An elastoplastic damage constitutive model for concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jun; Lin, Gao; Zhong, Hong
2013-04-01
An elastoplastic damage constitutive model to simulate nonlinear behavior of concrete is presented. Similar to traditional plastic theory, the irreversible deformation is modeled in effective stress space. In order to better describe different stiffness degradation mechanisms of concrete under tensile and compressive loading conditions, two damage variables, i.e., tension and compression are introduced, to quantitatively evaluate the degree of deterioration of concrete structure. The rate dependent behavior is taken into account, and this model is derived firmly in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Fully implicit backward-Euler algorithm is suggested to perform constitutive integration. Numerical results of the model accord well with the test results for specimens under uniaxial tension and compression, biaxial loading and triaxial loading. Failure processes of double-edge-notched (DEN) specimen are also simulated to further validate the proposed model.
Constitutive modeling of viscoplastic damage in solder material
WEI,YONG; CHOW,C.L.; NEILSEN,MICHAEL K.; FANG,HUEI ELIOT
2000-04-17
This paper presents a constitutive modeling of viscoplastic damage in 63Sn-37Pb solder material taking into account the effects of microstructural change in grain coarsening. Based on the theory of damage mechanics, a two-scalar damage model is developed by introducing the damage variables and the free energy equivalence principle. An inelastic potential function based on the concept of inelastic damage energy release rate is proposed and used to derive an inelastic damage evolution equation. The validation of the model is carried out for the viscoplastic material by predicting monotonic tensile behavior and tensile creep curves at different temperatures. The softening behavior of the material under monotonic tension loading can be characterized with the model. The results demonstrate adequately the validity of the proposed viscoplastic constitutive modeling for the solder material.
Nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for soft rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, H. Z.; Xie, H. Q.; He, J. D.; Xiao, M. L.; Zhuo, L.
2017-02-01
In some existing nonlinear creep damage models, it may be less rigorous to directly introduce a damage variable into the creep equation when the damage variable of the viscous component is a function of time or strain. In this paper, we adopt the Kachanov creep damage rate and introduce a damage variable into a rheological differential constitutive equation to derive an analytical integral solution for the creep damage equation of the Bingham model. We also propose a new nonlinear viscous component which reflects nonlinear properties related to the axial stress of soft rock in the steady-state creep stage. Furthermore, we build an improved Nishihara model by using this new component in series with the correctional Nishihara damage model that describes the accelerating creep, and deduce the rheological constitutive relation of the improved model. Based on superposition principle, we obtain the damage creep equation for conditions of both uniaxial and triaxial compression stress, and study the method for determining the model parameters. Finally, this paper presents the laboratory test results performed on mica-quartz schist in parallel with, or vertical to the schistosity direction, and applies the improved Nishihara model to the parameter identification of mica-quartz schist. Using a comparative analysis with test data, results show that the improved model has a superior ability to reflect the creep properties of soft rock in the decelerating creep stage, the steady-state creep stage, and particularly within the accelerating creep stage, in comparison with the traditional Nishihara model.
A constitutive model with damage for high temperature superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherwood, J. A.; Stouffer, D. C.
1988-01-01
A unified constitutive model is searched for that is applicable for high temperature superalloys used in modern gas turbines. Two unified inelastic state variable constitutive models were evaluated for use with the damage parameter proposed by Kachanov. The first is a model (Bodner, Partom) in which hardening is modeled through the use of a single state variable that is similar to drag stress. The other (Ramaswamy) employs both a drag stress and back stress. The extension was successful for predicting the tensile, creep, fatigue, torsional and nonproportional response of Rene' 80 at several temperatures. In both formulations, a cumulative damage parameter is introduced to model the changes in material properties due to the formation of microcracks and microvoids that ultimately produce a macroscopic crack. A back stress/drag stress/damage model was evaluated for Rene' 95 at 1200 F and is shown to predict the tensile, creep, and cyclic loading responses reasonably well.
Damage Mechanics of Composite Materials: Constitutive Modeling and Computational Algorithms
1991-04-21
Damage Mechanics", Appl. Mech. Rev., Vol. 37, Jan ., pp. 1-6. 15. KRAJCINOVIC, D., (1985), "Constitutive Theories for Solids with Defective Microstruc...damage models; see, e.g., Krajcinovic (1984,1986,1989) and Bazant (1986) for a comprehensive literature review. There are, however, some micromechanical...Solids, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 435-453. 5. BAZANT , Z., (1986), "Mechanics of Distributed Cracking",Appl. Mech. Rev., Vol. 39, No. 5 pp. 675-705. 6. BUDIANSKY
Stender, Michael E; Regueiro, Richard A; Klisch, Stephen M; Ferguson, Virginia L
2015-08-01
Traumatic injuries and gradual wear-and-tear of articular cartilage (AC) that can lead to osteoarthritis (OA) have been hypothesized to result from tissue damage to AC. In this study, a previous equilibrium constitutive model of AC was extended to a constitutive damage articular cartilage (CDAC) model. In particular, anisotropic collagen (COL) fibril damage and isotropic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) damage were considered in a 3D formulation. In the CDAC model, time-dependent effects, such as viscoelasticity and poroelasticity, were neglected, and thus all results represent the equilibrium response after all time-dependent effects have dissipated. The resulting CDAC model was implemented in two different finite-element models. The first simulated uniaxial tensile loading to failure, while the second simulated spherical indentation with a rigid indenter displaced into a bilayer AC sample. Uniaxial tension to failure simulations were performed for three COL fibril Lagrangian failure strain (i.e., the maximum elastic COL fibril strain) values of 15%, 30%, and 45%, while spherical indentation simulations were performed with a COL fibril Lagrangian failure strain of 15%. GAG damage parameters were held constant for all simulations. Our results indicated that the equilibrium postyield tensile response of AC and the macroscopic tissue failure strain are highly dependent on COL fibril Lagrangian failure strain. The uniaxial tensile response consisted of an initial nonlinear ramp region due to the recruitment of intact fibrils followed by a rapid decrease in tissue stress at initial COL fibril failure, as a result of COL fibril damage which continued until ultimate tissue failure. In the spherical indentation simulation, damage to both the COL fibril and GAG constituents was located only in the superficial zone (SZ) and near the articular surface with tissue thickening following unloading. Spherical indentation simulation results are in agreement with published experimental
Statistical damage constitutive model for rocks subjected to cyclic stress and cyclic temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu
2017-08-01
A constitutive model of rocks subjected to cyclic stress-temperature was proposed. Based on statistical damage theory, the damage constitutive model with Weibull distribution was extended. Influence of model parameters on the stress-strain curve for rock reloading after stress-temperature cycling was then discussed. The proposed model was initially validated by rock tests for cyclic stress-temperature and only cyclic stress. Finally, the total damage evolution induced by stress-temperature cycling and reloading after cycling was explored and discussed. The proposed constitutive model is reasonable and applicable, describing well the stress-strain relationship during stress-temperature cycles and providing a good fit to the test results. Elastic modulus in the reference state and the damage induced by cycling affect the shape of reloading stress-strain curve. Total damage induced by cycling and reloading after cycling exhibits three stages: initial slow increase, mid-term accelerated increase, and final slow increase.
A procedure for utilization of a damage-dependent constitutive model for laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lo, David C.; Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.
1992-01-01
Described here is the procedure for utilizing a damage constitutive model to predict progressive damage growth in laminated composites. In this model, the effects of the internal damage are represented by strain-like second order tensorial damage variables and enter the analysis through damage dependent ply level and laminate level constitutive equations. The growth of matrix cracks due to fatigue loading is predicted by an experimentally based damage evolutionary relationship. This model is incorporated into a computer code called FLAMSTR. This code is capable of predicting the constitutive response and matrix crack damage accumulation in fatigue loaded laminated composites. The structure and usage of FLAMSTR are presented along with sample input and output files to assist the code user. As an example problem, an analysis of crossply laminates subjected to two stage fatigue loading was conducted and the resulting damage accumulation and stress redistribution were examined to determine the effect of variations in fatigue load amplitude applied during the first stage of the load history. It was found that the model predicts a significant loading history effect on damage evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhejun; Qiang, Hongfu; Wang, Tiejun; Wang, Guang; Hou, Xiao
2017-08-01
The uniaxial compressive tests at different temperatures (223-298 K) and strain rates ( 0.40-63 s^{-1}) are reported to study the properties of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant at intermediate strain rates, using a new INSTRON testing machine. The experimental results indicate that the compressive properties (mechanical properties and damage) of HTPB propellant are remarkably affected by temperature and strain rate and display significant nonlinear material behaviors at large strains under all the test conditions. Continuously decreasing temperature and increasing strain rate, the characteristics of stress-strain curves and damage for HTPB propellant are more complex and are significantly different from that at room temperature or at lower strain rates. A new constitutive model was developed to describe the compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant at room temperature and intermediate strain rates by simply coupling the effect of strain rate into the conventional hyperelastic model. Based on the compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant and the nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive theories, a new thermovisco-hyperelastic constitutive model with damage was proposed to predict the stress responses of the propellant at low temperatures and intermediate strain rates. In this new model, the damage is related to the viscoelastic properties of the propellant. Meanwhile, the effect of temperature on the hyperelastic properties, viscoelastic properties and damage are all considered by the macroscopical method. The constitutive parameters in the proposed constitutive models were identified by the genetic algorithm (GA)-based optimization method. By comparing the predicted and experimental results, it can be found that the developed constitutive models can correctly describe the uniaxial compressive behaviors of HTPB propellant at intermediate strain rates and different temperatures.
Constitutive and damage material modeling in a high pressure hydrogen environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, D. A.; Fritzemeier, L. G.
1991-01-01
Numerous components in reusable space propulsion systems such as the SSME are exposed to high pressure gaseous hydrogen environments. Flow areas and passages in the fuel turbopump, fuel and oxidizer preburners, main combustion chamber, and injector assembly contain high pressure hydrogen either high in purity or as hydrogen rich steam. Accurate constitutive and damage material models applicable to high pressure hydrogen environments are therefore needed for engine design and analysis. Existing constitutive and cyclic crack initiation models were evaluated only for conditions of oxidizing environments. The main objective is to evaluate these models for applicability to high pressure hydrogen environments.
Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje
2016-09-01
An anisotropic constitutive model is proposed in the framework of finite deformation to capture several damage mechanisms occurring in the microstructure of dental enamel, a hierarchical bio-composite. It provides the basis for a homogenization approach for an efficient multiscale (in this case: multiple hierarchy levels) investigation of the deformation and damage behavior. The influence of tension-compression asymmetry and fiber-matrix interaction on the nonlinear deformation behavior of dental enamel is studied by 3D micromechanical simulations under different loading conditions and fiber lengths. The complex deformation behavior and the characteristics and interaction of three damage mechanisms in the damage process of enamel are well captured. The proposed constitutive model incorporating anisotropic damage is applied to the first hierarchical level of dental enamel and validated by experimental results. The effect of the fiber orientation on the damage behavior and compressive strength is studied by comparing micro-pillar experiments of dental enamel at the first hierarchical level in multiple directions of fiber orientation. A very good agreement between computational and experimental results is found for the damage evolution process of dental enamel. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Constitutive Modeling for Particle-Dispersed Composites with Degradation Due to Interfacial Damage
Chang, Huajian
2002-07-01
The composite materials are susceptible to interfacial delamination. The overall properties of composites will degrade dramatically if the interface between the particles and the matrix material undertakes interfacial damage. In present paper, the effects of interfacial delamination on the macro properties of composites are evaluated by the Equivalent Inclusion Method (EIM) with some modifications and supplementation on the conventional one, which was originally proposed by Eshelby. The meso-local behaviors of particle, matrix, as well as their interface are theoretically modeled, and the relationships between these behaviors and the macro stress/stress field are established. Upon modeling the damaged interface with spring layers and making equivalent of stress and strain inside a real particle to those inside the corresponding virtual inclusion, a modified Eshelby tensor and the damage-relevant tensor of the inclusions are derived explicitly. These tensors can be conveniently incorporated into the constitutive model, and make it available to assess the effects of delamination. Some numerical calculations are carried out to verify the performance of the present model. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.
2016-09-01
The present paper details an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for automotive brake discs made of flake graphite cast iron. In a companion paper (Augustins et al. in Contin Mech Thermodyn, 2015), the authors proposed a one-dimensional setting appropriate for representing the complex behavior of the material (i.e., asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings) under anisothermal conditions. The generalization of this 1D model to 3D cases on a volume element and the associated challenges are addressed. A direct transposition is not possible, and an alternative solution without unilateral conditions is first proposed. Induced anisotropic damage and associated constitutive laws are then introduced. The transition from the volume element to the real structure and the numerical implementation require a specific basis change. Brake disc simulations with this constitutive model show that unilateral conditions are needed for the friction bands. A damage deactivation procedure is therefore defined.
Pierce, David M; Maier, Franz; Weisbecker, Hannah; Viertler, Christian; Verbrugghe, Peter; Famaey, Nele; Fourneau, Inge; Herijgers, Paul; Holzapfel, Gerhard A
2015-01-01
Development of aortic aneurysms includes significant morphological changes within the tissue: collagen content increases, elastin content reduces and smooth muscle cells degenerate. We seek to quantify the impact of these changes on the passive mechanical response of aneurysms in the supra-physiological loading range via mechanical testing and constitutive modeling. We perform uniaxial extension tests on circumferentially and axially oriented strips from five thoracic (65.6 years ± 13.4, mean ± SD) and eight abdominal (63.9 years ± 11.4) aortic fusiform aneurysms to investigate both continuous and discontinuous softening during supra-physiological loading. We determine the significance of the differences between the fitted model parameters: diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, and healthy (Weisbecker et al., J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 12, 93-106, 2012) versus diseased tissues. We also test correlations among these parameters and age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and preoperative aneurysm diameter, and investigate histological cuts. Tissue response is anisotropic for all tests and the anisotropic pseudo-elastic damage model fits the data well for both primary loading and discontinuous softening which we interpret as damage. We found statistically relevant differences between model parameters fitted to diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, as well as between those fitted to healthy versus diseased tissues. Only BMI correlated with fitted model parameters in abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues.
A New Damage Constitutive Model for Thermal Deformation of AA6111 Sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wenyu; Wang, Baoyu; Bian, Jianhua; Tang, Xuefeng; Yang, Lei; Huo, Yuanming
2015-06-01
Hot tensile tests were conducted using a Gleeble 1500, at the temperature range of 623 K to 823 K (350 °C to 550 °C) and strain rate range of 0.1 to 10 s-1. Flow stress is significantly affected by temperature and strain rate. As strain increases; the flow stress first rapidly increases, subsequently maintains a steady state, and finally drops sharply because of damage evolution. The features and mechanism of the damage were studied utilizing a scanning electron microscope. Micro-void nucleation, growth, and coalescence result in the failure of the hot-formed specimen. A damage equation based on continuum damage mechanics and damage mechanism in hot metal forming was proposed. A unified viscoplastic damage model coupled with strain, strain rate, temperature, dislocation, hardening, damage, damage rate, and so on was developed and calibrated for AA6111 using Genetic Algorism Tool in three steps. This model can be used to describe viscoplastic flow behavior and damage evolution at various temperatures and strain rates. The model was implemented into the finite element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform via the variable user material subroutine. Thus, the FE model could be employed to study the damage distribution and the effects of blank holder force (BHF) and forming velocity on hot cylindrical deep drawing. It is revealed that lower BHF and higher velocity are beneficial for drawability. A good agreement between simulated and experimental results has been achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revil-Baudard, Benoit; Cazacu, Oana; Flater, Philip; Chandola, Nitin; Alves, J. L.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we present an experimental study on plastic deformation and damage of polycrystalline pure HCP Ti, as well as modeling of the observed behavior. Mechanical characterization data were conducted, which indicate that the material is orthotropic and displays tension-compression asymmetry. The ex-situ and in-situ X-ray tomography measurements conducted reveal that damage distribution and evolution in this HCP Ti material is markedly different than in a typical FCC material such as copper. Stewart and Cazacu (2011) anisotropic elastic/plastic damage model is used to describe the behavior. All the parameters involved in this model have a clear physical significance, being related to plastic properties, and are determined from very few simple mechanical tests. It is shown that this model predicts correctly the anisotropy in plastic deformation, and its strong influence on damage distribution and damage accumulation. Specifically, for a smooth axisymmetric specimen subject to uniaxial tension, damage initiates at the center of the specimen, and is diffuse; the level of damage close to failure being very low. On the other hand, for a notched specimen subject to the same loading the model predicts that damage initiates at the outer surface of the specimen, and further grows from the outer surface to the center of the specimen, which corroborates with the in-situ tomography data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaabane, Makram; Chaabane, Makram; Dalverny, Olivier; Deramecourt, Arnaud; Mistou, Sébastien
The super-pressure balloons developed by CNES are a great challenge in scientific ballooning. Whatever the balloon type considered (spherical, pumpkin...), it is necessary to have good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the envelope regarding to the flight level and the lifespan of the balloon. It appears during the working stages of the super pressure balloons that these last can exploded prematurely in the course of the first hours of flight. For this reason CNES and LGP are carrying out research programs about experimentations and modelling in order to predict a good stability of the balloons flight and guarantee a life time in adequacy with the technical requirement. This study deals with multilayered polymeric film damage which induce balloons failure. These experimental and numerical study aims, are a better understanding and predicting of the damage mechanisms bringing the premature explosion of balloons. The following damages phenomena have different origins. The firsts are simple and triple wrinkles owed during the process and the stocking stages of the balloons. The second damage phenomenon is associated to the creep of the polymeric film during the flight of the balloon. The first experimental results we present in this paper, concern the mechanical characterization of three different damage phenomena. The severe damage induced by the wrinkles of the film involves a significant loss of mechanical properties. In a second part the theoretical study, concerns the choice and the development of a non linear viscoelastic coupled damage behavior model in a finite element code.
Interpretation of the Superpave IDT strength test using a viscoelastic-damage constitutive model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onifade, Ibrahim; Balieu, Romain; Birgisson, Bjorn
2016-08-01
This paper presents a new interpretation for the Superpave IDT strength test based on a viscoelastic-damage framework. The framework is based on continuum damage mechanics and the thermodynamics of irreversible processes with an anisotropic damage representation. The new approach introduces considerations for the viscoelastic effects and the damage accumulation that accompanies the fracture process in the interpretation of the Superpave IDT strength test for the identification of the Dissipated Creep Strain Energy (DCSE) limit from the test result. The viscoelastic model is implemented in a Finite Element Method (FEM) program for the simulation of the Superpave IDT strength test. The DCSE values obtained using the new approach is compared with the values obtained using the conventional approach to evaluate the validity of the assumptions made in the conventional interpretation of the test results. The result shows that the conventional approach over-estimates the DCSE value with increasing estimation error at higher deformation rates.
2006-08-21
damage constitutive model P.I.: Hiroshi Okada, Ph.D., Associate Professor Address: Department of Nano Structure and Advanced Materials Graduate...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Kagoshima University,1-21-40 Korimoto,Kagoshima 890-0065...Japan,JP,890-0065 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The US Resarch Labolatory, AOARD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tutyshkin, Nikolai D.; Lofink, Paul; Müller, Wolfgang H.; Wille, Ralf; Stahn, Oliver
2017-01-01
On the basis of the physical concepts of void formation, nucleation, and growth, generalized constitutive equations are formulated for a tensorial model of plastic damage in metals based on three invariants. The multiplicative decomposition of the metric transformation tensor and a thermodynamically consistent formulation of constitutive relations leads to a symmetric second-order damage tensor with a clear physical meaning. Its first invariant determines the damage related to plastic dilatation of the material due to growth of the voids. The second invariant of the deviatoric damage tensor is related to the change in void shape. The third invariant of the deviatoric tensor describes the impact of the stress state on damage (Lode angle), including the effect of rotating the principal axes of the stress tensor (Lode angle change). The introduction of three measures with related physical meaning allows for the description of kinetic processes of strain-induced damage with an equivalent parameter in a three-dimensional vector space, including the critical condition of ductile failure. Calculations were performed by using experimentally determined material functions for plastic dilatation and deviatoric strain at the mesoscale, as well as three-dimensional graphs for plastic damage of steel DC01. The constitutive parameter was determined from tests in tension, compression, and shear by using scanning electron microscopy, which allowed to vary the Lode angle over the full range of its values [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. In order to construct the three-dimensional plastic damage curve for a range of triaxiality parameters -1 ≤ ST ≤ 1 and of Lode angles [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], we used our own, as well as systematized published experimental data. A comparison of calculations shows a significant effect of the third invariant (Lode angle) on equivalent damage. The measure of plastic damage, based on three invariants, can be useful
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jinsheng; Han, Long; Zheng, Jian; Chen, Xiong; Zhou, Changsheng
2017-02-01
A thermo-damage-viscoelastic model for hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant with consideration for the effect of temperature was implemented in ABAQUS. The damage evolution law of the model has the same form as the crack growth equation for viscoelastic materials, and only a single damage variable S is considered. The HTPB propellant was considered as an isotropic material, and the deviatoric and volumetric strain-stress relations are decoupled and described by the bulk and shear relaxation moduli, respectively. The stress update equations were expressed by the principal stresses σ_{ii}R and the rotation tensor M, the Jacobian matrix in the global coordinate system J_{ijkl} was obtained according to the fourth-order tensor transformation rules. Two models having complex stress states were used to verify the accuracy of the constitutive model. The test results showed good agreement with the strain responses of characteristic points measured by a contactless optical deformation test system, which illustrates that the thermo-damage-viscoelastic model perform well at describing the mechanical properties of an HTPB propellant.
Crushed Salt Constitutive Model
Callahan, G.D.
1999-02-01
The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.
Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt
Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F
1994-12-31
There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.
Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark
2007-09-01
The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented
Karimi, Alireza; Rahmati, Seyed Mohammadali; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi
2017-02-02
It has been indicated that the content and structure of the elastin and collagen of the arterial wall can subject to a significant alteration due to the atherosclerosis. Consequently, a high tissue stiffness, stress, and even damage/rupture are triggered in the arterial wall. Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the coronary arteries, none of them consider the role of collagen damage of the healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arterial walls. Recently, a fiber family-based constitutive equation was proposed to capture the anisotropic mechanical response of the healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries via both the histostructural and uniaxial data. In this study, experimental mechanical measurements along with histological data of the healthy and atherosclerotic arterial walls were employed to determine the constitutive damage parameters and remodeling of the collagen fibers. To do this, the preconditioned arterial tissues were excised from human cadavers within 5-h postmortem, and the mean angle of their collagen fibers was precisely determined. Thereafter, a group of quasistatic axial and circumferential loadings were applied to the arterial walls, and the constrained nonlinear minimization method was employed to identify the arterial parameters according to the axial and circumferential extension data. The remodeling of the collagen fibers during the tensile test was also predicted via Artificial Neural Networks algorithm. Regardless of loading direction, the results presented a noteworthy load-bearing capability and stiffness of the atherosclerotic arteries compared to the healthy ones (P < 0.005). Theoretical fiber angles were found to be consistent with the experimental histological data with less than 2 and 5° difference for the healthy and atherosclerotic arterial walls, respectively. The pseudoelastic damage model data were also compared with that of the experimental data, and
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Dame, L. T.; Laflen, J. H.
1984-01-01
The unified constitutive theories for application to typical isotropic cast nickel base supperalloys used for air-cooled turbine blades were evaluated. The specific modeling aspects evaluated were: uniaxial, monotonic, cyclic, creep, relaxation, multiaxial, notch, and thermomechanical behavior. Further development of the constitutive theories to model thermal history effects, refinement of the material test procedures, evaluation of coating effects, and verification of the models in an alternate material will be accomplished in a follow-on for this base program.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, U. S.
1984-01-01
A state-of-the-art review of applicable constitutive models with selection of two for detailed comparison with a wide range of experimental tests was conducted. The experimental matrix contained uniaxial and biaxial tensile, creep, stress relaxation, and cyclic fatigue tests at temperatures to 1093 C and strain rates from .0000001 to .001/sec. Some nonisothermal cycles will also be run. The constitutive models will be incorporated into the MARC finite element structural analysis program with a demonstration computation made for advanced turbine blade configuration. In the code development work, particular emphasis is being placed on developing efficient integration algorithms for the highly nonlinear and stiff constitutive equations. Another area of emphasis is the appropriate and efficient methodology for determing constitutive constants from a minimum extent of experimental data.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, Ulric S.
1985-01-01
The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite element structural analysis of turbine engine hot-section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for non-linear finite-element computer codes which have heretofore been based on classical inelastic methods. The unified constitutive theory to be developed will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. During the first two years of the program, extensive experimental correlations were made with two representative unified models. The experiments were both uniaxial and biaxial at temperatures up to 1093 C (2000 F). In addition, the unified models were adopted to the MARC finite element code and used for stress analysis of notched bar and turbine blade geometries.
High-temperature constitutive modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, D. N.; Ellis, J. R.
1984-01-01
Thermomechanical service conditions for high-temperature levels, thermal transients, and mechanical loads severe enough to cause measurable inelastic deformation are studied. Structural analysis in support of the design of high-temperature components depends strongly on accurate mathematical representations of the nonlinear, hereditary, inelastic behavior of structural alloys at high temperature, particularly in the relatively small strain range. Progress is discussed in the following areas: multiaxial experimentation to provide a basis for high-temperature multiaxial constitutive relationships; nonisothermal testing and theoretical development toward a complete thermomechanically path dependent formulation of viscoplasticity; and development of viscoplastic constitutive model accounting for initial anisotropy.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.
1988-01-01
The third and fourth years of a 4-year research program, part of the NASA HOST Program, are described. The program goals were: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analysis of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation were those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. The unified approach for elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations is a viable method for representing and predicting material response characteristics in the range where strain rate and temperature dependent inelastic deformations are experienced. This conclusion is reached by extensive comparison of model calculations against the experimental results of a test program of two high temperature Ni-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Mar-M247, over a wide temperature range for a variety of deformation and thermal histories including uniaxial, multiaxial, and thermomechanical loading paths. The applicability of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models for structural applications has been demonstrated by implementing these models into the MARC finite element code and by performing a number of analyses including thermomechanical histories on components of hot sections of gas turbine engines and benchmark notch tensile specimens. The results of the 4-year program have been published in four annual reports. The results of the base program are summarized in this report. The tasks covered include: (1) development of material test procedures, (2) thermal history effects, and (3) verification of the constitutive model for an alternative material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, X.; Prabhu, S.; Atamturktur, S.; Cogan, S.
2017-02-01
Model-based damage detection entails the calibration of damage-indicative parameters in a physics-based computer model of an undamaged structural system against measurements collected from its damaged counterpart. The approach relies on the premise that changes identified in the damage-indicative parameters during calibration reveal the structural damage in the system. In model-based damage detection, model calibration has traditionally been treated as a process, solely operating on the model output without incorporating available knowledge regarding the underlying mechanistic behavior of the structural system. In this paper, the authors propose a novel approach for model-based damage detection by implementing the Extended Constitutive Relation Error (ECRE), a method developed for error localization in finite element models. The ECRE method was originally conceived to identify discrepancies between experimental measurements and model predictions for a structure in a given healthy state. Implementing ECRE for damage detection leads to the evaluation of a structure in varying healthy states and determination of discrepancy between model predictions and experiments due to damage. The authors developed an ECRE-based damage detection procedure in which the model error and structural damage are identified in two distinct steps and demonstrate feasibility of the procedure in identifying the presence, location and relative severity of damage on a scaled two-story steel frame for damage scenarios of varying type and severity.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.
1986-01-01
The objective of the program is to evaluate and develop existing constitutive models for use in finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. The class of constitutive equation studied is considered unified in that all inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation are treated in a single term rather than a classical separation of plasticity (time independent) and creep (time dependent) behavior. The unified theories employed also do not utilize the classical yield surface or plastic potential concept. The models are constructed from an appropriate flow law, a scalar kinetic relation between strain rate, temperature and stress, and evolutionary equations for internal variables describing strain or work hardening, both isotropic and directional (kinematic). This and other studies have shown that the unified approach is particularly suited for determining the cyclic behavior of superalloy type blade and vane materials and is entirely compatible with three-dimensional inelastic finite-element formulations. The behavior was examined of a second nickel-base alloy, MAR-M247, and compared it with the Bodner-Partom model, further examined procedures for determining the material-specific constants in the models, and exercised the MARC code for a turbine blade under simulated flight spectrum loading. Results are summarized.
Rapid implementation of advanced constitutive models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starman, Bojan; Halilovič, Miroslav; Vrh, Marko; Štok, Boris
2013-12-01
This paper presents a methodology based on the NICE integration scheme [1, 2] for simple and rapid numerical implementation of a class of plasticity constitutive models. In this regard, an algorithm is purposely developed for the implementation of newly developed advanced constitutive models into explicit finite element framework. The methodology follows the organization of the problem state variables into an extended form, which allows the constitutive models' equations to be organized in such a way, that the algorithm can be optionally extended with minimal effort to integrate also evolution equations related to a description of other specific phenomena, such as damage, distortional hardening, phase transitions, degradation etc. To confirm simplicity of the program implementation, computational robustness, effectiveness and improved accuracy of the implemented integration algorithm, a deep drawing simulation of the cylindrical cup is considered as the case study, performed in ABAQUS/Explicit. As a fairly complex considered model, the YLD2004-18p model [3, 4] is first implemented via external subroutine VUMAT. Further, to give additional proof of the simplicity of the proposed methodology, a combination of the YLD2004-18p model and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN) is considered. As demonstrated, the implementation is really obtained in a very simple way.
Constitutive modeling of fracture waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Resnyansky, A. D.; Romensky, E. I.; Bourne, N. K.
2003-02-01
A fracture wave (FW) in a brittle material is a narrow transition region (border) of a continuous fracture zone, which may be associated with the damage accumulation process initiated by propagation of shock waves. In multidimensional structures the fracture wave may behave in an unusual way. The high-speed photography of penetration of a borosilicate (Pyrex) glass block [N. K. Bourne, L. Forde, and J. E. Field, Proc. SPIE 2869, 626 (1997)] shows a visible fracture zone with an apparent flat front although the projectile is a hemispherically nosed rod. A strain-rate-sensitive model is being developed and employed for analysis of the role of the complex stress state and kinetic description of the damage accumulation to describe the process of the impact. Numerical analysis is conducted with a one-dimensional wave propagation code employing the model and with the LS-DYNA2D hydrocode in which the model has been implemented. The analysis demonstrates that (i) the second (plastic) shock wave is superseded by quicker FW relaxing stress behind the elastic precursor, and (ii) the FW front flattening is apparently caused by the change in the acoustic directional properties. This change is associated with the phase-like transition due to the damage accumulation within the FW. In particular, the FW transition separates a highly anisotropic zone of material characterized acoustically by longitudinal and shear waves in front of the FW from a nearly isotropic region of the material characterized only by bulk waves behind the FW.
Constitutive model for porous materials
Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.
1982-01-01
A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular porous bed materials to shock impact. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study porous explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of porous material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted porous high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments.
Karimi, Alireza; Rahmati, Seyed Mohammadali; Razaghi, Reza
2017-09-01
Understanding the mechanical properties of the human brain is deemed important as it may subject to various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the frontal lobe of the human brain. The constrained nonlinear minimization method was employed to identify the brain coefficients according to the axial and transversal compressive data. The pseudo-elastic damage model data was also well compared with that of the experimental data and it not only up to the primary loading but also the discontinuous softening could well address the mechanical behavior of the brain tissue.
Testing of constitutive models in LAME.
Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark
2007-09-01
Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an
Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stouffer, D. C.
1984-01-01
A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.
Crushed-salt constitutive model update
Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.
1998-01-01
Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.
New Damage Remedies for Violations of Constitutional Rights.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russell, Billy W.
1979-01-01
Examines the concept of sovereign (governmental) immunity from prosecution for violating citizens' civil liberties. Attention is given to immunity under 42 U.S.C.A. Section 1983 and under the Constitution. Available from Baylor University Law School, Waco, Texas 76703; sc $4.00. (IRT)
New Damage Remedies for Violations of Constitutional Rights.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russell, Billy W.
1979-01-01
Examines the concept of sovereign (governmental) immunity from prosecution for violating citizens' civil liberties. Attention is given to immunity under 42 U.S.C.A. Section 1983 and under the Constitution. Available from Baylor University Law School, Waco, Texas 76703; sc $4.00. (IRT)
Microplane constitutive model for porous isotropic rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baant, Zdenk P.; Zi, Goangseup
2003-01-01
The paper deals with constitutive modelling of contiguous rock located between rock joints. A fully explicit kinematically constrained microplane-type constitutive model for hardening and softening non-linear triaxial behaviour of isotropic porous rock is developed. The microplane framework, in which the constitutive relation is expressed in terms of stress and strain vectors rather than tensors, makes it possible to model various microstructural physical mechanisms associated with oriented internal surfaces, such as cracking, slip, friction and splitting of a particular orientation. Formulation of the constitutive relation is facilitated by the fact that it is decoupled from the tensorial invariance restrictions, which are satisfied automatically. In its basic features, the present model is similar to the recently developed microplane model M4 for concrete, but there are significant improvements and modifications. They include a realistic simulation of (1) the effects of pore collapse on the volume changes during triaxial loading and on the reduction of frictional strength, (2) recovery of frictional strength during shearing, and (3) the shear-enhanced compaction in triaxial tests, manifested by a deviation from the hydrostatic stress-strain curve. The model is calibrated by optimal fitting of extensive triaxial test data for Salem limestone, and good fits are demonstrated. Although these data do not cover the entire range of behaviour, credence in broad capabilities of the model is lend by its similarity to model M4 for concrete - an artificial rock. The model is intended for large explicit finite-element programs.
Constitutive model development for isotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.
1982-01-01
The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for nonlinear finite-element computer codes which were heretofore based on classical inelastic methods. A unified constitutive theory will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. Model development will be directed toward isotropic, cast nickel-base alloys used for aircooled turbine blades and vanes. The contractor will select a base material for model development and an alternate material for verification purposes from a list of three alloys specified by NASA. The candidate alloys represent a cross-section of turbine blade and vane materials of interest to both large and small size engine manufacturers. Material stock for the base and alternate materials will be supplied to the Contractor by the government.
A constitutive model for an overlay coating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nissley, D. M.; Swanson, G. A.
1988-01-01
Coatings are frequently applied to gas turbine blades and vanes to provide protection against oxidation and corrosion. The results of an experimental and analytical study to develop a constitutive model for an overlay coating is presented. Specimens were machined from a hot isostatically pressed billet of PWA 286. The tests consisted of isothermal stress relaxation cycles with monotonically increasing maximum strain and were conducted at various temperatures. The results were used to calculate the constants for various constitutive models, including the classical, the Walker isotropic, a simplified Walker, and Stowell models. A computerized regression analysis was used to calculate model constants from the data. The best fit was obtained for the Walker model, with the simplified Walker and classical models close behind.
Constitutive Modeling for Sheet Metal Forming
Barlat, Frederic
2005-08-05
This paper reviews aspects of the plastic behaviour common in sheet metals. Macroscopic and microscopic phenomena occurring during plastic deformation are described succinctly. Constitutive models of plasticity suitable for applications to forming, are discussed in a very broad manner. Approaches to plastic anisotropy are described in a somewhat more detailed manner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lestriez, P.; Cherouat, A.; Saanouni, K.; Mariage, J. F.
2004-06-01
A fully coupled (strong coupling) thermo-elasto-visco-plastic-damage constitutive equations based on the state variables under large plastic deformation developed for metal forming simulation are presented. The relevant numerical aspects concerning either the local integration scheme as well as the global resolution strategy are discussed. This model is implemented into ABAQUS/EXPLICIT using the Vumat user subroutine. Applications are made to the orthogonal metal cutting by chip formation and segmentation. The interaction between hardening plasticity, ductile damage and thermal effects are carefully analyzed. The numerical results obtained with this procedure based on the damage coupling are compared with those obtained with the classical procedure neglecting the damage effect.
Relationships among certain joint constitutive models.
Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Starr, Michael James
2004-09-01
In a recent paper, Starr and Segalman demonstrated that any Masing model can be represented as a parallel-series Iwan model. A preponderance of the constitutive models that have been suggested for simulating mechanical joints are Masing models, and the purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate how the Iwan representation of those models can yield insight into their character. In particular, this approach can facilitate a critical comparison among numerous plausible constitutive models. It is explicitly shown that three-parameter models such as Smallwood's (Ramberg-Osgood) calculate parameters in such a manner that macro-slip is not an independent parameter, yet the model admits macro-slip. The introduction of a fourth parameter is therefore required. It is shown that when a macro-slip force is specified for the Smallwood model the result is a special case of the Segalman four-parameter model. Both of these models admit a slope discontinuity at the inception of macro-slip. A five-parameter model that has the beneficial features of Segalman's four-parameter model is proposed. This model manifests a force-displacement curve having a continuous first derivative.
Constitutive Models Based on Compressible Plastic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajendran, A. M.
1983-01-01
The need for describing materials under time or cycle dependent loading conditions has been emphasized in recent years by several investigators. In response to the need, various constitutive models describing the nonlinear behavior of materials under creep, fatigue, or other complex loading conditions were developed. The developed models for describing the fully dense (non-porous) materials were mostly based on uncoupled plasticity theory. The improved characterization of materials provides a better understanding of the structual response under complex loading conditions. The pesent studies demonstrate that the rate or time dependency of the response of a porous aggregate can be incorporated into the nonlinear constitutive behavior of a porous solid by appropriately modeling the incompressible matrix behavior. It is also sown that the yield function which wads determined by a continuum mechanics approach must be verified by appropriate experiments on void containing sintered materials in order to obtain meaningful numbers for the constants that appear in the yield function.
Constitutive Modeling of Crosslinked Nanotube Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odegard, G. M.; Frankland, S. J. V.; Herzog, M. N.; Gates, T. S.; Fay, C. C.
2004-01-01
A non-linear, continuum-based constitutive model is developed for carbon nanotube materials in which bundles of aligned carbon nanotubes have varying amounts of crosslinks between the nanotubes. The model accounts for the non-linear elastic constitutive behavior of the material in terms of strain, and is developed using a thermodynamic energy approach. The model is used to examine the effect of the crosslinking on the overall mechanical properties of variations of the crosslinked carbon nanotube material with varying degrees of crosslinking. It is shown that the presence of the crosslinks has significant effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube materials. An increase in the transverse shear properties is observed when the nanotubes are crosslinked. However, this increase is accompanied by a decrease in axial mechanical properties of the nanotube material upon crosslinking.
Constitutive modeling for single crystal superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stouffer, Donald C.; Dame, L. Thomas; Jayaraman, N.
1985-01-01
A crystallographic approach to constitutive modeling of single crystal superalloys is discussed. The approach is based on identifying the active slip planes and slip directions. The shear stresses are computed on each of the slip planes from applied stress components. The slip rate is then computed on each slip system and the microscopic inelastic strain rates are the sum of the slip in the individual slip systems. The constitutive model was implemented in a finite element code using twenty noted isoparametric solid elements. Constants were determined for octahedral and cube slip systems. These constants were then used to predict tension-compression asymmetry and fatigue loops. Other data was used to model the tensile and creep response.
Constitutive Laws for Dynamic Modelling of Soils,
1980-01-01
AD-AO 733 DAMES AND MDORE LONDON (ENGLAND) F/ S/I3 CONSTITUTIVE LAWS FOR DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SOILS.(U) JAN 80 J MART1 P A CUNOALL F61708-79--087...shear history progresses. This is the type of approach followed in the endochronic models used by Bazant and co-workers ( Bazant and Krizeck, 1976...this improved model to soils (1978). Mean- while, Bazant and his co-workers have continued using the older model for 1describing concrete ( Bazant and
Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu
2007-05-01
Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix — WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, Ulric S.; Chan, Kwai S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.
1984-01-01
The results of the first year of work on a program to validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials utilized in high temperature regions of gas turbine engines and to demonstrate their usefulness in computing stress-strain-time-temperature histories in complex three-dimensional structural components. The unified theories combine all inelastic strain-rate components in a single term avoiding, for example, treating plasticity and creep as separate response phenomena. An extensive review of existing unified theories is given and numerical methods for integrating these stiff time-temperature-dependent constitutive equations are discussed. Two particular models, those developed by Bodner and Partom and by Walker, were selected for more detailed development and evaluation against experimental tensile, creep and cyclic strain tests on specimens of a cast nickel base alloy, B19000+Hf. Initial results comparing computed and test results for tensile and cyclic straining for temperature from ambient to 982 C and strain rates from 10(exp-7) 10(exp-3) s(exp-1) are given. Some preliminary date correlations are presented also for highly non-proportional biaxial loading which demonstrate an increase in biaxial cyclic hardening rate over uniaxial or proportional loading conditions. Initial work has begun on the implementation of both constitutive models in the MARC finite element computer code.
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, Kwai S.; Lindholm, Ulric S.; Bodner, S. R.; Hill, Jeff T.; Weber, R. M.; Meyer, T. G.
1986-01-01
The results of the third year of work on a program which is part of the NASA Hot Section Technology program (HOST) are presented. The goals of this program are: (1) the development of unified constitutive models for rate dependent isotropic materials; and (2) the demonstration of the use of unified models in structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are those of Bodner-Partom and of Walker. A test procedure was developed for assisting the generation of a data base for the Bodner-Partom model using a relatively small number of specimens. This test procedure involved performing a tensile test at a temperature of interest that involves a succession of strain-rate changes. The results for B1900+Hf indicate that material constants related to hardening and thermal recovery can be obtained on the basis of such a procedure. Strain aging, thermal recovery, and unexpected material variations, however, preluded an accurate determination of the strain-rate sensitivity parameter is this exercise. The effects of casting grain size on the constitutive behavior of B1900+Hf were studied and no particular grain size effect was observed. A systematic procedure was also developed for determining the material constants in the Bodner-Partom model. Both the new test procedure and the method for determining material constants were applied to the alternate material, Mar-M247 . Test data including tensile, creep, cyclic and nonproportional biaxial (tension/torsion) loading were collected. Good correlations were obtained between the Bodner-Partom model and experiments. A literature survey was conducted to assess the effects of thermal history on the constitutive behavior of metals. Thermal history effects are expected to be present at temperature regimes where strain aging and change of microstructure are important. Possible modifications to the Bodner-Partom model to account for these effects are outlined
Constitutive modeling for isotropic materials (HOST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.; Cassenti, B. N.
1985-01-01
This report presents the results of the second year of work on a problem which is part of the NASA HOST Program. Its goals are: (1) to develop and validate unified constitutive models for isotropic materials, and (2) to demonstrate their usefulness for structural analyses of hot section components of gas turbine engines. The unified models selected for development and evaluation are that of Bodner-Partom and Walker. For model evaluation purposes, a large constitutive data base is generated for a B1900 + Hf alloy by performing uniaxial tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relation, and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests as well as biaxial (tension/torsion) tests under proportional and nonproportional loading over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Systematic approaches for evaluating material constants from a small subset of the data base are developed. Correlations of the uniaxial and biaxial tests data with the theories of Bodner-Partom and Walker are performed to establish the accuracy, range of applicability, and integability of the models. Both models are implemented in the MARC finite element computer code and used for TMF analyses. Benchmark notch round experiments are conducted and the results compared with finite-element analyses using the MARC code and the Walker model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labergere, C.; Saanouni, K.; Benafia, S.; Galmiche, J.; Sulaiman, H.
2013-05-01
This paper presents the modelling and adaptive numerical simulation of the fine blanking process. Thermodynamically-consistent constitutive equations, strongly coupled with ductile damage, together with specific boundary conditions (particular command of forces on blank holder and counterpunch) are presented. This model is implemented into ABAQUS/EXPLICIT using the Vumat user subroutine and connected with an adaptive 2D remeshing procedure. The different material parameters are identified for the steel S600MC using experimental tensile tests conducted until the final fracture. A parametric study aiming to examine the sensitivity of the process parameters (die radius, clearance die/punch) to the punch force and fracture surfaces topology (convex zone, sheared zone, fracture zone and the burr).
An improved computational constitutive model for glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmquist, Timothy J.; Johnson, Gordon R.; Gerlach, Charles A.
2017-01-01
In 2011, Holmquist and Johnson presented a model for glass subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high pressures. It was later shown that this model produced solutions that were severely mesh dependent, converging to a solution that was much too strong. This article presents an improved model for glass that uses a new approach to represent the interior and surface strength that is significantly less mesh dependent. This new formulation allows for the laboratory data to be accurately represented (including the high tensile strength observed in plate-impact spall experiments) and produces converged solutions that are in good agreement with ballistic data. The model also includes two new features: one that decouples the damage model from the strength model, providing more flexibility in defining the onset of permanent deformation; the other provides for a variable shear modulus that is dependent on the pressure. This article presents a review of the original model, a description of the improved model and a comparison of computed and experimental results for several sets of ballistic data. Of special interest are computed and experimental results for two impacts onto a single target, and the ability to compute the damage velocity in agreement with experiment data. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.
Constitutive modelling of composite biopolymer networks.
Fallqvist, B; Kroon, M
2016-04-21
The mechanical behaviour of biopolymer networks is to a large extent determined at a microstructural level where the characteristics of individual filaments and the interactions between them determine the response at a macroscopic level. Phenomena such as viscoelasticity and strain-hardening followed by strain-softening are observed experimentally in these networks, often due to microstructural changes (such as filament sliding, rupture and cross-link debonding). Further, composite structures can also be formed with vastly different mechanical properties as compared to the individual networks. In this present paper, we present a constitutive model presented in a continuum framework aimed at capturing these effects. Special care is taken to formulate thermodynamically consistent evolution laws for dissipative effects. This model, incorporating possible anisotropic network properties, is based on a strain energy function, split into an isochoric and a volumetric part. Generalisation to three dimensions is performed by numerical integration over the unit sphere. Model predictions indicate that the constitutive model is well able to predict the elastic and viscoelastic response of biological networks, and to an extent also composite structures.
Multiscale Constitutive Modeling of Asphalt Concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Underwood, Benjamin Shane
Multiscale modeling of asphalt concrete has become a popular technique for gaining improved insight into the physical mechanisms that affect the material's behavior and ultimately its performance. This type of modeling considers asphalt concrete, not as a homogeneous mass, but rather as an assemblage of materials at different characteristic length scales. For proper modeling these characteristic scales should be functionally definable and should have known properties. Thus far, research in this area has not focused significant attention on functionally defining what the characteristic scales within asphalt concrete should be. Instead, many have made assumptions on the characteristic scales and even the characteristic behaviors of these scales with little to no support. This research addresses these shortcomings by directly evaluating the microstructure of the material and uses these results to create materials of different characteristic length scales as they exist within the asphalt concrete mixture. The objectives of this work are to; 1) develop mechanistic models for the linear viscoelastic (LVE) and damage behaviors in asphalt concrete at different length scales and 2) develop a mechanistic, mechanistic/empirical, or phenomenological formulation to link the different length scales into a model capable of predicting the effects of microstructural changes on the linear viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt concrete mixture, e.g., a microstructure association model for asphalt concrete mixture. Through the microstructural study it is found that asphalt concrete mixture can be considered as a build-up of three different phases; asphalt mastic, fine aggregate matrix (FAM), and finally the coarse aggregate particles. The asphalt mastic is found to exist as a homogenous material throughout the mixture and FAM, and the filler content within this material is consistent with the volumetric averaged concentration, which can be calculated from the job mix formula. It is also
Improvements to constitutive material model for fabrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morea, Mihai I.
2011-12-01
The high strength to weight ratio of woven fabric offers a cost effective solution to be used in a containment system for aircraft propulsion engines. Currently, Kevlar is the only Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved fabric for usage in systems intended to mitigate fan blade-out events. This research builds on an earlier constitutive model of Kevlar 49 fabric developed at Arizona State University (ASU) with the addition of new and improved modeling details. Latest stress strain experiments provided new and valuable data used to modify the material model post peak behavior. These changes reveal an overall improvement of the Finite Element (FE) model's ability to predict experimental results. First, the steel projectile is modeled using Johnson-Cook material model and provides a more realistic behavior in the FE ballistic models. This is particularly noticeable when comparing FE models with laboratory tests where large deformations in projectiles are observed. Second, follow-up analysis of the results obtained through the new picture frame tests conducted at ASU provides new values for the shear moduli and corresponding strains. The new approach for analysis of data from picture frame tests combines digital image analysis and a two-level factorial optimization formulation. Finally, an additional improvement in the material model for Kevlar involves checking the convergence at variation of mesh density of fabrics. The study performed and described herein shows the converging trend, therefore validating the FE model.
A constitutive model for representing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt
Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.
1996-03-01
The development of a constitutive model for representing inelastic flow due to coupled creep, damage, and healing in rock salt is present in this paper. This model, referred to as Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model, has been formulated by considering individual mechanisms that include dislocation creep, shear damage, tensile damage, and damage healing. Applications of the model to representing the inelastic flow and fracture behavior of WIPP salt subjected to creep, quasi-static loading, and damage healing conditions are illustrated with comparisons of model calculations against experimental creep curves, stress-strain curves, strain recovery curves, time-to-rupture data, and fracture mechanism maps.
Constitutive modeling of contact angle hysteresis.
Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V
2008-05-15
We introduce a phase field model of wetting of surfaces by sessile drops. The theory uses a two-dimensional non-conserved phase field variable to parametrize the Gibbs free energy of the three-dimensional system. Contact line tension and contact angle hysteresis arise from the gradient term in the free energy and the kinetic coefficient respectively. A significant advantage of this approach is in the constitutive specification of hysteresis. The advancing and receding angles of a surface, the liquid-vapor interfacial energy and three-phase line tension are the only required constitutive inputs to the model. We first simulate hysteresis on a smooth chemically homogeneous surface using this theory. Next we show that it is possible to study heterogeneous surfaces whose component surfaces are themselves hysteretic. We use this theory to examine the wetting of a surface containing a circular heterogeneous island. The contact angle for this case is found to be determined solely by the material properties at the contact line in accord with recent experimental data.
Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.
1996-01-01
Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.
Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.
1996-01-01
Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.
Lee, H.K.; Simunovic, S.
1999-09-01
A micromechanical damage constitutive model is presented to predict the overall elastoplastic behavior and damage evolution in random carbon fiber polymer matrix composites (RFPCs).To estimate the overall elastoplastic damage responses,an effective yield criterion is derived based on the ensemble-volume averaging process and first-order effects of eigenstrains due to the existence of spheroidal (prolate) fibers.The proposed effective yield criterion,to ether with the assumed overall associative plastic flow rule and hardening law, constitutes the analytical foundation for the estimation of effective elastoplastic behavior of ductile matrix composites.First,an effective elastoplastic constitutive dama e model for aligned fiber-reinforced composites is proposed.A micromechanical damage constitutive model for RFPCs is then developed.The average process over all orientations upon overning constitutive field equations and overall yield function for aligned fiber-reinforced composites i s performed to obtain the constitutive relations and effective yield function of RFPCs.The discrete numerical integration algorithms and the continuum tan ent operator are also presented to implement the proposed dama e constitutive model.The dama e constitutive model forms the basis for the pro ressive crushing in composite structures under impact loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saanouni, Kkemais; Labergère, Carl; Issa, Mazen; Rassineux, Alain
2010-06-01
This work proposes a complete adaptive numerical methodology which uses `advanced' elastoplastic constitutive equations coupling: thermal effects, large elasto-viscoplasticity with mixed non linear hardening, ductile damage and contact with friction, for 2D machining simulation. Fully coupled (strong coupling) thermo-elasto-visco-plastic-damage constitutive equations based on the state variables under large plastic deformation developed for metal forming simulation are presented. The relevant numerical aspects concerning the local integration scheme as well as the global resolution strategy and the adaptive remeshing facility are briefly discussed. Applications are made to the orthogonal metal cutting by chip formation and segmentation under high velocity. The interactions between hardening, plasticity, ductile damage and thermal effects and their effects on the adiabatic shear band formation including the formation of cracks are investigated.
Constitutive Modeling of Magnesium Alloy Sheets
Lee, M. G.; Piao, K.; Wagoner, R. H.; Lee, J. K.; Chung, K.; Kim, H. Y.
2007-05-17
Magnesium alloy sheets have unique mechanical properties: high in-plane anisotropy/asymmetry of yield stress and hardening response, which have not been thoroughly studied. The unusual mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys has been understood by the limited symmetry crystal structure of h.c.p metals and thus by deformation twinning. In this paper, the phenomenological continuum plasticity models considering the unusual plastic behavior of magnesium alloy sheet were developed for a finite element analysis. A new hardening law based on two-surface model was developed to consider the general stress-strain response of metal sheets such as Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and the unusual asymmetry. Three deformation modes observed during the continuous tension/compression tests were mathematically formulated with simplified relations between the state of deformation and their histories. In terms of the anisotropy and asymmetry of the initial yield stress, the Drucker-Prager's pressure dependent yield surface was modified to include the anisotropy of magnesium alloys. Also, characterization procedures of material parameters for the constitutive equations were presented and finally the correlation of simulation with measurements was performed to validate the proposed theory.
Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock
Wang, Wei-ming; Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Yong-ji; Gao, Xin
2013-01-01
Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was established by introducing a damage variable and a correction coefficient. A linearization process method was introduced according to the characteristics of the fitting curve and experimental data. The results showed that samples under different moisture contents and confining pressures presented completely different failure mechanism. The given model could accurately describe the elastic and plastic yield characteristics as well as the strain softening behavior of collected samples at postpeak stage. Moreover, the model could precisely reflect the relationship between the elastic modulus and confining pressure at prepeak stage. PMID:24489511
A nonlocal constitutive model for trabecular bone softening in compression.
