studies show that in-utero exposure to preeclampsia alters fetal programming and results in long-term adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the offspring. Human epidemiologic data also suggest that offspring born to preeclamptic mothers are also at risk of adverse long term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Pravastatin, a hydrophilic lipid-lowering drug with pleiotropic properties, was found to prevent the altered cardiovascular phenotype of preeclampsia and restore fetal growth in animal models, providing biological plausibility for its use as a preventive agent for preeclampsia. In this study, we used a murine model of preeclampsia based on adenovirus over-expression of the anti-angiogenic factor soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, and demonstrated that adult offspring born to preeclamptic dams perform poorly on assays testing vestibular function, balance, and coordination, and that prenatal pravastatin treatment prevents impairment of fetal programming.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of One-carbon Metabolism-related Marker in Liver of Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Ah; Lee, Ji Hye; Kwon, Eun Jin; Yoo, Jae Young; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Young Ju

    2015-11-01

    Maternal food intake has a significant effect on the fetal environment, and an inadequate maternal diet may result in intrauterine growth restriction. Intrauterine growth restriction newborn rat pups nursed by normal diet-fed dams exhibited rapid catch-up growth, which plays a critical role in the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease in later life. Specifically, one-carbon metabolism in the liver plays a critical role in placental and fetal growth. Impaired functioning of one-carbon metabolism is associated with increased homocysteine levels. In this study, we applied a comprehensive proteomic approach to identify differential expression of proteins related to one-carbon metabolism in the livers of rat offspring as an effect of maternal food restriction during gestation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002578. We determined that betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1, and ATP synthase subunit beta mitochondrial (ATP5B) expression levels were significantly reduced in the livers of rat offspring exposed to maternal food restriction during gestation compared with in the offspring of rats fed a normal diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression levels of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1, and ATP synthase subunit beta mitochondrial were negatively correlated with serum homocysteine concentration in male offspring exposed to maternal food restriction during gestation and normal diet during lactation. However, in female offspring only expression levels of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 were negatively correlated with homocysteine concentration. This study shows that maternal food restriction during late gestation and normal diet during lactation lead to increased homocysteine concentration through disturbance of one-carbon metabolism in the livers of male offspring. This suggests that male offspring have an increased gender

  11. Impacts of settlement, damming, and hydromanagement in two boreal lakes: A comparative paleolimnological study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serieyssol, C.A.; Edlund, M.B.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Namakan Lake, located in shared border waters in northeastern Minnesota and northwestern Ontario, was subjected to several anthropogenic impacts including logging, damming, water-level manipulations, and perhaps climate change. We used paleolimnology to determine how these stressors impacted Namakan Lake in comparison to a control lake (Lac La Croix) that was not subject to damming and hydromanagement. One core was retrieved from each lake for 210Pb dating and analysis of loss-on-ignition and diatom composition. 210Pb-derived chronologies from the cores indicated that sediment accumulation increased after logging and damming in Namakan Lake; Lac La Croix showed no significant change. Loss-on-ignition analysis also showed an increase in concentration and accumulation of inorganic material after damming in Namakan Lake; again, minimal changes were observed in Lac La Croix. Diatom communities in both lakes displayed community shifts at the peak of logging. Simultaneous, post-1970s diatom community changes may reflect regional climate warming. Taxonomic richness in Namakan Lake decreased sharply after damming and the peak of logging, and was followed by a slow recovery to taxonomic richness similar to that prior to damming. Ecological variability among post-damming diatom communities, however, was greater in Namakan Lake than in Lac La Croix. A diatom calibration set was used to reconstruct historical conductivity and total phosphorus (TP). Lac La Croix showed little historical change in conductivity and TP. In contrast, conductivity increased for several decades in Namakan Lake after damming, possibly in relation to several large fires and flooding. Total phosphorus also increased in Namakan Lake after damming, with a possible decrease in the last decade to pre-damming TP levels. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  12. Using Genetic Variation to Explore the Causal Effect of Maternal Pregnancy Adiposity on Future Offspring Adiposity: A Mendelian Randomisation Study

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Janine F.; Gaillard, Romy; McMahon, George

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that greater maternal adiposity during pregnancy affects lifelong risk of offspring fatness via intrauterine mechanisms. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of intrauterine exposure to greater maternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring BMI and fat mass from childhood to early adulthood. Methods and Findings We used maternal genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to test the causal effect of maternal BMI in pregnancy on offspring fatness (BMI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] determined fat mass index [FMI]) in a MR approach. This was investigated, with repeat measurements, from ages 7 to 18 in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2,521 to 3,720 for different ages). We then sought to replicate findings with results for BMI at age 6 in Generation R (n = 2,337 for replication sample; n = 6,057 for total pooled sample). In confounder-adjusted multivariable regression in ALSPAC, a 1 standard deviation (SD, equivalent of 3.7 kg/m2) increase in maternal BMI was associated with a 0.25 SD (95% CI 0.21–0.29) increase in offspring BMI at age 7, with similar results at later ages and when FMI was used as the outcome. A weighted genetic risk score was generated from 32 genetic variants robustly associated with BMI (minimum F-statistic = 45 in ALSPAC). The MR results using this genetic risk score as an IV in ALSPAC were close to the null at all ages (e.g., 0.04 SD (95% CI -0.21–0.30) at age 7 and 0.03 SD (95% CI -0.26–0.32) at age 18 per SD increase in maternal BMI), which was similar when a 97 variant generic risk score was used in ALSPAC. When findings from age 7 in ALSPAC were meta-analysed with those from age 6 in Generation R, the pooled confounder-adjusted multivariable regression association was 0.22 SD (95% CI 0.19–0.25) per SD increase in maternal BMI and the pooled MR effect (pooling the 97 variant score results from ALSPAC with the 32

  13. Analysis of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after Historic Dam Removal - two French case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent

    2014-05-01

    IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary analysis of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, historical and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM

  14. Differential effects of repeated long and brief maternal separation on behaviour and neuroendocrine parameters in Wistar dams.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Malin B; Johansson, Linda M; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Arborelius, Lotta

    2009-10-12

    Repeated, prolonged maternal separation has been suggested to model the development of a depression-like syndrome in rats. The long separations from the pups have been proposed to be stressful for the dams, which in turn could mediate the changes seen in adult offspring. In the present study we investigated whether prolonged maternal separation really is stressful for rat dams by studying parameters known to be affected by long-term stress such as spontaneous motor activity, anxiety-like behaviour, adrenal gland weight and plasma corticosterone levels. Dams were separated from their litter for either 4 h (MS240) or 15 min (MS15) on eight random days during postnatal day 1-14, or left undisturbed (animal facility reared, AFR). After weaning MS240 dams showed decreased peripheral activity and habituated slower in horizontal activity. On the contrary, MS15 dams showed more peripheral activity and less rearing activity compared to both AFR and MS240 dams when habituated to the testing apparatus, suggesting that MS15 dams are more anxious. The adrenal glands from MS15 dams weighed significantly less and plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher compared to AFR and MS240 dams. These results suggest that repeated brief maternal separations from pups could be stressful for rat mothers, whereas prolonged separations are not. Since these results are in contrast to the current notion that the short separation procedure may be considered as a safe milieu, whereas the prolonged separations have been suggested to be stressful for both dams and pups, further studies in this field are warranted.

  15. Maternal Vitamin D Status at Week 30 of Gestation and Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Health at 20 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study over Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Grandström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant women and since the fetus relies exclusively on maternal supply, deficiency could potentially interfere with fetal development. Vitamin D blood concentrations during pregnancy have been associated with offspring cardio-metabolic health in a few previous studies but the evidence is still inconsistent and only one previous study has followed the offspring into adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal serum concentration of vitamin D (25(OH)D) in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at 20 years. Subjects/Methods A follow up study of a Danish birth cohort from 1988–89 (n = 965) was conducted. A blood sample was drawn from the women in week 30 of gestation. In 2008–2009, 95% of the original mother and child dyads could be identified in the central registration registry and were alive and living in Denmark. The offspring were followed up with self-reported anthropometrics (N = 629, 69%) and a clinical examination (N = 410, 45%). Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the association between maternal 25(OH)D and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors adjusting for potential confounders. Results No overall association was observed between maternal 25(OH)D in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, the analyses did suggest a possible inverse association with blood pressure in females. Conclusions No clear association between maternal 25(OH)D concentration in week 30 of gestation and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the 20 year old offspring was found. PMID:27764169

  16. Gestational ethanol and nicotine exposure: effects on maternal behavior, oxytocin, and offspring ethanol intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    McMurray, M S; Williams, S K; Jarrett, T M; Cox, E T; Fay, E E; Overstreet, D H; Walker, C H; Johns, J M

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy is common, despite the known adverse effects of these drugs on fetal development. Though studies on the effects of each drug separately are published, little is known about the effect of concurrent use of alcohol and nicotine in humans or in preclinical models. In this report, we examined the impact of continuous gestational exposure to both ethanol via liquid diet and nicotine via an osmotic minipump on maternal behavior, offspring ethanol intake, and oxytocin levels in a rat model. Dams were tested for the onset of maternal behavior with litters of unexposed surrogate pups and then killed to examine oxytocin levels within specific brain regions. Drug-exposed offspring reared by surrogate dams were tested for ethanol intake at either adolescence or adulthood, and oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions after behavioral tests. Dams exhibited minor deficits in maternal care, which were associated with lower oxytocin levels in both the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic areas compared to control dams. Prenatal exposure altered sex-specific ethanol intake, with differential effects at adolescence and adulthood. Oxytocin system changes were also apparent in the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic regions of drug-exposed adolescent and adult offspring. These results suggest that dam treatment with ethanol and nicotine can somewhat negatively affect the early rearing environment, and that prenatal exposure to both of these drugs results in drinking behavior differing from what would be expected from either drug alone. Oxytocin's possible involvement in the mediation of these effects is highlighted.

  17. Gestational Ethanol and Nicotine Exposure: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Oxytocin, and Offspring Ethanol Intake in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, M.S.; Williams, S.K.; Jarrett, T.M.; Cox, E.T.; Fay, E.E.; Overstreet, D.H.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy is common, despite the known adverse effects of these drugs on fetal development. Though studies on the effects of each drug separately are published, little is known about the effect of concurrent use of alcohol and nicotine in humans or in preclinical models. In this report, we examined the impact of continuous gestational exposure to both ethanol via liquid diet and nicotine via an osmotic minipump on maternal behavior, offspring ethanol intake, and oxytocin levels in a rat model. Dams were tested for the onset of maternal behavior with litters of unexposed surrogate pups and then killed to examine oxytocin levels within specific brain regions. Drug-exposed offspring reared by surrogate dams were tested for ethanol intake at either adolescence or adulthood, and oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions after behavioral tests. Dams exhibited minor deficits in maternal care, which were associated with lower oxytocin levels in both the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic areas compared to control dams. Prenatal exposure altered sex-specific ethanol intake, with differential effects at adolescence and adulthood. Oxytocin system changes were also apparent in the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic regions of drug-exposed adolescent and adult offspring. These results suggest that dam treatment with ethanol and nicotine can somewhat negatively affect the early rearing environment, and that prenatal exposure to both of these drugs results in drinking behavior differing from what would be expected from either drug alone. Oxytocin’s possible involvement in the mediation of these effects is highlighted. PMID:18664381

  18. Water Management Models in Practice: A Case Study of the Aswan High Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ashry, M. T.; Alford, D. L.

    1984-04-01

    The stated purpose of this volume is the development and evaluation of operating policies for the Aswan High Dam and their relation to the development of water resources policy in Egypt. That objective is admirably fulfilled through discussions of water use in Egypt and the operation objectives of the High Dam, the behavior of the physical system and simulation of the reservoir, a realtime management model of the dam, management of water shortages and trade-offs between major uses, and coordinated operation of the dam with new upstream as well as downstream developments.The High Dam has been a source of controversy, particularly with regard to its environmental impacts. Its adverse effects include changes in the water table and attendant salt buildup in irrigated areas, excessive growth of aquatic plants below the dam, shoreline erosion, and increases in water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis (bilharzia). The dam was intended to offset rapid population growth by increasing food supplies through the transformation of irrigated land in southern Egypt from seasonal to perennial cultivation and by providing water for the reclamation of desert land. Unfortunately, such benefits have been outstripped by the rapidly growing population, and water shortages will be experienced by the end of the century.

  19. Study on Optimal Grouting Timing for Controlling Uplift Deformation of a Super High Arch Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Li, Qingbin; Liu, Hongyuan; Yu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    A grouting model is developed for use during the grouting of the complex foundation of a super high arch dam. The purpose as to determine the optimal grouting timing and appropriate grouting pressure involved in controlling the uplift deformation of the dam. The model determines the optimal grouting time as the height of the arch dam increases with the concrete pouring, by checking the tensile stresses in the dam against standard specifications. The appropriate grouting pressures are given on the basis of the actual grouting pressures monitored during the upstream riverbed foundation grouting. An engineering procedure, applying the model, was then proposed and used during foundation grouting under the toe block of the Xiluodu super high-arch dam in south-western China. The quality of the foundation grouting was evaluated against the results from pressurized water permeability tests, acoustic wave velocity tests, elastic modulus tests and panoramic photographing of the rockmass on completion of the foundation grouting. The results indicated that the proposed grouting model can be applied to effectively reduce the uplift deformation and associated cracking risk for super high arch dams, and it can be concluded that the proposed engineering grouting procedure is a valuable tool for improving foundation grouting under the toe blocks of a super high arch dam.

  20. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure On Plasma Oxytocin Concentrations In Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rat dams and offspring were exposed to 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g hypergravity (hg) from Gestational day (G) 11 until Postnatal day (P) 10. To ascertain the role of maternal factors in reduced postnatal body weights of offspring developed in hg, the dams' lactational hormones were measured. Oxytocin (OT), the major hormone responsible for milk ejection, was reduced in hg dams whereas prolactin (Prl), involved in milk production, was unchanged. Video analyses of nursing behavior revealed that hg dams spent more time nursing relative to 1-g controls. We hypothesized impaired milk transfer from dam to pup, however pup body weight gains following a discrete suckling episode were comparable across conditions. Changes in lactational hormones and nursing behavior by dams exposed to hg do not account for reduced body masses of their offspring.

  1. Maternal Food Restriction during Pregnancy and Lactation Adversely Affect Hepatic Growth and Lipid Metabolism in Three-Week-Old Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangmi; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Jung, Sung-Chul; Jo, Inho; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition influences the early development of foetal adaptive changes for survival. We explored the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation and lactation on hepatic growth and function. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal or a food-restricted (FR) diet during gestation and/or lactation. We performed analyses of covariance (adjusting for the liver weight/body weight ratio) to compare hepatic growth and lipid metabolism among the offspring. Maternal FR during gestation triggered the development of wide spaces between hepatic cells and increased the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in three-week-old male offspring compared with controls (both p < 0.05). Offspring nursed by FR dams exhibited wider spaces between hepatic cells and a lower liver weight/body weight ratio than control offspring, and increased mTOR expression (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the significant decrease in expression of lipogenic-related genes was dependent on carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein, despite the increased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated increased expression of key metabolic regulators (mTOR and SREBP1), alterations in lipid metabolism, and deficits in hepatic growth in the offspring of FR-treated dams. PMID:27983688

  2. Advanced paternal age and childhood cancer in offspring: A nationwide register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Urhoj, Stine Kjaer; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-03

    Cancer initiation is presumed to occur in utero for many childhood cancers and it has been hypothesized that advanced paternal age may have an impact due to the increasing number of mutations in the sperm DNA with increasing paternal age. We examined the association between paternal age and specific types of childhood cancer in offspring in a large nationwide cohort of 1,904,363 children born in Denmark from 1978 through 2010. The children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry and were linked to information from other national registers, including the Danish Cancer Registry. In total, 3,492 children were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 15 years. The adjusted hazard ratio of childhood cancer according to paternal age was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regressions. We found a 13% (95% confidence interval: 4-23%) higher hazard rate for every 5 years advantage in paternal age for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while no clear association was found for acute myeloid leukemia (hazard ratio pr. 5 years = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.30). The estimates for neoplasms in the central nervous system suggested a lower hazard rate with higher paternal age (hazard ratio pr. 5 years = 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.01). No clear associations were found for the remaining childhood cancer types. The findings suggest that paternal age is moderately associated with a higher rate of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but not acute myeloid leukemia, in offspring, while no firm conclusions could be made for other specific cancer types.

  3. Effects of exposure to a cafeteria diet during gestation and after weaning on the metabolism and body weight of adult male offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Goularte, Jéferson Ferraz; de Araujo da Cunha, Ana Carla; Caceres, Rafael Corrêa; Noschang, Cristie; da Silva Benetti, Carla; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we investigated whether maternal exposure to a cafeteria diet affects the metabolism and body composition of offspring and whether such an exposure has a cumulative effect during the lifetime of the offspring. Female rats were fed a control (CON) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet from their own weaning to the weaning of their offspring. At 21 d of age, male offspring were divided into four groups by diet during gestation and after weaning (CON-CON, CON-CAF, CAF-CON and CAF-CAF). Blood was collected from dams (after weaning) and pups (at 30 and 120 d of age) by decapitation. CAF dams had significantly greater body weight and adipose tissue weight and higher concentrations of total cholesterol, insulin and leptin than CON dams (Student's t test). The energy intake of CAF rats was higher than that of CON rats regardless of the maternal diet (two-way ANOVA). Litters had similar body weights at weaning and at 30 d of age, but at 120 d, CON-CAF rats were heavier. At both ages, CAF rats had greater adipose tissue weight than CON rats regardless of the maternal diet, and the concentrations of TAG and cholesterol were similar between the two groups, as were blood glucose concentrations at 30 d of age. However, at 120 d of age, CAF rats were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and hyperleptinaemic regardless of the maternal diet. These findings suggest that maternal obesity does not modulate the metabolism of male offspring independently, modifying body weight only when associated with the intake of a cafeteria diet by the offspring.

  4. 107. DAM EARTH DIKE SUBMERSIBLE DAMS PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. DAM - EARTH DIKE - SUBMERSIBLE DAMS - PLANS & SECTIONS (ML-8-52/3-FS) March 1940 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  5. Erosion risk analysis by GIS in environmental impact assessments: a case study--Seyhan Köprü Dam construction.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Kurum, E

    2002-11-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a systematically constructed procedure whereby environmental impacts caused by proposed projects are examined. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are crucially efficient tools for impact assessment and their use is likely to dramatically increase in the near future. GIS have been applied to a wide range of different impact assessment projects and dams among them have been taken as the case work in this article. EIA Regulation in force in Turkey requires the analysis of steering natural processes that can be adversely affected by the proposed project, particularly in the section of the analysis of the areas with higher landscape value. At this point, the true potential value of GIS lies in its ability to analyze spatial data with accuracy. This study is an attempt to analyze by GIS the areas with higher landscape value in the impact assessment of dam constructions in the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal. A method needs to be defined before the overlapping step by GIS to analyze the areas with higher landscape value. In the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal of the present work, considering the geological conditions and the steep slopes of the area and the type of the project, the most important natural process is erosion. Therefore, the areas of higher erosion risk were considered as the Areas with Higher Landscape Value from the conservation demands points of view.

  6. 1000 dams down and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff J.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Forty years ago, the demolition of large dams was mostly fiction, notably plotted in Edward Abbey's novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Its 1975 publication roughly coincided with the end of large-dam construction in the United States. Since then, dams have been taken down in increasing numbers as they have filled with sediment, become unsafe or inefficient, or otherwise outlived their usefulness (1) (see the figure, panel A). Last year's removals of the 64-m-high Glines Canyon Dam and the 32-m-high Elwha Dam in northwestern Washington State were among the largest yet, releasing over 10 million cubic meters of stored sediment. Published studies conducted in conjunction with about 100 U.S. dam removals and at least 26 removals outside the United States are now providing detailed insights into how rivers respond (2, 3).

  7. Maternal Copper Deficiency Perpetuates Altered Vascular Function in Sprague-Dawley Rat Offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the consequences of maternal Cu (Cu) deficiency on the vascular function of offspring or on perpetuation of vascular effects to a second generation. We examined vascular functional responses in mesenteric arteries from Cu-deficient Sprague-Dawley rat dams and from offspring dir...

  8. Hydropower and the environment: A case study at Glen Canyon Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The management of hydroelectric resources in the Colorado River requires a balancing of hydrologic, social, natural and cultural resources. The resulting management often has to deal with inherently conflicting objectives, short and long-term goals, time frames and operational flexibility. Glen Canyon Dam, AZ, on the Colorado River, controls the release of water into the Grand Canyon. The dam has been under intense public scrutiny since it was completed in 1963. An Environmental Impact Statement evaluating the future operations and options for Glen Canyon Dam was initiated by the Department of the Interior in 1989 and completed in 1995. An Adaptive Management approach to future operational management has been developed as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement process. Future operations at Glen Canyon Dam will take into consideration the need to balance water movement and hydroelectricity development with natural, recreation, Native American and cultural needs. Future management of rivers requires acknowledgement of the dynamic nature of ecosystems and the need to link scientific information into the decision-making process. Lessons learned and programs developed at Glen Canyon Dam may be applied to other river systems.

  9. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms.

  10. Histological and Metabolic State of Dams Suckling Small Litter or MSG-Treated Pups.

    PubMed

    Capriglioni Cancian, Claudia Regina; Leite, Nayara Carvalho; Montes, Elisangela Gueiber; Fisher, Stefani Valeria; Waselcoski, Leticia; Lopes Stal, Emily Caroline; Christoforo, Renata Zanardini; Grassiolli, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Lactation is an important function that is dependent on changes in the maternal homeostasis and sustained by histological maternal adjustments. We evaluated how offspring manipulations during the lactational phase can modulate maternal morphologic aspects in the mammary gland, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets of lactating dams. Two different models of litter-manipulation-during-lactation were used: litter sizes, small litters (SL) or normal litters (NL) and subcutaneous injections in the puppies of monosodium glutamate (MSG), or saline (CON). SL Dams and MSG Dams presented an increase in WAT content and higher plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and insulin, in relation to NL Dams and CON Dams, respectively. The MG of SL Dams and MSG Dams presented a high adipocyte content and reduced alveoli development and the milk of the SL Dams presented a higher calorie and triglyceride content, compared to that of the NL Dams. SL Dams presented a reduction in islet size and greater lipid droplet accumulation in BAT, in relation to NL Dams. SL Dams and MSG Dams present similar responses to offspring manipulation during lactation, resulting in changes in metabolic parameters. These alterations were associated with higher fat accumulation in BAT and changes in milk composition only in SL Dams.