Charlebois, Mathieu; Jirásek, Milan; Zysset, Philippe K
2010-10-01
Using the three-dimensional morphological data provided by computed tomography, finite element (FE) models can be generated and used to compute the stiffness and strength of whole bones. Three-dimensional constitutive laws capturing the main features of bone mechanical behavior can be developed and implemented into FE software to enable simulations on complex bone structures. For this purpose, a constitutive law is proposed, which captures the compressive behavior of trabecular bone as a porous material with accumulation of irreversible strain and loss of stiffness beyond its yield point and softening beyond its ultimate point. To account for these features, a constitutive law based on damage coupled with hardening anisotropic elastoplasticity is formulated using density and fabric-based tensors. To prevent mesh dependence of the solution, a nonlocal averaging technique is adopted. The law has been implemented into a FE software and some simple simulations are first presented to illustrate its behavior. Finally, examples dealing with compression of vertebral bodies clearly show the impact of softening on the localization of the inelastic process.
The Chemical Constitution of Compounds Which Protect Erythrocytes against Freezing Damage
Nash, T.
1962-01-01
Eleven simple neutral water-miscible compounds were tested for protective action against freezing damage to human red blood cells. All the compounds penetrated the cells at room temperature without damage, but only four, N-substituted amides, were active. These results are considered together with previously published work on freezing protection by other low molecuar weight solutes. The affinity of the compounds for water is gauged in two independent ways, and correlates well with protective ability. The chemical constitutional factors responsible for high affinity for water are discussed. It appears that basic character is most important. PMID:14478437
2006-09-01
2899–2938. Clayton, J.D., McDowell, D.L., 2003. Finite polycrystalline elastoplasticity and damage : multiscale kinematics. Int. J. Solids Struct. 40...5669–5688. Clayton, J.D., McDowell, D.L., 2004. Homogenized finite elastoplasticity and damage : theory and computations. Mech. Mater., 36, 799–824...tungsten–nickel iron (W–Ni– Fe) alloy. Aspects associated with constitutive modeling of damage and failure in the homogenized material system are
Life prediction and constitutive models for anisotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bill, R. C.
1982-01-01
The intent of this program is to develop a basic understanding of cyclic creep-fatigue deformation mechanisms and damage accumulation, a capability for reliable life prediction, and the ability to model the constitutive behavior of anisotropic single crystal (SC) and directionally solidified or recrystallized (DSR) comprise the program, and the work breakdown for each option reflects a distinct concern for two classes of anisotropic materials, SC and DSR materials, at temperatures encountered in the primary gas path (airfoil temperatures), and at temperatures typical of the blade root attachment and shank area. Work directed toward the higher temperature area of concern in the primary gas path includes effects of coatings on the behavior and properties of the materials of interest. The blade root attachment work areas will address the effects of stress concentrations associated with attachment features.
Constitutive Modeling of the Thermomechanical Behavior of Rock Salt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hampel, A.
2016-12-01
For the safe disposal of heat-generating high-level radioactive waste in rock salt formations, highly reliable numerical simulations of the thermomechanical and hydraulic behavior of the host rock have to be performed. Today, the huge progress in computer technology has enabled experts to calculate large and detailed computer models of underground repositories. However, the big advances in computer technology are only beneficial when the applied material models and modeling procedures also meet very high demands. They result from the fact that the evaluation of the long-term integrity of the geological barrier requires an extrapolation of a highly nonlinear deformation behavior to up to 1 million years, while the underlying experimental investigations in the laboratory or in situ have a duration of only days, weeks or at most some years. Several advanced constitutive models were developed and continuously improved to describe the dependences of various deformation phenomena in rock salt on in-situ relevant boundary conditions: transient and steady-state creep, evolution of damage and dilatancy in the DRZ, failure, post-failure behavior, residual strength, damage and dilatancy reduction, and healing. In a joint project series between 2004 and 2016, fundamental features of the advanced models were investigated and compared in detail with benchmark calculations. The study included procedures for the determination of characteristic salt-type-specific model parameter values and for the performance of numerical calculations of underground structures. Based on the results of this work and on specific laboratory investigations, the rock mechanical modeling is currently developed further in a common research project of experts from Germany and the United States. In this presentation, an overview about the work and results of the project series is given and the current joint research project WEIMOS is introduced.
Towards a Simple Constitutive Model for Bread Dough
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanner, Roger I.
2008-07-01
Wheat flour dough is an example of a soft solid material consisting of a gluten (rubbery) network with starch particles as a filler. The volume fraction of the starch filler is high-typically 60%. A computer-friendly constitutive model has been lacking for this type of material and here we report on progress towards finding such a model. The model must describe the response to small strains, simple shearing starting from rest, simple elongation, biaxial straining, recoil and various other transient flows. A viscoelastic Lodge-type model involving a damage function. which depends on strain from an initial reference state fits the given data well, and it is also able to predict the thickness at exit from dough sheeting, which has been a long-standing unsolved puzzle. The model also shows an apparent rate-dependent yield stress, although no explicit yield stress is built into the model. This behaviour agrees with the early (1934) observations of Schofield and Scott Blair on dough recoil after unloading.
Del Bino, S; Sok, J; Bernerd, F
2013-05-01
Melanoma incidence and pigmentary disorders are known to be related to the degree of skin pigmentation, but few data exist on the specific impact of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on melanocytes in skin of different constitutive pigmentation. To analyse UVR-induced DNA damage within melanocytes in different skin-colour types. Skin samples were objectively classified into light, intermediate, tan, brown and dark skin according to their individual typology angle (°ITA), based on colorimetric parameters. Samples were exposed to increasing doses of solar simulated radiation. Detection of DNA damage specifically in melanocytes was achieved by cyclobutane thymine dimer (CPD)-tyrosinase-related protein 1 double staining. For light, intermediate and tan skin, accumulation of CPDs in melanocytes was detected at the lowest dose, with a steep increase with dose. At estimated erythemally equivalent doses, around 80-100% of melanocytes were positive for CPDs in tan, intermediate and light skin types. In contrast, in dark and brown skin types, CPDs were found in only approximately 15% of melanocytes at the highest dose. This work demonstrates that melanocytes from constitutively highly pigmented skin types are less impacted in terms of UVR-induced DNA damage than those from lighter skin types, even those that are moderately pigmented. © 2013 The Authors. BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.
Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen
2014-09-01
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salajegheh, Nima; Abedrabbo, Nader; Pourboghrat, Farhang
2005-08-01
An efficient integration algorithm for continuum damage based elastoplastic constitutive equations is implemented in LS-DYNA. The isotropic damage parameter is defined as the ratio of the damaged surface area over the total cross section area of the representative volume element. This parameter is incorporated into the integration algorithm as an internal variable. The developed damage model is then implemented in the FEM code LS-DYNA as user material subroutine (UMAT). Pure stretch experiments of a hemispherical punch are carried out for copper sheets and the results are compared against the predictions of the implemented damage model. Evaluation of damage parameters is carried out and the optimized values that correctly predicted the failure in the sheet are reported. Prediction of failure in the numerical analysis is performed through element deletion using the critical damage value. The set of failure parameters which accurately predict the failure behavior in copper sheets compared to experimental data is reported as well.
Multivariate pluvial flood damage models
Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom
2015-09-15
Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.
Elastic-plastic constitutive modeling of concrete. [LMFBR
Takahashi, Y.
1983-03-01
The need to understand concrete behavior under high temperatures in the nuclear industry has become rather accute. For this purpose, a constitutive model of concrete especially developed for this severe environment is indispensable. This report reviews the presently available constitutive models of concrete at standard-temperature conditions and considers their advantages and drawbacks. A rather simple but effective approach is selected to treat concrete behavior at high temperatures. Special emphasis is devoted to the modeling of concrete up to and including failure. The derived constitutive model is checked with biaxial and triaxial benchmark experimental results. Very good agreement is obtained.
Constitutive modeling of pia-arachnoid complex.
Jin, Xin; Mao, Haojie; Yang, King H; King, Albert I
2014-04-01
The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain during impact or inertial loading. Recent studies have revealed the complicated material behavior of the PAC. In this study, the nonlinear viscoelastic, transversely isotropic material properties of the PAC were modeled as Mooney-Rivlin ground substance with collagen fibers strengthening within the meningeal plane through an exponential model. The material constants needed were determined using experimental data from in-plane tension, normal traction, and shear tests conducted on bovine specimens. Results from this study provide essential information to properly model the PAC membrane, an important component in the skull/brain interface, in a computational brain model. Such an improved representation of the skull/brain interface will enhance the accuracy of finite element models used in brain injury mechanism studies under various loading conditions.
A Thermodynamically Consistent Damage Model for Advanced Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maimi, Pere; Camanho, Pedro P.; Mayugo, Joan-Andreu; Davila, Carlos G.
2006-01-01
A continuum damage model for the prediction of damage onset and structural collapse of structures manufactured in fiber-reinforced plastic laminates is proposed. The principal damage mechanisms occurring in the longitudinal and transverse directions of a ply are represented by a damage tensor that is fixed in space. Crack closure under load reversal effects are taken into account using damage variables established as a function of the sign of the components of the stress tensor. Damage activation functions based on the LaRC04 failure criteria are used to predict the different damage mechanisms occurring at the ply level. The constitutive damage model is implemented in a finite element code. The objectivity of the numerical model is assured by regularizing the dissipated energy at a material point using Bazant's Crack Band Model. To verify the accuracy of the approach, analyses of coupon specimens were performed, and the numerical predictions were compared with experimental data.
A phenomenological constitutive model for low density polyurethane foams
Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.
1987-04-01
Results from a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests which were performed on polyurethane foams are presented in this report. These tests indicate that the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the foam behavior are strongly coupled. This coupling behavior could not be captured with any of several commonly used plasticity models. Thus, a new constitutive model was developed. This new model was based on a decomposition of the foam response into two parts: (1) response of the polymer skeleton, and (2) response of the air inside the cells. The air contribution was completely volumetric. The new constitutive model was implemented in two finite element codes, SANCHO and PRONTO. Results from a series of analyses completed with these codes indicated that the new constitutive model captured all of the foam behaviors that had been observed in the experiments. Finally, a typical dynamic problem was analyzed using the new constitutive model and other constitutive models to demonstrate differences between the models. Results from this series of analyses indicated that the new constitutive model generated displacement and acceleration predictions that were between predictions obtained using the other models. This result was expected. 9 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs.
Constitutive Modeling of Piezoelectric Polymer Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Tom (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
A new modeling approach is proposed for predicting the bulk electromechanical properties of piezoelectric composites. The proposed model offers the same level of convenience as the well-known Mori-Tanaka method. In addition, it is shown to yield predicted properties that are, in most cases, more accurate or equally as accurate as the Mori-Tanaka scheme. In particular, the proposed method is used to determine the electromechanical properties of four piezoelectric polymer composite materials as a function of inclusion volume fraction. The predicted properties are compared to those calculated using the Mori-Tanaka and finite element methods.
Study on the constitutive model for jointed rock mass.
Xu, Qiang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yuan, Chenyang
2015-01-01
A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis.
A dislocation density based constitutive model for cyclic deformation
Estrin, Y.; Braasch, H.; Brechet, Y.
1996-10-01
A new constitutive model describing material response to cyclic loading is presented. The model includes dislocation densities as internal variables characterizing the microstructural state of the material. In the formulation of the constitutive equations, the dislocation density evolution resulting from interactions between dislocations in channel-like dislocation patterns is considered. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated for INCONEL 738 LC and Alloy 800H.
Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models
Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.
1995-12-01
Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.
Remarks on ConstitutiveModeling of Nanofluids
Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran X. Phuoc
2012-01-01
Nanofluids are made by adding nanoscale particles in low volumetric fractions to a fluid in order to enhance or improve their rheological, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. The base fluid can be any liquid such as oil, water, ethylene glycol, or conventional fluid mixtures. Limited available studies on nanofluid viscosity have been reported [1-19]. In most of these studies, the behavior of the viscosity and the shear stress of nanofluids have been interpreted using the widely used empirical model developed by Casson [20].
The courthouse doors do not close: constitutional challenges to non-economic damage caps.
Bashshur, Ramona
2011-01-01
Following efforts at addressing health care reform that spanned decades, the US Congress passed massive health reform legislation in 2010, with key provisions to be implemented over the next few years. This legislation has been heralded as the ultimate legislative response to the spiraling cost of care and inequity of access to care. Yet, these reforms have left many unanswered questions about the perennial issue of tort reform, in particular, caps on non-economic damages. This article begins with a broad perspective on tort reform and the debate surrounding the issue, and ends with a search for common ground where the threat of litigation may be reduced while the constitutional rights of citizens remain safeguarded.
Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response
Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Shen, Huahao; Helleday, Thomas; Hickson, Ian D.; Ying, Songmin
2015-01-01
The MUS81 protein belongs to a conserved family of DNA structure-specific nucleases that play important roles in DNA replication and repair. Inactivation of the Mus81 gene in mice has no major deleterious consequences for embryonic development, although cancer susceptibility has been reported. We have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81 is required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S-phase, and for recovery of productive replication following replication stalling. These results demonstrate essential roles for the MUS81 nuclease in maintenance of replication fork integrity. PMID:26415217
Constitutive modeling of superalloy single crystals with verification testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, Eric; Walker, Kevin P.
1985-01-01
The goal is the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain behavior of single crystal turbine blade alloys. The program includes both the development of a suitable model and verification of the model through elevated temperature-torsion testing. A constitutive model is derived from postulated constitutive behavior on individual crystallographic slip systems. The behavior of the entire single crystal is then arrived at by summing up the slip on all the operative crystallographic slip systems. This type of formulation has a number of important advantages, including the prediction orientation dependence and the ability to directly represent the constitutive behavior in terms which metallurgists use in describing the micromechanisms. Here, the model is briefly described, followed by the experimental set-up and some experimental findings to date.
Constitutive modeling of shock response of PTFE
Brown, Eric N; Reanyansky, Anatoly D; Bourne, Neil K; Millett, Jeremy C F
2009-01-01
The PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) material is complex and attracts attention of the shock physics researchers because it has amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high pressure transition to phase III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region is growing with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate feature that may be related to impedance mismatches between the regions subjected to some transitions resulting in density and modulus variations. We consider the above mentioned amorphous-to-crystalline transition and the high pressure Phase II-to-III transitions as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase rate sensitive model to describe shock response of the PTFE material. One-dimensional experimental shock wave profiles are compared with calculated profiles with the kinetics describing the transitions. The objective of this study is to understand the role of the various transitions in the shock response of PTFE.
Deviatoric constitutive model: domain of strain rate validity
Zocher, Marvin A
2009-01-01
A case is made for using an enhanced methodology in determining the parameters that appear in a deviatoric constitutive model. Predictability rests on our ability to solve a properly posed initial boundary value problem (IBVP), which incorporates an accurate reflection of material constitutive behavior. That reflection is provided through the constitutive model. Moreover, the constitutive model is required for mathematical closure of the IBVP. Common practice in the shock physics community is to divide the Cauchy tensor into spherical and deviatoric parts, and to develop separate models for spherical and deviatoric constitutive response. Our focus shall be on the Cauchy deviator and deviatoric constitutive behavior. Discussions related to the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor are reserved for another time. A number of deviatoric constitutive models have been developed for utilization in the solution of IBVPs that are of interest to those working in the field of shock physics, e.g. All of these models are phenomenological and contain a number of parameters that must be determined in light of experimental data. The methodology employed in determining these parameters dictates the loading regime over which the model can be expected to be accurate. The focus of this paper is the methodology employed in determining model parameters and the consequences of that methodology as it relates to the domain of strain rate validity. We shall begin by describing the methodology that is typically employed. We shall discuss limitations imposed upon predictive capability by the typically employed methodology. We shall propose a modification to the typically employed methodology that significantly extends the domain of strain rate validity.
Constitutive models for rubber networks undergoing simultaneous crosslinking and scission.
Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Curro, John G.; Rottach, Dana R.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Budzien, Joanne L.; Lo, David Chi S.
2006-01-01
Constitutive models for chemically reacting networks are formulated based on a generalization of the independent network hypothesis. These models account for the coupling between chemical reaction and strain histories, and have been tested by comparison with microscopic molecular dynamics simulations. An essential feature of these models is the introduction of stress transfer functions that describe the interdependence between crosslinks formed and broken at various strains. Efforts are underway to implement these constitutive models into the finite element code Adagio. Preliminary results are shown that illustrate the effects of changing crosslinking and scission rates and history.
Damage modeling for Taylor impact simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, C. E., Jr.; Chocron, I. S.; Nicholls, A. E.
2006-08-01
G. I. Taylor showed that dynamic material properties could be deduced from the impact of a projectile against a rigid boundary. The Taylor anvil test became very useful with the advent of numerical simulations and has been used to infer and/or to validate material constitutive constants. A new experimental facility has been developed to conduct Taylor anvil impacts to support validation of constitutive constants used in simulations. Typically, numerical simulations are conducted assuming 2-D cylindrical symmetry, but such computations cannot hope to capture the damage observed in higher velocity experiments. A computational study was initiated to examine the ability to simulate damage and subsequent deformation of the Taylor specimens. Three-dimensional simulations, using the Johnson-Cook damage model, were conducted with the nonlinear Eulerian wavecode CTH. The results of the simulations are compared to experimental deformations of 6061-T6 aluminum specimens as a function of impact velocity, and conclusions regarding the ability to simulate fracture and reproduce the observed deformations are summarized.
Xu, Yidong; Qian, Chunxiang
2013-01-01
Based on meso-damage mechanics and finite element analysis, the aim of this paper is to describe the feasibility of the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) constitutive model in describing the tensile behavior of corroded reinforcing bars. The orthogonal test results showed that different fracture pattern and the related damage evolution process can be simulated by choosing different material parameters of GTN constitutive model. Compared with failure parameters, the two constitutive parameters are significant factors affecting the tensile strength. Both the nominal yield and ultimate tensile strength decrease markedly with the increase of constitutive parameters. Combining with the latest data and trial-and-error method, the suitable material parameters of GTN constitutive model were adopted to simulate the tensile behavior of corroded reinforcing bars in concrete under carbonation environment attack. The numerical predictions can not only agree very well with experimental measurements, but also simplify the finite element modeling process. PMID:23342140
Xu, Yidong; Qian, Chunxiang
2013-01-01
Based on meso-damage mechanics and finite element analysis, the aim of this paper is to describe the feasibility of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) constitutive model in describing the tensile behavior of corroded reinforcing bars. The orthogonal test results showed that different fracture pattern and the related damage evolution process can be simulated by choosing different material parameters of GTN constitutive model. Compared with failure parameters, the two constitutive parameters are significant factors affecting the tensile strength. Both the nominal yield and ultimate tensile strength decrease markedly with the increase of constitutive parameters. Combining with the latest data and trial-and-error method, the suitable material parameters of GTN constitutive model were adopted to simulate the tensile behavior of corroded reinforcing bars in concrete under carbonation environment attack. The numerical predictions can not only agree very well with experimental measurements, but also simplify the finite element modeling process.
Advanced Cumulative Damage Modeling
1988-09-01
MPaim and (b) 31 MPa/ m . xiv 5.42 Results of the Constant AK hold time tests on Alloy 718 at 132 593"C with (a) R-O.O, (b) R-0.5, and (c) R-0.8. 5.43...this type of model is the relationship first proposed by Walker( 40) Keff - Kmax (-R) m (2.14) where m is known as the Walker exponent Vhen m is zpro...Ketf zqual’ KraA: but when m i ut,!Lty, KeZf cqualb AK In reality, the Walker exponent is an empirical factor which accounts for mean stress and
Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.
1995-01-01
The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.
Image-driven constitutive modeling of myocardial fibrosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Vicky Y.; Niestrawska, Justyna A.; Wilson, Alexander J.; Sands, Gregory B.; Young, Alistair A.; LeGrice, Ian J.; Nash, Martyn P.
2016-05-01
Myocardial fibrosis is a pathological process that occurs during heart failure (HF). It involves microstructural remodeling of normal myocardial tissue, and consequent changes in both cardiac geometry and function. The role of myocardial structural remodeling in the progression of HF remains poorly understood. We propose a constitutive modeling framework, informed by high-resolution images of cardiac tissue structure, to model the mechanical response of normal and fibrotic myocardium. This image-driven constitutive modeling approach allows us to better reproduce and understand the relationship between structural and functional remodeling of ventricular myocardium during HF.
Deformation modeling and constitutive modeling for anisotropic superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1989-01-01
A study of deformation mechanisms in the single crystal superalloy PWA 1480 was conducted. Monotonic and cyclic tests were conducted from 20 to 1093 C. Both (001) and near-(123) crystals were tested, at strain rates of 0.5 and 50 percent/minute. The deformation behavior could be grouped into two temperature regimes: low temperatures, below 760 C; and high temperatures, above 820 to 950 C depending on the strain rate. At low temperatures, the mechanical behavior was very anisotropic. An orientation dependent CRSS, a tension-compression asymmetry, and anisotropic strain hardening were all observed. The material was deformed by planar octahedral slip. The anisotropic properties were correlated with the ease of cube cross-slip, as well as the number of active slip systems. At high temperatures, the material was isotropic, and deformed by homogeneous gamma by-pass. It was found that the temperature dependence of the formation of superlattice-intrinsic stacking faults was responsible for the local minimum in the CRSS of this alloy at 400 C. It was proposed that the cube cross-slip process must be reversible. This was used to explain the reversible tension-compression asymmetry, and was used to study models of cross-slip. As a result, the cross-slip model proposed by Paidar, Pope and Vitek was found to be consistent with the proposed slip reversibility. The results were related to anisotropic viscoplastic constitutive models. The model proposed by Walter and Jordan was found to be capable of modeling all aspects of the material anisotropy. Temperature and strain rate boundaries for the model were proposed, and guidelines for numerical experiments were proposed.
Advances in Constitutive and Failure Models for Sheet Forming Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Jeong Whan; Stoughton, Thomas B.
2016-08-01
Non-Associated Flow Rule (Non-AFR) can be used as a convenient way to account for anisotropic material response in metal deformation processes, making it possible for example, to eliminate the problem of the anomalous yielding in equibiaxial tension that is mistakenly attributed to limitations of the quadratic yield function, but may instead be attributed to the Associated Flow Rule (AFR). Seeing as in Non-AFR based models two separate functions can be adopted for yield and plastic potential, there is no constraint to which models are used to describe each of them. In this work, the flexible combination of two different yield criteria as yield function and plastic potential under Non-AFR is proposed and evaluated. FE simulations were carried so as to verify the accuracy of the material directionalities predicted using these constitutive material models. The stability conditions for non-associated flow connected with the prediction of yield point elongation are also reviewed. Anisotropic distortion hardening is further incorporated under non-associated flow. It has been found that anisotropic hardening makes the noticeable improvements for both earing and spring-back predictions. This presentation is followed by a discussion of the topic of the forming limit & necking, the evidence in favor of stress analysis, and the motivation for the development of a new type of forming limit diagram based on the polar effective plastic strain (PEPS) diagram. In order to connect necking to fracture in metals, the stress-based necking limit is combined with a stress- based fracture criterion in the principal stress, which provides an efficient method for the analysis of necking and fracture limits. The concept for the PEPS diagram is further developed to cover the path-independent PEPS fracture which is compatible with the stress-based fracture approach. Thus this fracture criterion can be utilized to describe the post-necking behavior and to cover nonlinear strain-path. Fracture
Target Soil Impact Verification: Experimental Testing and Kayenta Constitutive Modeling.
Broome, Scott Thomas; Flint, Gregory Mark; Dewers, Thomas; Newell, Pania
2015-11-01
This report details experimental testing and constitutive modeling of sandy soil deformation under quasi - static conditions. This is driven by the need to understand constitutive response of soil to target/component behavior upon impact . An experimental and constitutive modeling program was followed to determine elastic - plastic properties and a compressional failure envelope of dry soil . One hydrostatic, one unconfined compressive stress (UCS), nine axisymmetric compression (ACS) , and one uniaxial strain (US) test were conducted at room temperature . Elastic moduli, assuming isotropy, are determined from unload/reload loops and final unloading for all tests pre - failure and increase monotonically with mean stress. Very little modulus degradation was discernable from elastic results even when exposed to mean stresses above 200 MPa . The failure envelope and initial yield surface were determined from peak stresses and observed onset of plastic yielding from all test results. Soil elasto - plastic behavior is described using the Brannon et al. (2009) Kayenta constitutive model. As a validation exercise, the ACS - parameterized Kayenta model is used to predict response of the soil material under uniaxial strain loading. The resulting parameterized and validated Kayenta model is of high quality and suitable for modeling sandy soil deformation under a range of conditions, including that for impact prediction.
Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, K. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Jordan, E. H.
1988-01-01
Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code.
A Gradient-Based Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabesh, Majid; Boyd, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris
2017-06-01
Constitutive models are necessary to design shape memory alloy (SMA) components at nano- and micro-scales in NEMS and MEMS. The behavior of small-scale SMA structures deviates from that of the bulk material. Unfortunately, this response cannot be modeled using conventional constitutive models which lack an intrinsic length scale. At small scales, size effects are often observed along with large gradients in the stress or strain. Therefore, a gradient-based thermodynamically consistent constitutive framework is established. Generalized surface and body forces are assumed to contribute to the free energy as work conjugates to the martensite volume fraction, transformation strain tensor, and their spatial gradients. The rates of evolution of these variables are obtained by invoking the principal of maximum dissipation after assuming a transformation surface, which is a differential equation in space. This approach is compared to the theories that use a configurational force (microforce) balance law. The developed constitutive model includes energetic and dissipative length scales that can be calibrated experimentally. Boundary value problems, including pure bending of SMA beams and simple torsion of SMA cylindrical bars, are solved to demonstrate the capabilities of this model. These problems contain the differential equation for the transformation surface as well as the equilibrium equation and are solved analytically and numerically. The simplest version of the model, containing only the additional gradient of martensite volume fraction, predicts a response with greater transformation hardening for smaller structures.
Anisotropic Effects on Constitutive Model Parameters of Aluminum Alloys
2012-01-01
strength 7075-T651aluminum alloy . Johnson - Cook model constants determined for Al7075-T651 alloy bar material failed to simulate correctly the penetration...structural components made of high strength 7075-T651aluminum alloy . Johnson - Cook model constants determined for Al7075-T651 alloy bar material...rate sensitivity, Johnson - Cook , constitutive model. PACS: 62.20 .Dc, 62.20..Fe, S 62.50. +p, 83.60.La INTRODUCTION Aluminum 7075 alloys are
Probabilistic constitutive relationships for cyclic material strength models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.
1988-01-01
A methodology is developed that provides a probabilistic treatment for the lifetime of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to fatigue. Material strength degradation models, based on primitive variables, include both a fatigue strength reduction model and a fatigue crack growth model. Probabilistic analysis is based on simulation, and both maximum entropy and maximum penalized likelihood methods are used for the generation of probability density functions. The resulting constitutive relationships are included in several computer programs.
Elastic/viscoplastic constitutive model for fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gates, T. S.; Sun, C. T.
1991-01-01
A constitutive model to describe the elastic/viscoplastic behavior of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites under plane stress conditions is presented. Formulations are given for quasi-static plasticity and time-dependent viscoplasticity. Experimental procedures required to generate the necessary material constants are explained, and the experimental data is compared to the predicted behavior.
Halicka, H. Dorota; Ita, Masamichi; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kurose, Akira; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew
2008-01-01
Cepharanthine (CEP), a biscoclaurine (bisbenzylisoquinoline) alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha Hayata, is widely used in Japan to treat variety of diseases. Among a plethora of its biological activities CEP was reported to be able to scavenge radicals and prevent lipid peroxidation. We have recently described the phenomenon of constitutive ATM activation (CAA) and histone H2AX phosphorylation (CHP), the events that report DNA damage induced by endogenously generated radicals, the product of oxidative metabolism in otherwise healthy, untreated cells. The aim of the present study was to explore whether CEP can attenuate the level of CAA and CHP, which would indicate on its ability to protect DNA against endogenous oxidants. The data show that indeed the levels of CAA and CHP in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were distinctly lowered upon treatment with CEP. Thus, exposure of cells to 8.3 μM CEP for 4 h led to a reduction of the mean level of CAA and CHP by up to 60% and 50%, respectively. At 1.7 μM CEP the reduction of CAA and CHP after 4 h was 35% and 25%, respectively. Cells exposure to CEP led to a decrease in the level of ondogenous oxidants as measured by the ability to oxidate the fluorescent probe 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate. No evidence of apoptosis was seen during the first 8 h of treatment with CEP but initiation of apoptosis (caspase-3 activation) was detected in relatively few (< 10%) cells after exposure to 8.3 μM CEP for 24 h. The data strongly suggest that the scavenging properties of CEP provide a protection of DNA from the radicals generated endogenously during oxidative metabolism. PMID:18276990
Anisotropic Damage Mechanics Modeling in Metal Matrix Composites
1993-05-15
conducted on a titanium aluminide SiC-reinforced metal matrix composite. Center-cracked plates with laminate layups of (0/90) and (±45). were tested...Kattan, P. I., "Finite Strain Plasticity and Damage in Constitutive Modeling of Metals with Spin Tensors," Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 45, No. 3...34Contractors Meeting on Mechanics of Materials," Dayton, Ohio, October 1991. Voyiadjis, G. Z., and Kattan, P. I., "Finite Strain Plasticity and Damage in
The Constitutive Modeling of Thin Films with Randon Material Wrinkles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphey, Thomas W.; Mikulas, Martin M.
2001-01-01
Material wrinkles drastically alter the structural constitutive properties of thin films. Normally linear elastic materials, when wrinkled, become highly nonlinear and initially inelastic. Stiffness' reduced by 99% and negative Poisson's ratios are typically observed. This paper presents an effective continuum constitutive model for the elastic effects of material wrinkles in thin films. The model considers general two-dimensional stress and strain states (simultaneous bi-axial and shear stress/strain) and neglects out of plane bending. The constitutive model is derived from a traditional mechanics analysis of an idealized physical model of random material wrinkles. Model parameters are the directly measurable wrinkle characteristics of amplitude and wavelength. For these reasons, the equations are mechanistic and deterministic. The model is compared with bi-axial tensile test data for wrinkled Kaptong(Registered Trademark) HN and is shown to deterministically predict strain as a function of stress with an average RMS error of 22%. On average, fitting the model to test data yields an RMS error of 1.2%
A constitutive model for sintering of granulated ceramic powders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinagawa, K.; Hirashima, Y.
1998-05-01
Sintering behavior of granulated powder is investigated to develop a constitutive model for deformation analysis of ceramic powder compacts during sintering. Spray-dried alumina is compacted by CIPing (cold isostatic pressing) and sintered at various temperatures. Shrinkage and the change in grain size of the compacts during sintering are revealed in relation to the inhomogeneous microstructure consisting of fractured and unfractured granules as a consequence of the compaction. A constitutive model for the ceramic powder compacts having the internal structure is presented; The difference in grain growth in dense and sparse regions of the compacts is taken into consideration to the model. The results calculated by the model show good agreement with that obtained by experiment.
Development of a viscoelastic continuum damage model for cyclic loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sullivan, R. W.
2008-12-01
A previously developed spectrum model for linear viscoelastic behavior of solids is used to describe the rate-dependent damage growth of a time dependent material under cyclic loading. Through the use of the iterative solution of a special Volterra integral equation, the cyclic strain history is described. The spectrum-based model is generalized for any strain rate and any uniaxial load history to formulate the damage function. Damage evolution in the body is described through the use of a rate-type evolution law which uses a pseudo strain to express the viscoelastic constitutive equation with damage. The resulting damage function is used to formulate a residual strength model. The methodology presented is demonstrated by comparing the peak values of the computed cyclic strain history as well as the residual strength model predictions to the experimental data of a polymer matrix composite.
Modeling Fatigue Damage in Long-Fiber Thermoplastics
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.
2009-10-30
This paper applies a fatigue damage model recently developed for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to predict the modulus reduction and fatigue lifetime of glass/polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) specimens. The fatigue model uses a multiscale mechanistic approach to describe fatigue damage accumulation in these materials subjected to cyclic loading. Micromechanical modeling using a modified Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach combined with averaging techniques for fiber length and orientation distributions is performed to establish the stiffness reduction relation for the composite as a function of the microcrack volume fraction. Next, continuum damage mechanics and a thermodynamic formulation are used to derive the constitutive relations and the damage evolution law. The fatigue damage model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code and has been applied to analyze fatigue of the studied glass/PA6,6 specimens. The predictions agree well with the experimental results.
A rate-dependent constitutive model for molybdenum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberg, Daniel J.
1994-07-01
The Steinberg-Guinan-Lund rate-dependent constitutive model has been successfully applied to molybdenum. The model reproduces yield strength vs strain-rate and temperature data and also successfully simulates rate-dependent phenomena, such as shock-smearing, precursor decay, and precursor on reshock, as observed in one-dimensional gas-gun experiments. The spall strength of molybdenum was determined to be 1.5 GPa.
Numerical considerations in the development and implementation of constitutive models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haisler, W. E.; Imbrie, P. K.
1985-01-01
Several unified constitutive models were tested in uniaxial form by specifying input strain histories and comparing output stress histories. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate several time integration methods with regard to accuracy, stability, and computational economy. The sensitivity of the models to slight changes in input constants was also investigated. Results are presented for In100 at 1350 F and Hastelloy-X at 1800 F.
Rate dependent constitutive models for fiber reinforced polymer composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gates, Thomas S.
1990-01-01
A literature survey was conducted to assess the state-of-the-art in rate dependent constitutive models for continuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials. Several recent models which include formulations for describing plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and rate-dependent phenomenon such as creep and stress relaxation are outlined and compared. When appropriate, these comparisons include brief descriptions of the mathematical formulations, the test procedures required for generating material constants, and details of available data comparing test results to analytical predictions.
Hyperelastic anisotropic microplane constitutive model for annulus fibrosus.
Caner, Ferhun C; Guo, Zaoyang; Moran, Brian; Bazant, Zdenek P; Carol, Ignacio
2007-10-01
In a recent paper, Peng et al. (2006, "An Anisotropic Hyperelastic Constitutive Model With Fiber-Matrix Interaction for the Human Annulus Fibrosis," ASME J. Appl. Mech., 73(5), pp. 815-824) developed an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model for the human annulus fibrosus in which fiber-matrix interaction plays a crucial role in simulating experimental observations reported in the literature. Later, Guo et al. (2006, "A Composites-Based Hyperelastic Constitutive Model for Soft Tissue With Application to the Human Fibrosis," J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 54(9), pp. 1952-1971) used fiber reinforced continuum mechanics theory to formulate a model in which the fiber-matrix interaction was simulated using only composite effect. It was shown in these studies that the classical anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive models for soft tissue, which do not account for this shear interaction, cannot accurately simulate the test data on human annulus fibrosus. In this study, we show that the microplane model for soft tissue developed by Caner and Carol (2006, "Microplane Constitutive Model and Computational Framework for Blood Vessel Tissue," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 128(3), pp. 419-427) can be adjusted for human annulus fibrosus and the resulting model can accurately simulate the experimental observations without explicit fiber-matrix interaction because, in microplane model, the shear interaction between the individual fibers distributed in the tissue provides the required additional rigidity to explain these experimental facts. The intensity of the shear interaction between the fibers can be adjusted by adjusting the spread in the distribution while keeping the total amount of the fiber constant. A comparison of results obtained from (i) a fiber-matrix parallel coupling model, which does not account for the fiber-matrix interaction, (ii) the same model but enriched with fiber-matrix interaction, and (iii) microplane model for soft tissue adapted to annulus fibrosus with two
A finite deformation viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model for self-healing materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahsavari, H.; Naghdabadi, R.; Baghani, M.; Sohrabpour, S.
2016-12-01
In this paper, employing the Hencky strain, viscoelastic-viscoplastic response of self-healing materials is investigated. Considering the irreversible thermodynamics and using the effective configuration in the Continuum Damage-Healing Mechanics (CDHM), a phenomenological finite strain viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model is presented. Considering finite viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformations, total deformation gradient is multiplicatively decomposed into viscoelastic and viscoplastic parts. Due to mathematical advantages and physical meaning of Hencky strain, this measure of strain is employed in the constitutive model development. In this regard, defining the damage and healing variables and employing the strain equivalence hypothesis, the strain tensor is determined in the effective configuration. Satisfying the Clausius-Duhem inequality, the evolution equations are introduced for the viscoelastic and viscoplastic strains. The damage and healing variables also evolve according to two different prescribed functions. To employ the proposed model in different loading conditions, the model is discretized in the semi-implicit form. Material parameters of the model are identified employing experimental tests on asphalt mixes available in the literature. Finally, capability of the model is demonstrated comparing the model predictions in the creep-recovery and repeated creep-recovery with the experimental results available in the literature and a good agreement between predicted and test results is revealed.
Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet
Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.
2010-06-15
Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250 deg. C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.
Unified constitutive models for high-temperature structural applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.
1988-01-01
Unified constitutive models are characterized by the use of a single inelastic strain rate term for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation, including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation under monotonic or cyclic loading. The structure of this class of constitutive theory pertinent for high temperature structural applications is first outlined and discussed. The effectiveness of the unified approach for representing high temperature deformation of Ni-base alloys is then evaluated by extensive comparison of experimental data and predictions of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models. The use of the unified approach for hot section structural component analyses is demonstrated by applying the Walker model in finite element analyses of a benchmark notch problem and a turbine blade problem.
Hirschfeld, S.; Levine, A.S.; Ozato, K.; Protic, M. )
1990-05-01
Using a DNA band shift assay, we have identified a DNA-binding protein complex in primate cells which is present constitutively and has a high affinity for UV-irradiated, double-stranded DNA. Cells pretreated with UV light, mitomycin C, or aphidicolin have higher levels of this damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex, suggesting that the signal for induction can either be damage to the DNA or interference with cellular DNA replication. Physiochemical modifications of the DNA and competition analysis with defined substrates suggest that the most probable target site for the damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is a 6-4'-(pyrimidine-2'-one)-pyrimidine dimer: specific binding could not be detected with probes which contain -TT- cyclobutane dimers, and damage-specific DNA binding did not decrease after photoreactivation of UV-irradiated DNA. This damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is the first such inducible protein complex identified in primate cells. Cells from patients with the sun-sensitive cancer-prone disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (group E), are lacking both the constitutive and the induced damage-specific DNA-binding activities. These findings suggest a possible role for this DNA-binding protein complex in lesion recognition and DNA repair of UV-light-induced photoproducts.
Biomechanical behaviour of ankle ligaments: constitutive formulation and numerical modelling.
Forestiero, A; Carniel, E L; Natali, A N
2014-01-01
This study was aimed at the definition of a constitutive formulation of ankle ligaments and of a procedure for the constitutive parameters evaluation, for the biomechanical analysis by means of numerical models. To interpret the typical features of ligaments mechanical response, as anisotropic configuration, geometric non-linearity, non-linear elasticity and time-dependent behaviour, a specific fibre-reinforced visco-hyperelastic model is provided. The identification of constitutive parameters is performed by a stochastic-deterministic procedure that minimises the discrepancy between experimental and computational results. A preliminary evaluation of parameters is performed by analytical models in order to define reference values. Afterwards, solid models are developed to consider the complex histo-morphometric configuration of samples as a basis for the definition of numerical models. The results obtained are adopted for upgrading parameter values by comparison with specific mechanical tests. Assuming the new parameters set, the final numerical results are compared with the overall set of experimental data, to assess the reliability and efficacy of the analysis developed for the interpretation of the mechanical response of ankle ligaments.
A review of nonlinear constitutive models for metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, David H.; Harris, Charles E.
1990-01-01
Over the past two decades a number of thermomechanical constitutive theories have been proposed for viscoplastic metals. These models are in most cases similar in that they utilize a set of internal state variables which provide locally averaged representations of microphysical phenomena such as dislocation rearrangement and grain boundary sliding. The state of development of several of these models is now at the point where accurate theoretical solutions can be obtained for a wide variety of structural problems at elevated temperatures. The fundamentals of viscoplasticity are briefly reviewed and a general framework is outlined. Several of the more prominent models are reviewed, and predictions from models are compared to experimental results.
Fault models and constitutive laws across the lithosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamoto, T.
2011-12-01
Establishment of fault model is important not only for modeling earthquake cycles (stress accumulation, earthquake generation and afterslip), but also for analyzing tectonics of lithosphere. Since Sibson (1977, J. Geol. Soc. London) proposed a famous fault model, several fault models have been proposed (Scholz, 1988, Geol. Rundschau; Shimamoto, 1989, J. Struct. Geol.; Kawamoto and Shimamoto, 1998, Tectonophy). There has not been much progress in fault models since then, and even those fault models had limited applications in the modeling earthquakes and tectonics because no constitutive laws describing brittle to high-temperature ductile deformation across the lithosphere have been proposed. Moreover there was no additional experimental data reported to cover the brittle-ductile transition under large shearing deformation. However, the situation has been changing since Shimamoto (2004, JpGU) and Shimamoto and Noda, 2010, AGU) proposed an empirical friction to flow law which describes the transition from friction to fully plastic flow under shear for halite. Only frictional constitutive parameters and parameters in flow law are used and properties in the transitional regime can be predicted once those parameters are known. Thus this law provides a working model for reanalyzing diverse fault properties such as clay-bearing faults, for planning experimental researches to produce friction to flow behavior for realistic rocks, and for modeling fault and plate-boundary behaviors including generation of large earthquakes. I will summarize the current status on fault models and friction to flow constitutive laws across the lithosphere focusing the following aspects. (1) Friction to flow transition for important rocks. Existing friction and flows laws will be combined to propose constitutive property across the lithosphere (e.g., rate and state friction law combined with flow law for diabase). I will show how such a law can be used in the modeling using 2D modeling of
Potential anti-aging agents suppress the level of constitutive mTOR- and DNA damage- signaling.
Halicka, H Dorota; Zhao, Hong; Li, Jiangwei; Lee, Yong-Syu; Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew
2012-12-01
Two different mechanisms are considered to be the primary cause of aging. Cumulative DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), the by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, is one of these mechanisms (ROS concept). Constitutive stimulation of mitogen- and nutrient-sensing mTOR/S6 signaling is the second mechanism (TOR concept). The flow- and laser scanning- cytometric methods were developed to measure the level of the constitutive DNA damage/ROS- as well as of mTOR/S6- signaling in individual cells. Specifically, persistent activation of ATM and expression of γH2AX in untreated cells appears to report constitutive DNA damage induced by endogenous ROS. The level of phosphorylation of Ser235/236-ribosomal protein (RP), of Ser2448-mTOR and of Ser65-4EBP1, informs on constitutive signaling along the mTOR/S6 pathway. Potential gero-suppressive agents rapamycin, metformin, 2-deoxyglucose, berberine, resveratrol, vitamin D3 and aspirin, all decreased the level of constitutive DNA damage signaling as seen by the reduced expression of γH2AX in proliferating A549, TK6, WI-38 cells and in mitogenically stimulated human lymphocytes. They all also decreased the level of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential ΔΨm, the marker of mitochondrial energizing as well as reduced phosphorylation of mTOR, RP-S6 and 4EBP1. The most effective was rapamycin. Although the primary target of each on these agents may be different the data are consistent with the downstream mechanism in which the decline in mTOR/S6K signaling and translation rate is coupled with a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation, (revealed by ΔΨm) that leads to reduction of ROS and oxidative DNA damage. The decreased rate of translation induced by these agents may slow down cells hypertrophy and alleviate other features of cell aging/senescence. Reduction of oxidative DNA damage may lower predisposition to neoplastic transformation which otherwise may result from errors in repair of DNA
Mesoscale constitutive modeling of non-crystallizing filled elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harish, Ajay B.; Wriggers, Peter; Jungk, Juliane; Hojdis, Nils; Recker, Carla
2016-04-01
Elastomers are exceptional materials owing to their ability to undergo large deformations before failure. However, due to their very low stiffness, they are not always suitable for industrial applications. Addition of filler particles provides reinforcing effects and thus enhances the material properties that render them more versatile for applications like tyres etc. However, deformation behavior of filled polymers is accompanied by several nonlinear effects like Mullins and Payne effect. To this day, the physical and chemical changes resulting in such nonlinear effect remain an active area of research. In this work, we develop a heterogeneous (or multiphase) constitutive model at the mesoscale explicitly considering filler particle aggregates, elastomeric matrix and their mechanical interaction through an approximate interface layer. The developed constitutive model is used to demonstrate cluster breakage, also, as one of the possible sources for Mullins effect observed in non-crystallizing filled elastomers.
Constitutive Modeling, Nonlinear Behavior, and the Stress-Optic Law
2011-01-01
extrusion , blow molding, etc. Constitutive models having the form of eqns (5.5) or (5.38) cannot quantitatively describe reversing deformations of...91], as well as in glassy PVC [92]. The change in sign of n implies that the chain segments net orientation is opposite both to their orientation...recovered by rubber subsequent to forming operations that squeeze the material (such as extrusion and calendaring) is known as die swell, D̂ , defined
Structural analysis of turbine blades using unified constitutive models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.; Tong, M.; Saltsman, J. F.; Halford, G. R.
1986-01-01
The utility of advanced constitutive models and structural analysis methods in predicting the cyclic life of an air-cooled turbine blade is assessed. Five structural analysis methods were exercised in calculating the cyclic stress-strain response at the airfoil critical location. The methods studied were a cyclic elastic finite-element analysis, nonlinear finite-element analyses based on classical inelastic models and the unified models of Bodner and Walker, and a simplified inelastic procedure. These analyses were compared in terms of computing times and of predicted crack initiation lives using the Strainrange Partitioning method.
Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag
Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping
2013-02-07
The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.
A constitutive model of nanocomposite hydrogels with nanoparticle crosslinkers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiming; Gao, Zheming
2016-09-01
Nanocomposite hydrogels with only nanoparticle crosslinkers exhibit extraordinarily higher stretchability and toughness than the conventional organically crosslinked hydrogels, thus showing great potential in the applications of artificial muscles and cartilages. Despite their potential, the microscopic mechanics details underlying their mechanical performance have remained largely elusive. Here, we develop a constitutive model of the nanoparticle hydrogels to elucidate the microscopic mechanics behaviors, including the microarchitecture and evolution of the nanoparticle crosslinked polymer chains during the mechanical deformation. The constitutive model enables us to understand the Mullins effect of the nanocomposite hydrogels, and the effects of nanoparticle concentrations and sizes on their cyclic stress-strain behaviors. The theory is quantitatively validated by the tensile tests on a nanocomposite hydrogel with nanosilica crosslinkers. The theory can also be extended to explain the mechanical behaviors of existing hydrogels with nanoclay crosslinkers, and the necking instability of the composite hydrogels with both nanoparticle crosslinkers and organic crosslinkers. We expect that this constitutive model can be further exploited to reveal mechanics behaviors of novel particle-polymer chain interactions, and to design unprecedented hydrogels with both high stretchability and toughness.
Bayesian calibration of hyperelastic constitutive models of soft tissue.
Madireddy, Sandeep; Sista, Bhargava; Vemaganti, Kumar
2016-06-01
There is inherent variability in the experimental response used to characterize the hyperelastic mechanical response of soft tissues. This has to be accounted for while estimating the parameters in the constitutive models to obtain reliable estimates of the quantities of interest. The traditional least squares method of parameter estimation does not give due importance to this variability. We use a Bayesian calibration framework based on nested Monte Carlo sampling to account for the variability in the experimental data and its effect on the estimated parameters through a systematic probability-based treatment. We consider three different constitutive models to represent the hyperelastic nature of soft tissue: Mooney-Rivlin model, exponential model, and Ogden model. Three stress-strain data sets corresponding to the deformation of agarose gel, bovine liver tissue, and porcine brain tissue are considered. Bayesian fits and parameter estimates are compared with the corresponding least squares values. Finally, we propagate the uncertainty in the parameters to a quantity of interest (QoI), namely the force-indentation response, to study the effect of model form on the values of the QoI. Our results show that the quality of the fit alone is insufficient to determine the adequacy of the model, and due importance has to be given to the maximum likelihood value, the landscape of the likelihood distribution, and model complexity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flood damage modelling: ambition and reality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerl, Tina; Kreibich, Heidi; Franco, Guillermo; Marechal, David; Schröter, Kai
2015-04-01
Flood damage modelling is of increasing importance for reliable risk assessment and management. Research efforts have improved the understanding of damaging processes and more sophisticated flood damage models have been developed. However, research seems to focus on a limited number of sectors and regions and validation of models still receives too little attention. We present a global inventory of flood damage models which is compiled from a review of scientific papers and research reports on flood damage models. The models are catalogued according to model specifications, geographical characteristics, sectors addressed, input variables used, model validation, transferability and model functions. The inventory is evaluated to position the current state of science and technology in flood damage modelling as well as to derive requirements for benchmarking damage models.
Advanced Constitutive Modeling of Plain and Reinforced Concretes
1988-12-31
plastic models. Plain concrete, on the other hand. is one of the most complex structural materials in current use and, despite numerous efforts in...influence of basic material and geometric properties on damage accumulation and failure conditions. Under Tasks 1 and 2. a new, advanced model of...purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of fundamental material , interface, and 4 0Ill l lll l * geometric properties on the nonlinear
A Constitutive Model for Isothermal Pseudoelasticity Coupled with Plasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Dongjie; Landis, Chad M.
2016-12-01
In this paper, a new constitutive model for isothermal pseudoelastic shape memory alloys is presented. The model is based upon a kinematic hardening framework that was previously developed for ferroelastic and ferroelectric switching behavior. The basis of the model includes a transformation surface, an associated flow rule for transformation strain, and kinematic hardening with the back stresses represented by a transformation potential that is dependent upon the transformation strain. In contrast to many models that introduce tension/compression asymmetry by devising transformation surfaces in terms of invariants of the stress tensor, this model achieves this capability by means of expressing the transformation potential from which the back stresses are derived as a weighted mix of two potentials that are, respectively, calibrated to measured tensile and compressive responses. Additionally, in this model, plastic deformation is allowed to occur at high stresses by employing a standard J2-based yield surface with isotropic hardening. Finally, to demonstrate the ability of the constitutive model to perform in highly non-proportional loading states, some finite element simulations on crack tip fields are presented.
A 3D Orthotropic Elastic Continuum Damage Material Model
English, Shawn Allen; Brown, Arthur A.
2013-08-01
A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage is implemented for polymer matrix composite lamina. Damage evolves based on a quadratic homogeneous function of thermodynamic forces in the orthotropic planes. A small strain formulation is used to assess damage. In order to account for large deformations, a Kirchhoff material formulation is implemented and coded for numerical simulation in Sandia’s Sierra Finite Element code suite. The theoretical formulation is described in detail. An example of material parameter determination is given and an example is presented.
Constitutive modelling of single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, E. H.; Walker, K. P.
1986-01-01
The trend towards improved engine efficiency and durability places increasing demands on materials that operate in the hot section of the gas turbine engine. These demands are being met by new coatings and materials such as single crystal and directionally solidified nickel-base superalloys which have greater creep/fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures and reduced susceptibility to grain boundary creep, corrosion and oxidation than conventionally cast alloys. Work carried out as part of a research program aimed at the development of constitutive equations to describe the elevated temperature stress-strain-time behavior of single crystal and directionally solidified turbine blade superalloys is discussed. The program involves both development of suitable constitutive models and their verification through elevated temperature tension-torsion testing of single crystals of PWA 1480.
A position-aware linear solid constitutive model for peridynamics
Mitchell, John A.; Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.
2015-11-06
A position-aware linear solid (PALS) peridynamic constitutive model is proposed for isotropic elastic solids. The PALS model addresses problems that arise, in ordinary peridynamic material models such as the linear peridynamic solid (LPS), due to incomplete neighborhoods near the surface of a body. We improved model behavior in the vicinity of free surfaces through the application of two influence functions that correspond, respectively, to the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the deformation. Furthermore, the model is position-aware in that the influence functions vary over the body and reflect the proximity of each material point to free surfaces. Demonstration calculations on simple benchmark problems show a sharp reduction in error relative to the LPS model.
A position-aware linear solid constitutive model for peridynamics
Mitchell, John A.; Silling, Stewart A.; Littlewood, David J.
2015-11-06
A position-aware linear solid (PALS) peridynamic constitutive model is proposed for isotropic elastic solids. The PALS model addresses problems that arise, in ordinary peridynamic material models such as the linear peridynamic solid (LPS), due to incomplete neighborhoods near the surface of a body. We improved model behavior in the vicinity of free surfaces through the application of two influence functions that correspond, respectively, to the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the deformation. Furthermore, the model is position-aware in that the influence functions vary over the body and reflect the proximity of each material point to free surfaces. Demonstration calculations onmore » simple benchmark problems show a sharp reduction in error relative to the LPS model.« less
Constitutive modeling of crimped collagen fibrils in soft tissues.