  11. Histological and Metabolic State of Dams Suckling Small Litter or MSG-Treated Pups

    PubMed Central

    Capriglioni Cancian, Claudia Regina; Montes, Elisangela Gueiber; Fisher, Stefani Valeria; Waselcoski, Leticia; Lopes Stal, Emily Caroline; Christoforo, Renata Zanardini; Grassiolli, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Lactation is an important function that is dependent on changes in the maternal homeostasis and sustained by histological maternal adjustments. We evaluated how offspring manipulations during the lactational phase can modulate maternal morphologic aspects in the mammary gland, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets of lactating dams. Two different models of litter-manipulation-during-lactation were used: litter sizes, small litters (SL) or normal litters (NL) and subcutaneous injections in the puppies of monosodium glutamate (MSG), or saline (CON). SL Dams and MSG Dams presented an increase in WAT content and higher plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and insulin, in relation to NL Dams and CON Dams, respectively. The MG of SL Dams and MSG Dams presented a high adipocyte content and reduced alveoli development and the milk of the SL Dams presented a higher calorie and triglyceride content, compared to that of the NL Dams. SL Dams presented a reduction in islet size and greater lipid droplet accumulation in BAT, in relation to NL Dams. SL Dams and MSG Dams present similar responses to offspring manipulation during lactation, resulting in changes in metabolic parameters. These alterations were associated with higher fat accumulation in BAT and changes in milk composition only in SL Dams. PMID:28004032

  12. Impact of dam construction on river banks evolution and sediment dynamics. A case study from the Po River (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Pellegrini, C.; Crose, L.; Del Bianco, F.; Mercorella, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers draining densely populated landscapes are extremely impacted by modern human engineering: armored beds, artificial levees and dams modified natural fluvial dynamics, and consequently, the evolution of alluvial plains, deltas and coastal environments. Dams, in particular, segmented the longitudinal continuity of the river and reduced (or even interrupted) the export of sediment toward the sea. Here we investigate the impact of the Isola Serafini dam on the upstream portion of the Po River (Italy) influenced by backwater, by using an integrated approach of aerial and satellite images, longitudinal cross-sections, grain size analysis, backscatter data and multibeam bathymetry. The analysis of aerial photographs, acquired every 10 yr since the dam construction in 1960, and of longitudinal cross-sections, allows understanding how the river adjusts its profile in response to the backwater and quantifying areas of net river banks erosion and deposition in meanders. The drowning of the reaches influenced by backwater reduced the progradation of point bars and promoted the deposition of fine grained sediments, as highlighted by grain size analysis on surficial sediment sampled across and along the river course. Calibrated back-scatter data with grain-size distributions of two selected meanders, under the backwater effect and beyond, show how sands are progressively replaced by fine-grained sediments in the meander belt and in the river axis, mainly reflecting the reduction of flow velocity, inferred also by river bed roughness. The understanding of river and sediment dynamics under the influence of backwater due to dam construction is useful when studying pristine systems in which natural backwater affects their evolution, as in the case of the formation of standing water bodies during the drowning of an incised valley.

  13. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  14. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  15. Ethnic Differences in Glucose Homeostasis Markers between the Kyushu-Okinawa Population Study and the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ai, Masumi; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Otokozawa, Seiko; Asztalos, Bela F.; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Zhou, Yanhua; Liu, Ching-Ti; Jacques, Paul F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Furusyo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    We compared markers of glucose homeostasis and their association with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Fukuoka, Japanese subjects (n = 1108) and age-, gender- and menopausal status-matched participants in the Framingham Offspring Study (n = 1096). The markers examined included fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and glycated albumin, as well as body mass index (BMI), use of medications, and history of diabetes. The results showed that IFG prevalence in Japanese men (15.9%) and women (7.4%) were 50% less than those observed in Framingham men (34.5%) and women (21.4%) (P < 0.001). However, the diabetes prevalence in Japanese men at 13.3% was twice as high (P < 0.01) as the rate in Framingham men at 6.5%, while these rates were similar in women. Median insulin levels in Japanese men (4.6 μIU/mL) and women (4.3 μIU/mL) were about 50% lower (P < 0.001) than those in Framingham men (10.8 μIU/mL) and women (9.9 μIU/mL), as were insulin resistance values (P < 0.001). These population differences were also observed after subjects were stratified by glucose levels. In conclusion, our data indicate that there is significantly less IFG, lower insulin levels, and insulin resistance, but higher diabetes prevalence in Fukuoka men than in Framingham men, indicating that insulin deficiency may be an important cause of diabetes in Japan. PMID:27830830

  16. Mothers' and fathers' birth characteristics and perinatal mortality in their offspring: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nordtveit, Tone I; Melve, Kari K; Skjaerven, Rolv

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the associations between parental birthweight and gestational age with their perinatal outcomes. We investigated perinatal mortality risk in offspring in relation to maternal and paternal gestational age and birthweight. We used population-based generational data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1967-2006. Singletons in both generations were included, forming 520,794 mother-offspring and 376,924 father-offspring units. Perinatal mortality in offspring was not significantly associated with paternal gestational age or birthweight, whereas it was inversely associated with maternal gestational age. A threefold increased risk in perinatal mortality was found among offspring of mothers born at 28-30 weeks of gestation relative to offspring of mothers born at term (37-43 weeks) (relative risk: 2.9, 95% CI 1.9, 4.6). There was also an overall association between maternal birthweight and offspring perinatal mortality. Relative risk for mothers whose birthweight was <2000 g was 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 1.9), relative to mothers whose birthweight was 3500-3999 g. However, confined to mothers born at >or=34 weeks of gestation, the birthweight association was not significant. Weight-specific perinatal mortality in offspring was dependent on the birthweight of the mother and the father, that is, offspring who were small relative to their mother's or father's birthweight had increased perinatal mortality. In conclusion, a mother's gestational age, and not her birthweight, was significantly associated with perinatal mortality in the offspring, while there was no such association for the father.

  17. Methods for noninvasive bathymetric and velocity surveys for impoundment safety--A case study of Herrington Lake at Dix Dam near Burgin, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruby, A. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created bathymetric-contour and water-velocity vector maps for portions of Lake Herrington within 600 feet of the face of Dix Dam near Burgin, Kentucky. The mapping was in support of a study of noninvasive acoustic technology for assessing structural integrity of dams, both as a routine inspection tool or as an emergency tool during hydrologic events, such as high water or flooding. In April 2010, scientists from the USGS used a boat-mounted transducer and echo sounder to obtain bathymetric data to characterize lakebed relief and sediment distribution under a closed-intake condition. Also in April 2010, an acoustic Doppler current profiler was employed to measure water velocity and flow direction in the lake to locate velocities moving toward the dam face and, possibly, dam leakage. The bathymetric survey showed the present condition of fill in the reservoir since the dam was completed, as well as provided an outline of the lake floor. The velocity survey indicated no discernible flow pattern or direction within the study area; only one transect had shown a difference from the others that was noticeable. The noninvasive acoustic bathymetric and velocity surveys used during the case study showed promise in locating potential dam or intake maintenance areas. Additional case studies throughout the Nation are needed to more clearly define whether the methods for noninvasive bathymetric and velocity surveys for dam safety will be successful in a variety of settings.

  18. Influence of dams on sediment continuity: A study case of a natural metallic contamination.

    PubMed

    Frémion, Franck; Bordas, François; Mourier, Brice; Lenain, Jean-François; Kestens, Tim; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra

    2016-03-15

    Sediments play an important role on the quality of aquatic ecosystems, notably in the reservoir areas where they can either be a sink or a source of contaminants, depending on the management and hydrological conditions. The physicochemical properties of 25 surface sediments samples of a reservoir catchment (Vaussaire, Cantal, France) were studied. Results show a strong influence of dam presence, notably on the grain size and organic matter (OM) contents. The concentrations of trace metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were also measured and compared with worldwide reservoir concentrations and international sediment quality guideline levels in order to assess the intensity of the metallic contamination. Cr and Ni are the trace elements presenting the significantly highest values at the catchment scale. Enrichment Factors (EF), calculated using both local and national backgrounds, show that metals have mainly a natural origin, explaining especially the Cr and Ni values, linked with the composition of parental rocks. Unexpectedly, all the observed metal concentrations are lower in the reservoir than upstream and downstream, which might be related to the high fresh OM inputs in the reservoir, diluting the global metallic contamination. Multivariate statistical analyses, carried out in order to identify the relationship between the studied metals and sediment characteristics, tend to support this hypothesis, confirming the unusually low influence of such poorly-degraded OM on trace element accumulation in the reservoir.

  19. Studying and understanding the environmental impacts of the Three Gorges Dam in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Althaus, Paul; Bi, Renneng; Bieger, Katrin; Buzzo, Giovanni; Dumperth, Christian; Fohrer, Nicola; Rohn, Joachim; Strehmel, Alexander; Udelhoven, Thomas; Wei, Xiang; Zimmermann, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    network and early-warning system including local and regional authorities. Thus, the studies will contribute to a better understanding of the dimensions and dynamics of the ecological consequences of such large dam projects at the Yangtze River and worldwide.

  20. Effects of Maternal LPS Exposure during Pregnancy on Metabolic Phenotypes in Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mei; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Hu, Chun-Qiu; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Hua; Chen, Xi; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders in late life. Previous studies showed that mice exposed to LPS in late gestation induced fetal IUGR. The present study investigated the effects of maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in female adult offspring. Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD)15 to GD17. After lactation, female pups were fed with standard-chow diets (SD) or high-fat diets (HFD). Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were assessed 8 and 12 weeks after diet intervention. Hepatic triglyceride content was examined 12 weeks after diet intervention. As expected, maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy resulted in fetal IUGR. Although there was an increasing trend on fat mass in female offspring whose dams were exposed to LPS during pregnancy, maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy did not elevate the levels of fasting blood glucose and serum insulin and hepatic triglyceride content in female adult offspring. Moreover, maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy did not alter insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and liver in female adult offspring. Further analysis showed that maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy did not exacerbate HFD-induced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in female adult offspring. In addition, maternal LPS exposure during pregnancy did not aggravate HFD-induced elevation of hepatic triglyceride content in female adult offspring. In conclusion, LPS-induced IUGR does not alter metabolic phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:25479255

  1. Cocaine exposure prior to pregnancy alters the psychomotor response to cocaine and transcriptional regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Aya; Constantinof, Andrea; Pan, Pauline; Kupferschmidt, Dave A; McGowan, Patrick O; Erb, Suzanne

    2014-05-15

    There is evidence that maternal experience prior to pregnancy can play an important role in behavioral, physiological, and genetic programming of offspring. Likewise, exposure to cocaine in utero can result in marked changes in central nervous system function of offspring. In this study, we examined whether exposure of rat dams to cocaine prior to pregnancy subsequently alters indices of behavior, physiology, and gene expression in offspring. Multiple outcome measures were examined in adult male offspring: (1) behavioral expression of cocaine-induced psychomotor activation; (2) levels of corticosterone in response to immobilization stress; and (3) expression of multiple genes, including dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) and D2 (DRD2), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), in functionally relevant brain regions. Adult Sprague-Dawley females were exposed to cocaine (15-30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 10 days, and were then mated to drug naïve males of the same strain. Separate groups of adult male offspring were tested for their acute psychomotor response to cocaine (0, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), corticosterone responsivity to 20 min of immobilization stress, and expression of multiple genes using quantitative PCR. Offspring of dams exposed to cocaine prior to conception exhibited increased psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine, and upregulated gene expression of DRD1 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Neither stress-induced corticosterone levels nor gene expression of GR or CRF genes were altered. These data suggest that cocaine exposure before pregnancy can serve to enhance psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine in offspring, possibly via alterations in dopamine function that include upregulation of the DRD1.

  2. Parenteral Pethidine for labour pain relief and substance use disorder: 20-year follow-up cohort study in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kanhai, Humphrey; Rosendaal, Frits; van Dommelen, Paula; Swaab, Dick; Rodrigues Pereira, Erik; van de Wetering, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of intrapartum Pethidine pain analgesia increases the risk for substance use disorder in adult offspring. Design Analysis of data from a cohort study. Setting Academic hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. Participants 133 cases and 164 control individuals, aged 18–20 years at follow-up. Main outcome measure Incidence of substance use disorder or use of alcohol and tobacco. Results The lifetime use of addictive substances in children exposed to intrapartum Pethidine analgesia was 45% of 133 children versus 48% of 164 not-exposed subjects (adjusted OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.29). Recent use of alcohol, tobacco and hard drugs showed no statistical difference either. Conclusion Pethidine for labour pain medication appears not to be associated with substance misuse or smoking in later life. PMID:22649173

  3. Effects of maternal nutrition on conceptus growth and offspring performance: implications for beef cattle production.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Larson, D M; Vonnahme, K A

    2010-04-01

    Developmental programming is the concept that a maternal stimulus or insult at a critical period in fetal development has long-term effects on the offspring. Historically, considerable effort has been made to understand how nutrition influences health and productivity during the postnatal period. Whereas maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an essential role in proper fetal and placental development, less is known about how maternal nutrition affects the health and productivity of the offspring. Conceptus growth is sensitive to direct and indirect effects of maternal dietary intake. Even from the earliest stages of embryonic life, when nutrient requirements for conceptus growth are negligible, alterations in tissue composition can occur, influencing future growth of the compromised organ system. Not only is neonatal health compromised, but subsequent health may also be programmed because offspring from undernourished dams have exhibited poor growth and productivity and have developed significant diseases later in life. Although the literature is now evolving, with increasing evidence of how maternal nutrient restriction impairs several prenatal physiological variables, few studies have evaluated postnatal growth and development in livestock species, and fewer have evaluated it in beef cattle. In addition, very few studies have evaluated restriction of specific components of the diet during pregnancy (such as protein) on offspring growth and performance. This review focuses on how maternal nutrition affects conceptus growth and postnatal responses in beef cattle.

  4. Metabolic and Histopathological Effects of Fructose Intake During Pregestation, Gestation and Lactation in Rats and their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, Erkan; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Bolat, Ahmet; Topal, Turgut; Altan, Bilal; Fidancı, Kürşat; Saldır, Mehmet; Erdem, Galip; Gülgün, Mustafa; Gülcan Kurt, Yasemin; Güven, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between maternal fructose intake and metabolic outcome in their offspring. However, there is a paucity of data about the long-term effects of fructose intake on the offspring of fructose-fed dams. Therefore, we planned a study to evaluate the long-term effects of fructose intake on the offspring of dam rats fed a high-fructose diet. Methods: Sixteen virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 received a regular diet and Group 2 a high-fructose diet. Both groups received their experimental diets for 8 weeks before conception. They were mated and continued to feed with their experimental diet during mating and during their pregnancy and lactation periods. After weaning, the offspring from each group were divided into two groups. Group 1A received a regular diet, Group 1B - a fructose diet, Group 2A - a regular diet and Group 2B received a fructose diet. After weaning, the offspring were anesthetized and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver, kidney and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were harvested for histopathological examination. Primary antibodies against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined as early inflammation markers. Results: After weaning, while daily water consumption was found to be significantly higher in Groups 2B and 1B (p<0.01), daily laboratory chow consumption was significantly lower in Groups 1A and 2A (p<0.01). Body weight was significantly higher in Groups 1B and 2B (p<0.01). Serum glucose, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found to be increased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in Group 2B (p<0.05). The intensities of iNOS staining in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, COX-2 staining in the liver and both iNOS and COX-2 staining in the kidney were higher in Group 2B (p<0.05). Conclusion

  5. Predicted vitamin D status during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures in childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Granström, Charlotta; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-12-14

    In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on characteristics, dietary factors and lifestyle factors were collected on several occasions during pregnancy. We analysed the association between predicted vitamin D status, based on a subsample with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) biomarker measurements (n 1497) from gestation week 25, and first-time forearm fractures among offspring between birth and end of follow-up. Diagnoses were extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between predicted vitamin D status (based on smoking, season, dietary and supplementary vitamin D intake, tanning bed use and outdoor physical activity) in pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. Likewise, measured 25(OH)D, tanning bed use and dietary vitamin D intake were not associated with offspring forearm fractures. In mid-pregnancy, 91 % of the women reported intake of vitamin D from dietary supplements. Offspring of women who took >10 µg/d in mid-pregnancy had a significantly increased risk for fractures compared with the reference level of zero intake (hazard ratios (HR) 1·31; 95% CI 1·06, 1·62), but this was solely among girls (HR 1·48; 95% CI 1·10, 2·00). Supplement use in the peri-conceptional period exhibited similar pattern, although not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data indicated no protective effect of maternal vitamin D status with respect to offspring forearm fractures.

  6. The impact of maternal cafeteria diet on anxiety-related behaviour and exploration in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2011-05-03

    Contemporary trends in obesity mean that research into whether unbalanced diets could impact on behavioural traits became increasingly important. The timing of exposure to obesity is particularly important, as sensitive periods during development have been identified where dietary extremes play a critical role in determining adult risk of physiological dysfunction. To this end, female Wistar rats were fed on chow or cafeteria diet (CD) for 8 weeks from weaning until mating. Half of the mated animals within each group were crossed-over to the alternative diet. This generated four treatment groups, differing in their pre-gestational and gestational diets. After birth, offspring of dams from each of the 4 pregnancy groups were further divided into groups, either being fed chow or CD throughout lactation. Anxiety-related behaviour and exploration in the offspring were tested in the Elevated Plus Maze (EMP) and the Open Field (OF) at 10 weeks of age. Maternal obesity significantly reduced the EPM locomotor activity in male and female offspring and grooming in males. Lactational CD had an anxiolytic effect in male offspring as shown in the EPM (increased entries into and more time on open arms) and the OF (shorter latency to enter the centre). In both sexes, lactational CD reduced grooming upon exposure to the EPM and the OF. Post mortem analysis revealed a stimulant effect of lactational CD on adipose tissue growth. The present study demonstrates that pre-gestational, gestational and lactational maternal CD programme behaviour in the offspring with lactational CD reducing anxiety in the male offspring.

  7. Inbreeding and Offspring Sex Ratio in the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Cheoropsis liberiensis) Population Kept in Zoological Gardens.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Cwiertnia, Piotr; Borowska, Alicja; Barczak, Elżbieta; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the inbreeding level and its impact on offspring sex ratio in the pygmy hippopotamus population kept in zoological gardens. Records of pygmy hippopotamus born between 1873-2013 were extracted from the international studbook. Totally, 1357 individuals originating from 148 breeding units were included (individuals with unknown sex were omitted). The offspring sex ratio is defined as the number of sons to the total number of progeny of each dam and sire. Spearman's rank correlation was employed to examine the relationships between the inbreeding level and offspring sex ratio. Inbreeding coefficients and individual increase in inbreeding coefficients (included as a linear co-variable) were examined as well as the geographic region and birth period using general linear models. The average inbreeding coefficient was 5.39%. The following sex proportion was observed for the inbred population: 57% and 43% for females and males, respectively. A significant relationship between inbreeding level of parents and their offspring sex ratio were estimated for European zoological gardens, whereas in others geographic regions the dependencies were insignificant.

  8. Developmental fluoxetine exposure normalizes the long-term effects of maternal stress on post-operative pain in Sprague-Dawley rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Liesbeth; Rayen, Ine; Charlier, Thierry D; Fillet, Marianne; Houbart, Virginie; van Kleef, Maarten; Steinbusch, Harry W; Patijn, Jacob; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Elbert A; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2013-01-01

    Early life events can significantly alter the development of the nociceptive circuit. In fact, clinical work has shown that maternal adversity, in the form of depression, and concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment influence nociception in infants. The combined effects of maternal adversity and SSRI exposure on offspring nociception may be due to their effects on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Therefore, the present study investigated long-term effects of maternal adversity and/or SSRI medication use on nociception of adult Sprague-Dawley rat offspring, taking into account involvement of the HPA system. Dams were subject to stress during gestation and were treated with fluoxetine (2×/5 mg/kg/day) prior to parturition and throughout lactation. Four groups of adult male offspring were used: 1. Control+Vehicle, 2. Control+Fluoxetine, 3. Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, 4. Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Results show that post-operative pain, measured as hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli after hind paw incision, was decreased in adult offspring subject to prenatal stress alone and increased in offspring developmentally exposed to fluoxetine alone. Moreover, post-operative pain was normalized in prenatally stressed offspring exposed to fluoxetine. This was paralleled by a decrease in corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) levels in prenatally stressed offspring and a normalization of serum CBG levels in prenatally stressed offspring developmentally exposed to fluoxetine. Thus, developmental fluoxetine exposure normalizes the long-term effects of maternal adversity on post-operative pain in offspring and these effects may be due, in part, to the involvement of the HPA system.

  9. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations.

  10. Predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids in The Dalles Dam tailrace: field, laboratory, and habitat modeling studies (FY2000)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James H.; Barfoot, Craig A.; Sheer, Mindi B.

    2001-01-01

    Predation by resident fish is known to be a substantial cause of juvenile salmonid mortality, especially in dam tailraces and outfall locations. Conditions in The Dalles Dam tailrace are unique compared to other projects on the Columbia or Snake rivers, having a complex basin with a series of downriver islands where predators are known to reside. In May-June of 1999, northern pikeminnow and smallmouth bass were sampled in the tailrace of The Dalles Dam during periods immediately following the release of PIT-tagged juvenile salmonids for survival studies. Over twice as many smallmouth bass (N = 101) were collected as northern pikeminnow (N = 40), but none of the predators had PIT tags within their gut. A laboratory study was conducted to estimate the time required for PIT tags in juvenile salmonids to be evacuated from the gut of northern pikeminnow after consuming a tagged preyfish. Evacuation rate was sensitive to temperature, with median evacuation time being 21 h at 18 oC and 30 h at 14 oC. These results suggest that field studies to estimate predator population sizes, feeding rates, or predation on specific release groups would require considerably more effort than we allocated during 1999.

  11. Forebay Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling for The Dalles Dam to Support Behavior Guidance System Siting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2005-03-10

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to support the siting and design of a behavioral guidance system (BGS) structure in The Dalles Dam (TDA) forebay on the Columbia River. The work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (CENWP). The CFD results were an invaluable tool for the analysis, both from a Regional and Agency perspective (for the fish passage evaluation) and a CENWP perspective (supporting the BGS design and location). The new CFD model (TDA forebay model) included the latest bathymetry (surveyed in 1999) and a detailed representation of the engineered structures (spillway, powerhouse main, fish, and service units). The TDA forebay model was designed and developed in a way that future studies could easily modify or, to a large extent, reuse large portions of the existing mesh. This study resulted in these key findings: (1) The TDA forebay model matched well with field-measured velocity data. (2) The TDA forebay model matched observations made at the 1:80 general physical model of the TDA forebay. (3) During the course of this study, the methodology typically used by CENWP to contour topographic data was shown to be inaccurate when applied to widely-spaced transect data. Contouring methodologies need to be revisited--especially before such things as modifying the bathymetry in the 1:80 general physical model are undertaken. Future alignments can be evaluated with the model staying largely intact. The next round of analysis will need to address fish passage demands and navigation concerns. CFD models can be used to identify the most promising locations and to provide quantified metrics for biological, hydraulic, and navigation criteria. The most promising locations should then be further evaluated in the 1:80 general physical model.

  12. Flood prevention dams for arid regions at a micro-scale sub-catchment, case study: Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abushandi, Eyad

    2016-12-01

    Unexpected flash flooding is one of the periodic hydrological problems affecting the city of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia. The region has high potential for floods as it suffers high rainfall intensity in a short time and also has high urbanization rates and topographic complexity. Constructing flood prevention dams is one option to solve this problem. A cost-effective design requires a detailed feasibility study and analysis for the selection of suitable sites. The aim of this study was to develop a method for selecting a suitable site for flood protection dams in the Abu Saba'a district, the most affected part of the city of Tabuk during the flash flood in January 2013. Spatial analysis was applied using Landsat Thematic Mapper images and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model to select a site in the Abu Saba'a area. A simple model using ArcGIS was built including all suggested parameters. The results showed the best site for a dam was 2 km distance backfrom the area, where all parameter values matched. The results showed that the dynamic properties of land cover can affect site selection. It is therefore suggested that more field and hydrological data should be gathered for greater accuracy.

  13. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    PubMed Central

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary One of the most important factors influencing the health and welfare of puppies is the decision made by the breeder on which dam and sire they will breed from. Unfortunately, our understanding of what dog breeders consider important when selecting their dogs, particularly the dam, is limited. In order to bridge this gap, we conducted an online survey of Australian purebred dog breeders. We identified four major factors that the breeder considered important in relation to the dam: Maternal Care; Offspring Potential; Dam Temperament; and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, the priorities and practices of dog breeders surveyed were variable across breeds. Importantly, it seemed that not all breeders understood the importance of maternal care behaviour, despite the significant role it may play on future puppy behaviour. Abstract Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to

  14. Evaluation of Dam Decommissioning in an Ice-Affected River: Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Abdul-Mohsen 2005 and Kuby et al. 2005). Conyngham et al. (2006) provide an overview of the ecological and engi- neering aspects of dam decommissioning...2007) CRREL Ice Jam Database (http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/ierd/ijdb/), accessed March 2007. Kuby , M.J., W.F. Fagan, C.S. ReVelle, W.L. Graf (2005

  15. Juvenile Radio-Tag Study: Lower Granite Dam, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuehrenberg, Lowell C.

    1986-06-01

    The concept of using mass releases of juvenile radio tags represents a new and potentially powerful research tool that could be effectively applied to juvenile salmonid passage problems at dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. A system of detector antennas, strategically located, would automatically detect and record individually tagged juvenile salmonids as they pass through the spillway, powerhouse, bypass system, or tailrace areas below the dam. Accurate measurements of spill effectiveness, fish guiding efficiency (FGE), collection efficiency (CE), spillway survival, powerhouse survival, and bypass survival would be possible without handling large numbers of unmarked fish. A prototype juvenile radio-tag system was developed and tested by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) at John Day Dam and at Lower Granite Dam. This report summarizes research to: (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the prototype juvenile radio-tag system in a field situation and (2) to test the basic assumptions inherent in using the juvenile radio tag as a research tool.

  16. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  17. Interim results from a study of the behavior of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March--August 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of yearling juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder tags were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon. A total of 411 hatchery fish and 26 wild fish were tagged and released between March 7 and May 21, 2011. A series of 16 autonomous hydrophones placed throughout the reservoir were used to determine general fish movements over the life of the acoustic transmitter, which was expected to be 91 days. Movements within the reservoir were directional, and it was common for fish to migrate repeatedly from the head of the reservoir downstream to the dam outlet and back. The dam passage rate was 11.2 percent (95-percent confidence interval 7.8–14.6 percent) for hatchery fish and 15.4 percent (95-percent confidence interval -1.0–31.8 percent) for wild fish within 91 days from release. Most fish passage occurred at night. The median time from release to dam passage was 34.5 days for hatchery fish and 34.2 days for wild fish. A system of hydrophones near the dam outlet, a temperature control tower, was used to estimate positions of fish in three dimensions to enable detailed analyses of fish behavior near the tower. Analyses of these data indicate that hourly averaged depths of fish within a distance of 74 m from the upstream face of the tower ranged from 0.6 to 9.6 meters, with a median depth of 3.6 meters for hatchery fish and 3.4 meters for wild fish. Dam discharge rates and the diurnal period affected the rates of dam passage. Rates of dam passage were similar when the dam discharge rate was less than 1,200 cubic feet per second, but increased sharply at higher discharges. The rate of dam passage at night was 4.4–7.8 times greater than during the day, depending on the distance of fish from the dam. This report is an interim summary of data collected as of August 3, 2011, for planning purposes.

  18. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  19. Influence of maternal and paternal IQ on offspring health and health behaviours: evidence for some trans-generational effects using the 1958 British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Individuals scoring poorly on tests of intelligence (IQ) have been reported as having increased risk of morbidity, premature mortality, and risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, poor diet, alcohol and cigarette consumption. Very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the health and health behaviours of their offspring. Methods We explored associations of maternal and paternal IQ scores with offspring television viewing, injuries, hospitalisations, long standing illness, height and BMI at ages 4 to 18 using data from the National Child Development Study (1958 birth cohort). Results Data were available for 1,446 mother-offspring and 822 father-offspring pairs. After adjusting for potential confounding/mediating factors, the children of higher IQ parents were less likely to watch TV (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for watching 3+ vs. <3 hours per week associated with a standard deviation increase in maternal or paternal IQ: 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) or 0.78 (0.64, 0.95) respectively) and less likely to have one or more injuries requiring hospitalisation (0.77 (0.66, 0.90) or 0.72 (0.56, 0.91) respectively for maternal or paternal IQ). Conclusions Children whose parents have low IQ scores may have poorer selected health and health behaviours. Health education might usefully be targeted at these families. PMID:22541368

  20. Searching for an environmental effect of parental alcoholism on offspring alcohol use disorder: A genetically-informed study of children of alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; Harden, K. Paige; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    The children-of-twins design was used to isolate a potentially causal environmental impact of having an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder by examining whether the children of alcoholics were at a higher risk for alcohol use disorders than the children of non-alcoholic parents even after correlated familial factors were controlled. Participants were 1,224 male and female twins from 836 twin pairs selected from the Australian Twin Registry, 2,334 of their 18–39 year-old offspring, and 983 spouses of the twins. Lifetime histories of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders were obtained by structured psychiatric telephone interviews conducted individually with each of the family members. Comparisons of the offspring of twins discordant for alcoholism indicated that there was no longer a statistically significant difference between the children of alcoholics and the children of non-alcoholics after genetic and family environmental factors correlated with having an alcoholic parent were controlled. The results of this study suggest that the direct causal effect of being exposed to an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder is modest at best. PMID:18729607

  1. Searching for an environmental effect of parental alcoholism on offspring alcohol use disorder: a genetically informed study of children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Slutske, Wendy S; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2008-08-01

    The children-of-twins design was used to isolate a potentially causal environmental impact of having an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder, by an examination of whether the children of alcoholics were at a higher risk for alcohol use disorders than were the children of nonalcoholic parents, even after correlated familial factors were controlled. Participants were 1,224 male and female twins from 836 twin pairs selected from the Australian Twin Registry, 2,334 of the twins' 18-39-year-old offspring, and 983 spouses of the twins. Lifetime histories of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) alcohol use disorders were obtained by structured, psychiatric, telephone interviews conducted individually with each of the family members. Comparisons of the offspring of twins who were discordant for alcoholism indicated that there was no longer a statistically significant difference between the children of alcoholics and the children of nonalcoholics after genetic and family environmental factors correlated with having an alcoholic parent were controlled. The results of this study suggest that the direct causal effect of being exposed to an alcoholic parent on offspring alcohol use disorder is modest at best.

  2. Gestational stress induces depressive-like and anxiety-like phenotypes through epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression in offspring hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Fan, Weidong; Zhang, Xianquan; Dong, Erbo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy exerts profound effects on neurodevelopment and increases the risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including major depression. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of gestational stress are complex and remain to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior and epigenetic modifications in young adult offspring. Gestational stress was induced by a combination of restraint and 24-hour light disturbance to pregnant dams throughout gestation. Depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors of young adult offspring were examined. The expression and promoter methylation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured using RT-qPCR, Western blot, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In addition, the expressions of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetylated histone H3 lysine 14 (AcH3K14) were also analyzed. Our results show that offspring from gestational stress dams exhibited depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. Biochemically, stress-offspring showed decreased expression of BDNF, increased expression of DNMT1, HDAC1, and HDAC2, and decreased expression of AcH3K14 in the hippocampus as compared to non-stress offspring. Data from MeDIP and ChIP assays revealed an increased methylation as well as decreased binding of AcH3K14 on specific BDNF promoters. Pearson analyses indicated that epigenetic changes induced by gestational stress were correlated with depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. These data suggest that gestational stress may be a suitable model for understanding the behavioral and molecular epigenetic changes observed in patients with depression.

  3. Gestational stress induces depressive-like and anxiety-like phenotypes through epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression in offspring hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yu; Fan, Weidong; Zhang, Xianquan; Dong, Erbo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy exerts profound effects on neurodevelopment and increases the risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including major depression. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of gestational stress are complex and remain to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior and epigenetic modifications in young adult offspring. Gestational stress was induced by a combination of restraint and 24-hour light disturbance to pregnant dams throughout gestation. Depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors of young adult offspring were examined. The expression and promoter methylation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured using RT-qPCR, Western blot, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In addition, the expressions of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetylated histone H3 lysine 14 (AcH3K14) were also analyzed. Our results show that offspring from gestational stress dams exhibited depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. Biochemically, stress-offspring showed decreased expression of BDNF, increased expression of DNMT1, HDAC1, and HDAC2, and decreased expression of AcH3K14 in the hippocampus as compared to non-stress offspring. Data from MeDIP and ChIP assays revealed an increased methylation as well as decreased binding of AcH3K14 on specific BDNF promoters. Pearson analyses indicated that epigenetic changes induced by gestational stress were correlated with depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. These data suggest that gestational stress may be a suitable model for understanding the behavioral and molecular epigenetic changes observed in patients with depression. PMID:26890656

  4. Assessment of dam impacts on sediment dynamics and channel geometry in complex anthropogenic systems: feedbacks from comparative study of the Sacramento and the Ain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollet, A. J.; Piégay, H.; Michalkova, M.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the complexity of river adjustments downstream dams (Williams and Wolman, 1984; Brandt, 2000; Petts and Gurnell, 2005), depending on many parameters such catchment geology context (Grant et al., 2003), land use, pre-dam sediment supply and transport regime, degree of hydrologic alteration (Church, 1995; Schmidt and Wilcock, 2008), and dam characteristics and operation (Brewer and Lewin, 1998). Dam impact is particularly difficult to evaluate in river systems where human pressures are old and manifold, and where dam-induced impacts can be compounded by other human influences, such as in-channel aggregate mining (Kondolf 1997). In such cases, it may be challenging to sort out the causal links between dam-induced disruptions and resulting channel adjustment. To illustrate these problems, we introduce two complex case studies, the Ain (France) and Sacramento (California) Rivers, both freely meandering rivers regulated since mid-20th century, whose sedimentary and morphologic dynamic have been modified in different ways since the end of the 19th century. Dam impacts can be distinguished from the effects of other factors such as floodplain disconnection by flood-control infrastructure, land-use changes, and artificial meander-bend cutoff. The Ain River evinces a significant sediment deficit, which results in bed degradation, decrease in area of gravel bars , and reduced lateral channel migration. As a result, sediment supply is reduced not only from trapping by upstream reservoirs but also by reduced bank erosion. In the case of the Sacramento, the impact of the dam is not as clear as on the Ain due to major effects of prior pressures on the channel. Using aerial imagery and field measurements (grain-size measurements…), we led a spatiotemporal study of several morphologic parameters (active channel narrowing, gravel bar areas …) to underline the relative contribution of dams to the contemporary channel evolution. These analyses are

  5. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriyuki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nishi, Yuina; Harada, Saki; Iwaki, Yohei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD) or 50% dietary restriction (DR) groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks), we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα) and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c) mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  6. Recurrence risk for offspring of twins discordant for oral cleft: a population-based cohort study of the Danish 1936-2004 cleft twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Grosen, Dorthe; Bille, Camilla; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Skytthe, Axel; Murray, Jeffrey C; Christensen, Kaare

    2010-10-01

    Our objective in this Danish population-based cohort study was to estimate the recurrence risk of isolated oral cleft (OC) for offspring of the unaffected co-twins of OC discordant twin pairs and to compare this risk to the recurrence risk in the offspring of the affected co-twin as well as to the risk in the background population. During 1936-2004, 207 twin pairs were ascertained, among whom at least one twin had an OC. The index persons were twins discordant for OC who had children (N=117), and their offspring (N=239). The participants were ascertained by linkage between The Danish Facial Cleft Database, The Danish Twin Registry and The Danish Civil Registration System. In the study OC recurrence risk for offspring of the affected and unaffected twin and relative risk were compared to the background prevalence. We found that among 110 children of the 54 OC affected twins, two (1.8%) children had OC corresponding to a significantly increased relative risk (RR=10; 95% CI 1.2-35) when compared to the frequency in the background population. Among the 129 children of the 63 unaffected twins, three (2.3%) children were affected, corresponding to a significantly increased relative risk (RR=13; 95% CI 2.6-36) when compared the background prevalence. We concluded that in OC discordant twin pairs similar increased recurrence risks were found among offspring of both OC affected and OC unaffected twins. This provides further evidence for a genetic component in cleft etiology and is useful information for genetic counseling of twin pairs discordant for clefting.

  7. Economic Efficiency and Equity in Dams Removal: Case studies in Northeastern Massachusetts Doina Oglavie, Ellen Douglas, David Terkla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglavie, D. R.; Douglas, E. M.; Terkla, D.

    2009-12-01

    According to American Rivers (www.americanrivers.org), Massachusetts has almost 3,000 dams under state regulation, 296 of which have been classified as high hazard, meaning they pose a serious threat to human life if they should fail. Most of these dams, however, are low head, “run-of-the-river” dams that no longer serve the purpose for which they were built. The presence of these dams has fragmented aquatic and riparian ecosystems, impeded fish passage and generally impacted the natural ecological and hydrological functioning of the streams in which they reside. Dam removal should be considered when a dam no longer serves its function. Although in many cases, the removal of a dam is environmentally beneficial (at least over the long term), sometimes the removal of a dam can incur environmental costs, such as release of contaminants that were sequestered behind the dam. Dam removal is a complex issue especially with respect to privately owned dams. In many cases, dam removal is less costly than dam maintenance or upgrade, hence dam removal decisions tend to be based on purely monetary considerations, and the environmental costs or benefits associated with the dam are not considered. Typically, the main objective for the dam owner is to incur the lowest possible cost (private cost), whether it be operating and maintenance or removal; external costs (environmental degradation) are rarely, if ever, considered, hence the true cost to society is not included in the economic analysis. If dam operation and removal decisions are to be economically efficient, then they have to include both the private costs as well as the external (environmental) costs. The purpose of this work is to 1) attempt to quantify the externalities associated with the maintenance and the removal of dams, 2) assess whether or not the current dam removal evaluation process maximizes social welfare (efficiency and equity) and 3) suggest ways in which this process can be improved by including the

  8. Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and offspring DNA methylation across the lifecourse: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Rebecca C.; Simpkin, Andrew J.; Woodward, Geoff; Gaunt, Tom R.; Lyttleton, Oliver; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, Andrew D.A.C.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been found to influence newborn DNA methylation in genes involved in fundamental developmental processes. It is pertinent to understand the degree to which the offspring methylome is sensitive to the intensity and duration of prenatal smoking. An investigation of the persistence of offspring methylation associated with maternal smoking and the relative roles of the intrauterine and postnatal environment is also warranted. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we investigated associations between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and offspring DNA methylation at multiple time points in approximately 800 mother–offspring pairs. In cord blood, methylation at 15 CpG sites in seven gene regions (AHRR, MYO1G, GFI1, CYP1A1, CNTNAP2, KLF13 and ATP9A) was associated with maternal smoking, and a dose-dependent response was observed in relation to smoking duration and intensity. Longitudinal analysis of blood DNA methylation in serial samples at birth, age 7 and 17 years demonstrated that some CpG sites showed reversibility of methylation (GFI1, KLF13 and ATP9A), whereas others showed persistently perturbed patterns (AHRR, MYO1G, CYP1A1 and CNTNAP2). Of those showing persistence, we explored the effect of postnatal smoke exposure and found that the major contribution to altered methylation was attributed to a critical window of in utero exposure. A comparison of paternal and maternal smoking and offspring methylation showed consistently stronger maternal associations, providing further evidence for causal intrauterine mechanisms. These findings emphasize the sensitivity of the methylome to maternal smoking during early development and the long-term impact of such exposure. PMID:25552657

  9. The formation and failure of debris flow-dams, background, key factors and model tests: case studies from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Chao; Cui, Peng; Cheng, Zun-Lan

    2009-06-01

    Temporary dams can be formed by the sudden injection of debris flow into main streams by some favorable geomorphologic and hydraulic conditions, resulting in extensive inundations upstream and catastrophic floods downstream due to dam breaches and consequently dramatic changes of channels and valleys. Expeditious means of assessing dam-forming potential are necessary, particularly in geologically active regions. Complete blockages or dam formations are significantly related to the discharge ratio and velocity ratio between the tributary and the main stream, the bulk density of the debris flow, confluent angles and the degree of unevenness of grain sizes. In order to set up a critical index/ C for dam formation, 19 groups of flume tests were conducted. The results showed that there were three types of blockage in the intersections, and dam-forming processes were mainly controlled by the product of the dimensionless momentum ratio and the degree of unevenness of grain sizes in the debris flow. Complete blockages or dam formations occurred when C > 83.4, whereas semi-blockages were formed or no dams were formed when C < 71.5, which had been judged to be feasible by historical instances of dam formation in China. Dam failures commonly resulted from overtopping. No piping was observed in the course of dam failure, and the time elapsed between dams can be denoted by a linear relation with the momentum ratio.

  10. Alterations of tooth eruption and growth in pups suckling from diabetic dams.

    PubMed

    Villarino, Mariano E; Goya, Juan A; DE Lucca, Romina C; Ubios, Angela M

    2005-10-01

    Several studies have confirmed a decrease in the quality and quantity of milk of mothers with diabetes during lactation. However, it remains unclear how maternal diabetes affects the offspring specifically during lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate body and mandibular growth and tooth eruption in pups suckling from diabetic dams. The study was performed on 13 Wistar rat pups that were born to dams that were subjected to experimental diabetes on the day of parturition. Body weight and body size were recorded regularly throughout the study. The experimental pups and a group of eight age-matched pups suckling from nondiabetic dams were killed at weaning. Both hemimandibles were excised and fixed. Right hemimandibles were radiographed to assess mandibular growth and tooth eruption. The left hemimandibles were processed to obtain buccolingually oriented sections at the level of the first mesial root of the first lower molar. Histologic and histomorphometric studies were performed. Results showed that body weight and body size were significantly lower in experimental animals at weaning compared with their age-matched controls. Smaller mandible size and reduced tooth eruption in experimental animals compared with controls were observed. The length, width, and bone volume of the developing alveolus were reduced in experimental animals compared with controls. The results obtained in this study allow the conclusion that suckling from diabetic dams results in reduced body, mandible size, and tooth eruption of the pups at weaning.

  11. Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Reich, M.

    1994-07-01

    Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earthquake event as well as liquefaction potential of the embankment and the foundation are addressed and the potential of failure is evaluated. Lastly, remedial benefits of the addition of a berm structure are also assessed.

  12. Proximity to food establishments and body mass index in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Block, Jason P; Christakis, Nicholas A; O'Malley, A James; Subramanian, S V

    2011-11-15

    Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in 4 Massachusetts towns during 1971-2001. The authors used novel data that included repeated measures of BMI and accounted for residential mobility and the appearance and disappearance of food establishments. They calculated proximity to food establishments as the driving distance between each subject's residence and nearby food establishments, divided into 6 categories. The authors used cross-classified linear mixed models to account for time-varying attributes of individuals and residential neighborhoods. Each 1-km increase in distance to the closest fast-food restaurant was associated with a 0.11-unit decrease in BMI (95% credible interval: -0.20, -0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, this association was present only for women. Other aspects of the food environment were either inconsistently associated or not at all associated with BMI. Contrary to much prior research, the authors did not find a consistent relation between access to fast-food restaurants and individual BMI, necessitating a reevaluation of policy discussions on the anticipated impact of the food environment on weight gain.