Grytz, Rafael; Meschke, Günther
2009-10-01
A microstructurally oriented constitutive formulation for the hyperelastic response of crimped collagen fibrils existing in soft connective tissues is proposed. The model is based on observations that collagen fibrils embedded in a soft matrix crimp into a smooth three-dimensional pattern when unloaded. Following ideas presented by Beskos and Jenkins [Beskos, D., Jenkins, J., 1975. A mechanical model for mammalian tendon. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 42, 755-758] and Freed and Doehring [Freed, A., Doehring, T., 2005. Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 127, 587-593] the collagen fibril crimp is approximated by a cylindrical helix to represent the constitutive behavior of the hierarchical organized substructure of biological tissues at the fibrillar level. The model is derived from the nonlinear axial force-stretch relationship of an extensible helical spring, including the full extension of the spring as a limit case. The geometrically nonlinear solution of the extensible helical spring is carried out by an iterative procedure. The model only requires one material parameter and two geometrical parameters to be determined from experiments. The ability of the proposed model to reproduce the biomechanical response of fibrous tissues is demonstrated for fascicles from rat tail tendons, for porcine cornea strips, and for bovine Achilles tendons.
Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, G. A.; Meyer, T. G.; Nissley, D. M.
1986-01-01
The purpose of this program is to develop life prediction models for coated anisotropic materials used in gas turbine airfoils. In the program, two single crystal alloys and two coatings are being tested. These include PWA 1480, Alloy 185, overlay coating (PWA 286), and aluminide coating (PWA 273). Constitutive models are also being developed for these materials to predict the time independent (plastic) and time dependent (creep) strain histories of the materials in the lab tests and for actual design conditions. This nonlinear material behavior is particularly important for high temperature gas turbine applications and is basic to any life prediction system. Some of the accomplishments of the program are highlighted.
Image guided constitutive modeling of the silicone brain phantom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puzrin, Alexander; Skrinjar, Oskar; Ozan, Cem; Kim, Sihyun; Mukundan, Srinivasan
2005-04-01
The goal of this work is to develop reliable constitutive models of the mechanical behavior of the in-vivo human brain tissue for applications in neurosurgery. We propose to define the mechanical properties of the brain tissue in-vivo, by taking the global MR or CT images of a brain response to ventriculostomy - the relief of the elevated intracranial pressure. 3D image analysis translates these images into displacement fields, which by using inverse analysis allow for the constitutive models of the brain tissue to be developed. We term this approach Image Guided Constitutive Modeling (IGCM). The presented paper demonstrates performance of the IGCM in the controlled environment: on the silicone brain phantoms closely simulating the in-vivo brain geometry, mechanical properties and boundary conditions. The phantom of the left hemisphere of human brain was cast using silicon gel. An inflatable rubber membrane was placed inside the phantom to model the lateral ventricle. The experiments were carried out in a specially designed setup in a CT scanner with submillimeter isotropic voxels. The non-communicative hydrocephalus and ventriculostomy were simulated by consequently inflating and deflating the internal rubber membrane. The obtained images were analyzed to derive displacement fields, meshed, and incorporated into ABAQUS. The subsequent Inverse Finite Element Analysis (based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm) allowed for optimization of the parameters of the Mooney-Rivlin non-linear elastic model for the phantom material. The calculated mechanical properties were consistent with those obtained from the element tests, providing justification for the future application of the IGCM to in-vivo brain tissue.
Micromechanics and constitutive modeling of connective soft tissues.
Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M
2016-07-01
In this paper, a micromechanical model for connective soft tissues based on the available histological evidences is developed. The proposed model constituents i.e. collagen fibers and ground matrix are considered as hyperelastic materials. The matrix material is assumed to be isotropic Neo-Hookean while the collagen fibers are considered to be transversely isotropic hyperelastic. In order to take into account the effects of tissue structure in lower scales on the macroscopic behavior of tissue, a strain energy density function (SEDF) is developed for collagen fibers based on tissue hierarchical structure. Macroscopic response and properties of tissue are obtained using the numerical homogenization method with the help of ABAQUS software. The periodic boundary conditions and the proposed constitutive models are implemented into ABAQUS using the DISP and the UMAT subroutines, respectively. The existence of the solution and stable material behavior of proposed constitutive model for collagen fibers are investigated based on the poly-convexity condition. Results of the presented micromechanics model for connective tissues are compared and validated with available experimental data. Effects of geometrical and material parameters variation at microscale on macroscopic mechanical behavior of tissues are investigated. The results show that decrease in collagen content of the connective tissues like the tendon due to diseases leads 20% more stretch than healthy tissue under the same load which can results in connective tissue malfunction and hypermobility in joints.
A new constitutive model for nitrogen austenitic stainless steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fréchard, S.; Lichtenberger, A.; Rondot, F.; Faderl, N.; Redjaïmia, A.; Adoum, M.
2003-09-01
Quasi-static, quasi-dynamic and dynamic compression tests have been performed on a nitrogen alloyed austenitic stainless steel. For all strain rates, a high strain hardening rate and a good ductility have been achieved. In addition, this steel owns a great strain rate sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity bas been determined between 20°C and 400°C. Microstructural analysis has been performed after different loading conditions in relation to the behaviour of the material. Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong models have been selected to fit the experimental data into constitutive equations. These models do not reproduce properly the behaviour of this type of steel over the complete range. A new constitutive model that fits very well all the experimental data at different strain, strain rate and temperature has been determined. The model is based on empirical considerations on the separated influence of the main parameters. Single Taylor tests have been realized to validate the models. Live observations of the specimen during impact have been achieved using a special CCD camera set-up. The overall profile at different times are compared to numerical predictions using LS-DYNA code.
Development of a Constitutive Model of Polypropylene for Thermoforming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Connor, C.; Martin, P.; Menary, G.; Sweeney, J.; Caton-Rose, P.; Spencer, P.
2011-05-01
In this paper the authors outline a constitutive model, implemented within finite element analyses, which was developed for large deformation, high temperature multi-axial stretching of polypropylenes. The model has been generalised to a fully 3-dimensional thermally coupled form. The paper describes how model parameters were characterised using constant width, biaxial and sequential stretching of polypropylenes at elevated temperature using a custom built flexible biaxial stretching machine developed at Queen's University Belfast. The paper presents results of finite element model predictions of material stretching behaviour compared to range of physical experiments. The results presented in the paper confirm that this model is very effective in predicting the complex thermo-mechanical behaviours of polypropylenes at elevated temperatures.
Damage modeling and damage detection for structures using a perturbation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixit, Akash
This thesis is about using structural-dynamics based methods to address the existing challenges in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Particularly, new structural-dynamics based methods are presented, to model areas of damage, to do damage diagnosis and to estimate and predict the sensitivity of structural vibration properties like natural frequencies to the presence of damage. Towards these objectives, a general analytical procedure, which yields nth-order expressions governing mode shapes and natural frequencies and for damaged elastic structures such as rods, beams, plates and shells of any shape is presented. Features of the procedure include the following: 1. Rather than modeling the damage as a fictitious elastic element or localized or global change in constitutive properties, it is modeled in a mathematically rigorous manner as a geometric discontinuity. 2. The inertia effect (kinetic energy), which, unlike the stiffness effect (strain energy), of the damage has been neglected by researchers, is included in it. 3. The framework is generic and is applicable to wide variety of engineering structures of different shapes with arbitrary boundary conditions which constitute self adjoint systems and also to a wide variety of damage profiles and even multiple areas of damage. To illustrate the ability of the procedure to effectively model the damage, it is applied to beams using Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko theories and to plates using Kirchhoff's theory, supported on different types of boundary conditions. Analytical results are compared with experiments using piezoelectric actuators and non-contact Laser-Doppler Vibrometer sensors. To illustrate the ability of the procedure to effectively model the damage, it is applied to beams using Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko theories and to plates using Kirchhoff's theory, supported on different types of boundary conditions. Analytical results are compared with experiments using piezoelectric actuators and
Brittle damage models in DYNA2D
Faux, D.R.
1997-09-01
DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.
A homeostatic-driven turnover remodelling constitutive model for healing in soft tissues.
Comellas, Ester; Gasser, T Christian; Bellomo, Facundo J; Oller, Sergio
2016-03-01
Remodelling of soft biological tissue is characterized by interacting biochemical and biomechanical events, which change the tissue's microstructure, and, consequently, its macroscopic mechanical properties. Remodelling is a well-defined stage of the healing process, and aims at recovering or repairing the injured extracellular matrix. Like other physiological processes, remodelling is thought to be driven by homeostasis, i.e. it tends to re-establish the properties of the uninjured tissue. However, homeostasis may never be reached, such that remodelling may also appear as a continuous pathological transformation of diseased tissues during aneurysm expansion, for example. A simple constitutive model for soft biological tissues that regards remodelling as homeostatic-driven turnover is developed. Specifically, the recoverable effective tissue damage, whose rate is the sum of a mechanical damage rate and a healing rate, serves as a scalar internal thermodynamic variable. In order to integrate the biochemical and biomechanical aspects of remodelling, the healing rate is, on the one hand, driven by mechanical stimuli, but, on the other hand, subjected to simple metabolic constraints. The proposed model is formulated in accordance with continuum damage mechanics within an open-system thermodynamics framework. The numerical implementation in an in-house finite-element code is described, particularized for Ogden hyperelasticity. Numerical examples illustrate the basic constitutive characteristics of the model and demonstrate its potential in representing aspects of remodelling of soft tissues. Simulation results are verified for their plausibility, but also validated against reported experimental data.
Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.
2004-01-01
In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.
Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.; Park, C.; Siochi, E. J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube lengths, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyimide composite systems.
Anisotropic effects on constitutive model parameters of aluminum alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brar, Nachhatter S.; Joshi, Vasant S.
2012-03-01
Simulation of low velocity impact on structures or high velocity penetration in armor materials heavily rely on constitutive material models. Model constants are determined from tension, compression or torsion stress-strain at low and high strain rates at different temperatures. These model constants are required input to computer codes (LS-DYNA, DYNA3D or SPH) to accurately simulate fragment impact on structural components made of high strength 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Johnson- Cook model constants determined for Al7075-T651 alloy bar material failed to simulate correctly the penetration into 1' thick Al-7075-T651plates. When simulation go well beyond minor parameter tweaking and experimental results show drastically different behavior it becomes important to determine constitutive parameters from the actual material used in impact/penetration experiments. To investigate anisotropic effects on the yield/flow stress of this alloy quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests were performed on specimens fabricated in the longitudinal "L", transverse "T", and thickness "TH" directions of 1' thick Al7075 Plate. While flow stress at a strain rate of ~1/s as well as ~1100/s in the thickness and transverse directions are lower than the longitudinal direction. The flow stress in the bar was comparable to flow stress in the longitudinal direction of the plate. Fracture strain data from notched tensile specimens fabricated in the L, T, and Thickness directions of 1' thick plate are used to derive fracture constants.
Dynamic rupture modeling with laboratory-derived constitutive relations
Okubo, P.G.
1989-01-01
A laboratory-derived state variable friction constitutive relation is used in the numerical simulation of the dynamic growth of an in-plane or mode II shear crack. According to this formulation, originally presented by J.H. Dieterich, frictional resistance varies with the logarithm of the slip rate and with the logarithm of the frictional state variable as identified by A.L. Ruina. Under conditions of steady sliding, the state variable is proportional to (slip rate)-1. Following suddenly introduced increases in slip rate, the rate and state dependencies combine to produce behavior which resembles slip weakening. When rupture nucleation is artificially forced at fixed rupture velocity, rupture models calculated with the state variable friction in a uniformly distributed initial stress field closely resemble earlier rupture models calculated with a slip weakening fault constitutive relation. Model calculations suggest that dynamic rupture following a state variable friction relation is similar to that following a simpler fault slip weakening law. However, when modeling the full cycle of fault motions, rate-dependent frictional responses included in the state variable formulation are important at low slip rates associated with rupture nucleation. -from Author
Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composite Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odegard, Gregory M.; Harik, Vasyl M.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Gates, Thomas S.
2001-01-01
In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Since the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties of the SWNT/polymer composites can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber retains the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube sizes and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/polyethylene composite systems, one with continuous and aligned SWNT and the other with discontinuous and randomly aligned nanotubes.
Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odegard, G. M.; Gates, T. S.; Wise, K. E.
2002-01-01
In this study, a technique is presented for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because the polymer molecules are on the same size scale as the nanotubes, the interaction at the polymer/nanotube interface is highly dependent on the local molecular structure and bonding. At these small length scales, the lattice structures of the nanotube and polymer chains cannot be considered continuous, and the bulk mechanical properties can no longer be determined through traditional micromechanical approaches that are formulated by using continuum mechanics. It is proposed herein that the nanotube, the local polymer near the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface can be modeled as an effective continuum fiber using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The effective fiber serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composites with various nanotube shapes, sizes, concentrations, and orientations. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of two SWNT/LaRC-SI (with a PmPV interface) composite systems, one with aligned SWNTs and the other with three-dimensionally randomly oriented SWNTs. The Young's modulus and shear modulus have been calculated for the two systems for various nanotube lengths and volume fractions.
Constitutive modelling of evolving flow anisotropy including distortional hardening
Pietryga, Michael P.; Vladimirov, Ivaylo N.; Reese, Stefanie
2011-05-04
The paper presents a new constitutive model for anisotropic metal plasticity that takes into account the expansion or contraction (isotropic hardening), translation (kinematic hardening) and change of shape (distortional hardening) of the yield surface. The experimentally observed region of high curvature ('nose') on the yield surface in the loading direction and flattened shape in the reverse loading direction are modelled here by means of the concept of directional distortional hardening. The modelling of directional distortional hardening is accomplished by means of an evolving fourth-order tensor. The applicability of the model is illustrated by fitting experimental subsequent yield surfaces at finite plastic deformation. Comparisons with test data for aluminium low and high work hardening alloys display a good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data.
Constitutive modeling and computational implementation for finite strain plasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, K. W.; Atluri, S. N.
1985-01-01
This paper describes a simple alternate approach to the difficult problem of modeling material behavior. Starting from a general representation for a rate-tpe constitutive equation, it is shown by example how sets of test data may be used to derive restrictions on the scalar functions appearing in the representation. It is not possible to determine these functions from experimental data, but the aforementioned restrictions serve as a guide in their eventual definition. The implications are examined for hypo-elastic, isotropically hardening plastic, and kinematically hardening plastic materials. A simple model for the evolution of the 'back-stress,' in a kinematic-hardening plasticity theory, that is entirely analogous to a hypoelastic stress-strain relation is postulated and examined in detail in modeling finitely plastic tension-torsion test. The implementation of rate-type material models in finite element algorithms is also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saleeb, A. F.; Chang, T. Y. P.; Wilt, T.; Iskovitz, I.
1989-01-01
The research work performed during the past year on finite element implementation and computational techniques pertaining to high temperature composites is outlined. In the present research, two main issues are addressed: efficient geometric modeling of composite structures and expedient numerical integration techniques dealing with constitutive rate equations. In the first issue, mixed finite elements for modeling laminated plates and shells were examined in terms of numerical accuracy, locking property and computational efficiency. Element applications include (currently available) linearly elastic analysis and future extension to material nonlinearity for damage predictions and large deformations. On the material level, various integration methods to integrate nonlinear constitutive rate equations for finite element implementation were studied. These include explicit, implicit and automatic subincrementing schemes. In all cases, examples are included to illustrate the numerical characteristics of various methods that were considered.
Constitutive model for fiber-reinforced materials with deformable matrices.
Planas, J; Guinea, G V; Elices, M
2007-10-01
A great number of biological structures are composed of fibers (elastin, collagen, etc.) dispersed on an aqueous matrix in such a complex way that a detailed mechanical analysis based on microconstituents is, for practical purposes, out of reach. Consequently, the preferred approach to the mechanical behavior of these materials is based on setting up of constitutive equations that homogenize the behavior while capturing their main microstructural features. This work presents a simple macroscopic model for fiber-reinforced materials with deformable matrices, especially suited to many biological structural tissues. The constitutive equation is derived by imposing equivalence between the virtual works of both the fiber-reinforced and the equivalent continuum media, showing that it is independent of the control volume used for such equivalence. The model is particularized to incompressible materials, and an extension to orthotropic biological fibers is shown. Numerical simulations of uniaxial tests on silk fibers demonstrate the model's ability to capture the progressive alignment of the microconstituents under large deformations.
Anisotropic Effects on Constitutive Model Parameters of Aluminum Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant
2011-06-01
Simulation of low velocity impact on structures or high velocity penetration in armor materials heavily rely on constitutive material models. The model constants are required input to computer codes (LS-DYNA, DYNA3D or SPH) to accurately simulate fragment impact on structural components made of high strength 7075-T651 aluminum alloys. Johnson-Cook model constants determined for Al7075-T651 alloy bar material failed to simulate correctly the penetration into 1' thick Al-7075-T651plates. When simulations go well beyond minor parameter tweaking and experimental results are drastically different it is important to determine constitutive parameters from the actual material used in impact/penetration experiments. To investigate anisotropic effects on the yield/flow stress of this alloy we performed quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests on specimens fabricated in the longitudinal, transverse, and thickness directions of 1' thick Al7075-T651 plate. Flow stresses at a strain rate of ~1100/s in the longitudinal and transverse direction are similar around 670MPa and decreases to 620 MPa in the thickness direction. These data are lower than the flow stress of 760 MPa measured in Al7075-T651 bar stock.
Constitutive modelling of aluminium alloy sheet at warm forming temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurukuri, S.; Worswick, M. J.; Winkler, S.
2016-08-01
The formability of aluminium alloy sheet can be greatly improved by warm forming. However predicting constitutive behaviour under warm forming conditions is a challenge for aluminium alloys due to strong, coupled temperature- and rate-sensitivity. In this work, uniaxial tensile characterization of 0.5 mm thick fully annealed aluminium alloy brazing sheet, widely used in the fabrication of automotive heat exchanger components, is performed at various temperatures (25 to 250 °C) and strain rates (0.002 and 0.02 s-1). In order to capture the observed rate- and temperature-dependent work hardening behaviour, a phenomenological extended-Nadai model and the physically based (i) Bergstrom and (ii) Nes models are considered and compared. It is demonstrated that the Nes model is able to accurately describe the flow stress of AA3003 sheet at different temperatures, strain rates and instantaneous strain rate jumps.
Materials constitutive models for nonlinear analysis of thermally cycled structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.; Hunt, L. E.
1982-01-01
Effects of inelastic materials models on computed stress-strain solutions for thermally loaded structures were studied by performing nonlinear (elastoplastic creep) and elastic structural analyses on a prismatic, double edge wedge specimen of IN 100 alloy that was subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds. Four incremental plasticity creep models (isotropic, kinematic, combined isotropic kinematic, and combined plus transient creep) were exercised for the problem by using the MARC nonlinear, finite element computer program. Maximum total strain ranges computed from the elastic and nonlinear analyses agreed within 5 percent. Mean cyclic stresses, inelastic strain ranges, and inelastic work were significantly affected by the choice of inelastic constitutive model. The computing time per cycle for the nonlinear analyses was more than five times that required for the elastic analysis.
A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.
English, Shawn Allen
2014-09-01
A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.
Spherocylindrical microplane constitutive model for shale and other anisotropic rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Cunbao; Caner, Ferhun C.; Chau, Viet T.; Bažant, Zdeněk P.
2017-06-01
Constitutive equations for inelastic behavior of anisotropic materials have been a challenge for decades. Presented is a new spherocylindrical microplane constitutive model that meets this challenge for the inelastic fracturing behavior of orthotropic materials, and particularly the shale, which is transversely isotropic and is important for hydraulic fracturing (aka fracking) as well as many geotechnical structures. The basic idea is to couple a cylindrical microplane system to the classical spherical microplane system. Each system is subjected to the same strain tensor while their stress tensors are superposed. The spherical phase is similar to the previous microplane models for concrete and isotropic rock. The integration of stresses over spherical microplanes of all spatial orientations relies on the previously developed optimal Gaussian integration over a spherical surface. The cylindrical phase, which is what creates the transverse isotropy, involves only microplanes that are normal to plane of isotropy, or the bedding layers, and enhance the stiffness and strength in that plane. Unlike all the microplane models except the spectral one, the present one can reproduce all the five independent elastic constants of transversely isotropic shales. Vice versa, from these constants, one can easily calculate all the microplane elastic moduli, which are all positive if the elastic in-to-out-of plane moduli ratio is not too big (usually less than 3.75, which applies to all shales). Oriented micro-crack openings, frictional micro-slips and bedding plane behavior can be modeled more intuitively than with the spectral approach. Data fitting shows that the microplane resistance depends on the angle with the bedding layers non-monotonically, and compressive resistance reaches a minimum at 60°. A robust algorithm for explicit step-by-step structural analysis is formulated. Like all microplane models, there are many material parameters, but they can be identified sequentially
Constitutive models in WONDY for penetration studies into rock targets
Norwood, F.R.
1981-09-01
Computer simulation appears to be the easiest way of providing a fairly complete description of the physical problem of earth penetration by projectiles. This simulation is limited by the lack of information on the behavior of geologic targets under dynamic loading and also by the description of the constitutive model for the geologic material. Several constitutive models are presented for possible applications to the rock and rock-like materials. Using material property data for Antelope tuff, the required set of constants for each model was selected and used in predicting, for a penetration event, stress distributions on the penetrator surface and also penetration histories. For each of these three models, the average decelerations lie close to the values computed for coefficients of friction of zero and 0.1. Assuming zero friction, curves of deceleration as a function of penetration depth were calculated for the various models. These curves were higher than the experimental curve for the first meter of penetration. This seems to indicate that the models considered here do not contain all the physical details needed for a more accurate prediction. In studies of friction at high speed, the coefficient of friction has been found to increase qualitatively as an exponential function as the velocity decreases. This might possibly explain the lock-in phenomenon occurring at the end of a penetration event. As part of the present study, parameter variation studies were conducted to determine which material properties would be most significant in earth penetration by projectiles. Material compressibility, cohesive strength and internal friction angle were examined in detail. The internal friction angle was found to be the most important and cohesive strength the least important parameter in contributing to the resistive forces experienced by a projectile during penetration.
High rate constitutive modeling of aluminium alloy tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.
2006-08-01
As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive models for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain rate of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain rates on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static rates using an Instron test fixture and at strain rates of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High rate testing was then conducted at rates of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material models.
Constitutive modeling of human saphenous veins at overloading pressures.
Veselý, J; Horný, L; Chlup, H; Adámek, T; Krajíček, M; Žitný, R
2015-05-01
In the present study, inflation tests with free axial extension of 15 human vena saphena magna were conducted ex vivo to obtain data suitable for multi-axial constitutive modeling at overloading conditions (pressures up to approximately 15kPa). Subsequently the data were fitted with a hyperelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic constitutive model based on the theory of the closed thick-walled tube. It was observed that initial highly deformable behavior (up to approximately 2.5kPa) in the pressure-circumferential stretch response is followed by progressive large strain stiffening. Contrary to that, samples were much stiffer in longitudinal direction, where the observed stretches were in the range 0.98-1.03 during the entire pressurization in most cases. The effect of possible residual stress was evaluated in a simulation of the intramural stress distribution with the opening angle prescribed to 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 50°. The result suggests that the optimal opening angle making the stress distribution through the wall thickness uniform is about 40°. The material parameters presented here are suitable for use in mechanobiological simulations describing the adaptation of the autologous vein wall after bypass surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damage induced constitutive response of a thermoplastic related to composites and adhesive bonding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parvin, M.; Knauss, W. G.
1990-01-01
The volume-averaged constitutive behavior of a polymer sustaining void growth under dilational deformation is addressed. Polyvinylacetate is deformed between two aluminum beams in a double cantilever geometry and the deformations, recorded with the aid of optical interferometry, are used to deduce the stress-strain behavior of the material as it passes from small strain behavior, through the voiding process, to near-failure under exclusion of rate-sensitivity considerations.
A constitutive model for elastoplastic solids containing primary and secondary voids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabrègue, D.; Pardoen, T.
In many ductile metallic alloys, the damage process controlled by the growth and coalescence of primary voids nucleated on particles with a size varying typically between 1 and 100 μm, is affected by the growth of much smaller secondary voids nucleated on inclusions with a size varying typically between 0.1 and 3 μm. The goal of this work is first to quantify the potential effect of the growth of these secondary voids on the coalescence of primary voids using finite element (FE) unit cell calculations and second to formulate a new constitutive model incorporating this effect. The nucleation and growth of secondary voids do essentially not affect the growth of the primary voids but mainly accelerate the void coalescence process. The drop of the ductility caused by the presence of secondary voids increases if the nucleation strain decreases and/or if their volume fraction increases and/or if the primary voids are flat. A strong coupling is indeed observed between the shape of the primary voids and the growth of the second population enhancing the anisotropy of the ductility induced by void shape effects. The new micromechanics-based coalescence condition for internal necking introduces the softening induced by secondary voids growing in the ligament between two primary voids. The FE cell calculations were used to guide and assess the development of this model. The use of the coalescence condition relies on a closed-form model for estimating the evolution of the secondary voids in the vicinity of a primary cavity. This coalescence criterion is connected to an extended Gurson model for the first population including the effect of the void aspect ratio. With respect to classical models for single void population, this new constitutive model improves the predictive potential of damage constitutive models devoted to ductile metal while requiring only two new parameters, i.e. the initial porosity of second population and a void nucleation stress, without any additional
Mechanistic Constitutive Models for Rubber Elasticity and Viscoelasticity
Puso, M
2003-01-21
Physically based models which describe the finite strain behavior of vulcanized rubber are developed. Constitutive laws for elasticity and viscoelasticity are derived by integrating over orientation space the forces due to each individual polymer chain. A novel scheme is presented which effectively approximates these integrals in terms of strain and strain invariants. In addition, the details involving the implementation of such models into a quasi-static large strain finite element formulation are provided. In order to account for the finite extensibility of a molecular chain, Langevin statistics is used to model the chain response. The classical statistical model of rubber assumes that polymer chains interact only at the chemical crosslinks. It is shown that such model when fitted for uniaxial tension data cannot fit compression or equibiaxial data. A model which incorporates the entanglement interactions of surrounding chains, in addition to the finite extensibility of the chains, is shown to give better predictions than the classical model. The technique used for approximating the orientation space integral was applied to both the classical and entanglement models. A viscoelasticity model based on the force equilibration process as described by Doi and Edwards is developed. An assumed form for the transient force in the chain is postulated. The resulting stress tensor is composed of an elastic and a viscoelastic portion with the elastic stress given by the proposed entanglement model. In order to improve the simulation of experimental data, it was found necessary to include the effect of unattached or dangling polymer chains in the viscoelasticity model. The viscoelastic effect of such chains is the manifestation of a disengagement process. This disengagement model for unattached polymer chains motivated an empirical model which was very successful in simulating the experimental results considered.
Turbulence modeling based on non-Newtonian constitutive laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mompean, G.; Qiu, X.; Schmitt, F. G.; Thompson, R.
2011-12-01
This work revisits the analogy between Newtonian turbulence and non-Newtonian laminar flows. Several direct numerical simulations (DNS) data of a plane channel flow, for a large range of Reynolds numbers (180 <= Reτ <= 2000) were explored. The profiles of mean velocity and second moment quantities were used to extract viscometric functions in the non-Newtonian modeling framework. The Reynolds stress tensor is expressed in terms of a set of basis kinematic tensors based on a projection of a nonlinear framework. The coefficients of the model are given as functions of the intensity of the mean strain tensor. The apparent eddy turbulent viscosity, the first and second normal stress differences are presented as function of the shear rate. One of the advantages of the new algebraic nonlinear power law constitutive equation derived in the paper, is that is only dependent on the mean velocity gradient and can be integrated up to the wall.
Constitutive models for impacted morsellised cortico-cancellous bone.
Phillips, Andrew; Pankaj, Pankaj; May, Fraser; Taylor, Kenneth; Howie, Colin; Usmani, Asif
2006-03-01
Constitutive models are developed, based on the results of confined compression testing, to describe the visco-elastic, and non-linear elasto-plastic behaviour of morsellised cortico-cancellous bone (MCB). It is found that the elastic modulus, E of MCB can be expressed as a linear function of the applied pressure, p. E varied from 3 to 30N/mm(2) for pressures up to 1N/mm(2). The visco-elastic behaviour of MCB can be described using a fourth-order Prony series. The plastic behaviour of MCB can be described using a Drucker Prager Cap (DPC) yield criterion, in which consolidation behaviour is described using an exponential function. The developed relationships allow MCB to be included in a realistic manner in finite element models, for example of the acetabular construct, following revision hip arthroplasty, carried out using the Slooff-Ling impaction grafting technique.
A Simple Updated Constitutive Model of EPS Geofoam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leo, Chin J.; Wong, Henry K.; Liyanapathirana, Samanthika
2010-05-01
This paper describes an updated and simple EPS constitutive model proposed by the authors for modelling EPS geofoam in geotechnical applications where geofoam-structure as well as geofoam-soil interactions occur. The work is based on an earlier model developed by the authors, which has since been modified to reflect recent experimental results suggesting the admissibility of the Drucker-Prager failure criterion in lieu of the Mohr-Coulumb criterion. The updated model is developed within the framework of classical elasto-plasticity, with the inclusion of strain hardening, a hardening rule defined in terms of equivalent deviatoric plastic strain and a non-associate flow rule. It is simple to calibrate (with 6 independent parameters determined from triaxial tests) and is relatively easy to incorporate into numerical codes. The updated model has been calibrated against results from a series of "drained" triaxial tests performed on the EPS geofoam. The steps required for calibration are described in the paper. It has been also been shown to accurately reproduce the responses of the material under shearing, in particular, of the shear-contraction post yield behaviour typical of geofoam material. The model will be applicable for a variety of geotechnical applications such as for the modelling of EPS geofoam inclusion behind retaining structures and as a buffer material to mitigate against dynamic loading and vibrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagel, T.; Böttcher, N.; Görke, U. J.; Kolditz, O.
2014-12-01
The design process of geotechnical installations includes the application of numerical simulation tools for safety assessment, dimensioning and long term effectiveness estimations. Underground salt caverns can be used for the storage of natural gas, hydrogen, oil, waste or compressed air. For their design one has to take into account fluctuating internal pressures due to different levels of filling, the stresses imposed by the surrounding rock mass, irregular geometries and possibly heterogeneous material properties [3] in order to estimate long term cavern convergence as well as locally critical wall stresses. Constitutive models applied to rock salt are usually viscoplastic in nature and most often based on a Burgers-type rheological model extended by non-linear viscosity functions and/or plastic friction elements. Besides plastic dilatation, healing and damage are sometimes accounted for as well [2]. The scales of the geotechnical system to be simulated and the laboratory tests from which material parameters are determined are vastly different. The most common material testing modalities to determine material parameters in geoengineering are the uniaxial and the triaxial compression tests. Some constitutive formulations in widespread use are formulated based on equivalent rather than tensorial quantities valid under these specific test conditions and are subsequently applied to heterogeneous underground systems and complex 3D load cases. We show here that this procedure is inappropriate and can lead to erroneous results. We further propose alternative formulations of the constitutive models in question that restore their validity under arbitrary loading conditions. For an efficient numerical simulation, the discussed constitutive models are integrated locally with a Newton-Raphson algorithm that directly provides the algorithmically consistent tangent matrix for the global Newton iteration of the displacement based finite element formulation. Finally, the finite
The U.S. Constitution, A Model for Global Government.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwartzberg, Joseph E.
1987-01-01
Proposes the adoption of a global constitution, similar to the U.S. Constitution, as a precondition for a peaceful planetary society. Explores the geographic roots of the U.S. Constitution and discusses the diffusion of federalism throughout the world. Advocates the teaching of global government theories in history, government, and geography…
Biaxial tensile testing and constitutive modeling of human supraspinatus tendon.
Szczesny, Spencer E; Peloquin, John M; Cortes, Daniel H; Kadlowec, Jennifer A; Soslowsky, Louis J; Elliott, Dawn M
2012-02-01
The heterogeneous composition and mechanical properties of the supraspinatus tendon offer an opportunity for studying the structure-function relationships of fibrous musculoskeletal connective tissues. Previous uniaxial testing has demonstrated a correlation between the collagen fiber angle distribution and tendon mechanics in response to tensile loading both parallel and transverse to the tendon longitudinal axis. However, the planar mechanics of the supraspinatus tendon may be more appropriately characterized through biaxial tensile testing, which avoids the limitation of nonphysiologic traction-free boundary conditions present during uniaxial testing. Combined with a structural constitutive model, biaxial testing can help identify the specific structural mechanisms underlying the tendon's two-dimensional mechanical behavior. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of collagen fiber organization to the planar tensile mechanics of the human supraspinatus tendon by fitting biaxial tensile data with a structural constitutive model that incorporates a sample-specific angular distribution of nonlinear fibers. Regional samples were tested under several biaxial boundary conditions while simultaneously measuring the collagen fiber orientations via polarized light imaging. The histograms of fiber angles were fit with a von Mises probability distribution and input into a hyperelastic constitutive model incorporating the contributions of the uncrimped fibers. Samples with a wide fiber angle distribution produced greater transverse stresses than more highly aligned samples. The structural model fit the longitudinal stresses well (median R(2) ≥ 0.96) and was validated by successfully predicting the stress response to a mechanical protocol not used for parameter estimation. The transverse stresses were fit less well with greater errors observed for less aligned samples. Sensitivity analyses and relatively affine fiber kinematics suggest that
Constitutive modeling of calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reis, Martina; Sousa, Maria De Fátima; Bertran, Celso; Bassi, Adalberto
2014-11-01
Calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixtures have attracted attention of many researchers since the deposition of CaCO3(s) from such solutions can lead to scaling problems in oil fields. However, despite their evident practical importance in petroleum engineering, the hydro and thermodynamic behaviors of these mixtures have not been well-understood yet. In this work, a constitutive model based on the foundations of the constitutive theory of continuum mechanics, and the Müller-Liu entropy principle is proposed. The calcium carbonate supersaturated seawater mixture is regarded as a reactive viscous fluid with heat and electrical conductions. The obtained results indicate that the thermodynamic behavior of CaCO3 supersaturated seawater mixtures is closely related to the individual dynamics of each constituent of the mixture, particularly to the linear momentum, and mass exchanges. Furthermore, the results show that, unlike classical continuum mixtures, the extra entropy flux is not null, and higher-order gradients of deformation contribute to the residual entropy production of the class of mixtures under study. The results of this work may be relevant for the prevention of the mineral scale formation in oil fields. The first author acknowledges the São Paulo Research Foundation (Grant 2013/ 20872-2) for its funding.
Constitutive model for brain tissue under finite compression.
Laksari, Kaveh; Shafieian, Mehdi; Darvish, Kurosh
2012-02-23
While advances in computational models of mechanical phenomena have made it possible to simulate dynamically complex problems in biomechanics, accurate material models for soft tissues, particularly brain tissue, have proven to be very challenging. Most studies in the literature on material properties of brain tissue are performed in shear loading and very few tackle the behavior of brain in compression. In this study, a viscoelastic constitutive model of bovine brain tissue under finite step-and-hold uniaxial compression with 10 s(-1) ramp rate and 20 s hold time has been developed. The assumption of quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) was validated for strain levels of up to 35%. A generalized Rivlin model was used for the isochoric part of the deformation and it was shown that at least three terms (C(10), C(01) and C(11)) are needed to accurately capture the material behavior. Furthermore, for the volumetric deformation, a two parameter Ogden model was used and the extent of material incompressibility was studied. The hyperelastic material parameters were determined through extracting and fitting to two isochronous curves (0.06 s and 14 s) approximating the instantaneous and steady-state elastic responses. Viscoelastic relaxation was characterized at five decay rates (100, 10, 1, 0.1, 0 s(-1)) and the results in compression and their extrapolation to tension were compared against previous models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Experimental investigation and constitutive model for lime mudstone.
Wang, Junbao; Liu, Xinrong; Zhao, Baoyun; Song, Zhanping; Lai, Jinxing
2016-01-01
In order to investigate the mechanical properties of lime mudstone, conventional triaxial compression tests under different confining pressures (0, 5, 15 and 20 MPa) are performed on lime mudstone samples. The test results show that, from the overall perspective of variation law, the axial peak stress, axial peak strain and elastic modulus of lime mudstone tend to gradually increase with increasing confining pressure. In the range of tested confining pressure, the variations in axial peak stress and elastic modulus with confining pressure can be described with linear functions; while the variation in axial peak strain with confining pressure can be reflected with a power function. To describe the axial stress-strain behavior in failure process of lime mudstone, a new constitutive model is proposed, with the model characteristics analyzed and the parameter determination method put forward. Compared with Wang' model, only one parameter n is added to the new model. The comparison of predicted curves from the model and test data indicates that the new model can preferably simulate the strain softening property of lime mudstone and the axial stress-strain response in rock failure process.
Fatigue Damage of Collagenous Tissues: Experiment, Modeling and Simulation Studies
Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei
2017-01-01
Mechanical fatigue damage is a critical issue for soft tissues and tissue-derived materials, particularly for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular applications; yet, our understanding of the fatigue damage process is incomplete. Soft tissue fatigue experiments are often difficult and time-consuming to perform, which has hindered progress in this area. However, the recent development of soft-tissue fatigue-damage constitutive models has enabled simulation-based fatigue analyses of tissues under various conditions. Computational simulations facilitate highly controlled and quantitative analyses to study the distinct effects of various loading conditions and design features on tissue durability; thus, they are advantageous over complex fatigue experiments. Although significant work to calibrate the constitutive models from fatigue experiments and to validate predictability remains, further development in these areas will add to our knowledge of soft-tissue fatigue damage and will facilitate the design of durable treatments and devices. In this review, the experimental, modeling, and simulation efforts to study collagenous tissue fatigue damage are summarized and critically assessed. PMID:25955007
A linearized and incompressible constitutive model for arteries.
Liu, Y; Zhang, W; Wang, C; Kassab, G S
2011-10-07
In many biomechanical studies, blood vessels can be modeled as pseudoelastic orthotropic materials that are incompressible (volume-preserving) under physiological loading. To use a minimum number of elastic constants to describe the constitutive behavior of arteries, we adopt a generalized Hooke's law for the co-rotational Cauchy stress and a recently proposed logarithmic-exponential strain. This strain tensor absorbs the material nonlinearity and its trace is zero for volume-preserving deformations. Thus, the relationships between model parameters due to the incompressibility constraint are easy to analyze and interpret. In particular, the number of independent elastic constants reduces from ten to seven in the orthotropic model. As an illustratory study, we fit this model to measured data of porcine coronary arteries in inflation-stretch tests. Four parameters, n (material nonlinearity), Young's moduli E₁ (circumferential), E₂ (axial), and E₃ (radial) are necessary to fit the data. The advantages and limitations of this model are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Linearized and Incompressible Constitutive Model for Arteries
Liu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Wang, C.; Kassab, G. S.
2011-01-01
In many biomechanical studies, blood vessels can be modeled as pseudoelastic orthotropic materials that are incompressible (volume-preserving) under physiological loading. To use a minimum number of elastic constants to describe the constitutive behavior of arteries, we adopt a generalized Hooke’s law for the co-rotational Cauchy stress and a recently proposed logarithmic-exponential strain. This strain tensor absorbs the material nonlinearity and its trace is zero for volume-preserving deformations. Thus, the relationships between model parameters due to the incompressibility constraint are easy to analyze and interpret. In particular, the number of independent elastic constants reduces from ten to seven in the orthotropic model. As an illustratory study, we fit this model to measured data of porcine coronary arteries in inflation-stretch tests. Four parameters, n (material nonlinearity), Young’s moduli E1 (circumferential), E2 (axial), and E3 (radial) are necessary to fit the data. The advantages and limitations of this model are discussed. PMID:21605567
A microstructurally inspired damage model for early venous thrombus.
Rausch, Manuel K; Humphrey, Jay D
2015-03-01
Accumulative damage may be an important contributor to many cases of thrombotic disease progression. Thus, a complete understanding of the pathological role of thrombus requires an understanding of its mechanics and in particular mechanical consequences of damage. In the current study, we introduce a novel microstructurally inspired constitutive model for thrombus that considers a non-uniform distribution of microstructural fibers at various crimp levels and employs one of the distribution parameters to incorporate stretch-driven damage on the microscopic level. To demonstrate its ability to represent the mechanical behavior of thrombus, including a recently reported Mullins type damage phenomenon, we fit our model to uniaxial tensile test data of early venous thrombus. Our model shows an agreement with these data comparable to previous models for damage in elastomers with the added advantages of a microstructural basis and fewer model parameters. We submit that our novel approach marks another important step toward modeling the evolving mechanics of intraluminal thrombus, specifically its damage, and hope it will aid in the study of physiological and pathological thrombotic events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Microstructurally Inspired Damage Model for Early Venous Thrombus
Rausch, Manuel K.; Humphrey, Jay D.
2015-01-01
Accumulative damage may be an important contributor to many cases of thrombotic disease progression. Thus, a complete understanding of the pathological role of thrombus requires an understanding of its mechanics and in particular mechanical consequences of damage. In the current study, we introduce a novel microstructurally inspired constitutive model for thrombus that considers a non-uniform distribution of microstructural fibers at various crimp levels and employs one of the distribution parameters to incorporate stretch-driven damage on the microscopic level. To demonstrate its ability to represent the mechanical behavior of thrombus, including a recently reported Mullins type damage phenomenon, we fit our model to uniaxial tensile test data of early venous thrombus. Our model shows an agreement with these data comparable to previous models for damage in elastomers with the added advantages of a microstructural basis and fewer model parameters. We submit that our novel approach marks another important step toward modeling the evolving mechanics of intraluminal thrombus, specifically its damage, and hope it will aid in the study of physiological and pathological thrombotic events. PMID:26523784
Braunger, Barbara M; Ohlmann, Andreas; Koch, Marcus; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Volz, Cornelia; Yang, Ying; Bösl, Michael R; Cvekl, Ales; Jägle, Herbert; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R
2013-02-01
Norrin is a retinal signaling molecule which is expressed in Müller glia and binds to Frizzled-4 to activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Norrin is part of an essential signaling system that controls the formation of retinal capillaries during development. To evaluate neuroprotective properties of Norrin independently from its function during retinal angiogenesis, we generated transgenic mice (Rpe65-Norrin) that constitutively express Norrin in the retinal pigmented epithelium. Substantial amounts of Norrin were secreted into the outer retina, which triggered retinal Wnt/β-catenin signaling in conjunction with an increase in the expression of endothelin-2 (EDN2), endothelin receptor B (EDNRB), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Photoreceptors of Norrin-overexpressing mice were significantly less vulnerable to light-induced damage compared to their wild-type littermates. Following light damage, we observed less apoptotic death of photoreceptors and a better retinal function than in controls. The protective effects were abolished if either Wnt/β-catenin or EDN2 signaling was blocked by intravitreal injection of Dickkopf-1 or BQ788, respectively. Light-damaged retinae from transgenic mice contained higher amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pAkt than those of wild-type littermates. We conclude that constitutive overexpression of Norrin protects photoreceptors from light damage, an effect that is mediated by Wnt/β-catenin and EDN2 signaling and involves neurotrophic activities of BDNF. The findings suggest that Norrin and its associated signaling pathways have strong potentials to attenuate photoreceptor death following injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mechanical tests for validation of seismic isolation elastomer constitutive models
Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.
1992-01-01
High damping laminated elastomeric bearings are becoming the preferred device for seismic isolation of large buildings and structures, such as nuclear power plants. The key component of these bearings is a filled natural rubber elastomer. This material exhibits nonlinear behavior within the normal design range. The material damping cannot be classified as either viscous or hysteritic, but it seems to fall somewhere in between. This paper describes a series of tests that can be used to characterize the mechanical response of these elastomers. The tests are designed to determine the behavior of the elastomer in the time scale of the earthquake, which is typically from 30 to 60 seconds. The test results provide data for use in determining the material parameters associated with nonlinear constitutive models. 4 refs.
Mechanical tests for validation of seismic isolation elastomer constitutive models
Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.
1992-05-01
High damping laminated elastomeric bearings are becoming the preferred device for seismic isolation of large buildings and structures, such as nuclear power plants. The key component of these bearings is a filled natural rubber elastomer. This material exhibits nonlinear behavior within the normal design range. The material damping cannot be classified as either viscous or hysteritic, but it seems to fall somewhere in between. This paper describes a series of tests that can be used to characterize the mechanical response of these elastomers. The tests are designed to determine the behavior of the elastomer in the time scale of the earthquake, which is typically from 30 to 60 seconds. The test results provide data for use in determining the material parameters associated with nonlinear constitutive models. 4 refs.
Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.
1985-01-01
The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments performed at room temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-placed calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.
Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.
1985-01-01
The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidal-Sallé, Emmanuelle; Chassagne, Pierre
2007-06-01
This paper presents a nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic constitutive equation applied to wood material. The proposed model takes into account mechanical and mechanosorptive creep via a 3D stress ratio and moisture change rate for a cylindrical orthotropic material. Orthotropic frame is based on the grain direction (L), radial (R) and hoop (T) directions, which are natural wood directions. Particular attention is taken to ensure the model to fulfill the necessary dissipation conditions. It is based on a rheological generalized Maxwell model with two elements in parallel in addition with a single linear spring taking into account the long term response. The proposed model is implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS/Standard® via a user subroutine UMAT and simple example is shown to demonstrate the capability of the proposed model. Future works would deal with damage and fracture prediction for wooden structures submitted to climate variations and mechanical loading.
Constitutive modelling of a tungsten heavy metal alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skoglund, P.
2003-09-01
The dynamic mechanical behaviour of a tungsten heavy metal alloy (WHA) with potential use as a kinetic energy penetrator is investigated. Mechanical properties related to tensile loading are measured at strain rates up to 400 s^{-1} and at temperatures from 20 ^{circ}C to about 500 ^{circ}C. From the experimental data parameters for the constitutive equations developed by Johnson and Cook (J&C) as well as Zerilli and Armstrong (Z&A) are determined. From the extracted models isothermal and adiabatic flow stress curves are calculated and compared to experiments. At high strain rates or high temperatures the J&C model deviates about 5-10% from experimental results, while the Z&A model shows a better agreement with the collected data. It should be emphasised that the Z&A model used in this work is developed for materials with body centred crystals whereas the WHA is a composite with both face centredand body centred crystals.
Structural characterization and viscoelastic constitutive modeling of skin.
Sherman, Vincent R; Tang, Yizhe; Zhao, Shiteng; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A
2017-04-15
A fascinating material, skin has a tensile response which exhibits an extended toe region of minimal stress up to nominal strains that, in some species, exceed 1, followed by significant stiffening until a roughly linear region. The large toe region has been attributed to its unique structure, consisting of a network of curved collagen fibers. Investigation of the structure of rabbit skin reveals that it consists of layers of wavy fibers, each one with a characteristic orientation. Additionally, the existence of two preferred layer orientations is suggested based on the results of small angle X-ray scattering. These observations are used to construct a viscoelastic model consisting of collagen in two orientations, which leads to an in-plane anisotropic response. The structure-based model presented incorporates the elastic straightening and stretching of fibrils, their rotation towards the tensile axis, and the viscous effects which occur in the matrix of the skin due to interfibrillar and interlamellar sliding. The model is shown to effectively capture key features which dictate the mechanical response of skin. Examination by transmission and scanning electron microscopy of rabbit dermis enabled the identification of the key elements in its structure. The organization of collagen fibrils into flat fibers was identified and incorporated into a constitutive model that reproduces the mechanical response of skin. This enhanced quantitative predictive capability can be used in the design of synthetic skin and skin-like structures. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Constitutive modelling of a reinforced soil using hierarchical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varadarajan, A.; Sharma, K. G.; Soni, K. M.
1999-03-01
Drained triaxial tests are conducted on natural and reinforced sand under various stress paths. Direct shear tests and pull-out tests are conducted on soil-reinforcement interface and on reinforcement, respectively. The effects of two types of reinforcement, viz, woven and non-woven geotextile and number of layers of reinforcement are investigated. Hierarchical single surface model is used to depict the behaviour of natural and reinforced soil by treating the soil as a single composite material and by considering soil, reinforcement and interface as independent elements. It is shown that the material parameters are very much affected by the type and the number of layers of reinforcement. The hierarchical model provides satisfactory prediction for both natural and reinforced soil.
Constitutive modeling and control of 1D smart composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briggs, Jonathan P.; Ostrowski, James P.; Ponte-Castaneda, Pedro
1998-07-01
Homogenization techniques for determining effective properties of composite materials may provide advantages for control of stiffness and strain in systems using hysteretic smart actuators embedded in a soft matrix. In this paper, a homogenized model of a 1D composite structure comprised of shape memory alloys and a rubber-like matrix is presented. With proportional and proportional/integral feedback, using current as the input state and global strain as an error state, implementation scenarios include the use of tractions on the boundaries and a nonlinear constitutive law for the matrix. The result is a simple model which captures the nonlinear behavior of the smart composite material system and is amenable to experiments with various control paradigms. The success of this approach in the context of the 1D model suggests that the homogenization method may prove useful in investigating control of more general smart structures. Applications of such materials could include active rehabilitation aids, e.g. wrist braces, as well as swimming/undulating robots, or adaptive molds for manufacturing processes.
Structural bonding-breakage constitutive model for natural unsaturated clayey soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Cheng-Gang; Qin, Xiao-Ming
2010-12-01
The natural clayey soils are usually structural and unsaturated, which makes their mechanical properties quite different from the remolded saturated soils. A structural constitutive model is proposed to simulate the bonding-breakage micro-mechanism. In this model, the unsaturated soil element is divided into a cementation element and a friction element according to the binary medium theory, and the stress-strain coordination for these two elements is obtained. The cementation element is regarded as elastic, whereas the friction element is regarded as elastoplastic which can be described with the Gallipoli's model. The theoretical formulation is verified with the comparative experiments of isotropic compressions on the saturated and unsaturated structural soils. Parametric analyses of the effects of damage variables on the model predictions are further carried out, which show that breakage deformation of natural clayey soils increases with the rising amount of initial defects.
Towards a canonical elastoplastic damage model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taher, Salah El-Din F.; Baluch, Mohammed H.; Al-Gadhib, Ali H.
1994-05-01
Fundamental aspects of elastoplastic damage are outlined. Time-independent isotropic damage is considered in order to study material degradation. By splitting the total strain tensor into its components of elastic damage and plastic damage and using recoverable energy equivalence, three distinct modes of behavior are particularized. For each mode of behavior, a suitable damage variable is culled. An in-depth analysis of this formulation reveals a certain incongruity in the assumptions postulated in some of the previously proposed models. The suggested generalized concepts are supported by experimental evidence.
Baumann, Andrew P; Shi, Xiutao; Roeder, Ryan K; Niebur, Glen L
2016-01-01
Microarchitectural finite element models have become a key tool in the analysis of trabecular bone. Robust, accurate, and validated constitutive models would enhance confidence in predictive applications of these models and in their usefulness as accurate assays of tissue properties. Human trabecular bone specimens from the femoral neck (n = 3), greater trochanter (n = 6), and lumbar vertebra (n = 1) of eight different donors were scanned by μ-CT and converted to voxel-based finite element models. Unconfined uniaxial compression and shear loading were simulated for each of three different constitutive models: a principal strain-based model, Drucker-Lode, and Drucker-Prager. The latter was applied with both infinitesimal and finite kinematics. Apparent yield strains exhibited minimal dependence on the constitutive model, differing by at most 16.1%, with the kinematic formulation being influential in compression loading. At the tissue level, the quantities and locations of yielded tissue were insensitive to the constitutive model, with the exception of the Drucker-Lode model, suggesting that correlation of microdamage with computational models does not improve the ability to discriminate between constitutive laws. Taken together, it is unlikely that a tissue constitutive model can be fully validated from apparent-level experiments alone, as the calculations are too insensitive to identify differences in the outcomes. Rather, any asymmetric criterion with a valid yield surface will likely be suitable for most trabecular bone models.
Baumann, Andrew P.; Shi, Xiutao; Roeder, Ryan K.; Niebur, Glen L.
2015-01-01
Microarchitectural finite element models have become a key tool in analyses of trabecular bone. Robust, accurate, and validated constitutive models would enhance confidence in predictive applications of these models, and in their usefulness as accurate assays of tissue properties. Human trabecular bone specimens from the femoral neck (n = 3), greater trochanter (n = 6), and lumbar vertebra (n = 1) of eight different donors were scanned by μ-CT and converted to voxel-based finite element models. Unconfined uniaxial compression and shear loading were simulated for each of three different constitutive models: a principal strain based model, Drucker-Lode, and Drucker-Prager. The latter was applied with both infinitesimal and finite kinematics. Apparent yield strains exhibited minimal dependence on the constitutive model, differing by at most 16.1%, with the kinematic formulation being influential in compression loading. At the tissue level, the quantities and locations of yielded tissue were insensitive to the constitutive model, with the exception of the Drucker-Lode model, suggesting that correlation of microdamage with computational models does not improve the ability to discriminate between constitutive laws. Taken together, it is unlikely that a tissue constitutive model can be fully validated from apparent level experiments alone, as the calculations are too insensitive to identify differences in the outcomes. Rather, any asymmetric criterion with a valid yield surface will likely be suitable for most bone models. PMID:25959510
Life assessment of combustor liner using unified constitutive models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, M. T.; Thompson, R. L.
1988-01-01
Hot section components of gas turbine engines are subject to severe thermomechanical loads during each mission cycle. Inelastic deformation can be induced in localized regions leading to eventual fatigue cracking. Assessment of durability requires reasonably accurate calculation of the structural response at the critical location for crack initiation. In recent years nonlinear finite element computer codes have become available for calculating inelastic structural response under cyclic loading. NASA-Lewis sponsored the development of unified constitutive material models and their implementation in nonlinear finite element computer codes for the structural analysis of hot section components. These unified models were evaluated with regard to their effect on the life prediction of a hot section component. The component considered was a gas turbine engine combustor liner. A typical engine mission cycle was used for the thermal and structural analyses. The analyses were performed on a CRAY computer using the MARC finite element code. The results were compared with laboratory test results, in terms of crack initiation lives.