  13. Lipoprotein(a) levels, apo(a) isoform size, and coronary heart disease risk in the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Marcovina, Santica M.; Albers, John J.; Kennedy, Hal; DeLuca, Carl; White, Charles C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; McNamara, Judith R.; Seman, Leo J.; Bongard, Vanina; Schaefer, Ernst J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), Lp(a) cholesterol, and of apo(a) isoform size to prospective coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma Lp(a) and Lp(a) cholesterol levels, and apo(a) isoform size were measured at examination cycle 5 in subjects participating in the Framingham Offspring Study who were free of CHD. After a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, 98 men and 47 women developed new CHD events. In multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio of CHD was approximately two-fold greater in men in the upper tertile of plasma Lp(a) levels, relative to those in the bottom tertile (P < 0.002). The apo(a) isoform size contributed only modestly to the association between Lp(a) and CHD and was not an independent predictor of CHD. In multivariate analysis, Lp(a) cholesterol was not significantly associated with CHD risk in men. In women, no association between Lp(a) and CHD risk was observed. Elevated plasma Lp(a) levels are a significant and independent predictor of CHD risk in men. The assessment of apo(a) isoform size in this cohort does not add significant information about CHD risk. In addition, the cholesterol content in Lp(a) is not a significant predictor of CHD risk. PMID:21478162

  14. Trapping efficiency of three types check dams experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui-Kai; CHEN, Su-Chin; AN, Hsuan-Pei

    2015-04-01

    The check dams constructed to trap debris flow. This study divide check dams into three types as closed-type check dam, slit dam, and modular steel check dam. Closed-type check dam which can trap all kind of sediment or driftwood. Slit check dam is permeable dam, so it can prevent from depositing all of sediment or driftwood. A modular steel check dam improves the existing hard-to-change disadvantages of slit dam structure. The assembling of longitudinal and transverse beams can be constructed independently, and then it could be freely configured to form a flexibly adjustable modular steel check dam. This study used the laws of geometric similitude to design model of dam. To explore the trapping mechanisms and phenomenon in different dismantle transverse beams conditions and compared the trapping efficiency with different type of check dams. This study used different volume ratio with driftwood and sediment. In order to capture the trace of debris flow and calculate accuracy velocity of debris flow the study used several high-speed photography combining the method of 3D Remodeling from Motion Structure with Multi-View Stereo which constructed with multiple photos of overlapping coefficient at least 70% and established three-dimensional system of coordinate in laboratory experiment. As a result, the driftwood deposition rate of modular steel check dam increase 60% than slit dam and 40% than closed-type dam; the debris deposition rate increase 30% than slit dam. In addition, the increment of driftwood volume ratio led to the increment of trapping efficiency of three type of check dams. Meanwhile slit dam is the most effective type in trapping driftwood and sediment with more than 50% of increased rate, because of more driftwood flow through the slit dam jam together easily. Finally, transverse beams which installed the modular steel check dam can suppress the upward movement of driftwood, therefore driftwood can easily form the arched stacking efficiency with

  15. A case study investigating the occurrence of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the surface waters of the Hinze Dam, Gold Coast, Australia.

    PubMed

    Uwins, H K; Teasdale, P; Stratton, H

    2007-01-01

    The Hinze Dam is located in the Gold Coast hinterland and is the primary source of water supply for the Gold Coast region. Sporadic and unpredictable taste and odour events caused by geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are an ongoing problem in the Hinze Dam. To investigate potential ecological and physiological triggers of these events, a 12-month surface-sampling regime was undertaken. Concentrations of geosmin, MIB, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured. Algal and cyanobacterial counts were performed. Water temperature, rainfall and dam capacity were also recorded. The occurrence of geosmin was found to correlate significantly with Anabaena numbers, water temperature and dam capacity. The occurrence of MIB correlated with increasing ammonia. No significant correlations were observed with the other nutrients or physical parameters measured. Overall, this study demonstrated that high concentrations of geosmin detected in dam surface waters was strongly correlated with an increase in numbers of Anabaena spp. These events were most likely triggered by significant rainfall causing a pulse in nutrients into the dam, in conjunction with warmer water temperatures.

  16. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C R; Nuss, L K

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  17. Does job strain increase the risk for coronary heart disease or death in men and women? The Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Eaker, Elaine D; Sullivan, Lisa M; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2004-05-15

    Conflicting findings in the literature have made the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease (CHD) controversial. The effect of high job strain on the 10-year incidence of CHD and total mortality was examined in men and women participating in the Framingham Offspring Study; 3,039 participants, 1,711 men and 1,328 women, aged 18-77 years, were examined between 1984 and 1987 and followed for 10 years. Measures of job strain, occupational characteristics, and risk factors for CHD were collected at the baseline examination. Before and after controlling for systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cigarette smoking, diabetes, and the total/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in Cox proportional hazards models, the authors found that high job strain was not associated with mortality or incident CHD in either men or women over the follow-up period. Contrary to expectation, women with active job strain (high demands-high control) had a 2.8-fold increased risk of CHD (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 7.2) compared with women with high job strain (high demands-low control). For men, higher education, personal income, and occupational prestige were related to decreased risk of total mortality and CHD. These findings do not support high job strain as a significant risk factor for CHD or death in men or women.

  18. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring: a study of 1,925 young men from the general population.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Holm, Mette; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2007-03-01

    Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample, had a physical examination performed and a blood sample drawn, and responded to a questionnaire. Their mothers were questioned about whether they had received fertility treatment in order to conceive their sons. Forty-seven mothers reported having received fertility treatment to conceive the index subject. After control for confounders, men whose mothers had received fertility treatment to conceive them had a 46% lower sperm concentration (95% confidence interval (CI): -63, -20) and a 45% lower total sperm count (95% CI: -64, -16). They had a smaller testis size (-0.9 ml, 95% CI: -2.2, 0.4), fewer motile sperm (-4.0%, 95% CI: -8.0, -0.1), and fewer morphologically normal spermatozoa (-2.0%, 95% CI: -4.1, 0.0). They also had a lower serum testosterone level and free androgen index (results not statistically significant). These findings should be viewed in light of the increasing use of fertility treatments. Although the cause of these findings is unknown, they raise concern about possible late effects of fertility treatment. Larger-scale studies of children born after fertility treatment should be performed.

  19. Association between Parental Workaholism and Body Mass Index of Offspring: A Prospective Study among Japanese Dual Workers

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Shimazu, Akihito; Tokita, Masahito; Shimada, Kyoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Watai, Izumi; Iwata, Noboru; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI) among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0–5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2%) were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p < 0.001), while maternal workaholism was not associated with child BMI. Both maternal and paternal time spent with children did not mediate the association. Paternal work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring. PMID:27014678

  20. Maternal age in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure in childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    PubMed

    Roberts, R J; Leary, S D; Smith, G Davey; Ness, A R

    2005-11-01

    Associations between maternal age in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure (BP) at age 7(1/2) were investigated in 7623 singletons from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In models adjusted for age and sex there was an inverse relationship between maternal age and BP in children: beta = -0.06 mmHg per year of maternal age (95% CI -0.10 to -0.01, P = 0.02) for systolic BP and beta = -0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to -0.01, P = 0.02) for diastolic BP. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for confounding factors: beta = -0.02 mmHg per year of maternal age (95% CI -0.07 to 0.04, P = 0.5) for systolic BP and beta = -0.03 (95% CI -0.07 to 0.01, P = 0.2) for diastolic BP. We conclude that there is no evidence of a relationship between maternal age in pregnancy and childhood BP in this contemporary birth cohort.

  1. Stress exposure during the preimplantation period affects blastocyst lineages and offspring development

    PubMed Central

    BURKUŠ, Ján; KAČMAROVÁ, Martina; KUBANDOVÁ, Janka; KOKOŠOVÁ, Natália; FABIANOVÁ, Kamila; FABIAN, Dušan; KOPPEL, Juraj; ČIKOŠ, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We found retardation of preimplantation embryo growth after exposure to maternal restraint stress during the preimplantation period in our previous study. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of preimplantation maternal restraint stress on the distribution of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in mouse blastocysts, and its possible effect on physiological development of offspring. We exposed spontaneously ovulating female mice to restraint stress for 30 min three times a day during the preimplantation period, and this treatment caused a significant increase in blood serum corticosterone concentration. Microscopic evaluation of embryos showed that restraint stress significantly decreased cell counts per blastocyst. Comparing the effect of restraint stress on the two blastocyst cell lineages, we found that the reduction in TE cells was more substantial than the reduction in ICM cells, which resulted in an increased ICM/TE ratio in blastocysts isolated from stressed dams compared with controls. Restraint stress reduced the number of implantation sites in uteri, significantly delayed eye opening in delivered mice, and altered their behavior in terms of two parameters (scratching on the base of an open field test apparatus, time spent in central zone) as well. Moreover, prenatally stressed offspring had significantly lower body weights and in 5-week old females delivered from stressed dams, fat deposits were significantly lower. Our results indicate that exposure to stress during very early pregnancy can have a negative impact on embryonic development with consequences reaching into postnatal life. PMID:25985793

  2. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure causes mesenteric vascular dysfunction through the nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Jialiang; Luo, Hao; Chen, Caiyu; Pei, Fang; Cai, Yue; Yang, Xiaoli; Wang, Na; Fu, Jinjuan; Xu, Zaichen; Zhou, Lin; Zeng, Chunyu

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, could be programmed in fetal life. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in utero results in increased blood pressure in offspring, but the vascular mechanisms involved are unclear. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (0.79mg/kg) or saline (0.5ml) on gestation days 8, 10, and 12. The offspring of LPS-treated dams had higher blood pressure and decreased acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction in endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries. Endothelium removal significantly enhanced the PE-induced contraction in offspring of control but not LPS-treated dams. The arteries pretreated with l-NAME to inhibit nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the endothelium or ODQ to inhibit cGMP production in the vascular smooth muscle had attenuated ACh-induced relaxation but augmented PE-induced contraction to a larger extent in arteries from offspring of control than those from LPS-treated dams. In addition, the endothelium-independent relaxation caused by sodium nitroprusside was also decreased in arteries from offspring of LPS-treated dams. The functional results were accompanied by a reduction in the expressions of eNOS and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and production of NO and cGMP in arteries from offspring of LPS-treated dams. Furthermore, LPS-treated dam's offspring arteries had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity. Three-week treatment with TEMPOL, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, normalized the alterations in the levels of ROS, eNOS, and sGC, as well as in the production of NO and cGMP and vascular function in the arteries of the offspring of LPS-treated dams. In conclusion, prenatal LPS exposure programs vascular dysfunction of mesenteric arteries through increased oxidative stress and impaired NO-cGMP signaling pathway.

  3. Associations of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dylan M; Fraser, Abigail; Fraser, William D; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lower maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring cardiovascular risk in later life, but evidence for this is scant. We examined associations of maternal total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence. Design A longitudinal, prospective study. Setting The study was based on data from mother–offspring pairs in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK prospective population-based birth cohort (N=4109). Outcome measures Offspring cardiovascular risk factors were measured in childhood (mean age 9.9 years) and in adolescence (mean age 15.4 years): blood pressure, lipids, apolipoproteins (at 9.9 years only), glucose and insulin (at 15.4 years only), C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (at 9.9 years only) were measured. Results After adjustments for potential confounders (maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, parity, socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and offspring gestational age at 25(OH)D sampling; gender, age, and BMI at outcome assessment), maternal 25(OH)D was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (−0.48 mm Hg difference per 50 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D; 95% CI −0.95 to −0.01), Apo-B (−0.01 mg/dL difference; 95% CI −0.02 to −0.001), and CRP (−6.1% difference; 95% CI −11.5% to −0.3%) at age 9.9 years. These associations were not present for risk factors measured at 15.4 years, with the exception of a weak inverse association with CRP (−5.5% difference; 95% CI −11.4% to 0.8%). There was no strong evidence of associations with offspring triglycerides, glucose or insulin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to 25(OH)D is unlikely to influence cardiovascular risk factors of individuals later in life. PMID:24125739

  4. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina

    2015-06-12

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (p<0.0001). Provirus was detected in colostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission.

  5. Reliablity analysis of gravity dams by response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humar, Nina; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja; Schnabl, Simon

    2013-04-01

    A dam failure is one of the most important problems in dam industry. Since the mechanical behavior of dams is usually a complex phenomenon existing classical mathematical models are generally insufficient to adequately predict the dam failure and thus the safety of dams. Therefore, numerical reliability methods are often used to model such a complex mechanical phenomena. Thus, the main purpose of the present paper is to present the response surface method as a powerful mathematical tool used to study and foresee the dam safety considering a set of collected monitoring data. The derived mathematical model is applied to a case study, the Moste dam, which is the highest concrete gravity dam in Slovenia. Based on the derived model, the ambient/state variables are correlated with the dam deformation in order to gain a forecasting tool able to define the critical thresholds for dam management.

  6. Suitable Site Selection of Small Dams Using Geo-Spatial Technique: a Case Study of Dadu Tehsil, Sindh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Zahid

    2016-07-01

    Decision making about identifying suitable sites for any project by considering different parameters, is difficult. Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) can make it easy for those projects. This technology has proved to be an efficient and adequate in acquiring the desired information. In this study, GIS and MCA were employed to identify the suitable sites for small dams in Dadu Tehsil, Sindh. The GIS software is used to create all the spatial parameters for the analysis. The parameters that derived are slope, drainage density, rainfall, land use / land cover, soil groups, Curve Number (CN) and runoff index with a spatial resolution of 30m. The data used for deriving above layers include 30 meter resolution SRTM DEM, Landsat 8 imagery, and rainfall from National Centre of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and soil data from World Harmonized Soil Data (WHSD). Land use/Land cover map is derived from Landsat 8 using supervised classification. Slope, drainage network and watershed are delineated by terrain processing of DEM. The Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method is implemented to estimate the surface runoff from the rainfall. Prior to this, SCS-CN grid is developed by integrating the soil and land use/land cover raster. These layers with some technical and ecological constraints are assigned weights on the basis of suitability criteria. The pair wise comparison method, also known as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is took into account as MCA for assigning weights on each decision element. All the parameters and group of parameters are integrated using weighted overlay in GIS environment to produce suitable sites for the Dams. The resultant layer is then classified into four classes namely, best suitable, suitable, moderate and less suitable. This study reveals a contribution to decision making about suitable sites analysis for small dams using geo-spatial data with minimal amount of ground data. This suitability maps can be helpful for water resource

  7. A framework for social impact analysis of large dams: a case study of cascading dams on the Upper-Mekong River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Lassoie, James P; Dong, Shikui; Morreale, Stephen J

    2013-03-15

    Construction of large dams on the Upper-Mekong River, China, has significant social impacts on local communities. To analyze the social impacts, we identified three classes of wealth for the affected people, material, embodied, and relational, and comprehensively compared the loss and compensation in each type of wealth. Then we examined the effects on gap of wealth at household and community levels. Lastly, an insider-outsider analysis was conducted to understand the differences in the perceptions of wealth loss between local villagers and policy makers, and recommendations for more reasonable compensation policies were provided.

  8. Naloxone treatment alters gene expression in the mesolimbic reward system in 'junk food' exposed offspring in a sex-specific manner but does not affect food preferences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gugusheff, J R; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-06-22

    We have previously reported that the opioid receptor blocker, naloxone, is less effective in reducing palatable food intake in offspring exposed to a maternal cafeteria diet during the perinatal period, implicating a desensitization of the central opioid pathway in the programming of food preferences. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a maternal cafeteria diet and naloxone treatment on the development of the mesolimbic reward pathway and food choices in adulthood. We measured mRNA expression of key components of the reward pathway (mu-opioid receptor, proenkephalin, tyrosine hydroxylase, D1 and D2 receptors and the dopamine active transporter (DAT)) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the offspring of control and cafeteria fed (JF) dams at weaning and after a 10-day naloxone treatment post-weaning and determined food preferences in adulthood in the remaining offspring. Naloxone treatment decreased the expression of DAT by 8.2 fold in female control offspring but increased it by 4.3 fold in female offspring of JF dams relative to the saline-injected reference groups. Proenkephalin mRNA expression was higher in the NAc of female JF offspring compared to controls, independent of naloxone treatment (P<0.05). There was no effect of naloxone treatment on food preferences in adulthood in either control or JF offspring. These data indicate that prenatal exposure to a cafeteria diet alters the impact of opioid signaling blockade in the early post-weaning period on gene expression in the central reward pathway in a sex specific manner, but that these changes in gene expression do not appear to have any persistent impact on food preferences in adulthood.

  9. Imprinting of cerebral cytochrome P450s in offsprings prenatally exposed to cypermethrin augments toxicity on rechallenge

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anshuman; Agrahari, Anita; Singh, RadhaDutt; Yadav, Sanjay; Srivastava, Vikas; Parmar, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic studies were carried in the rat offsprings, born to dams treated with cypermethrin (orally; 5.0 mg/kg) from gestation day (GD) 5 to 21 and rechallenged with cypermethrin (orally; 10 mg/kg for 6 days), at adulthood (12 weeks) to understand the mechanism underlying the overexpression of cerebral cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in exposed offsprings. The data revealed alterations in histone H3 acetylation and DNA methylation in promoter regions of CYP1A- and 2B- isoenzymes in the brain isolated from rechallenged animals. Further, bisulphite sequencing revealed critical CpG methylation changes in BARBIE BOX (Barbiturate response element) and BTE (Basal transcription element) in promoter of CYP2B1 in the brain isolated from rechallenged animals. Western blotting and DNA laddering/fragmentation studies revealed a greater magnitude of increase in the signalling pathways associated with apoptosis in the rechallenged animals. The data have indicated that overexpression of cerebral CYPs could be due to the imprinting of CYPs. Further, increased apoptosis observed in the rechallenged offsprings has suggested that these epigenetic changes in CYPs may predispose the prenatally exposed offsprings to the neurotoxic effects of other centrally acting drugs and chemicals when subsequently rechallenged later at life. PMID:27853314

  10. Imprinting of cerebral cytochrome P450s in offsprings prenatally exposed to cypermethrin augments toxicity on rechallenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anshuman; Agrahari, Anita; Singh, Radhadutt; Yadav, Sanjay; Srivastava, Vikas; Parmar, Devendra

    2016-11-01

    Epigenetic studies were carried in the rat offsprings, born to dams treated with cypermethrin (orally; 5.0 mg/kg) from gestation day (GD) 5 to 21 and rechallenged with cypermethrin (orally; 10 mg/kg for 6 days), at adulthood (12 weeks) to understand the mechanism underlying the overexpression of cerebral cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in exposed offsprings. The data revealed alterations in histone H3 acetylation and DNA methylation in promoter regions of CYP1A- and 2B- isoenzymes in the brain isolated from rechallenged animals. Further, bisulphite sequencing revealed critical CpG methylation changes in BARBIE BOX (Barbiturate response element) and BTE (Basal transcription element) in promoter of CYP2B1 in the brain isolated from rechallenged animals. Western blotting and DNA laddering/fragmentation studies revealed a greater magnitude of increase in the signalling pathways associated with apoptosis in the rechallenged animals. The data have indicated that overexpression of cerebral CYPs could be due to the imprinting of CYPs. Further, increased apoptosis observed in the rechallenged offsprings has suggested that these epigenetic changes in CYPs may predispose the prenatally exposed offsprings to the neurotoxic effects of other centrally acting drugs and chemicals when subsequently rechallenged later at life.

  11. Methamphetamine exposure during pregnancy at pharmacological doses produces neurodevelopmental and behavioural effects in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Donlon, Michelle; Kelly, John P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years methamphetamine (MA) use has become more prevalent, and of particular concern is its growing popularity of MA among women of childbearing age. However, to date, studies examining MA effects on the developing offspring in laboratory animals are limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if in utero MA exposure in rats at pharmacological doses can have a negative impact on neonatal neurodevelopment and behaviour. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams (n=10 dams/group) received MA (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5mg/kg) once daily via oral gavage from gestational day 7 to 21. Maternal body weight, food and water consumption were recorded daily. A range of standard neurodevelopment parameters was examined in the offspring during the neonatal period. There were no neurodevelopmental deficits observed with offspring exposed to 0.625mg/kg MA, in fact, there were enhancements of neurodevelopment in some parameters at this low dose. However, exposure to the 1.25mg/kg MA dose resulted in significant impairments in surface righting reflex and forelimb grip in both sexes. Exposure to the 2.5mg/kg MA dose resulted in a significant reduction in ano-genital distance in males, and in both sexes resulted in delayed fur appearance and eye opening, impairments in surface righting reflex and negative geotaxis, and a reduction in body length. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that pharmacologically relevant doses of MA can have profound dose-related effects on neonatal outcome. If extrapolated to the clinical scenario this will give cause for concern regarding the risks associated with this drug of abuse at relatively low doses.

  12. Genetic variation in offspring indirectly influences the quality of maternal behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Ashbrook, David George; Gini, Beatrice; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-12-23

    Conflict over parental investment between parent and offspring is predicted to lead to selection on genes expressed in offspring for traits influencing maternal investment, and on parentally expressed genes affecting offspring behaviour. However, the specific genetic variants that indirectly modify maternal or offspring behaviour remain largely unknown. Using a cross-fostered population of mice, we map maternal behaviour in genetically uniform mothers as a function of genetic variation in offspring and identify loci on offspring chromosomes 5 and 7 that modify maternal behaviour. Conversely, we found that genetic variation among mothers influences offspring development, independent of offspring genotype. Offspring solicitation and maternal behaviour show signs of coadaptation as they are negatively correlated between mothers and their biological offspring, which may be linked to costs of increased solicitation on growth found in our study. Overall, our results show levels of parental provisioning and offspring solicitation are unique to specific genotypes.

  13. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal, institutional and financial obstacles, and incentives to the development of hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam on the Monongahela River are analyzed. The study is one of five studies prepared by the Energy Law Institute pursuant to a contract with the National Conference of State Legislators. Each of the five studies views dam development by a different category of developer. These categories include a municipality, a public utility, a state, a private developer, and a cooperative. The Maxwell case study concerns potential development by Allegheny Electric Cooperative. Thus, the analysis of obstacles and incentives is focused on those factors which have particular impact on a cooperative. Subjects covered include a description of the site; developer description; the feasibility study; the economic feasibility; financing; Federal licensing by FERC; state licensing; local interest and requirements; the effect of locks and dam operation by the Army Corp of Engineers; and power marketing.

  14. A possible association between acute infectious diarrhoea in pregnant women and congenital abnormalities in their offspring--a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2010-05-01

    The possible association between Salmonella gastroenteritis (SGE) and infectious diarrhoea in pregnancy (IDP) and structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities (CA) in the offspring, has not been studied. The dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996 was evaluated. There were 15 (0.07%) and 82 (0.36%) out of 22,843 cases and 23 (0.06%) and 70 (0.18%) out of 38,151 (0.34%) controls with mothers who had medically recorded SGE and IDP, respectively. There was no association of SGE and a higher risk of CA. However, a higher risk of cleft lip +/- palate, congenital limb deficiencies, multiple CAs and cardiovascular CAs was found in the offspring of mothers with IDP. A possible explanation for the association of IDP with higher risk for some specific CAs may be the high fever in IDP.