Material Testing and Constitutive Modeling of Alaskan Frozen Soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, M. Y.; Fossum, A. F.; Bronowski, D. R.
2002-12-01
A series of laboratory tests, conducted using a unique high-pressure, low-temperature triaxial cell and the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), provided data to construct a well-determined constitutive database for Alaskan frozen soil at confining pressures up to 100 MPa and temperatures down to -25 degree C. The test cell is capable of operating at temperatures as low as -65 degree C and confining pressures up to 500 MPa. The operating conditions of temperature and pressure were achieved using an externally cooled pressure vessel, composed of HP 9-4-20 alloy steel and equipped with 12 coaxial feed-throughs. Quasi-static compression tests and indirect tension (or Brazilian) tests constrain the variabilities of material properties of the frozen soil. The SHPB tests determine dynamic compression properties and the strain rate dependency of the frozen soil. The results from laboratory material testing showed that Alaskan frozen soil exhibits pressure and temperature dependence, rate sensitivity, anisotropy, brittle and ductile behavior, volumetric compaction, and dilation. The rate-sensitive and anisotropic form of a plasticity model, developed by Fossum and Fredrich (2000), captured the deformation behavior of this material very well. This model includes high strain-rate sensitivity and anisotropy in both the elastic and plastic regimes. The model comprises a continuous yield and loading surface for unified dilation and compaction phenomena. It is envisioned that this model will be used to predict the deformation and failure of frozen soil under the dynamic loading conditions resulting from projectile penetration into frozen soil targets.
Nonlinear ultrasound modelling and validation of fatigue damage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fierro, G. P. Malfense; Ciampa, F.; Ginzburg, D.; Onder, E.; Meo, M.
2015-05-01
Nonlinear ultrasound techniques have shown greater sensitivity to microcracks and they can be used to detect structural damages at their early stages. However, there is still a lack of numerical models available in commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools that are able to simulate the interaction of elastic waves with the materials nonlinear behaviour. In this study, a nonlinear constitutive material model was developed to predict the structural response under continuous harmonic excitation of a fatigued isotropic sample that showed anharmonic effects. Particularly, by means of Landau's theory and Kelvin tensorial representation, this model provided an understanding of the elastic nonlinear phenomena such as the second harmonic generation in three-dimensional solid media. The numerical scheme was implemented and evaluated using a commercially available FEA software LS-DYNA, and it showed a good numerical characterisation of the second harmonic amplitude generated by the damaged region known as the nonlinear response area (NRA). Since this process requires only the experimental second-order nonlinear parameter and rough damage size estimation as an input, it does not need any baseline testing with the undamaged structure or any dynamic modelling of the fatigue crack growth. To validate this numerical model, the second-order nonlinear parameter was experimentally evaluated at various points over the fatigue life of an aluminium (AA6082-T6) coupon and the crack propagation was measured using an optical microscope. A good correlation was achieved between the experimental set-up and the nonlinear constitutive model.
Impact erosion prediction using the finite volume particle method with improved constitutive models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leguizamón, Sebastián; Jahanbakhsh, Ebrahim; Maertens, Audrey; Vessaz, Christian; Alimirzazadeh, Siamak; Avellan, François
2016-11-01
Erosion damage in hydraulic turbines is a common problem caused by the high- velocity impact of small particles entrained in the fluid. In this investigation, the Finite Volume Particle Method is used to simulate the three-dimensional impact of rigid spherical particles on a metallic surface. Three different constitutive models are compared: the linear strainhardening (L-H), Cowper-Symonds (C-S) and Johnson-Cook (J-C) models. They are assessed in terms of the predicted erosion rate and its dependence on impact angle and velocity, as compared to experimental data. It has been shown that a model accounting for strain rate is necessary, since the response of the material is significantly tougher at the very high strain rate regime caused by impacts. High sensitivity to the friction coefficient, which models the cutting wear mechanism, has been noticed. The J-C damage model also shows a high sensitivity to the parameter related to triaxiality, whose calibration appears to be scale-dependent, not exclusively material-determined. After calibration, the J-C model is capable of capturing the material's erosion response to both impact velocity and angle, whereas both C-S and L-H fail.
Intelligent-based Structural Damage Detection Model
Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yu, K.F.
2010-05-21
This paper presents the application of a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the diagnosis of structural damage. The ANN model, denoted as the GRNNFA, is a hybrid model combining the General Regression Neural Network Model (GRNN) and the Fuzzy ART (FA) model. It not only retains the important features of the GRNN and FA models (i.e. fast and stable network training and incremental growth of network structure) but also facilitates the removal of the noise embedded in the training samples. Structural damage alters the stiffness distribution of the structure and so as to change the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system. The measured modal parameter changes due to a particular damage are treated as patterns for that damage. The proposed GRNNFA model was trained to learn those patterns in order to detect the possible damage location of the structure. Simulated data is employed to verify and illustrate the procedures of the proposed ANN-based damage diagnosis methodology. The results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of applying the GRNNFA model to structural damage diagnosis even when the training samples were noise contaminated.
A constitutive model for Sn-Pb solder.
Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Boyce, Brad Lee
2010-10-01
A unified creep plasticity damage (UCPD) model for Sn-Pb solder is developed in this paper. Stephens and Frear (1999) studied the creep behavior of near-eutectic 60Sn-40Pb solder subjected to low strain rates and found that the inelastic (creep and plastic) strain rate could be accurately described using a hyperbolic Sine function of the applied effective stress. A recently developed high-rate servo-hydraulic method was employed to characterize the temperature and strain-rate dependent stress-strain behavior of eutectic Sn-Pb solder over a wide range of strain rates (10{sup -4} to 10{sup 2} per second). The steady state inelastic strain rate data from these latest experiments were also accurately captured by the hyperbolic Sine equation developed by Stephens and Frear. Thus, this equation was used as the basis for the UCPD model for Sn-Pb solder developed in this paper. Stephens, J.J., and Frear, D.R., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Volume 30A, pp. 1301-1313, May 1999.
Modeling and Characterization of Recompressed Damaged Materials
Becker, R; Belak, J; Campbell, G
2002-12-16
Ductile metals subjected to shock loading can develop internal damage through nucleation growth and coalescence of voids. The extent of damage can range from a well-defined spall plane induced by light shocks to more widespread damage caused by strong shocks. Because damage materials are often part of a dynamic system, significant additional deformation can occur in extensively damaged materials. To represent material behavior in simulation codes for stockpile stewardship calculations, both the damage and the recompression processes must be modeled accurately. Currently, no experimentally based models of recompression behavior are available for use in numerical simulations. The goals of this project are to (1) perform recompression experiments on samples containing controlled and well-characterized damage, (2) develop a model capturing the recompression behavior and residual strength based on the experimental data and micro-mechanical models, and (3) implement the model in an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) code (ALE3D). The recompression model, together with failure models based on underlying physical mechanisms, will provide a more accurate representation of material behavior-information that is needed for simulations of explosively loaded materials such as those required by the Stockpile Stewardship Program.
Comprehensive model of damage accumulation in silicon
Mok, K. R. C.; Benistant, F.; Jaraiz, M.; Rubio, J. E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M. P.
2008-01-01
Ion implantation induced damage accumulation is crucial to the simulation of silicon processing. We present a physically based damage accumulation model, implemented in a nonlattice atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, that can simulate a diverse range of interesting experimental observations. The model is able to reproduce the ion-mass dependent silicon amorphous-crystalline transition temperature of a range of ions from C to Xe, the amorphous layer thickness for a range of amorphizing implants, the superlinear increase in damage accumulation with dose, and the two-layered damage distribution observed along the path of a high-energy ion. In addition, this model is able to distinguish between dynamic annealing and post-cryogenic implantation annealing, whereby dynamic annealing is more effective in removing damage than post-cryogenic implantation annealing at the same temperature.
3-D Nonlinear Constitutive Modeling Approach for Composite Materials
1992-05-01
material nonlinearities, damage , and interfacial debonding [1]. These nonlinearities must be considered for accurate prediction of strength or stability...the overall nonlinear behavior covers plasticity and damage effects, both of which could have significant impact on structural analysis results...through a user-written material ( UMAT ) subroutine. D Micromechanical Analyse Micromechanical methods and selective experimentation are used to develop an
Constitutive modeling of the rheological behavior of platelet suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, Drew E.
Compression molding of chopped fiber composites is used to manufacture complex 3D geometries with high fiber volume fractions of 50-60% and long, discontinuous fibers and thermoplastic matrices. When prepreg, chopped into platelets, is used as a charge material, the individual platelets remain intact during the molding process and flow relative to one another, as experimental observations show. Heterogeneity of the platelet/resin suspension cannot be considered at the structural scale of molding simulation. Instead, the suspension should be idealized into the homogenized anisotropic and viscous system which obeys the prescribed anisotropic stress-strain rate constitutive relation. The viscosity tensor of the aforementioned constitutive law was analytically evaluated in this work through the representative volume element (RVE) based analysis. An idealized microstructure of platelets was developed to perform such an analysis. The platelets were aligned and arranged in a planar configuration with periodic boundary conditions. Analytic expressions for the effective, anisotropic viscosities were derived by micromechanical analysis for the idealized microstructure of rigid platelets. In this analysis, the load transfer mechanisms and their contribution to the viscosity of the platelet assembly were investigated. The kinematic assumption of linear velocity distributions consistent with the mechanism of shearing rate was adopted. While the platelets were assumed to be rigid, the resin was taken as an incompressible, isotropic fluid which provided for the platelet-to-platelet load transfer. Strain rate and temperature dependence were included by modeling the polymer matrix as a Carreau fluid. Shear strain in the resin was developed due to the relative motion of adjacent platelets. The resin shear strain rate was expressed in terms of the corresponding platelet velocities. Equilibrium of the platelet was used to relate the applied far-field stress to the average strain rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jian; Boude, Serge; Giraud, Eliane; Dal Santo, Philippe
2013-05-01
Superplasticity is a characteristic of certain materials, in particular aluminium alloys, whereby very large deformations (up to 1000 %) can be obtained before fracture under certain conditions. Superplastic forming is therefore the process of deforming a flange under these conditions by applying a variable pressure. The final geometry is obtained when the flange takes the form of a die. In order to deform a material superplastically, the temperature of the material should be approximately a half of the absolute melting point of the material and the strain rate (or flow stress) should remain within a certain range. The most important issues concerning the industrial process are the prediction of the final thickness distribution and the computation of the optimal pressure law to maintain superplastic conditions. Finite element simulations make these predictions possible for industrial components. To ensure the precision of the simulations, it is important to have good knowledge of the material behaviour in the superplastic domain: rheological parameters, grain size, damage law, etc. This paper presents an experimental analysis of the superplastic behaviour of a 7xxx aluminium alloy used for aeronautic applications. The parameters of the constitutive equations (including damage) are identified by using tensile tests, spherical bulging tests and numerical simulations [1, 2]. The performance of the proposed laws [1, 3, and 4] is tested using axisymmetrical geometries with complex shapes by the comparison of numerical simulations and bulge tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, Benjamin J.
The phenomena of creep and fatigue have each been thoroughly studied. More recently, attempts have been made to predict the damage evolution in engineering materials due to combined creep and fatigue loading, but these formulations have been strictly empirical and have not been used successfully outside of a narrow set of conditions. This work proposes a new creep-fatigue crack growth model based on constitutive creep equations (adjusted to experimental data) and Paris law fatigue crack growth. Predictions from this model are compared to experimental data in two steels: modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and AISI 316L stainless steel. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a high-strength steel used in the construction of pressure vessels and piping for nuclear and conventional power plants, especially for high temperature applications. Creep-fatigue and pure creep experimental data from the literature are compared to model predictions, and they show good agreement. Material constants for the constitutive creep model are obtained for AISI 316L stainless steel, an alloy steel widely used for temperature and corrosion resistance for such components as exhaust manifolds, furnace parts, heat exchangers and jet engine parts. Model predictions are compared to pure creep experimental data, with satisfactory results. Assumptions and constraints inherent in the implementation of the present model are examined. They include: spatial discretization, similitude, plane stress constraint and linear elasticity. It is shown that the implementation of the present model had a non-trivial impact on the model solutions in 316L stainless steel, especially the spatial discretization. Based on these studies, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The constitutive creep model consistently performs better than the Nikbin, Smith and Webster (NSW) model for predicting creep and creep-fatigue crack extension. 2. Given a database of uniaxial creep test data, a constitutive material model such as the one developed for
Probabilistic constitutive relationships for material strength degradation models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyce, L.; Chamis, C. C.
1989-01-01
In the present probabilistic methodology for the strength of aerospace propulsion system structural components subjected to such environmentally-induced primitive variables as loading stresses, high temperature, chemical corrosion, and radiation, time is encompassed as an interacting element, allowing the projection of creep and fatigue effects. A probabilistic constitutive equation is postulated to account for the degradation of strength due to these primitive variables which may be calibrated by an appropriately curve-fitted least-squares multiple regression of experimental data. The resulting probabilistic constitutive equation is embodied in the PROMISS code for aerospace propulsion component random strength determination.
Modeling laser damage to the retina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Clifton D.
This dissertation presents recent progress in several areas related to modeling laser damage to the retina. In Chapter 3, we consider the consequences of using the Arrhenius damage model to predict the damage thresholds of multiple pulse, or repetitive pulse, exposures. We have identified a few fundamental trends associated with the multiple pulse damage predictions made by the Arrhenius model. These trends differ from what would be expected by non-thermal mechanisms, and could prove useful in differentiating thermal and non-thermal damage. Chapter 4 presents a new rate equation damage model hypothesized to describe photochemical damage. The model adds a temperature dependent term to the simple rate equation implied by the principle of reciprocity that is characteristic of photochemical damage thresholds. A recent damage threshold study, conducted in-vitro, has revealed a very sharp transition between thermal and photochemical damage threshold trends. For the wavelength used in the experiment (413 nm), thermal damage thresholds were observed at exposure levels that were twice the expected photochemical damage threshold, based on the traditional understanding of photochemical damage. Our model accounts for this observed trend by introducing a temperature dependent quenching, or repair, rate to the photochemical damage rate. For long exposures that give a very small temperature rise, the model reduces to the principle of reciprocity. Near the transition region between thermal and photochemical damage, the model allows the damage threshold to be set by thermal mechanisms, even at exposure above the reciprocity exposure. In Chapter 5, we describe a retina damage model that includes thermal lensing in the eye by coupling beam propagation and heat transfer models together. Thermal lensing has recently been suggested as a contributing factor to the large increase in measured retinal damage thresholds in the near infrared. The transmission of the vitreous decreases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.
2003-01-01
The development of a pressure-dependent constitutive model with combined multilinear kinematic and isotropic hardening is presented. The constitutive model is developed using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT). First the pressure-dependent plasticity model is derived. Following this, the combined bilinear and combined multilinear hardening equations are developed for von Mises plasticity theory. The hardening rule equations are then modified to include pressure dependency. The method for implementing the new constitutive model into ABAQUS is given.
2006-09-01
neighboring grains cannot be spa- tially resolved. 3.5. Homogenization of damage Effects from mechanisms modeled individually— elastoplasticity within each...crystal plasticity routines are available, as the damage computations are effectively uncoupled from the constitutive update of the elastoplastic response... elastoplasticity and damage : multiscale kinematics, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40 (2003) 5669–5688. [17] C. Teodosiu, F. Sidoroff, A finite theory of
Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.
2015-12-01
The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.
3-D Numerical Simulation of Hydrostatic Tests of Porous Rocks Using Adapted Constitutive Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chemenda, A. I.; Daniel, M.
2014-12-01
The high complexity and poor knowledge of the constitutive properties of porous rocks are principal obstacles for the modeling of their deformation. Normally, the constitutive lows are to be derived from the experimental data (nominal strains and stresses). They are known, however, to be sensitive to the mechanical instabilities within the rock specimen and the boundary (notably friction) conditions at its ends. To elucidate the impact of these conditions on the measured mechanical response we use 3-D finite-difference simulations of experimental tests. Modeling of hydrostatic tests was chosen because it does not typically involve deformation instabilities. The ends of the cylindrical 'rock sample' are in contact with the 'steel' elastic platens through the frictional interfaces. The whole system is subjected to a normal stress Pc applied to the external model surface. A new constitutive model of porous rocks with the cap-type yield function is used. This function is quadratic in the mean stress σm and depends on the inelastic strain γp in a way to generate strain softening at small σm and strain-hardening at high σm. The corresponding material parameters are defined from the experimental data and have clear interpretation in terms of the geometry of the yield surface. The constitutive model with this yield function and the Drucker-Prager plastic potential has been implemented in 3-D dynamic explicit code Flac3D. The results of an extensive set of numerical simulations at different model parameters will be presented. They show, in particular, that the shape of the 'numerical' hydrostats is very similar to that obtained from the experimental tests and that it is practically insensitive to the interface friction. On the other hand, the stress and strain fields within the specimen dramatically depend on this parameter. The inelastic deformation at the specimen's ends starts well before reaching the grain crushing pressure P* and evolves heterogeneously with Pc
A Coupled Damage and Reaction Model for Simulating Energetic Material Response to Impact Hazards
BAER,MELVIN R.; DRUMHELLER,D.S.; MATHESON,E.R.
1999-09-01
The Baer-Nunziato multiphase reactive theory for a granulated bed of energetic material is extended to allow for dynamic damage processes, that generate new surfaces as well as porosity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is employed to constrain the constitutive forms of the mass, momentum, and energy exchange functions as well as those for the mechanical damage model ensuring that the models will be dissipative. The focus here is on the constitutive forms of the exchange functions. The mechanical constitutive modeling is discussed in a companion paper. The mechanical damage model provides dynamic surface area and porosity information needed by the exchange functions to compute combustion rates and interphase momentum and energy exchange rates. The models are implemented in the CTH shock physics code and used to simulate delayed detonations due to impacts in a bed of granulated energetic material and an undamaged cylindrical sample.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul
2012-01-01
An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.
A novel fibre-ensemble level constitutive model for exogenous cross-linked collagenous tissues.
Sacks, Michael S; Zhang, Will; Wognum, Silvia
2016-02-06
Exogenous cross-linking of soft collagenous tissues is a common method for biomaterial development and medical therapies. To enable improved applications through computational methods, physically realistic constitutive models are required. Yet, despite decades of research, development and clinical use, no such model exists. In this study, we develop the first rigorous full structural model (i.e. explicitly incorporating various features of the collagen fibre architecture) for exogenously cross-linked soft tissues. This was made possible, in-part, with the use of native to cross-linked matched experimental datasets and an extension to the collagenous structural constitutive model so that the uncross-linked collagen fibre responses could be mapped to the cross-linked configuration. This allowed us to separate the effects of cross-linking from kinematic changes induced in the cross-linking process, which in turn allowed the non-fibrous tissue matrix component and the interaction effects to be identified. It was determined that the matrix could be modelled as an isotropic material using a modified Yeoh model. The most novel findings of this study were that: (i) the effective collagen fibre modulus was unaffected by cross-linking and (ii) fibre-ensemble interactions played a large role in stress development, often dominating the total tissue response (depending on the stress component and loading path considered). An important utility of the present model is its ability to separate the effects of exogenous cross-linking on the fibres from changes due to the matrix. Applications of this approach include the utilization in the design of novel chemical treatments to produce specific mechanical responses and the study of fatigue damage in bioprosthetic heart valve biomaterials.
A novel fibre-ensemble level constitutive model for exogenous cross-linked collagenous tissues
Sacks, Michael S.; Wognum, Silvia
2016-01-01
Exogenous cross-linking of soft collagenous tissues is a common method for biomaterial development and medical therapies. To enable improved applications through computational methods, physically realistic constitutive models are required. Yet, despite decades of research, development and clinical use, no such model exists. In this study, we develop the first rigorous full structural model (i.e. explicitly incorporating various features of the collagen fibre architecture) for exogenously cross-linked soft tissues. This was made possible, in-part, with the use of native to cross-linked matched experimental datasets and an extension to the collagenous structural constitutive model so that the uncross-linked collagen fibre responses could be mapped to the cross-linked configuration. This allowed us to separate the effects of cross-linking from kinematic changes induced in the cross-linking process, which in turn allowed the non-fibrous tissue matrix component and the interaction effects to be identified. It was determined that the matrix could be modelled as an isotropic material using a modified Yeoh model. The most novel findings of this study were that: (i) the effective collagen fibre modulus was unaffected by cross-linking and (ii) fibre-ensemble interactions played a large role in stress development, often dominating the total tissue response (depending on the stress component and loading path considered). An important utility of the present model is its ability to separate the effects of exogenous cross-linking on the fibres from changes due to the matrix. Applications of this approach include the utilization in the design of novel chemical treatments to produce specific mechanical responses and the study of fatigue damage in bioprosthetic heart valve biomaterials. PMID:26855761
Requirements of constitutive models for two nickel-base superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laflen, J. H.; Cook, T. S.
1983-01-01
The constitutive behavior of two nickel-base superalloys, Rene '80 and Inconel 718, utilized in gas turbine blade and disk components, respectively, is presented. In turbine blade applications, the high homologous temperatures result in strain-rate effects dominating behavior. In turbine disks, the temperatures are cooler so that mean stress effects become important. The impact of these two variables on the overall crack initiation lifetime and analysis methodology is discussed.
Examination and sensitivity study of the KOVEC constitutive model for beryllium
Moss, W.C.; Glenn, L.A.
1983-01-01
We have checked the consistency of the KOVEC constitutive model for beryllium with experimental data, by examining work hardening, the temperature dependence of the yield strength, strain-rate effects, and the Hugoniot (U/sub s/-U/sub p/) relations. We have examined the sensitivity of simulations of uniaxial strain plate impact experiments, in which beryllium was used, to changes in the beryllium constitutive model. We also discuss the nonuniqueness of constitutive models. 17 figures.
Dislocation Density-Based Constitutive Model for the Mechanical Behavior of Irradiated Cu
Arsenlis, A; Wirth, B D; Rhee, M
2003-04-10
Performance degradation of structural steels in nuclear environments results from the development of a high number density of nanometer scale defects. The defects observed in copper-based alloys are composed of vacancy clusters in the form of stacking fault tetrahedra and/or prismatic dislocation loops, which impede dislocation glide and are evidenced in macroscopic uniaxial stress-strain curves as increased yield strengths, decreased total strain to failure, decreased work hardening and the appearance of a distinct upper yield point above a critical defect concentration (neutron dose). In this paper, we describe the development of an internal state variable model for the mechanical behavior of materials subject to these environments. This model has been developed within an information-passing multiscale materials modeling framework, in which molecular dynamics simulations of dislocation--radiation defect interactions, inform the final coarse-grained continuum model. The plasticity model includes mechanisms for dislocation density growth and multiplication and for radiation defect density evolution with dislocation interaction. The general behavior of the constitutive (single material point) model shows that as the defect density increases, the initial yield point increases and the initial strain hardening decreases. The final coarse-grained model is implemented into a finite element framework and used to simulate the behavior of tensile specimens with varying levels of irradiation induced material damage. The simulation results compare favorably with the experimentally observed mechanical properties of irradiated materials in terms of their increased strength, decreased hardening, and decreased ductility with increasing irradiation dose.
An Irreversible Constitutive Law for Modeling the Delamination Process Using Interface Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goyal, Vinay K.; Johnson, Eric R.; Davila, Carlos G.; Jaunky, Navin; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
An irreversible constitutive law is postulated for the formulation of interface elements to predict initiation and progression of delamination in composite structures. An exponential function is used for the constitutive law such that it satisfies a multi-axial stress criterion for the onset of delamination, and satisfies a mixed mode fracture criterion for the progression of delamination. A damage parameter is included to prevent the restoration of the previous cohesive state between the interfacial surfaces. To demonstrate the irreversibility capability of the constitutive law, steady-state crack growth is simulated for quasi-static loading-unloading cycle of various fracture test specimens.
An Irreversible Constitutive Law for Modeling the Delamination Process using Interface Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goyal, Vinay K.; Johnson, Eric R.; Davila, Carlos G.; Jaunky, Navin; Ambur, Damodar (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
An irreversible constitutive law is postulated for the formulation of interface elements to predict initiation and progression of delamination in composite structures. An exponential function is used for the constitutive law such that it satisfies a multi-axial stress criterion for the onset of delamination, and satisfies a mixed mode fracture criterion for the progression of delamination. A damage parameter is included to prevent the restoration of the previous cohesive state between the interfacial surfaces. To demonstrate the irreversibility capability of the constitutive law, steady-state crack growth is simulated for quasi-static loading-unloading cycle of various fracture test specimens.
2014-01-01
Background Herbivory imposes an important selective pressure on plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichomes provide a key defense against insect herbivory; however, trichome production incurs a fitness cost in the absence of herbivory. Previous work on A. thaliana has shown an increase in trichome density in response to leaf damage, suggesting a mechanism by which the cost associated with constitutively high trichome density might be mitigated; however, the genetic basis of trichome density induction has not been studied. Results Here, we describe the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for constitutive and damage induced trichome density in two new recombinant inbred line populations of A. thaliana; mapping for constitutive and induced trichome density also allowed for the investigation of damage response (plasticity) QTL. Both novel and previously identified QTL for constitutive trichome density and the first QTL for induced trichome density and response are identified. Interestingly, two of the four parental accessions and multiple RILs in each population exhibited lower trichome density following leaf damage, a response not previously described in A. thaliana. Importantly, a single QTL was mapped for the response phenotype and allelic variation at this locus appears to determine response trajectory in RILs. The data also show that epistatic interactions are a significant component of the genetic architecture of trichome density. Conclusions Together, our results provide further insights into the genetic architecture of constitutive trichome density and new insights into induced trichome density in A. thaliana specifically and to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of natural variation generally. PMID:24885520
Prediction Of Formability In Sheet Metal Forming Processes Using A Local Damage Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teixeira, P.; Santos, Abel; César Sá, J.; Andrade Pires, F.; Barata da Rocha, A.
2007-05-01
The formability in sheet metal forming processes is mainly conditioned by ductile fracture resulting from geometric instabilities due to necking and strain localization. The macroscopic collapse associated with ductile failure is a result of internal degradation described throughout metallographic observations by the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids and micro-cracks. Damage influences and is influenced by plastic deformation and therefore these two dissipative phenomena should be coupled at the constitutive level. In this contribution, Lemaitre's ductile damage model is coupled with Hill's orthotropic plasticity criterion. The coupling between damaging and material behavior is accounted for within the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM). The resulting constitutive equations are implemented in the Abaqus/Explicit code, for the prediction of fracture onset in sheet metal forming processes. The damage evolution law takes into account the important effect of micro-crack closure, which dramatically decreases the rate of damage growth under compressive paths.
Constitutive Model Parameter Study For Armor Steel And Tungsten Alloys
2012-01-01
considered in the study. The first consisted of 90% tungsten ( W ), 7% nickel (Ni), and 3% iron (Fe) by volume and is denoted by 90W-7Ni-3Fe. The second...Hardness. Unpublished, April 2010. 6. G.T. Gray, S.R. Chen, W . Wright, and M.F. Lopez. Constitutive Equations for Annealed Metals Under Compression at...the High Pressure, High Strain Rate Loading Environment of Ballistic Impact. PhD thesis, Johns Hopkins University, 1992. 11. W . Lanz and W . Odermatt
Damage prediction in incremental forming by using Lemaitre damage model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shenghua; Reis, Ana; Teixeira, Pedro; da Rocha, A. Barata; Lino, Jorge
2012-09-01
Incremental forming is an innovative flexible method used for manufacturing of the sheet metal products and brings a great insight for the small-batch-size or customized sheet products. Some experiments show that incremental sheet metal forming can undergo higher deformations than traditional sheet metal forming. The traditional method to evaluate formability like forming limit curve (FLD) etc can't give the right answer in incremental forming which is subjected to highly non-monotonic serrated strain paths. In this paper, the Lemaitre' damage model is presented and fully coupled with finite element simulation in commercial software ABAQUS to predict the failure in incremental forming. Results show that the prediction makes a great agreement with the relevant experiments.
Modeling of rock friction 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations
Dieterich, J.H.
1979-01-01
Direct shear experiments on ground surfaces of a granodiorite from Raymond, California, at normal stresses of ??6 MPa demonstrate that competing time, displacement, and velocity effects control rock friction. It is proposed that the strength of the population of points of contacts between sliding surfaces determines frictional strength and that the population of contacts changes continuously with displacements. Previous experiments demonstrate that the strength of the contacts increases with the age of the contacts. The present experiments establish that a characteristic displacement, proportional to surface roughness, is required to change the population of contacts. Hence during slip the average age of the points of contact and therefore frictional strength decrease as slip velocity increases. Displacement weakening and consequently the potential for unstable slip occur whenever displacement reduces the average age of the contacts. In addition to this velocity dependency, which arises from displacement dependency and time dependency, the experiments also show a competing but transient increase in friction whenever slip velocity increases. Creep of the sliding surface at stresses below that for steady state slip is also observed. Constitutive relationships are developed that permit quantitative simulation of the friction versus displacement data as a function of surface roughness and for different time and velocity histories. Unstable slip in experiments is controlled by these constitutive effects and by the stiffness of the experimental system. It is argued that analogous properties control earthquake instability. Copyright ?? 1979 by the American Geophysical Union.
Integrated research in constitutive modelling at elevated temperatures, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haisler, W. E.; Allen, D. H.
1986-01-01
Four current viscoplastic models are compared experimentally with Inconel 718 at 1100 F. A series of tests were performed to create a sufficient data base from which to evaluate material constants. The models used include Bodner's anisotropic model; Krieg, Swearengen, and Rhode's model; Schmidt and Miller's model; and Walker's exponential model.
Continuum damage model for ferroelectric materials and its application to multilayer actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gellmann, Roman; Ricoeur, Andreas
2016-05-01
In this paper a micromechanical continuum damage model for ferroelectric materials is presented. As a constitutive law it is implemented into a finite element (FE) code. The model is based on micromechanical considerations of domain switching and its interaction with microcrack growth and coalescence. A FE analysis of a multilayer actuator is performed, showing the initiation of damage zones at the electrode tips during the poling process. Further, the influence of mechanical pre-stressing on damage evolution and actuating properties is investigated. The results provided in this work give useful information on the damage of advanced piezoelectric devices and their optimization.
Molecular Models for DNA Damaged by Photoreaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearlman, David A.; Holbrook, Stephen R.; Pirkle, David H.; Kim, Sung-Hou
1985-03-01
Structural models of a DNA molecule containing a radiation-induced psoralen cross-link and of a DNA containing a thymine photodimer were constructed by applying energy-minimization techniques and model-building procedures to data from x-ray crystallographic studies. The helical axes of the models show substantial kinking and unwinding at the sites of the damage, which may have long-range as well as local effects arising from the concomitant changes in the supercoiling and overall structure of the DNA. The damaged areas may also serve as recognition sites for repair enzymes. These results should help in understanding the biologic effects of radiation-induced damage on cells.
Molecular models for DNA damaged by photoreaction
Pearlman, D.A.; Holbrook, S.R.; Pirkle, D.H.; Kim, S.H.
1985-03-15
Structural models of a DNA molecule containing a radiation-induced psoralen cross-link and of a DNA containing a thymine photodimer were constructed by applying energy-minimization techniques and model-building procedures to data from x-ray crystallographic studies. The helical axes of the models show substantial kinking and unwinding at the sites of the damage, which may have long-range as well as local effects arising from the concomitant changes in the supercoiling and overall structure of the DNA. The damaged areas may also serve as recognition sites for repair enzymes. These results should help in understanding the biologic effects of radiation-induced damage on cells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iseri, Y.; Iwasaki, A.; Miyazaki, C.; Kanae, S.
2014-12-01
Tropical cyclones (TCs) sometimes cause serious damages to human society and thus possible changes of TC properties in the future have been concerned. In fact, the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) mentions likely increasing in intensity and rain rate of TCs. In addition, future change of socioeconomic condition (e.g. population growth) might worsen TC impacts in the future. Thereby, in this study, we developed regression models to estimate economic damages by TCs (hereafter TC damage model), and employed those models to project TC economic damages under several future climate and socioeconomic scenarios. We developed the TC damage models for each of 4 regions; western North Pacific, North American, North Indian, and Southern Hemisphere. The inputs for TC damage model are tropical cyclone central pressure, populations in the area exposed by tropical cyclone wind, and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita. The TC damage models we firstly developed tended to overestimate very low damages and also underestimate very high damages. Thereby we modified structure of TC damage models to improve model performance, and then executed extensive validation of the model. The modified model presented better performance in estimating very low and high TC damages. After the modification and validation of the model, we determined the structure of TC damage models and projected TC economic damages. The result indicated increase in TC economic damage in global scale, while TC economic damage against world GDP would decrease in the future, which result is consistent with previous study.
A Constitutive Model for Long Time Duration Mechanical Behavior in Insensitive High Explosives
Darnell, I M; Oh, S; Hrousis, C A; Cunningham, B J; Gagliardi, F J
2010-03-09
An anisotropic constitutive model for the long term dimensional stability of insensitive high explosives is proposed. Elastic, creep, thermal, and ratchet growth strains are developed. Pressure and temperature effects are considered. The constitutive model is implemented in an implicit finite element code and compared to a variety of experimental data.
A Modified Pressure-Impulse Blast Damage Model
1977-01-01
rndldontffy by b!ock number) ComputerSimulation Iso -DamageModeling StructuralDamageModeling Overpressure Blast Damage ZO.ABSTRACT(==@nJ*UMr-W- ti+~f~ -fd.tuf...11 2. Pressure-Impulse Iso -Damage Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3. Representation of Youngdahl’s Model...and REPSIL Computer Codes . , . . 29 II. Single Degree-of-Freedom Iso -Damage Data . . . . . . . . 32 III. Five Degree-of-FreedomIso-Damage Data
Girard, Michaël J A; Downs, J Crawford; Burgoyne, Claude F; Suh, J-K Francis
2009-05-01
The sclera is the white outer shell and principal load-bearing tissue of the eye as it sustains the intraocular pressure. We have hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the posterior sclera play a significant role in and are altered by the development of glaucoma-an ocular disease manifested by structural damage to the optic nerve head. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model is presented to simulate the mechanical behavior of the posterior sclera under acute elevations of intraocular pressure. The constitutive model is derived from fiber-reinforced composite theory, and incorporates stretch-induced stiffening of the reinforcing collagen fibers. Collagen fiber alignment was assumed to be multidirectional at local material points, confined within the plane tangent to the scleral surface, and described by the semicircular von Mises distribution. The introduction of a model parameter, namely, the fiber concentration factor, was used to control collagen fiber alignment along a preferred fiber orientation. To investigate the effects of scleral collagen fiber alignment on the overall behaviors of the posterior sclera and optic nerve head, finite element simulations of an idealized eye were performed. The four output quantities analyzed were the scleral canal expansion, the scleral canal twist, the posterior scleral canal deformation, and the posterior laminar deformation. A circumferential fiber organization in the sclera restrained scleral canal expansion but created posterior laminar deformation, whereas the opposite was observed with a meridional fiber organization. Additionally, the fiber concentration factor acted as an amplifying parameter on the considered outputs. The present model simulation suggests that the posterior sclera has a large impact on the overall behavior of the optic nerve head. It is therefore primordial to provide accurate mechanical properties for this tissue. In a companion paper (Girard, Downs, Bottlang, Burgoyne, and Suh, 2009
Mathematical modeling of damage in unidirectional composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goree, J. G.; Dharani, L. R.; Jones, W. F.
1981-01-01
A review of some approximate analytical models for damaged, fiber reinforced composite materials is presented. Using the classical shear lag stress displacement assumption, solutions are presented for a unidirectional laminate containing a notch, a rectangular cut-out, and a circular hole. The models account for longitudinal matrix yielding and splitting as well as transverse matrix yielding and fiber breakage. The constraining influence of a cover sheet on the unidirectional laminate is also modeled.
Progressive Damage Modeling of Notched Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip
2016-01-01
There is an increased interest in using non-crimp fabric reinforced composites for primary and secondary structural weight savings in high performance automobile applications. However, one of the main challenges in implementing these composites is the lack of understanding of damage progression under a wide variety of loading conditions for general configurations. Towards that end, researchers at GM and NASA are developing new damage models to predict accurately the progressive failure of these composites. In this investigation, the developed progressive failure analysis model was applied to study damage progression in center-notched and open-hole tension specimens for various laminate schemes. The results of a detailed study with respect to the effect of element size on the analysis outcome are presented.
Survey of four damage models for concrete.
Leelavanichkul, Seubpong; Brannon, Rebecca Moss
2009-08-01
Four conventional damage plasticity models for concrete, the Karagozian and Case model (K&C), the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma model (RHT), the Brannon-Fossum model (BF1), and the Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) are compared. The K&C and RHT models have been used in commercial finite element programs many years, whereas the BF1 and CSCM models are relatively new. All four models are essentially isotropic plasticity models for which 'plasticity' is regarded as any form of inelasticity. All of the models support nonlinear elasticity, but with different formulations. All four models employ three shear strength surfaces. The 'yield surface' bounds an evolving set of elastically obtainable stress states. The 'limit surface' bounds stress states that can be reached by any means (elastic or plastic). To model softening, it is recognized that some stress states might be reached once, but, because of irreversible damage, might not be achievable again. In other words, softening is the process of collapse of the limit surface, ultimately down to a final 'residual surface' for fully failed material. The four models being compared differ in their softening evolution equations, as well as in their equations used to degrade the elastic stiffness. For all four models, the strength surfaces are cast in stress space. For all four models, it is recognized that scale effects are important for softening, but the models differ significantly in their approaches. The K&C documentation, for example, mentions that a particular material parameter affecting the damage evolution rate must be set by the user according to the mesh size to preserve energy to failure. Similarly, the BF1 model presumes that all material parameters are set to values appropriate to the scale of the element, and automated assignment of scale-appropriate values is available only through an enhanced implementation of BF1 (called BFS) that regards scale effects to be coupled to statistical variability of material
Integrated research in constitutive modelling at elevated temperatures, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haisler, W. E.; Allen, D. H.
1986-01-01
Topics covered include: numerical integration techniques; thermodynamics and internal state variables; experimental lab development; comparison of models at room temperature; comparison of models at elevated temperature; and integrated software development.
A micro to macro approach to polymer matrix composites damage modeling : final LDRD report.
English, Shawn Allen; Brown, Arthur A.; Briggs, Timothy M.
2013-12-01
Capabilities are developed, verified and validated to generate constitutive responses using material and geometric measurements with representative volume elements (RVE). The geometrically accurate RVEs are used for determining elastic properties and damage initiation and propagation analysis. Finite element modeling of the meso-structure over the distribution of characterizing measurements is automated and various boundary conditions are applied. Plain and harness weave composites are investigated. Continuum yarn damage, softening behavior and an elastic-plastic matrix are combined with known materials and geometries in order to estimate the macroscopic response as characterized by a set of orthotropic material parameters. Damage mechanics and coupling effects are investigated and macroscopic material models are demonstrated and discussed. Prediction of the elastic, damage, and failure behavior of woven composites will aid in macroscopic constitutive characterization for modeling and optimizing advanced composite systems.
Mesh Convergence Requirements for Composite Damage Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davila, Carlos G.
2016-01-01
The ability of the finite element method to accurately represent the response of objects with intricate geometry and loading renders the finite element method as an extremely versatile analysis technique for structural analysis. Finite element analysis is routinely used in industry to calculate deflections, stress concentrations, natural frequencies, buckling loads, and much more. The method works by discretizing complex problems into smaller, simpler approximations that are valid over small uniform domains. For common analyses, the maximum size of the elements that can be used is often be determined by experience. However, to verify the quality of a solution, analyses with several levels of mesh refinement should be performed to ensure that the solution has converged. In recent years, the finite element method has been used to calculate the resistance of structures, and in particular that of composite structures. A number of techniques such as cohesive zone modeling, the virtual crack closure technique, and continuum damage modeling have emerged that can be used to predict cracking, delaminations, fiber failure, and other composite damage modes that lead to structural collapse. However, damage models present mesh refinement requirements that are not well understood. In this presentation, we examine different mesh refinement issues related to the representation of damage in composite materials. Damage process zone sizes and their corresponding mesh requirements will be discussed. The difficulties of modeling discontinuities and the associated need for regularization techniques will be illustrated, and some unexpected element size constraints will be presented. Finally, some of the difficulties in constructing models of composite structures capable of predicting transverse matrix cracking will be discussed. It will be shown that to predict the initiation and propagation of transverse matrix cracks, their density, and their saturation may require models that are
Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.
1998-01-01
Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.
Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.
1998-01-01
Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.
Enterococcus faecalis Constitutes an Unusual Bacterial Model in Lysozyme Resistance▿
Hébert, Laurent; Courtin, Pascal; Torelli, Riccardo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Auffray, Yanick; Benachour, Abdellah
2007-01-01
Lysozyme is an important and widespread compound of the host constitutive defense system, and it is assumed that Enterococcus faecalis is one of the few bacteria that are almost completely lysozyme resistant. On the basis of the sequence analysis of the whole genome of E. faecalis V583 strain, we identified two genes that are potentially involved in lysozyme resistance, EF_0783 and EF_1843. Protein products of these two genes share significant homology with Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase (OatA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (PgdA), respectively. In order to determine whether EF_0783 and EF_1843 are involved in lysozyme resistance, we constructed their corresponding mutants and a double mutant. The ΔEF_0783 mutant and ΔEF_0783 ΔEF_1843 double mutant were shown to be more sensitive to lysozyme than the parental E. faecalis JH2-2 strain and ΔEF_1843 mutant were. However, compared to other bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes or S. pneumoniae, the tolerance of ΔEF_0783 and ΔEF_0783 ΔEF_1843 mutants towards lysozyme remains very high. Peptidoglycan structure analysis showed that EF_0783 modifies the peptidoglycan by O acetylation of N-acetyl muramic acid, while the EF_1843 deletion has no obvious effect on peptidoglycan structure under the same conditions. Moreover, the EF_0783 and EF_1843 deletions seem to significantly affect the ability of E. faecalis to survive within murine macrophages. In all, while EF_0783 is currently involved in the lysozyme resistance of E. faecalis, peptidoglycan O acetylation and de-N-acetylation are not the main mechanisms conferring high levels of lysozyme resistance to E. faecalis. PMID:17785473
A Continuum Damage Model for Viscoelastic Materials
1987-11-01
CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3b. DECLASSIFICATION/OOWNGRAOING SCHEDULE 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) MM- 4762 -87-17 e«. NAME OF PERFORMING...ENGINEERING SCIENCES DIRECTORATE CONTACT N00014-82-K-0562 M M- 4762 -87-17, / NOVEMEBER 1987 A CONTINUUM DAMAGE MODEL FOR VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS by Y...Contract F33615-67-C-1412), In "Workshop on a Continuum Mechanics Approach to Damage and Life Prediction" NSF-Solid Mechanics Program, 119. ASTM STP
A constitutive model of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK).
Chen, Fei; Ou, Hengan; Lu, Bin; Long, Hui
2016-01-01
A modified Johnson-Cook (JC) model was proposed to describe the flow behaviour of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) with the consideration of coupled effects of strain, strain rate and temperature. As compared to traditional JC model, the modified one has better ability to predict the flow behaviour at elevated temperature conditions. In particular, the yield stress was found to be inversely proportional to temperature from the predictions of the proposed model.
An anisotropic constitutive model with biaxial-tension coupling for woven composite reinforcements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yuan; Huang, Xiaoshuang; Peng, Xiongqi; Gong, Youkun
2016-10-01
Based on fiber reinforced continuum mechanics theory, an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model with biaxial tension coupling for woven composite reinforcements is developed. Experimental data from literature are used to identify material parameters in the constitutive model for a specific balanced plain woven fabric. The developed model is validated by comparing numerical results with experimental biaxial tension data under different stretch ratios and picture-frame shear data, demonstrating that the developed constitutive model is highly suitable to characterize the highly non-linear and strongly anisotropic mechanical behaviors of woven composite reinforcements under large deformation.
Constitutive models for a poly(e-caprolactone) scaffold.
Quinn, T P; Oreskovic, T L; McCowan, C N; Washburn, N R
2004-01-01
We investigate material models for a porous, polymeric scaffold used for bone. The material was made by co-extruding poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable polyester, and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The water soluble PEO was removed resulting in a porous scaffold. The stress-strain curve in compression was fit with a phenomenological model in hyperbolic form. This material model will be useful for designers for quasi-static analysis as it provides a simple form that can easily be used in finite element models. The ASTM D-1621 standard recommends using a secant modulus based on 10% strain. The resulting modulus has a smaller scatter in its value compared to the coefficients of the hyperbolic model, and it is therefore easier to compare material processing differences and ensure quality of the scaffold. A third material model was constructed from images of the microstructure. Each pixel of the micrographs was represented with a brick finite element and assigned the Young's modulus of bulk PCL or a value of 0 for a pore. A compressive strain was imposed on the model and the resulting stresses were calculated. The elastic constants of the scaffold were then computed using Hooke's law for a linear-elastic isotropic material. The model was able to predict the small strain Young's modulus measured in the experiments to within one standard deviation. Thus, by knowing the microstructure of the scaffold, its bulk properties can be predicted from the material properties of the constituents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qingping, Sun; Shouwen, Yu; Kehchih, Hwang
1990-05-01
A new micromechanics constitutive model for pure dilatant transformation plasticity of structure ceramics is proposed in this paper. Based on the thermodynamics, micromechanics and microscale t→m transformation mechanism analysis of the TZP and PSZ ZrO2-containing ceramics, an analytic expressions of the Helmholtz and complementary free energy of the constitutive element for the case of pure dilatant transformation is derived for the first time in a self-consistent manner. By the analysis of energy dissipation in the forward and reverse transformations, the micromechanics constitutive law is derived in the framework of Hill-Rice's internal variable constitutive theory.
Modeling and Algorithmic Approaches to Constitutively-Complex, Microstructured Fluids
Miller, Gregory H.; Forest, Gregory
2014-05-01
We present a new multiscale model for complex fluids based on three scales: microscopic, kinetic, and continuum. We choose the microscopic level as Kramers' bead-rod model for polymers, which we describe as a system of stochastic differential equations with an implicit constraint formulation. The associated Fokker-Planck equation is then derived, and adiabatic elimination removes the fast momentum coordinates. Approached in this way, the kinetic level reduces to a dispersive drift equation. The continuum level is modeled with a finite volume Godunov-projection algorithm. We demonstrate computation of viscoelastic stress divergence using this multiscale approach.
Evaluation of Inelastic Constitutive Models for Nonlinear Structural Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.
1983-01-01
The influence of inelastic material models on computed stress-strain states, and therefore predicted lives, was studied for thermomechanically loaded structures. Nonlinear structural analyses were performed on a fatigue specimen which was subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds and on a mechanically load cycled benchmark notch specimen. Four incremental plasticity creep models (isotropic, kinematic, combined isotropic-kinematic, combined plus transient creep) were exercised. Of the plasticity models, kinematic hardening gave results most consistent with experimental observations. Life predictions using the computed strain histories at the critical location with a Strainrange Partitioning approach considerably overpredicted the crack initiation life of the thermal fatigue specimen.
Constitutive Models for Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Masonry Prisms and Infill Walls
2008-03-01
based on a hyperbolic function proposed by Lotfi and Shing (1994), and is capable of modeling damage accumulation at mortar joints under increasing...loading and the effect that damage accumulation has on the modeling of the masonry infills. The re- view presented here discusses models that consider...nonlinear, plastic be- havior and damage effects resulting from masonry infill as an isotropic or orthotropic brittle or quasi-brittle material and/or
Constitutive models used to simulate penetration and perforation of concrete targets
Akers, S.A.; Adley, M.D.
1996-12-31
Only a limited number of nonlinear constitutive models are available in wave propagation codes to simulate geologic materials, and these models often do not capture the fundamental and often complex mechanical behavior of these materials. Researchers at the WES have recently implemented two models, which were specifically designed for geologic materials, into the large-strain Lagrangian wave-propagation code EPIC. These models are currently being used in finite-element simulations of penetration and ground-shock problems. In this paper, the formulation of the constitutive models is examined and the implementation of the models into EPIC is briefly described. Results from a series of calculations are presented to illustrate the effect of the constitutive models on penetration and perforation problems. Three models are compared, one of the new WES models, the EPIC crushable-solids model, which is often employed to model geologic materials, and EPIC`s Holmquist-Johnson-Cook model for concrete.
Elastoplastic damage modelling of argillite in partially saturated condition and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Y.; Song, X. C.; Duveau, G.; Su, K.; Shao, J. F.
This paper presents an elastoplastic damage model for argillites in unsaturated and saturated conditions. A short resume of experimental investigations is presented in the first part. Based on experimental data and micromechanical considerations, a general constitutive model is proposed for the poromechanical behavior of argillite in both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The proposed model is formulated within the framework of poroplasticity and continuum damage mechanics. Main features observed in experimental data are taken into account, in particular the elastic degradation due to microcracks, coupling between plastic deformation and induced damage, influence of water saturation on plastic flow and damage evolution, as well as variation of permeability with induced damage. The performance of the model is examined by comparing numerical simulation with test data in representative load paths. Finally, the model is applied to a hydromechanical coupling analysis of a cavity subjected to excavation and ventilation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi, Mohammad Reza; Arghavani, Jamal
2017-01-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional phenomenological constitutive model for magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs), developed within the framework of irreversible continuum thermodynamics. To this end, a proper set of internal variables is introduced to reflect the microstructural consequences on the material macroscopic behavior. Moreover, a stress-dependent thermodynamic force threshold for variant reorientation is introduced which improves the model accuracy. Preassumed kinetic equations for magnetic domain volume fractions, decoupled equations for magnetization unit vectors and appropriate presentation of the limit function for martensite variant reorientation lead to a simple formulation of the proposed constitutive model. To show the model capability in reproducing the main features of MSMAs, several numerical examples are solved and compared with available experimental data as well as available three-dimensional constitutive models in the literature. Demonstrating good agreement with experimental data besides possessing computational advantages, the proposed constitutive model can be used for analysis of MSMA-based smart structures.
A Thermo-Plastic-Martensite Transformation Coupled Constitutive Model for Hot Stamping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bin, Zhu; WeiKang, Liang; Zhongxiang, Gui; Kai, Wang; Chao, Wang; Yilin, Wang; Yisheng, Zhang
2017-03-01
In this study, a thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled model based on the von Mises yield criterion and the associated plastic flow rule is developed to further improve the accuracy of numerical simulation during hot stamping. The constitutive model is implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS using user subroutine VUMAT. The martensite transformation, transformation-induced plasticity and volume expansion during the austenite-to-martensite transformation are included in the constitutive model. For this purpose, isothermal tensile tests are performed to obtain the flow stress, and non-isothermal tensile tests were carried out to validate the constitutive model. The non-isothermal tensile numerical simulation demonstrates that the thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled constitutive model provides a reasonable prediction of force-displacement curves upon loading, which is expected to be applied for modeling and simulation of hot stamping.
A Thermo-Plastic-Martensite Transformation Coupled Constitutive Model for Hot Stamping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bin, Zhu; WeiKang, Liang; Zhongxiang, Gui; Kai, Wang; Chao, Wang; Yilin, Wang; Yisheng, Zhang
2017-01-01
In this study, a thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled model based on the von Mises yield criterion and the associated plastic flow rule is developed to further improve the accuracy of numerical simulation during hot stamping. The constitutive model is implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS using user subroutine VUMAT. The martensite transformation, transformation-induced plasticity and volume expansion during the austenite-to-martensite transformation are included in the constitutive model. For this purpose, isothermal tensile tests are performed to obtain the flow stress, and non-isothermal tensile tests were carried out to validate the constitutive model. The non-isothermal tensile numerical simulation demonstrates that the thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled constitutive model provides a reasonable prediction of force-displacement curves upon loading, which is expected to be applied for modeling and simulation of hot stamping.
A transverse isotropic viscoelastic constitutive model for aortic valve tissue
Bucchi, Andrea; Screen, Hazel R. C.; Evans, Sam L.
2017-01-01
A new anisotropic viscoelastic model is developed for application to the aortic valve (AV). The directional dependency in the mechanical properties of the valve, arising from the predominantly circumferential alignment of collagen fibres, is accounted for in the form of transverse isotropy. The rate dependency of the valve's mechanical behaviour is considered to stem from the viscous (η) dissipative effects of the AV matrix, and is incorporated as an explicit function of the deformation rate (λ˙). Model (material) parameters were determined from uniaxial tensile deformation tests of porcine AV specimens at various deformation rates, by fitting the model to each experimental dataset. It is shown that the model provides an excellent fit to the experimental data across all different rates and satisfies the condition of strict local convexity. Based on the fitting results, a nonlinear relationship between η and λ˙ is established, highlighting a ‘shear-thinning’ behaviour for the AV with increase in the deformation rate. Using the model and these outcomes, the stress–deformation curves of the AV tissue under physiological deformation rates in both the circumferential and radial directions are predicted and presented. To verify the predictive capabilities of the model, the stress–deformation curves of AV specimens at an intermediate deformation rate were estimated and validated against the experimental data at that rate, showing an excellent agreement. While the model is primarily developed for application to the AV, it may be applied without the loss of generality to other collagenous soft tissues possessing a similar structure, with a single preferred direction of embedded collagen fibres. PMID:28280556
Calculation of Forming Limits for Sheet Metal using an Enhanced Continuous Damage Fracture Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Ngoc-Trung; Kim, Dae-Young; Kim, Heon Young
2011-08-01
An enhanced continuous damage fracture model was introduced in this paper to calculate forming limits of sheet metal. The fracture model is a combination of a fracture criterion and a continuum damage constitutive law. A modified McClintock void growth fracture criterion was incorporated with a coupled damage-plasticity Gurson-type constitutive law. Also, by introducing a Lode angle dependent parameter to define the loading asymmetry condition, the shear effect was phenomenologically taken into account. The proposed fracture model was implemented using user-subroutines in commercial finite element software. The model was calibrated and correlated by the uniaxial tension, shear and notched specimens tests. Application of the fracture model for the LDH tests was discussed and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data.
Constitutive modelling of brain tissue: experiment and theory.
Miller, K; Chinzei, K
1997-01-01
Recent developments in computer-integrated and robot-aided surgery--in particular, the emergence of automatic surgical tools and robots--as well as advances in virtual reality techniques, call for closer examination of the mechanical properties of very soft tissues (such as brain, liver, kidney, etc.). The ultimate goal of our research into the biomechanics of these tissues is the development of corresponding, realistic mathematical models. This paper contains experimental results of in vitro, uniaxial, unconfined compression of swine brain tissue and discusses a single-phase, non-linear, viscoelastic tissue model. The experimental results obtained for three loading velocities, ranging over five orders of magnitude, are presented. The applied strain rates have been much lower than those applied in previous studies, focused on injury modelling. The stress-strain curves are concave upward for all compression rates containing no linear portion from which a meaningful elastic modulus might be determined. The tissue response stiffened as the loading speed increased, indicating a strong stress-strain rate dependence. The use of the single-phase model is recommended for applications in registration, surgical operation planning and training systems as well as a control system of an image-guided surgical robot. The material constants for the brain tissue are evaluated. Agreement between the proposed theoretical model and experiment is good for compression levels reaching 30% and for loading velocities varying over five orders of magnitude.
A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.
1995-08-01
Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.
A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.
1995-01-01
Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.
A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.
1995-01-01
Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.
[Citizen constitution and social representations: reflecting about health care models].
da Silva, Sílvio Eder Dias; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Martins, Cleusa Rios; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Vasconcelos, Esleane Vilela
2010-12-01
This article presents a reflection on the meaning of the terms citizenship and health, addressing the Theory of Social Representations as a strategy for implementing and evaluating health care models in Brazil. First, a brief history about the concept of citizenship is presented; then the article addresses the principles of freedom and equality according to Kant; the third section of the article shows that health is as a right of the citizen and a duty of the state. Finally, the Theory of Social Representations is emphasized as a strategy to evaluate and implement the health services provided to citizens by the current health care models in Brazil.
Vianco, P.T.; Burchett, S.N.; Neilsen, M.K.; Rejent, J.A.; Frear, D.R.
1999-04-12
Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) is an important damage mechanism for solder joints exposed to cyclic temperature environments. Predicting the service reliability of solder joints exposed to such conditions requires two knowledge bases: first, the extent of fatigue damage incurred by the solder microstructure leading up to fatigue crack initiation, must be quantified in both time and space domains. Secondly, fatigue crack initiation and growth must be predicted since this metric determines, explicitly, the loss of solder joint functionality as it pertains to its mechanical fastening as well as electrical continuity roles. This paper will describe recent progress in a research effort to establish a microstructurally-based, constitutive model that predicts TMF deformation to 63Sn-37Pb solder in electronic solder joints up to the crack initiation step. The model is implemented using a finite element setting; therefore, the effects of both global and local thermal expansion mismatch conditions in the joint that would arise from temperature cycling.
A Robust Damage Assessment Model for Corrupted Database Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Ge; Zhu, Hong; Li, Yingjiu
An intrusion tolerant database uses damage assessment techniques to detect damage propagation scales in a corrupted database system. Traditional damage assessment approaches in a intrusion tolerant database system can only locate damages which are caused by reading corrupted data. In fact, there are many other damage spreading patterns that have not been considered in traditional damage assessment model. In this paper, we systematically analyze inter-transaction dependency relationships that have been neglected in the previous research and propose four different dependency relationships between transactions which may cause damage propagation. We extend existing damage assessment model based on the four novel dependency relationships. The essential properties of our model is also discussed.
Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.
Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.
2013-01-01
This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omerspahic, E.; Mattiasson, K.
2003-09-01
Within the scope of thermodynamics with internal variables, constitutive and evolution equations (representing ductile deformation of sheets made of high strength steel alloys) with mixed hardening and damage have been derived. As a result of the derivation, the rate-dependent elastoplastic constitutive model is identified. The material is assumed to be oriented in the principal damage directions, indicating orthotropic damage. Owing to postulates within continuum damage mechanics, a general expression for degradation of elastic properties in materials has been obtained. A numerical algorithm for the integration of the constitutive equations has been developed as well, based on an elastic predictor plastic/damage corrector procedure. The plastic/damage corrector is based on a fully implicit backward Euler scheme. In order to consider viscoplastic material properties, the overstress (in the definition of the plastic multiplier) is a function of the plastic yield function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyina, Gangadhara Rao T.; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; V. V., Subba Rao
2017-02-01
The prediction of ultimate strength remains the main challenge in the simulation of the mechanical response of composite structures. This paper examines continuum damage model to predict the strength and size effects for deformation and failure response of polymer composite laminates when subjected to complex state of stress. The paper also considers how the overall results of the exercise can be applied in design applications. The continuum damage model is described and the resulting prediction of size effects are compared against the standard benchmark solutions. The stress analysis for strength prediction of rotary wing aircraft cabin door is carried out. The goal of this study is to extend the proposed continuum damage model such that it can be accurately predict the failure around stress concentration regions. The finite element-based continuum damage mechanics model can be applied to the structures and components of arbitrary configurations where analytical solutions could not be developed.
Numerical simulation of thick sheet slitting processes: Modelling using continuum damage mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghozzi, Y.; Labergere, C.; Saanouni, K.
2013-05-01
This work consists on the modelling and numerical simulation of specific cutting processes of thick sheets using advanced constitutive equations accounting for elastoplasticity with mixed hardening and ductile damage. Strong coupling between all the mechanical fields and the ductile damage is accounted for. First the complex kinematics of the slitting process is described. Then, the fully and strongly coupled constitutive equations are presented. Finally the influence of the main technological parameters of the slitting process is studied focusing in the minimization of the cutting forces.
A Constitutive Model for Simulating Soil-Concrete Interfaces
1986-07-01
nclude A.,a Code) Or. T. J. Ross (505) 844-9087 NTESA II DD FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OF 1 JAN 73 IS ORSOLETE. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...concerning strain softening. Bazant , et al., (Ref. 12), incorporated strain softening into a consitutive model by using a nonlocal continuum theory...Concrete," Mechanics of Materials Vol. 3, 1984, pp. 271-294. 12. Bazant , Z. P., Belytschko, T. B., and Chang, T., "Continuum Theory for Strain
Development of Advanced Constitutive Models for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.
1985-04-08
1473, 83 APR EOITION OP T JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. U.nclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 7THIS PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTI ON PAGE FOREWORD...the older theory used to develop the concrete models described by Bazant and Bhat (24 ) and Bazant and Shieh. (25 ) Proper closure of hysteresis loops...is guaranteed in the present theory, so that artifices, such as the jump-kinematic hardening introduced by Bazant and Shieh, (25 ) are not required
Constitutive Model Calibration via Autonomous Multiaxial Experimentation (Postprint)
2016-09-17
replace experimental tests to avoid the costs associated with elaborate test fixtures and equipment or expensive physical specimens. In addition...certain stress states commonly of interest are difficult, if not impossible, to physically reproduce in experiments. Accurate material models that are...force and torque capabilities of 100 kN and 1100 N m, respectively. The test frame was controlled using a custom program written in MTS TestSuite. Axial
Meso-damage modelling of polymer based particulate composites using finite element technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsui, Chi Pong
To develop a new particulate polymer composite (PPC) with desired mechanical properties is usually accomplished by an experimental trial-and-error approach. A new technique, which predicts the damage mechanism and its effects on the mechanical properties of PPC, has been proposed. This meso-mechanical modelling technique, which offers a means to bridge the micro-damage mechanism and the macro-structural behaviour, has been implemented in a finite element code. A three-dimensional finite element meso-cell model has been designed and constructed to simulate the damage mechanism of PPC. The meso-cell model consists of a micro-particle, an interface, and a matrix. The initiation of the particle/polymer matrix debonding process has been predicted on the basis of a tensile criterion. By considering the meso-cell model as a representative volume element (RVE), the effects of damage on the macro-structural constitutive behaviour of PPC have been determined. An experimental investigation has been made on glass beads (GB) reinforced polyphenylene oxides (PPO) for verification of the meso-cell model and the meso-mechanical finite element technique. The predicted constitutive relation has been found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The results of the in-situ microscopic test also verify the correctness of the meso-cell model. The application of the meso-mechanical finite element modelling technique has been extended to a macro-structural analysis to simulate the response an engineering structure made of PPC under a static load. In the simulation, a damage variable has been defined in terms of the computational results of the cell model in meso-scale. Hence, the damage-coupled constitutive relation of the GB/PPO composite could be derived. A user-defined subroutine VUMAT in FORTRAN language describing the damage-coupled constitutive behaviour has then been incorporated into the ABAQUS finite element code. On a macro-scale, the ABAQUS finite element code
A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model for the Static and Cyclic Fatigue of Cellular Composites
Huber, Otto
2017-01-01
The fatigue behavior of a cellular composite with an epoxy matrix and glass foam granules is analyzed and modeled by means of continuum damage mechanics. The investigated cellular composite is a particular type of composite foam, and is very similar to syntactic foams. In contrast to conventional syntactic foams constituted by hollow spherical particles (balloons), cellular glass, mineral, or metal place holders are combined with the matrix material (metal or polymer) in the case of cellular composites. A microstructural investigation of the damage behavior is performed using scanning electron microscopy. For the modeling of the fatigue behavior, the damage is separated into pure static and pure cyclic damage and described in terms of the stiffness loss of the material using damage models for cyclic and creep damage. Both models incorporate nonlinear accumulation and interaction of damage. A cycle jumping procedure is developed, which allows for a fast and accurate calculation of the damage evolution for constant load frequencies. The damage model is applied to examine the mean stress effect for cyclic fatigue and to investigate the frequency effect and the influence of the signal form in the case of static and cyclic damage interaction. The calculated lifetimes are in very good agreement with experimental results. PMID:28809806
A continuous damage model based on stepwise-stress creep rupture tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, D. N.
1985-01-01
A creep damage accumulation model is presented that makes use of the Kachanov damage rate concept with a provision accounting for damage that results from a variable stress history. This is accomplished through the introduction of an additional term in the Kachanov rate equation that is linear in the stress rate. Specification of the material functions and parameters in the model requires two types of constituting a data base: (1) standard constant-stress creep rupture tests, and (2) a sequence of two-step creep rupture tests.
Poisson׳s ratio of arterial wall - Inconsistency of constitutive models with experimental data.
Skacel, Pavel; Bursa, Jiri
2016-02-01
Poisson׳s ratio of fibrous soft tissues is analyzed in this paper on the basis of constitutive models and experimental data. Three different up-to-date constitutive models accounting for the dispersion of fibre orientations are analyzed. Their predictions of the anisotropic Poisson׳s ratios are investigated under finite strain conditions together with the effects of specific orientation distribution functions and of other parameters. The applied constitutive models predict the tendency to lower (or even negative) out-of-plane Poisson׳s ratio. New experimental data of porcine arterial layer under uniaxial tension in orthogonal directions are also presented and compared with the theoretical predictions and other literature data. The results point out the typical features of recent constitutive models with fibres concentrated in circumferential-axial plane of arterial layers and their potential inconsistence with some experimental data. The volumetric (in)compressibility of arterial tissues is also discussed as an eventual and significant factor influencing this inconsistency.
Constitutive Relationships and Models in Continuum Theories of Multiphase Flows. [conferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Rand (Editor)
1989-01-01
In April, 1989, a workshop on constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows was held at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of constitutive relationships for the partial or per phase stresses, including the concept of solid phase pressure are discussed. Models used for the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the phases in a multiphase flow are also discussed. The program, abstracts, and texts of the presentations from the workshop are included.
Non-linear approach in visco-hyperelastic constitutive modelling of polyurethane nanocomposite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlikowski, Marek
2014-02-01
The constitutive modelling of the polyurethane nanocomposite presented in the paper is done in the context of its possible application as one of the components of the intervertebral disc prosthesis. The constitutive study is a part of the researches aiming at creation of the new prosthetic device. The material is considered as incompressible, isotropic and visco-hyperelastic one. The focus of the work lies on the formulation of a constitutive equation for its further implementation in finite element analyses. The equation is formulated on the basis of uniaxial monotonic compression tests and relaxation tests performed at room temperature. The constants of the constitutive model are determined from the experimental data by means of the curve-fitting approach employing least-squares optimisation method. The constitutive modelling consisted of two steps. In the first one pure hyperelastic model was determined. The Mooney-Rivlin model proved to be the best one to describe hyperelastic behaviour of the material. In the second step non-linear visco-hyperelastic model was derived. Relaxation times, characteristic amplitudes and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constants were calibrated on the basis of strain-stress curves (hysteresis loops) obtained experimentally at three strain rates, i.e. and . The constitutive law is validated on the basis of relaxation test. The paper concludes with summary and plans for further investigations in the area.
A continuum damage model of fatigue-induced damage in laminated composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.
1988-01-01
A model is presented which predicts the stress-strain behavior of continuous fiber reinforced laminated composites in the presence of microstructural damage. The model is based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics and uses internal state variables to characterize the various damage modes. The associated internal state variable growth laws are mathematical models of the loading history induced development of microstructural damage. The model is demonstrated by using it to predict the response of damaged AS-4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate panels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grelot, Frédéric; Agenais, Anne-Laurence; Brémond, Pauline
2014-05-01
In France, since 2011, it is mandatory for local communities to conduct cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of their flood management projects, to make them eligible for financial support from the State. Meanwhile, as a support, the French Ministry in charge of Environment proposed a methodology to fulfill CBA. Like for many other countries, this methodology is based on the estimation of flood damage. Howerver, existing models to estimate flood damage were judged not convenient for a national-wide use. As a consequence, the French Ministry in charge of Environment launched studies to develop damage models for different sectors, such as: residential sector, public infrastructures, agricultural sector, and commercial and industrial sector. In this presentation, we aim at presenting and discussing methodological choices of those damage models. They all share the same principle: no sufficient data from past events were available to build damage models on a statistical analysis, so modeling was based on expert knowledge. We will focus on the model built for agricultural activities and more precisely for agricultural lands. This model was based on feedback from 30 agricultural experts who experienced floods in their geographical areas. They were selected to have a representative experience of crops and flood conditions in France. The model is composed of: (i) damaging functions, which reveal physiological vulnerability of crops, (ii) action functions, which correspond to farmers' decision rules for carrying on crops after a flood, and (iii) economic agricultural data, which correspond to featured characteristics of crops in the geographical area where the flood management project studied takes place. The two first components are generic and the third one is specific to the area studied. It is, thus, possible to produce flood damage functions adapted to different agronomic and geographical contexts. In the end, the model was applied to obtain a pool of damage functions giving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grelot, Frédéric; Agenais, Anne-Laurence; Brémond, Pauline
2015-04-01
In France, since 2011, it is mandatory for local communities to conduct cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of their flood management projects, to make them eligible for financial support from the State. Meanwhile, as a support, the French Ministry in charge of Environment proposed a methodology to fulfill CBA. Like for many other countries, this methodology is based on the estimation of flood damage. However, existing models to estimate flood damage were judged not convenient for a national-wide use. As a consequence, the French Ministry in charge of Environment launched studies to develop damage models for different sectors, such as: residential sector, public infrastructures, agricultural sector, and commercial and industrial sector. In this presentation, we aim at presenting and discussing methodological choices of those damage models. They all share the same principle: no sufficient data from past events were available to build damage models on a statistical analysis, so modeling was based on expert knowledge. We will focus on the model built for agricultural activities and more precisely for agricultural lands. This model was based on feedback from 30 agricultural experts who experienced floods in their geographical areas. They were selected to have a representative experience of crops and flood conditions in France. The model is composed of: (i) damaging functions, which reveal physiological vulnerability of crops, (ii) action functions, which correspond to farmers' decision rules for carrying on crops after a flood, and (iii) economic agricultural data, which correspond to featured characteristics of crops in the geographical area where the flood management project studied takes place. The two first components are generic and the third one is specific to the area studied. It is, thus, possible to produce flood damage functions adapted to different agronomic and geographical contexts. In the end, the model was applied to obtain a pool of damage functions giving
A comparison of material characterizations in frequently used constitutive models of ligaments.
Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu
2014-06-01
Longitudinal tensile and simple shear stress-strain curves of human medial collateral ligaments (MCL) were fitted by six frequently used constitutive relations of ligaments using two different fitting methods for determining which was the best fitting method and the most preferable constitutive model for describing the ligament properties. According to the results of fitting goodness, two typical constitutive models were further analyzed by FEM to investigate the effect of the variation in MCL constitutive models under some physiological loads (i.e., 4.5 Nm external tibial and 10 Nm valgus tibial torques). It was found that different fitting methods induced great variations in describing the simple shear behavior whereas no obvious difference in the longitudinal tensile behavior. The most accurate description of both the longitudinal tensile and simple shear behaviors was obtained from the constitutive model with ground substance defined by an exponential function when the parameters were fitted by the two test data, respectively. Although the distributions of maximal principal stress were almost the same, the variation in MCL constitutive models affected the highest value of the stress greatly when MCL was under the complex physiological loads.
Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.
1987-01-01
The results are presented of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and fatigue data, tests were conducted on uncoated and coated specimens loaded in the CH76 100 CH110 , CH76 110 CH110 , CH76 111 CH110 and CH76 123 CH110 crystallographic directions. Two constitutive models are being developed and evaluated for the single crystal materials: a micromechanic model based on crystallographic slip systems, and a macroscopic model which employs anisotropic tensors to model inelastic deformation anisotropy. Based on tests conducted on the overlay coating material, constitutive models for coatings also appear feasible and two initial models were selected. A life prediction approach was proposed for coated single crystal materials, including crack initiation either in the coating or in the substrate. The coating initiated failures dominated in the tests at load levels typical of gas turbine operation. Coating life was related to coating stress/strain history which was determined from specimen data using the constitutive models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haberman, Keith
2001-07-01
A micromechanically based constitutive model for the dynamic inelastic behavior of brittle materials, specifically "Dionysus-Pentelicon marble" with distributed microcracking is presented. Dionysus-Pentelicon marble was used in the construction of the Parthenon, in Athens, Greece. The constitutive model is a key component in the ability to simulate this historic explosion and the preceding bombardment form cannon fire that occurred at the Parthenon in 1678. Experiments were performed by Rosakis (1999) that characterized the static and dynamic response of this unique material. A micromechanical constitutive model that was previously successfully used to model the dynamic response of granular brittle materials is presented. The constitutive model was fitted to the experimental data for marble and reproduced the experimentally observed basic uniaxial dynamic behavior quite well. This micromechanical constitutive model was then implemented into the three dimensional nonlinear lagrangain finite element code Dyna3d(1998). Implementing this methodology into the three dimensional nonlinear dynamic finite element code allowed the model to be exercised on several preliminary impact experiments. During future simulations, the model is to be used in conjunction with other numerical techniques to simulate projectile impact and blast loading on the Dionysus-Pentelicon marble and on the structure of the Parthenon.
Jordan, Petr; Kerdok, Amy E; Howe, Robert D; Socrate, Simona
2011-04-01
We describe a modeling methodology intended as a preliminary step in the identification of appropriate constitutive frameworks for the time-dependent response of biological tissues. The modeling approach comprises a customizable rheological network of viscous and elastic elements governed by user-defined 1D constitutive relationships. The model parameters are identified by iterative nonlinear optimization, minimizing the error between experimental and model-predicted structural (load-displacement) tissue response under a specific mode of deformation. We demonstrate the use of this methodology by determining the minimal rheological arrangement, constitutive relationships, and model parameters for the structural response of various soft tissues, including ex vivo perfused porcine liver in indentation, ex vivo porcine brain cortical tissue in indentation, and ex vivo human cervical tissue in unconfined compression. Our results indicate that the identified rheological configurations provide good agreement with experimental data, including multiple constant strain rate load/unload tests and stress relaxation tests. Our experience suggests that the described modeling framework is an efficient tool for exploring a wide array of constitutive relationships and rheological arrangements, which can subsequently serve as a basis for 3D constitutive model development and finite-element implementations. The proposed approach can also be employed as a self-contained tool to obtain simplified 1D phenomenological models of the structural response of biological tissue to single-axis manipulations for applications in haptic technologies.
High temperature densification forming of alumina powder -- Constitutive model and experiments
Kwon, Y.S.; Kim, K.T.
1996-10-01
Densification and grain growth of alumina powder compacts were investigated under pressureless sintering, sinter forging, and hot pressing. A set of constitutive equations by Kwon et al. was used to predict densification under diffusional creep. A novel grain growth equation is proposed by generalizing the grain growth model of Wilkinson and Caceres to predict grain growth during densification forming process of ceramic powders under general loading states. Material parameters in the constitutive equations were determined from experimental data under pressureless sintering and sinter forging. Theoretical predictions by using the constitutive equations for creep densification and grain growth were compared with experimental data of alumina powder compacts.
Modeling neural activity with cumulative damage distributions.
Leiva, Víctor; Tejo, Mauricio; Guiraud, Pierre; Schmachtenberg, Oliver; Orio, Patricio; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
2015-10-01
Neurons transmit information as action potentials or spikes. Due to the inherent randomness of the inter-spike intervals (ISIs), probabilistic models are often used for their description. Cumulative damage (CD) distributions are a family of probabilistic models that has been widely considered for describing time-related cumulative processes. This family allows us to consider certain deterministic principles for modeling ISIs from a probabilistic viewpoint and to link its parameters to values with biological interpretation. The CD family includes the Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions, which possess distinctive properties and theoretical arguments useful for ISI description. We expand the use of CD distributions to the modeling of neural spiking behavior, mainly by testing the suitability of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution, which has not been studied in the setting of neural activity. We validate this expansion with original experimental and simulated electrophysiological data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Jaan-Willem; Höwer, Daniel; Stier, Bertram; Reese, Stefanie; Fish, Jacob
2017-05-01
Predicting progressive damage in composite materials is essential for the design of most lightweight constructions. When laminated composite structures are considered, both intralaminar and interlaminar (delamination) damage evolution need to be addressed. Typically, these different damage modes are treated separately. On the contrary, in this paper, a continuum damage model is presented which is capable of modeling orthotropic damage progression within layers as well as delamination. The model is formulated in a thermodynamically consistent manner. Moreover, the results are mesh independent due to a fracture energy based regularization scheme.
Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models
Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.
2004-03-23
The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model
A constitutive model for the mechanical characterization of the plantar fascia.
Natali, Arturo N; Pavan, Piero G; Stecco, Carla
2010-10-01
A constitutive model is proposed to describe the mechanical behavior of the plantar fascia. The mechanical characterization of the plantar fascia regards the role in the foot biomechanics and it is involved in many alterations of its functional behavior, both of mechanical and nonmechanical origin. The structural conformation of the plantar fascia in its middle part is characterized by the presence of collagen fibers reinforcing the tissue along a preferential orientation, which is that supporting the major loading. According to this anatomical evidence, the tissue is described by developing an isotropic fiber-reinforced constitutive model and since the elastic response of the fascia is here considered, the constitutive model is based on the theory of hyperelasticity. The model is consistent with a kinematical description of large strains mechanical behavior, which is typical of soft tissues. A fitting procedure of the constitutive model is implemented making use of experimental curves taken from the literature and referring to specimens of human plantar fascia. A satisfactory fitting of the tensile behavior of the plantar fascia has been performed, showing that the model correctly interprets the mechanical behavior of the tissue in the light of comparison to experimental data at disposal. A critical analysis of the model with respect to the problem of the identification of the constitutive parameters is proposed as the basis for planning a future experimental investigation of mechanical behavior of the plantar fascia.
Anisotropic constitutive modeling for nickel base single crystal superalloy Rene N4 at 982 C
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stouffer, D. C.; Jayaraman, N.; Sheh, M. Y.; Alden, D.
1987-01-01
A back stress/drag stress constitutive model based on a crystallographic approach to model single crystal anisotropy is presented. Experimental results demonstrated the need for the back stress variable in the inelastic flow equations. Experimental findings suggested that back stress is orientation dependent and controls both strain hardening and recovery characteristics. Due to the observed stable fatigue loops at 1800 F, drag stress is considered constant for this temperature. The constitutive model operated with constraints determined only from tensile data was extensively tested from simple tensile and fatigue to complicated strain hold tests. The model predicted very well under those conditions.
Development of a unified constitutive model for an isotropic nickel base superalloy Rene 80
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramaswamy, V. G.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.; Stouffer, D. C.
1988-01-01
Accurate analysis of stress-strain behavior is of critical importance in the evaluation of life capabilities of hot section turbine engine components such as turbine blades and vanes. The constitutive equations used in the finite element analysis of such components must be capable of modeling a variety of complex behavior exhibited at high temperatures by cast superalloys. The classical separation of plasticity and creep employed in most of the finite element codes in use today is known to be deficient in modeling elevated temperature time dependent phenomena. Rate dependent, unified constitutive theories can overcome many of these difficulties. A new unified constitutive theory was developed to model the high temperature, time dependent behavior of Rene' 80 which is a cast turbine blade and vane nickel base superalloy. Considerations in model development included the cyclic softening behavior of Rene' 80, rate independence at lower temperatures and the development of a new model for static recovery.
Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil
2008-01-01
This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.
Modelling earthquake ruptures with dynamic off-fault damage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okubo, Kurama; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann; Rougier, Esteban
2017-04-01
Earthquake rupture modelling has been developed for producing scenario earthquakes. This includes understanding the source mechanisms and estimating far-field ground motion with given a priori constraints like fault geometry, constitutive law of the medium and friction law operating on the fault. It is necessary to consider all of the above complexities of a fault systems to conduct realistic earthquake rupture modelling. In addition to the complexity of the fault geometry in nature, coseismic off-fault damage, which is observed by a variety of geological and seismological methods, plays a considerable role on the resultant ground motion and its spectrum compared to a model with simple planer fault surrounded by purely elastic media. Ideally all of these complexities should be considered in earthquake modelling. State of the art techniques developed so far, however, cannot treat all of them simultaneously due to a variety of computational restrictions. Therefore, we adopt the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which can effectively deal with pre-existing complex fault geometry such as fault branches and kinks and can describe coseismic off-fault damage generated during the dynamic rupture. The advantage of FDEM is that it can handle a wide range of length scales, from metric to kilometric scale, corresponding to the off-fault damage and complex fault geometry respectively. We used the FDEM-based software tool called HOSSedu (Hybrid Optimization Software Suite - Educational Version) for the earthquake rupture modelling, which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We firstly conducted the cross-validation of this new methodology against other conventional numerical schemes such as the finite difference method (FDM), the spectral element method (SEM) and the boundary integral equation method (BIEM), to evaluate the accuracy with various element sizes and artificial viscous damping values. We demonstrate the capability of the FDEM tool for
Modeling Soft Tissue Damage and Failure Using a Combined Particle/Continuum Approach.
Rausch, M K; Karniadakis, G E; Humphrey, J D
2017-02-01
Biological soft tissues experience damage and failure as a result of injury, disease, or simply age; examples include torn ligaments and arterial dissections. Given the complexity of tissue geometry and material behavior, computational models are often essential for studying both damage and failure. Yet, because of the need to account for discontinuous phenomena such as crazing, tearing, and rupturing, continuum methods are limited. Therefore, we model soft tissue damage and failure using a particle/continuum approach. Specifically, we combine continuum damage theory with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Because SPH is a meshless particle method, and particle connectivity is determined solely through a neighbor list, discontinuities can be readily modeled by modifying this list. We show, for the first time, that an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model commonly employed for modeling soft tissue can be conveniently implemented within a SPH framework and that SPH results show excellent agreement with analytical solutions for uniaxial and biaxial extension as well as finite element solutions for clamped uniaxial extension in 2D and 3D. We further develop a simple algorithm that automatically detects damaged particles and disconnects the spatial domain along rupture lines in 2D and rupture surfaces in 3D. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by simulating damage and failure under clamped uniaxial extension and in a peeling experiment of virtual soft tissue samples. In conclusion, SPH in combination with continuum damage theory may provide an accurate and efficient framework for modeling damage and failure in soft tissues.
Comparison of solid and fluid constitutive models of bone marrow during trabecular bone compression.
Metzger, Thomas A; Niebur, Glen L
2016-10-03
The mechanical environment and mechanobiology of bone marrow may play essential roles in bone adaptation, cancer metastasis, and immune cell regulation. However, the location of marrow within the trabecular pore space complicates experimental measurement of marrow mechanics. Computational models provide a means to assess the shear stress and pressure in the marrow during physiological loading, but they rely on accurate inputs for the marrow and the physics assumed for the interaction of bone and marrow. Elastic, viscoelastic, and fluid constitutive properties have all been reported from experimental measurements of marrow properties. It is unclear whether this ambiguity reflects the various length-scales, loading rates, and boundary conditions of the experiments, or if the material models are sufficiently similar as to be interchangeable. To address this question, we analyzed both the mean shear stress and its spatial distribution induced in marrow during compression of trabecular bone cubes when using linear elastic, neo-Hookean, viscoelastic, and power-law fluid constitutive models. Experimentally reported parameters were initially applied for all four constitutive models, resulting in poor agreement. The parameters of the soft solid models were calibrated by linear interpolation so that the volume averaged shear stress agreed with the fluid model for each, but this could only be accomplished on a specimen-by-specimen basis. Following calibration, the root-mean-squared (RMS) difference between the solid and fluid constitutive models was still greater than 26% even when the overall mean shear stress was in close agreement, indicating that the spatial distribution of stress is also sensitive to the constitutive model. As such, the choice of constitutive model should be backed by a strong rationale, and results should be interpreted with care.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, K. P.
1981-01-01
Results of a 20-month research and development program for nonlinear structural modeling with advanced time-temperature constitutive relationships are reported. The program included: (1) the evaluation of a number of viscoplastic constitutive models in the published literature; (2) incorporation of three of the most appropriate constitutive models into the MARC nonlinear finite element program; (3) calibration of the three constitutive models against experimental data using Hastelloy-X material; and (4) application of the most appropriate constitutive model to a three dimensional finite element analysis of a cylindrical combustor liner louver test specimen to establish the capability of the viscoplastic model to predict component structural response.
A New Constitutive Model for the Plastic Flow of Metals at Elevated Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spigarelli, S.; El Mehtedi, M.
2013-11-01
A new constitutive model based on the combination of the Garofalo and Hensel-Spittel equations has been used to describe the plastic flow behavior of an AA6005 aluminum alloy tested in torsion. The analysis of the experimental data by the constitutive model resulted in an excellent description of the flow curves. The model equation was then rewritten to explicitly include the Arrhenius term describing the temperature dependence of plastic deformation. The calculation indicated that the activation energy for hot working slowly decreased with increasing strain, leading to thermally activated flow softening. The combined use of the new equation and torsion testing led to the development of a constitutive model which can be safely adopted in a computer code to simulate forging or extrusion.
Constitutive modeling of time-dependent response of human plantar aponeurosis.
Pavan, P G; Pachera, P; Stecco, C; Natali, A N
2014-01-01
The attention is focused on the viscoelastic behavior of human plantar aponeurosis tissue. At this purpose, stress relaxation tests were developed on samples taken from the plantar aponeurosis of frozen adult donors with age ranging from 67 to 78 years, imposing three levels of strain in the physiological range (4%, 6%, and 8%) and observing stress decay for 240 s. A viscohyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model with transverse isotropy was assumed to describe the time-dependent behavior of the aponeurotic tissue. This model is consistent with the structural conformation of the tissue where collagen fibers are mainly aligned with the proximal-distal direction. Constitutive model fitting to experimental data was made by implementing a stochastic-deterministic procedure. The stress relaxation was found close to 40%, independently of the level of strain applied. The agreement between experimental data and numerical results confirms the suitability of the constitutive model to describe the viscoelastic behaviour of the plantar aponeurosis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saleeb, A. F.; Arnold, Steven M.
2001-01-01
Since most advanced material systems (for example metallic-, polymer-, and ceramic-based systems) being currently researched and evaluated are for high-temperature airframe and propulsion system applications, the required constitutive models must account for both reversible and irreversible time-dependent deformations. Furthermore, since an integral part of continuum-based computational methodologies (be they microscale- or macroscale-based) is an accurate and computationally efficient constitutive model to describe the deformation behavior of the materials of interest, extensive research efforts have been made over the years on the phenomenological representations of constitutive material behavior in the inelastic analysis of structures. From a more recent and comprehensive perspective, the NASA Glenn Research Center in conjunction with the University of Akron has emphasized concurrently addressing three important and related areas: that is, 1) Mathematical formulation; 2) Algorithmic developments for updating (integrating) the external (e.g., stress) and internal state variables; 3) Parameter estimation for characterizing the model. This concurrent perspective to constitutive modeling has enabled the overcoming of the two major obstacles to fully utilizing these sophisticated time-dependent (hereditary) constitutive models in practical engineering analysis. These obstacles are: 1) Lack of efficient and robust integration algorithms; 2) Difficulties associated with characterizing the large number of required material parameters, particularly when many of these parameters lack obvious or direct physical interpretations.
Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.
1986-01-01
This report presents the results of the first year of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and/or fatigue data, tests were conducted on coated and uncoated PWA 1480 specimens tensilely loaded in the 100 , 110 , 111 , and 123 directions. A literature survey of constitutive models was completed for both single crystal alloys and metallic coating materials; candidate models were selected. One constitutive model under consideration for single crystal alloys applies Walker's micromechanical viscoplastic formulation to all slip systems participating in the single crystal deformation. The constitutive models for the overlay coating correlate the viscoplastic data well. For the aluminide coating, a unique test method is under development. LCF and TMF tests are underway. The two coatings caused a significant drop in fatigue life, and each produced a much different failure mechanism.
Constitutive Modeling of Warm Deformation Flow Curves of an Eutectoid Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastegari, H.; Rakhshkhorshid, M.; Somani, M. C.; Porter, D. A.
2017-05-01
The capabilities of the commonly encountered Johnson-Cook and Arrhenius-type constitutive equations to describe the warm deformation flow curves of an eutectoid steel undergoing dynamic spheroidization have been compared based on the warm compression test data. Warm compression tests were conducted over the temperature range 620-770 °C and strain rates in the range of 0.01-10 s-1. The average absolute relative error values for the Johnson-Cook and Arrhenius-type constitutive equations were 44.03 and 6.50%, respectively, thereby showing that the Arrhenius-type constitutive equation is to be preferred. It is also shown that in contrast to the Arrhenius-type constitutive equation, the softening caused by dynamic spheroidization cannot be modeled using the Johnson-Cook equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Le; Liu, Xin'en; Jia, Dong; Niu, Hongpan
2016-09-01
Metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique is a promising tool for inspecting early damage in ferromagnetic components due to its high sensitivity to stress in weak geomagnetic field. However, the quantitative analysis methods for the MMM haven't been sufficiently studied yet for absence of a reasonable constitutive model. A three-dimensional stress-induced magnetic anisotropic constitutive model is proposed in this paper to study magneto-mechanical coupling effect of the MMM. The model is developed in principal stress space and a linear relation between magnetization and magnetic field is employed for low intensity magnetic field. As a result, stress-induced magnetic anisotropy is represented by stress dependence of magnetic permeability in different directions, which is simple and convenient for applications in the MMM technique. Based on the model, the effect of stress on magnetic permeability and surface magnetic field is computed and compared with experimental data for a tensioned ferromagnetic specimen in low intensity magnetic field. The good consistency implies the validity of the proposed model.
Ductile damage modeling based on void coalescence and percolation theories
Tonks, D.L.; Zurek, A.K.; Thissell, W.R.
1995-09-01
A general model for ductile damage in metals is presented. It includes damage induced by shear stress as well as damage caused by volumetric tension. Spallation is included as a special case. Strain induced damage is also treated. Void nucleation and growth are included, and give rise to strain rate effects. Strain rate effects also arise in the model through elastic release wave propagation between damage centers. The underlying physics of the model is the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids in a plastically flowing solid. The model is intended for hydrocode based computer simulation. An experimental program is underway to validate the model.
Parameter optimization for the visco-hyperelastic constitutive model of tendon using FEM.
Tang, C Y; Ng, G Y F; Wang, Z W; Tsui, C P; Zhang, G
2011-01-01
Numerous constitutive models describing the mechanical properties of tendons have been proposed during the past few decades. However, few were widely used owing to the lack of implementation in the general finite element (FE) software, and very few systematic studies have been done on selecting the most appropriate parameters for these constitutive laws. In this work, the visco-hyperelastic constitutive model of the tendon implemented through the use of three-parameter Mooney-Rivlin form and sixty-four-parameter Prony series were firstly analyzed using ANSYS FE software. Afterwards, an integrated optimization scheme was developed by coupling two optimization toolboxes (OPTs) of ANSYS and MATLAB for estimating these unknown constitutive parameters of the tendon. Finally, a group of Sprague-Dawley rat tendons was used to execute experimental and numerical simulation investigation. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental data. An important finding revealed that too many Maxwell elements was not necessary for assuring accuracy of the model, which is often neglected in most open literatures. Thus, all these proved that the constitutive parameter optimization scheme was reliable and highly efficient. Furthermore, the approach can be extended to study other tendons or ligaments, as well as any visco-hyperelastic solid materials.
Constitutive model for the dynamic response of a NiTi shape memory alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xiangguo; Chen, Huayan
2016-07-01
In this paper, based on irreversible thermodynamic theory, the Helmholtz free energy function, was selected to deduce both the master equations and evolution equations of the constitutive model of a NiTi alloy under high strain. The Helmholtz free energy function contains the parameters of the reflecting phase transition and plastic property. The constitutive model for a NiTi alloy was implemented using a semi-implicit stress integration algorithm. Four successive stages can be differentiated and simulated: parent phase elasticity, martensitic phase transition, martensitic elasticity, and dislocation yield. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koenig, Herbert A.; Chan, Kwai S.; Cassenti, Brice N.; Weber, Richard
1988-01-01
A unified numerical method for the integration of stiff time dependent constitutive equations is presented. The solution process is directly applied to a constitutive model proposed by Bodner. The theory confronts time dependent inelastic behavior coupled with both isotropic hardening and directional hardening behaviors. Predicted stress-strain responses from this model are compared to experimental data from cyclic tests on uniaxial specimens. An algorithm is developed for the efficient integration of the Bodner flow equation. A comparison is made with the Euler integration method. An analysis of computational time is presented for the three algorithms.
Turbulence constitutive modeling of the square root of the Reynolds stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ariki, Taketo
2015-11-01
A methodology for turbulence constitutive modeling is discussed on the basis of the square-root tensor of the Reynolds stress. The present methodology can satisfy the realizability condition for the Reynolds stress proposed by Schumann [Phys. Fluids 20, 721 (1977)], 10.1063/1.861942 in a more general manner than the conventional methodologies. The definition and uniqueness of the square-root tensor have been discussed, and its boundary condition has been properly obtained consistently with that of the Reynolds stress. Examples of possible constitutive models of both tensor-expansion and transport-equation types have been proposed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dame, L. T.; Stouffer, D. C.
1986-01-01
A tool for the mechanical analysis of nickel base single crystal superalloys, specifically Rene N4, used in gas turbine engine components is developed. This is achieved by a rate dependent anisotropic constitutive model implemented in a nonlinear three dimensional finite element code. The constitutive model is developed from metallurigical concepts utilizing a crystallographic approach. A non Schmid's law formulation is used to model the tension/compression asymmetry and orientation dependence in octahedral slip. Schmid's law is a good approximation to the inelastic response of the material in cube slip. The constitutive equations model the tensile behavior, creep response, and strain rate sensitivity of these alloys. Methods for deriving the material constants from standard tests are presented. The finite element implementation utilizes an initial strain method and twenty noded isoparametric solid elements. The ability to model piecewise linear load histories is included in the finite element code. The constitutive equations are accurately and economically integrated using a second order Adams-Moulton predictor-corrector method with a dynamic time incrementing procedure. Computed results from the finite element code are compared with experimental data for tensile, creep and cyclic tests at 760 deg C. The strain rate sensitivity and stress relaxation capabilities of the model are evaluated.
Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.
1992-01-01
This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.
Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.
1992-01-01
This report presents the results from a 35 month period of a program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program is composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addresses the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigates the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involve experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material form the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: (001), (011), (111), and (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal material were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were selected for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. An initial life model used to correlate smooth and notched fatigue data obtained in the option program shows promise. Computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive models was developed.
Modeling and characterization of recompressed damaged materials
Becker, R; Cazamias, J U; Kalantar, D H; LeBlanc, M M; Springer, H K
2004-02-11
Experiments have been performed to explore conditions under which spall damage is recompressed with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. Spall is introduced through traditional gas gun techniques or with laser ablation. Recompression techniques producing a uniaxial stress state, such as a Hopkinson bar, do not create sufficient confinement to close the porosity. Higher stress triaxialities achieved through a gas gun or laser recompression can close the spall. Characterization of the recompressed samples by optical metallography and electron microscopy reveal a narrow, highly deformed process zone. At the higher pressures achieved in the gas gun, little evidence of spall remains other than differentially etched features in the optical micrographs. With the very high strain rates achieved with laser techniques there is jetting from voids and other signs of turbulent metal flow. Simulations of spall and recompression on micromechanical models containing a single void suggest that it might be possible to represent the recompression using models similar to those employed for void growth. Calculations using multiple, randomly distributed voids are needed to determine if such models will yield the proper behavior for more realistic microstructures.
Iig, Patrick
2011-01-01
Complex fluids, such as polymers, colloids, liquid-crystals etc., show intriguing viscoelastic properties, due to the complicated interplay between flow-induced structure formation and dynamical behavior. Starting from microscopic models of complex fluids, a systematic coarse-graining method is presented that allows us to derive closed-form and thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations for such fluids. Essential ingredients of the proposed approach are thermodynamically guided simulations within a consistent coarse-graining scheme. In addition to this new type of multiscale simulations, we reconstruct the building blocks that constitute the thermodynamically consistent coarse-grained model. We illustrate the method for low-molecular polymer melts, which are subject to different imposed flow fields like planar shear and different elongational flows. The constitutive equation for general flow conditions we obtain shows rheological behavior including shear thinning, normal stress differences, and elongational viscosities in good agreement with reference results.
Constitutive model for shape memory alloys and its use in design and finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Sudip; Santhanam, Sridhar
2002-07-01
A constitutive model for predicting the thermomechanical behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) has been developed and validated. The model uses an approach similar to Brinson, Liang and Rogers, and Tanaka. It links key thermomechanical variables: stress, strain, temperature, and martensite fraction. A basic differential form for the SMA constitutive behavior, developed by Tanaka, forms the foundation of the model. The model is completed with a definition of the rules governing the behavior of martensite fraction. Like Brinson, the model distinguishes between de-twinned and twinned martensite. The phase transition temperatures are assumed to be a linear function of applied stress. The forward and reverse phase transformations are described by piecewise exponential functions. There are a number of parameters in the model that need to be determined using experimental data. The critical transformation temperatures are determined by resistivity measurements. All other parameters are determined by mechanical tension testing followed by nonlinear least-squares estimations. Mechanical testing consisted of displacement controlled, tension tests on Nitinol wires at several temperatures. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by its use in the design of an SMA actuated robotic arm. The constitutive model is used in conjunction with a lumped heat transfer model, a kinematic model, and a dynamic model to predict the behavior of the arm. Comparison between predictions and experimentally observed behavior is very good indicating a sound constitutive model. The model is also built into a finite element code that simulates pseudoelastic SMA behavior. The code considers geometric and material nonlinearities. The behavior of a simple pseudoelastic device is shown to be well predicted by the finite element code.
Schwab, Timothy D; Johnston, Clifton R; Oxland, Thomas R; Thornton, Gail M
2007-01-01
Ligaments can be subjected to creep and fatigue damage when loaded to higher than normal stresses due to injury of a complementary joint restraint. Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) assumes that diffuse damage accumulates in a material, thereby reducing the effective cross-sectional area and leading to eventual rupture. The objective of this study was to apply CDM modelling to ligament creep and fatigue to reveal mechanisms of damage. Fatigue was modelled by cyclically varying the stress in the creep model. A few novel approaches were used. First, area reduction was not assumed equal to modulus reduction; thus, allowing damaged fibres to potentially contribute to load-bearing through the extracellular matrix. Modulus ratio was related to area reduction using residual strength. Second, damage rate was not assumed constant but rather was determined directly from the modulus ratio change with respect to time. Third, modulus ratio was normalized to maximum modulus to avoid artificial calculation of negative damage. With this approach, the creep time-to-rupture was predicted with -4% error at 60% UTS and -13% error at 30% UTS. At 15% UTS, no test was undertaken experimentally for a duration as long as the 24 days predicted theoretically. Oscillating the time-dependent damage in the creep model could not completely explain the fatigue behaviour because the fatigue time-to-rupture was predicted with over 1300% error at all stresses. These results suggest that a cycle-dependent damage mechanism, in addition to a time-dependent one, was responsible for fatigue rupture. Cycle-dependent damage may be an important consideration for rehabilitation activities following injury of a complementary ligament restraint.
A Coupled Damage and Reaction Model for Simulating Energetic Material Response to Impact Hazards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matheson, Erik; Drumheller, Doug; Baer, Mel
1999-06-01
The Baer-Nunziatio multiphase reactive theory for a granulated bed of energetic material is extended to allow for dynamic damage processes, which generate new surfaces as well as porosity. A theoretical foundation constraining the forms of the mass, momentum, and energy exchange functions as well as the mechanical damage models for viscoelastic-viscoplastic energetic materials is developed. The constitutive forms of the exchange functions and the mechanical models are simultaneously constrained by the second law of thermodynamics ensuring that the models will be dissipative. The focus here is on the multiphase hydrodynamics and the constitutive forms of the exchange functions. The mechanical constitutive modeling is discussed in a companion paper. The mechanical damage model provides dynamic surface area and porosity information needed by the exchange functions to compute combustion rates and interphase forces, work rates, and heat exchange rates. The models are implemented in the CTH shock physics code and correlated to dynamic porous bed compaction data in which delayed detonation is observed. Moreover, comparisons are made to the impact of a cylindrical sample onto a steel plate in which unkown-to-detonation transition, or XDT, is observed.
Modeling, simulation and experimental verification of constitutive models for energetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haberman, K. S.; Bennett, J. G.; Asay, B. W.; Henson, B. F.; Funk, D. J.
1998-07-01
Simulation of the complete response of components and systems composed of energetic materials, such as PBX-9501 (1) is important in the determination of the safety of various explosive systems. For example, predicting the correct state of stress, rate of deformation and temperature during penetration is essential in the prediction of ignition. Such simulation requires accurate constitutive models. These models must also be computationally efficient to enable analysis of large scale three dimensional problems using explicit lagrangian finite element codes such as DYNA3D (2). However, to be of maximum utility, these predictions must be validated against robust dynamic experiments. In this paper, we report comparisons between experimental and predicted displacement fields in PBX-9501 during dynamic deformation, and describe the modeling approach. The predictions used Visco-SCRAM and the Generalized Method of Cells which have been implemented into DYNA3D. The experimental data were obtained using laser-induced fluorescence speckle photography. Results from this study have lead to more accurate models and have also guided further experimental work.
Modeling, simulation and experimental verification of constitutive models for energetic materials
Haberman, K.S.; Bennett, J.G.; Assay, B.W.
1997-09-01
Simulation of the complete response of components and systems composed of energetic materials, such as PBX-9501 is important in the determination of the safety of various explosive systems. For example, predicting the correct state of stress, rate of deformation and temperature during penetration is essential in the prediction of ignition. Such simulation requires accurate constitutive models. These models must also be computationally efficient to enable analysis of large scale three dimensional problems using explicit lagrangian finite element codes such as DYNA3D. However, to be of maximum utility, these predictions must be validated against robust dynamic experiments. In this paper, the authors report comparisons between experimental and predicted displacement fields in PBX-9501 during dynamic deformation, and describe the modeling approach. The predictions used Visco-SCRAM and the Generalized Method of Cells which have been implemented into DYNA3D. The experimental data were obtained using laser-induced fluorescence speckle photography. Results from this study have lead to more accurate models and have also guided further experimental work.
Continuum-Based FEM Modeling of Ceramic Powder Compaction Using a Cap-Plasticity Constitutive Model
ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; FOSSUM,ARLO F.; ZEUCH,DAVID H.; EWSUK,KEVIN G.
2000-05-01
Software has been developed and extended to allow finite element (FE) modeling of ceramic powder compaction using a cap-plasticity constitutive model. The underlying, general-purpose FE software can be used to model even the most complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries envisioned. Additionally, specialized software has been developed within this framework to address a general subclass of axisymmetric compacts that are common in industry. The expertise required to build the input deck, run the FE code, and post-process the results for this subclass of compacts is embedded within the specialized software. The user simply responds to a series of prompts, evaluates the quality of the FE mesh that is generated, and analyzes the graphical results that are produced. The specialized software allows users with little or no FE expertise to benefit from the tremendous power and insight that FE analysis can bring to the design cycle. The more general underlying software provides complete flexibility to model more complicated geometries and processes of interest to ceramic component manufacturers but requires significantly more user interaction and expertise.
Creep crack growth predictions in INCO 718 using a continuum damage model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, K. P.; Wilson, D. A.
1985-01-01
Creep crack growth tests have been carried out in compact type specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C). Theoretical creep crack growth predictions have been carried out by incorporating a unified viscoplastic constitutive model and a continuum damage model into the ARAQUS nonlinear finite element program. Material constants for both the viscoplastic model and the creep continuum damage model were determined from tests carried out on uniaxial bar specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C). A comparison of the theoretical creep crack growth rates obtained from the finite element predictions with the experimentally observed creep crack growth rates indicates that the viscoplastic/continuum damage model can be used to successfully predict creep crack growth in compact type specimens using material constants obtained from uniaxial bar specimens of INCO 718 at 1200 F (649 C).
Modeling continuous-fiber reinforced polymer composites for exploration of damage tolerant concepts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthews, Peter J.
This work aims to improve the predictive capability for fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite laminates using the finite element method. A new tool for modeling composite damage was developed which considers important modes of failure. Well-known micromechanical models were implemented to predict material values for material systems of interest to aerospace applications. These generated material values served as input to intralaminar and interlaminar damage models. A three-dimensional in-plane damage material model was implemented and behavior verified. Deficiencies in current state-of-the-art interlaminar capabilities were explored using the virtual crack closure technique and the cohesive zone model. A user-defined cohesive element was implemented to discover the importance of traction-separation material constitutive behavior. A novel method for correlation of traction-separation parameters was created. This new damage modeling tool was used for evaluation of novel material systems to improve damage tolerance. Classical laminate plate theory was used in a full-factorial study of layerwise-hybrid laminates. Filament-wound laminated composite cylindrical shells were subjected to quasi-static loading to validate the finite element computational composite damage model. The new tool for modeling provides sufficient accuracy and generality for use on a wide-range of problems.
Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Constitutive Model for Vegetated Soils: Validation and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Switala, Barbara Maria; Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei; Askarinejad, Amin
2016-04-01
It is well known, that presence of vegetation influences stability of the slope. However, the quantitative assessment of this contribution remains challenging. It is essential to develop a numerical model, which combines mechanical root reinforcement and root water uptake, and allows modelling rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes. Therefore a novel constitutive formulation is proposed, which is based on the modified Cam-clay model for unsaturated soils. Mechanical root reinforcement is modelled introducing a new constitutive parameter, which governs the evolution of the Cam-clay failure surface with the degree of root reinforcement. Evapotranspiration is modelled in terms of the root water uptake, defined as a sink term in the water flow continuity equation. The original concept is extended for different shapes of the root architecture in three dimensions, and combined with the mechanical model. The model is implemented in the research finite element code Comes-Geo, and in the commercial software Abaqus. The formulation is tested, performing a series of numerical examples, which allow validation of the concept. The direct shear test and the triaxial test are modelled in order to test the performance of the mechanical part of the model. In order to validate the hydrological part of the constitutive formulation, evapotranspiration from the vegetated box is simulated and compared with the experimental results. Obtained numerical results exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data. The implemented model is capable of reproducing results of basic geotechnical laboratory tests. Moreover, the constitutive formulation can be used to model rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes, taking into account the most important factors influencing the slope stability (root reinforcement and evapotranspiration).
Skacel, Pavel; Bursa, Jiri
2015-01-01
Several constitutive models have been proposed for the description of mechanical behaviour of soft tissues containing collagen fibres. Some of the commonly used approaches accounting for the dispersion of fibre orientations are based on the summation of (mechanical) contributions of differently oriented fibre families. This leads to the need of numerical integration on the sphere surface, and the related numerical consumption is the main disadvantage of this category of constitutive models. The paper is focused on the comparison of various numerical integration methods applied to a specific constitutive model applicable for arterial walls. Robustness and efficiency of several integration rules were tested with respect to application in finite element (FE) codes. Among all the analysed numerical integration rules, the best results were reached by Lebedev quadrature; the related parameters for the specific constitutive model are presented in the paper. The results were implemented into the commercial FE code ANSYS via user subroutines, and their applicability was demonstrated by an example of FE simulation with non-homogenous stress field.