  15. Association of Variants in RETN With Plasma Resistin Levels and Diabetes-Related Traits in the Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Hivert, Marie-France; Manning, Alisa K.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Meigs, James B.; Florez, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— The RETN gene encodes the adipokine resistin. Associations of RETN with plasma resistin levels, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits have been inconsistent. Using comprehensive linkage disequilibrium mapping, we genotyped tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RETN and tested associations with plasma resistin levels, risk of diabetes, and glycemic traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We examined 2,531 Framingham Offspring Study participants for resistin levels, glycemic phenotypes, and incident diabetes over 28 years of follow-up. We genotyped 21 tag SNPs that capture common (minor allele frequency >0.05) or previously reported SNPs at r2 > 0.8 across RETN and its flanking regions. We used sex- and age-adjusted linear mixed-effects models (with/without BMI adjustment) to test additive associations of SNPs with traits, adjusted Cox proportional hazards models accounting for relatedness for incident diabetes, and generated empirical P values (Pe) to control for type 1 error. RESULTS— Four tag SNPs (rs1477341, rs4804765, rs1423096, and rs10401670) on the 3′ side of RETN were strongly associated with resistin levels (all minor alleles associated with higher levels, Pe<0.05 after multiple testing correction). rs10401670 was also associated with fasting plasma glucose (Pe = 0.02, BMI adjusted) and mean glucose over follow-up (Pe = 0.01; BMI adjusted). No significant association was observed for adiposity traits. On meta-analysis, the previously reported association of SNP −420C/G (rs1862513) with resistin levels remained significant (P = 0.0009) but with high heterogeneity across studies (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS— SNPs in the 3′ region of RETN are associated with resistin levels, and one of them is also associated with glucose levels, although replication is needed. PMID:19074981

  16. Multiple biomarkers and risk of clinical and subclinical vascular brain injury: the framingham offspring study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several biomarkers have been individually associated with vascular brain injury, but no prior study has explored the simultaneous association of a biologically plausible panel of biomarkers with the incidence of stroke/transient ischemic attack and the prevalence of subclinical brain injury. In 3127...

  17. Familial longevity study reveals a significant association of mitochondrial DNA copy number between centenarians and their offspring.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Han; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yan, Dong-Jing; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Lin, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Yao-Wen; Pu, Shao-Yan; Yu, Qin; Sun, Hong-Peng; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Reduced mitochondrial function is an important cause of aging and age-related diseases. We previously revealed a relatively higher level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in centenarians. However, it is still unknown whether such an mtDNA content pattern of centenarians could be passed on to their offspring and how it was regulated. To address these issues, we recruited 60 longevity families consisting of 206 family members (cohort 1) and explored their mtDNA copy number. The results showed that the first generation of the offspring (F1 offspring) had a higher level of mtDNA copy number than their spouses (p < 0.05) independent of a gender effect. In addition, we found a positive association of mtDNA copy number in centenarians with that in F1 offspring (r = 0.54, p = 0.0008) but not with that in F1 spouses. These results were replicated in another independent cohort consisting of 153 subjects (cohort 2). RNA sequencing analysis suggests that the single-stranded DNA-binding protein 4 was significantly associated with mtDNA copy number and was highly expressed in centenarians as well as F1 offspring versus the F1 spouses, thus likely regulates the mtDNA copy number in the long-lived family members. In conclusion, our results suggest that the pattern of high mtDNA copy number is likely inheritable, which may act as a favorable factor to familial longevity through assuring adequate energy supply.

  18. Elaboration of A Numerical Model For The Study of The Dam Rupture Wave Displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iddir, R.; Laradi, N.

    The essential purpose assigned to this present research is the contribution to the devel- opment of a model numeric two-dimensional permitting the simulation of a transient flow to free surface, quickly varied, resulting of a total and instantaneous rupture of a dam in a rectangular channel. For that to make, we present in a first section, the representative mathematical model of this flow, based on Saint Venat equations two- dimensional. An algorithm in finite differences is developed then to resolve this system of equations. The algorithm for needs of our research is to fractional step, based on the numeric diagram of Mac Cormack. During this simulation, we put in evidence the evolution in the time, the height and the speed of the flow in different positions, and this until drains it of the dam. We are also interested to the survey of the certain param- eter influence on the flow as the slope of the bottom, the roughness of Manning and the initial height of water in the reservoir. Finally to validate and to test performances of the model developed, we did several applications in the second section, then compared results gotten to the experimental and numeric results.

  19. Susceptibility to tropical theileriosis of calves born to dams immunized with Theileria annulata (Hisar) cell culture vaccine.

    PubMed

    Beniwal, R K; Sharma, R D; Nichani, A K

    1998-12-01

    The susceptibility/immune status to tropical theileriosis of calves born of immunized dams was evaluated. Six cows were vaccinated with the Theileria annulata cell culture vaccine in the eighth month of pregnancy. Sera from the immunized dams exhibited very high post-vaccination antibody titres as determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The calves born to these dams did not show antibodies against T. annulata at the time of birth (IFA titres of < 1:20). The new-born calves were fed colostrum from their mothers and were challenged with T. annulata-infected ground tick supernate at 5-7 days of age. All the calves developed fever (from day 5-6 onwards) and parasitological reactions (from day 8-9 onwards) after challenge. There was a significant decrease in the haemoglobin and packed cell volume of the calves after challenge. All the calves showed signs of acute theileriosis by day 9-10 after challenge and had to be treated with buparvaquone in order to save their lives. The study indicated that detectable levels of anti-theilerial antibodies were not transferred from immune dams to their offspring. All the calves born to immunized dams were fully susceptible to theileriosis and thus themselves needed vaccination.

  20. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  1. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.; Kelley, Jennifer L.; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  2. Association of maternal and paternal IQ with offspring conduct, emotional and attention problem scores: trans-generational evidence from the 1958 British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Context Lower IQ individuals have an increased risk of psychological disorders, mental health problems, and suicide; similarly, children with low IQ scores are more likely to have behavioural, emotional and anxiety disorders. However, very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the mental health outcomes of their children. Objective To determine whether maternal and paternal IQ score is associated with offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores. Design Cohort. Setting General population. Participants Members of 1958 National Child Development Study and their offspring. Of 2,984 parent-offspring pairs, with non-adopted children aged 4+ years, 2,202 pairs had complete data on all variables of interest and were included in the analyses. Outcome measure Offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores based on Behavioural Problems Index for children aged 4-6 years or the Rutter A scale for children aged 7 and over. Results There was little evidence of any association of parental IQ with conduct or emotional problems in younger (aged 4-6) children. However, among children aged 7+, there was strong evidence from age- and sex-adjusted models to support a decrease in conduct, emotional and attention problems in those whose parents had higher IQ scores. These associations were linear across the full IQ range. Individual adjustments for socioeconomic status and child’s own IQ had limited impact while adjustments for Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores and parental malaise attenuated associations with mother’s IQ but, again, had little impact on associations with father’s IQ. Strong associations were no longer evident in models that simultaneously adjusted for all four potential mediating variables. Conclusions Children whose parents score poorly on IQ tests may have an increased risk of conduct, emotional and attention problems. Home environment, parental malaise, and child’s own IQ may have a role in explaining these

  3. Effect of maternal diet on offspring coping styles in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Besson, Anne A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Senior, Alistair M; Hector, Katie L; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-11-01

    Maternal nutrition can have long-term effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviours. However, it is unclear whether mothers 'program' offspring behavioural coping strategy (proactive/reactive) according to the predicted nutritional quality of their future environment. We conducted a systematic review on this topic and meta-analytically synthesized relevant experimental data on mice and rats (46 studies). We included data from experiments where dams were subjected to caloric restriction, protein restriction or overfeeding around gestation and subsequently measured offspring activity, exploration, or anxiety. Overall, little evidence existed for effects of maternal nutrition on the three investigated behavioural traits. The high heterogeneity observed in the data set suggests that maternal programming may sometimes occur. However, because offspring had access to a balanced diet before testing, behaviours may have been reprogrammed. Our results may indicate that reprogrammed behaviours could ameliorate negative effects associated with sub-optimal nutrition in early life. Further, our systematic review revealed clear knowledge gaps and fruitful future research avenues.

  4. Managed aquifer recharge by a check dam to improve the quality of fluoride-rich groundwater: a case study from southern India.

    PubMed

    Gowrisankar, G; Jagadeshan, G; Elango, L

    2017-04-01

    In many regions around the globe, including India, degradation in the quality of groundwater is of great concern. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of recharge from a check dam on quality of groundwater in a region of Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu State, India. For this study, water samples from 15 wells were periodically obtained and analysed for major ions and fluoride concentrations. The amount of major ions present in groundwater was compared with the drinking water guideline values of the Bureau of Indian Standards. With respect to the sodium and fluoride concentrations, 38% of groundwater samples collected was not suitable for direct use as drinking water. Suitability of water for agricultural use was determined considering the electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage, permeability index, Wilcox and United States Salinity Laboratory diagrams. The influence of freshwater recharge from the dam is evident as the groundwater in wells nearer to the check dam was suitable for both irrigation and domestic purposes. However, the groundwater away from the dam had a high ionic composition. This study demonstrated that in other fluoride-affected areas, the concentration can be reduced by dilution with the construction of check dams as a measure of managed aquifer recharge.

  5. Summary of juvenile salmonid passage and survival at McNary Dam-Acoustic survival studies, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Evans, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Passage and survival data were collected at McNary Dam between 2006 and 2009. These data have provided critical information for resource managers to implement structural and operational changes designed to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids as they migrate past the dam. Given the importance of these annual studies, the primary objectives of this report were to summarize the findings of these annual studies to ensure that passage and survival metrics are consistently calculated and reported across all years and to consolidate this information in a single document, thereby making it easier to reference. It is worth noting that this report does not contain all the information from all the annual reports. The intent of this report was to summarize the key findings from multiple years of research. The reader is encouraged to reference the annual reports if more detailed information is needed. Chapter 1 summarizes existing behavior, passage, and survival results for fish released 10 rkm upstream of McNary Dam and from the McNary Dam tailrace during 2006-09. Chapter 2 summarizes existing behavior, passage, and survival results for fish released in the mid-Columbia River and detected at McNary Dam during 2006-09. Results from 2006 indicated that higher spill discharge generally resulted in higher fish passage through spill, and in turn, higher fish survival through the entire dam. Within the spillway, passage effectiveness was highest for the south spill bays, adjacent to the powerhouse. Increased passage in this area, combined with detailed 3-dimensional approach paths, aided in the design and location of the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) at McNary Dam prior to the 2007 migration of juvenile salmonids. During the 2007 study, the TSWs were tested under two spill treatments during the spring and summer: a "2006 Modified spill," and a "2007 test spill." In the spring, slightly higher discharge through spill bays 14-17 was the primary difference between the spill

  6. Choline is required in the diet of lactating dams to maintain maternal immune function.

    PubMed

    Dellschaft, Neele S; Ruth, Megan R; Goruk, Susan; Lewis, Erin D; Richard, Caroline; Jacobs, René L; Curtis, Jonathan M; Field, Catherine J

    2015-06-14

    Choline demands during lactation are high; however, detailed knowledge is lacking regarding the optimal dietary intake during this critical period. The present study was designed to determine the effects of varying intakes of choline on maternal immune function during lactation. Primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats (n 42) were randomised 24-48 h before birth and fed the following diets for 21 d: choline-devoid (0 g choline/kg diet; D, n 10); 1·0 g choline/kg diet (C1, n 11); 2·5 g choline/kg diet (C2·5, n 10); 6·2 g choline/kg diet (C6, n 11). Splenocytes were isolated and stimulated ex vivo with concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CD3/CD28. D and C6 dams had lower final body weight, spleen weight and average pup weight than C1 dams (P< 0·05). There was a linear relationship between free choline concentration in pup stomach contents with maternal dietary choline content (P< 0·001, r² 0·415). Compared with C1 and C2·5, D spleens had a lower proportion of mature T cells and activated suppressor cells, and this resulted in reduced cytokine production after stimulation (P< 0·05). Feeding 6·2 g choline/kg diet resulted in a higher cytokine production after stimulation with CD3/CD28 (P< 0·05). Except for a higher IL-6 production after LPS stimulation with cells from the C2·5 dams (P< 0·05), there were no differences between the C1 and C2·5 dams. For the first time, we show that feeding lactating mothers a diet free of choline has substantial effects on their immune function and on offspring growth. Additionally, excess dietary choline had adverse effects on maternal and offspring body weight but only minimal effects on maternal immune function.

  7. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  8. Effects of Prenatal Dexamethasone on the Rat Pituitary Gland and Gonadotropic Cells in Female Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Nataša; Severs, Walter; Nestorović, Nataša; Jarić, Ivana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Trifunović, Svetlana; Pendovski, Lazo; Milosević, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have a strong influence on growth and maturation of fetal organ systems, but overexposure to exogenous glucocorticoids may retard fetal growth and alter developmental processes in sensitive tissues. The aim of this study was to specifically determine whether prenatal exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) altered normal development and function of pituitary gonadotropic cells in neonatal, infant and peripubertal female offspring. On day 16 of pregnancy, rat dams received 1.0 mg Dx/kg body weight (BW) s.c., followed by 0.5 mg Dx/kg BW on days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control gravid females received the same volume of saline. Female offspring were sacrificed on days 5, 16 and 38 after delivery. The volume of the pituitary gland estimated using Cavalieri's principle was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Using a fractionator-physical disector method, we found reduced total numbers of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells (p < 0.05), accompanied by a decrease (p < 0.05) in serum concentrations of FSH and LH, while the relative intensity of FSH and LH immunofluorescence remained unchanged in neonatal, infant and peripubertal female offspring prenatally exposed to Dx. The data document that overexposure to Dx during fetal development evokes developmental programming of the female reproductive system at the pituitary cellular level, which may be associated with impaired reproductive function.

  9. Maternal arachidonic acid supplementation improves neurodevelopment of offspring from healthy and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinping; Del Bigio, Marc R; Weiler, Hope A

    2009-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may compromise infant arachidonic acid status and development. This study tested if maternal arachidonic acid supplementation improves neurodevelopment in rat offspring. Dams were randomized into 6 groups using a 3x2 design: Saline-Placebo, streptozotocin-induced diabetes with glucose controlled at <13mmol/L, or poorly controlled at 13-20mmol/L using insulin; and fed either control or an arachidonic acid (0.5% of fat) diet throughout reproduction. Offspring were tested on post-natal days 3 and 5 for righting response, days 7 and 9 for negative geotaxis, day 14 for wire hanging endurance, days 18 and 24 for rota rod endurance, and day 28 for Morris water maze performance. Only the poorly controlled group had impaired day 7 geotaxis and day 18 rota rod performance (p<0.02), but this improved with maternal arachidonic acid supplementation (p<0.0006). Arachidonic acid improved the wire hanging endurance (p=0.0003) and water maze latency (p=0.0021), suggesting enhanced neurodevelopment in all offspring.

  10. Arsenite in drinking water produces glucose intolerance in pregnant rats and their female offspring.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, María Marta; Bourguignon, Nadia Soledad; Bizzozzero, Marianne; Rodriguez, Diego; Ventura, Clara; Cocca, Claudia; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria Adela

    2017-02-01

    Drinking water is the main source of arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure has been associated with metabolic disorders. Here we studied the effects of arsenic on glucose metabolism, in pregnant and post-partum of dams and their offspring. We administered 5 (A5) or 50 (A50) mg/L of sodium arsenite in drinking water to rats from gestational day 1 (GD1) until two months postpartum (2MPP), and to their offspring from weaning until 8 weeks old. Liver arsenic dose-dependently increased in arsenite-treated rats to levels similar to exposed population. Pregnant A50 rats gained less weight than controls and recovered normal weight at 2MPP. Arsenite-treated pregnant animals showed glucose intolerance on GD16-17, with impaired insulin secretion but normal insulin sensitivity; they showed dose-dependent increased pancreas insulin on GD18. All alterations reverted at 2MPP. Offspring from A50-treated mothers showed lower body weight at birth, 4 and 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in adult females, probably due to insulin secretion and sensitivity alterations. Arsenic alters glucose homeostasis during pregnancy by altering beta-cell function, increasing risk of developing gestational diabetes. In pups, it induces low body weight from birth to 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in females, demonstrating a sex specific response.

  11. Juvenile Radio-Tag Study: Lower Granite Dam, 1985-1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1988-03-01

    A prototype juvenile radio-tag system was developed and tested by the National Marine Fisheries Services (NMFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) at John Day Dam in 1984. Results indicated that the system could provide acceptable estimates of powerhouse and spillway passage. Research in 1986 continued testing of the tag system to further define its application and limitations. Field work included releases in the forebay and tailrace under a no-spill environment and testing of new systems to improve tag detection. Laboratory tests included the response of the tag in hostile environmental conditions (spillway passage) and the effects of the radio tag on fish buoyancy compensation. This report provides results of the work along with a summarization of the combined 1985--86 field and assumption testing. 12 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet changes open-field behaviour in the developing offspring.

    PubMed

    Speight, Abigail; Davey, William G; McKenna, Emily; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2017-04-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, little is currently known about the behavioural effects of feeding a hyper-energetic cafeteria diet (CD) during the lactational period when offspring behaviour is tested during early adolescence. To this end, 23days old offspring from dams (Wistar) fed on CD during lactation were tested in either the open-field or the elevated plus-maze for exploration and anxiety-related behaviour. On postnatal day 9, maternal behaviour and non-maternal behaviour of the dam was assessed. It was hypothesized that lactational CD feeding would reduce anxiety in the offspring. CD-fed dams had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of sugars and fats. When offspring from these dams were exposed to the open field after weaning, their locomotor activity was increased. They entered the more aversive inner zone of the open-field after a shorter latency, made more entries into and spent more time in the inner zone. Anxiety-related behaviour was not affected upon exposure to the elevated plus maze, suggesting anxiolysis in the open-field only. Increased maternal licking/grooming behaviour could possibly contribute to the anxiolytic phenotype as observed in the offspring from the CD group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that lactational overfeeding impacts on the development of behaviour in the early adolescent rat.

  13. CNS effects of developmental Pb exposure are enhanced by combined maternal and offspring stress.

    PubMed

    Virgolini, M B; Rossi-George, A; Lisek, R; Weston, D D; Thiruchelvam, M; Cory-Slechta, D A

    2008-09-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure and elevated stress are co-occurring risk factors. Both impact brain mesolimbic dopamine/glutamate systems involved in cognitive functions. We previously found that maternal stress can potentiate Pb-related adverse effects in offspring at blood Pb levels averaging approximately 40 microg/dl. The current study of combined Pb exposure and stress sought to extend those results to lower levels of Pb exposure, and to examine relationships among consequences in offspring for fixed interval (FI) schedule-controlled behavior, neurochemistry and corticosterone levels. Dams were exposed to maternal Pb beginning 2 months prior to breeding (0, 50 or 150 ppm in drinking water), maternal restraint stress on gestational days 16 and 17 (MS), or the combination. In addition, a subset of offspring from each resultant treatment group was also exposed intermittently to variable stressors as adults (MS+OS). Marked "Pb-stress"-related increases in response rates on a fixed interval schedule, a behavioral performance with demonstrated sensitivity to Pb, occurred preferentially in female offspring even at mean blood Pb levels of 11 microg/dl when 50 ppm Pb was combined with maternal and offspring stress. Greater sensitivity of females to frontal cortex catecholamine changes may contribute to the elevated FI response rates as mesocorticolimbic systems are critical to the mediation of this behavior. Basal and final corticosterone levels of offspring used to evaluate FI performance differed significantly from those of non-behaviorally tested (NFI) littermates, demonstrating that purported mechanisms of Pb, stress or Pb/stress effects determined in non-behaviorally trained animals cannot necessarily be generalized to animals with behavioral histories. Finally, the persistent and permanent consequences of Pb, stress and Pb+stress in offspring of both genders suggest that Pb screening programs should include pregnant women at risk for elevated Pb exposure, and that stress

  14. The dam breakage of Baia Mare??a pilot study of magnetic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehland, F.; Panaiotu, C.; Appel, E.; Hoffmann, V.; Jordanova, D.; Jordanova, N.; Denut, I.

    Magnetic screening in the area of Baia Mare (Romania) was carried out in June 2000 in order to detect the degree of environmental pollution and to test the applicability of this method in this area. With a long tradition of mining activities, a gradual pollution of soil, air and rivers took place continuously in addition to smaller accidents in this area until the dam breakage on the 30.1.2000. During this accident, about 100,000 m 3 of mud containing cyanide and heavy metals leaked out and moved over fields and through a village into the river system of Lapûs, Someş, Tisza and Danube. Initial magnetic monitoring carried out during the translocation of the polluted waters along the Bulgarian part of the Danube revealed the effectiveness of the method for a proper and fast identification of pollution both in time and space even at remote distances from the source. For the later pilot project magnetic ( χ) screening was performed using a portable Bartington MS2 kappameter with a D-loop sensor. In addition fine-grained material (<0.5 mm) was sampled from the fields and river sediments and measured in the laboratory using a MS2 B-sensor. The results of the collected samples show a clear decrease in χ with increasing distance from the dams and mining areas in a regional and local scale, while the results gained by the MS2-D strongly depend on the nature of the ground. The dynamic geological setting around Baia Mare (fluvial sediments and valley fills), produces a heterogeneous background signal. A continuous monitoring system controlling the basic conditions could overcome these limitations.

  15. CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CRIB DAM, LOOKING ALONG DAM FROM WEST ABUTMENT, SHOWING PLANK SHEATHING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  16. 50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT -- SECTION AND ELEVATIONS. M-L 26(R) 40/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  17. 49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). FIRST STAGE DAM -- DAM CONCRETE -- TYPICAL PIER ISOMETRIC. M-L 26(R) 40/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  18. Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Thomas J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Richardson, David B.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Herring, Amy H.; Anderka, Marlene; Botto, Lorenzo; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Langlois, Peter H.; Mosley, Bridget; Shaw, Gary M.; Siffel, Csaba; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    , Daniels JL, Fuentes M, Richardson DB, Aylsworth AS, Herring AH, Anderka M, Botto L, Correa A, Gilboa SM, Langlois PH, Mosley B, Shaw GM, Siffel C, Olshan AF, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. 2014. Maternal exposure to criteria air pollutants and congenital heart defects in offspring: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:863–872; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307289 PMID:24727555

  19. Maternal exposure to mercury chloride during pregnancy and lactation affects the immunity and social behavior of offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubin; Bolivar, Valerie J; Lawrence, David A

    2013-05-01

    Developmental HgCl2 exposures of F1 offspring (H-2(q/s)) from unsociable SJL/J (H-2(s)) dams with high susceptibility to Hg-induced autoimmunity (SFvF1) and from highly sociable FVB/NJ (FVB; H-2(q)) dams with lower susceptibility to Hg-induced autoimmunity (FvSF1) were investigated. Hg exposure increased the serum IgG levels of all offspring at postnatal day 21 (pnd21) and of SJL/J dams but not of FVB dams. Serum IgG anti-brain antibody (Ab) levels of pnd21 SFvF1 offspring and SJL dams were higher than those of the FvSF1 offspring and FVB dams, but Hg only increased the titers of the FVB dams and their offspring. Hg significantly elevated the presence of IgG in all brain regions of the pnd21 SFvF1 offspring, and the SFvF1 offspring had greater amounts of IgG in the brain than the FvSF1 offspring, which had Hg-induced increases in only two brain regions. Cytokine levels were elevated in the brain regions of Hg-treated pnd21 SFvF1 but not of FvSF1 offspring, and SFvF1 females had more brain regions expressing cytokines than the males. At pnd70, the serum IgG, serum antibrain Abs, amounts of brain IgG, and brain cytokine levels of all of the Hg-treated offspring were equivalent to those of their appropriate controls, suggesting that developmental Hg exposure did not induce chronic immunological effects. However, the social behaviors of Hg-exposed SFvF1 offspring at pnd70 were significantly impaired, and SFvF1 females displayed greater decline in social behaviors than males, suggesting that the higher neuroinflammation of SFvF1 females earlier in life is associated with the altered behavior. Thus, developmental Hg exposure induces long-lasting effects on social behavior of offspring, which is dependent on sex and genetics and the induction of neuroinflammation.

  20. Maternal Exposure to Mercury Chloride During Pregnancy and Lactation Affects the Immunity and Social Behavior of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yubin; Lawrence, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental HgCl2 exposures of F1 offspring (H-2q/s) from unsociable SJL/J (H-2s) dams with high susceptibility to Hg-induced autoimmunity (SFvF1) and from highly sociable FVB/NJ (FVB; H-2q) dams with lower susceptibility to Hg-induced autoimmunity (FvSF1) were investigated. Hg exposure increased the serum IgG levels of all offspring at postnatal day 21 (pnd21) and of SJL/J dams but not of FVB dams. Serum IgG anti-brain antibody (Ab) levels of pnd21 SFvF1 offspring and SJL dams were higher than those of the FvSF1 offspring and FVB dams, but Hg only increased the titers of the FVB dams and their offspring. Hg significantly elevated the presence of IgG in all brain regions of the pnd21 SFvF1 offspring, and the SFvF1 offspring had greater amounts of IgG in the brain than the FvSF1 offspring, which had Hg-induced increases in only two brain regions. Cytokine levels were elevated in the brain regions of Hg-treated pnd21 SFvF1 but not of FvSF1 offspring, and SFvF1 females had more brain regions expressing cytokines than the males. At pnd70, the serum IgG, serum antibrain Abs, amounts of brain IgG, and brain cytokine levels of all of the Hg-treated offspring were equivalent to those of their appropriate controls, suggesting that developmental Hg exposure did not induce chronic immunological effects. However, the social behaviors of Hg-exposed SFvF1 offspring at pnd70 were significantly impaired, and SFvF1 females displayed greater decline in social behaviors than males, suggesting that the higher neuroinflammation of SFvF1 females earlier in life is associated with the altered behavior. Thus, developmental Hg exposure induces long-lasting effects on social behavior of offspring, which is dependent on sex and genetics and the induction of neuroinflammation. PMID:23392568

  1. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6–7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  2. Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Omar M; Pabona, John Mark P; Kelly, Thomas; Huang, Yan; Hennings, Leah J; Prior, Ronald L; Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2013-02-01

    Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether early exposure to blueberry (BB) via maternal diet alters oncogene Wnt1-induced mammary tumorigenesis in offspring. Wnt1-transgenic female mice were exposed to maternal Casein (CAS, control) or blueberry-supplemented (CAS + 3%BB) diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned to CAS and mammary tumor development was followed until age 8 months. Tumor incidence and latency were similar for both groups; however, tumor weight at killing and tumor volume within 2 weeks of initial detection were lower (by 50 and 60%, respectively) in offspring of BB- versus control-fed dams. Dietary BB exposure beginning at weaning did not alter mammary tumor parameters. Tumors from maternal BB-exposed offspring showed higher tumor suppressor (Pten and Cdh1) and lower proproliferative (Ccnd1), anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) and proangiogenic (Figf, Flt1 and Ephb4) transcript levels, and displayed attenuated microvessel density. Expression of Pten and Cdh1 genes was also higher in mammary tissues of maternal BB-exposed offspring. Mammary tissues and tumors of maternal BB-exposed offspring showed increased chromatin-modifying enzyme Dnmt1 and Ezh2 transcript levels. Body weight, serum insulin and serum leptin/adiponectin ratio were lower for maternal BB-exposed than control tumor-bearing offspring. Tumor weights and serum insulin were positively correlated. Results suggest that dietary influences on the maternal environment contribute to key developmental programs in the mammary gland to modify breast cancer outcome in adult progeny.

  3. Chronic maternal calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in Wistar rats programs abnormal hepatic gene expression leading to hepatic steatosis in female offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sona S; Jangale, Nivedita M; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Gokhale, Medha K; Joshi, Bimba N

    2017-02-08

    Importance of calcium and vitamin D deficiency is well established in adult dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency could alter offspring's lipid metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency on lipid metabolism and liver function of the F1 generation offspring. intergenerational calcium-deficient (CaD) and vitamin D-deficient (VDD) models were developed by mating normal male rats with deficient females and continuing maternal-deficient diets through pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed on control diet post-weaning and studied till 30 weeks. Lipid profile, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), calcium and vitamin D levels were analyzed. Liver fat deposition, omega-3 fatty acids level and mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), interleukin 6 (IL-6), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were determined. Low serum vitamin D levels with an increase in SGPT and TG levels in CaD and VDD female offspring were observed. Severe liver steatosis with down-regulation of PPAR-α and UCP2 and up-regulation of SREBP-1c, IL-6 and SOD-1 was observed in the female offspring born to deficient dams. CaD and VDD male offspring showed mild steatosis and down-regulation of UCP2 and SOD-1. We conclude that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency programs abnormal lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression in the F1 generation female offspring leading to hepatic steatosis, despite feeding them on control diet post-weaning.

  4. The absence of detectable fetal microchimerism in nontransgenic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) bearing transgenic offspring.

    PubMed

    Steinkraus, H B; Rothfuss, H; Jones, J A; Dissen, E; Shefferly, E; Lewis, R V

    2012-02-01

    Regulations for the disposal of genetically engineered animals are strict due to concern for their inappropriate introduction into the food chain, and of the possible public health and environmental impacts of these organisms. Nontransgenic animals that give birth to transgenic offspring are treated as if they are transgenic due to concern of fetal cells crossing the placental barrier and residing in the mother (fetal-maternal microchimerism). Determining whether or not fetal-fetal or fetal-maternal transfer of DNA or cells occurs during caprine gestation is critical to effectively protect the public without culling animals that pose no risk. Additionally, fetal-maternal transfer, should it exist in the goat, could contraindicate the rebreeding of nontransgenic dams due to the possible transfer of fetal cells from 1 pregnancy to the fetus of subsequent pregnancies. Fetal-maternal transfer in Capra hircus has not been reported in the literature, although it has been reported in another ruminant, Bos taurus. We examined blood from nontransgenic dams that carried transgenic offspring using a PCR method sensitive enough to detect the presence of a spider silk transgene to a 1:100,000 dilution. At this sensitivity, we did not detect the occurrence of fetal-maternal transfer in 5 nontransgenic dams. Likewise, fetal-fetal transfer was not observed from a transgenic to a nontransgenic twin in utero. To test tissue-specific expression of the silk transgene, proteins purified from standard necropsy tissue from a lactating transgenic dam were examined by Western blot analysis. Silk protein expression was only observed in mammary tissue consistent with the tissue specificity of the β-casein promoter used in the transgenic construct. We report evidence collected from a limited caprine breeding pool against transfer of transgenes in utero from fetus to dam and fetus to fetus. In addition, we show evidence that the β-casein promoter in our expression construct is not expressed

  5. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-08

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  6. Prenatal exposure to inflammatory conditions increases Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel opening and activation of astrocytes in the offspring effect on neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Beatriz C; Montero, Trinidad D; Chávez, Carolina E; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Orellana, Juan A

    2015-06-19

    Several epidemiological studies indicate that children born from mothers exposed to infections during gestation, have an increased risk to develop neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and cerebral palsy. Given that it is unknown if astrocytes and their crosstalk with neurons participate in the above mentioned brain pathologies, the aim of this work was to address if astroglial paracrine signaling mediated by Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels could be affected in the offspring of LPS-exposed dams during pregnancy. Ethidium uptake experiments showed that prenatal LPS-exposure increases the activity of astroglial Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels in the offspring. Induction of unopposed channel opening by prenatal LPS exposure depended on intracellular Ca(2+) levels, cytokine production and activation of p38 MAP kinase/iNOS pathway. Biochemical assays and Fura-2AM/DAF-FM time-lapse fluorescence images revealed that astrocytes from the offspring of LPS-exposed dams displayed increased spontaneous Ca(2+) dynamics and NO production, whereas iNOS levels and release of IL-1β/TNF-α were also increased. Interestingly, we found that prenatal LPS exposure enhanced the release of ATP through astroglial Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels in the offspring, resulting in an increased neuronal death mediated by the activation of neuronal P2X7 receptors and Panx1 channels. Altogether, this evidence suggests that astroglial Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel opening induced by prenatal LPS exposure depended on the inflammatory activation profile and the activation pattern of astrocytes. The understanding of the mechanism underlying astrocyte-neuron crosstalk could contribute to the development of new strategies to ameliorate the brain abnormalities induced in the offspring by prenatal inflammation. GLIA 2015.

  7. Maternal High-Fat Diet-Induced Loss of Fetal Oocytes Is Associated with Compromised Follicle Growth in Adult Rat Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Tsoulis, Michael W.; Chang, Pauline E.; Moore, Caroline J.; Chan, Kaitlyn A.; Gohir, Wajiha; Petrik, James J.; Vickers, Mark H.; Connor, Kristin L.; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic and reproductive dysfunction. We have shown previously that female rat offspring born to mothers fed a high-fat (HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and display aberrant reproductive cyclicity. The mechanisms driving this reproductive phenotype are currently unknown thus we investigated whether changes in ovarian function were involved. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to: dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Ovaries were collected from fetuses at Embryonic Day (E) 20, and neonatal ovaries at Day 4 (P4), prepubertal ovaries at P27 and adult ovaries at P120. In a subset of offspring, the effects of a HF diet fed postweaning were evaluated. The present study shows that fetuses of mothers fed a HF diet had significantly fewer oocytes at E20, and in neonates, have reduced AMH signaling that may facilitate an increased number of assembled primordial follicles. Both prepubertally and in adulthood, ovaries show increased follicular atresia. As adults, offspring have reduced FSH responsiveness, low expression levels of estrogen receptor alpha (Eralpha), the oocyte-secreted factor, Gdf9, oocyte-specific RNA binding protein, Dazl, and high expression levels of the granulosa-cell derived factor, AMH, in antral follicles. Together, these data suggest that ovarian compromise in offspring born to HF-fed mothers may arise from changes already observable in the fetus and neonate and in the long term, associated with increased follicular atresia through adulthood. PMID:26962114

  8. Why does offspring size affect performance? Integrating metabolic scaling with life-history theory

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Amanda K.; White, Craig R.; Marshall, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Within species, larger offspring typically outperform smaller offspring. While the relationship between offspring size and performance is ubiquitous, the cause of this relationship remains elusive. By linking metabolic and life-history theory, we provide a general explanation for why larger offspring perform better than smaller offspring. Using high-throughput respirometry arrays, we link metabolic rate to offspring size in two species of marine bryozoan. We found that metabolism scales allometrically with offspring size in both species: while larger offspring use absolutely more energy than smaller offspring, larger offspring use proportionally less of their maternally derived energy throughout the dependent, non-feeding phase. The increased metabolic efficiency of larger offspring while dependent on maternal investment may explain offspring size effects—larger offspring reach nutritional independence (feed for themselves) with a higher proportion of energy relative to structure than smaller offspring. These findings offer a potentially universal explanation for why larger offspring tend to perform better than smaller offspring but studies on other taxa are needed. PMID:26559952

  9. Bred to breed?! Implications of continuous mating on the emotional status of mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-02-15

    Working with mice represents a smart method to study pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. However, using animals as model organisms also bears immense caveats. While many aspects in animal research are meanwhile standardized (e.g. nutrition, housing, health) the breeding environment remains unaddressed. Moreover, since the "production" of mice is mostly performed pragmatically, continuous mating (CM) represents a common method to boost the amount of offspring. This condition implies simultaneous pregnancy and lactation in presence of the male, which is associated with increased costs for the breeding dam. Facing the widely-accepted impact of perinatal conditions, our aim was to elucidate how CM affects emotional behaviour of mouse offspring. We therefore compared pregnant mice in CM with mice raising their pups without potentially disturbing influences. According to our hypothesis CM-deriving offspring should demonstrate increased anxiety and depression-like behaviour shaped by pre- and postnatal stress of the mother. Maternal care, i.e. nest building and pup retrieval, was analysed around delivery. To assess the emotional state of the offspring, males and females of either condition were exposed to a behavioural test battery for exploration, anxiety and fear, social and despair behaviour. In addition we analysed corticosterone as stressphysiological correlate. Our study demonstrates that CM affects the emotional phenotype regarding nearly all parameters addressed. These findings emphasize (i) the impact of the perinatal environment on stress-associated behaviour such as depression, and (ii) the need to imply perinatal conditions in the experimental design to decrease the risk of artefacts and increase the overall validity of animal studies.

  10. Young Adult Exposure to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Events Later in Life: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pletcher, Mark J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor exposure during early adulthood contributes to CHD risk later in life. Our objective was to analyze whether extent of early adult exposures to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, HDL) are independent predictors of CHD events later in life. Methods and Findings We used all available measurements of SBP, DBP, LDL, and HDL collected over 40 years in the Framingham Offspring Study to estimate risk factor trajectories, starting at age 20 years, for all participants. Average early adult (age 20–39) exposure to each risk factor was then estimated, and used to predict CHD events (myocardial infarction or CHD death) after age 40, with adjustment for risk factor exposures later in life (age 40+). 4860 participants contributed an average of 6.3 risk factor measurements from in-person examinations and 24.5 years of follow-up after age 40, and 510 had a first CHD event. Early adult exposures to high SBP, DBP, LDL or low HDL were associated with 8- to 30-fold increases in later life CHD event rates, but were also strongly correlated with risk factor levels later in life. After adjustment for later life levels and other risk factors, early adult DBP and LDL remained strongly associated with later life risk. Compared with DBP≤70 mmHg, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–5.7) for DBP = 71–80, 2.6 (0.9–7.2) for DBP = 81–90, and 3.6 (1.2–11) for DBP>90 (p-trend = 0.019). Compared with LDL≤100 mg/dl, adjusted HRs were 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for LDL = 101–130, 2.2 (1.2–4.0) for LDL = 131–160, and 2.4 (1.2–4.7) for LDL>160 (p-trend = 0.009). While current levels of SBP and HDL were also associated with CHD events, we did not detect an independent association with early adult exposure to either of these risk factors. Conclusions Using a mixed modeling approach to estimation of young adult exposures

  11. Hypergravity Effects on the Mother-Offspring System in Mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, ten pregnant female rats were launched on the Space Shuttle (STS-70) on Gestational day (G) 11 of their 22-day pregnancy as part of the NASA/NIH.Rodent (R)2 Experiment. Following landing on G20, fetuses were harvested from half of the dams, 0 g while the remaining five dams underwent birth. Spaceflight did not interrupt pregnancy, alter litter sizes, or affect body weights or gender ratios of the fetuses or neonates. Analyses of rats exposed to Hypergravity (HG) at 2.0-g, HG 1.75-g, HG 1.5-g were also conducted. Dams were exposed to continuous centrifugation from G I I through G20, with brief daily stops for animal health checks and maintenance. For both the G20 and Birth dams, comparable litter sizes and litter gender ratios were observed across gravity conditions. However, centrifugation-exposed (HG and RC) fetuses and neonates showed significantly lower body masses (p less than 0.05) relative to SC offspring. FIG 2.0-g offspring weighed significantly less than those in all other gravity conditions (p less than 0.05). Changes in the mothers care of the young will be discussed.

  12. Topics on distance correlation, feature screening and lifetime expectancy with application to Beaver Dam eye study data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jing

    This thesis includes 4 pieces of work. In Chapter 1, we present the work with a method for examining mortality as it is seen to run in families, and lifestyle factors that are also seen to run in families, in a subpopulation of the Beaver Dam Eye Study that has died by 2011. We find significant distance correlations between death ages, lifestyle factors, and family relationships. Considering only sib pairs compared to unrelated persons, distance correlation between siblings and mortality is, not surprisingly, stronger than that between more distantly related family members and mortality. Chapter 2 introduces a feature screening procedure with the use of distance correlation and covariance. We demonstrate a property for distance covariance, which is incorporated in a novel feature screening procedure based on distance correlation as a stopping criterion. The approach is further implemented to two real examples, namely the famous small round blue cell tumors data and the Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer data Chapter 3 pays attention to the right censored human longevity data and the estimation of lifetime expectancy. We propose a general framework of backward multiple imputation for estimating the conditional lifetime expectancy function and the variance of the estimator in the right censoring setting and prove the properties of the estimator. In addition, we apply the method to the Beaver Dam eye study data to study human longevity, where the expected human lifetime are modeled with smoothing spline ANOVA based on the covariates including baseline age, gender, lifestyle factors and disease variables. Chapter 4 compares two imputation methods for right censored data, namely the famous Buckley-James estimator and the backward imputation method proposed in Chapter 3 and shows that backward imputation method is less biased and more robust with heterogeneity.

  13. Focusing on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lagassa, G.

    1993-01-01

    With increased relicensing activity and a federal emphasis on safety, dam repair and refurbishment is a growing business. Providers of goods and services are gearing up to meet the dam repair and rehabilitation needs that result.

  14. Maternal Nutrient Restriction Predisposes Ventricular Remodeling in Adult Sheep Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Hu, Nan; George, Lindsey A.; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Wang, Xiaoming; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy is associated with the development of a “thrifty phenotype” in offspring, conferring increased prevalence of metabolic diseases in adulthood. To explore the possible mechanisms behind heart diseases in adulthood following maternal nutrient restriction, dams were fed a nutrient restricted (NR: 50%) or control (100%) diet from 28 to 78 d of gestation. Both groups were then fed 100% of requirements to lambing. At 6 yrs of age, female offspring of NR and control ewes of similar weight and body condition were subject to ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable diet for 12 wks. Cardiac geometry, post-insulin receptor signaling, autophagy and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in hearts from adult offspring. Our results indicated that maternal nutrient restriction overtly increased body weight gain and triggered cardiac remodeling in offspring following the 12-week ad libitum feeding. Phosphorylation of IRS1 was increased in left but not right ventricles from NR offspring. Levels of STAT3 were upregulated in left ventricles whereas expression of TNFα and TLR4 was enhanced in right ventricles in adult offspring of maternal nutrition restricted ewes. No significant differences were found in pan IRS-1, pan AMPK, pan Akt, pAMPK, pAkt, GLUT4, phosphorylated mTOR, Beclin-1 and LC3 II proteins in left and right ventricle between the control and NR offspring. These data revealed that maternal nutrient restriction during early to mid gestation may predispose adult offspring to cardiac remodeling possibly associated with phosphorylation of IRS1 as well as proinflammatory cytokines but not autophagy. PMID:23333094

  15. Mapping areas at risk of diffuse phosphorus losses to water: a pilot study of Lake Haderslev Dam, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hans Estrup; Heckrath, Goswin; Thodsen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Haderslev Dam is a 272 ha lake in southern Denmark with a high recreational value. For decades the lake has been severely eutrophicated due to excessive phosphorus loading. Major point sources were cut off in the early 1990s and an upstream wetland was recreated. However, the ecological quality remains unsatisfactory. In this study we estimate the importance of agriculture on diffuse phosphorus (P) input to the lake by modelling combined with independent estimates for contributions from scattered dwellings not connected to a sewer and from background losses. We apply a newly developed Danish P index to the lake catchment for mapping of risk areas for diffuse phosphorus losses. For risk areas we suggest mitigation measures and estimate the effect of the mitigation measures on the total P loading of the lake as well as the associated costs.

  16. Birth weight in offspring and leukaemia risk in parents--a nation-wide register-based cohort study from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Maria; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hjalgrim, Lisa; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2013-02-01

    Spurred by previous observations we assessed the relationship between offspring birth weight and parental leukaemia risk in a register-based investigation including 2.4 million parents of 2 million Danish children. Regardless of analytical approach, offspring birth weight was not associated with parental risk of leukaemia overall or of leukaemia subtypes except for a twofold increased acute lymphatic leukaemia risk in fathers of high birth weight offspring and an increasing paternal risk of chronic myeloid leukaemia with increasing offspring birth weight. These may both be chance findings. Our investigation indicates that offspring birth weight is not strongly associated with parental leukaemia risk.