A solidification constitutive model for NIKE2D and NIKE3D
Raboin, P.J.
1994-03-17
This memo updates the current status of a solidification material model development which has been underway for more than a year. Significant modeling goals such as predicting cut-off stresses, thermo-elasto-plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity and dynamic recovery have been completed. The model is called SOLMAT for solidification material model, and while developed for NIKE2D, it has already been implemented in NIKE3D and NIT03D by B. Maker. This memo details the future development strategy of SOLMAT including liquid and solid constitutive improvements, coupling of deviatoric and dilatational deformation and a plan to switch between constitutive theories. It explains some of the difficulties associated solidification modeling and proposes two experiments to measure properties for using SOLMAT. Due to the sensitive nature of these plans in relation to programmatic and CRADA concerns, this memo should be treated as confidential document.
Constitutive model of brain tissue suitable for finite element analysis of surgical procedures.
Miller, K
1999-05-01
Realistic finite element modelling and simulation of neurosurgical procedures present a formidable challenge. Appropriate, finite deformation, constitutive model of brain tissue is a prerequisite for such development. In this paper, a large deformation, linear, viscoelastic model, suitable for direct use with commercially available finite element software packages such as ABAQUS is constructed. The proposed constitutive equation is of polynomial form with time-dependent coefficients. The model requires four material constants to be identified. The material constants were evaluated based on unconfined compression experiment results. The analytical as well as numerical solutions to the unconfined compression problem are presented. The agreement between the proposed theoretical model and the experiment is good for compression levels reaching 30% and for loading velocities varying over five orders of magnitude. The numerical solution using the finite element method matched the analytical solution very closely.
An internal variable constitutive model for the large deformation of metals at high temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Stuart; Anand, Lallit
1988-01-01
The advent of large deformation finite element methodologies is beginning to permit the numerical simulation of hot working processes whose design until recently has been based on prior industrial experience. Proper application of such finite element techniques requires realistic constitutive equations which more accurately model material behavior during hot working. A simple constitutive model for hot working is the single scalar internal variable model for isotropic thermal elastoplasticity proposed by Anand. The model is recalled and the specific scalar functions, for the equivalent plastic strain rate and the evolution equation for the internal variable, presented are slight modifications of those proposed by Anand. The modified functions are better able to represent high temperature material behavior. The monotonic constant true strain rate and strain rate jump compression experiments on a 2 percent silicon iron is briefly described. The model is implemented in the general purpose finite element program ABAQUS.
On the unimportance of constitutive models in computing brain deformation for image-guided surgery.
Wittek, Adam; Hawkins, Trent; Miller, Karol
2009-02-01
Imaging modalities that can be used intra-operatively do not provide sufficient details to confidently locate the abnormalities and critical healthy areas that have been identified from high-resolution pre-operative scans. However, as we have shown in our previous work, high quality pre-operative images can be warped to the intra-operative position of the brain. This can be achieved by computing deformations within the brain using a biomechanical model. In this paper, using a previously developed patient-specific model of brain undergoing craniotomy-induced shift, we conduct a parametric analysis to investigate in detail the influences of constitutive models of the brain tissue. We conclude that the choice of the brain tissue constitutive model, when used with an appropriate finite deformation solution, does not affect the accuracy of computed displacements, and therefore a simple linear elastic model for the brain tissue is sufficient.
An automated procedure for material parameter evaluation for viscoplastic constitutive models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imbrie, P. K.; James, G. H.; Hill, P. S.; Allen, D. H.; Haisler, W. E.
1988-01-01
An automated procedure is presented for evaluating the material parameters in Walker's exponential viscoplastic constitutive model for metals at elevated temperature. Both physical and numerical approximations are utilized to compute the constants for Inconel 718 at 1100 F. When intermediate results are carefully scrutinized and engineering judgement applied, parameters may be computed which yield stress output histories that are in agreement with experimental results. A qualitative assessment of the theta-plot method for predicting the limiting value of stress is also presented. The procedure may also be used as a basis to develop evaluation schemes for other viscoplastic constitutive theories of this type.
The relationship between observed fatigue damage and life estimation models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurath, Peter; Socie, Darrell F.
1988-01-01
Observations of the surface of laboratory specimens subjected to axial and torsional fatigue loadings has resulted in the identification of three damage fatigue phenomena: crack nucleation, shear crack growth, and tensile crack growth. Material, microstructure, state of stress/strain, and loading amplitude all influence which of the three types of fatigue damage occurs during a dominant fatigue life fraction. Fatigue damage maps are employed to summarize the experimental observations. Appropriate bulk stress/strain damage parameters are suggested to model fatigue damage for the dominant fatigue life fraction. Extension of the damage map concept to more complex loadings is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.
1998-01-01
Recently applications have exposed polymer matrix composite materials to very high strain rate loading conditions, requiring an ability to understand and predict the material behavior under these extreme conditions. In this first paper of a two part report, background information is presented, along with the constitutive equations which will be used to model the rate dependent nonlinear deformation response of the polymer matrix. Strain rate dependent inelastic constitutive models which were originally developed to model the viscoplastic deformation of metals have been adapted to model the nonlinear viscoelastic deformation of polymers. The modified equations were correlated by analyzing the tensile/ compressive response of both 977-2 toughened epoxy matrix and PEEK thermoplastic matrix over a variety of strain rates. For the cases examined, the modified constitutive equations appear to do an adequate job of modeling the polymer deformation response. A second follow-up paper will describe the implementation of the polymer deformation model into a composite micromechanical model, to allow for the modeling of the nonlinear, rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composites.
Micromechanics and constitutive models for soft active materials with phase evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Binglian
Soft active materials, such as shape memory polymers, liquid crystal elastomers, soft tissues, gels etc., are materials that can deform largely in response to external stimuli. Micromechanics analysis of heterogeneous materials based on finite element method is a typically numerical way to study the thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft active materials with phase evolution. While the constitutive models that can precisely describe the stress and strain fields of materials in the process of phase evolution can not be found in the databases of some commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools such as ANSYS or Abaqus, even the specific constitutive behavior for each individual phase either the new formed one or the original one has already been well-known. So developing a computationally efficient and general three dimensional (3D) thermal-mechanical constitutive model for soft active materials with phase evolution which can be implemented into FEA is eagerly demanded. This paper first solved this problem theoretically by recording the deformation history of each individual phase in the phase evolution process, and adopted the idea of effectiveness by regarding all the new formed phase as an effective phase with an effective deformation to make this theory computationally efficient. A user material subroutine (UMAT) code based on this theoretical constitutive model has been finished in this work which can be added into the material database in Abaqus or ANSYS and can be easily used for most soft active materials with phase evolution. Model validation also has been done through comparison between micromechanical FEA and experiments on a particular composite material, shape memory elastomeric composite (SMEC) which consisted of an elastomeric matrix and the crystallizable fibre. Results show that the micromechanics and the constitutive models developed in this paper for soft active materials with phase evolution are completely relied on.
Haslach, H.W. Jr.
1995-12-31
Treloar`s experiments on a thin rubber sheet under in-plane biaxial tensile loads produced asymmetric as well as equal in-plane stretches. At two loads, the two stretches differed by 7.5% and 12.4% respectively. At an intermediate load, there was a stable equal stretches state. Treloar later said that relaxation was negligible since the results were reproducible and independent of the order of force application. Specimen anisotropy and lack of strain uniformity were also eliminated as a cause. Kearsely first pointed out the significance of these experiments to studies of elastic stability of rubber models. The predictability of this result is a test for the validity of the various constitutive models for rubber. First, Ogden`s plane stress stability and bifurcation criteria are reviewed. A coordinate transformation of a generalized energy function for the biaxially loaded sheet makes it possible to describe the Mooney-Rivlin bifurcation as a cusp catastrophe and to verify that the neo-Hookean and other classical models have no bifurcations. The Mooney-Rivlin model predicts unstable equal stretch states above the bifurcation value, but Treloar`s experiments contradict this. These models cannot, then, be the correct constitutive models for rubber. Preliminary ideas on the conditions that an isothermal constitutive model must satisfy to reproduce Treloar`s experiments are proposed. A thermoelastic generalization of the Mooney-Rivlin model, developed with N. N. Zeng, predicts that raising the temperature slightly lowers the value of the bifurcation load. Nonequilibrium processes such as relaxation or sinusoidal loading are modeled using a generalized energy function in place of classical viscoelastic constitutive relations.
Horný, Lukáš; Netušil, Marek; Daniel, Matěj
2014-10-01
The abdominal aorta is susceptible to age-related pathological changes (arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and tortuosity). Computational biomechanics and mechanobiology provide models capable of predicting mutual interactions between a changing mechanical environment and patho-physiological processes in ageing. However, a key factor is a constitutive equation which should reflect the internal tissue architecture. Our study investigates three microstructurally-motivated invariant-based hyperelastic anisotropic models suitable for description of the passive mechanical behaviour of the human abdominal aorta at a multiaxial state of stress known from recent literature. The three adopted models have also been supplemented with a newly proposed constitutive model (limiting extensibility with fibre dispersion). All models additively decouple the mechanical response of the isotropic (elastin and smooth muscle cells represented by the neo-Hookean term) and the anisotropic (collagen) parts. Two models use exponential functions to capture large strain stiffening ascribed to the engagement of collagen fibres into the load-bearing process. The other two models are based on the concept of limiting extensibility. Perfect alignment of reinforcing fibres with two preferred directions as well as fibre dispersion are considered. Constitutive models are calibrated to the inflation-extension response adopted from the literature based on the computational model of the residually-stressed thick-walled tube. A correlation analysis of determined material parameters was performed to reveal dependence on the age. The results of the nonlinear regression suggest that limiting fibre extensibility is the concept which is suitable to be used for the constitutive description of the aorta at multiaxial stress states and is highly sensitive to ageing-induced changes in mechanical response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhipeng; Gao, Lihong; Wang, Yangwei; Wang, Fuchi
2016-09-01
The Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive model is widely used in the finite element simulation, as this model shows the relationship between stress and strain in a simple way. In this paper, a cluster global optimization algorithm is proposed to determine the J-C constitutive model parameters of materials. A set of assumed parameters is used for the accuracy verification of the procedure. The parameters of two materials (401 steel and 823 steel) are determined. Results show that the procedure is reliable and effective. The relative error between the optimized and assumed parameters is no more than 4.02%, and the relative error between the optimized and assumed stress is 0.2% × 10-5. The J-C constitutive parameters can be determined more precisely and quickly than the traditional manual procedure. Furthermore, all the parameters can be simultaneously determined using several curves under different experimental conditions. A strategy is also proposed to accurately determine the constitutive parameters.
Continuum damage modeling for ductile metals under high strain rate deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husson, C.; Ahzi, S.; Daridon, L.; Courtine, T.
2003-09-01
The accuracy of the computational investigation on the response of ductile materials under dynamic condition depends on the capability of the constitutive model in accounting for strain rate, temperature and microstructural effects. In this work, we propose a damage evolution law, valid for a wide range of strain rates, based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics (CDM). This model implicitly accounts for the three stages of damage: the nucleation, the growth and the coalescence. This non-linear isotropic CDM model for ductile damage is developed by assuming the existence of a new ductile damage dissipation potential. The proposed damage law is coupled with an evolution law for the flow stress. Like in the mechanical threshold stress (M.T.S.) model, the flow stress is decomposed as the sum of an athermal component and a temperature and strain rate dependent component. Results from our motel are in agreement with the existing experimental results for stress-strain behavior and damage evolution in oxygen-free high-conducting (OFHC) copper under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions.
A continuum constitutive model for the active behaviour of skeletal muscle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehret, Alexander E.; Böl, Markus; Itskov, Mikhail
2011-03-01
In the present paper we propose a continuum constitutive model for the passive and active mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle. Unlike most works in this field, the model is not based on an additive split between passive and active components but considers muscle tissue as one continuous biological material, which alters its properties when activated. This alteration also allows for a kinematic interpretation on the muscle fibre level and is described by a single activation-dependent model parameter. This as well as the other material parameters are obtained from standard experiments on resting and activated muscle or from microstructural information such as fibre type and twitch characteristics. In the passive state, the constitutive equations are governed by a transversely isotropic polyconvex and coercive strain-energy function. The model shows excellent agreement with experimental stress-stretch data of a passive and activated rat tibialis anterior muscle.
Constitutive Modeling of Nanotube/Polymer Composites with Various Nanotube Orientations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.
2002-01-01
In this study, a technique has been proposed for developing constitutive models for polymer composite systems reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with various orientations with respect to the bulk material coordinates. A nanotube, the local polymer adjacent to the nanotube, and the nanotube/polymer interface have been modeled as an equivalent-continuum fiber by using an equivalent-continuum modeling method. The equivalent-continuum fiber accounts for the local molecular structure and bonding information and serves as a means for incorporating micromechanical analyses for the prediction of bulk mechanical properties of SWNT/polymer composite. As an example, the proposed approach is used for the constitutive modeling of a SWNT/LaRC-SI (with a PmPV interface) composite system, with aligned nanotubes, three-dimensionally randomly oriented nanotubes, and nanotubes oriented with varying degrees of axisymmetry. It is shown that the Young s modulus is highly dependent on the SWNT orientation distribution.
A Modified Mechanical Threshold Stress Constitutive Model for Austenitic Stainless Steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, K. Sajun; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Singh, Yashjeet; Singh, Swadesh Kumar
2016-12-01
This paper presents a modified mechanical threshold stress (m-MTS) constitutive model. The m-MTS model incorporates variable athermal and dynamic strain aging (DSA) Components to accurately predict the flow stress behavior of austenitic stainless steels (ASS)-316 and 304. Under strain rate variations between 0.01-0.0001 s-1, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 50-650 °C to evaluate the material constants of constitutive models. The test results revealed the high dependence of flow stress on strain, strain rate and temperature. In addition, it was observed that DSA occurred at elevated temperatures and very low strain rates, causing an increase in flow stress. While the original MTS model is capable of predicting the flow stress behavior for ASS, statistical parameters point out the inefficiency of the model when compared to other models such as Johnson Cook model, modified Zerilli-Armstrong (m-ZA) model, and modified Arrhenius-type equations (m-Arr). Therefore, in order to accurately model both the DSA and non-DSA regimes, the original MTS model was modified by incorporating variable athermal and DSA components. The suitability of the m-MTS model was assessed by comparing the statistical parameters. It was observed that the m-MTS model was highly accurate for the DSA regime when compared to the existing models. However, models like m-ZA and m-Arr showed better results for the non-DSA regime.
A model for predicting damage dependent response of inelastic media with microstructure
Allen, D.H.; DeVries, K.L.
1997-12-01
This paper presents a model developed for predicting the mechanical response of inelastic media with heterogeneous microstructure. Particular emphasis is given to the development of microstructural damage along grains. The model is developed within the concepts of continuum mechanics, with special emphasis on the development of internal boundaries in the continuum by utilizing fracture mechanics-based cohesive zone models. In addition, the grains are assumed to be characterized by nonlinear viscoplastic material behavior. Implementation of the model to a finite element computational algorithm is also briefly described, and example solutions are obtained. Finally, homogenization procedures are discussed for obtaining macroscopic damage dependent mechanical constitutive equations that may then be utilized to construct a well-posed boundary value problem for the macroscopically homogenized damage dependent medium.
Technical Notoe: Prediction of Static Liquefaction by Nor Sand Constitutive Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sternik, Krzysztof
2015-02-01
The paper gives a short description of unstable behaviour of saturated sand under undrained monotonic loading. Constitutive model Nor Sand capable to describe static liquefaction is presented. The model is based on critical state soil mechanics and assumes associated flow rule. Hardening law incorporates the state parameter proposed earlier by Been and Jefferies. Results of numerical simulations of undrained element tests have been presented and discussed.
A local constitutive model for the discrete element method. Application to geomaterials and concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oñate, Eugenio; Zárate, Francisco; Miquel, Juan; Santasusana, Miquel; Celigueta, Miguel Angel; Arrufat, Ferran; Gandikota, Raju; Valiullin, Khaydar; Ring, Lev
2015-06-01
This paper presents a local constitutive model for modelling the linear and non linear behavior of soft and hard cohesive materials with the discrete element method (DEM). We present the results obtained in the analysis with the DEM of cylindrical samples of cement, concrete and shale rock materials under a uniaxial compressive strength test, different triaxial tests, a uniaxial strain compaction test and a Brazilian tensile strength test. DEM results compare well with the experimental values in all cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daming, Nie; Zhen, Lu; Kaifeng, Zhang
2017-02-01
The constitutive models based on grain size effect are crucial for analyzing the deformation of metal foils. Previous investigations on the constitutive models concentrate on the foils whose thickness/average grain diameter (T/D) ratios are more than 3. In this study, the commercial pure titanium foils with thickness of 0.1 and 0.2 mm were employed as the experimental materials. The mechanical properties of foils with dimensions of nine different T/D ratios categorized into three ranges (T/D < 1, 1 ≤ T/D < 3, T/D ≥ 3)were tested. Meanwhile, the fracture behaviors and fracture mechanisms of the samples with different T/D ratios were compared and analyzed. Besides, three constitutive models incorporating the surface layer effect and grain boundary strengthening effect were established for the three T/D ratio ranges correspondingly. In these models, the thickness of the surface layers is set T for T/D < 1 foils, D for T/D > 3, and increases with D linearly in 1 ≤ T/D < 3. The results calculated by the three models were compared. The experiments indicate that those models are all in good agreement.
Sacks, Michael S
2003-04-01
Structural constitutive models integrate information on tissue composition and structure, avoiding ambiguities in material characterization. However, critical structural information (such as fiber orientation) must be modeled using assumed statistical distributions, with the distribution parameters estimated from fits to the mechanical test data. Thus, full realization of structural approaches continues to be limited without direct quantitative structural information for direct implementation or to validate model predictions. In the present study, fiber orientation information obtained using small angle light scattering (SALS) was directly incorporated into a structural constitutive model based on work by Lanir (J. Biomech., v. 16, pp. 1-12, 1983). Demonstration of the model was performed using existing biaxial mechanical and fiber orientation data for native bovine pericardium (Sacks and Chuong, ABME, v.26, pp. 892-902, 1998). The structural constitutive model accurately predicted the complete measured biaxial mechanical response. An important aspect of this approach is that only a single equibiaxial test to determine the effective fiber stress-strain response and the SALS-derived fiber orientation distribution were required to determine the complete planar biaxial mechanical response. Changes in collagen fiber crimp under equibiaxial strain suggest that, at the meso-scale, fiber deformations follow the global tissue strains. This result supports the assumption of affine strain to estimate the fiber strains. However, future evaluations will have to be performed for tissue subjected to a wider range of strain to more fully validate the current approach.
An anisotropic, elastic-decohesive constitutive relation for modeling Arctic sea ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulsky, D.; Tran, H.; Schreyer, H.
2016-12-01
As high-resolution simulations become increasingly possible and popular, questions are being raised about isotropic constitutive models for sea ice that are based on averaging material behavior over 100 km scales. At finer resolutions, it may not be appropriate to average over concentrated deformations which occur in leads and ridges since small regions do not contain sufficient numbers of these features at arbitrary orientations to support the assumption of isotropy. An elastic-decohesive constitutive model for pack ice has been developed that explicitly accounts for leads. The constitutive model is based on elasticity combined with a cohesive crack law that predicts the initiation, orientation and opening of leads. This talk presents extensions of the original model that tie it more closely to the thermodynamics and thickness distribution. Before failure, sea ice itself is assumed to be described by isotropic elasticity. However, an element of ice composed of different thicknesses, including refrozen leads and/or ridges, is modeled as an equivalent anisotropic elastic material of uniform thickness. The classical rule-of-mixtures is applied for the ice `composite' having an oriented distribution of thickness to derive the moduli and the strengths of the equivalent material. At failure, a decohesive constitutive relation based on the traction on a potential crack plane is employed in the anisotropic material. Sample paths in stress and strain space are examined to illustrate the aspects of the model when simulating the failure of sea ice. Simulations with the improved model show how failure is influenced by the oriented thickness distribution, for example, by failure occurring preferentially in thin ice.
Application of symbolic computations to the constitutive modeling of structural materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, Steven M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.
1990-01-01
In applications involving elevated temperatures, the derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) describing the material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error-prone. Therefore intelligent application of symbolic systems to faciliate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. Presented here is a problem oriented, self contained symbolic expert system, named SDICE, which is capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models in analytical form. This package, running under DOE MACSYMA, has the following features: (1) potential differentiation (chain rule), (2) tensor computations (utilizing index notation) including both algebraic and calculus; (3) efficient solution of sparse systems of equations; (4) automatic expression substitution and simplification; (5) back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations; (6) the ability to form the Jacobian and Hessian matrix; and (7) a relational data base. Limited aspects of invariant theory were also incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet pre-defined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed, when applicable, utilizing index notation. SDICE was designed to aid and complement the human constitutive model developer. A number of examples are utilized to illustrate the various features contained within SDICE. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.
Natali, A N; Fontanella, C G; Carniel, E L; Young, Miller
2011-05-01
This paper deals with the constitutive formulation of heel pad tissue and presents a procedure for identifying constitutive parameters using experimental data, with the aim of developing a computational approach for investigating the actual biomechanical response. The preliminary definition of constitutive parameters was developed using a visco-hyperelastic formulation, considering experimental data from in vitro compression tests on specimens of fat pad tissue and data from in vivo tests to identify the actual trend of tissue stiffness. The discrepancy between model results and experimental data was evaluated on the basis of a specific cost function, adopting a stochastic/deterministic procedure. The parameter evaluation was upgraded by considering experimental tests performed on the fat pad tissues of a cadaveric foot using in situ indentation tests at 0.01 and 350 mm/s strain rates. The constitutive formulation was implemented in a numerical model. The comparison of data from in situ tests and numerical results led to an optimal domain of parameters based on an admissible discrepancy criterion. Numerical results evaluated for different sets of parameters inside the domain are reported and compared with experimental data for a reliability evaluation of the proposed procedure.
Modeling flow stress constitutive behavior of SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Mingyue; Hao, Luhan; Li, Shijian; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi
2011-11-01
Based on the measured stress-strain curves under different temperatures and strain rates, a series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were firstly established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening. The comparison between the experimental and modeling results has confirmed that the established constitutive equations can correctly describe the mechanical responses and microstructural evolutions of the steel under various hot deformation conditions. We further represented a successful industrial application of this model to simulate a forging process for a large conical shell used in a nuclear steam generator, which evidences its practical and promising perspective of our model with an aim of widely promoting the hot plasticity processing for heavy nuclear components of fission reactors.
A transversely isotropic constitutive model of excised guinea pig spinal cord white matter.
Galle, Beth; Ouyang, Hui; Shi, Riyi; Nauman, Eric
2010-10-19
Narrowing of the spinal canal generates an amalgamation of stresses within the spinal cord parenchyma. The tissue's stress state cannot be quantified experimentally; it must be described using computational methods, such as finite element analysis. The objective of this research was to propose a compressible, transversely isotropic constitutive model, an augmentation of the isotropic Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic strain energy function, to describe the guinea pig spinal cord white matter. Model parameters were derived from a combination of inverse finite element analysis on transverse compression experiments and least squared error analysis applied to quasi-static longitudinal tensile tests. A comparison of the residual errors between the predicted response and the experimental measurements indicated that the transversely isotropic constitutive law that incorporates an offset stretch reduced the error by a factor of four when compared to other commonly used models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A constitutive model for micro-cracked bodies with growing inclusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bongué Boma, Malika; Alaoui, Amina
2012-01-01
A model of micro-cracked bodies having rigid inclusions growing in their pores is proposed, based on the theories of generalized continua. We first use the balance equations of an existing model of micro-cracked bodies, and we then perform a multiscale description in order to determine constitutive laws that account for the growth of the inclusions. We call macroscopic, the description in which the material is considered as a continuum with microstructure, whereas we refer to microscopic scale when one crack is observed at a closer view. We finally use equivalences between both descriptions in order to write the constitutive laws in terms of variables that are characteristic of (i) the geometry of the crack field and (ii) the growth of the inclusions. Such an approach can find, for instance, application in the modeling of expansion due to delayed ettringite formation: we perform numerical simulations using mechanical and geometrical parameters that are characteristic of high strength sulfoaluminate concrete.
Comparative flood damage model assessment: Towards a European approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jongman, B.; Kreibich, H.; Bates, P. D.; de Roo, A. P. J.; Barredo, J. I.; Gericke, A.; Apel, H.; Neal, J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.
2012-04-01
There is a wide variety of flood damage assessment models in use across countries and institutions, with large variations in their approaches and assumptions. In this study we compare seven established methodologies qualitatively and quantitatively, in order to identify key factors that should be taken into consideration in the development of a pan-European flood damage model. In the comparison, we included seven different flood damage models: FLEMO (Germany), Damage Scanner (The Netherlands), Rhine Atlas (Rhine basin), the Flemish method (Belgium), Multi-Coloured Manual (United Kingdom), HAZUS-MH (United States) and the aggregated EC-JRC approach (European Commission). The study is based on two case-studies of historical flood events, for which both hydrological and land-use data are available, as well as data on observed economic damages. One case-study is based on a 2002 flood event in Eilenburg, Germany. The second case-study covers the 2005 flooding in Carlisle, United Kingdom. We found that the models designed for the specific regions come very close to estimating the observed economic damage. A sensitivity analysis shows that the model results are most sensitive to variation in assumed maximum damage values, and almost as much to variation in the applied depth-damage functions. On the basis of these results, we propose the development of a Europe-wide flood damage model that is based on disaggregated land-use data, local asset values and a variable set of depth-damage functions.
A simplified constitutive model for predicting shape memory polymers deformation behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yunxin; Guo, Siu-Siu; He, Yuhao; Liu, Zishun
2015-12-01
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) can keep a temporary shape after pre-deformation at a higher temperature and subsequent cooling. When they are reheated, their original shapes can be recovered. Such special characteristics of SMPs make them widely used in aerospace structures, biomedical devices, functional textiles and other devices. Increasing usefulness of SMPs motivates us to further understand their thermomechanical properties and deformation behavior, of which the development of appropriate constitutive models for SMPs is imperative. There is much work in literatures that address constitutive models of the thermo-mechanical coupling in SMPs. However, due to their complex forms, it is difficult to apply these constitutive models in the real world. In this paper, a three-element model with simple form is proposed to investigate the thermo-mechanical small strain (within 10%) behavior of polyurethane under uniaxial tension. Two different cases of heated recovery are considered: (1) unconstrained free strain recovery and (2) stress recovery under full constraint at a strain level fixed during low temperature unloading. To validate the model, simulated and predicted results are compared with Tobushi's experimental results and good agreement can be observed.
Continuum Fatigue Damage Modeling for Use in Life Extending Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorenzo, Carl F.
1994-01-01
This paper develops a simplified continuum (continuous wrp to time, stress, etc.) fatigue damage model for use in Life Extending Controls (LEC) studies. The work is based on zero mean stress local strain cyclic damage modeling. New nonlinear explicit equation forms of cyclic damage in terms of stress amplitude are derived to facilitate the continuum modeling. Stress based continuum models are derived. Extension to plastic strain-strain rate models are also presented. Application of these models to LEC applications is considered. Progress toward a nonzero mean stress based continuum model is presented. Also, new nonlinear explicit equation forms in terms of stress amplitude are also derived for this case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedjar, B.
The present work deals with the extension to the geometrically nonlinear case of recently proposed ideas on elastic- and elastoplastic-damage modelling frameworks within the infinitesimal theory. The particularity of these models is that the damage part of the modelling involves the gradient of damage quantity which, together with the equations of motion, are ensuing from a new formulation of the principle of virtual power. It is shown how the thermodynamics of irreversible processes is crucial in the characterization of the dissipative phenomena and in setting the convenient forms for the constitutive relations. On the numerical side, we discuss the problem of numerically integrating these equations and the implementation within the context of the finite element method is described in detail. And finally, we present a set of representative numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trifonov, Oleg Vladimirovich
2009-09-01
Following the total Lagrangian approach, an incremental formulation for three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element taking into account large displacements and rotations is developed. For the failure analysis of reinforced concrete structural members, subjected to extreme loads, a new elastoplastic damage constitutive model is proposed on the level of cross-sectional variables. The model is based on the concept of the yield surface and associated flow rule. The effects of softening and strength deterioration are accounted for by the introduction of damage variables. To assure the objectivity of the numerical simulation a non-local treatment of damage variables is implemented. Comparison to different experimental results on biaxial cyclic tests is performed. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed model effectively reproduces softening, strength deterioration, coupling between different components of the generalized force vector and other nonlinear effects accompanying the inelastic structural response under three-dimensional seismic loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Summers, Patrick Timothy
Aluminum alloys are increasingly being used in a broad spectrum of applications such as lightweight structures, light rail, bridge decks, marine crafts, and off-shore platforms. The post-fire (residual) integrity of aluminum structures is of particular concern as a severe degradation in mechanical properties may occur without catastrophic failure, even for short duration, low intensity fires. The lack of research characterizing residual mechanical behavior results in an unquantified mechanical state of the structure, potentially requiring excessively conservative repair. This research aims to develop an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms governing the residual aluminum alloys so as to establish a knowledge-base to assist intelligent structural repair. In this work, the residual mechanical behavior after fire exposure of marine-grade aluminum alloys AA5083-H116 and AA6061-T651 is characterized by extensive mechanical testing. Metallography was performed to identify the as-received and post-fire microstructural state. This extensive characterization was utilized to develop constitutive models for the residual elastoplastic mechanical behavior of the alloys. The constitutive models were developed as a series of sub-models to predict (i) microstructural evolution, (ii) residual yield strength, and (iii) strain hardening after fire exposure. The AA5083-H116 constitutive model was developed considering the microstructural processes of recovery and recrystallization. The residual yield strength was calculated considering solid solution, subgrain, and grain strengthening. A recovery model was used to predict subgrain growth and a recrystallization model was used to predict grain nucleation and growth, as well as subgrain annihilation. Strain hardening was predicted using the Kocks-Mecking-Estrin law modified to account for the additional dislocation storage and dynamic recovery of subgrains. The AA6061- T651 constitutive model was developed considering precipitate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holtzman, B. K.; King, D. S.; Kohlstedt, D. L.
2011-12-01
Coupling between deformation and melt transport have long been recognized in field observations and inferred to be important in the dynamics of crustal and lithosphere dynamics. We are studying these processes with closely knit experimental and theoretical approaches. Here, we present a synthesis of experimental observations of strain weakening associated with strain partitioning in networks of melt-rich shear zones. Variability in the mechanical data from torsion experiments reflect different degrees of melt segregation, due to different material properties, stress levels and boundary conditions (constant torque or constant twist rate). To explore this variability in more detail, we develop a mesoscale constitutive model that treats segregation as a process occurring within the representative elementary volume, described by internal state variables. This constitutive model is comprised of several aspects, including 1) mass balance, 2) mechanical energy balance, and 3) an evolution equation for a single internal state variable describing the degree of melt segregation. At present, the evolution equation is relatively empirical, designed to allow us to quantify the sensitivity of the segregation rate to stress levels. These variations can be seen in the macroscopic creep data as well as the melt distribution within the torsion sample, which contains a continuous range of mechanical conditions from center to edge. The constitutive model is formulated for easy implementation in numerical models, in conjunction with common stress-, grain size- and temperature-dependent flow laws.
An engineering, multiscale constitutive model for fiber-forming collagen in tension.
Annovazzi, Lorella; Genna, Francesco
2010-01-01
This work proposes a nonlinear constitutive model for a single collagen fiber. Fiber-forming collagen can exhibit different hierarchies of basic units, called fascicles, bundles, fibrils, microfibrils, and so forth, down to the molecular (tropocollagen) level. Exploiting the fact that at each hierarchy level the microstructure can be seen, at least approximately, as that of a wavy, or crimped, extensible cable, the proposed stress-strain model considers a given number of levels, each of which contributes to the overall mechanical behavior according to its own geometrical features (crimp, or waviness), as well as to the basic mechanical properties of the tropocollagen. The crimp features at all levels are assumed to be random variables, whose statistical integration furnishes a stress-strain curve for a collagen fiber. The soundness of this model-the first, to the Authors' knowledge, to treat a single collagen fiber as a microstructured nonlinear structural element-is checked by its application to collagen fibers for which experimental results are available: rat tail tendon, periodontal ligament, and engineered ones. Here, no attempt is made to obtain a stress-strain law for generic collagenous tissues, which exhibit specific features, often much more complex than those of a single fiber. However, it is trivial to observe that the availability of a sound, microstructurally based constitutive law for a single collagen fiber (but applicable at any sub-level, or to any other material with a similar microstructure) is essential for assembling complex constitutive models for any collagenous fibrous tissue.
Cady, C.M.; Chen, S.R.; Gray, G.T. III
1996-08-23
The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamic mechanical properties of four different structural sheet steels used in automobile manufacture. The analysis of a drawing quality, special killed (DQSK) mild steel; high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steel; interstitial free (IF); and a high strength steel (M-190) have been completed. In addition to the true stress-true strain data, coefficients for the Johnson-Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, and Mechanical Threshold Stress constitutive models have been determined from the mechanical test results at various strain rates and temperatures and are summarized. Compression, tensile, and biaxial bulge tests and low (below 0.1/s) strain rate tests were completed for all four steels. From these test results it was determined to proceed with the material modeling optimization using the through thickness compression results. Compression tests at higher strain rates and temperatures were also conducted and analyzed for all the steels. Constitutive model fits were generated from the experimental data. This report provides a compilation of information generated from mechanical tests, the fitting parameters for each of the constitutive models, and an index and description of data files.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, S. M.
2006-01-01
Materials property information such as composition and thermophysical/mechanical properties abound in the literature. Oftentimes, however, the corresponding response curves from which these data are determined are missing or at the very least difficult to retrieve. Further, the paradigm for collecting materials property information has historically centered on (1) properties for materials comparison/selection purposes and (2) input requirements for conventional design/analysis methods. However, just as not all materials are alike or equal, neither are all constitutive models (and thus design/ analysis methods) equal; each model typically has its own specific and often unique required materials parameters, some directly measurable and others indirectly measurable. Therefore, the type and extent of materials information routinely collected is not always sufficient to meet the current, much less future, needs of the materials modeling community. Informatics has been defined as the science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information. A key aspect of informatics is its focus on understanding problems and applying information technology as needed to address those problems. The primary objective of this article is to highlight the need for a paradigm shift in materials data collection, analysis, and dissemination so as to maximize the impact on both practitioners and researchers. Our hope is to identify and articulate what constitutes "sufficient" data content (i.e., quality and quantity) for developing, characterizing, and validating sophisticated nonlinear time- and history-dependent (hereditary) constitutive models. Likewise, the informatics infrastructure required for handling the potentially massive amounts of materials data will be discussed.
Energy-based constitutive modelling of local material properties of canine aortas
Shahmirzadi, Danial; Acosta, Camilo J.; Konofagou, Elisa
2016-01-01
This study aims at determining the in vitro anisotropic mechanical behaviour of canine aortic tissue. We specifically focused on spatial variations of these properties along the axis of the vessel. We performed uniaxial stretch tests on canine aortic samples in both circumferential and longitudinal directions, as well as histological examinations to derive the tissue's fibre orientations. We subsequently characterized a constitutive model that incorporates both phenomenological and structural elements to account for macroscopic and microstructural behaviour of the tissue. We showed the two fibre families were oriented at similar angles with respect to the aorta's axis. We also found significant changes in mechanical behaviour of the tissue as a function of axial position from proximal to distal direction: the fibres become more aligned with the aortic axis from 46° to 30°. Also, the linear shear modulus of media decreased as we moved distally along the aortic axis from 139 to 64 kPa. These changes derived from the parameters in the nonlinear constitutive model agreed well with the changes in tissue structure. In addition, we showed that isotropic contribution, carried by elastic lamellae, to the total stress induced in the tissue decreases at higher stretch ratios, whereas anisotropic stress, carried by collagen fibres, increases. The constitutive models can be readily used to design computational models of tissue deformation during physiological loading cycles. The findings of this study extend the understanding of local mechanical properties that could lead to region-specific diagnostics and treatment of arterial diseases. PMID:27703701
Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Changyong
2014-01-01
The nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel 316LN has been chosen as the material for nuclear main-pipe, which is one of the key parts in 3rd generation nuclear power plants. In this research, a constitutive model of nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel is developed. The true stress-true strain curves obtained from isothermal hot compression tests over a wide range of temperatures (900-1250°C) and strain rates (10(-3)-10 s(-1)), were employed to study the dynamic deformational behavior of and recrystallization in 316LN steels. The constitutive model is developed through multiple linear regressions performed on the experimental data and based on an Arrhenius-type equation and Zener-Hollomon theory. The influence of strain was incorporated in the developed constitutive equation by considering the effect of strain on the various material constants. The reliability and accuracy of the model is verified through the comparison of predicted flow stress curves and experimental curves. Possible reasons for deviation are also discussed based on the characteristics of modeling process.
Energy-based constitutive modelling of local material properties of canine aortas.
Laksari, Kaveh; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Acosta, Camilo J; Konofagou, Elisa
2016-09-01
This study aims at determining the in vitro anisotropic mechanical behaviour of canine aortic tissue. We specifically focused on spatial variations of these properties along the axis of the vessel. We performed uniaxial stretch tests on canine aortic samples in both circumferential and longitudinal directions, as well as histological examinations to derive the tissue's fibre orientations. We subsequently characterized a constitutive model that incorporates both phenomenological and structural elements to account for macroscopic and microstructural behaviour of the tissue. We showed the two fibre families were oriented at similar angles with respect to the aorta's axis. We also found significant changes in mechanical behaviour of the tissue as a function of axial position from proximal to distal direction: the fibres become more aligned with the aortic axis from 46° to 30°. Also, the linear shear modulus of media decreased as we moved distally along the aortic axis from 139 to 64 kPa. These changes derived from the parameters in the nonlinear constitutive model agreed well with the changes in tissue structure. In addition, we showed that isotropic contribution, carried by elastic lamellae, to the total stress induced in the tissue decreases at higher stretch ratios, whereas anisotropic stress, carried by collagen fibres, increases. The constitutive models can be readily used to design computational models of tissue deformation during physiological loading cycles. The findings of this study extend the understanding of local mechanical properties that could lead to region-specific diagnostics and treatment of arterial diseases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, S. M.
2006-01-01
Materials property information such as composition and thermophysical/mechanical properties abound in the literature. Oftentimes, however, the corresponding response curves from which these data are determined are missing or at the very least difficult to retrieve. Further, the paradigm for collecting materials property information has historically centered on (1) properties for materials comparison/selection purposes and (2) input requirements for conventional design/analysis methods. However, just as not all materials are alike or equal, neither are all constitutive models (and thus design/ analysis methods) equal; each model typically has its own specific and often unique required materials parameters, some directly measurable and others indirectly measurable. Therefore, the type and extent of materials information routinely collected is not always sufficient to meet the current, much less future, needs of the materials modeling community. Informatics has been defined as the science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information. A key aspect of informatics is its focus on understanding problems and applying information technology as needed to address those problems. The primary objective of this article is to highlight the need for a paradigm shift in materials data collection, analysis, and dissemination so as to maximize the impact on both practitioners and researchers. Our hope is to identify and articulate what constitutes "sufficient" data content (i.e., quality and quantity) for developing, characterizing, and validating sophisticated nonlinear time- and history-dependent (hereditary) constitutive models. Likewise, the informatics infrastructure required for handling the potentially massive amounts of materials data will be discussed.
Micromechanical Modeling of Impact Damage Mechanisms in Unidirectional Composite Laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Zhenqing
2016-12-01
Composite laminates are susceptible to the transverse impact loads resulting in significant damage such as matrix cracking, fiber breakage and delamination. In this paper, a micromechanical model is developed to predict the impact damage of composite laminates based on microstructure and various failure models of laminates. The fiber and matrix are represented by the isotropic and elastic-plastic solid, and their impact failure behaviors are modeled based on shear damage model. The delaminaton failure is modeling by the interface element controlled by cohesive damage model. Impact damage mechanisms of laminate are analyzed by using the micromechanical model proposed. In addition, the effects of impact energy and laminated type on impact damage behavior of laminates are investigated. Due to the damage of the surrounding matrix near the impact point caused by the fiber deformation, the surface damage area of laminate is larger than the area of impact projectile. The shape of the damage area is roughly rectangle or elliptical with the major axis extending parallel to the fiber direction in the surface layer of laminate. The alternating laminated type with two fiber directions is more propitious to improve the impact resistance of laminates.
Polzer, S; Gasser, T C; Novak, K; Man, V; Tichy, M; Skacel, P; Bursa, J
2015-03-01
Structure-based constitutive models might help in exploring mechanisms by which arterial wall histology is linked to wall mechanics. This study aims to validate a recently proposed structure-based constitutive model. Specifically, the model's ability to predict mechanical biaxial response of porcine aortic tissue with predefined collagen structure was tested. Histological slices from porcine thoracic aorta wall (n=9) were automatically processed to quantify the collagen fiber organization, and mechanical testing identified the non-linear properties of the wall samples (n=18) over a wide range of biaxial stretches. Histological and mechanical experimental data were used to identify the model parameters of a recently proposed multi-scale constitutive description for arterial layers. The model predictive capability was tested with respect to interpolation and extrapolation. Collagen in the media was predominantly aligned in circumferential direction (planar von Mises distribution with concentration parameter bM=1.03 ± 0.23), and its coherence decreased gradually from the luminal to the abluminal tissue layers (inner media, b=1.54 ± 0.40; outer media, b=0.72 ± 0.20). In contrast, the collagen in the adventitia was aligned almost isotropically (bA=0.27 ± 0.11), and no features, such as families of coherent fibers, were identified. The applied constitutive model captured the aorta biaxial properties accurately (coefficient of determination R(2)=0.95 ± 0.03) over the entire range of biaxial deformations and with physically meaningful model parameters. Good predictive properties, well outside the parameter identification space, were observed (R(2)=0.92 ± 0.04). Multi-scale constitutive models equipped with realistic micro-histological data can predict macroscopic non-linear aorta wall properties. Collagen largely defines already low strain properties of media, which explains the origin of wall anisotropy seen at this strain level. The structure and mechanical
Damage Mechanics Model Development for Monocrystalline Superalloys (PREPRINT)
2010-02-01
AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2010-4148 DAMAGE MECHANICS MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR MONOCRYSTALLINE SUPERALLOYS (PREPRINT) Mark A. Tschopp Mississippi State...October 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DAMAGE MECHANICS MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR MONOCRYSTALLINE SUPERALLOYS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-07-D-5800...better predict damage initiation, such as cracking, in superalloys under engine representative conditions. This report details work that focuses on
3D Microstructures for Materials and Damage Models
Livescu, Veronica; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Vander Wiel, Scott Alan
2017-02-01
Many challenges exist with regard to understanding and representing complex physical processes involved with ductile damage and failure in polycrystalline metallic materials. Currently, the ability to accurately predict the macroscale ductile damage and failure response of metallic materials is lacking. Research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is aimed at building a coupled experimental and computational methodology that supports the development of predictive damage capabilities by: capturing real distributions of microstructural features from real material and implementing them as digitally generated microstructures in damage model development; and, distilling structure-property information to link microstructural details to damage evolution under a multitudemore » of loading states.« less
A constitutive model of porous SMAs considering tensile-compressive asymmetry behaviors.
Liu, Bingfei; Dui, Guansuo; Xie, Benming; Xue, Lijun
2014-04-01
A constitutive model of the macroscopic behaviors of porous shape memory alloys (SMA) is developed in this work. A yield function for porous SMAs considering both the effect of hydrostatic stress and the tensile-compressive asymmetry is proposed. Combining the constitutive model of dense SMAs and the macroscale and microscale analysis, the evolution equation for the overall transformation strain is then derived. Examples for the response of both dense SMA and porous Ni-Ti SMA subjected to uniaxial tension and compression loads are supplied. Good agreement between the numerical prediction results and the published experimental data is observed. Numerical result shows that the yielding stresses, loop width and length, strain-hardening behaviors of porous SMAs under pure tensile and pure compressive are different. Importantly, the transformation initiation stress is much closer to the experiment result than simulated by Zhao et al. (2005).
Modelling direct tangible damages due to natural hazards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreibich, H.; Bubeck, P.
2012-04-01
Europe has witnessed a significant increase in direct damages from natural hazards. A further damage increase is expected due to the on-going accumulation of people and economic assets in risk-prone areas and the effects of climate change, for instance, on the severity and frequency of drought events in the Mediterranean basin. In order to mitigate the impact of natural hazards an improved risk management based on reliable risk analysis is needed. Particularly, there is still much research effort needed to improve the modelling of damage due to natural hazards. In comparison with hazard modelling, simple approaches still dominate damage assessments, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damaging processes and influencing factors. Within the EU-project ConHaz, methods as well as data sources and terminology for damage assessments were compiled, systemized and analysed. Similarities and differences between the approaches concerning floods, alpine hazards, coastal hazards and droughts were identified. Approaches for significant improvements of direct tangible damage modelling with a particular focus on cross-hazard-learning will be presented. Examples from different hazards and countries will be given how to improve damage data bases, the understanding of damaging processes, damage models and how to conduct improvements via validations and uncertainty analyses.
An incremental-iterative method for modeling damage evolution in voxel-based microstructure models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Qi-Zhi; Yvonnet, Julien
2015-02-01
Numerical methods motivated by rapid advances in image processing techniques have been intensively developed during recent years and increasingly applied to simulate heterogeneous materials with complex microstructure. The present work aims at elaborating an incremental-iterative numerical method for voxel-based modeling of damage evolution in quasi-brittle microstructures. The iterative scheme based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the real space domain (Yvonnet, in Int J Numer Methods Eng 92:178-205, 2012) is first cast into an incremental form so as to implement nonlinear material models efficiently. In the proposed scheme, local strain increments at material grid points are computed iteratively by a mapping operation through a transformation array, while local stresses are determined using a constitutive model that accounts for material degradation by damage. For validation, benchmark studies and numerical simulations using microtomographic data of concrete are performed. For each test, numerical predictions by the incremental-iterative scheme and the finite element method, respectively, are presented and compared for both global responses and local damage distributions. It is emphasized that the proposed incremental-iterative formulation can be straightforwardly applied in the framework of other Lippmann-Schwinger equation-based schemes, like the fast Fourier transform method.
A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.
1993-01-01
A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avakian, Artjom; Ricoeur, Andreas
2017-02-01
A constitutive modelling of ferromagnetic materials under combined magnetomechanical multiaxial loading with different boundary conditions and a finite element implementation are presented. The phenomenologically motivated model is capable of predicting magnetisation, strain, and stress and is thus suitable, e.g., for applications in multiferroic composites. The approach covers a reversible nonlinear behaviour as it is observed, e.g., in cobalt ferrite and other soft magnetic alloys. Various examples demonstrate the suitability of the model and its numerical implementation and give an insight into the behaviour of soft magnets, exposed to different boundary conditions or being embedded into other compliant materials.
Ding, J.L.; Liu, K.C.; Brinkman, C.R.
1992-12-31
A constitutive model capable of describing deformation and predicting rupture life was developed for high temperature ceramic materials under general thermal-mechanical loading conditions. The model was developed based on the deformation and fracture behavior observed from a systematic experimental study on an advanced silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic material. Validity of the model was evaluated with reference to creep and creep rupture data obtained under constant and stepwise-varied loading conditions, including the effects of annealing on creep and creep rupture behavior.
Analyses for Debonding of Stitched Composite Sandwich Structures Using Improved Constitutive Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaessgen, E. H.; Sleight, D. W.; Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.
2001-01-01
A fracture mechanics analysis based on strain energy release rates is used to study the effect of stitching in bonded sandwich beam configurations. Finite elements are used to model the configurations. The stitches were modeled as discrete nonlinear spring elements with a compliance determined by experiment. The constitutive models were developed using the results of flatwise tension tests from sandwich material rather than monolithic material. The analyses show that increasing stitch stiffness, stitch density and debond length decrease strain energy release rates for a fixed applied load.
A finite-deformation constitutive model for bulk metallic glass composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marandi, Kianoosh; Shim, V. P. W.
2014-05-01
The focus of this study is the development of an elastic-viscoplastic, three-dimensional, finite-deformation constitutive model to describe the large deformation behavior of bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite. A macroscopic theoretical formulation is proposed based on thermodynamic considerations to describe the response at ambient temperature and pressure, as well as at different strain rates. A constitutive equation is derived using the principle of thermodynamics and the augmenting of free energy. This is done by assuming that deformation within the constituent phases of the composite is affine; kinetic equations defining plastic shear and evolution of free volume concentration are then derived. The constitutive model is subsequently implemented in a finite-element program (Abaqus/Explicit) via a user-defined material subroutine. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental results from tests on La-based in situ BMG composite (La-Al-Cu-Ni) specimens cast in-house; this demonstrates that the model is able to describe the material behavior observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodarzi, Mohammad Saeed; Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein
2017-02-01
In this paper a formulation of a viscoelastic-damage interface model with friction in mode-II is presented. The cohesive constitutive law contains elastic and damage regimes. It has been assumed that the shear stress in the elastic regime follows the viscoelastic properties of the matrix material. The three element Voigt model has been used for the formulation of relaxation modulus of the material. Damage evolution proceeds according to the bilinear cohesive constitutive law combined with friction stress consideration. Combination of damage and friction is based on the presumption that the damaged area, related to an integration point, can be dismembered into the un-cracked area with the cohesive damage and cracked area with friction. Samples of a one element model have been presented to see the effect of parameters on the cohesive constitutive law. A comparison between the predicted results with available results of end-notched flexure specimens in the literature is also presented to verify the model. Transverse crack tension specimens are also simulated for different applied displacement velocities.
Billiar, K L; Sacks, M S
2000-08-01
We have formulated the first constitutive model to describe the complete measured planar biaxial stress-strain relationship of the native and glutaraldehyde-treated aortic valve cusp using a structurally guided approach. When applied to native, zero-pressure fixed, and low-pressure fixed cusps, only three parameters were needed to simulate fully the highly anisotropic, and nonlinear in-plane biaxial mechanical behavior. Differences in the behavior of the native and zero- and low-pressure fixed cusps were found to be primarily due to changes in the effective fiber stress-strain behavior. Further, the model was able to account for the effects of small (< 10 deg) misalignments in the cuspal specimens with respect to the biaxial test axes that increased the accuracy of the model material parameters. Although based upon a simplified cuspal structure, the model underscored the role of the angular orientation of the fibers that completely accounted for extreme mechanical anisotropy and pronounced axial coupling. Knowledge of the mechanics of the aortic cusp derived from this model may aid in the understanding of fatigue damage in bioprosthetic heart valves and, potentially, lay the groundwork for the design of tissue-engineered scaffolds for replacement heart valves.
Constitutive model for predicting dynamic interactions between soil ejecta and structural panels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, V. S.; McMeeking, R. M.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Evans, A. G.
2009-08-01
A constitutive model is developed for the high-rate deformation of an aggregate comprising of mono-sized spherical particles with a view to developing an understanding of dynamic soil-structure interactions in landmine explosions. The constitutive model accounts for two regimes of behaviour. When the particle assembly is widely dispersed ( regime I), the contacts between particles are treated as collisions, analogous to those between molecules in a gas or liquid. At high packing densities ( regime II) the contacts are semi-permanent and consolidation is dominated by particle deformation and inter-particle friction. Regime I is modelled by extending an approach proposed by Bagnold (1954. Experiments on a gravity-free dispersion of large solid particles in a Newtonian fluid under shear. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 225, 49-63) to a general strain history comprising volumetric and deviatoric deformation. For regime II, classical soil mechanics models (such as Drucker-Prager) are employed. The overall model is employed to investigate the one-dimensional impact of sand against a rigid stationary target. The calculations illustrate that, unlike single-particle impact, the momentum transmitted to a rigid target is insensitive to the particle co-efficient of restitution, but strongly dependent on initial density. The constitutive model is also used to examine the spherical expansion of a shell of sand (both dry and water saturated). In line with initial experimental observations, the wet sand is predicted to form clumps while the dry sand fully disperses. The model shows that this clumping of explosively loaded wet sand exerts higher pressures on nearby targets compared to equivalent dry sand explosions.
A 3-D constitutive model for pressure-dependent phase transformation of porous shape memory alloys.