  17. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  18. Maternal diabetes modulates dental epithelial stem cells proliferation and self-renewal in offspring through apurinic/apyrimidinicendonuclease 1-mediated DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoqing; Chen, Jie; Yan, Zhiling; Li, Ziyue; Yu, Mei; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has many adverse effects on the development of offspring. Aberrant DNA methylation is a potential mechanism associated with these effects. However, the effects of GDM on tooth development and the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, a GDM rat model was established and incisor labial cervical loop tissue and dental epithelial stem cells (DESCs) were harvested from neonates of diabetic and control dams. GDM significantly suppressed incisor enamel formation and DESCs proliferation and self-renewal in offspring. Gene expression profiles showed that Apex1 was significantly downregulated in the offspring of diabetic dams. In vitro, gain and loss of function analyses showed that APEX1 was critical for DESCs proliferation and self-renewal and Oct4 and Nanog regulation via promoter methylation. In vivo, we confirmed that GDM resulted in significant downregulation of Oct4 and Nanog and hypermethylation of their promoters. Moreover, we found that APEX1 modulated DNA methylation by regulating DNMT1 expression through ERK and JNK signalling. In summary, our data suggest that GDM-induced APEX1 downregulation increased DNMT1 expression, thereby inhibiting Oct4 and Nanog expression, through promoter hypermethylation, resulting in suppression of DESCs proliferation and self-renewal, as well as enamel formation. PMID:28094306

  19. Reward processing deficits and impulsivity in high-risk offspring of alcoholics: A study of event-related potentials during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Bauer, Lance O.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. The goal of the present study is to elucidate reward processing deficits, externalizing disorders, and impulsivity as elicited by electrophysiological, clinical and behavioral measures in subjects at high risk for alcoholism from families densely affected by alcoholism in the context of brain maturation across age groups and gender. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs) and current source density (CSD) during a monetary gambling task (MGT) were measured in 12–25 year old offspring (N = 1864) of families in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) Prospective study; the high risk (HR, N = 1569) subjects were from families densely affected with alcoholism and the low risk (LR, N = 295) subjects were from community families. Externalizing disorders and impulsivity scores were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring from older (16–25 years) male and younger (12–15 years) female subgroups showed lower P3 amplitude than LR subjects. The amplitude decrement was most prominent in HR males during the loss condition. Overall, P3 amplitude increase at anterior sites and decrease at posterior areas were seen in older compared to younger subjects, suggesting frontalization during brain maturation. The HR subgroups also exhibited hypofrontality manifested as weaker CSD activity during both loss and gain conditions at frontal regions. Further, the HR subjects had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders. P3 amplitudes during the gain condition were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. Conclusions Older male and younger female HR offspring, compared to their LR counterparts, manifested reward processing deficits as indexed by lower P3 amplitude and weaker CSD activity, along with higher prevalence of externalizing disorders and higher impulsivity scores

  20. The interaction between maternal immune activation and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in regulating behaviors in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Li; Adams, Catherine E.; Stevens, Karen E.; Chow, Ke-Huan; Freedman, Robert; Patterson, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of human chromosome 15q13.3 increases the risk for autism and schizophrenia. One of the noteworthy genes in 15q13.3 is CHRNA7, which encodes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 subunit (α7nAChR) associated with schizophrenia in clinical studies and rodent models. This study investigates the role of α7nAChR in maternal immune activation (MIA) mice model, a murine model of environmental risk factor for autism and schizophrenia. We provided choline, a selective α7nAChR agonist among its several developmental roles, in the diet of C57BL/6N wild-type dams throughout the gestation and lactation period and induced MIA at mid-gestation. The adult offspring behavior and gene expression profile in the maternal spleen-placenta-fetal brain axis at mid-gestation were investigated. We found that choline supplementation prevented several MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities in the wild-type offspring. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Chrna7 gene expression in the wild-type fetal brain were elevated by poly(I:C) injection and were suppressed by gestational choline supplementation. We further investigated the gene expression level of IL-6 in Chrna7 mutant mice. We found that the basal level of IL-6 was higher in Chrna7 mutant fetal brain, which suggests that α7nAChR may serve an anti-inflammatory role in the fetal brain during development. Lastly, we induced MIA in Chrna7+/− offspring. The Chrna7+/− offspring were more vulnerable to MIA, with increased behavioral abnormalities. Our study shows that α7nAChR modulates inflammatory response affecting the fetal brain and demonstrates its effects on offspring behavior development after MIA. PMID:25683697

  1. Chronic maternal low-protein diet in mice affects anxiety, night-time energy expenditure and sleep patterns, but not circadian rhythm in male offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decre...

  2. Prenatal maternal restraint stress exposure alters the reproductive hormone profile and testis development of the rat male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, María Eugenia; Adrover, Ezequiela; Baier, Carlos Javier; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Monteleone, Melisa C; Brocco, Marcela A; González-Calvar, Silvia I; Antonelli, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the presence of stressors during pregnancy induces adverse effects on the neuroendocrine system of the offspring later in life. In the present work, we investigated the effects of early programming on the male reproductive system, employing a prenatal stress (PS) paradigm. This study found that when pregnant dams were placed in a plastic restrainer three times a day during the last week of pregnancy, the offspring showed reduced anogenital distance and delayed testicular descent. Serum luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were decreased at postnatal day (PND) 28 and testosterone was decreased at PND 75. Increased testosterone plus dihydrotestosterone (T + DHT) concentrations correlated with increased testicular 5α Reductase-1 (5αR-1) mRNA expression at PND 28. Moreover, PS accelerated spermatogenesis at PND 35 and 60, and increased mean seminiferous tubule diameter in pubertal offspring and reduced Leydig cell number was observed at PND 35 and 60. PS offspring had increased androgen receptor (AR) mRNA level at PND 28, and at PND 35 had increased the numbers of Sertoli cells immunopositive for AR. Overall, the results confirm that stress during gestation can induce long-term effects on the male offspring reproductive system. Of particular interest is the pre-pubertal imbalance of circulating hormones that probably trigger accelerated testicular development, followed by an increase in total androgens and a decrease in testosterone concentration during adulthood. Exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment might prepare for harsh external conditions by triggering early puberty, increasing reproductive potential.

  3. Study of Active Faults in the Three Gorges Dam region by Detecting and Relocating Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Zhu, L.; Xu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismicity in the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region and its adjacent areas increased dramatically as the water- level of the TGD reservoir rises since its completion in 2003. Accordingly, many efforts have been put forward to quantify the seismicity and geological hazards in the region. However, the precise detective of earthquakes, especially for the minor ones, remains difficulty because of sparse distribution of permanent seismic stations. From December 2013 to June 2014, we deployed 30 three-component broadband seismic stations in the TGD region. During the deployment, we recorded two earthquakes of magnitudes lager than 5.0, one occurred on December 16th 2013 in Badong and another on March 30th 2014 in Zigui. We firstly used a sliding-window cross-correlation (SCC) detection technique to supplement the events catalog from the China Earthquake Networks Center. Over 500 new events with ML lager than 0.5 were detected. We then relocated 502 events out of the total 987 events using the double-difference (DD) relocation algorithm. We also determined moment tensors of some large earthquakes using gCAP. The results clearly show two active faults along Yangtze River with dips of 50 degrees and 90 degrees to a maximum depth of 10 km, respectively. And they also reveal that water might have permeated to a depth of 6 km corresponds to the interface of sediments and metamorphic basement beneath Zigui Basin. We thus preliminarily judge that the quakes are triggered by local stress adjustment resulting of fluctuation of Three Gorges reservoir's loading.

  4. The lost study: a 1998 adoption study of personality that found no genetic relationship between birthparents and their 240 adopted-away biological offspring.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, Robert Plomin and his Colorado Adoption Project (CAP) colleagues published the results of a longitudinal adoption study of personality. They found an average personality test score correlation of only 0.01 between birthparents and their 240 adopted-away 16-year-old biological offspring, suggesting no genetic influences on personality. However, the researchers interpreted their results in the context of previous twin studies, produced an average 14% heritability estimate, and concluded that nonadditive genetic factors underlie personality traits. The author challenges these conclusions and notes that the near-zero correlation stands in contrast to other types of behavioral genetic methods, such as twin studies, that are more vulnerable to environmental confounds and other biases. The author shows that authoritative psychology texts frequently fail to mention this 1998 CAP study. When it is mentioned, the original researchers' conclusions are usually accepted without critical analysis. The author also assesses the results in the context of the 20-year failure to discover the genes that behavioral geneticists believe underlie personality traits. He concludes that this 1998 investigation is a "lost study" in the sense that, although it is one of the most methodologically sound behavioral genetic studies ever performed, its results are largely unknown.

  5. PERSPECTIVE ON LANDSLIDE DAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Costa, John E.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and soil slumps and slides; mud, debris, and earth flows: and rock and debris avalanches. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snow melt, and earthquakes. Most landslide dams are remarkable short-lived. In a sample of 63 documented cases, 22 percent of the landslide dams failed in less than 1 day after formation, and half failed within 10 days. Overtopping was by far the most frequent cause of landslide-dam failure. Backwater flooding behind landslide dams can inundate communities and valuable agricultural land. Floods from the failure of landslide dams are smaller than floods from constructed dams impounding bodies of water with the same potential energy, but larger than floods from failure of ice dams. Secondary effects of landslide-dam failures include additional landslides as reservoir levels drop rapidly, aggradation of valleys upstream and downstream of the dams, and avulsive channel changes downstream.

  6. The maternal autoimmune environment affects the social behavior of offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubin; Gao, Donghong; Kluetzman, Kerri; Mendoza, Alvaro; Bolivar, Valerie J; Reilly, Andrew; Jolly, Jane K; Lawrence, David A

    2013-05-15

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with unknown etiology. BTBR-T(+)tf/J (BTBR) mice, a mouse strain with behaviors that resemble autism and with elevated levels of anti-brain antibodies (Abs), have enhanced activation of peripheral B cells and CD4(+) T cells and an expanded percentage of CD4(+) T cells expressing Vβ6 chains. The CD4(+)CD25(+)Vβ6(+) and Vβ6-splenic cells of BTBR mice have elevated levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17, but there appears to be no preferential CD4(+) T subset skewing/polarization. The high level of IgG production by BTBR B cells was dependent on T cells from BTBR mice. The CD4(+) T cells of BTBR mice, especially those expressing Vβ6 become spontaneously activated and expanded in an autoimmune-like manner, which occurred in both BTBR and B6 hosts that received an equal number of BTBR and B6 bone marrow cells. BTBR mice also have an elevated percentage of peripheral blood neutrophils, which may represent their elevated inflammatory state. B6 offspring derived from B6 dams that were gestationally injected with purified IgG from sera of BTBR mice, but not IgG of B6 mice, developed significantly impaired social behavior. Additionally, B6 offspring that developed in BTBR dams had impaired social behavior, while BTBR offspring that developed in B6 dams had improved social behavior. All of the immunological and behavioral parameters of BTBR mice were compared with those of B6 mice, which have relatively normal behaviors. The results indicate maternal Abs and possibly other maternal influences affect the social behavior of offspring.

  7. 78 FR 49735 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Dam Safety Study, Lake Lewisville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Corps instituted a Screening Portfolio Risk Assessment (SPRA) program to assess the risk of all 694 dams in the Corps' portfolio. The SPRA report completed in July 2005, was reviewed by Corps senior...

  8. How to update design floods after the construction of small reservoirs and check dams: A case study from the Daqinghe river basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianzhu; Sun, Huafeng; Feng, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Several small reservoirs and a large number of check dams had been constructed in the Wangkuai reservoir watershed after 1970s, and flood time series lacked stationarity, which affected the original design flood hydrographs for the Wangkuai reservoir. Since the location, storage capacity and drainage area of the large number of check dams were unknown, we present a method to estimate their total storage capacities (TSC) and total drainage areas (TDA) by using the recorded rainstorm and flood data. On the basis of TSC and TDA, the flood events which occurred in an undisturbed period were reconstructed under current conditions to obtain a stationary flood series. A frequency analysis was subsequently performed to assess the design flood peak and volume for both small and medium design floods with a 10-200 year return period. For large and catastrophic floods, it was assumed that the upstream check dams and small reservoirs would be destroyed, and water stored in these hydraulic structures were re-routed to the Wangkuai reservoir by unit hydrograph. The modified flood peak and volume decreased for floods with a 10-200 year return period when compared to the current design flood. But for large design floods with a return period exceeding 500 years, peak discharge increased. This study provides a new method for design flood calculation or modification of the original design flood in watersheds with a large number of check dams.

  9. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  10. 76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ..., 38.5-foot-high Crocker Pond dam; (2) an existing 99.7- acre impoundment with a normal water surface... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the...

  11. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant...

  12. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  13. Maternal overweight induces integrative changes in gene expression in the offspring in metabolically active tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW rat dams (Sprague Dawley) gain greater body weight (p less than 0.005), fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45 percent fat). Hepatic microarray analyses ...

  14. Peri, pre and postnatal morphine exposure: exposure-induced effects and sex differences in the behavioural consequences in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Timár, Julia; Sobor, Melinda; Király, Kornél P; Gyarmati, Susanna; Riba, Pál; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Fürst, Susanna

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the behavioural consequences of peri, pre and postnatal morphine (MO) exposure in rats. From gestational day 1 dams were treated with either saline or MO subcutaneously once a day (5 mg/kg on the first 2 days, 10 mg/kg subsequently). Spontaneous locomotor activity in a new environment (habituation) and antinociceptive effects of MO were measured separately in male and female pups after weaning and also in late adolescence or adulthood. The rewarding effect of MO was assessed by conditioned place preference in adult animals. Both exposure-induced and sex differences were observed. A significant delay in habituation to a new environment and decreased sensitivity to the antinociceptive effect of MO were found in male offspring of MO-treated dams. In contrast, the place preference induced by MO was enhanced in the MO-exposed adult animals and this effect was more marked in females. Prenatal exposure to MO resulted in more marked changes than the postnatal exposure through maternal milk. The results indicate that a medium MO dose administered once-daily results in long-term consequences in offspring and may make them more vulnerable to MO abuse in adulthood.

  15. Toward policies and decision-making for dam removal.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Harbor, Jon M; Stanley, Emily H

    2003-04-01

    Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and most agencies faced with dam removal lack a coherent purpose for removing dams. These shortcomings can be overcome by the implementation of two policies by agencies faced with dam removal: (1) the development and adoption of a prioritization scheme for what constitutes an important dam removal, and (2) the establishment of minimum levels of analysis prior to decision-making about a dam removal. Federal and state agencies and the scientific community must encourage an initial experimental phase of dam removal during which only a few dams are removed, and these are studied intensively. This will allow for the development of the fundamental scientific understanding needed to support effective decision-making in the future and minimize the risk of disasters arising from poorly thought out dam removal decisions.

  16. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  17. In-situ gamma-ray survey of rare-earth tailings dams--A case study in Baotou and Bayan Obo Districts, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baochuan; Wang, Nanping; Wan, Jianhua; Xiong, Shengqing; Liu, Hongtao; Li, Shijun; Zhao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer survey with a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75 mm × 75 mm) was carried out in the Baotou and Bayan Obo Districts in order to estimate the levels of natural radionuclides near rare-earth (RE) tailings dams. In the RE tailings dam of Baotou, the mean concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg (range: 1.9-4.6 mg/kg) and 321 ± 31 mg/kg (range: 294-355 mg/kg), respectively. In the Bayan Obo tailings dam, the mean concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were 5.7 ± 0.5 mg/kg (range: 5.3-6.1 mg/kg) and 276 ± 0.5 mg/kg (range: 275.5-276.3 mg/kg), respectively. The average (232)Th concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7 ± 7.5 and 26.2 ± 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. The (232)Th concentration recorded in the tailings dams was much higher than the global average (7.44 mg/kg). Our investigation shows that the (232)Th concentration in the tailings in the Baotou dam was 34.6 times greater than that in the local soil (in Guyang County); the average concentrations of (232)Th in the soil in the Baotou District and Bayan Obo Districts were about 1.35 and 2.82 times greater, respectively, than that in the soil in Guyang County. Based on our results, the highest estimated effective dose due to gamma irradiation was 1.15 mSv per year, estimated from the data observed in the Baotou tailings dams. The results of this preliminary study indicate the potential importance of radioactivity in RE tailings dams and that remedial measures may be required.

  18. Fragility Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekie, Paulos B.; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2002-09-01

    Concrete gravity dams are an important part ofthe nation's infrastructure. Many dams have been in service for over 50 years, during which time important advances in the methodologies for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards have caused the design-basis events to be revised upwards, in some cases significantly. Many existing dams fail to meet these revised safety criteria and structural rehabilitation to meet newly revised criteria may be costly and difficult. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides a rational safety assessment and decision-making tool managing the various sources of uncertainty that may impact dam performance. Fragility analysis, which depicts fl%e uncertainty in the safety margin above specified hazard levels, is a fundamental tool in a PSA. This study presents a methodology for developing fragilities of concrete gravity dams to assess their performance against hydrologic and seismic hazards. Models of varying degree of complexity and sophistication were considered and compared. The methodology is illustrated using the Bluestone Dam on the New River in West Virginia, which was designed in the late 1930's. The hydrologic fragilities showed that the Eluestone Dam is unlikely to become unstable at the revised probable maximum flood (PMF), but it is likely that there will be significant cracking at the heel ofthe dam. On the other hand, the seismic fragility analysis indicated that sliding is likely, if the dam were to be subjected to a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Moreover, there will likely be tensile cracking at the neck of the dam at this level of seismic excitation. Probabilities of relatively severe limit states appear to be only marginally affected by extremely rare events (e.g. the PMF and MCE). Moreover, the risks posed by the extreme floods and earthquakes were not balanced for the Bluestone Dam, with seismic hazard posing a relatively higher risk.

  19. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  20. Protective effect of rosemary on acrylamide motor neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rat offspring: postnatal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gholam, Marwa A.; El-Mehi, Abeer E.; El-Barbary, Abd El-Moneum; Fokar, Ahmed Zo El

    2016-01-01

    The direct interactive effects of rosemary and acrylamide on the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord remains unknown. Our goal is to confirm the protective effects of rosemary against motor neuronal degeneration induced by acrylamide in the developing postnatal rat spinal cord using a postnatal rat model. We assigned the offspring of treated female rats into control, rosemary; acrylamide group; and recovery groups. This work depended on clinical, histopathological, morphometrically, immunohistochemical and genetic methods. In the acrylamide group, we observed oxidation, motor neuron degeneration, apoptosis, myelin degeneration, neurofilament reduction, reactive gliosis. Whoever, concomitant rosemary intake and withdrawal of acrylamide modulate these effects. These findings proof that dietary rosemary can directly protect motor neuron against acrylamide toxicity in the mammalian developing spinal cord. PMID:27051566

  1. Protective effect of rosemary on acrylamide motor neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rat offspring: postnatal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Al-Gholam, Marwa A; Nooh, Hanaa Zakaria; El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Barbary, Abd El-Moneum; Fokar, Ahmed Zo El

    2016-03-01

    The direct interactive effects of rosemary and acrylamide on the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord remains unknown. Our goal is to confirm the protective effects of rosemary against motor neuronal degeneration induced by acrylamide in the developing postnatal rat spinal cord using a postnatal rat model. We assigned the offspring of treated female rats into control, rosemary; acrylamide group; and recovery groups. This work depended on clinical, histopathological, morphometrically, immunohistochemical and genetic methods. In the acrylamide group, we observed oxidation, motor neuron degeneration, apoptosis, myelin degeneration, neurofilament reduction, reactive gliosis. Whoever, concomitant rosemary intake and withdrawal of acrylamide modulate these effects. These findings proof that dietary rosemary can directly protect motor neuron against acrylamide toxicity in the mammalian developing spinal cord.

  2. Studies on the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-06-01

    The Buffalo River and its dams are major surface water sources used for fresh produce irrigation, raw water abstraction and recreation in parts of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Over a 12-month period (August 2010 to July 2011), we assessed the bacteriological qualities of water from the river and 3 source water dams along its course. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC) and enterococci (ENT) counts, were high and ranged as follows: 1.9 × 10(2)-3.8 × 10(7), 0-3.0 × 10(5) and 0-5.3 × 10(5) cfu/100 ml for TC, FC and ENT, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher concentrations of FC and ENT were observed at the sampling sites located at the lower reaches of the river compared to the upper reaches, and at Bridle Drift Dam compared to the other two dams. FIB counts mostly exceeded the recommended maximum values suggested by national and international guidelines for safe fresh produce irrigation, domestic applications, full-contact recreation and livestock watering. These results show that the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and dams were poor, and suggest that sewage was dumped into the Buffalo River during the study period. Urban runoffs and effluents of wastewater treatment plants appear to be important sources of faecal contamination in the river. We conclude that these water bodies represent significant public health hazards. Provision of adequate sanitary infrastructure will help prevent source water contamination, and public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is imperative.

  3. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring in Shanxi Province, China: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Yi, Deqing; Jin, Lei; Li, Zhiwen; Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Qiu, Xinghua; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in placental tissue have been reported to be associated with an increased risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Our case-control study was performed to explore the association between maternal serum OCP concentration and NTD risk in offspring. Serum samples were collected from 117 mothers who delivered NTD infants (case group) and 121 mothers who delivered healthy infants (control group). Only three of the 25 OCPs were detected in more than half of the maternal serum samples. The median concentration of total OCPs in the case group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, no dose-response relationships between higher levels of any individual OCP or total OCPs and the risk of NTDs or subtypes were observed in either the unadjusted binary unconditional logistic regression model or the model adjusted by potential confounders. We conclude that no clear association between maternal serum OCP residues and NTD risk in offspring was observed in this population. PMID:24911776

  4. A rodent model of low- to moderate-dose ethanol consumption during pregnancy: patterns of ethanol consumption and effects on fetal and offspring growth.

    PubMed

    Probyn, Megan E; Zanini, Simone; Ward, Leigh C; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption adversely affects postnatal health. The aim of the present study was to develop a rodent model of low-moderate-dose prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet with or without 6% v/v EtOH throughout gestation and the pattern of dietary consumption determined. Fetal bodyweights and hepatic alcohol-metabolising gene expression were measured on embryonic Day (E) 20 and offspring growth studied until 1 year. At E8 the plasma EtOH concentration was 0.03%. There was little difference in dietary consumption between the two treatment groups. At E20, EtOH-exposed fetuses were significantly lighter than controls and had significantly decreased ADH4 and increased CYP2E1 gene expression. Offspring killed on postnatal Day (PN) 30 did not exhibit any growth deficits. Longitudinal repeated measures of offspring growth demonstrated slower growth in males from EtOH-fed dams between 7 and 12 months of age; a cohort of male pups killed at 8 months of age had a reduced crown-rump length and kidney weight. In conclusion, a liquid diet of 6% v/v EtOH fed to pregnant dams throughout gestation caused a 3-8% reduction in fetal growth and brain sparing, with growth differences observed in male offspring later in life. This model will be useful for future studies on the effects of low-moderate EtOH on the developmental origins of health and disease.