Ashrafi, M J; Arghavani, J; Naghdabadi, R; Sohrabpour, S
2015-02-01
Porous shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit the interesting characteristics of porous metals together with shape memory effect and pseudo-elasticity of SMAs that make them appropriate for biomedical applications. In this paper, a 3-D phenomenological constitutive model for the pseudo-elastic behavior and shape memory effect of porous SMAs is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Comparing to micromechanical and computational models, the proposed model is computationally cost effective and predicts the behavior of porous SMAs under proportional and non-proportional multiaxial loadings. Considering the pressure dependency of phase transformation in porous SMAs, proper internal variables, free energy and limit functions are introduced. With the aim of numerical implementation, time discretization and solution algorithm for the proposed model are also presented. Due to lack of enough experimental data on multiaxial loadings of porous SMAs, we employ a computational simulation method (CSM) together with available experimental data to validate the proposed constitutive model. The method is based on a 3-D finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) with random pores pattern. Good agreement between the numerical predictions of the model and CSM results is observed for elastic and phase transformation behaviors in various thermomechanical loadings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baud, Patrick; Vajdova, Veronika; Wong, Teng-Fong
2006-12-01
We studied the mechanics of compactant failure in four sandstones associated with a broad range of failure modes in the brittle-ductile transition. While Berea and Bentheim sandstones can fail by compaction localization, homogeneous cataclastic flow dominates failure modes in Adamswiller and Darley Dale sandstones at high effective pressures. We acquired new experimental data to complement previous studies, focusing on the strain hardening behavior in samples under drained conditions. The initial yield stresses were identified as the critical stresses at the onset of shear-enhanced compaction, subsequent yield stresses were considered to depend on hardening given by plastic volumetric strain. The yield stresses were described by elliptical yield caps in the stress space, and we compared the cap evolution with two constitutive models: the critical state model and the cap model. Bentheim sandstone showed the best agreement with both models to relatively large strains. Darley Dale sandstone showed the best agreement with the associated flow rule as prescribed by the normality condition, which is implicitly assumed in both constitutive models. Shear-enhanced compaction in Bentheim and Berea sandstones was appreciably more than that predicted for an associative flow rule, with the implication that a nonassociative model is necessary for capturing the inelastic and failure behavior of these sandstones over a broad range of effective pressures. With reference to the nonassociative model formulated by Rudnicki and Rice, bifurcation analysis would predict the transition of failure mode from shear band to compaction band and ultimately to cataclastic flow, in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Koushik; Bhattacharya, Bishakh; Ray-Chaudhuri, Samit
2015-08-01
The study proposes a set of four ARX model (autoregressive model with exogenous input) based damage sensitive features (DSFs) for structural damage detection and localization using the dynamic responses of structures, where the information regarding the input excitation may not be available. In the proposed framework, one of the output responses of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is assumed as the input and the rest are considered as the output. The features are based on ARX model coefficients, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test statistical distance, and the model residual error. At first, a mathematical formulation is provided to establish the relation between the change in ARX model coefficients and the normalized stiffness of a structure. KS test parameters are then described to show the sensitivity of statistical distance of ARX model residual error with the damage location. The efficiency of the proposed set of DSFs is evaluated by conducting numerical studies involving a shear building and a steel moment-resisting frame. To simulate the damage scenarios in these structures, stiffness degradation of different elements is considered. It is observed from this study that the proposed set of DSFs is good indicator for damage location even in the presence of damping, multiple damages, noise, and parametric uncertainties. The performance of these DSFs is compared with mode shape curvature-based approach for damage localization. An experimental study has also been conducted on a three-dimensional six-storey steel moment frame to understand the performance of these DSFs under real measurement conditions. It has been observed that the proposed set of DSFs can satisfactorily localize damage in the structure.
Numerical simulation of soil creep with a visco-hypoplastic constitutive model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shun; Wu, Wei
2016-04-01
Slow-moving landslides make up a great part of geohazards in the Three Gorges reservoir (TGR) in China. Most of them move at speed of several centimeters per year (or even less) and show evidence of creep behaviour. It has been suggested that motion of creep landslides is mainly governed by the viscous properties of sheared materials forming the rupture zone, as these zones are where most of the slope deformation localizes. Understanding of creep behaviour of slipping material calls for laboratory tests as well as advanced constitutive models. For this purpose, a high order visco-hypoplastic constitutive model has been introduced. Unlike some of the visco-hypoplasric models, which consider the total strain rate as a combination of reversible strain rate and viscous strain rate respectively, such as dot{bm{e}}=dot{bm{e}}^e+dot{bm{e}}vis (where dot{bm{e}}, dot{bm{e}}e and dot{bm{e}}vis are the total strain rate ,reversible strain rate and viscous strain rate respectively), the proposed visco-hypolastic constitutive model decompose the Cauchy stress into a statical part and a dynamical part, bm{s}=hat{bm{s}}+\\check{bm{s}} (where bm{s},hat{bm{s}} and \\check{bm{s}} are total stress ,statical stress and dynamical stress respectively), whereas the strain rate has been considered as a whole. Within in this framework, stress change induced by strain acceleration can be taken into account. Moreover, compared with some special creep models, which may only valid for one or two stages of the three-state creep, i.e. primary creep, secondary creep and tertiary creep, this novel scheme is able to describe creep test with the whole three stages. This model has been also implemented into FEM code to evaluate some boundary-value problems. An explicit adaptive Rung-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm is applied for stress-point integration. For verification of this model, numerical triaxial tests compared with laboratory tests have been conducted. Then a homogenous slope has been taken as an
A size-dependent constitutive modelling framework for localised failure analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Giang D.; Nguyen, Chi T.; Nguyen, Vinh P.; Bui, Ha H.; Shen, Luming
2016-08-01
Localised deformation of materials usually takes place in thin bands during the nonlinear phase of the deformation process. The orientation and size of these localisation bands are important properties characterising the post-localisation behaviour of the materials, and hence should be taken into account in constitutive modelling. In this research, a new approach is proposed for the integration of both size and orientation of a localisation band in the constitutive description beyond the onset of localisation. Since a length scale related to the size of the localisation band appears in the model description, its post-localisation response then scales with both the band size and the size of the volume element containing it. Therefore, size effects are intrinsically included and post-localisation behaviour is correctly captured, which helps ensure convergence of numerical solutions upon discretisation refinement in numerical analysis of boundary value problems. The concept together with implementation features of the framework and its performances at constitutive level and in the analysis of boundary value problems are presented in this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.
1989-01-01
Development of new material models for describing the high temperature constitutive behavior of real materials represents an important area of research in engineering disciplines. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error prone; thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. A computerized procedure (SDICE) capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form is presented. This package, running under MACSYMA, has the following features: partial differentiation, tensor computations, automatic grouping and labeling of common factors, expression substitution and simplification, back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations and a relational data base. Also limited aspects of invariant theory were incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). Finally not only calculation of flow and/or evolutionary laws were accomplished but also the determination of history independent nonphysical coefficients in terms of physically measurable parameters, e.g., Young's modulus, was achieved. The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet predefined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed when applicable utilizing index notation.
Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao
2015-10-15
For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.
Chen, Z.; Schreyer, H.L.
1995-09-01
The response of underground structures and transportation facilities under various external loadings and environments is critical for human safety as well as environmental protection. Since quasi-brittle materials such as concrete and rock are commonly used for underground construction, the constitutive modeling of these engineering materials, including post-limit behaviors, is one of the most important aspects in safety assessment. From experimental, theoretical, and computational points of view, this report considers the constitutive modeling of quasi-brittle materials in general and concentrates on concrete in particular. Based on the internal variable theory of thermodynamics, the general formulations of plasticity and damage models are given to simulate two distinct modes of microstructural changes, inelastic flow and degradation of material strength and stiffness, that identify the phenomenological nonlinear behaviors of quasi-brittle materials. The computational aspects of plasticity and damage models are explored with respect to their effects on structural analyses. Specific constitutive models are then developed in a systematic manner according to the degree of completeness. A comprehensive literature survey is made to provide the up-to-date information on prediction of structural failures, which can serve as a reference for future research.
A meso-scale layer-specific structural constitutive model of the mitral heart valve leaflets.
Zhang, Will; Ayoub, Salma; Liao, Jun; Sacks, Michael S
2016-03-01
Fundamental to developing a deeper understanding of pathophysiological remodeling in mitral valve (MV) disease is the development of an accurate tissue-level constitutive model. In the present work, we developed a novel meso-scale (i.e. at the level of the fiber, 10-100 μm in length scale) structural constitutive model (MSSCM) for MV leaflet tissues. Due to its four-layer structure, we focused on the contributions from the distinct collagen and elastin fiber networks within each tissue layer. Requisite collagen and elastin fibrous structural information for each layer were quantified using second harmonic generation microscopy and conventional histology. A comprehensive mechanical dataset was also used to guide model formulation and parameter estimation. Furthermore, novel to tissue-level structural constitutive modeling approaches, we allowed the collagen fiber recruitment function to vary with orientation. Results indicated that the MSSCM predicted a surprisingly consistent mean effective collagen fiber modulus of 162.72 MPa, and demonstrated excellent predictive capability for extra-physiological loading regimes. There were also anterior-posterior leaflet-specific differences, such as tighter collagen and elastin fiber orientation distributions (ODF) in the anterior leaflet, and a thicker and stiffer atrialis in the posterior leaflet. While a degree of angular variance was observed, the tight valvular tissue ODF also left little room for any physically meaningful angular variance in fiber mechanical responses. Finally, a novel fibril-level (0.1-1 μm) validation approach was used to compare the predicted collagen fiber/fibril mechanical behavior with extant MV small angle X-ray scattering data. Results demonstrated excellent agreement, indicating that the MSSCM fully captures the tissue-level function. Future utilization of the MSSCM in computational models of the MV will aid in producing highly accurate simulations in non-physiological loading states that can
Petrucci, Vanessa; Chicca, Andrea; Glasmacher, Sandra; Paloczi, Janos; Cao, Zongxian; Pacher, Pal; Gertsch, Jürg
2017-08-25
Pepcan-12 (RVD-hemopressin; RVDPVNFKLLSH) is the major peptide of a family of endogenous peptide endocannabinoids (pepcans) shown to act as negative allosteric modulators (NAM) of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Noradrenergic neurons have been identified to be a specific site of pepcan production. However, it remains unknown whether pepcans occur in the periphery and interact with peripheral CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Here, it is shown that pepcan-12 acts as a potent (K i value ~50 nM) hCB2 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM). It significantly potentiated the effects of CB2 receptor agonists, including the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), for [35S]GTPγS binding and cAMP inhibition (5-10 fold). In mice, the putative precursor pepcan-23 (SALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSH) was identified with pepcan-12 in brain, liver and kidney. Pepcan-12 was increased upon endotoxemia and ischemia reperfusion damage where CB2 receptors play a protective role. The adrenals are a major endocrine site of production/secretion of constitutive pepcan-12, as shown by its marked loss after adrenalectomy. However, upon I/R damage pepcan-12 was strongly increased in the liver (from ~100 pmol/g to ~500 pmol/g) independent of adrenals. The wide occurrence of this endogenous hormone-like CB2 receptor PAM, with unforeseen opposite allosteric effects on cannabinoid receptors, suggests its potential role in peripheral pathophysiological processes.
Potential constitutive models for salt: Survey of phenomenology, micromechanisms, and equations
Senseny, P.E.; Hansen, F.D.
1987-12-01
Results are given of a literature survey performed to document the thermomechanical phenomena and micromechanical processes observed for salt over the ranges of stress and temperature of interest for a high-level nuclear repository. The elastic and thermal expansion behavior of salt can be readily modeled by the generalized Duhamel Neumann form of Hooke's law with temperature-dependent elastic constants and coefficient of thermal expansion. Inelastic deformation is primarily viscoplastic, but also has a brittle component. The observed phenomenological behavior of salt occurs because of micromechanical processes. To the extent that these processes have been studied, a summary of deformation mechanisms in natural salt is included in this report. Eight constitutive models that appear to be capable of modeling the viscoplastic deformation have been selected from the literature. Two models have been selected to model brittle deformation. Insufficient data are available to develop a model for failure. 92 refs., 39 figs., 6 tabs.
New mesoscopic constitutive model for deformation of pearlitic steels up to moderate strains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alkorta, J.; Martínez-Esnaola, J. M.; de Jaeger, P.; Gil Sevillano, J.
2017-07-01
A new constitutive model for deformation of pearlitic steels has been developed that describes the mechanical behaviour and microstructural evolution of lamellar multi-colony pearlite. The model, a two-phase continuum model, considers the plastic anisotropy of ferrite derived from its lamellar structure but ignores any anisotropy associated with cementite and does not consider the crystal structure of either constituent. The resulting plastic constitutive equation takes into account a dependence on both the pearlitic spacing (arising from the confined slip of dislocations in the lamellae) and on strengthening from the evolving intra-lamellar dislocation density. A Kocks-Mecking strain hardening/recovery model is used for the lamellar ferrite, whereas perfect-plastic behaviour is assumed for cementite. The model naturally captures the microstructural evolution and the internal micro-stresses developed due to the different mechanical behaviour of both phases. The model is also able to describe the lamellar evolution (orientation and interlamellar spacing) with good accuracy. The role of plastic anisotropy in the ferritic phase has also been studied, and the results show that anisotropy has an important impact on both microstructural evolution and strengthening of heavily drawn wires.
Modelling low velocity impact induced damage in composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos
2017-12-01
The paper presents recent progress on modelling low velocity impact induced damage in fibre reinforced composite laminates. It is important to understand the mechanisms of barely visible impact damage (BVID) and how it affects structural performance. To reduce labour intensive testing, the development of finite element (FE) techniques for simulating impact damage becomes essential and recent effort by the composites research community is reviewed in this work. The FE predicted damage initiation and propagation can be validated by Non Destructive Techniques (NDT) that gives confidence to the developed numerical damage models. A reliable damage simulation can assist the design process to optimise laminate configurations, reduce weight and improve performance of components and structures used in aircraft construction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarbandi, B.; Besson, J.; Boussuge, M.; Ryckelynck, D.
2010-06-01
Slip cast ceramic components undergo both sintering shrinkage and creep deformation caused by gravity during the firing cycle. In addition sintering may be anisotropic due to the development of preferential directions during slip casting. Both phenomena induce complex deformations of parts which make the design of casting molds difficult. To help solving this problem, anisotropic constitutive equations are proposed to represent the behavior of the ceramic compacts during sintering. The model parameters are identified using tests allowing to characterize both sintering and creep. The model was implemented in a finite element software and used to simulate the deformation of a traditional ceramic object during sintering.
Sarbandi, B.; Besson, J.; Boussuge, M.; Ryckelynck, D.
2010-06-15
Slip cast ceramic components undergo both sintering shrinkage and creep deformation caused by gravity during the firing cycle. In addition sintering may be anisotropic due to the development of preferential directions during slip casting. Both phenomena induce complex deformations of parts which make the design of casting molds difficult. To help solving this problem, anisotropic constitutive equations are proposed to represent the behavior of the ceramic compacts during sintering. The model parameters are identified using tests allowing to characterize both sintering and creep. The model was implemented in a finite element software and used to simulate the deformation of a traditional ceramic object during sintering.
Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, G. A.
1985-01-01
The purpose is to develop life prediction models for coated anisotropic materials used in gas temperature airfoils. Two single crystal alloys and two coatings are now being tested. These include PWA 1480; Alloy 185; overlay coating, PWA 286; and aluminide coating, PWA 273. Constitutive models are also being developed for these materials to predict the plastic and creep strain histories of the materials in the lab tests and for actual design conditions. This nonlinear material behavior is particularily important for high temperature gas turbine applications and is basic to any life prediction system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilt, T. E.
1995-01-01
The Generalized Method of Cells (GMC), a micromechanics based constitutive model, is implemented into the finite element code MARC using the user subroutine HYPELA. Comparisons in terms of transverse deformation response, micro stress and strain distributions, and required CPU time are presented for GMC and finite element models of fiber/matrix unit cell. GMC is shown to provide comparable predictions of the composite behavior and requires significantly less CPU time as compared to a finite element analysis of the unit cell. Details as to the organization of the HYPELA code are provided with the actual HYPELA code included in the appendix.
Identification of Two Constitutive Models for a Low Alloy Structural Steel S355K2G3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mespoulet, Jerome; Lachaud, Aurelien; Hereil, Pierre
2009-06-01
An experimental characterization of the dynamic response of a low strength structural steel (S355K2G3) has been investigated using various experimental techniques performed at THIOT INGENIERIE impact shock physics test facility: Taylor impacts, hat shaped shear tests, dynamic tensile tests and plate impact experiments. This paper presents simulations of these experiments performed in a wide range of strain-rate conditions. The objective is to simulate impact, blast and explosion on a whole structure. Impacts generate huge gradients of stress and strain because of shock waves propagation and interaction on free surfaces. Blast and explosion have a tendency to induce large strains. Based on the overall experiments, it is proposed to identify two classical constitutive models (Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Amstrong) integrated in two non-linear explicit finite element hydrocodes ANSYS-AUTODYN and LS-DYNA. Both hydrocodes take into account various modes of fracture from single conventional fracture thresholds such as critical strain value or hydro tensile failure model to more complex modes such as Johnson Holmquist damage failure model. Choice between models is discussed with respect to material nature and to solicitations the material is subjected to.
Aerodynamic Effects and Modeling of Damage to Transport Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shah, Gautam H.
2008-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to measure the aerodynamic effects of damage to lifting and stability/control surfaces of a commercial transport aircraft configuration. The modeling of such effects is necessary for the development of flight control systems to recover aircraft from adverse, damage-related loss-of-control events, as well as for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics from flight data under such conditions. Damage in the form of partial or total loss of area was applied to the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail. Aerodynamic stability and control implications of damage to each surface are presented, to aid in the identification of potential boundaries in recoverable stability or control degradation. The aerodynamic modeling issues raised by the wind tunnel results are discussed, particularly the additional modeling requirements necessitated by asymmetries due to damage, and the potential benefits of such expanded modeling.
Modeling of delamination damage evolution in laminated composites subjected to low velocity impact
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lo, David C.; Allen, David H.
1994-01-01
This study examines the delamination evolution, under quasi-static conditions, of laminated polymeric composites with mechanically nonlinear resin rich interfaces. The constitutive behavior of the interface is represented by two models developed by Needleman and Tvegaard. These models assumed that the interfacial tractions, a function of only the interfacial displacement, will behave similarly to the interatomic forces generated during the interatomic seperation. The interface material's parameters control the load at which the delamination growth initiates and the final delamination size. A wide range of damage accumulation responses have been obtained by varying the model parameters. These results show that Tvergaard's model has been found to be better suited of the two models in predicting damage evolution for the configurations examined.
Computational modeling of progressive failure and damage in composite laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Shiladitya
Current and future aerospace systems utilize an ever-increasing amount of fiber reinforced composite laminates in various mission critical structural components making it imperative to understand their damage tolerance capacity under a multitude of loading envelopes. Their comparatively low strength under predominantly axial compressive loading severely limits the design loads of such structures. In the current work, a mechanism based lamina level computational methodology is developed for progressive failure analysis (PFA) of composite laminates beyond initial failure. A combination of analytical and micromechanical studies are used to identify the underlying mechanism of failure under predominantly compressive loading. Under such loading, the class of carbon fiber reinforced laminates considered in this thesis fails by fiber kinking. Results from an analytical study dispel the notion of a fixed compressive strength and show that it is a function of the in-situ geometric and material properties and stress state. These observations and finite element based micromechanical studies have identified the in-situ fiber rotation in the presence of initial fiber misalignment and the degradation of the in-situ shear modulus due to microcracking as the two main drivers of the kinking failure mechanism. A previously developed thermodynamics based lamina constitutive model is utilized to develop a PFA methodology for laminated composites. Laminae are assumed to be damaged by microcraking that is manifested in the degradation of the shear modulus and the transverse modulus. The amount of irrecoverable energy, expressed as a thermodynamic state variable S, provides a measure of the damage state inside a lamina. Lamina level coupon tests are used to obtain relations between S and the degrading moduli. These relations in conjunction with the lamina elastic constants and the geometric information such as the lamina thickness and the lamina lay-up are used as the PFA inputs. Damage
Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno
2014-05-01
Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.
Bammann, Douglas J.; Johnson, G. C. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marin, Esteban B.; Regueiro, Richard A.
2006-01-01
In this report we present the formulation of the physically-based Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity (EMMI) . The specific version of the model treated here describes the plasticity and isotropic damage of metals as being currently applied to model the ductile failure process in structural components of the W80 program . The formulation of the EMMI constitutive equations is framed in the context of the large deformation kinematics of solids and the thermodynamics of internal state variables . This formulation is focused first on developing the plasticity equations in both the relaxed (unloaded) and current configurations. The equations in the current configuration, expressed in non-dimensional form, are used to devise the identification procedure for the plasticity parameters. The model is then extended to include a porosity-based isotropic damage state variable to describe the progressive deterioration of the strength and mechanical properties of metals induced by deformation . The numerical treatment of these coupled plasticity-damage constitutive equations is explained in detail. A number of examples are solved to validate the numerical implementation of the model.
Majumder, Rupamanjari; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Feola, Iolanda; Ypey, Dirk L.; Pijnappels, Daniël A.; Panfilov, Alexander V.
2016-01-01
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent form of arrhythmia occurring in the industrialized world. Because of its complex nature, each identified form of AF requires specialized treatment. Thus, an in-depth understanding of the bases of these arrhythmias is essential for therapeutic development. A variety of experimental studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms of AF are performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat atrial cardiomyocytes (NRAMs). Previously, we have shown that the distinct advantage of NRAM cultures is that they allow standardized, systematic, robust re-entry induction in the presence of a constitutively-active acetylcholine-mediated K+ current (IKACh-c). Experimental studies dedicated to mechanistic explorations of AF, using these cultures, often use computer models for detailed electrophysiological investigations. However, currently, no mathematical model for NRAMs is available. Therefore, in the present study we propose the first model for the action potential (AP) of a NRAM with constitutively-active acetylcholine-mediated K+ current (IKACh-c). The descriptions of the ionic currents were based on patch-clamp data obtained from neonatal rats. Our monolayer model closely mimics the action potential duration (APD) restitution and conduction velocity (CV) restitution curves presented in our previous in vitro studies. In addition, the model reproduces the experimentally observed dynamics of spiral wave rotation, in the absence and in the presence of drug interventions, and in the presence of localized myofibroblast heterogeneities. PMID:27332890
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tricerri, Paolo; Dedè, Luca; Deparis, Simone; Quarteroni, Alfio; Robertson, Anne M.; Sequeira, Adélia
2015-03-01
This paper considers numerical simulations of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems in hemodynamics for idealized geometries of healthy cerebral arteries modeled by both nonlinear isotropic and anisotropic material constitutive laws. In particular, it focuses on an anisotropic model initially proposed for cerebral arteries to characterize the activation of collagen fibers at finite strains. In the current work, this constitutive model is implemented for the first time in the context of an FSI formulation. In this framework, we investigate the influence of the material model on the numerical results and, in the case of the anisotropic laws, the importance of the collagen fibers on the overall mechanical behavior of the tissue. With this aim, we compare our numerical results by analyzing fluid dynamic indicators, vessel wall displacement, Von Mises stress, and deformations of the collagen fibers. Specifically, for an anisotropic model with collagen fiber recruitment at finite strains, we highlight the progressive activation and deactivation processes of the fibrous component of the tissue throughout the wall thickness during the cardiac cycle. The inclusion of collagen recruitment is found to have a substantial impact on the intramural stress, which will in turn impact the biological response of the intramural cells. Hence, the methodology presented here will be particularly useful for studies of mechanobiological processes in the healthy and diseased vascular wall.
A nonlinear constitutive model for stress relaxation in ligaments and tendons.
Davis, Frances M; De Vita, Raffaella
2012-12-01
A novel constitutive model that describes stress relaxation in transversely isotropic soft collagenous tissues such as ligaments and tendons is presented. The model is formulated within the nonlinear integral representation framework proposed by Pipkin and Rogers (J. Mech. Phys. Solids. 16:59-72, 1968). It represents a departure from existing models in biomechanics since it describes not only the strain dependent stress relaxation behavior of collagenous tissues but also their finite strains and transverse isotropy. Axial stress-stretch data and stress relaxation data at different axial stretches are collected on rat tail tendon fascicles in order to compute the model parameters. Toward this end, the rat tail tendon fascicles are assumed to be incompressible and undergo an isochoric axisymmetric deformation. A comparison with the experimental data proves that, unlike the quasi-linear viscoelastic model (Fung, Biomechanics: Mechanics of Living Tissues. Springer, New York, 1993) the constitutive law can capture the observed nonlinearities in the stress relaxation response of rat tail tendon fascicles.
Sivakumar Babu, G L; Reddy, Krishna R; Chouksey, Sandeep K
2010-01-01
A constitutive model is proposed to describe the stress-strain behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) under loading using the critical state soil mechanics framework. The modified cam clay model is extended to incorporate the effects of mechanical creep and time dependent biodegradation to calculate total compression under loading. Model parameters are evaluated based on one-dimensional compression and triaxial consolidated undrained test series conducted on three types of MSW: (a) fresh MSW obtained from working phase of a landfill, (b) landfilled waste retrieved from a landfill after 1.5 years of degradation, and (c) synthetic MSW with controlled composition. The model captures the stress-strain and pore water pressure response of these three types of MSW adequately. The model is useful for assessing the deformation and stability of landfills and any post-closure development structures located on landfills.
A constitutive model for layer development in shear zones near the brittle-ductile transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montési, Laurent G. J.
2007-04-01
The microstructure of ductile shear zones differs from that of surrounding wall rocks. In particular, compositional layering is a hallmark of shear zones. As layered rocks are weaker than their isotropic protolith when loaded in simple shear, layering may hold the key to explain localization of ductile deformation onto ductile shear zones. I propose here a constitutive model for layer development. A two-level mixing theory allows the strength of the aggregate to be estimated at intermediate degrees of layering. A probabilistic failure model is introduced to control how layers develop in a deforming aggregate. This model captures one of the initial mechanism of phase interconnection identified experimentally by Holyoke and Tullis (2006a, 2006b), fracturing of load bearing grains. This model reproduces the strength evolution of these experiments and can now be applied to tectonic modeling.
Damage Models for Delamination and Transverse Fracture.
1987-08-01
percentage of off-axis fibers; the results are compare. with fracture energies found by standard methods (which do not account for effects of distri...of tubes by another Ph.D. student, Richard Tonda. Here, the objective is to develop a method for removing from experimental data effects of visco...elasticity on hysteresis and stiffness so that effects of distributed damage growth may be more readily studied. A numerical investigation of crack growth
Cumulative Damage Model for Advanced Composite Materials.
1982-09-01
conditions of static loads; various theories have been advanced to predict the onset and progress of these individual damage events. • The approach taken in...composite laminates, one common approach is the well-known "first ply failure" theory (see e.g. Tsai and Hahn [l]). The basic assumption in the theory ...edge interlaminar stresses provides a physical x tai,-ntion of the edge delamination phenomenon; a suitable theory defining t he conditions for its
Modelling of elastoplastic damage in concrete due to desiccation shrinkage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourgeois, F.; Burlion, N.; Shao, J. F.
2002-07-01
We present a numerical modelling of elastoplastic damage due to drying shrinkage of concrete in the framework of mechanics of partially saturated porous media. An elastoplastic model coupled with isotropic damage is first formulated. Two plastic flow mechanisms are involved, controlled by applied stress and suction, respectively. A general concept of net effective stress is used in take into account effects of capillary pressure and material damage on stress-controlled plastic deformation. Damage evolution depends both on elastic and plastic strains. The model's parameters are determined or chosen from relevant experimental data. Comparisons between numerical simulations and experimental data are presented to show the capacity of model to reproduce mains features of concrete behaviour under mechanical loading and during drying shrinkage of concrete. An example of application concerning drying of a concrete wall is finally presented. The results obtained allow to show potential capacity of proposed model for numerical modelling of complex coupling processes in concrete structures.
MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft
Zhang, Jing
2015-01-01
This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839
A Kinetic Model for Cell Damage Caused by Oligomer Formation.
Hong, Liu; Huang, Ya-Jing; Yong, Wen-An
2015-10-06
It is well known that the formation of amyloid fiber may cause invertible damage to cells, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. In this article, a microscopic model considering the detailed processes of amyloid formation and cell damage is constructed based on four simple assumptions, one of which is that cell damage is raised by oligomers rather than mature fibrils. By taking the maximum entropy principle, this microscopic model in the form of infinite mass-action equations together with two reaction-convection partial differential equations (PDEs) has been greatly coarse-grained into a macroscopic system consisting of only five ordinary differential equations (ODEs). With this simple model, the effects of primary nucleation, elongation, fragmentation, and protein and seeds concentration on amyloid formation and cell damage have been extensively explored and compared with experiments. We hope that our results will provide new insights into the quantitative linkage between amyloid formation and cell damage.
A model of the cell nucleus for DNA damage calculations.
Nikjoo, Hooshang; Girard, Peter
2012-01-01
Development of a computer model of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the human cell nucleus for DNA damage and repair calculations. The model comprises the human genomic DNA, chromosomal domains, and loops attached to factories. A model of canonical B-DNA was used to build the nucleosomes and the 30-nanometer solenoidal chromatin. In turn the chromatin was used to form the loops of factories in chromosome domains. The entire human genome was placed in a spherical nucleus of 10 micrometers diameter. To test the new target model, tracks of protons and alpha-particles were generated using Monte Carlo track structure codes PITS99 (Positive Ion Track Structure) and KURBUC. Damage sites induced in the genome were located and classified according to type and complexity. The three-dimensional structure of the genome starting with a canonical B-DNA model, nucleosomes, and chromatin loops in chromosomal domains are presented. The model was used to obtain frequencies of DNA damage induced by protons and alpha-particles by direct energy deposition, including single- and double-strand breaks, base damage, and clustered lesions. This three-dimensional model of the genome is the first such model using the full human genome for the next generation of more comprehensive modelling of DNA damage and repair. The model combines simple geometrical structures at the level of domains and factories with potentially full detail at the level of atoms in particular genes, allowing damage patterns in the latter to be simulated.
Lester, Brian; Scherzinger, William
2017-01-19
Here, a new method for the solution of the non-linear equations forming the core of constitutive model integration is proposed. Specifically, the trust-region method that has been developed in the numerical optimization community is successfully modified for use in implicit integration of elastic-plastic models. Although attention here is restricted to these rate-independent formulations, the proposed approach holds substantial promise for adoption with models incorporating complex physics, multiple inelastic mechanisms, and/or multiphysics. As a first step, the non-quadratic Hosford yield surface is used as a representative case to investigate computationally challenging constitutive models. The theory and implementation are presented, discussed, andmore » compared to other common integration schemes. Multiple boundary value problems are studied and used to verify the proposed algorithm and demonstrate the capabilities of this approach over more common methodologies. Robustness and speed are then investigated and compared to existing algorithms. Through these efforts, it is shown that the utilization of a trust-region approach leads to superior performance versus a traditional closest-point projection Newton-Raphson method and comparable speed and robustness to a line search augmented scheme.« less
A three-dimensional constitutive model for the stress relaxation of articular ligaments.
Davis, Frances M; De Vita, Raffaella
2014-06-01
A new nonlinear constitutive model for the three-dimensional stress relaxation of articular ligaments is proposed. The model accounts for finite strains, anisotropy, and strain-dependent stress relaxation behavior exhibited by these ligaments. The model parameters are identified using published uniaxial stress-stretch and stress relaxation data on human medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) subjected to tensile tests in the fiber and transverse to the fiber directions (Quapp and Weiss in J Biomech Eng Trans ASME 120:757-763, 1998; Bonifasi-Lista et al. in J Orthop Res 23(1):67-76, 2005). The constitutive equation is then used to predict the nonlinear elastic and stress relaxation response of ligaments subjected to shear deformations in the fiber direction and transverse to the fiber direction, and an equibiaxial extension. A direct comparison with stress relaxation data collected by subjecting human MCLs to shear deformation in the fiber direction is presented in order to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model.
3D Mechanical properties of the layered esophagus: experiment and constitutive model.
Yang, W; Fung, T C; Chian, K S; Chong, C K
2006-12-01
The identification of a three dimensional constitutive model is useful for describing the complex mechanical behavior of a nonlinear and anisotropic biological tissue such as the esophagus. The inflation tests at the fixed axial extension of 1, 1.125, and 1.25 were conducted on the muscle and mucosa layer of a porcine esophagus separately and the pressure-radius-axial force was recorded. The experimental data were fitted with the constitutive model to obtain the structure-related parameters, including the collagen amount and fiber orientation. Results showed that a bilinear strain energy function (SEF) with four parameters could fit the inflation data at an individual extension very well while a six-parameter model had to be used to capture the inflation behaviors at all three extensions simultaneously. It was found that the collagen distribution was axial preferred in both layers and the mucosa contained more collagen, which were in agreement with the findings through a pair of uniaxial tensile test in our previous study. The model was expected to be used for the prediction of stress distribution within the esophageal wall under the physiological state and provide some useful information in the clinical studies of the esophageal diseases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Debadi; Sader, John E.
2015-05-01
Simple bulk liquids such as water are commonly assumed to be Newtonian. While this assumption holds widely, the fluid-structure interaction of mechanical devices at nanometer scales can probe the intrinsic molecular relaxation processes in a surrounding liquid. This was recently demonstrated through measurement of the high frequency (20 GHz) linear mechanical vibrations of bipyramidal nanoparticles in simple liquids [Pelton et al., "Viscoelastic flows in simple liquids generated by vibrating nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 244502 (2013)]. In this article, we review and critically assess the available constitutive equations for compressible viscoelastic flows in their linear limits—such models are required for analysis of the above-mentioned measurements. We show that previous models, with the exception of a very recent proposal, do not reproduce the required response at high frequency. We explain the physical origin of this recent model and show that it recovers all required features of a linear viscoelastic flow. This constitutive equation thus provides a rigorous foundation for the analysis of vibrating nanostructures in simple liquids. The utility of this model is demonstrated by solving the fluid-structure interaction of two common problems: (1) a sphere executing radial oscillations in liquid, which depends strongly on the liquid compressibility and (2) the extensional mode vibration of bipyramidal nanoparticles in liquid, where the effects of liquid compressibility are negligible. This highlights the importance of shear and compressional relaxation processes, as a function of flow geometry, and the impact of the shear and bulk viscosities on nanometer scale flows.
Calibration of a constitutive model for the post-yield behaviour of cortical bone.
Mullins, L P; Bruzzi, M S; McHugh, P E
2009-10-01
In this work, the post-yield behaviour of cortical bone is investigated using finite element modelling, nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. Based on recent investigations, it is proposed that, since pressure dependent deformation mechanisms may contribute to yielding in bone, constitutive models attempting to capture its post-yield behaviour should also incorporate pressure dependence. Nanoindentation testing is performed using a spheroconical indenter tip, and subsequent atomic force microscopy at the indented site shows that bone does not exhibit surface pile-up. By simulating the nanoindentation test, it is found that a Mises based constitutive law cannot simultaneously capture the deformations and load-displacement curve produced during nanoindentation. However, an extended Drucker-Prager model can capture the post-yield behaviour of bone accurately, since it accounts for pressure dependent yield. This suggests that frictional mechanisms are central to the post-yield behaviour of bone. In this work, the extended Drucker-Prager model is calibrated and validated using further simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ling; Min, Junying; Wang, Bin; Lin, Jianping; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Jing
2016-03-01
In practical engineering, finite element(FE) modeling for weld seam is commonly simplified by neglecting its inhomogeneous mechanical properties. This will cause a significant loss in accuracy of FE forming analysis, in particular, for friction stir welded(FSW) blanks due to the large width and good formability of its weld seam. The inhomogeneous mechanical properties across weld seam need to be well characterized for an accurate FE analysis. Based on a similar AA5182 FSW blank, the metallographic observation and micro-Vickers hardness analysis upon the weld cross-section are performed to identify the interfaces of different sub-zones, i.e., heat affected zone(HAZ), thermal-mechanically affected zone(TMAZ) and weld nugget(WN). Based on the rule of mixture and hardness distribution, a constitutive model is established for each sub-zone to characterize the inhomogeneous mechanical properties across the weld seam. Uniaxial tensile tests of the AA5182 FSW blank are performed with the aid of digital image correlation(DIC) techniques. Experimental local stress-strain curves are obtained for different weld sub-zones. The experimental results show good agreement with those derived from the constitutive models, which demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of these models. The proposed research gives an accurate characterization of inhomogeneous mechanical properties across the weld seam produced by FSW, which provides solutions for improving the FE simulation accuracy of FSW sheet forming.
A microplane constitutive model for shape memory alloys considering tension-compression asymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karamooz Ravari, M. R.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Ghaei, A.
2015-07-01
Shape memory alloys are a group of advanced materials that have found several industrial applications due to their interesting mechanical properties including a shape memory effect and superelasticity. In order to optimize the use of such materials in manufacturing different devices, appropriate advanced constitutive models are required. Recent experiments show that shape memory alloys exhibit an asymmetric response during tension and compression loading. In this paper, a new three-dimensional constitutive law is proposed based on microplane theory with the purpose of describing the tension-compression asymmetry. The model utilizes an equivalent stress on the foundation of second and third invariants of the deviatoric stress tensor in combination with two internal variables to distinguish between martensite volume fraction as well as martensite elastic modulus during tension and compression. The proposed model is then used to simulate uniaxial tension-compression loading in superelasticity as well as ferroelasticity regimes. The simulation results are compared with the corresponding results obtained by experiment and previous models reported in the literature, and a good agreement is observed. In addition, a four-point bending test is simulated for NiTi tubes in several cases. The predicted moment-curvature response and variations in the position of the neutral axis correlate fairly well with the experimental findings reported in the literature.
Integrated Modelling of Damage and Fracture in Sheet Metal Forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peerlings, R. H. J.; Mediavilla, J.; Geers, M. G. D.
2007-05-01
A framework for finite element simulations of ductile damage development and ductile fracture during metal forming is presented. The damage evolution is described by a phenomenological continuum damage model. Crack growth and fracture are treated as the ultimate consequences of the damage process. Computationally, the initiation and growth of cracks is traced by an adaptive remeshing strategy, thereby allowing for opening crack faces. The application of the method to the fabrication of food-can lids demonstrates its capabilities, but also some of its limitations.
Guide to the Stand-Damage Model interface management system
George Racin; J. J. Colbert
1995-01-01
This programmer's support document describes the Gypsy Moth Stand-Damage Model interface management system. Management of stand-damage data made it necessary to define structures to store data and provide the mechanisms to manipulate these data. The software provides a user-friendly means to manipulate files, graph and manage outputs, and edit input data. The...
Constitutive modeling and the trousers test for fracture of rubber-like materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horgan, Cornelius O.; Schwartz, Joseph G.
2005-03-01
The classical constitutive modeling of incompressible hyperelastic materials such as vulcanized rubber involves strain-energy densities that depend on the first two invariants of the strain tensor. The most well-known of these is the Mooney-Rivlin model and its specialization to the neo-Hookean form. While each of these models accurately predicts the mechanical behavior of rubber at moderate stretches, they fail to reflect the severe strain-stiffening and effects of limiting chain extensibility observed in experiments at large stretch. In recent years, several constitutive models that capture the effects of limiting chain extensibility have been proposed. Here we confine attention to two such phenomenological models. The first, proposed by Gent in 1996, depends only on the first invariant and involves just two material parameters. Its mathematical simplicity has facilitated the analytic solution of a wide variety of basic boundary-value problems. A modification of this model that reflects dependence on the second invariant has been proposed recently by Horgan and Saccomandi. Here we discuss the stress response of the Gent and HS models for some homogeneous deformations and apply the results to the fracture of rubber-like materials. Attention is focused on a particular fracture test, namely the trousers test where two legs of a cut specimen are pulled horizontally apart. It is shown that the cut position plays a key role in the fracture analysis, and that the effect of the cut position depends crucially on the constitutive model employed. For stiff rubber-like or biological materials, it is shown that the influence of the cut position is diminished. In fact, for linearly elastic materials, the critical driving force for fracture is independent of the cut position. It is also shown that the limiting chain extensibility models predict finite fracture toughness as the cut position approaches the edge of the specimen whereas classical hyperelastic models predict
Track structure model of cell damage in space flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Ngo, Duc M.
1992-01-01
The phenomenological track-structure model of cell damage is discussed. A description of the application of the track-structure model with the NASA Langley transport code for laboratory and space radiation is given. Comparisons to experimental results for cell survival during exposure to monoenergetic, heavy-ion beams are made. The model is also applied to predict cell damage rates and relative biological effectiveness for deep-space exposures.
A Damage Model for the Simulation of Delamination in Advanced Composites under Variable-Mode Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turon, A.; Camanho, P. P.; Costa, J.; Davila, C. G.
2006-01-01
A thermodynamically consistent damage model is proposed for the simulation of progressive delamination in composite materials under variable-mode ratio. The model is formulated in the context of Damage Mechanics. A novel constitutive equation is developed to model the initiation and propagation of delamination. A delamination initiation criterion is proposed to assure that the formulation can account for changes in the loading mode in a thermodynamically consistent way. The formulation accounts for crack closure effects to avoid interfacial penetration of two adjacent layers after complete decohesion. The model is implemented in a finite element formulation, and the numerical predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in both composite test specimens and structural components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salari, S.; Naderi, M.; Bleck, W.
2015-02-01
Simulation of hot stamping process needs reliable material data, especially at high temperatures where plastic deformation takes place in austenitic microstructure. In the current study, high-temperature non-isothermal compression tests (NICT) at different ranges of temperature, strain and strain rate as well as constitutive modeling of the flow curves were carried out. The Johnson-Cook and the Nemat-Nasser phenomenological models for isothermal deformation conditions were revised and applied to fit the flow curves during high-temperature NICT. It was shown that the models can satisfactorily predict the material flow stress at the mentioned conditions. Furthermore, the models were employed in order to describe the work-hardening behavior of the material. The results indicated that the fitted work-hardening rate can successfully follow the experimental data during deformation till no strain-induced phase transformation is initiated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, C.; Yeh, G.
2011-12-01
In this investigation, newly proposed constitutive retentions are implemented to a fractional-flow based compressible multiphase-phase flow model. With the new model, a compressible three-phase (water, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and air) flow problem is simulated. In fractional-flow approaches, the three mass balance equations written in terms of three phase pressures are transformed to those in terms of the total pressure, saturation of water, and saturation of total liquid. These three governing equations are discretized with the Galerkin finite element method (FEM). The resulted matrix equation is solved with Bi-CGSTAB. Several numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results show the presented fractional-flow based multiphase flow model is feasible and yields physically realistic solutions for compressible three-phase flow problems in porous media.
Application of an Uncoupled Elastic-plastic-creep Constitutive Model to Metals at High Temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haisler, W. E.
1983-01-01
A uniaxial, uncoupled constitutive model to predict the response of thermal and rate dependent elastic-plastic material behavior is presented. The model is based on an incremental classicial plasticity theory extended to account for thermal, creep, and transient temperature conditions. Revisions to he combined hardening rule of the theory allow for better representation of cyclic phenomenon including the high rate of strain hardening upon cyclic reyield and cyclic saturation. An alternative approach is taken to model the rate dependent inelastic deformation which utilizes hysteresis loops and stress relaxation test data at various temperatures. The model is evaluated and compared to experiments which involve various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy-X.
Finite plasticity in \\varvec{P}^top \\varvec{P}. Part I: constitutive model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandi, Diego; Stefanelli, Ulisse
2017-01-01
We address a finite-plasticity model based on the symmetric tensor \\varvec{P}^top \\varvec{P} instead of the classical plastic strain \\varvec{P}. Such a structure arises by assuming that the material behavior is invariant with respect to frame transformations of the intermediate configuration. The resulting variational model is lower dimensional, symmetric and based solely on the reference configuration. We discuss the existence of energetic solutions at the material-point level as well as the convergence of time discretizations. The linearization of the model for small deformations is ascertained via a rigorous evolution-Γ -convergence argument. The constitutive model is combined with the equilibrium system in Part II where we prove the existence of quasistatic evolutions and ascertain the linearization limit (Grandi and Stefanelli in 2016).
Numerical Simulation of Damage using an Elastic-Viscoplastic Model with Directional Tensile Failure
Lomov, I
2003-03-17
A new continuum model for directional tensile failure has been developed that can simulate weakening and void formation due to directional tensile failure. The model is developed within the context of a properly invariant nonlinear thermomechanical theory. A second order damage tensor is introduced which allows simulation of weakening to tension applied in one direction, without weakening to subsequent tension applied in perpendicular directions. This damage tensor can be advected using standard methods in computer codes. Porosity is used as an isotropic measure of volumetric void strain and its evolution is influenced by tensile failure. The rate of dissipation due to directional tensile failure takes a particularly simple form, which can be analyzed easily. Specifically, the model can be combined with general constitutive equations for porous compaction and dilation, as well as viscoplasticity. A robust non-iterative numerical scheme for integrating these evolution equations is proposed. This constitutive model has been implemented into an Eulerian shock wave code with adaptive mesh refinement. A number of simulations of complicated shock loading of different materials have been performed including problems of fracture of rock. These simulations show that directionality of damage can play a significant role in material failure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
François, Bertrand; Labiouse, Vincent; Dizier, Arnaud; Marinelli, Ferdinando; Charlier, Robert; Collin, Frédéric
2014-01-01
Boom Clay is extensively studied as a potential candidate to host underground nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. To guarantee the safety of such a disposal, the mechanical behaviour of the clay during gallery excavation must be properly predicted. In that purpose, a hollow cylinder experiment on Boom Clay has been designed to reproduce, in a small-scale test, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) as experienced during the excavation of a disposal gallery in the underground. In this article, the focus is made on the hydro-mechanical constitutive interpretation of the displacement (experimentally obtained by medium resolution X-ray tomography scanning). The coupled hydro-mechanical response of Boom Clay in this experiment is addressed through finite element computations with a constitutive model including strain hardening/softening, elastic and plastic cross-anisotropy and a regularization method for the modelling of strain localization processes. The obtained results evidence the directional dependency of the mechanical response of the clay. The softening behaviour induces transient strain localization processes, addressed through a hydro-mechanical second grade model. The shape of the obtained damaged zone is clearly affected by the anisotropy of the materials, evidencing an eye-shaped EDZ. The modelling results agree with experiments not only qualitatively (in terms of the shape of the induced damaged zone), but also quantitatively (for the obtained displacement in three particular radial directions).
Development and Application of a Strength and Damage Model for Rock under Dynamic Loading
Antoun, T H; Lomov, I N; Glenn, L A
2001-03-12
Simulating the behavior of geologic materials under impact loading conditions requires the use of a constitutive model that includes the effects of bulking, yielding, damage, porous compaction and loading rate on the material response. This paper describes the development, implementation and calibration of a thermodynamically consistent constitutive model that incorporates these features. The paper also describes a computational study in which the model was used to perform numerical simulations of PILE DRIVER, a deeply-buried underground nuclear explosion detonated in granite at the Nevada Test Site. Particle velocity histories, peak velocity and peak displacement as a function of slant range obtained from the code simulations compare favorably with PILE DRIVER data. The simulated attenuation of peak velocity and peak displacement also agrees with the results from several other spherical wave experiments in granite.
2010-01-01
Background Proteasomes play a central role in the major histocompatibility class I (MHCI) antigen processing pathway. They conduct the proteolytic degradation of proteins in the cytosol, generating the C-terminus of CD8 T cell epitopes and MHCI-peptide ligands (P1 residue of cleavage site). There are two types of proteasomes, the constitutive form, expressed in most cell types, and the immunoproteasome, which is constitutively expressed in mature dendritic cells. Protective CD8 T cell epitopes are likely generated by the immunoproteasome and the constitutive proteasome, and here we have modeled and analyzed the cleavage by these two proteases. Results We have modeled the immunoproteasome and proteasome cleavage sites upon two non-overlapping sets of peptides consisting of 553 CD8 T cell epitopes, naturally processed and restricted by human MHCI molecules, and 382 peptides eluted from human MHCI molecules, respectively, using N-grams. Cleavage models were generated considering different epitope and MHCI-eluted fragment lengths and the same number of C-terminal flanking residues. Models were evaluated in 5-fold cross-validation. Judging by the Mathew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC), optimal cleavage models for the proteasome (MCC = 0.43 ± 0.07) and the immunoproteasome (MCC = 0.36 ± 0.06) were obtained from 12-residue peptide fragments. Using an independent dataset consisting of 137 HIV1-specific CD8 T cell epitopes, the immunoproteasome and proteasome cleavage models achieved MCC values of 0.30 and 0.18, respectively, comparatively better than those achieved by related methods. Using ROC analyses, we have also shown that, combined with MHCI-peptide binding predictions, cleavage predictions by the immunoproteasome and proteasome models significantly increase the discovery rate of CD8 T cell epitopes restricted by different MHCI molecules, including A*0201, A*0301, A*2402, B*0702, B*2705. Conclusions We have developed models that are specific to predict cleavage by
Explicit robust schemes for implementation of general principal value-based constitutive models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; Tan, H. Q.; Zhang, Y.
1993-01-01
The issue of developing effective and robust schemes to implement general hyperelastic constitutive models is addressed. To this end, special purpose functions are used to symbolically derive, evaluate, and automatically generate the associated FORTRAN code for the explicit forms of the corresponding stress function and material tangent stiffness tensors. These explicit forms are valid for the entire deformation range. The analytical form of these explicit expressions is given here for the case in which the strain-energy potential is taken as a nonseparable polynomial function of the principle stretches.
Unified constitutive model development for metal matrix composites at high temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, D. N.
1988-01-01
Structural alloys used in high temperature applications exhibit complex thermomechanical behavior that is time dependent and hereditary. Recent attention is being focused on metal matrix composite materials for high temperature applications where they exhibit all the complexities of conventional alloys and their strong anisotropy adds further complexities. Here, a proven constitutive model for isotropic materials in which the inelastic strain rate and internal state are expressible as gradients of a dissipation potential is taken to depend on invariants that reflect local transverse isotropy. Applications illustrate the capability of the theory of representing the time dependent, hereditary, anisotropic behavior typical of these materials at high temperature.
Experimental evaluation criteria for constitutive models of time dependent cyclic plasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, J. F.
1986-01-01
Notched members were tested at temperatures far above those recorded till now. Simulation of the notch root stress response was accomplished to establish notch stress-strain behavior. Cyclic stress-strain profiles across the net-section were recorded and on-line direct notch strain control was accomplished. Data are compared to three analysis techniques with good results. The objective of the study is to generate experimental data that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of constitutive models of time dependent cyclic plasticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Zhaojie; Guan, Zhidong; Li, Zengshan
2016-12-01
In this paper, a progressive damage model was established on the basis of ABAQUS software for predicting permanent indentation and impact damage in composite laminates. Intralaminar and interlaminar damage was modelled based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) in the finite element model. For the verification of the model, low-velocity impact tests of quasi-isotropic laminates with material system of T300/5228A were conducted. Permanent indentation and impact damage of the laminates were simulated and the numerical results agree well with the experiments. It can be concluded that an obvious knee point can be identified on the curve of the indentation depth versus impact energy. Matrix cracking and delamination develops rapidly with the increasing impact energy, while considerable amount of fiber breakage only occurs when the impact energy exceeds the energy corresponding to the knee point. Predicted indentation depth after the knee point is very sensitive to the parameter μ which is proposed in this paper, and the acceptable value of this parameter is in range from 0.9 to 1.0.
A New Creep Constitutive Model for 7075 Aluminum Alloy Under Elevated Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Y. C.; Jiang, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Hua-Min; Liu, Guan
2014-12-01
Exposure of aluminum alloy to an elastic loading, during "creep-aging forming" or other manufacturing processes at relatively high temperature, may lead to the lasting creep deformation. The creep behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy are investigated by uniaxial tensile creep experiments over wide ranges of temperature and external stress. The results show that the creep behaviors of the studied aluminum alloy strongly depend on the creep temperature, external stress, and creep time. With the increase of creep temperature and external stress, the creep strain increases quickly. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the Bailey-Norton law and θ projection method, a new constitutive model is proposed to describe the variations of creep strain with time for the studied aluminum alloy. In the proposed model, the dependences of creep strain on the creep temperature, external stress, and creep time are well taken into account. A good agreement between the predicted and measured creep strains shows that the established creep constitutive model can give an accurate description of the creep behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy. Meanwhile, the obtained stress exponent indicates that the creep process is controlled by the dislocation glide, which is verified by the microstructural observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiong; Zeng, Weidong; Tian, Fei; Sun, Yu; Zhou, Yigang
2012-08-01
In this research, the constitutive relationships of BT25 titanium alloy based on regression and artificial neural network (ANN) methods were established and studied by analyzing the results of hot compression tests. The isothermal compression tests were conducted on a Gleeble 1500 thermo-mechanical simulator in the deformation temperatures ranging from 940 to 1000 °C with an interval of 20 °C and the strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 s-1 with a height reduction of 60%. The average deformation activation energy of the alloy was derived as 623.26 kJ/mol at strain of 0.7 by using the non-linear regression method and assuming a hyperbolic sine equation between the stress, strain rate, and deformation temperature. On the basis of the experimental data samples, an ANN model was proposed and trained. The hot processing parameters of temperature, strain rate, and strain were used as the input variables and the flow stress as the output variable. The comparison of experimental flow stresses with predicted values by ANN model and calculated value by regression method was carried out. It was found that the predicted results by ANN are in a good agreement with the experimental values, which indicates that the predicted accuracy of the constitutive relationship established by ANN model is higher than that using the multivariable regression method.
Experimental analysis and constitutive modelling of steel of A-IIIN strength class
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruszka, Leopold; Janiszewski, Jacek
2015-09-01
Fundamentally important is the better understanding of behaviour of new building steels under impact loadings, including plastic deformations. Results of the experimental analysis in wide range of strain rates in compression at room temperature, as well as constitutive modelling for and B500SP structural steels of new A-IIIN Polish strength class, examined dynamically by split Hopkinson pressure bar technique at high strain rates, are presented in table and graphic forms. Dynamic mechanical characteristics of compressive strength for tested building structural steel are determined as well as dynamic mechanical properties of this material are compared with 18G2-b steel of A-II strength class, including effects of the shape of tested specimens, i.e. their slenderness. The paper focuses the attention on those experimental tests, their interpretation, and constitutive semi-empirical modelling of the behaviour of tested steels based on Johnson-Cook's model. Obtained results of analyses presented here are used for designing and numerical simulations of reinforced concrete protective structures.
An elasto-viscoplastic interface model for investigating the constitutive behavior of nacre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, H.; Barthelat, F.; Espinosa, H. D.
2007-07-01
In order to better understand the strengthening mechanism observed in nacre, we have developed an interface computational model to simulate the behavior of the organic present at the interface between aragonite tablets. In the model, the single polymer-chain behavior is characterized by the worm-like-chain (WLC) model, which is in turn incorporated into the eight-chain cell model developed by Arruda and Boyce [Arruda, E.M., Boyce, M.C., 1993a. A three-dimensional constitutive model for the large stretches, with application to polymeric glasses. Int. J. Solids Struct. 40, 389-412] to achieve a continuum interface constitutive description. The interface model is formulated within a finite-deformation framework. A fully implicit time-integration algorithm is used for solving the discretized governing equations. Finite element simulations were performed on a representative volume element (RVE) to investigate the tensile response of nacre. The staggered arrangement of tablets and interface waviness obtained experimentally by Barthelat et al. [Barthelat, F., Tang, H., Zavattieri, P.D., Li, C.-M., Espinosa, H.D., 2007. On the mechanics of mother-of-pearl: a key feature in the material hierarchical structure. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 55 (2), 306-337] was included in the RVE simulations. The simulations showed that both the rate-dependence of the tensile response and hysteresis loops during loading, unloading and reloading cycles were captured by the model. Through a parametric study, the effect of the polymer constitutive response during tablet-climbing and its relation to interface hardening was investigated. It is shown that stiffening of the organic material is not required to achieve the experimentally observed strain hardening of nacre during tension. In fact, when ratios of contour length/persistent length experimentally identified are employed in the simulations, the predicted stress-strain behavior exhibits a deformation hardening consistent with the one measured
Is flow velocity a significant parameter in flood damage modelling?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreibich, H.; Piroth, K.; Seifert, I.; Maiwald, H.; Kunert, U.; Schwarz, J.; Merz, B.; Thieken, A. H.
2009-10-01
Flow velocity is generally presumed to influence flood damage. However, this influence is hardly quantified and virtually no damage models take it into account. Therefore, the influences of flow velocity, water depth and combinations of these two impact parameters on various types of flood damage were investigated in five communities affected by the Elbe catchment flood in Germany in 2002. 2-D hydraulic models with high to medium spatial resolutions were used to calculate the impact parameters at the sites in which damage occurred. A significant influence of flow velocity on structural damage, particularly on roads, could be shown in contrast to a minor influence on monetary losses and business interruption. Forecasts of structural damage to road infrastructure should be based on flow velocity alone. The energy head is suggested as a suitable flood impact parameter for reliable forecasting of structural damage to residential buildings above a critical impact level of 2 m of energy head or water depth. However, general consideration of flow velocity in flood damage modelling, particularly for estimating monetary loss, cannot be recommended.
Micro-mechanical modeling of perforating shock damage
Swift, R.P.; Krogh, K.E.; Behrmann, L.A.; Halleck, P.M.
1997-11-17
Shaped charge jet induced formation damage from perforation treatments hinders productivity. Manifestation of this damage is in the form of grain fragmentation resulting in fines that plug up pore throats along with the breakdown of inter-grain cementation. The authors use the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) computational method as a way to explicitly model, on a grain pore scale, the dynamic interactions of grains and grain/pores to calculate the damage resulting from perforation type stress wave loading. The SPH method is a continuum Lagrangian, meshless approach that features particles. Clusters of particles are used for each grain to provide representation of a grain pore structure that is similar to x-ray synchrotron microtomography images. Numerous damage models are available to portray fracture and fragmentation. In this paper the authors present the results of well defined impact loading on a grain pore structure that illustrate how the heterogeneity affects stress wave behavior and damage evolution. The SPH approach easily accommodates the coupling of multi-materials. Calculations for multi-material conditions with the pore space treated as a void, fluid filled, and/or clay filled show diverse effects on the stress wave propagation behavior and damage. SPH comparisons made with observed damage from recovered impacted sandstone samples in gas gun experiments show qualitatively the influence of stress intensity. The modeling approach presented here offers a unique way in concert with experiments to define a better understanding of formation damage resulting from perforation completion treatments.
Constitutive modeling of the stress-strain behavior of F-actin filament networks.
Palmer, Jeffrey S; Boyce, Mary C
2008-05-01
The central role of the cytoskeleton in both healthy and diseased cellular functions makes it a compelling subject for detailed three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical modeling. Microstructural features of the cytoskeleton govern the cell's mechanical behavior in many of the regulating cellular functions including cell division, adhesion, spreading, migration, contraction, and other mechanotransductive effects which influence biochemical processes. Actin microfilaments (AF) combine to form one of the predominant cytoskeletal networks important to these biological processes. Here, the AF cytoskeletal microstructure and stress-strain behavior is modeled via a microstructurally-informed continuum mechanics approach. The force-extension behavior of the individual filaments is captured using the MacKintosh derivation of the worm-like chain (WLC) constitutive relationship for short chains where a new and direct analytical expression for the filament force as a function of filament extension is developed in this paper. The filament force-extension behavior is then used in conjunction with the Arruda-Boyce eight-chain network model to capture the 3D multiaxial stress-strain behavior of the network. The resulting 3D cytoskeletal network constitutive model provides the ability to track microstructural stretch and orientation states during 3D macroscopic stretching conditions. The non-affine nature of the network model effectively accommodates the imposed macroscopic shear strain through filament rotation and a relatively small amount of filament stretch. These characteristics enable the network model, using physically realistic material properties, to capture the initial stiffness of the AF network as well as the nonlinear strain stiffening observed at large stresses. The network model predictions compare favorably with published microrheological data of in vitro AF networks.
Damage spreading in the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albano, Ezequiel V.
1994-08-01
The spreading of initial damage globally distributed on the system is studied in a dimer-monomer irreversible reaction process (i.e., the ZGB model [Ziff, Gulari, and Barshad, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2553 (1986)]) in two dimensions. It is found that the damage heals within the poisoned states but spreads within the reactive regime. Both the frozen-chaotic and reactive-poisoned irreversible transitions occur at the same critical points and are of the same order. However, the order parameter critical exponents at the second-order transition are different, suggesting that damage spreading introduces a new dynamic critical behavior. A variant of the ZGB model (e.g., the ZGBER model), which is obtained by the addition of an Eley-Rideal reaction step, is also studied. In two dimensions, damage heals within the poisoned state. However, in contrast to the ZGB model, within the reactive regime, a frozen-chaotic transition is found to occur at a different critical point than the poisoning-reactive transition. At the frozen-chaotic critical point the damage heals according to a power-law behavior, D(t)~t-δ, with δ~=0.65. The order parameter critical exponent is also determined and the fact that damage spreading introduces a new kind of dynamic critical behavior is established. Damage healing is observed in one dimension for the ZGBER model.
Application of constitutive model considering nonlinear unloading behavior for Gen.3 AHSS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Li; Wagoner, R. H.
2013-05-01
Nonlinear unloading behavior has been reported as an important factor for accurate springback prediction. In this study, a newly proposed special component of strain: "Quasi-Plastic-Elastic" ("QPE") strain was utilized to study the springback behavior of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). Several types of steels, including IF steel, DP780, TRIP780, DP980, TWIP980 and QP980 were considered in this research. The results showed that all the tested steels have following behavior: 1) QPE strain is recoverable, like elastic deformation. 2) It dissipates work, like plastic deformation. A 3-D constitutive model considering QPE behavior was implemented in Abaqus/Standard with shell element and applied to draw-bend springback test for Gen. 3 AHSS, QP980. Predictions for springback using the QPE model were more accurate compared with standard elastic-plastic models.
Zhao, Xuefeng; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chong; Kassab, Ghassan S
2011-10-07
Recently, a novel linearized constitutive model with a new strain measure that absorbs the material nonlinearity was validated for arteries. In this study, the linearized arterial stress-strain relationship is implemented into a finite element method package, ANSYS, via the user subroutine USERMAT. The reference configuration is chosen to be the closed cylindrical tube (no-load state) rather than the open sector (zero-stress state). The residual strain is taken into account by analytic calculation and the incompressibility condition is enforced with Lagrange penalty method. Axisymmetric finite element analyses are conducted to demonstrate potential applications of this approach in a complex boundary value problem where angioplasty balloon interacts with the vessel wall. The model predictions of transmural circumferential and compressive radial stress distributions were also validated against an exponential-type Fung model, and the mean error was found to be within 6%.
Zhao, Xuefeng; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Cong; Kassab, Ghassan S.
2011-01-01
Recently, a novel linearized constitutive model with a new strain measure that absorbs the material nonlinearity was validated for arteries. In this study, the linearized arterial stress-strain relationship is implemented into a finite element method package ANSYS, via the user subroutine USERMAT. The reference configuration is chosen to be the closed cylindrical tube (no-load state) rather than the open sector (zero-stress state). The residual strain is taken into account by analytic calculation and the incompressibility condition is enforced with Lagrange penalty method. Axisymmetric finite element analyses are conducted to demonstrate potential applications of this approach in a complex boundary value problem where angioplasty balloon interacts with the vessel wall. The model predictions of transmural circumferential and compressive radial stress distributions were also validated against an exponential-type Fung model, and the mean error was found to be within 6%. PMID:21689665
An experimental study on stress-strain behavior and constitutive model of hardfill material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Mengxi; Du, Bin; Yao, Yuancheng; He, Xianfeng
2011-11-01
Hardfill is a new type of artificially cemented material for dam construction works, with a wide application prospect. Its mechanical behavior lies between concrete and rockfill materials. A series of large-scale triaxial tests are performed on hardfill specimens at different ages, and the stress-strain behavior of hardfill is further discussed. The strength and stress-strain relationship of hardfill materials show both frictional mechanism and cohesive mechanism. An age-related constitutive model of hardfill is developed, which is a parallel model consisting of two components, rockfill component and cementation component. Moreover, a comparison is made between the simulated and the experimental results, which shows that the parallel model can reflect the mechanical characteristics of both rockfill-like nonlinearity and concrete-like age relativity. In addition, a simplified method for the determination of parameters is proposed.
Cutting Modeling of Hybrid CFRP/Ti Composite with Induced Damage Analysis
Xu, Jinyang; El Mansori, Mohamed
2016-01-01
In hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)/Ti machining, the bi-material interface is the weakest region vulnerable to severe damage formation when the tool cutting from one phase to another phase and vice versa. The interface delamination as well as the composite-phase damage is the most serious failure dominating the bi-material machining. In this paper, an original finite element (FE) model was developed to inspect the key mechanisms governing the induced damage formation when cutting this multi-phase material. The hybrid composite model was constructed by establishing three disparate physical constituents, i.e., the Ti phase, the interface, and the CFRP phase. Different constitutive laws and damage criteria were implemented to build up the entire cutting behavior of the bi-material system. The developed orthogonal cutting (OC) model aims to characterize the dynamic mechanisms of interface delamination formation and the affected interface zone (AIZ). Special focus was made on the quantitative analyses of the parametric effects on the interface delamination and composite-phase damage. The numerical results highlighted the pivotal role of AIZ in affecting the formation of interface delamination, and the significant impacts of feed rate and cutting speed on delamination extent and fiber/matrix failure. PMID:28787824
Cutting Modeling of Hybrid CFRP/Ti Composite with Induced Damage Analysis.
Xu, Jinyang; El Mansori, Mohamed
2016-01-04
In hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)/Ti machining, the bi-material interface is the weakest region vulnerable to severe damage formation when the tool cutting from one phase to another phase and vice versa. The interface delamination as well as the composite-phase damage is the most serious failure dominating the bi-material machining. In this paper, an original finite element (FE) model was developed to inspect the key mechanisms governing the induced damage formation when cutting this multi-phase material. The hybrid composite model was constructed by establishing three disparate physical constituents, i.e., the Ti phase, the interface, and the CFRP phase. Different constitutive laws and damage criteria were implemented to build up the entire cutting behavior of the bi-material system. The developed orthogonal cutting (OC) model aims to characterize the dynamic mechanisms of interface delamination formation and the affected interface zone (AIZ). Special focus was made on the quantitative analyses of the parametric effects on the interface delamination and composite-phase damage. The numerical results highlighted the pivotal role of AIZ in affecting the formation of interface delamination, and the significant impacts of feed rate and cutting speed on delamination extent and fiber/matrix failure.
Failure Mechanisms and Damage Model of Ductile Cast Iron Under Low-Cycle Fatigue Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xijia; Quan, Guangchun; MacNeil, Ryan; Zhang, Zhong; Sloss, Clayton
2014-10-01
Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted on ductile cast iron (DCI) at strain rates of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.0002/s in the temperature range from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). A constitutive-damage model was developed within the integrated creep-fatigue theory (ICFT) framework on the premise of strain decomposition into rate-independent plasticity and time-dependent creep. Four major damage mechanisms: (i) plasticity-induced fatigue, (ii) intergranular embrittlement (IE), (iii) creep, and (iv) oxidation were considered in a nonlinear creep-fatigue interaction model which represents the overall damage accumulation process consisting of oxidation-assisted fatigue crack nucleation and propagation in coalescence with internally distributed damage ( e.g., IE and creep), leading to final fracture. The model was found to agree with the experimental observations of the complex DCI-LCF phenomena, for which the linear damage summation rule would fail.
Constitutive Modeling of Hot Deformation Behavior of High-Strength Armor Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Madhu, Vemuri
2016-05-01
The hot isothermal compression tests of high-strength armor steel under a wide range of deformation temperatures (1100-1250 °C) and strain rates of (0.001-1/s) were performed. Based on the experimental data, constitutive models were established using the original Johnson-Cook (JC) model, modified JC model, and strain-compensated Arrhenius model, respectively. The modified JC model considers the coupled effects of strain hardening, strain rate hardening, and thermal softening. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of these developed models was determined by estimating the correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The results demonstrate that the flow behavior of high-strength armor steel is considerably influenced by the strain rate and temperature. The original JC model is inadequate to provide good description on the flow stress at evaluated temperatures. The modified JC model and strain-compensated Arrhenius model significantly enhance the predictability. It is also observed from the microstructure study that at low strain rates (0.001-0.01/s) and high temperatures (1200-1250 °C), a typical dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, Jean-Claude; Suquet, Pierre
2016-05-01
In 2003 the authors proposed a model-reduction technique, called the Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis (NTFA), based on a decomposition of the local fields of internal variables on a reduced basis of modes, to analyze the effective response of composite materials. The present study extends and improves on this approach in different directions. It is first shown that when the constitutive relations of the constituents derive from two potentials, this structure is passed to the NTFA model. Another structure-preserving model, the hybrid NTFA model of Fritzen and Leuschner, is analyzed and found to differ (slightly) from the primal NTFA model (it does not exhibit the same variational upper bound character). To avoid the "on-line" computation of local fields required by the hybrid model, new reduced evolution equations for the reduced variables are proposed, based on an expansion to second order (TSO) of the potential of the hybrid model. The coarse dynamics can then be entirely expressed in terms of quantities which can be pre-computed once for all. Roughly speaking, these pre-computed quantities depend only on the average and fluctuations per phase of the modes and of the associated stress fields. The accuracy of the new NTFA-TSO model is assessed by comparison with full-field simulations. The acceleration provided by the new coarse dynamics over the full-field computations (and over the hybrid model) is then spectacular, larger by three orders of magnitude than the acceleration due to the sole reduction of unknowns.
Constitutive modeling of the passive inflation-extension behavior of the swine colon.
Patel, Bhavesh; Chen, Huan; Ahuja, Aashish; Krieger, Joshua F; Noblet, Jillian; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S
2017-08-31
In the present work, we propose the first structural constitutive model of the passive mechanical behavior of the swine colon that is validated against physiological inflation-extension tests, and accounts for residual strains. Sections from the spiral colon and the descending colon were considered to investigate potential regional variability. We found that the proposed constitutive model accurately captures the passive inflation-extension behavior of both regions of the swine colon (coefficient of determination R(2)=0.94±0.02). The model revealed that the circumferential muscle layer does not provide significant mechanical support under passive conditions and the circumferential load is actually carried by the submucosa layer. The stress analysis permitted by the model showed that the colon tissue can distend up to 30% radially without significant increase in the wall stresses suggesting a highly compliant behavior of the tissue. This is in-line with the requirement for the tissue to easily accommodate variable quantities of fecal matter. The analysis also showed that the descending colon is significantly more compliant than the spiral colon, which is relevant to the storage function of the descending colon. Histological analysis showed that the swine colon possesses a four-layer structure similar to the human colon, where the longitudinal muscle layer is organized into bands called taeniae, a typical feature of the human colon. The model and the estimated parameters can be used in a Finite Element framework to conduct simulations with realistic geometry of the swine colon. The resulting computational model will provide a foundation for virtual assessment of safe and effective devices for the treatment of colonic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanders, B. F.; Gallegos, H. A.; Schubert, J. E.
2011-12-01
The Baldwin Hills dam-break flood and associated structural damage is investigated in this study. The flood caused high velocity flows exceeding 5 m/s which destroyed 41 wood-framed residential structures, 16 of which were completed washed out. Damage is predicted by coupling a calibrated hydrodynamic flood model based on the shallow-water equations to structural damage models. The hydrodynamic and damage models are two-way coupled so building failure is predicted upon exceedance of a hydraulic intensity parameter, which in turn triggers a localized reduction in flow resistance which affects flood intensity predictions. Several established damage models and damage correlations reported in the literature are tested to evaluate the predictive skill for two damage states defined by destruction (Level 2) and washout (Level 3). Results show that high-velocity structural damage can be predicted with a remarkable level of skill using established damage models, but only with two-way coupling of the hydrodynamic and damage models. In contrast, when structural failure predictions have no influence on flow predictions, there is a significant reduction in predictive skill. Force-based damage models compare well with a subset of the damage models which were devised for similar types of structures. Implications for emergency planning and preparedness as well as monetary damage estimation are discussed.
Constitutive Modeling of the Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion Test of PTFE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Resnyansky, Anatoly; Brown, Eric; Trujillo, Carl; Gray, George
2015-06-01
Use of polymers in the defence, aerospace and industrial application at extreme conditions makes prediction of behaviour of these materials very important. Crucial to this is knowledge of the physical damage response in association with the phase transformations during the loading and the ability to predict this via multi-phase simulation taking the thermodynamical non-equilibrium and strain rate sensitivity into account. The current work analyses Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion (DTE) experiments on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In particular, the phase transition during the loading with subsequent tension are analysed using a two-phase rate sensitive material model implemented in the CTH hydrocode and the calculations are compared with experimental high-speed photography. The damage patterns and their link with the change of loading modes are analysed numerically and are correlated to the test observations.
On the probability summation model for laser-damage thresholds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Clifton D.; Buffington, Gavin D.
2016-01-01
This paper explores the probability summation model in an attempt to provide insight to the model's utility and ultimately its validity. The model is a statistical description of multiple-pulse (MP) damage trends. It computes the probability of n pulses causing damage from knowledge of the single-pulse dose-response curve. Recently, the model has been used to make a connection between the observed n trends in MP damage thresholds for short pulses (<10 μs) and experimental uncertainties, suggesting that the observed trend is an artifact of experimental methods. We will consider the correct application of the model in this case. We also apply this model to the spot-size dependence of short pulse damage thresholds, which has not been done previously. Our results predict that the damage threshold trends with respect to the irradiated area should be similar to the MP damage threshold trends, and that observed spot-size dependence for short pulses seems to display this trend, which cannot be accounted for by the thermal models.
Su, Xiang; Wang, Gang; Li, Jianfeng; Rong, Yiming
2016-01-01
The effects of strain rate and temperature on the dynamic behavior of Fe-based high temperature alloy was studied. The strain rates were 0.001-12,000 s(-1), at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800 °C. A phenomenological constitutive model (Power-Law constitutive model) was proposed considering adiabatic temperature rise and accurate material thermal physical properties. During which, the effects of the specific heat capacity on the adiabatic temperature rise was studied. The constitutive model was verified to be accurate by comparison between predicted and experimental results.
Jankowska, Malgorzata A; Bartkowiak-Jowsa, Magdalena; Bedzinski, Romuald
2015-10-01
The study concerns the determination of mechanical properties of human coronary arterial walls with both experimental and constitutive modeling approaches. The research material was harvested from 18 patients (range 50-84 years). On the basis of hospital records and visual observation, each tissue sample was classified according to the stage (0, I, II, III) of atherosclerosis development (SAD). Then, strip samples considered as a membrane with the shape of rectangular parallelepiped were preconditioned and subjected to uniaxial tensile tests in longitudinal (n=27) and circumferential (n=4) direction. With experimental data obtained, the stress-strain characteristics were prepared. Furthermore, tensile strengths and related strains, stiffness coefficients and tangent modules of elasticity were computed. For a constitutive model of passive mechanical behavior of coronary arteries, values of material parameters were computed. The studies led to the following conclusions. Most importantly, the atherosclerotic changes affect all the mechanical properties of arterial walls. A progress of arteriosclerosis contributes to an increase of vascular stiffness. The highest values of the stiffness coefficients are obtained for the tissues in the advanced stage of the disease. We were also able to observe that gradual calcification, progression of atherosclerosis and degradation of collagen in the tissue caused a decrease of tensile strengths and related strains. Finally, a comparison made for the tissues with the advanced SAD showed that the tensile strengths and strains were much higher in the case of the samples with the circumferential orientation rather than those with the longitudinal one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eghtesad, Adnan; Zecevic, Miroslav; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; McCabe, Rodney J.; Knezevic, Marko
2017-05-01
We present the first successful implementation of a spectral crystal plasticity (SCP) model into a spectral visco-plastic fast Fourier transform (VPFFT) full-field solver. The SCP database allows for non-iterative retrieval of constitutive solutions for a crystal of any orientation subjected to any state of deformation at every voxel representing an FFT point of the overall voxel-based polycrystalline microstructure. Details of this approach are described and validated through example case studies involving a rigid-visco-plastic response and microstructure evolution of polycrystalline copper. It is observed that the novel implementation is able to speed up the overall VPFFT calculations because the conventional Newton-Raphson iterative solution procedure for single crystals in VPFFT is replaced by the more efficient SCP constitutive representation of the solution. As a result, the implementation facilitates efficient simulations of large voxel-based microstructures. Additionally, it provides an incentive for conceiving a multi-level SCP-VPFFT computational scheme. Here, every FFT point of the model is a polycrystal whose response is calculated using a Taylor-type homogenization.
2006-06-24
properties like high specific strength, good deformability, reasonable ductility and ability to withstand high temperatures and resistance to corrosion...structure) at room temperature , and at high temperatures it exists as β-titanium (bcc structure). Alloying of this material is performed by adding...applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, ductility, and ability to withstand high temperatures and resist corrosion. The development of
Constitutive modelling of lubricants in concentrated contacts at high slide to roll ratios
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tevaarwerk, J. L.
1985-01-01
A constitutive lubricant friction model for rolling/sliding concentrated contacts such as gears and cams was developed, based upon the Johnson and Tevaarwerk fluid rheology model developed earlier. The friction model reported herein differs from the earlier rheological models in that very large slide to roll ratios can now be accommodated by modifying the thermal response of the model. Also the elastic response of the fluid has been omitted from the model, thereby making it much simpler for use in the high slide to roll contacts. The effects of this simplification are very minimal on the outcome of the predicted friction losses (less than 1%). In essence then the lubricant friction model developed for the high slide to roll ratios treats the fluid in the concentrated contact as consisting of a nonlinear viscous element that is pressure, temperature, and strain rate dependent in its shear response. The fluid rheological constants required for the prediction of the friction losses at different contact conditions are obtained by traction measurements on several of the currently used gear lubricants. An example calculation, using this model and the fluid parameters obtained from the experiments, shows that it correctly predicts trends and magnitude of gear mesh losses measured elsewhere for the same fluids tested here.
Comparison of constitutive models of arterial layers with distributed collagen fibre orientations.
Skacel, Pavel; Bursa, Jiri
2014-01-01
Several constitutive models have been proposed for description of mechanical behaviour of soft tissues containing collagen fibres. The model with aligned fibres is modified in this paper to take the dispersion of fibre orientations into account through angular integration and it is compared with the model that is defined through generalized structure tensor. The paper is focused on the effect of fibre dispersion on the resulting stress-strain behaviour predicted by both models analyzed. Analytical calculations are used for the comparison of the mechanical behaviour under a specific biaxial tension mode. The two models have been implemented into commercial finite element code ANSYS via user subroutines and used for numerical simulation resulting in a non-homogeneous stress field. The effects of the fibre dispersion predicted by both models being compared differ significantly, e.g., the resulting stress difference between both models is lower than 10% only in the case of extremely small dispersion of collagen fibres orientation (κ< (0.01 to 0.03)). These results are consistent with those of other related literature. The applicability of the model defined through the generalized structure tensor is discussed.
Łagan, Sylwia D; Liber-Kneć, Aneta
2017-01-01
The aim of the study was an estimation of the possibility of using hyperelastic material models to fit experimental data obtained in the tensile test for the swine skin tissue. The uniaxial tensile tests of samples taken from the abdomen and back of a pig was carried out. The mechanical properties of the skin such as the mean Young's modulus, the mean maximum stress and the mean maximum elongation were calculated. The experimental data have been used to identify the parameters in specific strain-energy functions given in seven constitutive models of hyperelastic materials: neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, Yeoh, Martins, Humphrey and Veronda-Westmann. An analysis of errors in fitting of theoretical and experimental data was done. Comparison of load -displacement curves for the back and abdomen regions of skin taken showed a different scope of both the mean maximum loading forces and the mean maximum elongation. Samples which have been prepared from the abdominal area had lower values of the mean maximum load compared to samples from the spine area. The reverse trend was observed during the analysis of the values of elongation. An analysis of the accuracy of model fitting to the experimental data showed that, the least accurate were the model of neo- -Hookean, model of Mooney-Rivlin for the abdominal region and model of Veronda-Westmann for the spine region. An analysis of seven hyperelastic material models showed good correlations between the experimental and the theoretical data for five models.
A mechanistic damage model for ligaments.
Barrett, Jeff M; Callaghan, Jack P
2017-08-16
The accuracy of biomechanical models is predicated on the realism by which they represent their biomechanical tissues. Unfortunately, most models use phenomenological ligament models that neglect the behaviour in the failure region. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to test whether a mechanistic model of ligamentous tissue portrays behaviour representative of actual ligament failure tests. The model tracks the time-evolution of a population of collagen fibres in a theoretical ligament. Each collagen fibre is treated as an independent linear cables with constant stiffness. Model equations were derived by assuming these fibres act as a continuum and applying a conservation law akin to Huxley's muscle model. A breaking function models the rate of collagen fibre breakage at a given displacement, and was chosen to be a linear function for this preliminary analysis. The model was fitted to experimental average curves for the cervical anterior longitudinal ligament. In addition, the model was cyclically loaded to test whether the tissue model behaves similarly. The model agreed very well with experiment with an RMS error of 14.23 N and an R(2) of 0.995. Cyclic loading exhibited a reduction in force similar to experimental data. The proposed model showcases behaviour reminiscent of actual ligaments being strained to failure and undergoing cyclic load. Future work could incorporate viscous effects, or validate the model further by testing it in various loading conditions. Characterizing the breaking function more accurately would also lead to better results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A friction to flow constitutive law and its application to a 2-D modeling of earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Noda, Hiroyuki
2014-11-01
Establishment of a constitutive law from friction to high-temperature plastic flow has long been a challenging task for solving problems such as modeling earthquakes and plate interactions. Here we propose an empirical constitutive law that describes this transitional behavior using only friction and flow parameters, with good agreements with experimental data on halite shear zones. The law predicts steady state and transient behaviors, including the dependence of the shear resistance of fault on slip rate, effective normal stress, and temperature. It also predicts a change in velocity weakening to velocity strengthening with increasing temperature, similar to the changes recognized for quartz and granite gouge under hydrothermal conditions. A slight deviation from the steady state friction law due to the involvement of plastic deformation can cause a large change in the velocity dependence. We solved seismic cycles of a fault across the lithosphere with the law using a 2-D spectral boundary integral equation method, revealing dynamic rupture extending into the aseismic zone and rich evolution of interseismic creep including slow slip prior to earthquakes. Seismic slip followed by creep is consistent with natural pseudotachylytes overprinted with mylonitic deformation. Overall fault behaviors during earthquake cycles are insensitive to transient flow parameters. The friction-to-flow law merges "Christmas tree" strength profiles of the lithosphere and rate dependency fault models used for earthquake modeling on a unified basis. Strength profiles were drawn assuming a strain rate for the flow regime, but we emphasize that stress distribution evolves reflecting the fault behavior. A fault zone model was updated based on the earthquake modeling.
A New Constitutive Model for the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of 95CrMo Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Bao-Sheng; Cai, Qing-Wu; Wei, Yu; Xu, Li-Xiong; Zhen, Ning
2016-12-01
The compressive deformation behavior of 95CrMo steel, one of the worldwide used hollow steels, was investigated on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine within temperature range of 1073-1323 K and strain rate range of 0.1-10 s-1. Considering the influence of work-hardening, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization, a new constitutive model for high-temperature flow stress was established in this paper. The calculated values predicted by the new constitutive model lie fairly close to the experimental values with a correlation coefficient ( R) of generally above 0.99 and an average absolute relative error of 3.00%, proving a good predictability of the new constitutive model. Also, a modified Sellars-Tegart-Garofalo model (STG model) was introduced to verify the precision of the new constitutive model. Compared to the modified STG model, the new constitutive model has a higher accuracy, which implies it is a reliable tool for predicting flow stress at high temperatures not only under equilibrium state, but also under transient deformation conditions. Besides, the new constitutive model was proved still viable in the initial stage of plastic deformation where plastic strain is lower than 0.05.
Chen, Haodong; Huang, Xi; Gusmaroli, Giuliana; Terzaghi, William; Lau, On Sun; Yanagawa, Yuki; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jigang; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Zhu, Danmeng; Deng, Xing Wang
2010-01-01
CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) possesses E3 ligase activity and promotes degradation of key factors involved in the light regulation of plant development. The finding that CULLIN4 (CUL4)-Damaged DNA Binding Protein1 (DDB1) interacts with DDB1 binding WD40 (DWD) proteins to act as E3 ligases implied that CUL4-DDB1 may associate with COP1-SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA (SPA) protein complexes, since COP1 and SPAs are DWD proteins. Here, we demonstrate that CUL4-DDB1 physically associates with COP1-SPA complexes in vitro and in vivo, likely via direct interaction of DDB1 with COP1 and SPAs. The interactions between DDB1 and COP1, SPA1, and SPA3 were disrupted by mutations in the WDXR motifs of MBP-COP1, His-SPA1, and His-SPA3. CUL4 cosuppression mutants enhanced weak cop1 photomorphogenesis and flowered early under short days. Early flowering of short day–grown cul4 mutants correlated with increased FLOWERING LOCUS T transcript levels, whereas CONSTANS transcript levels were not altered. De-etiolated1 and COP1 can bind DDB1 and may work with CUL4-DDB1 in distinct complexes, but they mediate photomorphogenesis in concert. Thus, a series of CUL4-DDB1-COP1-SPA E3 ligase complexes may mediate the repression of photomorphogenesis and, possibly, of flowering time. PMID:20061554
A rheological constitutive model for semiconcentrated rod suspensions in Bingham fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Férec, J.; Bertevas, E.; Khoo, B. C.; Ausias, G.; Phan-Thien, N.
2017-07-01
A rheological constitutive law is developed for a suspension of rigid rods in a Bingham fluid for volume fractions ranging up to the semiconcentrated regime. Based on a cell model approach, which allows expressing the shear stress on the particle surface, the particle stress contribution is derived and involves additional yield stress terms related to an ensemble average orientation distribution of the rods. As a first approach, a von Mises criterion is used to describe the composite flow threshold, which is found to be anisotropic in the sense that it depends on the rod orientation. A rod dynamics equation is also proposed and incorporates some diffusion/perturbation due to yielded regions encountered throughout the suspension. In parallel, an equivalent kinetic theory is also developed. The model provides good agreement with shear stress experiments for kaolin pastes filled with steel fibers of two different aspect ratios.
Bhandarkar, Suhas; Betcher, Jacob; Smith, Ryan; Lairson, Bruce; Ayers, Travis
2016-06-30
Targets for ICF shots on NIF typically use ~500nm thin polyimide films with a coating of 25nm of aluminum as windows that seal the laser entrance hole or LEH. Their role is to contain the hohlraum gas and minimize the extraneous infra-red radiation getting in. This is necessary to precisely control the hohlraum thermal environment for layering inside the capsule with solid deuterium-tritium at 18K. Here, we use our empirical data on the bulging behavior of these foils under various different conditions to develop models to capture the complex viscoelastic behavior of these films at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures. The constitutive equations derived from these models give us the ability to quantitatively specify the film’s behavior during the fielding of these targets and set the best parameters for new target designs.
Bhandarkar, Suhas; Betcher, Jacob; Smith, Ryan; ...
2016-06-30
Targets for ICF shots on NIF typically use ~500nm thin polyimide films with a coating of 25nm of aluminum as windows that seal the laser entrance hole or LEH. Their role is to contain the hohlraum gas and minimize the extraneous infra-red radiation getting in. This is necessary to precisely control the hohlraum thermal environment for layering inside the capsule with solid deuterium-tritium at 18K. Here, we use our empirical data on the bulging behavior of these foils under various different conditions to develop models to capture the complex viscoelastic behavior of these films at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures.more » The constitutive equations derived from these models give us the ability to quantitatively specify the film’s behavior during the fielding of these targets and set the best parameters for new target designs.« less
Bhandarkar, Suhas; Betcher, Jacob; Smith, Ryan; Lairson, Bruce; Ayers, Travis
2016-06-30
Targets for ICF shots on NIF typically use ~500nm thin polyimide films with a coating of 25nm of aluminum as windows that seal the laser entrance hole or LEH. Their role is to contain the hohlraum gas and minimize the extraneous infra-red radiation getting in. This is necessary to precisely control the hohlraum thermal environment for layering inside the capsule with solid deuterium-tritium at 18K. Here, we use our empirical data on the bulging behavior of these foils under various different conditions to develop models to capture the complex viscoelastic behavior of these films at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures. The constitutive equations derived from these models give us the ability to quantitatively specify the film’s behavior during the fielding of these targets and set the best parameters for new target designs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietruszczak, Stanisław; Haghighat, Ehsan
2015-02-01
In this paper, the problem of modeling of mixed mode cracking in concrete structures is addressed within the context of a constitutive law with embedded discontinuity (CLED). This approach, which was originally developed for describing the propagation of localized deformation in a "smeared" sense, is enhanced here to model a discrete nature of crack propagation. The latter is achieved by coupling the CLED approach with the level-set method, which is commonly used within the framework of Extended Finite Element (XFEM). Numerical simulations of experimental tests conducted at Delft University, which involve four-point bending of a notched concrete beam under the action of two independent actuators, are presented. The results based on enhanced CLED approach are directly compared with XFEM simulations. The predictions from both these methodologies are quite consistent with the experimental data, thereby giving advantage to CLED scheme in view of its simplicity in the numerical implementation.
Das, Sumanta; Maroli, Amit; Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Stannard, Tyler; Xiao, Xianghui; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Neithalath, Narayanan
2016-06-01
This paper presents a microstructure-guided modeling approach to predict the effective elastic response of heterogeneous materials, and demonstrates its application toward two highly heterogeneous, uncon- ventional structural binders, i.e., iron carbonate and fly ash geopolymer. Microstructural information from synchrotron X-ray tomography (XRT) and intrinsic elastic properties of component solid phases from statistical nanoindentation are used as the primary inputs. The virtual periodic 3D microstructure reconstructed using XRT, along with periodic boundary conditions is used as a basis for strain- controlled numerical simulation scheme in the linear elastic range to predict the elastic modulus as well as the stresses in the microstructural phases. The elastic modulus of the composite material predicted from the microstructure-based constitutive modeling approach correlates very well with experimental measurements for both the materials considered. This technique efficiently links the microstructure to mechanical properties of interest and helps develop material design guidelines for novel heterogeneous composites
Flow behaviour and constitutive modelling of a ferritic stainless steel at elevated temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jingwei; Jiang, Zhengyi; Zu, Guoqing; Du, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Laizhu
2016-05-01
The flow behaviour of a ferritic stainless steel (FSS) was investigated by a Gleeble 3500 thermal-mechanical test simulator over the temperature range of 900-1100 °C and strain rate range of 1-50 s-1. Empirical and phenomenological constitutive models were established, and a comparative study was made on the predictability of them. The results indicate that the flow stress decreases with increasing the temperature and decreasing the strain rate. High strain rate may cause a drop in flow stress after a peak value due to the adiabatic heating. The Zener-Hollomon parameter depends linearly on the flow stress, and decreases with raising the temperature and reducing the strain rate. Significant deviations occur in the prediction of flow stress by the Johnson-Cook (JC) model, indicating that the JC model cannot accurately track the flow behaviour of the FSS during hot deformation. Both the multiple-linear and the Arrhenius-type models can track the flow behaviour very well under the whole hot working conditions, and have much higher accuracy in predicting the flow behaviour than that of the JC model. The multiple-linear model is recommended in the current work due to its simpler structure and less time needed for solving the equations relative to the Arrhenius-type model.
A Volume-Fraction Based Two-Phase Constitutive Model for Blood
Zhao, Rui; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Hund, S.J.; •Antaki, J.F.
2008-06-01
Mechanically-induced blood trauma such as hemolysis and thrombosis often occurs at microscopic channels, steps and crevices within cardiovascular devices. A predictive mathematical model based on a broad understanding of hemodynamics at micro scale is needed to mitigate these effects, and is the motivation of this research project. Platelet transport and surface deposition is important in thrombosis. Microfluidic experiments have previously revealed a significant impact of red blood cell (RBC)-plasma phase separation on platelet transport [5], whereby platelet localized concentration can be enhanced due to a non-uniform distribution of RBCs of blood flow in a capillary tube and sudden expansion. However, current platelet deposition models either totally ignored RBCs in the fluid by assuming a zero sample hematocrit or treated them as being evenly distributed. As a result, those models often underestimated platelet advection and deposition to certain areas [2]. The current study aims to develop a two-phase blood constitutive model that can predict phase separation in a RBC-plasma mixture at the micro scale. The model is based on a sophisticated theory known as theory of interacting continua, i.e., mixture theory. The volume fraction is treated as a field variable in this model, which allows the prediction of concentration as well as velocity profiles of both RBC and plasma phases. The results will be used as the input of successive platelet deposition models.
Distributed Damage Estimation for Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil
2011-01-01
Model-based prognostics approaches capture system knowledge in the form of physics-based models of components, and how they fail. These methods consist of a damage estimation phase, in which the health state of a component is estimated, and a prediction phase, in which the health state is projected forward in time to determine end of life. However, the damage estimation problem is often multi-dimensional and computationally intensive. We propose a model decomposition approach adapted from the diagnosis community, called possible conflicts, in order to both improve the computational efficiency of damage estimation, and formulate a damage estimation approach that is inherently distributed. Local state estimates are combined into a global state estimate from which prediction is performed. Using a centrifugal pump as a case study, we perform a number of simulation-based experiments to demonstrate the approach.
Dynamic brittle material response based on a continuum damage model
Chen, E.P.
1994-12-31
The response of brittle materials to dynamic loads was studied in this investigation based on a continuum damage model. Damage mechanism was selected to be interaction and growth of subscale cracks. Briefly, the cracks are activated by bulk tension and the density of activated cracks are described by a Weibull statistical distribution. The moduli of a cracked solid derived by Budiansky and O`Connell are then used to represent the global material degradation due to subscale cracking. This continuum damage model was originally developed to study rock fragmentation and was modified in the present study to improve on the post-limit structural response. The model was implemented into a transient dynamic explicit finite element code PRONTO 2D and then used for a numerical study involving the sudden stretching of a plate with a centrally located hole. Numerical results characterizing the dynamic responses of the material were presented. The effect of damage on dynamic material behavior was discussed.
Trabelsi, O; del Palomar, A Pérez; López-Villalobos, J L; Ginel, A; Doblaré, M
2010-01-01
Cartilage and smooth muscle constitute the main structural components of the human central airways, their mechanical properties affect the flow in the trachea and contribute to the biological function of the respiratory system. The aim of this work is to find out the mechanical passive response of the principal constituents of the human trachea under static tensile conditions and to propose constitutive models to describe their behavior. Histological analyses to characterize the tissues and mechanical tests have been made on three human trachea specimens obtained from autopsies. Uniaxial tensile tests on cartilaginous rings and smooth muscle were performed. Tracheal cartilage was considered an elastic material and its Young's modulus and Poisson's coefficient were determined fitting the experimental curves using a Neo-Hookean model. The smooth muscle was proved to behave as a reinforced hyperelastic material with two families of collagen fibers, and its non-linearity was investigated using the Holzapfel strain-energy density function for two families of fibers to fit the experimental data obtained from longitudinal and transversal cuts. For cartilage, fitting the experimental curves to an elastic model, a Young's modulus of 3.33 MPa and nu=0.49 were obtained. For smooth muscle, several parameters of the Holzapfel function were found out (C(10)=0.877 kPa, k(1)=0.154 kPa, k(2)=34.157, k(3)=0.347 kPa and k(4)=13.889) and demonstrated that the tracheal muscle was stiffer in the longitudinal direction. The better understanding of how these tissues mechanically behave is essential for a correct modeling of the human trachea, a better simulation of its response under different loading conditions, and the development of strategies for the design of new endotracheal prostheses. (c) 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flood damage: a model for consistent, complete and multipurpose scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menoni, Scira; Molinari, Daniela; Ballio, Francesco; Minucci, Guido; Mejri, Ouejdane; Atun, Funda; Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia
2016-12-01
Effective flood risk mitigation requires the impacts of flood events to be much better and more reliably known than is currently the case. Available post-flood damage assessments usually supply only a partial vision of the consequences of the floods as they typically respond to the specific needs of a particular stakeholder. Consequently, they generally focus (i) on particular items at risk, (ii) on a certain time window after the occurrence of the flood, (iii) on a specific scale of analysis or (iv) on the analysis of damage only, without an investigation of damage mechanisms and root causes. This paper responds to the necessity of a more integrated interpretation of flood events as the base to address the variety of needs arising after a disaster. In particular, a model is supplied to develop multipurpose complete event scenarios. The model organizes available information after the event according to five logical axes. This way post-flood damage assessments can be developed that (i) are multisectoral, (ii) consider physical as well as functional and systemic damage, (iii) address the spatial scales that are relevant for the event at stake depending on the type of damage that has to be analyzed, i.e., direct, functional and systemic, (iv) consider the temporal evolution of damage and finally (v) allow damage mechanisms and root causes to be understood. All the above features are key for the multi-usability of resulting flood scenarios. The model allows, on the one hand, the rationalization of efforts currently implemented in ex post damage assessments, also with the objective of better programming financial resources that will be needed for these types of events in the future. On the other hand, integrated interpretations of flood events are fundamental to adapting and optimizing flood mitigation strategies on the basis of thorough forensic investigation of each event, as corroborated by the implementation of the model in a case study.
Application of a Dislocation Density-Based Constitutive Model to Al-Alloyed TWIP Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jinkyung; Estrin, Yuri; De Cooman, Bruno Charles
2013-09-01
High Mn steels exhibit an exceptional combination of high strength and large ductility owing to their high strain-hardening rate during deformation. The addition of Al is needed to improve the mechanical performance of TWIP steel by means of the control of the stacking fault energy. In this study, a constitutive modeling approach, which can describe the strain-hardening behavior and the effect of Al on the mechanical properties, was used. In order to understand the deformation behavior of Fe18Mn0.6C and Fe18Mn0.6C1.5Al TWIP steels, a comparative study of the microstructural evolution was conducted by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The microstructure analysis focused on dislocations, stacking faults, and mechanical twins as these are the defects controlling the strain-hardening behavior of TWIP steels. A comparison of the strain-hardening behavior of Fe18Mn0.6C and Fe18Mn0.6C1.5Al TWIP steels was made in terms of a dislocation density-based constitutive model that goes back to the Kubin-Estrin model. The densities of mobile and forest dislocations are coupled in order to account for the interaction between the two dislocation populations during straining. The model was used to estimate the contribution of dynamic strain aging to the flow stress. As deformation twinning occurred only in a subset of the grains, the grain population was subdivided into twinned grains and twin-free grains. Different constitutive equations were used for the two families of grains. The analysis revealed that (i) the grain size and dynamic recovery effects determine the strain-hardening behavior of the twin-free grains, (ii) the deformation twins, which act as effective barriers to dislocation motion, are the predominant elements of the microstructure that governs the strain hardening of the twinned grains, and (iii) the DSA contribution to strain hardening of TWIP steel is only minor.
Cross-country transferability of multi-variable damage models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagenaar, Dennis; Lüdtke, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Bouwer, Laurens
2017-04-01
Flood damage assessment is often done with simple damage curves based only on flood water depth. Additionally, damage models are often transferred in space and time, e.g. from region to region or from one flood event to another. Validation has shown that depth-damage curve estimates are associated with high uncertainties, particularly when applied in regions outside the area where the data for curve development was collected. Recently, progress has been made with multi-variable damage models created with data-mining techniques, i.e. Bayesian Networks and random forest. However, it is still unknown to what extent and under which conditions model transfers are possible and reliable. Model validations in different countries will provide valuable insights into the transferability of multi-variable damage models. In this study we compare multi-variable models developed on basis of flood damage datasets from Germany as well as from The Netherlands. Data from several German floods was collected using computer aided telephone interviews. Data from the 1993 Meuse flood in the Netherlands is available, based on compensations paid by the government. The Bayesian network and random forest based models are applied and validated in both countries on basis of the individual datasets. A major challenge was the harmonization of the variables between both datasets due to factors like differences in variable definitions, and regional and temporal differences in flood hazard and exposure characteristics. Results of model validations and comparisons in both countries are discussed, particularly in respect to encountered challenges and possible solutions for an improvement of model transferability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haisler, W. E.
1983-01-01
An uncoupled constitutive model for predicting the transient response of thermal and rate dependent, inelastic material behavior was developed. The uncoupled model assumes that there is a temperature below which the total strain consists essentially of elastic and rate insensitive inelastic strains only. Above this temperature, the rate dependent inelastic strain (creep) dominates. The rate insensitive inelastic strain component is modelled in an incremental form with a yield function, blow rule and hardening law. Revisions to the hardening rule permit the model to predict temperature-dependent kinematic-isotropic hardening behavior, cyclic saturation, asymmetric stress-strain response upon stress reversal, and variable Bauschinger effect. The rate dependent inelastic strain component is modelled using a rate equation in terms of back stress, drag stress and exponent n as functions of temperature and strain. A sequence of hysteresis loops and relaxation tests are utilized to define the rate dependent inelastic strain rate. Evaluation of the model has been performed by comparison with experiments involving various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy X.
Constitutive Model Constants for Al7075-T651 and Al7075-T6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant; Harris, Bryan
2009-06-01
Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these material. J-C strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250^oC. J-C strength model constants for Al7075-T651 are: A=527 MPa, B=676 MPa, n=0.71, C=0.017, and m=1.61 and for Al7075-T6: A = 546 MPa, B = 674 MPa, n = 0.72, C = 0.059, and m =1.56. J-C fracture model constants are determined form quasi-static and high strain rate/high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. J-C fracture model constants for the two alloys are: Al7075-T651; D1 = 0.110, D2 = 0.573, D3= -3.4446, D4 = 0.016, and D 5= 1.099 and Al7075-T6; D1= 0.451 D2= -0.952 D3= -.068, D4 =0.036, and D5 = 0.697.
A Constitutive Model for Soft Clays Incorporating Elastic and Plastic Cross-Anisotropy
Castro, Jorge; Sivasithamparam, Nallathamby
2017-01-01
Natural clays exhibit a significant degree of anisotropy in their fabric, which initially is derived from the shape of the clay platelets, deposition process and one-dimensional consolidation. Various authors have proposed anisotropic elastoplastic models involving an inclined yield surface to reproduce anisotropic behavior of plastic nature. This paper presents a novel constitutive model for soft structured clays that includes anisotropic behavior both of elastic and plastic nature. The new model incorporates stress-dependent cross-anisotropic elastic behavior within the yield surface using three independent elastic parameters because natural clays exhibit cross-anisotropic (or transversely isotropic) behavior after deposition and consolidation. Thus, the model only incorporates an additional variable with a clear physical meaning, namely the ratio between horizontal and vertical stiffnesses, which can be analytically obtained from conventional laboratory tests. The model does not consider evolution of elastic anisotropy, but laboratory results show that large strains are necessary to cause noticeable changes in elastic anisotropic behavior. The model is able to capture initial non-vertical effective stress paths for undrained triaxial tests and to predict deviatoric strains during isotropic loading or unloading. PMID:28772938
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farabi, E.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.
2015-01-01
Characterizing the high temperature flow behavior of a lead bearing duplex brass in a wide range of forming temperatures (673-1073 K) and strain rates (0.001-0.1 s-1) has been conducted in the present work. In order to establish the constitutive equations, two major modeling procedures, phenomenological (the Original Johnson-Cook and the Arrhenius-type) and physically based (the modified Zerilli-Armstrong) models, have been employed. The capability and accuracy of each model has been assessed via standard statistical parameters such as average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient. The comparative and comprehensive study of the flow behavior indicated that the accuracy of the phenomenological models was strongly dependent on the range of the testing temperatures and the corresponding mechanism which operate under the specified deformation conditions. It has been indicated that by limiting the temperature range a more precise Q-value is reached, which positively influences the accuracy of the Arrhenius-type model. In contrast, the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model was capable to overcome these limitations and properly considers the physical characteristics including dislocation dynamics and thermal activation to develop the materials constants.
The contribution of mouse models to the understanding of constitutional thrombocytopenia
Léon, Catherine; Dupuis, Arnaud; Gachet, Christian; Lanza, François
2016-01-01
Constitutional thrombocytopenias result from platelet production abnormalities of hereditary origin. Long misdiagnosed and poorly studied, knowledge about these rare diseases has increased considerably over the last twenty years due to improved technology for the identification of mutations, as well as an improvement in obtaining megakaryocyte culture from patient hematopoietic stem cells. Simultaneously, the manipulation of mouse genes (transgenesis, total or conditional inactivation, introduction of point mutations, random chemical mutagenesis) have helped to generate disease models that have contributed greatly to deciphering patient clinical and laboratory features. Most of the thrombocytopenias for which the mutated genes have been identified now have a murine model counterpart. This review focuses on the contribution that these mouse models have brought to the understanding of hereditary thrombocytopenias with respect to what was known in humans. Animal models have either i) provided novel information on the molecular and cellular pathways that were missing from the patient studies; ii) improved our understanding of the mechanisms of thrombocytopoiesis; iii) been instrumental in structure-function studies of the mutated gene products; and iv) been an invaluable tool as preclinical models to test new drugs or develop gene therapies. At present, the genetic determinants of thrombocytopenia remain unknown in almost half of all cases. Currently available high-speed sequencing techniques will identify new candidate genes, which will in turn allow the generation of murine models to confirm and further study the abnormal phenotype. In a complementary manner, programs of random mutagenesis in mice should also identify new candidate genes involved in thrombocytopenia. PMID:27478199
Constitutive Model Constants for Al7075-T651 and Al7075-T6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brar, N. S.; Joshi, V. S.; Harris, B. W.
2009-12-01
Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these materials. Although the two tempers show similar elongation at breakage, the ultimate tensile strength of T651 temper is generally lower than the T6 temper. Johnson-Cook strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from high strain rate tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250°C. The Johnson-Cook fracture model constants are determined from quasi-static and medium strain rate as well as high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. Although the J-C strength model constants are similar, the fracture model constants show wide variations. Details of the experimental method used and the results for the two alloys are presented.
Modeling tsunami damage in Aceh: a reply
Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad
2008-01-01
In reply to the critique of Baird and Kerr, we emphasize that our model is a generalized vulnerability model, built from easily acquired data from anywhere in the world, to identify areas with probable susceptibility to large tsunamis--and discuss their other criticisms in detail. We also show that a rejection of the role of trees in helping protect vulnerable areas is...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Khaled, Bilal; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther
2016-01-01
A material model which incorporates several key capabilities which have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in state-of-the art composite impact models is under development. In particular, a next generation composite impact material model, jointly developed by the FAA and NASA, is being implemented into the commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The material model, which incorporates plasticity, damage, and failure, utilizes experimentally based tabulated input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage and the initiation of failure as opposed to specifying discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength). The plasticity portion of the orthotropic, three-dimensional, macroscopic composite constitutive model is based on an extension of the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a generalized yield function with a non-associative flow rule. For the damage model, a strain equivalent formulation is utilized to allow for the uncoupling of the deformation and damage analyses. In the damage model, a semi-coupled approach is employed where the overall damage in a particular coordinate direction is assumed to be a multiplicative combination of the damage in that direction resulting from the applied loads in the various coordinate directions. Due to the fact that the plasticity and damage models are uncoupled, test procedures and methods to both characterize the damage model and to covert the material stress-strain curves from the true (damaged) stress space to the effective (undamaged) stress space have been developed. A methodology has been developed to input the experimentally determined composite failure surface in a tabulated manner. An analytical approach is then utilized to tra