  5. Using seasonal forecasts in a drought forecasting system for water management: case-study of the Arzal dam in Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crochemore, Louise; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Perrin, Charles; Penasso, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    The Arzal dam is located at the outlet of the Vilaine River basin (10,000 km2) in Brittany, France. It controls a reservoir (50 hm3) managed for multiple water uses: drinking water, flood control, irrigation, sailing and fish by-passing. Its location in the estuary creates a physical divide between upstream freshwater and downstream saline water. The reservoir thus plays an essential role in the regional water management system. Its operational management during the summer season poses several challenges, mainly related to the quantification of future water inflows and the risks of having restricted water availability for its different uses. Indeed, the occurrence of severe drought periods between May and October may increase the risk of salt intrusion and drinking water contamination due to lock operations. Therefore it is important to provide decision-makers with reliable low-flow forecasts and risk-based visualization tools, which will support their choice of the best strategy for allocation of water among different users and stakeholders. This study focuses on an integrated hydro-meteorological forecasting system developed to forecast low flows upstream the Arzal dam and based on a lumped hydrological model. Medium-range meteorological forecasts from the ECMWF ensemble prediction system (51 scenarios up to 9 days ahead) are combined with seasonal meteorological forecasts also from ECMWF to provide extended streamflow forecasts for the summer period. The performance of the forecasts obtained by this method is compared with the performance of two benchmarks: (i) flow forecasts obtained using an ensemble of past observed precipitation series as precipitation scenarios, i.e. without any use of forecasts from meteorological models and (ii) flow forecasts obtained using the seasonal forecasts only, i.e. without medium-term information. First, the performance of ensemble forecasts is evaluated and compared by means of probabilistic scores. Then, a risk

  6. Effects of prenatal maternal stress by repeated cold environment on behavioral and emotional development in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Tazumi, Tooru; Hori, Etsuro; Uwano, Teruko; Umeno, Katsumi; Tanebe, Kyoko; Tabuchi, Eiichi; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2005-07-01

    It has been reported that many types of stresses, which caused physiological and psychological alterations in dams as prenatal maternal stress, affected behavioral and emotional traits of their offspring. However, effects of environmental temperature changes, which induce various stress responses in both animals and humans, have not been assessed as prenatal maternal stress. Repeated cold stress (RCS) is a type of chronic cold stress in which environmental temperature changes rapidly and frequently several times within a day. In the present study, to investigate effects of chronic maternal stress by the RCS on behavioral and emotional development of the rat offspring (prenatal RCS rats), the RCS stress was loaded to pregnant rats between day 9 and 19 after fertilization. The prenatal RCS rats showed similar locomotor activity in an open field to control rats that were borne by non-stressed pregnant rats. On the other hand, the prenatal RCS rats showed significantly higher startle responses than the control rats in a light enhanced startle paradigm. However, treatment of diazepam decreased the startle responses in the prenatal RCS rats to the same degree as those in the control rats. The results indicated that prenatal RCS affected emotional development of the rat offspring, but not locomotor activity. Comparison of the present results with the previous studies suggests that there might be unknown common mechanisms among different prenatal maternal stresses that induce similar behavioral developmental alteration.

  7. Maternal exposure to fish oil primes offspring to harbor intestinal pathobionts associated with altered immune cell balance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D L; Gill, S K; Brown, K; Tasnim, N; Ghosh, S; Innis, S; Jacobson, K

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that offspring from rat dams fed fish oil (at 8% and 18% energy), developed impaired intestinal barriers sensitizing the colon to exacerbated injury later in life. To discern the mechanism, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to fish oil, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), caused abnormal intestinal reparative responses to mucosal injury through differences in intestinal microbiota and the presence of naïve immune cells. To identify such mechanisms, gut microbes and naïve immune cells were compared between rat pups born to dams fed either n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA or breeder chow. Maternal exposure to either of the PUFA rich diets altered the development of the intestinal microbiota with an overall reduction in microbial density. Using qPCR, we found that each type of PUFA differentially altered the major gut phyla; fish oil increased Bacteroidetes and safflower oil increased Firmicutes. Both PUFA diets reduced microbes known to dominate the infant gut like Enterobacteriaceae and Bifidobacteria spp. when compared to the chow group. Uniquely, maternal fish oil diets resulted in offspring showing blooms of opportunistic pathogens like Bilophila wadsworthia, Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides fragilis in their gut microbiota. As well, fish oil groups showed a reduction in colonic CD8+ T cells, CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells and arginase+ M2 macrophages. In conclusion, fish oil supplementation in pharmacological excess, at 18% by energy as shown in this study, provides an example where excess dosing in utero can prime offspring to harbor intestinal pathobionts and alter immune cell homeostasis.

  8. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

    2012-10-01

    Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 μg/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants

  9. Supplementation of the maternal diet during pregnancy with chocolate and fructose interacts with the high-fat diet of the young to facilitate the onset of metabolic disorders in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yun; Dai, Yun-Bin; Wang, Hao-Nan; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the most common metabolic disorders in society today. Previously, we found that supplementing the maternal diet during pregnancy with chocolate and fructose has negative effects on the well-being of the offspring that were ameliorated if the offspring were fed a normal diet during postnatal life. In the present study, we investigated whether feeding offspring a high-fat diet would augment the maternal programming effects and whether extra protein supply can correct the low birth weight resulting from the chocolate-supplemented maternal diet. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed either standard chow (normal nutrition; NN), chocolate- and fructose-supplemented standard chow with casein sodium (overnutrition; ON) or the supplemented standard chow without casein sodium (malnutrition; MN) throughout pregnancy. Male offspring were weaned on either standard or high-fat chow. Dams in the MN group exhibited moderate weight gain, consumed 50% less protein (P < 0.001) but more carbohydrates during gestation and delivered pups with a 12% lower birth weight (P < 0.05) than pups in the NN group, results that are consistent with previous findings. When fed on a high-fat diet after birth, pups from dams in the MN group (MNHD) had 30% more body fat (P = 0.023) and liver triglyceride (TG) levels that were double (P < 0.01) those in offspring in the other groups, leading to fatty livers in these offspring at 14 weeks of age. Hepatic expression of the PPARα, ApoB100, MTTP, CPT1 and SREBP1c genes was significantly downregulated in the MNHD group (P < 0.05 for all), indicating changes in lipid metabolism. Although dams in the ON group exhibited marked gestational weight gain (P < 0.01), they gave birth to normal weight pups that only manifested mild increases in body fat and liver TG content (P < 0.05), without significant changes in the expression of most genes when fed with the high-fat diet. The results

  10. In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces metabolic disorder and increases fat accumulation in visceral depots of C57BL/6J mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hailun; Liu, Yali; Wang, Wei; Ding, Lifeng; Teng, Weiping; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Excessive visceral fat accumulation is associated with metabolic disorders. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a candidate environmental obesogen, affects lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. Perinatal exposure to DEHP may be associated with metabolic disorders of dams and offspring. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure of pregnant dams to DEHP on the metabolism and fat distribution of their offspring, and to determine the mechanisms for these effects. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were administered DEHP via gavage (0.05 or 500 mg/kg/day) from gestational days 1–19. Pups were sacrificed at nine weeks of age. Serum leptin, insulin, lipid and fasting glucose levels, and the weights of the inguinal (subcutaneous) and gonadal (visceral) fat pads were determined. mRNA expression levels of two developmental genes, T-box 15 (Tbx15) and glypican 4 (Gpc4) were detected in fat tissues. A 100% abortion rate was exhibited in 500 mg/kg DEHP-treated dams, whereas exposure to 0.05 mg/kg DEHP did not affect reproductive outcomes. Pups from the 0.05 mg/kg exposure group were used for subsequent experimentation. Serum leptin, insulin, lipid and fasting glucose concentrations in these pups were significantly higher than those of control pups (P<0.05). Although no significant change in body weight was detected, the visceral fat weights of DEHP-exposed pups were significantly higher than those of control pups (P<0.05). Compared with controls, mRNA expression levels of Tbx15 in subcutaneous fat and Gpc4 in visceral fat were significantly increased among DEHP-exposed pups (P<0.01). The present results suggest that in utero exposure to an environmentally safe dose of DEHP may lead to excessive visceral fat accumulation and metabolic disorders in offspring and that aberrant expression of Tbx15 and Gpc4 may have an important role in these effects. PMID:28105114

  11. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Pre-Weaning Growth Hormone Treatment Reverses Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction in Adult Male Offspring of Mothers Undernourished during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition results in elevated blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in adult offspring. However, few studies have investigated interventions during early life to ameliorate the programming of hypertension and vascular disorders. We have utilised a model of maternal undernutrition to examine the effects of pre-weaning growth hormone (GH) treatment on BP and vascular function in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard control diet (CON) or 50% of CON intake throughout pregnancy (UN). From neonatal day 3 until weaning (day 21), CON and UN pups received either saline (CON-S, UN-S) or GH (2.5 ug/g/day)(CON-GH, UN-GH). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Male offspring were fed a standard diet until the end of the study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 150 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 160, intact mesenteric vessels mounted on a pressure myograph. Responses to pressure, agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated to determine vascular function. SBP was increased in UN-S groups and normalised in UN-GH groups (CON-S 121±2 mmHg, CON-GH 115±3, UN-S 146±3, UN-GH 127±2). Pressure mediated dilation was reduced in UN-S offspring and normalised in UN-GH groups. Vessels from UN-S offspring demonstrated a reduced constrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, UN-S offspring vessels displayed a reduced vasodilator response in the presence of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME), carbenoxolone (CBX), L-NAME and CBX, Tram-34 and Apamin. UN-GH vessels showed little difference in responses when compared to CON and significantly increased vasodilator responses when compared to UN-S offspring. Pre-weaning GH treatment reverses the negative effects of maternal UN on SBP and vasomotor function in adult offspring. These data suggest that developmental cardiovascular programming is potentially

  13. Prenatal Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water and Selected Birth Defects in Offspring of Participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Peter J.; Romitti, Paul A.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shinde, Mayura U.; Vuong, Ann M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A.; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C.; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Griesenbeck, John S.; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H.; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. Objectives: We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. Methods: With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses of 3,300 case mothers and 1,121 control mothers from the Iowa and Texas sites to public water supplies and respective nitrate measurements. We assigned nitrate levels for bottled water from collection of representative samples and standard laboratory testing. Daily nitrate consumption was estimated from self-reported water consumption at home and work. Results: With the lowest tertile of nitrate intake around conception as the referent group, mothers of babies with spina bifida were 2.0 times more likely (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) to ingest ≥ 5 mg nitrate daily from drinking water (vs. < 0.91 mg) than control mothers. During 1 month preconception through the first trimester, mothers of limb deficiency, cleft palate, and cleft lip cases were, respectively, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.1), 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.1) times more likely than control mothers to ingest ≥ 5.42 mg of nitrate daily (vs. < 1.0 mg). Higher water nitrate intake did not increase associations between prenatal nitrosatable drug use and birth defects. Conclusions: Higher water nitrate intake was associated with several birth defects in offspring, but did not strengthen associations between nitrosatable drugs and birth defects. Citation: Brender JD, Weyer PJ, Romitti PA, Mohanty BP, Shinde MU, Vuong AM, Sharkey JR, Dwivedi D, Horel SA, Kantamneni J, Huber JC Jr., Zheng Q, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Griesenbeck JS, Zhan FB, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Canfield MA, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

  14. Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.

    PubMed

    Kedar, H; Rodríguez-Gironés, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

    2000-09-07

    The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal levels of need can learn to beg at remarkably different levels. These experiments with hand-raised house sparrows (Passer domesticus) indicated that chicks learn to modify begging levels within a few hours. Moreover, we found that the begging postures of hungry chicks in natural nests are correlated with the average postures that had previously yielded them parental feedings. Such learning challenges parental ability to assess offspring needs and may require that, in response, parents somehow filter out learned differences in offspring signals.

  15. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Domènec J; Bellés, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L; Gómez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, José L

    2006-12-07

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited.

  16. Foster dams rear fighters: strain-specific effects of within-strain fostering on aggressive behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; So, Nina L T; Rissman, Emilie F

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that genes and environment interact to produce behavioral phenotypes. One environmental factor with long-term effects on gene transcription and behavior is maternal care. A classic paradigm for examining maternal care and genetic interactions is to foster pups of one genetic strain to dams of a different strain ("between-strain fostering"). In addition, fostering to a dam of the same strain ("within-strain fostering") is used to reduce indirect effects, via behavioral changes in the dams, of gestation treatments on offspring. Using within-and between-strain fostering we examined the contributions of genetics/prenatal environment, maternal care, and the effects of fostering per se, on adult aggressive behavior in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (DBA). We hypothesized that males reared by dams of the more aggressive DBA strain would attack intruders faster than those reared by B6 dams. Surprisingly, we found that both methods of fostering enhanced aggressive behavior, but only in B6 mice. Since all the B6 offspring are genetically identical, we asked if maternal behavior of B6 dams was affected by the relatedness of their pups. In fact, B6 dams caring for foster B6 pups displayed significantly reduced maternal behaviors. Finally, we measured vasopressin and corticotrophin releasing hormone mRNA in the amygdalae of adult B6 males reared by foster or biological dams. Both genes correlated with aggressive behavior in within-strain fostered B6 mice, but not in mice reared by their biological dams. In sum, we have demonstrated in inbred laboratory mice, that dams behave differently when rearing their own newborn pups versus pups from another dam of the same strain. These differences in maternal care affect aggression in the male offspring and transcription of Avp and Crh in the brain. It is likely that rearing by foster dams has additional effects and implications for other species.

  17. Experimental research on the dam-break mechanisms of the Jiadanwan landslide dam triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Zhou, Jia-wen; Hao, Ming-hui

    2013-01-01

    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation.

  18. National Dam Safety Program. Larchwood Lake Dam (Inventory Number NY 727), Susquehanna River Basin, Otsego County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-04

    analysis on tle- ph7sica. condition of the dam as of the report date. Information and analysis are based on Visual inspection of the dam by the...identify expeditiously those dams which may pose hazards to human life or property. The assessment of the general condition of the dam is based upon...studies. In reviewing this report, it should be realized that the reported condition of the dam is based on observations of field conditions at the time

  19. Socioeconomic and Institutional Dimensions of Dam Removals: The Wisconsin Experience

    PubMed

    Born; Genskow; Filbert; Hernandez-Mora; Keefer; White

    1998-05-01

    / There are tens of thousands of small dams in the United States; many of these aging structures are deteriorating. Governments and dam owners face decisions regarding repair or removal of these structures. Along with the many benefits society derives from dams and their impoundments, numerous recent ecological studies are revealing the extensive alteration and degradation of river ecosystems by dams. Dam removal-a principal restoration strategy-is an infrequent event. The major reasons for removal have been public safety and the high costs associated with repair; the goal of river ecosystem restoration now warrants greater attention. Substantial study is being given to the environmental aspects of dams and dam removals, but very little attention has been given to the socioeconomic and institutional dimensions associated with the removal of dams, although these factors play a significant role in the removal decision-making process. Based on a case study of dam removals in Wisconsin-where more than 30 of the state's 3600 small dams have been removed in the past few decades-legal, financial, and socioeconomic issues associated with dam removal are documented and assessed. Dam removal has been complex and contentious, with limited community-based support for removal and loss of the impounded waters. In cases examined here, the estimated costs of repairing a dam averaged more than three times the cost of removal. The availability of governmental financing has been a key determinant in removal decisions. Watershed-scale ecological considerations are not major factors for most local interests. As watershed management and restoration increasingly include dam removal options as part of an integrated strategy, more attention will need to be focused on socioeconomic factors and stakeholder perspectives-variables that strongly influence the viability of this management alternative.KEY WORDS: Dam removal; River restoration; Institutions; Stakeholders

  20. Offspring metabolomic response to maternal protein restriction in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

    PubMed

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Moyon, Thomas; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Coupé, Bérengère; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), along with postnatal growth trajectory, is closely linked with metabolic diseases and obesity at adulthood. The present study reports the time-dependent metabolomic response of male offspring of rat dams exposed to maternal adequate protein diet during pregnancy and lactation (CC) or protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth, RC) or through pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth, RR). Plasma LC-HRMS metabolomic fingerprints for 8 male rats per group, combined with multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA and HCA), were used to study the impact of IUGR and postnatal growth velocity on the offspring metabolism in early life (until weaning) and once they reached adulthood (8 months). Compared with CC rats, RR pups had clear-cut alterations in plasma metabolome during suckling, but none at adulthood; in contrast, in RC pups, alterations in metabolome were minimal in early life but more pronounced in the long run. In particular, our results pinpoint transient alterations in proline, arginine, and histidine in RR rats, compared to CC rats, and persistent differences in tyrosine and carnitine, compared to RC rats at adulthood. These findings suggest that the long-term deregulation in feeding behavior and fatty acid metabolism in IUGR rats depends on postnatal growth velocity.

  1. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  2. Dammed or Damned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes issues raised at a workshop on "People and Dams" organized by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia. Objectives were to (1) understand problems created by dams for people, (2) consider forces affecting displaced populations and rehabilitation efforts, and (3) gain a perspective on popular education efforts among…

  3. Detecting dam failures

    SciTech Connect

    Knarr, C.M.; Barker, T.J.; McKenery, S.F. )

    1994-06-01

    This article describes efforts by Southern California Edison to meet Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements for unattended dam monitoring against failure. The topics include a description of the two dam systems, monitoring system design and operation including warning sirens for remote camping areas, and installation of the systems.

  4. Modeling an ancient Iranian dam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; De Schacht, Tijs

    2013-04-01

    In Iran, along the northern and eastern fringes of the Pasargadae plain, five dam remains from the Achaemenid period (550-330 BCE) present an important footprint of the human impact and reshaping of the region. The dams are predominantly found in dry wadi beds. In the framework of the Joint Iranian-French Archaeological Project at Pasargadae, these dam sites were studied and excavated. Located 22 km to the north of Pasargadae in a small wadi, the Sad-i Didegan dam has a watershed of circa 46 square km, small compared with catchments of other known Achaemenid dams. It is an earth built gravity dam of circa 90 m wide, 21 m high and with a crown length of about 150 m. In the lower body of the dam, remains of a feeder canal and an accessible control infrastructure at the downstream flank of the dam were found. To the northwest, the dam site of Sad-i Shahidabad can be found, another large Achaemenid dam, which stored water from the perennial river of the Rud-i Polvar. This dam also had a similar canal and control structure. Close to the Sad-i Didegan area is a large earthwork, found to cross the watershed divide between Didegan and Shahidabad, consisting of a wide V-shaped trench of remarkable size: up to 100 m wide, a total length of at least 900 m and a maximum present day depth of 7.5 m. Even though the construction of the system in this case clearly was left unfinished, the remains echo the major investment of available labor. Given the contemporaneity of both dam sites, it is clear evidence of the more regionally and elaborately planned character of the hydrological endeavors in the Pasargadae area. Only through further study and future fieldwork (also obtaining absolute dating material), this impressive feature will be fully understood. This contribution proposes a possible use of the two dam system using a modern control simulation model. This analysis will also shed light on the question why the system probably never functioned.

  5. Landslide-dammed lakes detection via ALOS/PALSAR InSAR DEM: A case study of the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Tomohito; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Keishi; Kudou, Katsuteru; Fujii, Hisao; Nishikawa, Hajime; Sensing Specialist Yukihiro Suzuoki, Remote

    On 14th June 2008, the Japan Meteorological Agency recorded a 7.2 magnitude (Richter scale) earthquake with an epicenter depth of 8 km in the southern Iwate prefecture of the Tohoku region of Japan. In the hardest hit prefectures of Iwate and Miyagi, the earthquake produced 15 new landslide-dammed lakes; a phenomenon common when the earthquake hypocenter is within inland areas. In our last study, we demonstrated that interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique can detect surface displacements within centimeter accuracy and create detailed three-dimensional terrain information. In this study, we developed a new methodology to detect landslide-dammed lakes using Digital Drainage Models (DDMs) generated from the DEM's cre-ated with InSAR data. Using our technique, small scale topographical change was detected by comparing pre-earthquake DEM's such as created from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data and post-earthquake DEM's created from the Advanced Land Observing System (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data. Pre-and post-earthquake changes in the drainage networks were detected by comparing DDM features derived from an existing DEM to DDM features derived from a post-earthquake DEM created from ALOS InSAR data. It was verified that landslide-dammed lakes were detected specifically in the area where drainage network with more than three of the river-order computed from DDM's shifted before and after the earthquake. Thus, InSAR DEM generated from ALOS/PALSAR can provide timely and useful spatial information for detecting landslide-dammed lakes.

  6. Prenatal caprine milk oligosaccharide consumption affects the development of mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, Warren C.; Young, Wayne; Cookson, Adrian L.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    1 Scope The composition of the gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota, particularly in early life, influences the development of metabolic diseases later in life. The maternal microbiota is the main source of bacteria colonising the infant GIT and can be modified by dietary prebiotics. Our objective was to determine the effects of prenatal consumption of prebiotic caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) on the large intestine of female mice, milk composition, and offspring's development. 2 Methods and results C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet, CMO diet, or galacto‐oligosaccharide diet from mating to weaning. From weaning, some pups nursed by CMO, GOS, and control‐dams were fed the control diet for 30 days. CMO or GOS‐fed dams had increased colon length and milk protein concentration compared to control‐fed dams. At weaning, pups from CMO‐fed dams had increased body weight and colon length and increased proportions of colonic Bifidobacterium spp compared to the pups from control‐fed dams. Thirty days after weaning, pups from CMO‐fed dams had increased visceral fat weight compared to pups from control‐fed dams. 3 Conclusion Consumption of CMO by the dams during gestation and lactation improved the development of the pups, and the relative abundance of bifidobacteria and butyric acid in the colon, at weaning. PMID:27067267

  7. LDL Particle Number and Risk of Future Cardiovascular Disease in the Framingham Offspring Study – Implications for LDL Management

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, William C.; Otvos, James D.; Keyes, Michelle J.; Pencina, Michael J.; Sullivan, Lisa; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wilson, Peter W.F.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The cholesterol content of LDL particles is variable, causing frequent discrepancies between concentrations of LDL cholesterol and LDL particle number. In managing patients at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) to LDL target levels, it is unclear whether LDL cholesterol provides the optimum measure of residual risk and adequacy of LDL lowering treatment. Objective To compare the ability of alternative measures of LDL to provide CVD risk discrimination at relatively low levels consistent with current therapeutic targets. Methods Concentrations of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) were measured chemically and LDL particle number (LDL-P) and VLDL particle number (VLDL-P) were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in 3066 middle-aged white participants (53% women) without CVD in the Framingham Offspring cohort. The main outcome measure was incidence of first CVD event. Results At baseline, the cholesterol content per LDL particle was negatively associated with triglycerides and positively associated with LDL-C. On follow-up (median 14.8 yrs), 265 men and 266 women experienced a CVD event. In multivariable models adjusting for non-lipid CVD risk factors, LDL-P was related more strongly to future CVD in both sexes than LDL-C or non-HDL-C. Subjects with a low level of LDL-P (<25th percentile) had a lower CVD event rate (59 events per 1000 person-years) than those with an equivalently low level of LDL-C or non-HDL-C (81 and 74 events per 1000 person-years, respectively). Conclusions In a large community-based sample, LDL-P was a more sensitive indicator of low CVD risk than either LDL-C or non-HDL-C, suggesting a potential clinical role for LDL-P as a goal of LDL management. PMID:19657464

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Aortic and Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Sonka, Milan; Blecha, Mary Beth; Lin, Wenjiao; Davis, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults. Background Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program. Results The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score. Conclusions Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:19520251

  9. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    PubMed

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms