Sample records for damage detection methods

  1. Method development of damage detection in asymmetric buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Thambiratnam, David P.; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Andy

    2018-01-01

    Aesthetics and functionality requirements have caused most buildings to be asymmetric in recent times. Such buildings exhibit complex vibration characteristics under dynamic loads as there is coupling between the lateral and torsional components of vibration, and are referred to as torsionally coupled buildings. These buildings require three dimensional modelling and analysis. In spite of much recent research and some successful applications of vibration based damage detection methods to civil structures in recent years, the applications to asymmetric buildings has been a challenging task for structural engineers. There has been relatively little research on detecting and locating damage specific to torsionally coupled asymmetric buildings. This paper aims to compare the difference in vibration behaviour between symmetric and asymmetric buildings and then use the vibration characteristics for predicting damage in them. The need for developing a special method to detect damage in asymmetric buildings thus becomes evident. Towards this end, this paper modifies the traditional modal strain energy based damage index by decomposing the mode shapes into their lateral and vertical components and to form component specific damage indices. The improved approach is then developed by combining the modified strain energy based damage indices with the modal flexibility method which was modified to suit three dimensional structures to form a new damage indicator. The procedure is illustrated through numerical studies conducted on three dimensional five-story symmetric and asymmetric frame structures with the same layout, after validating the modelling techniques through experimental testing of a laboratory scale asymmetric building model. Vibration parameters obtained from finite element analysis of the intact and damaged building models are then applied into the proposed algorithms for detecting and locating the single and multiple damages in these buildings. The results

  2. Damage diagnosis algorithm using a sequential change point detection method with an unknown distribution for damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hae Young; Rajagopal, Ram; Kiremidjian, Anne S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper introduces a damage diagnosis algorithm for civil structures that uses a sequential change point detection method for the cases where the post-damage feature distribution is unknown a priori. This algorithm extracts features from structural vibration data using time-series analysis and then declares damage using the change point detection method. The change point detection method asymptotically minimizes detection delay for a given false alarm rate. The conventional method uses the known pre- and post-damage feature distributions to perform a sequential hypothesis test. In practice, however, the post-damage distribution is unlikely to be known a priori. Therefore, our algorithm estimates and updates this distribution as data are collected using the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian methods. We also applied an approximate method to reduce the computation load and memory requirement associated with the estimation. The algorithm is validated using multiple sets of simulated data and a set of experimental data collected from a four-story steel special moment-resisting frame. Our algorithm was able to estimate the post-damage distribution consistently and resulted in detection delays only a few seconds longer than the delays from the conventional method that assumes we know the post-damage feature distribution. We confirmed that the Bayesian method is particularly efficient in declaring damage with minimal memory requirement, but the maximum likelihood method provides an insightful heuristic approach.

  3. The Researches on Damage Detection Method for Truss Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng Hong; Cao, Xiao Nan

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an effective method to detect damage in truss structures. Numerical simulation and experimental analysis were carried out on a damaged truss structure under instantaneous excitation. The ideal excitation point and appropriate hammering method were determined to extract time domain signals under two working conditions. The frequency response function and principal component analysis were used for data processing, and the angle between the frequency response function vectors was selected as a damage index to ascertain the location of a damaged bar in the truss structure. In the numerical simulation, the time domain signal of all nodes was extracted to determine the location of the damaged bar. In the experimental analysis, the time domain signal of a portion of the nodes was extracted on the basis of an optimal sensor placement method based on the node strain energy coefficient. The results of the numerical simulation and experimental analysis showed that the damage detection method based on the frequency response function and principal component analysis could locate the damaged bar accurately.

  4. Curvature methods of damage detection using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfrick, Mark N.; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Analytical models have shown that local damage in a structure can be detected by studying changes in the curvature of the structure's displaced shape while under an applied load. In order for damage to be detected, located, and quantified using curvature methods, a spatially dense set of measurement points is required on the structure of interest and the change in curvature must be measurable. Experimental testing done to validate the theory is often plagued by sparse data sets and experimental noise. Furthermore, the type of load, the location and severity of the damage, and the mechanical properties (material and geometry) of the structure have a significant effect on how much the curvature will change. Within this paper, three-dimensional (3D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as one possible method for detecting damage through curvature methods is investigated. 3D DIC is a non-contacting full-field measurement technique which uses a stereo pair of digital cameras to capture surface shape. This approach allows for an extremely dense data set across the entire visible surface of an object. A test is performed to validate the approach on an aluminum cantilever beam. A dynamic load is applied to the beam which allows for measurements to be made of the beam's response at each of its first three resonant frequencies, corresponding to the first three bending modes of the structure. DIC measurements are used with damage detection algorithms to predict damage location with varying levels of damage inflicted in the form of a crack with a prescribed depth. The testing demonstrated that this technique will likely only work with structures where a large displaced shape is easily achieved and in cases where the damage is relatively severe. Practical applications and limitations of the technique are discussed.

  5. Sequential structural damage diagnosis algorithm using a change point detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, H.; Rajagopal, R.; Kiremidjian, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    This paper introduces a damage diagnosis algorithm for civil structures that uses a sequential change point detection method. The general change point detection method uses the known pre- and post-damage feature distributions to perform a sequential hypothesis test. In practice, however, the post-damage distribution is unlikely to be known a priori, unless we are looking for a known specific type of damage. Therefore, we introduce an additional algorithm that estimates and updates this distribution as data are collected using the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian methods. We also applied an approximate method to reduce the computation load and memory requirement associated with the estimation. The algorithm is validated using a set of experimental data collected from a four-story steel special moment-resisting frame and multiple sets of simulated data. Various features of different dimensions have been explored, and the algorithm was able to identify damage, particularly when it uses multidimensional damage sensitive features and lower false alarm rates, with a known post-damage feature distribution. For unknown feature distribution cases, the post-damage distribution was consistently estimated and the detection delays were only a few time steps longer than the delays from the general method that assumes we know the post-damage feature distribution. We confirmed that the Bayesian method is particularly efficient in declaring damage with minimal memory requirement, but the maximum likelihood method provides an insightful heuristic approach.

  6. Detecting Damage in Composite Material Using Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meo, Michele; Polimeno, Umberto; Zumpano, Giuseppe

    2008-05-01

    Modern aerospace structures make increasing use of fibre reinforced plastic composites, due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, due to their brittleness, low velocity impact can cause delaminations beneath the surface, while the surface may appear to be undamaged upon visual inspection. Such damage is called barely visible impact damage (BVID). Such internal damages lead to significant reduction in local strengths and ultimately could lead to catastrophic failures. It is therefore important to detect and monitor damages in high loaded composite components to receive an early warning for a well timed maintenance of the aircraft. Non-linear ultrasonic spectroscopy methods are promising damage detection and material characterization tools. In this paper, two different non-linear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) methods are presented: single mode nonlinear resonance ultrasound (NRUS) and nonlinear wave modulation technique (NWMS). The NEWS methods were applied to detect delamination damage due to low velocity impact (<12 J) on various composite plates. The results showed that the proposed methodology appear to be highly sensitive to the presence of damage with very promising future NDT and structural health monitoring applications.

  7. Damage detection in composite materials using Lamb wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Soutis, Constantinos

    2002-04-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in situ damage detection of composite materials. Experimental results are presented for the application of Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy test specimens containing representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes. Linear wave scans were performed on narrow laminated specimens and sandwich beams with various cores by monitoring the transmitted waves with piezoceramic sensors. Optimal actuator and sensor configurations were devised through experimentation, and various types of driving signal were explored. These experiments provided a procedure capable of easily and accurately determining the time of flight of a Lamb wave pulse between an actuator and sensor. Lamb wave techniques provide more information about damage presence and severity than previously tested methods (frequency response techniques), and provide the possibility of determining damage location due to their local response nature. These methods may prove suitable for structural health monitoring applications since they travel long distances and can be applied with conformable piezoelectric actuators and sensors that require little power.

  8. An improved EMD method for modal identification and a combined static-dynamic method for damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinping; Li, Peizhen; Yang, Youfa; Xu, Dian

    2018-04-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is a highly adaptable signal processing method. However, the EMD approach has certain drawbacks, including distortions from end effects and mode mixing. In the present study, these two problems are addressed using an end extension method based on the support vector regression machine (SVRM) and a modal decomposition method based on the characteristics of the Hilbert transform. The algorithm includes two steps: using the SVRM, the time series data are extended at both endpoints to reduce the end effects, and then, a modified EMD method using the characteristics of the Hilbert transform is performed on the resulting signal to reduce mode mixing. A new combined static-dynamic method for identifying structural damage is presented. This method combines the static and dynamic information in an equilibrium equation that can be solved using the Moore-Penrose generalized matrix inverse. The combination method uses the differences in displacements of the structure with and without damage and variations in the modal force vector. Tests on a four-story, steel-frame structure were conducted to obtain static and dynamic responses of the structure. The modal parameters are identified using data from the dynamic tests and improved EMD method. The new method is shown to be more accurate and effective than the traditional EMD method. Through tests with a shear-type test frame, the higher performance of the proposed static-dynamic damage detection approach, which can detect both single and multiple damage locations and the degree of the damage, is demonstrated. For structures with multiple damage, the combined approach is more effective than either the static or dynamic method. The proposed EMD method and static-dynamic damage detection method offer improved modal identification and damage detection, respectively, in structures.

  9. A review of damage detection methods for wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Ho, Siu-Chun M.; Song, Gangbing; Ren, Liang; Li, Hongnan

    2015-03-01

    Wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources and many countries are predicted to increase wind energy portion of their whole national energy supply to about twenty percent in the next decade. One potential obstacle in the use of wind turbines to harvest wind energy is the maintenance of the wind turbine blades. The blades are a crucial and costly part of a wind turbine and over their service life can suffer from factors such as material degradation and fatigue, which can limit their effectiveness and safety. Thus, the ability to detect damage in wind turbine blades is of great significance for planning maintenance and continued operation of the wind turbine. This paper presents a review of recent research and development in the field of damage detection for wind turbine blades. Specifically, this paper reviews frequently employed sensors including fiber optic and piezoelectric sensors, and four promising damage detection methods, namely, transmittance function, wave propagation, impedance and vibration based methods. As a note towards the future development trend for wind turbine sensing systems, the necessity for wireless sensing and energy harvesting is briefly presented. Finally, existing problems and promising research efforts for online damage detection of turbine blades are discussed.

  10. Visual method for detecting critical damage in railway contact strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judek, S.; Skibicki, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of power in the electric traction is vital for the safety of this important transport system. For this purpose, monitoring and diagnostics of the technical condition of the vehicle’s power supply elements are becoming increasingly common. This paper presents a new visual method for detecting contact strip damage, based on measurement and analysis of the movement of the overhead contact line (OCL) wire. A measurement system configuration with a 2D camera was proposed. The experimental method has shown that contact strips damage can be detected by transverse displacement signal analysis. It has been proven that the velocity signal numerically established on that basis has a comparable level in the case of identical damage, regardless of its location on the surface of the contact strip. The proposed method belongs to the group of contact-less measurements, so it does not require interference with the structure of the catenary network nor the mounting of sensors in its vicinity. Measurement of displacements of the contact wire in 2D space makes it possible to combine the functions of existing diagnostic stands assessing the correctness of the mean contact force control adjustment of the current collector with the elements of the contact strip diagnostics, which involves detecting their damage which may result in overhead contact line rupture.

  11. Automatic Building Damage Detection Method Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images and 3d GIS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jihui; Sui, Haigang; Feng, Wenqing; Song, Zhina

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel approach of building damaged detection is proposed using high resolution remote sensing images and 3D GIS-Model data. Traditional building damage detection method considers to detect damaged building due to earthquake, but little attention has been paid to analyze various building damaged types(e.g., trivial damaged, severely damaged and totally collapsed.) Therefore, we want to detect the different building damaged type using 2D and 3D feature of scenes because the real world we live in is a 3D space. The proposed method generalizes that the image geometric correction method firstly corrects the post-disasters remote sensing image using the 3D GIS model or RPC parameters, then detects the different building damaged types using the change of the height and area between the pre- and post-disasters and the texture feature of post-disasters. The results, evaluated on a selected study site of the Beichuan earthquake ruins, Sichuan, show that this method is feasible and effective in building damage detection. It has also shown that the proposed method is easily applicable and well suited for rapid damage assessment after natural disasters.

  12. Experimental Validation of Model Updating and Damage Detection via Eigenvalue Sensitivity Methods with Artificial Boundary Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    VALIDATION OF MODEL UPDATING AND DAMAGE DETECTION VIA EIGENVALUE SENSITIVITY METHODS WITH ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS by Matthew D. Bouwense...VALIDATION OF MODEL UPDATING AND DAMAGE DETECTION VIA EIGENVALUE SENSITIVITY METHODS WITH ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR...unlimited. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF MODEL UPDATING AND DAMAGE DETECTION VIA EIGENVALUE SENSITIVITY METHODS WITH ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY

  13. A Comparison of Vibration and Oil Debris Gear Damage Detection Methods Applied to Pitting Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) must provide reliable, real-time performance monitoring of helicopter operating parameters to prevent damage of flight critical components. Helicopter transmission diagnostics are an important part of a helicopter HUMS. In order to improve the reliability of transmission diagnostics, many researchers propose combining two technologies, vibration and oil monitoring, using data fusion and intelligent systems. Some benefits of combining multiple sensors to make decisions include improved detection capabilities and increased probability the event is detected. However, if the sensors are inaccurate, or the features extracted from the sensors are poor predictors of transmission health, integration of these sensors will decrease the accuracy of damage prediction. For this reason, one must verify the individual integrity of vibration and oil analysis methods prior to integrating the two technologies. This research focuses on comparing the capability of two vibration algorithms, FM4 and NA4, and a commercially available on-line oil debris monitor to detect pitting damage on spur gears in the NASA Glenn Research Center Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Results from this research indicate that the rate of change of debris mass measured by the oil debris monitor is comparable to the vibration algorithms in detecting gear pitting damage.

  14. Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.

  15. A novel sensitivity-based method for damage detection of structures under unknown periodic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseralavi, S. S.; Salajegheh, E.; Fadaee, M. J.; Salajegheh, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a technique for damage detection in structures under unknown periodic excitations using the transient displacement response. The method is capable of identifying the damage parameters without finding the input excitations. We first define the concept of displacement space as a linear space in which each point represents displacements of structure under an excitation and initial condition. Roughly speaking, the method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering this novel geometrical viewpoint, an equation called kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic excitations and a sensitivity-based algorithm for solving KPE is proposed accordingly. The method is evaluated via three case studies under periodic excitations, which confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Damage detection of an in-service condensation pipeline joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, Julie; Rezaei, Davood; Taheri, Farid

    2010-04-01

    The early detection of damage in structural or mechanical systems is of vital importance. With early detection, the damage may be repaired before the integrity of the system is jeopardized, resulting in monetary losses, loss of life or limb, and environmental impacts. Among the various types of structural health monitoring techniques, vibration-based methods are of significant interest since the damage location does not need to be known beforehand, making it a more versatile approach. The non-destructive damage detection method used for the experiments herein is a novel vibration-based method which uses an index called the EMD Energy Damage Index, developed with the aim of providing improved qualitative results compared to those methods currently available. As part of an effort to establish the integrity and limitation of this novel damage detection method, field testing was completed on a mechanical pipe joint on a condensation line, located in the physical plant of Dalhousie University. Piezoceramic sensors, placed at various locations around the joint were used to monitor the free vibration of the pipe imposed through the use of an impulse hammer. Multiple damage progression scenarios were completed, each having a healthy state and multiple damage cases. Subsequently, the recorded signals from the healthy and damaged joint were processed through the EMD Energy Damage Index developed in-house in an effort to detect the inflicted damage. The proposed methodology successfully detected the inflicted damages. In this paper, the effects of impact location, sensor location, frequency bandwidth, intrinsic mode functions, and boundary conditions are discussed.

  17. Flexible, multi-measurement guided wave damage detection under varying temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Alexander C. S.; Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    Temperature compensation in structural health monitoring helps identify damage in a structure by removing data variations due to environmental conditions, such as temperature. Stretch-based methods are one of the most commonly used temperature compensation methods. To account for variations in temperature, stretch-based methods optimally stretch signals in time to optimally match a measurement to a baseline. All of the data is then compared with the single baseline to determine the presence of damage. Yet, for these methods to be effective, the measurement and the baseline must satisfy the inherent assumptions of the temperature compensation method. In many scenarios, these assumptions are wrong, the methods generate error, and damage detection fails. To improve damage detection, a multi-measurement damage detection method is introduced. By using each measurement in the dataset as a baseline, error caused by imperfect temperature compensation is reduced. The multi-measurement method increases the detection effectiveness of our damage metric, or damage indicator, over time and reduces the presence of additional peaks caused by temperature that could be mistaken for damage. By using many baselines, the variance of the damage indicator is reduced and the effects from damage are amplified. Notably, the multi-measurement improves damage detection over single-measurement methods. This is demonstrated through an increase in the maximum of our damage signature from 0.55 to 0.95 (where large values, up to a maximum of one, represent a statistically significant change in the data due to damage).

  18. Detection of insect damage in almonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soowon; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Pinhole insect damage in natural almonds is very difficult to detect on-line. Further, evidence exists relating insect damage to aflatoxin contamination. Hence, for quality and health reasons, methods to detect and remove such damaged nuts are of great importance in this study, we explored the possibility of using x-ray imaging to detect pinhole damage in almonds by insects. X-ray film images of about 2000 almonds and x-ray linescan images of only 522 pinhole damaged almonds were obtained. The pinhole damaged region appeared slightly darker than non-damaged region in x-ray negative images. A machine recognition algorithm was developed to detect these darker regions. The algorithm used the first order and the second order information to identify the damaged region. To reduce the possibility of false positive results due to germ region in high resolution images, germ detection and removal routines were also included. With film images, the algorithm showed approximately an 81 percent correct recognition ratio with only 1 percent false positives whereas line scan images correctly recognized 65 percent of pinholes with about 9 percent false positives. The algorithms was very fast and efficient requiring only minimal computation time. If implemented on line, theoretical throughput of this recognition system would be 66 nuts/second.

  19. Detecting Tooth Damage in Geared Drive Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method that was developed to detect gear tooth damage that does not require a priori knowledge of the frequency characteristic of the fault. The basic idea of the method is that a few damaged teeth will cause transient load fluctuations unlike the normal tooth load fluctuations. The method attempts to measure the energy in the lower side bands of the modulated signal caused by the transient load fluctuations. The method monitors the energy in the frequency interval which excludes the frequency of the lowest dominant normal tooth load fluctuation and all frequencies above it. The method reacted significantly to the tooth fracture damage results documented in the Lewis data sets which were obtained from tests of the OH-58A transmission and tests of high contact ratio spiral bevel gears. The method detected gear tooth fractures in all four of the high contact ratio spiral bevel gear runs. Published results indicate other detection methods were only able to detect faults for three out of four runs.

  20. Experimental validation of a structural damage detection method based on marginal Hilbert spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Srishti; Roy, Timir B.; Sabamehr, Ardalan; Bagchi, Ashutosh

    2017-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) using dynamic characteristics of structures is crucial for early damage detection. Damage detection can be performed by capturing and assessing structural responses. Instrumented structures are monitored by analyzing the responses recorded by deployed sensors in the form of signals. Signal processing is an important tool for the processing of the collected data to diagnose anomalies in structural behavior. The vibration signature of the structure varies with damage. In order to attain effective damage detection, preservation of non-linear and non-stationary features of real structural responses is important. Decomposition of the signals into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and application of Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) addresses the time-varying instantaneous properties of the structural response. The energy distribution among different vibration modes of the intact and damaged structure depicted by Marginal Hilbert Spectrum (MHS) detects location and severity of the damage. The present work investigates damage detection analytically and experimentally by employing MHS. The testing of this methodology for different damage scenarios of a frame structure resulted in its accurate damage identification. The sensitivity of Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) is assessed with varying frequencies and damage locations by means of calculating Damage Indices (DI) from the Hilbert spectrum curves of the undamaged and damaged structures.

  1. Damage detection and locating using tone burst and continuous excitation modulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Li; Qu, Wenzhong

    2014-03-01

    Among structural health monitoring techniques, nonlinear ultrasonic spectroscopy methods are found to be effective diagnostic approach to detecting nonlinear damage such as fatigue crack, due to their sensitivity to incipient structural changes. In this paper, a nonlinear ultrasonic modulation method was developed to detect and locate a fatigue crack on an aluminum plate. The method is different with nonlinear wave modulation method which recognizes the modulation of low-frequency vibration and high-frequency ultrasonic wave; it recognizes the modulation of tone burst and high-frequency ultrasonic wave. In the experiment, a Hanning window modulated sinusoidal tone burst and a continuous sinusoidal excitation were simultaneously imposed on the PZT array which was bonded on the surface of an aluminum plate. The modulations of tone burst and continuous sinusoidal excitation was observed in different actuator-sensor paths, indicating the presence and location of fatigue crack. The results of experiments show that the proposed method is capable of detecting and locating the fatigue crack successfully.

  2. Structural Damage Detection Using Changes in Natural Frequencies: Theory and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, K.; Zhu, W. D.

    2011-07-01

    A vibration-based method that uses changes in natural frequencies of a structure to detect damage has advantages over conventional nondestructive tests in detecting various types of damage, including loosening of bolted joints, using minimum measurement data. Two major challenges associated with applications of the vibration-based damage detection method to engineering structures are addressed: accurate modeling of structures and the development of a robust inverse algorithm to detect damage, which are defined as the forward and inverse problems, respectively. To resolve the forward problem, new physics-based finite element modeling techniques are developed for fillets in thin-walled beams and for bolted joints, so that complex structures can be accurately modeled with a reasonable model size. To resolve the inverse problem, a logistical function transformation is introduced to convert the constrained optimization problem to an unconstrained one, and a robust iterative algorithm using a trust-region method, called the Levenberg-Marquardt method, is developed to accurately detect the locations and extent of damage. The new methodology can ensure global convergence of the iterative algorithm in solving under-determined system equations and deal with damage detection problems with relatively large modeling error and measurement noise. The vibration-based damage detection method is applied to various structures including lightning masts, a space frame structure and one of its components, and a pipeline. The exact locations and extent of damage can be detected in the numerical simulation where there is no modeling error and measurement noise. The locations and extent of damage can be successfully detected in experimental damage detection.

  3. Development of an ultrasonic nondestructive inspection method for impact damage detection in composite aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capriotti, M.; Kim, H. E.; Lanza di Scalea, F.; Kim, H.

    2017-04-01

    High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact (HEWABI) due to ground service equipment can often occur in aircraft structures causing major damages. These Wide Area Impact Damages (WAID) can affect the internal components of the structure, hence are usually not visible nor detectable by typical one-sided NDE techniques and can easily compromise the structural safety of the aircraft. In this study, the development of an NDI method is presented together with its application to impacted aircraft frames. The HEWABI from a typical ground service scenario has been previously tested and the desired type of damages have been generated, so that the aircraft panels could become representative study cases. The need of the aircraft industry for a rapid, ramp-friendly system to detect such WAID is here approached with guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) and a scanning tool that accesses the whole structure from the exterior side only. The wide coverage of the specimen provided by GUW has been coupled to a differential detection approach and is aided by an outlier statistical analysis to be able to inspect and detect faults in the challenging composite material and complex structure. The results will be presented and discussed with respect to the detection capability of the system and its response to the different damage types. Receiving Operating Characteristics curves (ROC) are also produced to quantify and assess the performance of the proposed method. Ongoing work is currently aimed at the penetration of the inner components of the structure, such as shear ties and C-frames, exploiting different frequency ranges and signal processing techniques. From the hardware and tool development side, different transducers and coupling methods, such as air-coupled transducers, are under investigation together with the design of a more suitable scanning technique.

  4. Multi-Dimensional Damage Detection for Surfaces and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Roberson, Luke; Medelius, Pedro; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steen; Snyder, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Current designs for inflatable or semi-rigidized structures for habitats and space applications use a multiple-layer construction, alternating thin layers with thicker, stronger layers, which produces a layered composite structure that is much better at resisting damage. Even though such composite structures or layered systems are robust, they can still be susceptible to penetration damage. The ability to detect damage to surfaces of inflatable or semi-rigid habitat structures is of great interest to NASA. Damage caused by impacts of foreign objects such as micrometeorites can rupture the shell of these structures, causing loss of critical hardware and/or the life of the crew. While not all impacts will have a catastrophic result, it will be very important to identify and locate areas of the exterior shell that have been damaged by impacts so that repairs (or other provisions) can be made to reduce the probability of shell wall rupture. This disclosure describes a system that will provide real-time data regarding the health of the inflatable shell or rigidized structures, and information related to the location and depth of impact damage. The innovation described here is a method of determining the size, location, and direction of damage in a multilayered structure. In the multi-dimensional damage detection system, layers of two-dimensional thin film detection layers are used to form a layered composite, with non-detection layers separating the detection layers. The non-detection layers may be either thicker or thinner than the detection layers. The thin-film damage detection layers are thin films of materials with a conductive grid or striped pattern. The conductive pattern may be applied by several methods, including printing, plating, sputtering, photolithography, and etching, and can include as many detection layers that are necessary for the structure construction or to afford the detection detail level required. The damage is detected using a detector or

  5. Structural Damage Detection with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2011-07-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are lightweight and inexpensive enablers for a large class of damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper starts with a brief review of PWAS physical principles and basic modelling and continues by considering the various ways in which PWAS can be used for damage detection: (a) embedded guided-wave ultrasonics, i.e., pitch-catch, pulse-echo, phased arrays, thickness mode; (b) high-frequency modal sensing, i.e., the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance method; (c) passive detection, i.e., acoustic emission and impact detection. An example of crack-like damage detection and localization with PWAS phased arrays on a small metallic plate is given. The modelling of PWAS detection of disbond damage in adhesive joints is achieved with the analytical transfer matrix method (TMM). The analytical methods offer the advantage of fast computation which enables parameter studies and carpet plots. A parametric study of the effect of crack size and PWAS location on disbond detection is presented. The power and energy transduction between PWAS and structure is studied analytically with a wave propagation method. Special attention is given to the mechatronics modeling of the complete transduction cycle from electrical excitation into ultrasonic acoustic waves by the piezoelectric effect, the transfer through the structure, and finally reverse piezoelectric transduction to generate the received electric signal. It is found that the combination of PWAS size and wave frequency/wavelength play an important role in identifying transduction maxima and minima that could be exploited to achieve an optimum power-efficient design. The multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), which permits fine discretization of damaged regions and complicated structural geometries, is used to study the generation of guided waves in a plate from an electrically excited transmitter PWAS and the capture of these waves as electric

  6. Multi-physics modeling of multifunctional composite materials for damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujidkul, Thanyawalai

    This study presents a modeling of multifunction composite materials for damage detection with its verification and validation to mechanical behavior predictions of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites (CFRPs), CFRPs laminated composites, and woven SiC/SiC matrix composites that are subjected to fracture damage. Advantages of those materials are low cost, low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, and comparable specific tensile properties, the special of SiC/SiC is good environmental stability at high temperature. Resulting in, the composite has been used for many important structures such as helicopter rotors, aerojet engines, gas turbines, hot control surfaces, sporting goods, and windmill blades. Damage or material defect detection in a mechanical component can provide vital information for the prediction of remaining useful life, which will result in the prevention of catastrophic failures. Thus the understanding of the mechanical behavior have been challenge to the prevent damage and failure of composites in different scales. The damage detection methods in composites have been investigated widely in recent years. Non-destructive techniques are the traditional methods to detect the damage such as X-ray, acoustic emission and thermography. However, due to the invisible damage in composite can be occurred, to prevent the failure in composites. The developments of damage detection methods have been considered. Due to carbon fibers are conductive materials, in resulting CFRPs can be self-sensing to detect damage. As is well known, the electrical resistance has been shown to be a sensitive measure of internal damage, and also this work study in thermal resistance can detect damage in composites. However, there is a few number of different micromechanical modeling schemes has been proposed in the published literature for various types of composites. This works will provide with a numerical, analytical, and theoretical failure models in different damages to

  7. Detection of osmotic damages in GRP boat hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstulović-Opara, L.; Domazet, Ž.; Garafulić, E.

    2013-09-01

    Infrared thermography as a tool of non-destructive testing is method enabling visualization and estimation of structural anomalies and differences in structure's topography. In presented paper problem of osmotic damage in submerged glass reinforced polymer structures is addressed. The osmotic damage can be detected by a simple humidity gauging, but for proper evaluation and estimation testing methods are restricted and hardly applicable. In this paper it is demonstrated that infrared thermography, based on estimation of heat wave propagation, can be used. Three methods are addressed; Pulsed thermography, Fast Fourier Transform and Continuous Morlet Wavelet. An additional image processing based on gradient approach is applied on all addressed methods. It is shown that the Continuous Morlet Wavelet is the most appropriate method for detection of osmotic damage.

  8. Damage detection of rotating wind turbine blades using local flexibility method and long-gauge fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ting-Yu; Shiao, Shen-Yuan; Liao, Wen-I.

    2018-01-01

    Wind turbines are a cost-effective alternative energy source; however, their blades are susceptible to damage. Therefore, damage detection of wind turbine blades is of great importance for condition monitoring of wind turbines. Many vibration-based structural damage detection techniques have been proposed in the last two decades. The local flexibility method, which can determine local stiffness variations of beam-like structures by using measured modal parameters, is one of the most promising vibration-based approaches. The local flexibility method does not require a finite element model of the structure. A few structural modal parameters identified from the ambient vibration signals both before and after damage are required for this method. In this study, we propose a damage detection approach for rotating wind turbine blades using the local flexibility method based on the dynamic macro-strain signals measured by long-gauge fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors. A small wind turbine structure was constructed and excited using a shaking table to generate vibration signals. The structure was designed to have natural frequencies as close as possible to those of a typical 1.5 MW wind turbine in real scale. The optical fiber signal of the rotating blades was transmitted to the data acquisition system through a rotary joint fixed inside the hollow shaft of the wind turbine. Reversible damage was simulated by aluminum plates attached to some sections of the wind turbine blades. The damaged locations of the rotating blades were successfully detected using the proposed approach, with the extent of damage somewhat over-estimated. Nevertheless, although the specimen of wind turbine blades cannot represent a real one, the results still manifest that FBG-based macro-strain measurement has potential to be employed to obtain the modal parameters of the rotating wind turbines and then locations of wind turbine segments with a change of rigidity can be estimated effectively by

  9. Multi-Dimensional Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark E. (Inventor); Snyder, Sarah J. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods and systems may provide for a structure having a plurality of interconnected panels, wherein each panel has a plurality of detection layers separated from one another by one or more non-detection layers. The plurality of detection layers may form a grid of conductive traces. Additionally, a monitor may be coupled to each grid of conductive traces, wherein the monitor is configured to detect damage to the plurality of interconnected panels in response to an electrical property change with respect to one or more of the conductive traces. In one example, the structure is part of an inflatable space platform such as a spacecraft or habitat.

  10. Structural Damage Detection Using Slopes of Longitudinal Vibration Shapes

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, W.; Zhu, W. D.; Smith, S. A.; ...

    2016-03-18

    While structural damage detection based on flexural vibration shapes, such as mode shapes and steady-state response shapes under harmonic excitation, has been well developed, little attention is paid to that based on longitudinal vibration shapes that also contain damage information. This study originally formulates a slope vibration shape for damage detection in bars using longitudinal vibration shapes. To enhance noise robustness of the method, a slope vibration shape is transformed to a multiscale slope vibration shape in a multiscale domain using wavelet transform, which has explicit physical implication, high damage sensitivity, and noise robustness. These advantages are demonstrated in numericalmore » cases of damaged bars, and results show that multiscale slope vibration shapes can be used for identifying and locating damage in a noisy environment. A three-dimensional (3D) scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal steady-state response shape of an aluminum bar with damage due to reduced cross-sectional dimensions under harmonic excitation, and results show that the method can successfully identify and locate the damage. Slopes of longitudinal vibration shapes are shown to be suitable for damage detection in bars and have potential for applications in noisy environments.« less

  11. Wireless and real-time structural damage detection: A novel decentralized method for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avci, Onur; Abdeljaber, Osama; Kiranyaz, Serkan; Hussein, Mohammed; Inman, Daniel J.

    2018-06-01

    Being an alternative to conventional wired sensors, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are extensively used in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. Most of the Structural Damage Detection (SDD) approaches available in the SHM literature are centralized as they require transferring data from all sensors within the network to a single processing unit to evaluate the structural condition. These methods are found predominantly feasible for wired SHM systems; however, transmission and synchronization of huge data sets in WSNs has been found to be arduous. As such, the application of centralized methods with WSNs has been a challenge for engineers. In this paper, the authors are presenting a novel application of 1D Convolutional Neural Networks (1D CNNs) on WSNs for SDD purposes. The SDD is successfully performed completely wireless and real-time under ambient conditions. As a result of this, a decentralized damage detection method suitable for wireless SHM systems is proposed. The proposed method is based on 1D CNNs and it involves training an individual 1D CNN for each wireless sensor in the network in a format where each CNN is assigned to process the locally-available data only, eliminating the need for data transmission and synchronization. The proposed damage detection method operates directly on the raw ambient vibration condition signals without any filtering or preprocessing. Moreover, the proposed approach requires minimal computational time and power since 1D CNNs merge both feature extraction and classification tasks into a single learning block. This ability is prevailingly cost-effective and evidently practical in WSNs considering the hardware systems have been occasionally reported to suffer from limited power supply in these networks. To display the capability and verify the success of the proposed method, large-scale experiments conducted on a laboratory structure equipped with a state-of-the-art WSN are reported.

  12. A Reference-Free and Non-Contact Method for Detecting and Imaging Damage in Adhesive-Bonded Structures Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Yonathan Sunarsa, Timotius; Aryan, Pouria; Jeon, Ikgeun; Park, Byeongjin; Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon

    2017-12-08

    Adhesive bonded structures have been widely used in aerospace, automobile, and marine industries. Due to the complex nature of the failure mechanisms of bonded structures, cost-effective and reliable damage detection is crucial for these industries. Most of the common damage detection methods are not adequately sensitive to the presence of weakened bonding. This paper presents an experimental and analytical method for the in-situ detection of damage in adhesive-bonded structures. The method is fully non-contact, using air-coupled ultrasonic transducers (ACT) for ultrasonic wave generation and sensing. The uniqueness of the proposed method relies on accurate detection and localization of weakened bonding in complex adhesive bonded structures. The specimens tested in this study are parts of real-world structures with critical and complex damage types, provided by Hyundai Heavy Industries ® and IKTS Fraunhofer ® . Various transmitter and receiver configurations, including through transmission, pitch-catch scanning, and probe holder angles, were attempted, and the obtained results were analyzed. The method examines the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic waves over a target inspection area, and the spatial variation of the time-of-flight information was examined to visualize and locate damage. The proposed method works without relying on reference data obtained from the pristine condition of the target specimen. Aluminum bonded plates and triplex adhesive layers with debonding and weakened bonding were used to examine the effectiveness of the method.

  13. A Reference-Free and Non-Contact Method for Detecting and Imaging Damage in Adhesive-Bonded Structures Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Yonathan Sunarsa, Timotius; Aryan, Pouria; Jeon, Ikgeun; Park, Byeongjin; Liu, Peipei

    2017-01-01

    Adhesive bonded structures have been widely used in aerospace, automobile, and marine industries. Due to the complex nature of the failure mechanisms of bonded structures, cost-effective and reliable damage detection is crucial for these industries. Most of the common damage detection methods are not adequately sensitive to the presence of weakened bonding. This paper presents an experimental and analytical method for the in-situ detection of damage in adhesive-bonded structures. The method is fully non-contact, using air-coupled ultrasonic transducers (ACT) for ultrasonic wave generation and sensing. The uniqueness of the proposed method relies on accurate detection and localization of weakened bonding in complex adhesive bonded structures. The specimens tested in this study are parts of real-world structures with critical and complex damage types, provided by Hyundai Heavy Industries® and IKTS Fraunhofer®. Various transmitter and receiver configurations, including through transmission, pitch-catch scanning, and probe holder angles, were attempted, and the obtained results were analyzed. The method examines the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic waves over a target inspection area, and the spatial variation of the time-of-flight information was examined to visualize and locate damage. The proposed method works without relying on reference data obtained from the pristine condition of the target specimen. Aluminum bonded plates and triplex adhesive layers with debonding and weakened bonding were used to examine the effectiveness of the method. PMID:29292752

  14. Comparative study of performance of neutral axis tracking based damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, R.; Malinowski, P.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of a novel SHM technique for damage isolation. The performance of the Neutral Axis (NA) tracking based damage detection strategy is compared to other popularly used vibration based damage detection methods viz. ECOMAC, Mode Shape Curvature Method and Strain Flexibility Index Method. The sensitivity of the novel method is compared under changing ambient temperature conditions and in the presence of measurement noise. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the DTU 10 MW Wind Turbine was conducted to compare the local damage identification capability of each method and the results are presented. Under the conditions examined, the proposed method was found to be robust to ambient condition changes and measurement noise. The damage identification in some is either at par with the methods mentioned in the literature or better under the investigated damage scenarios.

  15. The biospeckle method for early damage detection of fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Liu, Jiaxin; Men, Sen

    2017-07-01

    In the field of fruits damage assessment, biospeckle activity is considered relevant to quality properties of plants, such us damage, aging, or diseases. In this paper, biospeckle technique was applied to identify the early bruising of apples. Then a total of 50 undamaged apples were determined to be artificially bruised as samples. Three methods (Fujii, GD, and LSTCA) were used to extract effective information from these speckle images for measuring the intensity of biospeckle activity. The results showed that for all of three methods, the biospeckle activities of the undamaged areas in apple were similar; after the hit, the damaged area showed a lower biospeckle activity. It can be concluded that early bruising can be identified by biospeckle technique.

  16. Online Damage Detection on Metal and Composite Space Structures by Active and Passive Acoustic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheerer, M.; Cardone, T.; Rapisarda, A.; Ottaviano, S.; Ftancesconi, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame of ESA funded programme Future Launcher Preparatory Programme Period 1 “Preparatory Activities on M&S”, Aerospace & Advanced Composites and Thales Alenia Space-Italia, have conceived and tested a structural health monitoring approach based on integrated Acoustic Emission - Active Ultrasound Damage Identification. The monitoring methods implemented in the study are both passive and active methods and the purpose is to cover large areas with a sufficient damage size detection capability. Two representative space sub-structures have been built and tested: a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) and a curved, stiffened Al-Li panel. In each structure, typical critical damages have been introduced: delaminations caused by impacts in the COPV and a crack in the stiffener of the Al-Li panel which was grown during a fatigue test campaign. The location and severity of both types of damages have been successfully assessed online using two commercially available systems: one 6 channel AE system from Vallen and one 64 channel AU system from Acellent.

  17. Impact resonance method for damage detection in RC beams strengthened with composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghiu, Catalin; Rhazi, Jamal E.; Labossiere, Pierre

    2005-05-01

    There are numerous successful applications of fibre-reinforced composites for strengthening the civil engineering infrastructure. Most of these repairs are being continuously or intermittently monitored for assessing their effectiveness and safety. The impact resonance method (IRM), a non-destructive technique, utilized in civil engineering exclusively for determining the dynamic concrete properties, could be a valuable and viable damage detection tool for structural elements. The IRM gives useful information about the dynamic characteristics of rectangular and circular concrete members such as beams and columns. In this experimental program, a 1.2-m-long reinforced concrete beam strengthened with a carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate has been employed. The CFRP-strengthened beam has been loaded in fatigue for two million cycles at 3 Hz. The load amplitude was from 15 to 35% of the anticipated yielding load of the beam. Throughout fatigue testing the cycling was stopped for IRM measurements to be taken. The obtained data provided information about changes in modal properties such as natural frequencies of vibration. These results have shown the successful use of the IRM for detecting fatigue damage in concrete members strengthened with composites.

  18. Method for assaying clustered DNA damages

    DOEpatents

    Sutherland, Betsy M.

    2004-09-07

    Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.

  19. Data fusion of multi-scale representations for structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tian; Xu, Zili

    2018-01-01

    Despite extensive researches into structural health monitoring (SHM) in the past decades, there are few methods that can detect multiple slight damage in noisy environments. Here, we introduce a new hybrid method that utilizes multi-scale space theory and data fusion approach for multiple damage detection in beams and plates. A cascade filtering approach provides multi-scale space for noisy mode shapes and filters the fluctuations caused by measurement noise. In multi-scale space, a series of amplification and data fusion algorithms are utilized to search the damage features across all possible scales. We verify the effectiveness of the method by numerical simulation using damaged beams and plates with various types of boundary conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness and noise immunity of the proposed method. The applicability is further validated via laboratory cases studies focusing on different damage scenarios. Both results demonstrate that the proposed method has a superior noise tolerant ability, as well as damage sensitivity, without knowing material properties or boundary conditions.

  20. Methods and Piezoelectric Imbedded Sensors for Damage Detection in Composite Plates Under Ambient and Cryogenic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engberg, Robert; Ooi, Teng K.

    2004-01-01

    New methods for structural health monitoring are being assessed, especially in high-performance, extreme environment, safety-critical applications. One such application is for composite cryogenic fuel tanks. The work presented here attempts to characterize and investigate the feasibility of using imbedded piezoelectric sensors to detect cracks and delaminations under cryogenic and ambient conditions. A variety of damage detection methods and different Sensors are employed in the different composite plate samples to aid in determining an optimal algorithm, sensor placement strategy, and type of imbedded sensor to use. Variations of frequency, impedance measurements, and pulse echoing techniques of the sensors are employed and compared. Statistical and analytic techniques are then used to determine which method is most desirable for a specific type of damage. These results are furthermore compared with previous work using externally mounted sensors. Results and optimized methods from this work can then be incorporated into a larger composite structure to validate and assess its structural health. This could prove to be important in the development and qualification of any 2" generation reusable launch vehicle using composites as a structural element.

  1. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  2. Capacitance-based damage detection sensing for aerospace structural composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, P.; Yamamoto, N.; Chen, Y.; Manohara, H.

    2014-04-01

    Damage detection technology needs improvement for aerospace engineering application because detection within complex composite structures is difficult yet critical to avoid catastrophic failure. Damage detection is challenging in aerospace structures because not all the damage detection technology can cover the various defect types (delamination, fiber fracture, matrix crack etc.), or conditions (visibility, crack length size, etc.). These defect states are expected to become even more complex with future introduction of novel composites including nano-/microparticle reinforcement. Currently, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods with X-ray, ultrasound, or eddy current have good resolutions (< 0.1 mm), but their detection capabilities is limited by defect locations and orientations and require massive inspection devices. System health monitoring (SHM) methods are often paired with NDE technologies to signal out sensed damage, but their data collection and analysis currently requires excessive wiring and complex signal analysis. Here, we present a capacitance sensor-based, structural defect detection technology with improved sensing capability. Thin dielectric polymer layer is integrated as part of the structure; the defect in the structure directly alters the sensing layer's capacitance, allowing full-coverage sensing capability independent of defect size, orientation or location. In this work, capacitance-based sensing capability was experimentally demonstrated with a 2D sensing layer consisting of a dielectric layer sandwiched by electrodes. These sensing layers were applied on substrate surfaces. Surface indentation damage (~1mm diameter) and its location were detected through measured capacitance changes: 1 to 250 % depending on the substrates. The damage detection sensors are light weight, and they can be conformably coated and can be part of the composite structure. Therefore it is suitable for aerospace structures such as cryogenic tanks and rocket

  3. Direct Detection and Sequencing of Damaged DNA Bases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Products of various forms of DNA damage have been implicated in a variety of important biological processes, such as aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, there exists great interest to develop methods for interrogating damaged DNA in the context of sequencing. Here, we demonstrate that single-molecule, real-time (SMRT®) DNA sequencing can directly detect damaged DNA bases in the DNA template - as a by-product of the sequencing method - through an analysis of the DNA polymerase kinetics that are altered by the presence of a modified base. We demonstrate the sequencing of several DNA templates containing products of DNA damage, including 8-oxoguanine, 8-oxoadenine, O6-methylguanine, 1-methyladenine, O4-methylthymine, 5-hydroxycytosine, 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, or thymine dimers, and show that these base modifications can be readily detected with single-modification resolution and DNA strand specificity. We characterize the distinct kinetic signatures generated by these DNA base modifications. PMID:22185597

  4. Direct detection and sequencing of damaged DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tyson A; Spittle, Kristi E; Turner, Stephen W; Korlach, Jonas

    2011-12-20

    Products of various forms of DNA damage have been implicated in a variety of important biological processes, such as aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, there exists great interest to develop methods for interrogating damaged DNA in the context of sequencing. Here, we demonstrate that single-molecule, real-time (SMRT®) DNA sequencing can directly detect damaged DNA bases in the DNA template - as a by-product of the sequencing method - through an analysis of the DNA polymerase kinetics that are altered by the presence of a modified base. We demonstrate the sequencing of several DNA templates containing products of DNA damage, including 8-oxoguanine, 8-oxoadenine, O6-methylguanine, 1-methyladenine, O4-methylthymine, 5-hydroxycytosine, 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, or thymine dimers, and show that these base modifications can be readily detected with single-modification resolution and DNA strand specificity. We characterize the distinct kinetic signatures generated by these DNA base modifications.

  5. Method for detecting damage in carbon-fibre reinforced plastic-steel structures based on eddy current pulsed thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Liu, Zhiping; Jiang, Xiaoli; Lodewijks, Gabrol

    2018-01-01

    Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) is well established for non-destructive testing of electrical conductive materials, featuring the advantages of contactless, intuitive detecting and efficient heating. The concept of divergence characterization of the damage rate of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP)-steel structures can be extended to ECPT thermal pattern characterization. It was found in this study that the use of ECPT technology on CFRP-steel structures generated a sizeable amount of valuable information for comprehensive material diagnostics. The relationship between divergence and transient thermal patterns can be identified and analysed by deploying mathematical models to analyse the information about fibre texture-like orientations, gaps and undulations in these multi-layered materials. The developed algorithm enabled the removal of information about fibre texture and the extraction of damage features. The model of the CFRP-glue-steel structures with damage was established using COMSOL Multiphysics® software, and quantitative non-destructive damage evaluation from the ECPT image areas was derived. The results of this proposed method illustrate that damaged areas are highly affected by available information about fibre texture. This proposed work can be applied for detection of impact induced damage and quantitative evaluation of CFRP structures.

  6. Vibration characteristics and damage detection in a suspension bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Wasanthi R.; Thambiratnam, David P.; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Theanh

    2016-08-01

    Suspension bridges are flexible and vibration sensitive structures that exhibit complex and multi-modal vibration. Due to this, the usual vibration based methods could face a challenge when used for damage detection in these structures. This paper develops and applies a mode shape component specific damage index (DI) to detect and locate damage in a suspension bridge with pre-tensioned cables. This is important as suspension bridges are large structures and damage in them during their long service lives could easily go un-noticed. The capability of the proposed vibration based DI is demonstrated through its application to detect and locate single and multiple damages with varied locations and severity in the cables of the suspension bridge. The outcome of this research will enhance the safety and performance of these bridges which play an important role in the transport network.

  7. Damage Detection Response Characteristics of Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.; Smith, Laura J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Wang, Chuantong; Ticatch, Larry A.; Mielnik, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability to assess the current or future state of the health of an aircraft to improve safety, availability, and reliability while reducing maintenance costs has been a continuous goal for decades. Many companies, commercial entities, and academic institutions have become interested in Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and a growing effort of research into "smart" vehicle sensing systems has emerged. Methods to detect damage to aircraft materials and structures have historically relied on visual inspection during pre-flight or post-flight operations by flight and ground crews. More quantitative non-destructive investigations with various instruments and sensors have traditionally been performed when the aircraft is out of operational service during major scheduled maintenance. Through the use of reliable sensors coupled with data monitoring, data mining, and data analysis techniques, the health state of a vehicle can be detected in-situ. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is developing a composite aircraft skin damage detection method and system based on open circuit SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology. Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage structures, empennage structures, control surfaces and aircraft skins. SansEC sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect various types of damage in composite materials. The source cause of the in-service damage (lightning strike, impact damage, material fatigue, etc.) to the aircraft composite is not relevant. The sensor will detect damage independent of the cause

  8. Laser-based structural sensing and surface damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guldur, Burcu

    Damage due to age or accumulated damage from hazards on existing structures poses a worldwide problem. In order to evaluate the current status of aging, deteriorating and damaged structures, it is vital to accurately assess the present conditions. It is possible to capture the in situ condition of structures by using laser scanners that create dense three-dimensional point clouds. This research investigates the use of high resolution three-dimensional terrestrial laser scanners with image capturing abilities as tools to capture geometric range data of complex scenes for structural engineering applications. Laser scanning technology is continuously improving, with commonly available scanners now capturing over 1,000,000 texture-mapped points per second with an accuracy of ~2 mm. However, automatically extracting meaningful information from point clouds remains a challenge, and the current state-of-the-art requires significant user interaction. The first objective of this research is to use widely accepted point cloud processing steps such as registration, feature extraction, segmentation, surface fitting and object detection to divide laser scanner data into meaningful object clusters and then apply several damage detection methods to these clusters. This required establishing a process for extracting important information from raw laser-scanned data sets such as the location, orientation and size of objects in a scanned region, and location of damaged regions on a structure. For this purpose, first a methodology for processing range data to identify objects in a scene is presented and then, once the objects from model library are correctly detected and fitted into the captured point cloud, these fitted objects are compared with the as-is point cloud of the investigated object to locate defects on the structure. The algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic scenes and validated on range data collected from test specimens and test-bed bridges. The second objective of

  9. Damage identification using inverse methods.

    PubMed

    Friswell, Michael I

    2007-02-15

    This paper gives an overview of the use of inverse methods in damage detection and location, using measured vibration data. Inverse problems require the use of a model and the identification of uncertain parameters of this model. Damage is often local in nature and although the effect of the loss of stiffness may require only a small number of parameters, the lack of knowledge of the location means that a large number of candidate parameters must be included. This paper discusses a number of problems that exist with this approach to health monitoring, including modelling error, environmental effects, damage localization and regularization.

  10. Automatic Detection of Storm Damages Using High-Altitude Photogrammetric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litkey, P.; Nurminen, K.; Honkavaara, E.

    2013-05-01

    The risks of storms that cause damage in forests are increasing due to climate change. Quickly detecting fallen trees, assessing the amount of fallen trees and efficiently collecting them are of great importance for economic and environmental reasons. Visually detecting and delineating storm damage is a laborious and error-prone process; thus, it is important to develop cost-efficient and highly automated methods. Objective of our research project is to investigate and develop a reliable and efficient method for automatic storm damage detection, which is based on airborne imagery that is collected after a storm. The requirements for the method are the before-storm and after-storm surface models. A difference surface is calculated using two DSMs and the locations where significant changes have appeared are automatically detected. In our previous research we used four-year old airborne laser scanning surface model as the before-storm surface. The after-storm DSM was provided from the photogrammetric images using the Next Generation Automatic Terrain Extraction (NGATE) algorithm of Socet Set software. We obtained 100% accuracy in detection of major storm damages. In this investigation we will further evaluate the sensitivity of the storm-damage detection process. We will investigate the potential of national airborne photography, that is collected at no-leaf season, to automatically produce a before-storm DSM using image matching. We will also compare impact of the terrain extraction algorithm to the results. Our results will also promote the potential of national open source data sets in the management of natural disasters.

  11. Nonlinear damage detection in composite structures using bispectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Pickering, Simon; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Literature offers a quantitative number of diagnostic methods that can continuously provide detailed information of the material defects and damages in aerospace and civil engineering applications. Indeed, low velocity impact damages can considerably degrade the integrity of structural components and, if not detected, they can result in catastrophic failure conditions. This paper presents a nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) method, based on ultrasonic guided waves (GW), for the detection of the nonlinear signature in a damaged composite structure. The proposed technique, based on a bispectral analysis of ultrasonic input waveforms, allows for the evaluation of the nonlinear response due to the presence of cracks and delaminations. Indeed, such a methodology was used to characterize the nonlinear behaviour of the structure, by exploiting the frequency mixing of the original waveform acquired from a sparse array of sensors. The robustness of bispectral analysis was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged carbon fibre reinforce plastic (CFRP) composite panel, and the nonlinear source was retrieved with a high level of accuracy. Unlike other linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods for damage detection, this methodology does not require any baseline with the undamaged structure for the evaluation of the nonlinear source, nor a priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Moreover, bispectral analysis can be considered as a nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) technique for materials showing either classical or non-classical nonlinear behaviour.

  12. Real-time vibration-based structural damage detection using one-dimensional convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeljaber, Osama; Avci, Onur; Kiranyaz, Serkan; Gabbouj, Moncef; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and vibration-based structural damage detection have been a continuous interest for civil, mechanical and aerospace engineers over the decades. Early and meticulous damage detection has always been one of the principal objectives of SHM applications. The performance of a classical damage detection system predominantly depends on the choice of the features and the classifier. While the fixed and hand-crafted features may either be a sub-optimal choice for a particular structure or fail to achieve the same level of performance on another structure, they usually require a large computation power which may hinder their usage for real-time structural damage detection. This paper presents a novel, fast and accurate structural damage detection system using 1D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) that has an inherent adaptive design to fuse both feature extraction and classification blocks into a single and compact learning body. The proposed method performs vibration-based damage detection and localization of the damage in real-time. The advantage of this approach is its ability to extract optimal damage-sensitive features automatically from the raw acceleration signals. Large-scale experiments conducted on a grandstand simulator revealed an outstanding performance and verified the computational efficiency of the proposed real-time damage detection method.

  13. Damage detection of structures with detrended fluctuation and detrended cross-correlation analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Kang; Fajri, Haikal

    2017-03-01

    Recently, fractal analysis has shown its potential for damage detection and assessment in fields such as biomedical and mechanical engineering. For its practicability in interpreting irregular, complex, and disordered phenomena, a structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) is proposed. First, damage conditions can be swiftly detected by evaluating ambient vibration signals measured from a structure through DFA. Damage locations can then be determined by analyzing the cross correlation of signals of different floors by applying DCCA. A damage index is also proposed based on multi-scale DCCA curves to improve the damage location accuracy. To verify the performance of the proposed SHM system, a four-story numerical model was used to simulate various damage conditions with different noise levels. Furthermore, an experimental verification was conducted on a seven-story benchmark structure to assess the potential damage. The results revealed that the DFA method could detect the damage conditions satisfactorily, and damage locations can be identified through the DCCA method with an accuracy of 75%. Moreover, damage locations can be correctly assessed by the damage index method with an improved accuracy of 87.5%. The proposed SHM system has promising application in practical implementations.

  14. Damage Detection Based on Static Strain Responses Using FBG in a Wind Turbine Blade.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaohua; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng; Xie, Yong

    2015-08-14

    The damage detection of a wind turbine blade enables better operation of the turbines, and provides an early alert to the destroyed events of the blade in order to avoid catastrophic losses. A new non-baseline damage detection method based on the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a wind turbine blade is developed in this paper. Firstly, the Chi-square distribution is proven to be an effective damage-sensitive feature which is adopted as the individual information source for the local decision. In order to obtain the global and optimal decision for the damage detection, the feature information fusion (FIF) method is proposed to fuse and optimize information in above individual information sources, and the damage is detected accurately through of the global decision. Then a 13.2 m wind turbine blade with the distributed strain sensor system is adopted to describe the feasibility of the proposed method, and the strain energy method (SEM) is used to describe the advantage of the proposed method. Finally results show that the proposed method can deliver encouraging results of the damage detection in the wind turbine blade.

  15. Damage Detection Based on Static Strain Responses Using FBG in a Wind Turbine Blade

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shaohua; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng; Xie, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The damage detection of a wind turbine blade enables better operation of the turbines, and provides an early alert to the destroyed events of the blade in order to avoid catastrophic losses. A new non-baseline damage detection method based on the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a wind turbine blade is developed in this paper. Firstly, the Chi-square distribution is proven to be an effective damage-sensitive feature which is adopted as the individual information source for the local decision. In order to obtain the global and optimal decision for the damage detection, the feature information fusion (FIF) method is proposed to fuse and optimize information in above individual information sources, and the damage is detected accurately through of the global decision. Then a 13.2 m wind turbine blade with the distributed strain sensor system is adopted to describe the feasibility of the proposed method, and the strain energy method (SEM) is used to describe the advantage of the proposed method. Finally results show that the proposed method can deliver encouraging results of the damage detection in the wind turbine blade. PMID:26287200

  16. Structural damage detection-oriented multi-type sensor placement with multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian-Fu; Xu, You-Lin; Law, Siu-Seong

    2018-05-01

    A structural damage detection-oriented multi-type sensor placement method with multi-objective optimization is developed in this study. The multi-type response covariance sensitivity-based damage detection method is first introduced. Two objective functions for optimal sensor placement are then introduced in terms of the response covariance sensitivity and the response independence. The multi-objective optimization problem is formed by using the two objective functions, and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA)-II is adopted to find the solution for the optimal multi-type sensor placement to achieve the best structural damage detection. The proposed method is finally applied to a nine-bay three-dimensional frame structure. Numerical results show that the optimal multi-type sensor placement determined by the proposed method can avoid redundant sensors and provide satisfactory results for structural damage detection. The restriction on the number of each type of sensors in the optimization can reduce the searching space in the optimization to make the proposed method more effective. Moreover, how to select a most optimal sensor placement from the Pareto solutions via the utility function and the knee point method is demonstrated in the case study.

  17. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  18. Analysis of shape memory alloy sensory particles for damage detection via substructure and continuum damage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielefeldt, Brent R.; Benzerga, A. Amine; Hartl, Darren J.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to monitor and predict the structural health of an aircraft is of growing importance to the aerospace industry. Currently, structural inspections and maintenance are based upon experiences with similar aircraft operating in similar conditions. While effective, these methods are time-intensive and unnecessary if the aircraft is not in danger of structural failure. It is imagined that future aircraft will utilize non-destructive evaluation methods, allowing for the near real-time monitoring of structural health. A particularly interesting method involves utilizing the unique transformation response of shape memory alloy (SMA) particles embedded in an aircraft structure. By detecting changes in the mechanical and/or electromagnetic responses of embedded particles, operators could detect the formation or propagation of fatigue cracks in the vicinity of these particles. This work focuses on a finite element model of SMA particles embedded in an aircraft wing using a substructure modeling approach in which degrees of freedom are retained only at specified points of connection to other parts or the application of boundary conditions, greatly reducing computational cost. Previous work evaluated isolated particle response to a static crack to numerically demonstrate and validate this damage detection method. This paper presents the implementation of a damage model to account for crack propagation and examine for the first time the effect of particle configuration and/or relative placement with respect to the ability to detect damage.

  19. A method for detecting genetic toxicity using the RNA synthesis response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yoko; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2011-10-01

    To date, biological risk assessment studies of chemicals that induce DNA lesions have been primarily based on the action of DNA polymerases during replication. However, DNA lesions interfere not only with replication but also with transcription. Therefore, detecting the damaging effects of DNA lesions during transcription might be important for estimating the safety of chemical mutagens and carcinogens. However, methods to address these effects have not been developed. Here, we report a simple, non-isotopic method for determining the toxicity of chemical agents by visualizing transcription in a mammalian cell system. The method is based on the measurement of the incorporation of bromouridine (as the uridine analogue) into the nascent RNA during RNA synthesis inhibition (RSI) induced by the stalling of RNA polymerases at DNA lesions on the transcribed DNA strand, which triggers transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). When we tested chemical agents (camptothecin, etoposide, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, mitomycin C, methyl methanesulfonate, and cisplatin) in HeLa cells by the method, RSI indicative of genomic toxicity was observed in the nucleoli of the tested cells. This procedure provides the following advantages: 1) it uses common, affordable mammalian cells (HeLa cells, WI38VA13 cells, human dermal fibroblasts, or Chinese hamster ovary cells) rather than genetically modified microorganisms; 2) it can be completed within approximately 8 hr after the cells are prepared because RNA polymerase responses during TC-NER are faster than other DNA damage responses (replication, recombination, and apoptosis); and 3) it is safe because it uses non-radioactive bromouridine and antibodies to detect RNA synthesis on undamaged transcribed DNA strands.

  20. FRF-based structural damage detection of controlled buildings with podium structures: Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. L.; Huang, Q.; Zhan, S.; Su, Z. Q.; Liu, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    How to use control devices to enhance system identification and damage detection in relation to a structure that requires both vibration control and structural health monitoring is an interesting yet practical topic. In this study, the possibility of using the added stiffness provided by control devices and frequency response functions (FRFs) to detect damage in a building complex was explored experimentally. Scale models of a 12-storey main building and a 3-storey podium structure were built to represent a building complex. Given that the connection between the main building and the podium structure is most susceptible to damage, damage to the building complex was experimentally simulated by changing the connection stiffness. To simulate the added stiffness provided by a semi-active friction damper, a steel circular ring was designed and used to add the related stiffness to the building complex. By varying the connection stiffness using an eccentric wheel excitation system and by adding or not adding the circular ring, eight cases were investigated and eight sets of FRFs were measured. The experimental results were used to detect damage (changes in connection stiffness) using a recently proposed FRF-based damage detection method. The experimental results showed that the FRF-based damage detection method could satisfactorily locate and quantify damage.

  1. Autoregressive statistical pattern recognition algorithms for damage detection in civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ruigen; Pakzad, Shamim N.

    2012-08-01

    Statistical pattern recognition has recently emerged as a promising set of complementary methods to system identification for automatic structural damage assessment. Its essence is to use well-known concepts in statistics for boundary definition of different pattern classes, such as those for damaged and undamaged structures. In this paper, several statistical pattern recognition algorithms using autoregressive models, including statistical control charts and hypothesis testing, are reviewed as potentially competitive damage detection techniques. To enhance the performance of statistical methods, new feature extraction techniques using model spectra and residual autocorrelation, together with resampling-based threshold construction methods, are proposed. Subsequently, simulated acceleration data from a multi degree-of-freedom system is generated to test and compare the efficiency of the existing and proposed algorithms. Data from laboratory experiments conducted on a truss and a large-scale bridge slab model are then used to further validate the damage detection methods and demonstrate the superior performance of proposed algorithms.

  2. Damage detection of structures identified with deterministic-stochastic models using seismic data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Chih; Wang, Yen-Po; Chang, Ming-Lian

    2014-01-01

    A deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method is adopted and experimentally verified in this study to identify the equivalent single-input-multiple-output system parameters of the discrete-time state equation. The method of damage locating vector (DLV) is then considered for damage detection. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted. Both single and multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s) with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged counterpart has also been studied. This study gives further insights into the scheme in terms of effectiveness, robustness, and limitation for damage localization of frame systems.

  3. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  4. Information-theoretical noninvasive damage detection in bridge structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudu Ambegedara, Amila; Sun, Jie; Janoyan, Kerop; Bollt, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information. Second, as damage is introduced by the removal of bolts of the first diaphragm connection, the interaction between spatially nearby sensors as measured by mutual information becomes weaker, suggesting that the bridge is "loosened." Finally, using a proposed optimal mutual information interaction procedure to prune away indirect interactions, we found that the primary direction of interaction or influence aligns with the traffic direction on the bridge even after damaging the bridge.

  5. Damage detection of engine bladed-disks using multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Tang, J.

    2006-03-01

    The timely detection of damage in aero-engine bladed-disks is an extremely important and challenging research topic. Bladed-disks have high modal density and, particularly, their vibration responses are subject to significant uncertainties due to manufacturing tolerance (blade-to-blade difference or mistuning), operating condition change and sensor noise. In this study, we present a new methodology for the on-line damage detection of engine bladed-disks using their vibratory responses during spin-up or spin-down operations which can be measured by blade-tip-timing sensing technique. We apply a principle component analysis (PCA)-based approach for data compression, feature extraction, and denoising. The non-model based damage detection is achieved by analyzing the change between response features of the healthy structure and of the damaged one. We facilitate such comparison by incorporating the Hotelling's statistic T2 analysis, which yields damage declaration with a given confidence level. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by case studies.

  6. [A Comparison Study on Early Damage Detection of Left Ventricular Function Based on Doppler Imaging Method for Children with Tumor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Haowei; Zhang, Hang

    2015-12-01

    The early damage detection and evaluation are of great significance in treatment and prognosis to the left ventricular function for children with tumor. In this paper, it is reported that the early damage of the left ventricular function was observed by pulsed wave Doppler (PWD) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in our laboratory. Eighty children half a year to fourteen years old were included in this study. The cardiac function indices in chemotherapy group and control group were measured and compared. The results showed that there was significant difference in mitral and tricuspid annulus flow spectrum between the two groups. Compared with PWD,TDI is more prompt, objective and accurate in detecting early damage of left ventricular function in children with tumor. And TDI is a good method for early identification of ventricular function damage in children with tumor.

  7. Damage localization and quantification of composite stratified beam Structures using residual force method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behtani, A.; Bouazzouni, A.; Khatir, S.; Tiachacht, S.; Zhou, Y.-L.; Abdel Wahab, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of using measured modal parameters to detect and locate damage in beam composite stratified structures with four layers of graphite/epoxy [0°/902°/0°] is investigated. A technique based on the residual force method is applied to composite stratified structure with different boundary conditions, the results of damage detection for several damage cases demonstrate that using residual force method as damage index, the damage location can be identified correctly and the damage extents can be estimated as well.

  8. Structural Damage Detection Using Virtual Passive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents novel approaches for structural damage detection which uses the virtual passive controllers attached to structures, where passive controllers are energy dissipative devices and thus guarantee the closed-loop stability. The use of the identified parameters of various closed-loop systems can solve the problem that reliable identified parameters, such as natural frequencies of the open-loop system may not provide enough information for damage detection. Only a small number of sensors are required for the proposed approaches. The identified natural frequencies, which are generally much less sensitive to noise and more reliable than the identified natural frequencies, are used for damage detection. Two damage detection techniques are presented. One technique is based on the structures with direct output feedback controllers while the other technique uses the second-order dynamic feedback controllers. A least-squares technique, which is based on the sensitivity of natural frequencies to damage variables, is used for accurately identifying the damage variables.

  9. Detection of DNA damage by using hairpin molecular beacon probes and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Lu, Qian; Tong, Ying; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2012-09-15

    A hairpin molecular beacon tagged with carboxyfluorescein in combination with graphene oxide as a quencher reagent was used to detect the DNA damage by chemical reagents. The fluorescence of molecular beacon was quenched sharply by graphene oxide; while in the presence of its complementary DNA the quenching efficiency decreased because their hybridization prevented the strong adsorbability of molecular beacon on graphene oxide. If the complementary DNA was damaged by a chemical reagent and could not form intact duplex structure with molecular beacon, more molecular beacon would adsorb on graphene oxide increasing the quenching efficiency. Thus, damaged DNA could be detected based on different quenching efficiencies afforded by damaged and intact complementary DNA. The damage effects of chlorpyrifos-methyl and three metabolites of styrene such as mandelieaeids, phenylglyoxylieaeids and epoxystyrene on DNA were studied as models. The method for detection of DNA damage was reliable, rapid and simple compared to the biological methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A symmetry measure for damage detection with mode shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Justin G.; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces a feature for detecting damage or changes in structures, the continuous symmetry measure, which can quantify the amount of a particular rotational, mirror, or translational symmetry in a mode shape of a structure. Many structures in the built environment have geometries that are either symmetric or almost symmetric, however damage typically occurs in a local manner causing asymmetric changes in the structure's geometry or material properties, and alters its mode shapes. The continuous symmetry measure can quantify these changes in symmetry as a novel indicator of damage for data-based structural health monitoring approaches. This paper describes the concept as a basis for detecting changes in mode shapes and detecting structural damage. Application of the method is demonstrated in various structures with different symmetrical properties: a pipe cross-section with a finite element model and experimental study, the NASA 8-bay truss model, and the simulated IASC-ASCE structural health monitoring benchmark structure. The applicability and limitations of the feature in applying it to structures of varying geometries is discussed.

  11. Baseline-free damage detection in composite plates based on the reciprocity principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liping; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Lamb wave based damage detection techniques have been widely used in composite structures. In particular, these techniques usually rely on reference signals, which are significantly influenced by the operational and environmental conditions. To solve this issue, this paper presents a baseline-free damage inspection method based on the reciprocity principle. If a localized nonlinear scatterer exists along the wave path, the reciprocity breaks down. Through estimating the loss of reciprocity, the delamination could be detected. A reciprocity index (RI), which compares the discrepancy between the signal received in transducer B when emitting from transducer A and the signal received in A when the same source is located in B, is established to quantitatively analyze the reciprocity. Experimental results show that the RI value of a damaged path is much higher than that of a healthy path. In addition, the effects of the parameters of excitation signal (i.e., central frequency and bandwidth) and the position of delamination on the RI value are discussed. Furthermore, a RI based probabilistic imaging algorithm is proposed for detecting delamination damage of composite plates without reference signals. Finally, the effectiveness of this baseline-free damage detection method is validated by an experimental example.

  12. Multi-stage approach for structural damage detection problem using basis pursuit and particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerist, Saleheh; Maheri, Mahmoud R.

    2016-12-01

    In order to solve structural damage detection problem, a multi-stage method using particle swarm optimization is presented. First, a new spars recovery method, named Basis Pursuit (BP), is utilized to preliminarily identify structural damage locations. The BP method solves a system of equations which relates the damage parameters to the structural modal responses using the sensitivity matrix. Then, the results of this stage are subsequently enhanced to the exact damage locations and extents using the PSO search engine. Finally, the search space is reduced by elimination of some low damage variables using micro search (MS) operator embedded in the PSO algorithm. To overcome the noise present in structural responses, a method known as Basis Pursuit De-Noising (BPDN) is also used. The efficiency of the proposed method is investigated by three numerical examples: a cantilever beam, a plane truss and a portal plane frame. The frequency response is used to detect damage in the examples. The simulation results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in detecting multiple damage cases and exhibit its robustness regarding noise and its advantages compared to other reported solution algorithms.

  13. Acoustic emission beamforming for enhanced damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Glaser, Steven D.; Grosse, Christian U.

    2008-03-01

    As civil infrastructure ages, the early detection of damage in a structure becomes increasingly important for both life safety and economic reasons. This paper describes the analysis procedures used for beamforming acoustic emission techniques as well as the promising results of preliminary experimental tests on a concrete bridge deck. The method of acoustic emission offers a tool for detecting damage, such as cracking, as it occurs on or in a structure. In order to gain meaningful information from acoustic emission analyses, the damage must be localized. Current acoustic emission systems with localization capabilities are very costly and difficult to install. Sensors must be placed throughout the structure to ensure that the damage is encompassed by the array. Beamforming offers a promising solution to these problems and permits the use of wireless sensor networks for acoustic emission analyses. Using the beamforming technique, the azmuthal direction of the location of the damage may be estimated by the stress waves impinging upon a small diameter array (e.g. 30mm) of acoustic emission sensors. Additional signal discrimination may be gained via array processing techniques such as the VESPA process. The beamforming approach requires no arrival time information and is based on very simple delay and sum beamforming algorithms which can be easily implemented on a wireless sensor or mote.

  14. Damage Detection Using Holography and Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews classical approaches to damage detection using laser holography and interferometry. The paper then details the modern uses of electronic holography and neural-net-processed characteristic patterns to detect structural damage. The design of the neural networks and the preparation of the training sets are discussed. The use of a technique to optimize the training sets, called folding, is explained. Then a training procedure is detailed that uses the holography-measured vibration modes of the undamaged structures to impart damage-detection sensitivity to the neural networks. The inspections of an optical strain gauge mounting plate and an International Space Station cold plate are presented as examples.

  15. Experimental Validation of Normalized Uniform Load Surface Curvature Method for Damage Localization

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Sung, Seung-Hoon; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we experimentally validated the normalized uniform load surface (NULS) curvature method, which has been developed recently to assess damage localization in beam-type structures. The normalization technique allows for the accurate assessment of damage localization with greater sensitivity irrespective of the damage location. In this study, damage to a simply supported beam was numerically and experimentally investigated on the basis of the changes in the NULS curvatures, which were estimated from the modal flexibility matrices obtained from the acceleration responses under an ambient excitation. Two damage scenarios were considered for the single damage case as well as the multiple damages case by reducing the bending stiffness (EI) of the affected element(s). Numerical simulations were performed using MATLAB as a preliminary step. During the validation experiments, a series of tests were performed. It was found that the damage locations could be identified successfully without any false-positive or false-negative detections using the proposed method. For comparison, the damage detection performances were compared with those of two other well-known methods based on the modal flexibility matrix, namely, the uniform load surface (ULS) method and the ULS curvature method. It was confirmed that the proposed method is more effective for investigating the damage locations of simply supported beams than the two conventional methods in terms of sensitivity to damage under measurement noise. PMID:26501286

  16. Damage Detection for Historical Architectures Based on Tls Intensity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Cheng, X.

    2018-04-01

    TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) has long been preferred in the cultural heritage field for 3D documentation of historical sites thanks to its ability to acquire the geometric information without any physical contact. Besides the geometric information, most TLS systems also record the intensity information, which is considered as an important measurement of the spectral property of the scanned surface. Recent studies have shown the potential of using intensity for damage detection. However, the original intensity is affected by scanning geometry such as range and incidence angle and other factors, thus making the results less accurate. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method to detect certain damage areas using the corrected intensity data. Firstly, two data-driven models have been developed to correct the range and incidence angle effect. Then the corrected intensity is used to generate 2D intensity images for classification. After the damage areas being detected, they are re-projected to the 3D point cloud for better visual representation and further investigation. The experiment results indicate the feasibility and validity of the corrected intensity for damage detection.

  17. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Biological Molecules—Mechanisms of Damage and Emerging Methods of Detection

    PubMed Central

    Reisz, Julie A.; Bansal, Nidhi; Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Weiling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) involve a highly orchestrated series of events that are amplified by endogenous signaling and culminating in oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, proteins, and many metabolites. Despite the global impact of IR, the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue damage reveal that many biomolecules are chemoselectively modified by IR. Recent Advances: The development of high-throughput “omics” technologies for mapping DNA and protein modifications have revolutionized the study of IR effects on biological systems. Studies in cells, tissues, and biological fluids are used to identify molecular features or biomarkers of IR exposure and response and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their expression or synthesis. Critical Issues: In this review, chemical mechanisms are described for IR-induced modifications of biomolecules along with methods for their detection. Included with the detection methods are crucial experimental considerations and caveats for their use. Additional factors critical to the cellular response to radiation, including alterations in protein expression, metabolomics, and epigenetic factors, are also discussed. Future Directions: Throughout the review, the synergy of combined “omics” technologies such as genomics and epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics is highlighted. These are anticipated to lead to new hypotheses to understand IR effects on biological systems and improve IR-based therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 260–292. PMID:24382094

  18. Ozone damage detection in cantaloupe plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Bowen, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Ozone causes up to 90 percent of air pollution injury to vegetation in the United States; excess ozone affects plant growth and development and can cause undetected decrease in yields. Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than did nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants which were lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35- to 2.5 micron near-infrared water absorption waveband. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 h before the damage was visible. Sensors are available for use with aircraft and spacecraft that possibly could be used routinely to detect ozone-damaged crops.

  19. Covariance of dynamic strain responses for structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Y.; Wang, L. X.; Law, S. S.; Nie, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    A new approach to address the practical problems with condition evaluation/damage detection of structures is proposed based on the distinct features of a new damage index. The covariance of strain response function (CoS) is a function of modal parameters of the structure. A local stiffness reduction in structure would cause monotonous increase in the CoS. Its sensitivity matrix with respect to local damages of structure is negative and narrow-banded. The damage extent can be estimated with an approximation to the sensitivity matrix to decouple the identification equations. The CoS sensitivity can be calibrated in practice from two previous states of measurements to estimate approximately the damage extent of a structure. A seven-storey plane frame structure is numerically studied to illustrate the features of the CoS index and the proposed method. A steel circular arch in the laboratory is tested. Natural frequencies changed due to damage in the arch and the damage occurrence can be judged. However, the proposed CoS method can identify not only damage happening but also location, even damage extent without need of an analytical model. It is promising for structural condition evaluation of selected components.

  20. Structural damage detection based on stochastic subspace identification and statistical pattern recognition: I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, W. X.; Lin, Y. Q.; Fang, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    One of the key issues in vibration-based structural health monitoring is to extract the damage-sensitive but environment-insensitive features from sampled dynamic response measurements and to carry out the statistical analysis of these features for structural damage detection. A new damage feature is proposed in this paper by using the system matrices of the forward innovation model based on the covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification of a vibrating system. To overcome the variations of the system matrices, a non-singularity transposition matrix is introduced so that the system matrices are normalized to their standard forms. For reducing the effects of modeling errors, noise and environmental variations on measured structural responses, a statistical pattern recognition paradigm is incorporated into the proposed method. The Mahalanobis and Euclidean distance decision functions of the damage feature vector are adopted by defining a statistics-based damage index. The proposed structural damage detection method is verified against one numerical signal and two numerical beams. It is demonstrated that the proposed statistics-based damage index is sensitive to damage and shows some robustness to the noise and false estimation of the system ranks. The method is capable of locating damage of the beam structures under different types of excitations. The robustness of the proposed damage detection method to the variations in environmental temperature is further validated in a companion paper by a reinforced concrete beam tested in the laboratory and a full-scale arch bridge tested in the field.

  1. Colorimetric detection of DNA damage by using hemin-graphene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W.; Zhang, D. M.; Yin, L. H.; Pu, Y. P.; Liu, S. Q.

    2013-04-01

    A colorimetric method for detection of DNA damage was developed by using hemin-graphene nanosheets (H-GNs). H-GNs were skillfully synthesized by adsorping of hemin on graphene through π-π interactions. The as-prepared H-GNs possessed both the ability of graphene to differentiate the damage DNA from intact DNA and the catalytic action of hemin. The damaged DNA made H-GNs coagulated to different degrees from the intact DNA because there were different amount of negative charge exposed on their surface, which made a great impact on the solubility of H-GNs. As a result, the corresponding centrifugal supernatant of H-GNs solution showed different color in the presence of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H2O2, which could be discriminated by naked eyes or by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrometer. Based on this, the damaged effects of styrene oxide (SO), NaAsO2 and UV radiation on DNA were studied. Results showed that SO exerted most serious damage effect on DNA although all of them damaged DNA seriously. The new method for detection of DNA damage showed good prospect in the evaluation of genotoxicity of new compounds, the maximum limit of pesticide residue, food additives, and so on, which is important in the fields of food science, pharmaceutical science and pesticide science.

  2. Sequential projection pursuit for optimised vibration-based damage detection in an experimental wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    To advance the concept of smart structures in large systems, such as wind turbines (WTs), it is desirable to be able to detect structural damage early while using minimal instrumentation. Data-driven vibration-based damage detection methods can be competitive in that respect because global vibrational responses encompass the entire structure. Multivariate damage sensitive features (DSFs) extracted from acceleration responses enable to detect changes in a structure via statistical methods. However, even though such DSFs contain information about the structural state, they may not be optimised for the damage detection task. This paper addresses the shortcoming by exploring a DSF projection technique specialised for statistical structural damage detection. High dimensional initial DSFs are projected onto a low-dimensional space for improved damage detection performance and simultaneous computational burden reduction. The technique is based on sequential projection pursuit where the projection vectors are optimised one by one using an advanced evolutionary strategy. The approach is applied to laboratory experiments with a small-scale WT blade under wind-like excitations. Autocorrelation function coefficients calculated from acceleration signals are employed as DSFs. The optimal numbers of projection vectors are identified with the help of a fast forward selection procedure. To benchmark the proposed method, selections of original DSFs as well as principal component analysis scores from these features are additionally investigated. The optimised DSFs are tested for damage detection on previously unseen data from the healthy state and a wide range of damage scenarios. It is demonstrated that using selected subsets of the initial and transformed DSFs improves damage detectability compared to the full set of features. Furthermore, superior results can be achieved by projecting autocorrelation coefficients onto just a single optimised projection vector.

  3. Damage detection in composites using nonlinear ultrasonically modulated thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfense Fierro, G.-P.; Dionysopoulos, D.; Meo, M.; Ciampa, F.

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel nonlinear ultrasonically stimulated thermography technique for a quick and reliable assessment of material damage in carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. The proposed nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method requires narrow sweep ultrasonic excitation using contact piezoelectric transducers in order to identify dual excitation frequencies associated with the damage resonance. High-amplitude signals and higher harmonic generation are necessary conditions for an accurate identification of these two input frequencies. Dual periodic excitation using high- and low-frequency input signals was then performed in order to generate frictional heating at the crack location that was measured by an infrared (IR) camera. To validate this concept, an impact damaged CFRP composite panel was tested and the experimental results were compared with traditional flash thermography. A laser vibrometer was used to investigate the response of the material with dual frequency excitation. The proposed nonlinear ultrasonically modulated thermography successfully detected barely visible impact damage in CFRP composites. Hence, it can be considered as an alternative to traditional flash thermography and thermosonics by allowing repeatable detection of damage in composites.

  4. Design of a piezoelectric-based structural health monitoring system for damage detection in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark

    2002-07-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper presents the conclusions of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in-situ damage detection in composite structures. Experimental results are presented for the application of modal analysis and Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy test specimens containing representative damage. Piezoelectric patches were used as actuators and sensors for both sets of experiments. Modal analysis methods were reliable for detecting small amounts of global damage in a simple composite structure. By comparison, Lamb wave methods were sensitive to all types of local damage present between the sensor and actuator, provided useful information about damage presence and severity, and present the possibility of estimating damage type and location. Analogous experiments were also performed for more complex built-up structures. These techniques are suitable for structural health monitoring applications since they can be applied with low power conformable sensors and can provide useful information about the state of a structure during operation. Piezoelectric patches could also be used as multipurpose sensors to detect damage by a variety of methods such as modal analysis, Lamb wave, acoustic emission and strain based methods simultaneously, by altering driving frequencies and sampling rates. This paper present guidelines and recommendations drawn from this research to assist in the design of a structural health monitoring system for a vehicle. These systems will be an important component in future designs of air and spacecraft to increase the feasibility of their missions.

  5. Online damage detection using recursive principal component analysis and recursive condition indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, M.; Bhowmik, B.; Tiwari, A. K.; Hazra, B.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a novel baseline free approach for continuous online damage detection of multi degree of freedom vibrating structures using recursive principal component analysis (RPCA) in conjunction with online damage indicators is proposed. In this method, the acceleration data is used to obtain recursive proper orthogonal modes in online using the rank-one perturbation method, and subsequently utilized to detect the change in the dynamic behavior of the vibrating system from its pristine state to contiguous linear/nonlinear-states that indicate damage. The RPCA algorithm iterates the eigenvector and eigenvalue estimates for sample covariance matrices and new data point at each successive time instants, using the rank-one perturbation method. An online condition indicator (CI) based on the L2 norm of the error between actual response and the response projected using recursive eigenvector matrix updates over successive iterations is proposed. This eliminates the need for offline post processing and facilitates online damage detection especially when applied to streaming data. The proposed CI, named recursive residual error, is also adopted for simultaneous spatio-temporal damage detection. Numerical simulations performed on five-degree of freedom nonlinear system under white noise and El Centro excitations, with different levels of nonlinearity simulating the damage scenarios, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed algorithm. Successful results obtained from practical case studies involving experiments performed on a cantilever beam subjected to earthquake excitation, for full sensors and underdetermined cases; and data from recorded responses of the UCLA Factor building (full data and its subset) demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology as an ideal candidate for real-time, reference free structural health monitoring.

  6. Response-only method for damage detection of beam-like structures using high accuracy frequencies with auxiliary mass spatial probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shuncong; Oyadiji, S. Olutunde; Ding, Kang

    2008-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach based on auxiliary mass spatial probing using spectral centre correction method (SCCM), to provide a simple solution for damage detection by just using the response time history of beam-like structures. The natural frequencies of a damaged beam with a traversing auxiliary mass change due to change in the inertia of the beam as the auxiliary mass is traversed along the beam, as well as the point-to-point variations in the flexibility of the beam. Therefore the auxiliary mass can enhance the effects of the crack on the dynamics of the beam and, therefore, facilitate the identification and location of damage in the beam. That is, the auxiliary mass can be used to probe the dynamic characteristic of the beam by traversing the mass from one end of the beam to the other. However, it is impossible to obtain accurate modal frequencies by the direct operation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the response data of the structure because the frequency spectrum can be only calculated from limited sampled time data which results in the well-known leakage effect. SCCM is identical to the energy centrobaric correction method (ECCM) which is a practical and effective method used in rotating mechanical fault diagnosis and which resolves the shortcoming of FFT and can provide high accuracy estimate of frequency, amplitude and phase. In the present work, the modal responses of damaged simply supported beams with auxiliary mass are computed using the finite element method (FEM). The graphical plots of the natural frequencies calculated by SCCM versus axial location of auxiliary mass are obtained. However, it is difficult to locate the crack directly from the curve of natural frequencies. A simple and fast method, the derivatives of natural frequency curve, is proposed in the paper which can provide crack information for damage detection of beam-like structures. The efficiency and practicability of the proposed method is illustrated via numerical

  7. A flexural crack model for damage detection in reinforced concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, W. I.; Owen, J. S.; Hussein, M. F. M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of changes in vibration data for damage detection of reinforced concrete structures faces many challenges that obstruct its transition from a research topic to field applications. Among these is the lack of appropriate damage models that can be deployed in the damage detection methods. In this paper, a model of a simply supported reinforced concrete beam with multiple cracks is developed to examine its use for damage detection and structural health monitoring. The cracks are simulated by a model that accounts for crack formation, propagation and closure. The beam model is studied under different dynamic excitations, including sine sweep and single excitation frequency, for various damage levels. The changes in resonant frequency with increasing loads are examined along with the nonlinear vibration characteristics. The model demonstrates that the resonant frequency reduces by about 10% at the application of 30% of the ultimate load and then drops gradually by about 25% at 70% of the ultimate load. The model also illustrates some nonlinearity in the dynamic response of damaged beams. The appearance of super-harmonics shows that the nonlinearity is higher when the damage level is about 35% and then decreases with increasing damage. The restoring force-displacement relationship predicted the reduction in the overall stiffness of the damaged beam. The model quantitatively predicts the experimental vibration behaviour of damaged RC beams and also shows the damage dependency of nonlinear vibration behaviour.

  8. Detection of Ballast Damage by In-Situ Vibration Measurement of Sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, H. F.; Wong, M. T.; Keefe, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    Ballasted track is one of the most important elements of railway transportation systems worldwide. Owing to its importance in railway safety, many monitoring and evaluation methods have been developed. Current railway track monitoring systems are comprehensive, fast and efficient in testing railway track level and alignment, rail gauge, rail corrugation, etc. However, the monitoring of ballast condition still relies very much on visual inspection and core tests. Although extensive research has been carried out in the development of non-destructive methods for ballast condition evaluation, a commonly accepted and cost-effective method is still in demand. In Hong Kong practice, if abnormal train vibration is reported by the train operator or passengers, permanent way inspectors will locate the problem area by track geometry measurement. It must be pointed out that visual inspection can only identify ballast damage on the track surface, the track geometry deficiencies and rail twists can be detected using a track gauge. Ballast damage under the sleeper loading area and the ballast shoulder, which are the main factors affecting track stability and ride quality, are extremely difficult if not impossible to be detected by visual inspection. Core test is a destructive test, which is expensive, time consuming and may be disruptive to traffic. A fast real-time ballast damage detection method that can be implemented by permanent way inspectors with simple equipment can certainly provide valuable information for engineers in assessing the safety and riding quality of ballasted track systems. The main objective of this paper is to study the feasibility in using the vibration characteristics of sleepers in quantifying the ballast condition under the sleepers, and so as to explore the possibility in developing a handy method for the detection of ballast damage based on the measured vibration of sleepers.

  9. Gulf Coast Disaster Management: Forest Damage Detection and Carbon Flux Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, A. E.; Childs, L. M.; Jones, J.; Matthews, C.; Spindel, D.; Batina, M.; Malik, S.; Allain, M.; Brooks, A. O.; Brozen, M.; Chappell, C.; Frey, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Along the Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard, tropical storms and hurricanes annually cause defoliation and deforestation amongst coastal forests. After a severe storm clears, there is an urgent need to assess impacts on timber resources for targeting state and national resources to assist in recovery. It is important to identify damaged areas following the storm, due to their increased probability of fire risk, as well as the effect upon the carbon budget. Better understanding and management of the immediate and future effects on the carbon cycle in the coastal forest ecosystem is especially important. Current methods of detection involve assessment through ground-based field surveys, aerial surveys, computer modeling of meteorological data, space-borne remote sensing, and Forest Inventory and Analysis field plots. Introducing remotely-sensed data from NASA and NASA-partnered Earth Observation Systems (EOS), this project seeks to improve the current methodology and focuses on a need for methods that are more synoptic than field surveys and more closely linked to the phenomenology of tree loss and damage than passive remote sensing methods. The primary concentration is on the utilization of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data products to detect changes in forest canopy height as an indicator of post-hurricane forest disturbances. By analyzing ICESat data over areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, this study shows that ICESsat is a useful method of detecting canopy height change, though further research is needed in mixed forest areas. Other EOS utilized in this study include Landsat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the NASA verified and validated international Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) sensor. This study addresses how NASA could apply ICESat data to contribute to an improved method of detecting hurricane-caused forest damage in coastal areas; thus to pinpoint areas more

  10. Damage Detection Sensor System for Aerospace and Multiple Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M.; Lewis, M.; Gibson, T.; Medelius, P.; Lane, J.

    2017-01-01

    The damage detection sensory system is an intelligent damage detection ‘skin’ that can be embedded into rigid or flexible structures, providing a lightweight capability for in-situ health monitoring for applications such as spacecraft, expandable or inflatable structures, extravehicular activities (EVA) suits, smart wearables, and other applications where diagnostic impact damage monitoring might be critical. The sensor systems can be customized for detecting location, damage size, and depth, with velocity options and can be designed for particular environments for monitoring of impact or physical damage to a structure. The operation of the sensor detection system is currently based on the use of parallel conductive traces placed on a firm or flexible surface. Several detection layers can be implemented, where alternate layers are arranged in orthogonal direction with respect to the adjacent layers allowing for location and depth calculations. Increased flexibility of the damage detection sensor system designs will also be introduced.

  11. On-line damage detection in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhalifa, Tareq Jawad

    This work is concerned with a set of techniques to detect internal defects in uniform circular discs (rotors). An internal defect is intentionally manufactured in stereolithographic discs by a rapid prototyping process using cured resin SL 5170 material. The analysis and results presented here are limited to a uniform circular disc, with internal defects, mounted on a uniform flexible circular shaft. The setup is comprised of a Bently Nevada rotor kit connected to a data acquisition system. The rotor consists of a disc and shaft that is supported by journal bearings and is coupled to a motor by a rubber joint. Damage produces localized changes in the strain energy, which is quantified to characterize the damage. Based on previous research, the Strain Energy Damage Index (SEDI) is utilized to localize the damage due to strain energy differences between damaged and undamaged modes. To accomplish the objective, this work covers three types of analysis: finite element analysis, vibration analysis, and experimental modal analysis. Finite element analysis (using SDRC Ideas software) is performed to develop a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) rotor system with internal damage, and its dynamic characteristics are investigated. The analysis is performed for two different types damage cases: radial damage and circular damage. Parametric study for radial damage and random noise to undamaged disc have been investigated to predict the effect of noise in the damage detection. The developed on-line damage detection technique for rotating equipment incorporates and couples both vibration analysis and experimental modal analysis. The dynamic investigation of the rotating discs (with and without defect) is conducted by vibration signal analysis (using proximity sensors, data acquisition and LabView). The vibration analysis provides a unique vibration signature for the damaged disc, which indicates the existence of the damage. The vibration data are acquired at different running speeds

  12. Method of Fault Detection and Rerouting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A system and method for detecting damage in an electrical wire, including delivering at least one test electrical signal to an outer electrically conductive material in a continuous or non-continuous layer covering an electrically insulative material layer that covers an electrically conductive wire core. Detecting the test electrical signals in the outer conductive material layer to obtain data that is processed to identify damage in the outer electrically conductive material layer.

  13. A new leakage measurement method for damaged seal material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen; Yao, Xue Feng; Yang, Heng; Yuan, Li; Dong, Yi Feng

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, a new leakage measurement method based on the temperature field and temperature gradient field is proposed for detecting the leakage location and measuring the leakage rate in damaged seal material. First, a heat transfer leakage model is established, which can calculate the leakage rate based on the temperature gradient field near the damaged zone. Second, a finite element model of an infinite plate with a damaged zone is built to calculate the leakage rate, which fits the simulated leakage rate well. Finally, specimens in a tubular rubber seal with different damage shapes are used to conduct the leakage experiment, validating the correctness of this new measurement principle for the leakage rate and the leakage position. The results indicate the feasibility of the leakage measurement method for damaged seal material based on the temperature gradient field from infrared thermography.

  14. Fukunaga-Koontz feature transformation for statistical structural damage detection and hierarchical neuro-fuzzy damage localisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Considering jointly damage sensitive features (DSFs) of signals recorded by multiple sensors, applying advanced transformations to these DSFs and assessing systematically their contribution to damage detectability and localisation can significantly enhance the performance of structural health monitoring systems. This philosophy is explored here for partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) of acceleration responses. They are interrogated with the help of the linear discriminant analysis based on the Fukunaga-Koontz transformation using datasets of the healthy and selected reference damage states. Then, a simple but efficient fast forward selection procedure is applied to rank the DSF components with respect to statistical distance measures specialised for either damage detection or localisation. For the damage detection task, the optimal feature subsets are identified based on the statistical hypothesis testing. For damage localisation, a hierarchical neuro-fuzzy tool is developed that uses the DSF ranking to establish its own optimal architecture. The proposed approaches are evaluated experimentally on data from non-destructively simulated damage in a laboratory scale wind turbine blade. The results support our claim of being able to enhance damage detectability and localisation performance by transforming and optimally selecting DSFs. It is demonstrated that the optimally selected PACCs from multiple sensors or their Fukunaga-Koontz transformed versions can not only improve the detectability of damage via statistical hypothesis testing but also increase the accuracy of damage localisation when used as inputs into a hierarchical neuro-fuzzy network. Furthermore, the computational effort of employing these advanced soft computing models for damage localisation can be significantly reduced by using transformed DSFs.

  15. An experimental validation of a statistical-based damage detection approach.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a previously-developed, statistical-based, damage-detection approach was validated for its ability to : autonomously detect damage in bridges. The damage-detection approach uses statistical differences in the actual and : predicted beha...

  16. Damage detection methodology on beam-like structures based on combined modal Wavelet Transform strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Roger; Lopez, Lautaro

    2018-05-01

    Different approaches on the detection of damages based on dynamic measurement of structures have appeared in the last decades. They were based, amongst others, on changes in natural frequencies, modal curvatures, strain energy or flexibility. Wavelet analysis has also been used to detect the abnormalities on modal shapes induced by damages. However the majority of previous work was made with non-corrupted by noise signals. Moreover, the damage influence for each mode shape was studied separately. This paper proposes a new methodology based on combined modal wavelet transform strategy to cope with noisy signals, while at the same time, able to extract the relevant information from each mode shape. The proposed methodology will be then compared with the most frequently used and wide-studied methods from the bibliography. To evaluate the performance of each method, their capacity to detect and localize damage will be analyzed in different cases. The comparison will be done by simulating the oscillations of a cantilever steel beam with and without defect as a numerical case. The proposed methodology proved to outperform classical methods in terms of noisy signals.

  17. Post-Disaster Damage Assessment Through Coherent Change Detection on SAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, L.; Boccardo, P.; Donevski, I.; Lo Schiavo, L.; Molinari, M. E.; Monti-Guarnieri, A.; Oxoli, D.; Brovelli, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Damage assessment is a fundamental step to support emergency response and recovery activities in a post-earthquake scenario. In recent years, UAVs and satellite optical imagery was applied to assess major structural damages before technicians could reach the areas affected by the earthquake. However, bad weather conditions may harm the quality of these optical assessments, thus limiting the practical applicability of these techniques. In this paper, the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery is investigated and a novel approach to SAR-based damage assessment is presented. Coherent Change Detection (CCD) algorithms on multiple interferometrically pre-processed SAR images of the area affected by the seismic event are exploited to automatically detect potential damages to buildings and other physical structures. As a case study, the 2016 Central Italy earthquake involving the cities of Amatrice and Accumoli was selected. The main contribution of the research outlined above is the integration of a complex process, requiring the coordination of a variety of methods and tools, into a unitary framework, which allows end-to-end application of the approach from SAR data pre-processing to result visualization in a Geographic Information System (GIS). A prototype of this pipeline was implemented, and the outcomes of this methodology were validated through an extended comparison with traditional damage assessment maps, created through photo-interpretation of high resolution aerial imagery. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is able to perform damage detection with a good level of accuracy, as most of the detected points of change are concentrated around highly damaged buildings.

  18. Wavenumber Imaging For Damage Detection and Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, Matthew D.; Johnson, Pat H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for analyzing ultrasonic wavefield data using the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) applied in the spatial domain. Unlike data obtained by sparse arrays of transducers, full wavefield data contains information local to the structure and can be used to obtain more detailed measurements of damage type, location, size, etc. By calculating the CWT of the wavefield in the spatial domain, the wavenumber spectrum is determined for the inspected locations. Because wavenumber is affected by the local geometry and material properties of the structure through which Lamb waves propagate, the wavenumber spectrum can be analyzed to assess the location, severity, and size of damage. The technique is first applied to experimental wavefield data obtained using a laser Doppler vibrometer and automated positioning stage. The out-of-plane velocity along the length of a composite stringer was measured to detect the presence of delaminations within the composite overwrap. Next, simulated corrosion is detected and measured within an aluminum plate using the two dimensional CWT. The experimental results show the usefulness of the technique for vehicle structure inspection applications.

  19. A Bayesian state-space approach for damage detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzunic, Zoran; Chen, Justin G.; Mobahi, Hossein; Büyüköztürk, Oral; Fisher, John W.

    2017-11-01

    The problem of automatic damage detection in civil structures is complex and requires a system that can interpret collected sensor data into meaningful information. We apply our recently developed switching Bayesian model for dependency analysis to the problems of damage detection and classification. The model relies on a state-space approach that accounts for noisy measurement processes and missing data, which also infers the statistical temporal dependency between measurement locations signifying the potential flow of information within the structure. A Gibbs sampling algorithm is used to simultaneously infer the latent states, parameters of the state dynamics, the dependence graph, and any changes in behavior. By employing a fully Bayesian approach, we are able to characterize uncertainty in these variables via their posterior distribution and provide probabilistic estimates of the occurrence of damage or a specific damage scenario. We also implement a single class classification method which is more realistic for most real world situations where training data for a damaged structure is not available. We demonstrate the methodology with experimental test data from a laboratory model structure and accelerometer data from a real world structure during different environmental and excitation conditions.

  20. Spiral Bevel Gear Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spiral bevel gears was developed. Two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated using data fusion into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual monitoring technologies. This diagnostic tool was evaluated by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rigs. Data was collected during experiments performed in this test rig when pitting damage occurred. Results show that combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spiral bevel gears.

  1. Wireless vibration monitoring for damage detection of highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Gangone, Michael V.; Janoyan, Kerop D.; Jha, Ratneshwar

    2008-03-01

    The development of low-cost wireless sensor networks has resulted in resurgence in the development of ambient vibration monitoring methods to assess the in-service condition of highway bridges. However, a reliable approach towards assessing the health of an in-service bridge and identifying and localizing damage without a priori knowledge of the vibration response history has yet to be formulated. A two-part study is in progress to evaluate and develop existing and proposed damage detection schemes. The first phase utilizes a laboratory bridge model to investigate the vibration response characteristics induced through introduction of changes to structural members, connections, and support conditions. A second phase of the study will validate the damage detection methods developed from the laboratory testing with progressive damage testing of an in-service highway bridge scheduled for replacement. The laboratory bridge features a four meter span, one meter wide, steel frame with a steel and cement board deck composed of sheet layers to regulate mass loading and simulate deck wear. Bolted connections and elastomeric bearings provide a means for prescribing variable local stiffness and damping effects to the laboratory model. A wireless sensor network consisting of fifty-six accelerometers accommodated by twenty-eight local nodes facilitates simultaneous, real-time and high-rate acquisition of the vibrations throughout the bridge structure. Measurement redundancy is provided by an array of wired linear displacement sensors as well as a scanning laser vibrometer. This paper presents the laboratory model and damage scenarios, a brief description of the developed wireless sensor network platform, an overview of available test and measurement instrumentation within the laboratory, and baseline measurements of dynamic response of the laboratory bridge model.

  2. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  3. Damage detection in sandwich composite materials using laser vibrometry in conjunction with nonlinear system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Sara; Koester, David; Adams, Douglas E.

    2009-03-01

    Fiberglass sandwich panels are tested to study a vibration-based method for locating damage in composite materials. This method does not rely on a direct comparison of the natural frequencies, mode shapes, or residues in the forced vibration response data. Specifically, a nonlinear system identification based method for damage detection is sought that reduces the sensitivity of damage detection results to changes in vibration measurements due to variations in boundary conditions, environmental conditions, and material properties of the panel. Damage mechanisms considered include a disbond between the core and face sheet and a crack within the core. A panel is excited by a skewed piezoelectric actuator over a broad frequency range while a three-dimensional scanning laser vibrometer measures the surface velocity of the panel along three orthogonal axes. The forced frequency response data measured using the scanning laser vibrometer at multiple excitation amplitudes is processed to identify areas of the panel that exhibit significant nonlinear response characteristics. It is demonstrated that these localized nonlinearities in the panel coincide with the damaged areas of the composite material. Because changes in the measured frequency response functions due to nonlinear distortions associated with the damage can be identified without comparing the vibration data to a reference (baseline) signature of the undamaged material, this vibration technique for damage detection in composite materials exhibits less sensitivity to variations in the underlying linear characteristics than traditional methods. It is also demonstrated that the damage at a given location can be classified as either due to a disbond or core crack because these two types of damage produce difference signatures when comparing the multi-amplitude frequency response functions.

  4. Time Domain Reflectometry for Damage Detection of Laminated CFRP plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-18

    Final Report PROJECT ID: AOARD-10-4112 Title: Time Domain Reflectometry for damage detection of laminated CFRP plate Researcher: Professor Akira...From July/2010 To July/2011 Abstract Recently, high toughness Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates are used to primary structures. The...large laminated CFRP structures. In the previous study, Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method is adopted for the detection of the fiber breakages of

  5. Probability of Detection Study on Impact Damage to Honeycomb Composite Structure using Thermographic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Walker, James L., II

    2008-01-01

    A probability of detection study was performed for the detection of impact damage using flash heating infrared thermography on a full scale honeycomb composite structure. The honeycomb structure was an intertank structure from a previous NASA technology demonstration program. The intertank was fabricated from IM7/8552 carbon fiber/epoxy facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The intertank was impacted in multiple locations with a range of impact energies utilizing a spherical indenter. In a single blind study, the intertank was inspected with thermography before and after impact damage was incurred. Following thermographic inspection several impact sites were sectioned from the intertank and cross-sectioned for microscopic comparisons of NDE detection and actual damage incurred. The study concluded that thermographic inspection was a good method of detecting delamination damage incurred by impact. The 90/95 confidence level on the probability of detection was close to the impact energy that delaminations were first observed through cross-sectional analysis.

  6. Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wu, Weiliang, E-mail: wwl@whu.edu.cn; Qu, Wenzhong, E-mail: qwz@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Xiao, Li, E-mail: qwz@whu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com

    In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come frommore » the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it

  7. Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weiliang; Shen, Yanfeng; Qu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Li; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from

  8. Application of higher order SVD to vibration-based system identification and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Shu-Hsien; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Weng, Jian-Huang

    2012-04-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a powerful linear algebra tool. It is widely used in many different signal processing methods, such principal component analysis (PCA), singular spectrum analysis (SSA), frequency domain decomposition (FDD), subspace identification and stochastic subspace identification method ( SI and SSI ). In each case, the data is arranged appropriately in matrix form and SVD is used to extract the feature of the data set. In this study three different algorithms on signal processing and system identification are proposed: SSA, SSI-COV and SSI-DATA. Based on the extracted subspace and null-space from SVD of data matrix, damage detection algorithms can be developed. The proposed algorithm is used to process the shaking table test data of the 6-story steel frame. Features contained in the vibration data are extracted by the proposed method. Damage detection can then be investigated from the test data of the frame structure through subspace-based and nullspace-based damage indices.

  9. Intelligent structural health monitoring and damage detection for light-rail bridges

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-05-01

    A global damage detection algorithm for bridge-like Structures is proposed. This method provides the capability of determining the reduction in both stiffness and damping parameters of the structural elements. It is assumed the mass of the structural...

  10. Transmission Bearing Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage to rolling element bearings in an OH-58 main rotor transmission. Two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated using data fusion into a health monitoring system for detecting bearing surface fatigue pitting damage. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual monitoring technologies. This diagnostic tool was evaluated by collecting vibration and oil debris data from tests performed in the NASA Glenn 500 hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Data was collected during experiments performed in this test rig when two unanticipated bearing failures occurred. Results show that combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spiral bevel gears duplex ball bearings and spiral bevel pinion triplex ball bearings in a main rotor transmission.

  11. Detection of potato beetle damage using remote sensing from small unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond; Rondon, Silvia I.

    2017-04-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) adults and larvae devour leaves of potato and other solanaceous crops and weeds, and may quickly develop resistance to pesticides. With early detection of CPB damage, more options are available for precision integrated pest management, which reduces the amount of pesticides applied in a field. Remote sensing with small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) has potential for CPB detection because low flight altitudes allow image acquisition at very high spatial resolution. A five-band multispectral sensor and up-looking incident light sensor were mounted on a six-rotor sUAS, which was flown at altitudes of 60 and 30 m in June 2014. Plants went from visibly undamaged to having some damage in just 1 day. Whole-plot normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the number of pixels classified as damaged (0.70≤NDVI≤0.80) were not correlated with visible CPB damage ranked from least to most. Area of CPB damage estimated using object-based image analysis was highly correlated to the visual ranking of damage. Furthermore, plant height calculated using structure-from-motion point clouds was related to CPB damage, but this method required extensive operator intervention for success. Object-based image analysis has potential for early detection based on high spatial resolution sUAS remote sensing.

  12. Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensing and Artificial Neural Network Pattern Recognition-Based Automated Damage Detection and Quantification for Wire Rope Non-Destructive Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Seunghee

    2018-01-02

    In this study, a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method, known to be a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method for continuum ferromagnetic structures, was used to detect local damage when inspecting steel wire ropes. To demonstrate the proposed damage detection method through experiments, a multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using a Hall sensor array and magnetic yokes to adapt to the wire rope. To prepare the damaged wire-rope specimens, several different amounts of artificial damages were inflicted on wire ropes. The MFL sensor head was used to scan the damaged specimens to measure the magnetic flux signals. After obtaining the signals, a series of signal processing steps, including the enveloping process based on the Hilbert transform (HT), was performed to better recognize the MFL signals by reducing the unexpected noise. The enveloped signals were then analyzed for objective damage detection by comparing them with a threshold that was established based on the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. The detected MFL signals that exceed the threshold were analyzed quantitatively by extracting the magnetic features from the MFL signals. To improve the quantitative analysis, damage indexes based on the relationship between the enveloped MFL signal and the threshold value were also utilized, along with a general damage index for the MFL method. The detected MFL signals for each damage type were quantified by using the proposed damage indexes and the general damage indexes for the MFL method. Finally, an artificial neural network (ANN) based multi-stage pattern recognition method using extracted multi-scale damage indexes was implemented to automatically estimate the severity of the damage. To analyze the reliability of the MFL-based automated wire rope NDE method, the accuracy and reliability were evaluated by comparing the repeatedly estimated damage size and the actual damage size.

  13. Damage Detection in Composite Structures with Wavenumber Array Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) have the potential to be an efficient and cost-effective method for rapid damage detection and quantification of large structures. Attractive features include sensitivity to a variety of damage types and the capability of traveling relatively long distances. They have proven to be an efficient approach for crack detection and localization in isotropic materials. However, techniques must be pushed beyond isotropic materials in order to be valid for composite aircraft components. This paper presents our study on GUW propagation and interaction with delamination damage in composite structures using wavenumber array data processing, together with advanced wave propagation simulations. Parallel elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used for the example simulations. Multi-dimensional Fourier transform is used to convert time-space wavefield data into frequency-wavenumber domain. Wave propagation in the wavenumber-frequency domain shows clear distinction among the guided wave modes that are present. This allows for extracting a guided wave mode through filtering and reconstruction techniques. Presence of delamination causes spectral change accordingly. Results from 3D CFRP guided wave simulations with delamination damage in flat-plate specimens are used for wave interaction with structural defect study.

  14. A feasibility study of damage detection in beams using high-speed camera (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chao; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2017-04-01

    In this paper a method for damage detection in beam structures using high-speed camera is presented. Traditional methods of damage detection in structures typically involve contact (i.e., piezoelectric sensor or accelerometer) or non-contact sensors (i.e., laser vibrometer) which can be costly and time consuming to inspect an entire structure. With the popularity of the digital camera and the development of computer vision technology, video cameras offer a viable capability of measurement including higher spatial resolution, remote sensing and low-cost. In the study, a damage detection method based on the high-speed camera was proposed. The system setup comprises a high-speed camera and a line-laser which can capture the out-of-plane displacement of a cantilever beam. The cantilever beam with an artificial crack was excited and the vibration process was recorded by the camera. A methodology called motion magnification, which can amplify subtle motions in a video is used for modal identification of the beam. A finite element model was used for validation of the proposed method. Suggestions for applications of this methodology and challenges in future work will be discussed.

  15. Stochastic output error vibration-based damage detection and assessment in structures under earthquake excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2006-11-01

    A stochastic output error (OE) vibration-based methodology for damage detection and assessment (localization and quantification) in structures under earthquake excitation is introduced. The methodology is intended for assessing the state of a structure following potential damage occurrence by exploiting vibration signal measurements produced by low-level earthquake excitations. It is based upon (a) stochastic OE model identification, (b) statistical hypothesis testing procedures for damage detection, and (c) a geometric method (GM) for damage assessment. The methodology's advantages include the effective use of the non-stationary and limited duration earthquake excitation, the handling of stochastic uncertainties, the tackling of the damage localization and quantification subproblems, the use of "small" size, simple and partial (in both the spatial and frequency bandwidth senses) identified OE-type models, and the use of a minimal number of measured vibration signals. Its feasibility and effectiveness are assessed via Monte Carlo experiments employing a simple simulation model of a 6 storey building. It is demonstrated that damage levels of 5% and 20% reduction in a storey's stiffness characteristics may be properly detected and assessed using noise-corrupted vibration signals.

  16. Enhancement of the Feature Extraction Capability in Global Damage Detection Using Wavelet Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, Atef F.; Ponnaluru, Gopi Krishna

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the specific capabilities of the defect energy parameter technique for global damage detection developed by Saleeb and coworkers. The feature extraction is the most important capability in any damage-detection technique. Features are any parameters extracted from the processed measurement data in order to enhance damage detection. The damage feature extraction capability was studied extensively by analyzing various simulation results. The practical significance in structural health monitoring is that the detection at early stages of small-size defects is always desirable. The amount of changes in the structure's response due to these small defects was determined to show the needed level of accuracy in the experimental methods. The arrangement of fine/extensive sensor network to measure required data for the detection is an "unlimited" ability, but there is a difficulty to place extensive number of sensors on a structure. Therefore, an investigation was conducted using the measurements of coarse sensor network. The white and the pink noises, which cover most of the frequency ranges that are typically encountered in the many measuring devices used (e.g., accelerometers, strain gauges, etc.) are added to the displacements to investigate the effect of noisy measurements in the detection technique. The noisy displacements and the noisy damage parameter values are used to study the signal feature reconstruction using wavelets. The enhancement of the feature extraction capability was successfully achieved by the wavelet theory.

  17. Real time damage detection using recursive principal components and time varying auto-regressive modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, M.; Bhowmik, B.; Hazra, B.; Pakrashi, V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a novel baseline free approach for continuous online damage detection of multi degree of freedom vibrating structures using Recursive Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) in conjunction with Time Varying Auto-Regressive Modeling (TVAR) is proposed. In this method, the acceleration data is used to obtain recursive proper orthogonal components online using rank-one perturbation method, followed by TVAR modeling of the first transformed response, to detect the change in the dynamic behavior of the vibrating system from its pristine state to contiguous linear/non-linear-states that indicate damage. Most of the works available in the literature deal with algorithms that require windowing of the gathered data owing to their data-driven nature which renders them ineffective for online implementation. Algorithms focussed on mathematically consistent recursive techniques in a rigorous theoretical framework of structural damage detection is missing, which motivates the development of the present framework that is amenable for online implementation which could be utilized along with suite experimental and numerical investigations. The RPCA algorithm iterates the eigenvector and eigenvalue estimates for sample covariance matrices and new data point at each successive time instants, using the rank-one perturbation method. TVAR modeling on the principal component explaining maximum variance is utilized and the damage is identified by tracking the TVAR coefficients. This eliminates the need for offline post processing and facilitates online damage detection especially when applied to streaming data without requiring any baseline data. Numerical simulations performed on a 5-dof nonlinear system under white noise excitation and El Centro (also known as 1940 Imperial Valley earthquake) excitation, for different damage scenarios, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed algorithm. The method is further validated on results obtained from case studies involving

  18. Damage detection based on acceleration data using artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Sandra; Mita, Akira

    2009-03-01

    Nowadays, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is essential in order to prevent damages occurrence in civil structures. This is a particularly important issue as the number of aged structures is increasing. Damage detection algorithms are often based on changes in the modal properties like natural frequencies, modal shapes and modal damping. In this paper, damage detection is completed by using Artificial Immune System (AIS) theory directly on acceleration data. Inspired from the biological immune system, AIS is composed of several models like negative selection which has a great potential for this study. The negative selection process relies on the fact that T-cells, after their maturation, are sensitive to non self cells and can not detect self cells. Acceleration data were provided by using the numerical model of a 3-story frame structure. Damages were introduced, at particular times, by reduction of story's stiffness. Based on these acceleration data, undamaged data (equivalent to self data) and damaged data (equivalent to non self data) can be obtained and represented in the Hamming shape-space with a binary representation. From the undamaged encoded data, detectors (equivalent to T-cells) are derived and are able to detect damaged encoded data really efficiently by using the rcontiguous bits matching rule. Indeed, more than 95% of detection can be reached when efficient combinations of parameters are used. According to the number of detected data, the localization of damages can even be determined by using the differences between story's relative accelerations. Thus, the difference which presents the highest detection rate, generally up to 89%, is directly linked to the location of damage.

  19. Acoustic impact testing and waveform analysis for damage detection in glued laminated timber

    Treesearch

    Feng Xu; Xiping Wang; Marko Teder; Yunfei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Delamination and decay are common structural defects in old glued laminated timber (glulam) buildings, which, if left undetected, could cause severe structural damage. This paper presents a new damage detection method for glulam inspection based on moment analysis and wavelet transform (WT) of impact acoustic signals. Acoustic signals were collected from a glulam arch...

  20. Acoustic-sensor-based detection of damage in composite aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Peter; Martin, Tony; Read, Ian

    2004-03-01

    Acoustic emission detection is a well-established method of locating and monitoring crack development in metal structures. The technique has been adapted to test facilities for non-destructive testing applications. Deployment as an operational or on-line automated damage detection technology in vehicles is posing greater challenges. A clear requirement of potential end-users of such systems is a level of automation capable of delivering low-level diagnosis information. The output from the system is in the form of "go", "no-go" indications of structural integrity or immediate maintenance actions. This level of automation requires significant data reduction and processing. This paper describes recent trials of acoustic emission detection technology for the diagnosis of damage in composite aerospace structures. The technology comprises low profile detection sensors using piezo electric wafers encapsulated in polymer film ad optical sensors. Sensors are bonded to the structure"s surface and enable acoustic events from the loaded structure to be located by triangulation. Instrumentation has been enveloped to capture and parameterise the sensor data in a form suitable for low-bandwidth storage and transmission.

  1. Smart concrete slabs with embedded tubular PZT transducers for damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weihang; Huo, Linsheng; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new concept and methodology of smart concrete slab (SCS) with embedded tubular lead zirconate titanate transducer array for image based damage detection. Stress waves, as the detecting signals, are generated by the embedded tubular piezoceramic transducers in the SCS. Tubular piezoceramic transducers are used due to their capacity of generating radially uniform stress waves in a two-dimensional concrete slab (such as bridge decks and walls), increasing the monitoring range. A circular type delay-and-sum (DAS) imaging algorithm is developed to image the active acoustic sources based on the direct response received by each sensor. After the scattering signals from the damage are obtained by subtracting the baseline response of the concrete structures from those of the defective ones, the elliptical type DAS imaging algorithm is employed to process the scattering signals and reconstruct the image of the damage. Finally, two experiments, including active acoustic source monitoring and damage imaging for concrete structures, are carried out to illustrate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Experimental Study on Damage Detection in Timber Specimens Based on an Electromechanical Impedance Technique and RMSD-Based Mahalanobis Distance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dansheng; Wang, Qinghua; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-01-01

    In the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens. In addition, the conventional damage index, namely root mean square deviation (RMSD) is employed to evaluate the level of damage. On that basis, a new damage index, Mahalanobis distance based on RMSD, is proposed to evaluate the damage severity of timber specimens. Experimental studies are implemented to detect notch and hole damage in the timber specimens. Experimental results verify the availability and robustness of the proposed damage index and its superiority over the RMSD indexes. PMID:27782088

  3. Experimental Study on Damage Detection in Timber Specimens Based on an Electromechanical Impedance Technique and RMSD-Based Mahalanobis Distance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dansheng; Wang, Qinghua; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-10-22

    In the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens. In addition, the conventional damage index, namely root mean square deviation (RMSD) is employed to evaluate the level of damage. On that basis, a new damage index, Mahalanobis distance based on RMSD, is proposed to evaluate the damage severity of timber specimens. Experimental studies are implemented to detect notch and hole damage in the timber specimens. Experimental results verify the availability and robustness of the proposed damage index and its superiority over the RMSD indexes.

  4. Structural damage detection for in-service highway bridge under operational and environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Christenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Structural health monitoring has drawn significant attention in the past decades with numerous methodologies and applications for civil structural systems. Although many researchers have developed analytical and experimental damage detection algorithms through vibration-based methods, these methods are not widely accepted for practical structural systems because of their sensitivity to uncertain environmental and operational conditions. The primary environmental factor that influences the structural modal properties is temperature. The goal of this article is to analyze the natural frequency-temperature relationships and detect structural damage in the presence of operational and environmental variations using modal-based method. For this purpose, correlations between natural frequency and temperature are analyzed to select proper independent variables and inputs for the multiple linear regression model and neural network model. In order to capture the changes of natural frequency, confidence intervals to detect the damages for both models are generated. A long-term structural health monitoring system was installed on an in-service highway bridge located in Meriden, Connecticut to obtain vibration and environmental data. Experimental testing results show that the variability of measured natural frequencies due to temperature is captured, and the temperature-induced changes in natural frequencies have been considered prior to the establishment of the threshold in the damage warning system. This novel approach is applicable for structural health monitoring system and helpful to assess the performance of the structure for bridge management and maintenance.

  5. Output-Based Structural Damage Detection by Using Correlation Analysis Together with Transmissibility

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongyou; Liu, Quanmin; Wahab, Magd Abdel

    2017-01-01

    Output-based structural damage detection is becoming increasingly appealing due to its potential in real engineering applications without any restriction regarding excitation measurements. A new transmissibility-based damage detection approach is presented in this study by combining transmissibility with correlation analysis in order to strengthen its performance in discriminating damaged from undamaged scenarios. From this perspective, damage detection strategies are hereafter established by constructing damage-sensitive indicators from a derived transmissibility. A cantilever beam is numerically analyzed to verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection procedure, and an ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) benchmark is henceforth used in the validation for its application in engineering structures. The results of both studies reveal a good performance of the proposed methodology in identifying damaged states from intact states. The comparison between the proposed indicator and the existing indicator also affirms its applicability in damage detection, which might be adopted in further structural health monitoring systems as a discrimination criterion. This study contributed an alternative criterion for transmissibility-based damage detection in addition to the conventional ones. PMID:28773218

  6. Sensitivity of PZT Impedance Sensors for Damage Detection of Concrete Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaowen; Hu, Yuhang; Lu, Yong

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) has been successfully applied to various engineering systems. However, fundamental research work on the sensitivity of the PZT impedance sensors for damage detection is still in need. In the traditional EMI method, the PZT electro-mechanical (EM) admittance (inverse of the impedance) is used as damage indicator, which is difficult to specify the effect of damage on structural properties. This paper uses the structural mechanical impedance (SMI) extracted from the PZT EM admittance signature as the damage indicator. A comparison study on the sensitivity of the EM admittance and the structural mechanical impedance to the damages in a concrete structure is conducted. Results show that the SMI is more sensitive to the damage than the EM admittance thus a better indicator for damage detection. Furthermore, this paper proposes a dynamic system consisting of a number of single-degree-of-freedom elements with mass, spring and damper components to model the SMI. A genetic algorithm is employed to search for the optimal value of the unknown parameters in the dynamic system. An experiment is carried out on a two-storey concrete frame subjected to base vibrations that simulate earthquake. A number of PZT sensors are regularly arrayed and bonded to the frame structure to acquire PZT EM admittance signatures. The relationship between the damage index and the distance of the PZT sensor from the damage is studied. Consequently, the sensitivity of the PZT sensors is discussed and their sensing region in concrete is derived. PMID:27879711

  7. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis in Aircraft Lightning Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chuantong; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage and empennage structures, control surfaces and coverings. However, the potential damage from the direct and indirect effects of lightning strikes is of increased concern to aircraft designers and operators. When a lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface must be found by visual inspection, and then assessed for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. In this paper, a new method and system for aircraft in-situ damage detection and diagnosis are presented. The method and system are based on open circuit (SansEC) sensor technology developed at NASA Langley Research Center. SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect damage in composite materials. Damage in composite material is generally associated with a localized change in material permittivity and/or conductivity. These changes are sensed using SansEC. Unique electrical signatures are used for damage detection and diagnosis. NASA LaRC has both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that SansEC sensors can be effectively used for in-situ composite damage detection.

  8. Lymphocyte DNA damage in Turkish asphalt workers detected by the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Bacaksiz, Aysegul; Kayaalti, Zeliha; Soylemez, Esma; Tutkun, Engin; Soylemezoglu, Tulin

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has a highly complex structure and it contains several organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. In this study, comet assay was used to detect the DNA damage in blood lymphocytes of 30 workers exposed to asphalt fumes and 30 nonexposed controls. This is the first report on Turkish asphalt workers' investigated DNA damage using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The DNA damage was evaluated by the percentage of DNA in the comet tail (% tail DNA) for each cell. According to our results, workers exposed to asphalt fumes had higher DNA damage than the control group (p < 0.01). The present study showed that asphalt fumes caused a significant increase in DNA damage and the comet assay is a suitable method for determining DNA damage in asphalt workers.

  9. Laser vibrometry for guided wave propagation phenomena visualisation and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Pawel; Wandowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents research on the damage localization method. The method is based on guided wave propagation phenomena. The investigation was focused on application of this method to monitor the condition of structural elements such as aluminium or composite panels. These elements are commonly used in aerospace industry and it is crucial to provide a methodology to determine their condition, in order to prevent from unexpected and dangerous collapse of a structure. Propagating waves interact with cracks, notches, rivets, thickness changes, stiffeners and other discontinuities present in structural elements. It means that registering these waves one can obtain information about the structure condition—whether it is damaged or not. Furthermore these methods can be applied not only to aerospace structures but also to wind turbine blades and pipelines. In reported investigation piezoelectric transducer was used to excite guided waves in considered panel. Measurement of the wave field was realized using laser scanning vibrometer that registered the velocity responses at a defined points belonging to a defined mesh. Mesh spacing was investigated in order to ensure fine wave propagation visualisation. Firstly, wave propagation in pristine specimen was investigated. Secondly, artificial damage was introduced to the specimen. Finally, wave interaction with damage was visualised and conclusions regarding potentials of application of laser vibrometer for damage detection were drawn. All the processing was made with the developed MATLAB procedures.

  10. Sensitivity of PZT Impedance Sensors for Damage Detection of Concrete Structures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaowen; Hu, Yuhang; Lu, Yong

    2008-01-21

    Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based electro-mechanicalimpedance (EMI) technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) has been successfullyapplied to various engineering systems. However, fundamental research work on thesensitivity of the PZT impedance sensors for damage detection is still in need. In thetraditional EMI method, the PZT electro-mechanical (EM) admittance (inverse of theimpedance) is used as damage indicator, which is difficult to specify the effect of damage onstructural properties. This paper uses the structural mechanical impedance (SMI) extractedfrom the PZT EM admittance signature as the damage indicator. A comparison study on thesensitivity of the EM admittance and the structural mechanical impedance to the damages ina concrete structure is conducted. Results show that the SMI is more sensitive to the damagethan the EM admittance thus a better indicator for damage detection. Furthermore, this paperproposes a dynamic system consisting of a number of single-degree-of-freedom elementswith mass, spring and damper components to model the SMI. A genetic algorithm isemployed to search for the optimal value of the unknown parameters in the dynamic system.An experiment is carried out on a two-storey concrete frame subjected to base vibrations thatsimulate earthquake. A number of PZT sensors are regularly arrayed and bonded to the framestructure to acquire PZT EM admittance signatures. The relationship between the damageindex and the distance of the PZT sensor from the damage is studied. Consequently, thesensitivity of the PZT sensors is discussed and their sensing region in concrete is derived.

  11. Damage Detection in Rotorcraft Composite Structures Using Thermography and Laser-Based Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    New rotorcraft structural composite designs incorporate lower structural weight, reduced manufacturing complexity, and improved threat protection. These new structural concepts require nondestructive evaluation inspection technologies that can potentially be field-portable and able to inspect complex geometries for damage or structural defects. Two candidate technologies were considered: Thermography and Laser-Based Ultrasound (Laser UT). Thermography and Laser UT have the advantage of being non-contact inspection methods, with Thermography being a full-field imaging method and Laser UT a point scanning technique. These techniques were used to inspect composite samples that contained both embedded flaws and impact damage of various size and shape. Results showed that the inspection techniques were able to detect both embedded and impact damage with varying degrees of success.

  12. A Method to have Multi-Layer Thermal Insulation Provide Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Jones, Thomas W.; Shams, Qamar A.; Lyons, Frankel; Henderson, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Design and testing of a multi-layer thermal insulation system that also provides debris and micrometeorite damage detection is presented. One layer of the insulation is designed as an array of passive open-circuit electrically conductive spiral trace sensors. The sensors are a new class of sensors that are electrically open-circuits that have no electrical connections thereby eliminating one cause of failure to circuits. The sensors are powered using external oscillating magnetic fields. Once electrically active, they produce their own harmonic magnetic fields. The responding field frequency changes if any sensor is damaged. When the sensors are used together in close proximity, the inductive coupling between sensors provides a means of telemetry. The spiral trace design using reflective electrically conductive material provides sufficient area coverage for the sensor array to serves as a layer of thermal insulation. The other insulation layers are designed to allow the sensor s magnetic field to permeate the insulation layers while having total reflective surface area to reduce thermal energy transfer. Results of characterizing individual sensors and the sensor array s response to punctures are presented. Results of hypervelocity impact testing using projectiles of 1-3.6 millimeter diameter having speeds ranging from 6.7-7.1 kilometers per second are also presented.

  13. Intelligent-based Structural Damage Detection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yu, Kin Fung

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the application of a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the diagnosis of structural damage. The ANN model, denoted as the GRNNFA, is a hybrid model combining the General Regression Neural Network Model (GRNN) and the Fuzzy ART (FA) model. It not only retains the important features of the GRNN and FA models (i.e. fast and stable network training and incremental growth of network structure) but also facilitates the removal of the noise embedded in the training samples. Structural damage alters the stiffness distribution of the structure and so as to change the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system. The measured modal parameter changes due to a particular damage are treated as patterns for that damage. The proposed GRNNFA model was trained to learn those patterns in order to detect the possible damage location of the structure. Simulated data is employed to verify and illustrate the procedures of the proposed ANN-based damage diagnosis methodology. The results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of applying the GRNNFA model to structural damage diagnosis even when the training samples were noise contaminated.

  14. Passive Impact Damage Detection of Fiber Glass Composite Panels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-19

    PASSIVE IMPACT DAMAGE DETECTION OF FIBER GLASS COMPOSITE PANELS. By BRUNO ZAMORANO-SENDEROS A dissertation...COVERED 04-11-2012 to 10-12-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PASSIVE IMPACT DAMAGE DETECTION OF FIBER GLASS COMPOSITE PANELS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...process. .................................... 31 Figure 3-8 Sensor attached to the fiber glass fabric

  15. Damage detection techniques for concrete applications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    New technological advances in nondestructive testing technology have created the opportunity to better utilize ultrasonic waves to aid in damage detection applications for concrete. This research utilizes an ultrasonic array device for nondestructive...

  16. Eddy Current System and Method for Crack Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An eddy current system and method enables detection of sub-surface damage in a cylindrical object. The invention incorporates a dual frequency, orthogonally wound eddy current probe mounted on a stepper motor-controlled scanning system. The system is designed to inspect for outer surface damage from the interior of the cylindrical object.

  17. Damage Detection Sensor System for Aerospace and Multiple Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy L.; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    NASA has identified structural health monitoring and damage detection and verification as critical needs in multiple technology roadmaps. The sensor systems can be customized for detecting location, damage size, and depth, with velocity options and can be designed for particular environments for monitoring of impact or physical damage to a structure. The damage detection system has been successfully demonstrated in a harsh environment and remote integration tested over 1000 miles apart. Multiple applications includes: Spacecraft and Aircraft; Inflatable, Deployable and Expandable Structures; Space Debris Monitoring; Space Habitats; Military Shelters; Solar Arrays, Smart Garments and Wearables, Extravehicular activity (EVA) suits; Critical Hardware Enclosures; Embedded Composite Structures; and Flexible Hybrid Printed Electronics and Systems. For better implementation and infusion into more flexible architectures, important and improved designs in advancing embedded software and GUI interface, and increasing flexibility, modularity, and configurable capabilities of the system are currently being carried out.

  18. Structural damage detection based on stochastic subspace identification and statistical pattern recognition: II. Experimental validation under varying temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. Q.; Ren, W. X.; Fang, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    Although most vibration-based damage detection methods can acquire satisfactory verification on analytical or numerical structures, most of them may encounter problems when applied to real-world structures under varying environments. The damage detection methods that directly extract damage features from the periodically sampled dynamic time history response measurements are desirable but relevant research and field application verification are still lacking. In this second part of a two-part paper, the robustness and performance of the statistics-based damage index using the forward innovation model by stochastic subspace identification of a vibrating structure proposed in the first part have been investigated against two prestressed reinforced concrete (RC) beams tested in the laboratory and a full-scale RC arch bridge tested in the field under varying environments. Experimental verification is focused on temperature effects. It is demonstrated that the proposed statistics-based damage index is insensitive to temperature variations but sensitive to the structural deterioration or state alteration. This makes it possible to detect the structural damage for the real-scale structures experiencing ambient excitations and varying environmental conditions.

  19. Experimental damage detection of wind turbine blade using thin film sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo; Sarkar, Partha

    2017-04-01

    Damage detection of wind turbine blades is difficult due to their large sizes and complex geometries. Additionally, economic restraints limit the viability of high-cost monitoring methods. While it is possible to monitor certain global signatures through modal analysis, obtaining useful measurements over a blade's surface using off-the-shelf sensing technologies is difficult and typically not economical. A solution is to deploy dedicated sensor networks fabricated from inexpensive materials and electronics. The authors have recently developed a novel large-area electronic sensor measuring strain over very large surfaces. The sensing system is analogous to a biological skin, where local strain can be monitored over a global area. In this paper, we propose the utilization of a hybrid dense sensor network of soft elastomeric capacitors to detect, localize, and quantify damage, and resistive strain gauges to augment such dense sensor network with high accuracy data at key locations. The proposed hybrid dense sensor network is installed inside a wind turbine blade model and tested in a wind tunnel to simulate an operational environment. Damage in the form of changing boundary conditions is introduced into the monitored section of the blade. Results demonstrate the ability of the hybrid dense sensor network, and associated algorithms, to detect, localize, and quantify damage.

  20. Application of RMS for damage detection by guided elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzieński, M.; Doliński, Ł.; Krawczuk, M.; dot Zak, A.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents certain results of an experimental study related with a damage detection in structural elements based on deviations in guided elastic wave propagation patterns. In order to excite guided elastic waves within specimens tested piezoelectric transducers have been applied. As excitation signals 5 sine cycles modulated by Hanning window have been used. Propagation of guided elastic waves has been monitored by a scanning Doppler laser vibrometer. The time signals recorded during measurement have been utilised to calculate the values of RMS. It has turned out that the values of RMS differed significantly in damaged areas from the values calculated for the healthy ones. In this way it has become possible to pinpoint precisely the locations of damage over the entire measured surface. All experimental investigations have been carried out for thin aluminium or composite plates. Damage has been simulated by a small additional mass attached on the plate surface or by a narrow notch cut. It has been shown that proposed method allows one to localise damage of various shapes and sizes within structural elements over the whole area under investigation.

  1. Earthquake Building Damage Mapping Based on Feature Analyzing Method from Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, L.; Zhang, J.; Gong, L.

    2018-04-01

    Playing an important role in gathering information of social infrastructure damage, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing is a useful tool for monitoring earthquake disasters. With the wide application of this technique, a standard method, comparing post-seismic to pre-seismic data, become common. However, multi-temporal SAR processes, are not always achievable. To develop a post-seismic data only method for building damage detection, is of great importance. In this paper, the authors are now initiating experimental investigation to establish an object-based feature analysing classification method for building damage recognition.

  2. Detection of damage in welded structure using experimental modal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Husain, N.; Ouyang, H.

    2011-07-01

    A typical automotive structure could contain thousands of spot weld joints that contribute significantly to the vehicle's structural stiffness and dynamic characteristics. However, some of these joints may be imperfect or even absent during the manufacturing process and they are also highly susceptible to damage due to operational and environmental conditions during the vehicle lifetime. Therefore, early detection and estimation of damage are important so necessary actions can be taken to avoid further problems. Changes in physical parameters due to existence of damage in a structure often leads to alteration of vibration modes; thus demonstrating the dependency between the vibration characteristics and the physical properties of structures. A sensitivity-based model updating method, performed using a combination of MATLAB and NASTRAN, has been selected for the purpose of this work. The updating procedure is regarded as parameter identification which aims to bring the numerical prediction to be as closely as possible to the measured natural frequencies and mode shapes data of the damaged structure in order to identify the damage parameters (characterised by the reductions in the Young's modulus of the weld patches to indicate the loss of material/stiffness at the damage region).

  3. Guided wave propagation and spectral element method for debonding damage assessment in RC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Xinqun; Hao, Hong; Ou, Jinping

    2009-07-01

    A concrete-steel interface spectral element is developed to study the guided wave propagation along the steel rebar in the concrete. Scalar damage parameters characterizing changes in the interface (debonding damage) are incorporated into the formulation of the spectral finite element that is used for damage detection of reinforced concrete structures. Experimental tests are carried out on a reinforced concrete beam with embedded piezoelectric elements to verify the performance of the proposed model and algorithm. Parametric studies are performed to evaluate the effect of different damage scenarios on wave propagation in the reinforced concrete structures. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the method is effective to model wave propagation along the steel rebar in concrete and promising to detect damage in the concrete-steel interface.

  4. Damage Detection and Verification System (DDVS) for In-Situ Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Lewis, Mark; Szafran, J.; Shelton, C.; Ludwig, L.; Gibson, T.; Lane, J.; Trautwein, T.

    2015-01-01

    Project presentation for Game Changing Program Smart Book Release. Detection and Verification System (DDVS) expands the Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS) sensory panels damage detection capabilities and includes an autonomous inspection capability utilizing cameras and dynamic computer vision algorithms to verify system health. Objectives of this formulation task are to establish the concept of operations, formulate the system requirements for a potential ISS flight experiment, and develop a preliminary design of an autonomous inspection capability system that will be demonstrated as a proof-of-concept ground based damage detection and inspection system.

  5. Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Kreider, Gary; Fichter, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage of tapered roller bearings. Tapered roller bearings are used in helicopter transmissions and have potential for use in high bypass advanced gas turbine aircraft engines. A diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from failure progression tests conducted using health monitoring hardware. Failure progression tests were performed with tapered roller bearings under simulated engine load conditions. Tests were performed on one healthy bearing and three pre-damaged bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor and three accelerometers were monitored and recorded for the occurrence of bearing failure. The bearing was removed and inspected periodically for damage progression throughout testing. Using data fusion techniques, two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting bearing surface fatigue pitting damage. The data fusion diagnostic tool was evaluated during bearing failure progression tests under simulated engine load conditions. This integrated system showed improved detection of fatigue damage and health assessment of the tapered roller bearings as compared to using individual health monitoring technologies.

  6. Application of immunohistochemical staining to detect antigen destruction as a measure of tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Onul, Abdullah; Colvard, Michael D; Paradise, William A; Elseth, Kim M; Vesper, Benjamin J; Gouvas, Eftychia; Deliu, Zane; Garcia, Kelly D; Pestle, William J; Radosevich, James A

    2012-09-01

    Electrocautery and directed energy devices (DEDs) such as lasers, which are used in surgery, result in tissue damage that cannot be readily detected by traditional histological methods, such as hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alternative staining methods, including 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to stain live tissue, have been reported. Despite providing superior detection of damaged tissue relative to the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method, the MTT method possesses a number of drawbacks, most notably that it must be carried out on live tissue samples. Herein, we report the development of a novel staining method, "antigen destruction immunohistochemistry" (ADI), which can be carried out on paraffin-embedded tissue. The ADI method takes advantage of epitope loss to define the area of tissue damage and provides many of the benefits of live tissue MTT staining without the drawbacks inherent to that method. In addition, the authors provide data to support the use of antibodies directed at a number of gene products for use in animal tissue for which there are no species-specific antibodies commercially available, as well as an example of a species-specific direct antibody. Data are provided that support the use of this method in many tissue models, as well as evidence that ADI is comparable to the live tissue MTT method.

  7. Application of Immunohistochemical Staining to Detect Antigen Destruction as a Measure of Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Onul, Abdullah; Colvard, Michael D.; Paradise, William A.; Elseth, Kim M.; Vesper, Benjamin J.; Gouvas, Eftychia; Deliu, Zane; Garcia, Kelly D.; Pestle, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrocautery and directed energy devices (DEDs) such as lasers, which are used in surgery, result in tissue damage that cannot be readily detected by traditional histological methods, such as hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alternative staining methods, including 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to stain live tissue, have been reported. Despite providing superior detection of damaged tissue relative to the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method, the MTT method possesses a number of drawbacks, most notably that it must be carried out on live tissue samples. Herein, we report the development of a novel staining method, “antigen destruction immunohistochemistry” (ADI), which can be carried out on paraffin-embedded tissue. The ADI method takes advantage of epitope loss to define the area of tissue damage and provides many of the benefits of live tissue MTT staining without the drawbacks inherent to that method. In addition, the authors provide data to support the use of antibodies directed at a number of gene products for use in animal tissue for which there are no species-specific antibodies commercially available, as well as an example of a species-specific direct antibody. Data are provided that support the use of this method in many tissue models, as well as evidence that ADI is comparable to the live tissue MTT method. PMID:22723525

  8. Acoustic Emission Beamforming for Detection and Localization of Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivey, Joshua Callen

    The aerospace industry is a constantly evolving field with corporate manufacturers continually utilizing innovative processes and materials. These materials include advanced metallics and composite systems. The exploration and implementation of new materials and structures has prompted the development of numerous structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation techniques for quality assurance purposes and pre- and in-service damage detection. Exploitation of acoustic emission sensors coupled with a beamforming technique provides the potential for creating an effective non-contact and non-invasive monitoring capability for assessing structural integrity. This investigation used an acoustic emission detection device that employs helical arrays of MEMS-based microphones around a high-definition optical camera to provide real-time non-contact monitoring of inspection specimens during testing. The study assessed the feasibility of the sound camera for use in structural health monitoring of composite specimens during tensile testing for detecting onset of damage in addition to nondestructive evaluation of aluminum inspection plates for visualizing stress wave propagation in structures. During composite material monitoring, the sound camera was able to accurately identify the onset and location of damage resulting from large amplitude acoustic feedback mechanisms such as fiber breakage. Damage resulting from smaller acoustic feedback events such as matrix failure was detected but not localized to the degree of accuracy of larger feedback events. Findings suggest that beamforming technology can provide effective non-contact and non-invasive inspection of composite materials, characterizing the onset and the location of damage in an efficient manner. With regards to the nondestructive evaluation of metallic plates, this remote sensing system allows us to record wave propagation events in situ via a single-shot measurement. This is a significant improvement over

  9. Method for detecting moment connection fracture using high-frequency transients in recorded accelerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, J.E.; Elebi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The 1994 Northridge earthquake caused brittle fractures in steel moment frame building connections, despite causing little visible building damage in most cases. Future strong earthquakes are likely to cause similar damage to the many un-retrofitted pre-Northridge buildings in the western US and elsewhere. Without obvious permanent building deformation, costly intrusive inspections are currently the only way to determine if major fracture damage that compromises building safety has occurred. Building instrumentation has the potential to provide engineers and owners with timely information on fracture occurrence. Structural dynamics theory predicts and scale model experiments have demonstrated that sudden, large changes in structure properties caused by moment connection fractures will cause transient dynamic response. A method is proposed for detecting the building-wide level of connection fracture damage, based on observing high-frequency, fracture-induced transient dynamic responses in strong motion accelerograms. High-frequency transients are short (<1 s), sudden-onset waveforms with frequency content above 25 Hz that are visually apparent in recorded accelerations. Strong motion data and damage information from intrusive inspections collected from 24 sparsely instrumented buildings following the 1994 Northridge earthquake are used to evaluate the proposed method. The method's overall success rate for this data set is 67%, but this rate varies significantly with damage level. The method performs reasonably well in detecting significant fracture damage and in identifying cases with no damage, but fails in cases with few fractures. Combining the method with other damage indicators and removing records with excessive noise improves the ability to detect the level of damage. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  11. Damage Detection of a Concrete Column Subject to Blast Loads Using Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Deng, Qingshan; Cai, Lujun; Ho, Siuchun; Song, Gangbing

    2018-04-28

    Some of the most severe structural loadings come in the form of blast loads, which may be caused by severe accidents or even terrorist activities. Most commonly after exposure to explosive forces, a structure will suffer from different degrees of damage, and even progress towards a state of collapse. Therefore, damage detection of a structure subject to explosive loads is of importance. This paper proposes a new approach to damage detection of a concrete column structure subjected to blast loads using embedded piezoceramic smart aggregates (SAs). Since the sensors are embedded in the structure, the proposed active-sensing based approach is more sensitive to internal or through cracks than surface damage. In the active sensing approach, the embedded SAs act as actuators and sensors, that can respectively generate and detect stress waves. If the stress wave propagates across a crack, the energy of the wave attenuates, and the reduction of the energy compared to the healthy baseline is indicative of a damage. With a damage index matrix constructed by signals obtained from an array of SAs, cracks caused by blast loads can be detected throughout the structure. Conventional sensing methods such as the measurement of dynamic strain and acceleration were included in the experiment. Since columns are critical elements needed to prevent structural collapse, knowledge of their integrity and damage conditions is essential for safety after exposure to blast loads. In this research, a concrete column with embedded SAs was chosen as the specimen, and a series of explosive tests were conducted on the column. Experimental results reveal that surface damages, though appear severe, cause minor changes in the damage index, and through cracks result in significant increase of the damage index, demonstrating the effectiveness of the active sensing, enabled by embedded SAs, in damage monitoring of the column under blast loads, and thus providing a reliable indication of structural

  12. Damage Detection of a Concrete Column Subject to Blast Loads Using Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qingshan; Cai, Lujun; Ho, Siuchun; Song, Gangbing

    2018-01-01

    Some of the most severe structural loadings come in the form of blast loads, which may be caused by severe accidents or even terrorist activities. Most commonly after exposure to explosive forces, a structure will suffer from different degrees of damage, and even progress towards a state of collapse. Therefore, damage detection of a structure subject to explosive loads is of importance. This paper proposes a new approach to damage detection of a concrete column structure subjected to blast loads using embedded piezoceramic smart aggregates (SAs). Since the sensors are embedded in the structure, the proposed active-sensing based approach is more sensitive to internal or through cracks than surface damage. In the active sensing approach, the embedded SAs act as actuators and sensors, that can respectively generate and detect stress waves. If the stress wave propagates across a crack, the energy of the wave attenuates, and the reduction of the energy compared to the healthy baseline is indicative of a damage. With a damage index matrix constructed by signals obtained from an array of SAs, cracks caused by blast loads can be detected throughout the structure. Conventional sensing methods such as the measurement of dynamic strain and acceleration were included in the experiment. Since columns are critical elements needed to prevent structural collapse, knowledge of their integrity and damage conditions is essential for safety after exposure to blast loads. In this research, a concrete column with embedded SAs was chosen as the specimen, and a series of explosive tests were conducted on the column. Experimental results reveal that surface damages, though appear severe, cause minor changes in the damage index, and through cracks result in significant increase of the damage index, demonstrating the effectiveness of the active sensing, enabled by embedded SAs, in damage monitoring of the column under blast loads, and thus providing a reliable indication of structural

  13. Current Status of Hybrid Bearing Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    Advances in material development and processing have led to the introduction of ceramic hybrid bearings for many applications. The introduction of silicon nitride hybrid bearings into the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, on the space shuttle main engine, led NASA to solve a highly persistent and troublesome bearing problem. Hybrid bearings consist of ceramic balls and steel races. The majority of hybrid bearings utilize Si3N4 balls. The aerospace industry is currently studying the use of hybrid bearings and naturally the failure modes of these bearings become an issue in light of the limited data available. In today s turbine engines and helicopter transmissions, the health of the bearings is detected by the properties of the debris found in the lubrication line when damage begins to occur. Current oil debris sensor technology relies on the magnetic properties of the debris to detect damage. Since the ceramic rolling elements of hybrid bearings have no metallic properties, a new sensing system must be developed to indicate the system health if ceramic components are to be safely implemented in aerospace applications. The ceramic oil debris sensor must be capable of detecting ceramic and metallic component damage with sufficient reliability and forewarning to prevent a catastrophic failure. The objective of this research is to provide a background summary on what is currently known about hybrid bearing failure modes and to report preliminary results on the detection of silicon nitride debris, in oil, using a commercial particle counter.

  14. An automatic damage detection algorithm based on the Short Time Impulse Response Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, Gianluca; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Iacovino, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring together with all the dynamic identification techniques and damage detection techniques are increasing in popularity in both scientific and civil community in last years. The basic idea arises from the observation that spectral properties, described in terms of the so-called modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping), are functions of the physical properties of the structure (mass, energy dissipation mechanisms and stiffness). Damage detection techniques traditionally consist in visual inspection and/or non-destructive testing. A different approach consists in vibration based methods detecting changes of feature related to damage. Structural damage exhibits its main effects in terms of stiffness and damping variation. Damage detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature. We focused the attention on the structural damage localization and detection after an earthquake, from the evaluation of the mode curvature difference. The methodology is based on the acquisition of the structural dynamic response through a three-directional accelerometer installed on the top floor of the structure. It is able to assess the presence of any damage on the structure providing also information about the related position and severity of the damage. The procedure is based on a Band-Variable Filter, (Ditommaso et al., 2012), used to extract the dynamic characteristics of systems that evolve over time by acting simultaneously in both time and frequency domain. In this paper using a combined approach based on the Fourier Transform and on the seismic interferometric analysis, an useful tool for the automatic fundamental frequency evaluation of nonlinear structures has been proposed. Moreover, using this kind of approach it is possible to improve some of the existing methods for the automatic damage detection providing stable results

  15. The modal surface interpolation method for damage localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina Limongelli, Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Interpolation Method (IM) has been previously proposed and successfully applied for damage localization in plate like structures. The method is based on the detection of localized reductions of smoothness in the Operational Deformed Shapes (ODSs) of the structure. The IM can be applied to any type of structure provided the ODSs are estimated accurately in the original and in the damaged configurations. If the latter circumstance fails to occur, for example when the structure is subjected to an unknown input(s) or if the structural responses are strongly corrupted by noise, both false and missing alarms occur when the IM is applied to localize a concentrated damage. In order to overcome these drawbacks a modification of the method is herein investigated. An ODS is the deformed shape of a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation: at resonances the ODS are dominated by the relevant mode shapes. The effect of noise at resonance is usually lower with respect to other frequency values hence the relevant ODS are estimated with higher reliability. Several methods have been proposed to reliably estimate modal shapes in case of unknown input. These two circumstances can be exploited to improve the reliability of the IM. In order to reduce or eliminate the drawbacks related to the estimation of the ODSs in case of noisy signals, in this paper is investigated a modified version of the method based on a damage feature calculated considering the interpolation error relevant only to the modal shapes and not to all the operational shapes in the significant frequency range. Herein will be reported the comparison between the results of the IM in its actual version (with the interpolation error calculated summing up the contributions of all the operational shapes) and in the new proposed version (with the estimation of the interpolation error limited to the modal shapes).

  16. An embedded fibre optic sensor for impact damage detection in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glossop, Neil David William

    1989-09-01

    A structurally embedded fiber optic damage detection sensor for composite materials is described. The system is designed specifically for the detection of barely visible damage resulting from low velocity impacts in Kevlar-epoxy laminates. By monitoring the light transmission properties of optical fiber embedded in the composite, it was shown that the integrity of the material can be accurately determined. The effect of several parameters on the sensitivity of the system was investigated, including the effect of the optical fiber orientation and depth of embedding within the composite. A novel surface was also developed for the optical fibers to ensure they will fracture at the requisite damage level. The influence of the optical fiber sensors on the tensile and compressive material properties and on the impact resistance of the laminate was also studied. Extensive experimental results from impact tests are reported and a numerical model of the impact event is presented which is able to predict and model the damage mechanism and sensor system. A new and powerful method of nondestructive evaluation for translucent composite materials based on image enhanced backlighting is also described.

  17. Novel SHM method to locate damages in substructures based on VARX models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, U.; Anduaga, J.; Martínez, F.; Iturrospe, A.

    2015-07-01

    A novel damage localization method is proposed, which is based on a substructuring approach and makes use of Vector Auto-Regressive with eXogenous input (VARX) models. The substructuring approach aims to divide the monitored structure into several multi-DOF isolated substructures. Later, each individual substructure is modelled as a VARX model, and the health of each substructure is determined analyzing the variation of the VARX model. The method allows to detect whether the isolated substructure is damaged, and besides allows to locate and quantify the damage within the substructure. It is not necessary to have a theoretical model of the structure and only the measured displacement data is required to estimate the isolated substructure's VARX model. The proposed method is validated by simulations of a two-dimensional lattice structure.

  18. Seismic response and damage detection analyses of an instrumented steel moment-framed building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, J.E.; Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The seismic performance of steel moment-framed buildings has been of particular interest since brittle fractures were discovered at the beam-column connections in a number of buildings following the M 6.7 Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. A case study of the seismic behavior of an extensively instrumented 13-story steel moment frame building located in the greater Los Angeles area of California is described herein. Response studies using frequency domain, joint time-frequency, system identification, and simple damage detection analyses are performed using an extensive strong motion dataset dating from 1971 to the present, supported by engineering drawings and results of postearthquake inspections. These studies show that the building's response is more complex than would be expected from its highly symmetrical geometry. The response is characterized by low damping in the fundamental mode, larger accelerations in the middle and lower stories than at the roof and base, extended periods of vibration after the cessation of strong input shaking, beating in the response, elliptical particle motion, and significant torsion during strong shaking at the top of the concrete piers which extend from the basement to the second floor. The analyses conducted indicate that the response of the structure was elastic in all recorded earthquakes to date, including Northridge. Also, several simple damage detection methods employed did not indicate any structural damage or connection fractures. The combination of a large, real structure and low instrumentation density precluded the application of many recently proposed advanced damage detection methods in this case study. Overall, however, the findings of this study are consistent with the limited code-compliant postearthquake intrusive inspections conducted after the Northridge earthquake, which found no connection fractures or other structural damage. ?? ASCE.

  19. Material damage modeling and detection in a thin metallic sheet and sandwich panel using passive acoustic transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao

    A method is developed for modeling, detecting, and locating material damage in homogeneous thin metallic sheets and sandwich panels. Analytical and numerical models are used along with non-contact, passive acoustic transmission measurements. It is shown that global and local damage mechanisms characterized by both material and geometrical changes in structural components can be detected using passive acoustic transmission measurements. Theoretical models of a flat sheet and sandwich panel are developed to describe the effects of global material damage due to density, modulus, or thickness changes on backplane radiated sound pressure level distributions. To describe the effects of local material damage, a three-segment stepped beam model and finite element beam, plate, and sandwich panel models are developed and analyzed using the acoustic transmission approach. It is shown that increases or decreases in transmitted sound energy occur behind a damaged material component that exhibits changes in thickness or other geometric or material properties. The damage due to thickness and density changes can be detected from the acoustic transmission, but modulus changes cannot. If the damage is located at an anti-node of a certain forced vibration pattern, the damage can be more readily observed in the data. Higher excitation frequencies within the operating spectrum are preferred to lower frequencies for damage detection. With the finite element beam, plate, and sandwich panel models, local damage detection has been performed in simulations. Experiments on a baffled homogeneous sheet and sandwich panel subjected to broadband acoustic energy show that transmitted intensity measurements with non-contact probes can be used to identify and locate material defects in the sheet and sandwich panel. Material damage is most readily identified where the changes in transmitted sound intensity are largest in the resonant frequency range of the panel. The three main contributions of this

  20. Detection of damaged DNA bases by DNA glycosylase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Joshua I; Stivers, James T

    2010-06-22

    A fundamental and shared process in all forms of life is the use of DNA glycosylase enzymes to excise rare damaged bases from genomic DNA. Without such enzymes, the highly ordered primary sequences of genes would rapidly deteriorate. Recent structural and biophysical studies are beginning to reveal a fascinating multistep mechanism for damaged base detection that begins with short-range sliding of the glycosylase along the DNA chain in a distinct conformation we call the search complex (SC). Sliding is frequently punctuated by the formation of a transient "interrogation" complex (IC) where the enzyme extrahelically inspects both normal and damaged bases in an exosite pocket that is distant from the active site. When normal bases are presented in the exosite, the IC rapidly collapses back to the SC, while a damaged base will efficiently partition forward into the active site to form the catalytically competent excision complex (EC). Here we review the unique problems associated with enzymatic detection of rare damaged DNA bases in the genome and emphasize how each complex must have specific dynamic properties that are tuned to optimize the rate and efficiency of damage site location.

  1. Detection of Damaged DNA Bases by DNA Glycosylase Enzymes†

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Joshua I.; Stivers, James T.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental and shared process in all forms of life is the use of DNA glycosylase enzymes to excise rare damaged bases from genomic DNA. Without such enzymes, the highly-ordered primary sequences of genes would rapidly deteriorate. Recent structural and biophysical studies are beginning to reveal a fascinating multistep mechanism for damaged base detection that begins with short-range sliding of the glycosylase along the DNA chain in a distinct conformation we refer to as the search complex (SC). Sliding is frequently punctuated by the formation of a transient “interrogation” complex (IC) where the enzyme extrahelically inspects both normal and damaged bases in an exosite pocket that is distant from the active site. When normal bases are presented in the exosite, the IC rapidly collapses back to the SC, while a damaged base will efficiently partition forward into the active site to form the catalytically competent excision complex (EC). Here we review the unique problems associated with enzymatic detection of rare damaged DNA bases in the genome, and emphasize how each complex must have specific dynamic properties that are tuned to optimize the rate and efficiency of damage site location. PMID:20469926

  2. Experimental validation of a damage detection approach on a full-scale highway sign support truss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guirong; Dyke, Shirley J.; Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    2012-04-01

    Highway sign support structures enhance traffic safety by allowing messages to be delivered to motorists related to directions and warning of hazards ahead, and facilitating the monitoring of traffic speed and flow. These structures are exposed to adverse environmental conditions while in service. Strong wind and vibration accelerate their deterioration. Typical damage to this type of structure includes local fatigue fractures and partial loosening of bolted connections. The occurrence of these types of damage can lead to a failure in large portions of the structure, jeopardizing the safety of passing traffic. Therefore, it is important to have effective damage detection approaches to ensure the integrity of these structures. In this study, an extension of the Angle-between-String-and-Horizon (ASH) flexibility-based approach [32] is applied to locate damage in sign support truss structures at bay level. Ambient excitations (e.g. wind) can be considered as a significant source of vibration in these structures. Considering that ambient excitation is immeasurable, a pseudo ASH flexibility matrix constructed from output-only derived operational deflection shapes is proposed. A damage detection method based on the use of pseudo flexibility matrices is proposed to address several of the challenges posed in real-world applications. Tests are conducted on a 17.5-m long full-scale sign support truss structure to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Damage cases associated with loosened bolts and weld failures are considered. These cases are realistic for this type of structure. The results successfully demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method to locate the two common forms of damage on sign support truss structures instrumented with a few accelerometers.

  3. Damage Detection Sensitivity of a Vehicle-based Bridge Health Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito; Lúcio, Válter J. G.

    2017-05-01

    As one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span (10-30m) reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (called “Bus monitoring system”) was proposed, along with safety indices, namely, “characteristic deflection”, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. In this study, to evaluate the practicality of the newly developed bus monitoring system, it has been field-tested over a period of about four years by using an in-service fixed-route bus operating on a bus route in the city of Ube, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. In here, although there are some useful monitoring methods for short and medium span bridges based on the qualitative or quantitative information, the sensitivity of damage detection was newly discussed for safety assessment based on long term health monitoring data. The verification results thus obtained are also described in this paper, and also evaluates the sensitivity of the “characteristic deflection”, which is a bridge (health) condition indicator used by the bus monitoring system, in damage detection. Sensitivity of “characteristic deflection” is verified by introducing artificial damage into a bridge that has ended its service life and is awaiting removal. Furthermore, the sensitivity of “characteristic deflection” is verified by 3D FEM analysis.

  4. In situ damage detection in frame structures through coupled response measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Gurgenci, H.; Veidt, M.

    2004-05-01

    Due to the existence of global modes and local modes of the neighbouring members, damage detection on a structure is more challenging than damage on isolated beams. Detection of an artificial circumferential crack on a joint in a frame-like welded structure is studied in this paper using coupled response measurements. Similarity to real engineering structures is maintained in the fabrication of the test frame. Both the chords and the branch members have hollow sections and the branch members have smaller sizes. The crack is created by a hacksaw on a joint where a branch meets the chord. The methodology is first demonstrated on a single hollow section beam. The test results are then presented for the damaged and undamaged frame. The existence of the damage is clearly observable from the experimental results. It is suggested that this approach offers the potential to detect damage in welded structures such as cranes, mining equipment, steel-frame bridges, naval and offshore structures.

  5. Application of a Subspace-Based Fault Detection Method to Industrial Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mevel, L.; Hermans, L.; van der Auweraer, H.

    1999-11-01

    Early detection and localization of damage allow increased expectations of reliability, safety and reduction of the maintenance cost. This paper deals with the industrial validation of a technique to monitor the health of a structure in operating conditions (e.g. rotating machinery, civil constructions subject to ambient excitations, etc.) and to detect slight deviations in a modal model derived from in-operation measured data. In this paper, a statistical local approach based on covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification is proposed. The capabilities and limitations of the method with respect to health monitoring and damage detection are discussed and it is explained how the method can be practically used in industrial environments. After the successful validation of the proposed method on a few laboratory structures, its application to a sports car is discussed. The example illustrates that the method allows the early detection of a vibration-induced fatigue problem of a sports car.

  6. Open Circuit Resonant Sensors for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, John J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Under the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) program work was begun to investigate the feasibility of sensor systems for detecting and diagnosing damage to aircraft composite structures and materials. Specific interest for this study was in damage initiated by environmental storm hazards and the direct effect of lightning strikes on the material structures of a composite aircraft in flight. A series of open circuit resonant sensors was designed, fabricated, characterized, and determined to be a potentially viable means for damage detection and diagnosis of composite materials. The results of this research and development effort are documented in this report.

  7. Spiral-Bevel-Gear Damage Detected Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Helicopter transmission integrity is critical to helicopter safety because helicopters depend on the power train for propulsion, lift, and flight maneuvering. To detect impending transmission failures, the ideal diagnostic tools used in the health-monitoring system would provide real-time health monitoring of the transmission, demonstrate a high level of reliable detection to minimize false alarms, and provide end users with clear information on the health of the system without requiring them to interpret large amounts of sensor data. A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spiral bevel gears was developed. (Spiral bevel gears are used in helicopter transmissions to transfer power between nonparallel intersecting shafts.) Data fusion was used to integrate two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, into a health-monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on the gears.

  8. Methylmercury chloride damage to the adult rat hippocampus cannot be detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyan; Wu, Jinwei; Cheng, Guangyuan; Tian, Jianying; Lu, Zeqing; Bi, Yongyi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that methylmercury can damage hippocampal neurons and accordingly cause cognitive dysfunction. However, a non-invasive, safe and accurate detection method for detecting hippocampal injury has yet to be developed. This study aimed to detect methylmercury-induced damage on hippocampal tissue using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats were given a subcutaneous injection of 4 and 2 mg/kg methylmercury into the neck for 50 consecutive days. Water maze and pathology tests confirmed that cognitive function had been impaired and that the ultrastructure of hippocampal tissue was altered after injection. The results of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the nitrogen-acetyl aspartate/creatine, choline complex/creatine and myoinositol/creatine ratio in rat hippocampal tissue were unchanged. Therefore, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can not be used to determine structural damage in the adult rat hippocampus caused by methylmercury chloride. PMID:25368649

  9. Damage detection on sudden stiffness reduction based on discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wang, Gan-jun; Xie, Wei-ping

    2014-01-01

    The sudden stiffness reduction in a structure may cause the signal discontinuity in the acceleration responses close to the damage location at the damage time instant. To this end, the damage detection on sudden stiffness reduction of building structures has been actively investigated in this study. The signal discontinuity of the structural acceleration responses of an example building is extracted based on the discrete wavelet transform. It is proved that the variation of the first level detail coefficients of the wavelet transform at damage instant is linearly proportional to the magnitude of the stiffness reduction. A new damage index is proposed and implemented to detect the damage time instant, location, and severity of a structure due to a sudden change of structural stiffness. Numerical simulation using a five-story shear building under different types of excitation is carried out to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed damage index for the building at different damage levels. The sensitivity of the damage index to the intensity and frequency range of measurement noise is also investigated. The made observations demonstrate that the proposed damage index can accurately identify the sudden damage events if the noise intensity is limited.

  10. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  11. Damage detection of civil infrastructures with piezoelectric oscillator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y. R.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, S. H.; Yun, C. B.

    2006-03-01

    Many researches have been reported on the condition monitoring of civil infrastructures by means of piezoelectric sensors. Most of them made use of the impedance change of the piezoelectric device in relation to the creation of internal damages to the structure. The impedance measurement is a well accepted method in the piezoelectric sensor area, and has been proved by many authors to be useful for civil structure diagnosis. However, the impedance measurement normally requires sophisticated equipment and analysis technology. For more general and wide application of the piezoelectric diagnosis tool, a new methodology is desired to overcome the limitations of the impedance measurement. This paper presents the feasibility of a piezoelectric oscillator sensor to detect the damages in civil infrastructures. The oscillator sensor is composed of an electronic feedback oscillator circuit and a piezoelectric thickness mode vibrator to be attached to the structure of interest. Damage to the structure causes a change in the impedance spectrum of the structure, which results in a corresponding change of the resonant frequency of the structure. The oscillator sensors can instantly detect the frequency change in a very simple manner. Feasibility of the piezoelectric oscillator sensor was verified in this work with a sample aluminum plate where artificial cracks of different depth were imposed in sequence. Validity of the measurement was confirmed through comparison of the experimental data with the results of finite element analyses of the plate with cracks. Performance of the oscillator sensor was also compared with that of its conventional counterpart, i.e. impedance measurement, to manifest the superiority of the oscillator sensor.

  12. Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Gear Damage Detection Technologies Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spur gears was developed. Two different measurement technologies, wear debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual measurement technologies. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Experimental data were collected during experiments performed in this test rig with and without pitting. Results show combining the two measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spur gears.

  13. An effective means for damage detection of bridges using the contact-point response of a moving test vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Qian, Yao; Wu, Yuntian; Yang, Y. B.

    2018-04-01

    To further the technique of indirect measurement, the contact-point response of a moving test vehicle is adopted for the damage detection of bridges. First, the contact-point response of the vehicle moving over the bridge is derived both analytically and in central difference form (for field use). Then, the instantaneous amplitude squared (IAS) of the driving component of the contact-point response is calculated by the Hilbert transform, making use of its narrow-band feature. The IAS peaks serve as the key parameter for damage detection. In the numerical simulation, a damage (crack) is modeled by a hinge-spring unit. The feasibility of the proposed method to detect the location and severity of a damage or multi damages of the bridge is verified. Also, the effects of surface roughness, vehicle speed, measurement noise and random traffic are studied. In the presence of ongoing traffic, the damages of the bridge are identified from the repeated or invariant IAS peaks generated for different traffic flows by the same test vehicle over the bridge.

  14. Damage of composite structures: Detection technique, dynamic response and residual strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Wahyu

    2001-10-01

    Reliable and accurate health monitoring techniques can prevent catastrophic failures of structures. Conventional damage detection methods are based on visual or localized experimental methods and very often require prior information concerning the vicinity of the damage or defect. The structure must also be readily accessible for inspections. The techniques are also labor intensive. In comparison to these methods, health-monitoring techniques that are based on the structural dynamic response offers unique information on failure of structures. However, systematic relations between the experimental data and the defect are not available and frequently, the number of vibration modes needed for an accurate identification of defects is much higher than the number of modes that can be readily identified in the experiment. These motivated us to develop an experimental data based detection method with systematic relationships between the experimentally identified information and the analytical or mathematical model representing the defective structures. The developed technique use changes in vibrational curvature modes and natural frequencies. To avoid misinterpretation of the identified information, we also need to understand the effects of defects on the structural dynamic response prior to developing health-monitoring techniques. In this thesis work we focus on two type of defects in composite structures, namely delamination and edge notch like defect. Effects of nonlinearity due to the presence of defect and due to the axial stretching are studied for beams with delamination. Once defects are detected in a structure, next concern is determining the effects of the defects on the strength of the structure and its residual stiffness under dynamic loading. In this thesis, energy release rate due to dynamic loading in a delaminated structure is studied, which will be a foundation toward determining the residual strength of the structure.

  15. Detecting Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90 deg fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  16. A study on MFL based wire rope damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kim, J.-W.; Kim, J.; Park, S.

    2017-04-01

    Non-destructive testing on wire rope is in great demand to prevent safety accidents at sites where many heavy equipment using ropes are installed. In this paper, a research on quantification of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signals were carried out to detect damages on wire rope. First, a simulation study was performed with a steel rod model using a finite element analysis (FEA) program. The leakage signals from the simulation study were obtained and it was compared for parameter: depth of defect. Then, an experiment on same conditions was conducted to verify the results of the simulation. Throughout the results, the MFL signal was quantified and a wire rope damage detection was then confirmed to be feasible. In further study, it is expected that the damage characterization of an entire specimen will be visualized as well.

  17. Detection Of Tornado Damage Tracks With EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2005-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (path length and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explored the possibility of using near real-time medium and high-resolution satellite imagery from the NASA EOS satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. MODIS and ASTER data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms; the La Plata, Maryland storm of 28 April 2002 and the Carter-Butler Counties and Madison County Missouri storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity (from F0-F4) and occurred over regions with different land use. It was found that, depending on the nature of land use, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F2 or greater) may be evident in both ASTER and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas of dense vegetation the scar patterns show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not at all obvious in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2004 Madison County, Missouri tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land use as on the severity of the tornadic storm. The imaging sensors on the NPOESS operational satellites to be launched in 2006 will continue the unique observing capabilities of the EOS instruments.

  18. Gear Damage Detection Using Oil Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to verify, when using an oil debris sensor, that accumulated mass predicts gear pitting damage and to identify a method to set threshold limits for damaged gears. Oil debris data was collected from 8 experiments with no damage and 8 with pitting damage in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. Oil debris feature analysis was performed on this data. Video images of damage progression were also collected from 6 of the experiments with pitting damage. During each test, data from an oil debris sensor was monitored and recorded for the occurrence of pitting damage. The data measured from the oil debris sensor during experiments with damage and with no damage was used to identify membership functions to build a simple fuzzy logic model. Using fuzzy logic techniques and the oil debris data, threshold limits were defined that discriminate between stages of pitting wear. Results indicate accumulated mass combined with fuzzy logic analysis techniques is a good predictor of pitting damage on spur gears.

  19. Bridge damage detection using spatiotemporal patterns extracted from dense sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Gong, Yongqiang; Laflamme, Simon; Phares, Brent; Sarkar, Soumik

    2017-01-01

    The alarmingly degrading state of transportation infrastructures combined with their key societal and economic importance calls for automatic condition assessment methods to facilitate smart management of maintenance and repairs. With the advent of ubiquitous sensing and communication capabilities, scalable data-driven approaches is of great interest, as it can utilize large volume of streaming data without requiring detailed physical models that can be inaccurate and computationally expensive to run. Properly designed, a data-driven methodology could enable fast and automatic evaluation of infrastructures, discovery of causal dependencies among various sub-system dynamic responses, and decision making with uncertainties and lack of labeled data. In this work, a spatiotemporal pattern network (STPN) strategy built on symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF) is proposed to explore spatiotemporal behaviors in a bridge network. Data from strain gauges installed on two bridges are generated using finite element simulation for three types of sensor networks from a density perspective (dense, nominal, sparse). Causal relationships among spatially distributed strain data streams are extracted and analyzed for vehicle identification and detection, and for localization of structural degradation in bridges. Multiple case studies show significant capabilities of the proposed approach in: (i) capturing spatiotemporal features to discover causality between bridges (geographically close), (ii) robustness to noise in data for feature extraction, (iii) detecting and localizing damage via comparison of bridge responses to similar vehicle loads, and (iv) implementing real-time health monitoring and decision making work flow for bridge networks. Also, the results demonstrate increased sensitivity in detecting damages and higher reliability in quantifying the damage level with increase in sensor network density.

  20. Cepstrum based feature extraction method for fungus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorulmaz, Onur; Pearson, Tom C.; Çetin, A. Enis

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for detection of popcorn kernels infected by a fungus is developed using image processing. The method is based on two dimensional (2D) mel and Mellin-cepstrum computation from popcorn kernel images. Cepstral features that were extracted from popcorn images are classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Experimental results show that high recognition rates of up to 93.93% can be achieved for both damaged and healthy popcorn kernels using 2D mel-cepstrum. The success rate for healthy popcorn kernels was found to be 97.41% and the recognition rate for damaged kernels was found to be 89.43%.

  1. Overcoming complexities: Damage detection using dictionary learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguri, K. Supreet; Melville, Joseph; Deemer, Chris; Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    For in situ damage detection, guided wave structural health monitoring systems have been widely researched due to their ability to evaluate large areas and their ability detect many types of damage. These systems often evaluate structural health by recording initial baseline measurements from a pristine (i.e., undamaged) test structure and then comparing later measurements with that baseline. Yet, it is not always feasible to have a pristine baseline. As an alternative, substituting the baseline with data from a surrogate (nearly identical and pristine) structure is a logical option. While effective in some circumstance, surrogate data is often still a poor substitute for pristine baseline measurements due to minor differences between the structures. To overcome this challenge, we present a dictionary learning framework to adapt surrogate baseline data to better represent an undamaged test structure. We compare the performance of our framework with two other surrogate-based damage detection strategies: (1) using raw surrogate data for comparison and (2) using sparse wavenumber analysis, a precursor to our framework for improving the surrogate data. We apply our framework to guided wave data from two 108 mm by 108 mm aluminum plates. With 20 measurements, we show that our dictionary learning framework achieves a 98% accuracy, raw surrogate data achieves a 92% accuracy, and sparse wavenumber analysis achieves a 57% accuracy.

  2. Evaluation of nonlinear impact resonance spectroscopy method for detecting delayed ettringite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M. M. N.; Paul, A.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.; Kurtis, K. E.

    2015-03-01

    The use of the Nonlinear Impact Resonance Acoustic Spectroscopy (NIRAS) method to monitor the evolution of damage due to delayed ettringite formation (DEF) is examined. In practice, the temperature of concrete during casting of precast concrete members or massive concrete structures may reach higher than 70°C which can provide suitable conditions for damage to occur due to DEF, particularly in concrete which is subsequently exposed to wet environments. While expansion - often in excess of 1% - is characteristic of DEF, the evolution of damage begins with microcracking. Unfortunately, there is no standard to test the susceptibility of materials or material combinations to DEF. On the other hand, NIRAS shows great sensitivity to the detection of microcracks and has been successfully applied to concrete to detect thermal and alkali silica reaction in concrete. In this preliminary research, the NIRAS method is used to discriminate among mortar samples which are relatively undamaged and those in the early stages of DEF. The results show that NIRAS could be a reliable and robust method in the detection of microcracks due to DEF.

  3. Image Science and Analysis Group Spacecraft Damage Detection/Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheaton, Ira M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This project consisted of several tasks that could be served by an intern to assist the ISAG in detecting damage to spacecrafts during missions. First, this project focused on supporting the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) damage detection and assessment for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using imagery from the last two HST Shuttle servicing missions. In this project, we used coordinates of two windows on the Shuttle Aft flight deck from where images were taken and the coordinates of three ID points in order to calculate the distance from each window to the three points. Then, using the specifications from the camera used, we calculated the image scale in pixels per inch for planes parallel to and planes in the z-direction to the image plane (shown in Table 1). This will help in the future for calculating measurements of objects in the images. Next, tabulation and statistical analysis were conducted for screening results (shown in Table 2) of imagery with Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) damage. Using the Microsoft Excel CRITBINOM function and Goal Seek, the probabilities of detection of damage to different shuttle tiles were calculated as shown in Table 3. Using developed measuring tools, volume and area measurements will be created from 3D models of Orion TPS damage. Last, mathematical expertise was provided to the Photogrammetry Team. These mathematical tasks consisted of developing elegant image space error equations for observations along 3D lines, circles, planes, etc. and checking proofs for minimal sets of sufficient multi-linear constraints. Some of the processes and resulting equations are displayed in Figure 1.

  4. Artificial Boundary Conditions for Finite Element Model Update and Damage Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATE AND DAMAGE DETECTION by Emmanouil Damanakis March 2017 Thesis Advisor: Joshua H. Gordis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATE AND DAMAGE DETECTION...release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In structural engineering, a finite element model is often

  5. Structural damage detection in wind turbine blades based on time series representations of dynamic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    The development of large wind turbines that enable to harvest energy more efficiently is a consequence of the increasing demand for renewables in the world. To optimize the potential energy output, light and flexible wind turbine blades (WTBs) are designed. However, the higher flexibilities and lower buckling capacities adversely affect the long-term safety and reliability of WTBs, and thus the increased operation and maintenance costs reduce the expected revenue. Effective structural health monitoring techniques can help to counteract this by limiting inspection efforts and avoiding unplanned maintenance actions. Vibration-based methods deserve high attention due to the moderate instrumentation efforts and the applicability for in-service measurements. The present paper proposes the use of cross-correlations (CCs) of acceleration responses between sensors at different locations for structural damage detection in WTBs. CCs were in the past successfully applied for damage detection in numerical and experimental beam structures while utilizing only single lags between the signals. The present approach uses vectors of CC coefficients for multiple lags between measurements of two selected sensors taken from multiple possible combinations of sensors. To reduce the dimensionality of the damage sensitive feature (DSF) vectors, principal component analysis is performed. The optimal number of principal components (PCs) is chosen with respect to a statistical threshold. Finally, the detection phase uses the selected PCs of the healthy structure to calculate scores from a current DSF vector, where statistical hypothesis testing is performed for making a decision about the current structural state. The method is applied to laboratory experiments conducted on a small WTB with non-destructive damage scenarios.

  6. Mechanical Damage Detection of Indonesia Local Citrus Based on Fluorescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, T. H.; Ahmad, U.; Sutrisno; Maddu, A.

    2018-05-01

    Citrus experienced physical damage in peel will produce essential oils that contain polymethoxylated flavone. Polymethoxylated flavone is fluorescence substance; thus can be detected by fluorescence imaging. This study aims to study the fluorescence spectra characteristic and to determine the damage region in citrus peel based on fluorescence image. Pulung citrus from Batu district, East Java, as a famous citrus production area in Indonesia, was used in the experiment. It was observed that the image processing could detect the mechanical damage region. Fluorescence imaging can be used to classify the citrus into two categories, sound and defect citruses.

  7. High-Resolution Methods for Diagnosing Cartilage Damage In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Novakofski, Kira D.; Pownder, Sarah L.; Koff, Matthew F.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Potter, Hollis G.; Fortier, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in current clinical modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, allow for earlier diagnoses of cartilage damage that could mitigate progression to osteoarthritis. However, current imaging modalities do not detect submicrometer damage. Developments in in vivo or arthroscopic techniques, including optical coherence tomography, ultrasonography, bioelectricity including streaming potential measurement, noninvasive electroarthrography, and multiphoton microscopy can detect damage at an earlier time point, but they are limited by a lack of penetration and the ability to assess an entire joint. This article reviews current advancements in clinical and developing modalities that can aid in the early diagnosis of cartilage injury and facilitate studies of interventional therapeutics. PMID:26958316

  8. The Need and Requirements for Validating Damage Detection Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Testing of Airborne Equipment [11], 2) Materials / Structure Certification, 3) NDE (POD) Validation Procedures, 4) Failure Mode Effects and Criticality...Analysis (FMECA), and 5) Cost Benefits Analysis [12]. Existing procedures for environmental testing of airborne equipment ensure flight...e.g. ultrasound or eddy current), damage type or failure conditions to detect, criticality of the damage state (e.g. safety of flight), likelihood of

  9. Detection of Storm Damage Tracks with EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2006-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (pathlength and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explores the possibility of using near-real-time medium and high spatial resolution satellite imagery from the NASA Earth Observing System satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms: the La Plata, Maryland, storm of 28 April 2002 and the Ellsinore and Marquand, Missouri, storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity and occurred over regions with significantly different land cover. It was found that, depending on the nature of the land cover, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F1 or greater) and hail storms may be evident in ASTER, Landsat, and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas where the land cover is dominated by forests, the scar patterns can show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not as obvious or cannot be seen at all in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2002 Marquand, Missouri, tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery depends on the ability to observe the ground without obstruction from space and appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land cover as on the severity of the tornadic storm.

  10. Real-Time Detection of In-flight Aircraft Damage

    DOE PAGES

    Blair, Brenton; Lee, Herbert K. H.; Davies, Misty

    2017-10-02

    When there is damage to an aircraft, it is critical to be able to quickly detect and diagnose the problem so that the pilot can attempt to maintain control of the aircraft and land it safely. We develop methodology for real-time classification of flight trajectories to be able to distinguish between an undamaged aircraft and five different damage scenarios. Principal components analysis allows a lower-dimensional representation of multi-dimensional trajectory information in time. Random Forests provide a computationally efficient approach with sufficient accuracy to be able to detect and classify the different scenarios in real-time. We demonstrate our approach by classifyingmore » realizations of a 45 degree bank angle generated from the Generic Transport Model flight simulator in collaboration with NASA.« less

  11. Real-Time Detection of In-flight Aircraft Damage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blair, Brenton; Lee, Herbert K. H.; Davies, Misty

    When there is damage to an aircraft, it is critical to be able to quickly detect and diagnose the problem so that the pilot can attempt to maintain control of the aircraft and land it safely. We develop methodology for real-time classification of flight trajectories to be able to distinguish between an undamaged aircraft and five different damage scenarios. Principal components analysis allows a lower-dimensional representation of multi-dimensional trajectory information in time. Random Forests provide a computationally efficient approach with sufficient accuracy to be able to detect and classify the different scenarios in real-time. We demonstrate our approach by classifyingmore » realizations of a 45 degree bank angle generated from the Generic Transport Model flight simulator in collaboration with NASA.« less

  12. Towards a More Efficient Detection of Earthquake Induced FAÇADE Damages Using Oblique Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, D.; Nex, F.; Kerle, N.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-08-01

    Urban search and rescue (USaR) teams require a fast and thorough building damage assessment, to focus their rescue efforts accordingly. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are able to capture relevant data in a short time frame and survey otherwise inaccessible areas after a disaster, and have thus been identified as useful when coupled with RGB cameras for façade damage detection. Existing literature focuses on the extraction of 3D and/or image features as cues for damage. However, little attention has been given to the efficiency of the proposed methods which hinders its use in an urban search and rescue context. The framework proposed in this paper aims at a more efficient façade damage detection using UAV multi-view imagery. This was achieved directing all damage classification computations only to the image regions containing the façades, hence discarding the irrelevant areas of the acquired images and consequently reducing the time needed for such task. To accomplish this, a three-step approach is proposed: i) building extraction from the sparse point cloud computed from the nadir images collected in an initial flight; ii) use of the latter as proxy for façade location in the oblique images captured in subsequent flights, and iii) selection of the façade image regions to be fed to a damage classification routine. The results show that the proposed framework successfully reduces the extracted façade image regions to be assessed for damage 6 fold, hence increasing the efficiency of subsequent damage detection routines. The framework was tested on a set of UAV multi-view images over a neighborhood of the city of L'Aquila, Italy, affected in 2009 by an earthquake.

  13. Automatic detection and classification of damage zone(s) for incorporating in digital image correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudipta; Deb, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique developed for monitoring surface deformation/displacement of an object under loading conditions. This method is further refined to make it capable of handling discontinuities on the surface of the sample. A damage zone is referred to a surface area fractured and opened in due course of loading. In this study, an algorithm is presented to automatically detect multiple damage zones in deformed image. The algorithm identifies the pixels located inside these zones and eliminate them from FEM-DIC processes. The proposed algorithm is successfully implemented on several damaged samples to estimate displacement fields of an object under loading conditions. This study shows that displacement fields represent the damage conditions reasonably well as compared to regular FEM-DIC technique without considering the damage zones.

  14. Fatigue crack detection and identification by the elastic wave propagation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stawiarski, Adam; Barski, Marek; Pająk, Piotr

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the elastic wave propagation phenomenon was used to detect the initiation of the fatigue damage in isotropic plate with a circular hole. The safety and reliability of structures mostly depend on the effectiveness of the monitoring methods. The Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system based on the active pitch-catch measurement technique was proposed. The piezoelectric (PZT) elements was used as an actuators and sensors in the multipoint measuring system. The comparison of the intact and defected structures has been used by damage detection algorithm. One part of the SHM system has been responsible for detection of the fatigue crack initiation. The second part observed the evolution of the damage growth and assess the size of the defect. The numerical results of the wave propagation phenomenon has been used to present the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. The preliminary experimental analysis has been carried out during the tension test of the aluminum plate with a circular hole to determine the efficiency of the measurement technique.

  15. Development of Mechanochemically Active Polymers for Early Damage Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin

    Identification of early damage in polymer composite materials is of significant importance so that preventative measures can be taken before the materials reach catastrophic failure. Scientists have been developing damage detection technologies over many years and recently, mechanophore-based polymers, in which mechanical energy is translated to activate a chemical transformation, have received increasing attention. More specifically, the damage can be made detectable by mechanochromic polymers, which provide a visible color change upon the scission of covalent bonds under stress. This dissertation focuses on the study of a novel self-sensing framework for identifying early and in-situ damage by employing unique stress-sensing mechanophores. Two types of mechanophores, cyclobutane and cyclooctane, were utilized, and the former formed from cinnamoyl moeities and the latter formed from anthracene upon photodimerization. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of the cyclobutane-based polymers into epoxy matrices were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescent signals at a strain level right after the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with the accumulation of strain. Similar to the mechanism of fluorescence emission from the cleavage of cyclobutane, the cyclooctane moiety generated fluorescent emission with a higher quantum yield upon cleavage. The experimental results also demonstrated the success of employing the cyclooctane type mechanophore as a potential force sensor, as the fluorescence intensification was correlated with the strain increase.

  16. Nondestructive Structural Damage Detection in Flexible Space Structures Using Vibration Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricles, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Spacecraft are susceptible to structural damage over their operating life from impact, environmental loads, and fatigue. Structural damage that is not detected and not corrected may potentially cause more damage and eventually catastrophic structural failure. NASA's current fleet of reusable spacecraft, namely the Space Shuttle, has been flown on several missions. In addition, configurations of future NASA space structures, e.g. Space Station Freedom, are larger and more complex than current structures, making them more susceptible to damage as well as being more difficult to inspect. Consequently, a reliable structural damage detection capability is essential to maintain the flight safety of these structures. Visual inspections alone can not locate impending material failure (fatigue cracks, yielding); it can only observe post-failure situations. An alternative approach is to develop an inspection and monitoring system based on vibration characterization that assesses the integrity of structural and mechanical components. A methodology for detecting structural damage is presented. This methodology is based on utilizing modal test data in conjunction with a correlated analytical model of the structure to: (1) identify the structural dynamic characteristics (resonant frequencies and mode shapes) from measurements of ambient motions and/or force excitation; (2) calculate modal residual force vectors to identify the location of structural damage; and (3) conduct a weighted sensitivity analysis in order to assess the extent of mass and stiffness variations, where structural damage is characterized by stiffness reductions. The approach is unique from other existing approaches in that varying system mass and stiffness, mass center locations, the perturbation of both the natural frequencies and mode shapes, and statistical confidence factors for structural parameters and experimental instrumentation are all accounted for directly.

  17. Detection of damaged supports under railway track based on frequency shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longqi; Zhang, Yao; Lie, Seng Tjhen

    2017-03-01

    In railway transportation systems, the tracks are usually fastened on sleepers which are supported by the ballast. A lot of research has been conducted to guarantee the safety of railway track because of its importance, and more concern is expressed about monitoring of track itself such as railway level and alignment. The ballast and fasteners which provide strong support to the railway track are important as well whereas the detection of loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast mainly relies on visual inspection. Although it is reliable when the fastener is missing and the damaged ballast is on the surface, it provides less help if the fastener is only loose and the damaged ballast is under the sleepers, which are however frequently observed in practice. This paper proposes an approach based on frequency shift to identify the damaged supports including the loose or missing fasteners and damaged ballast. In this study, the rail-sleeper-ballast system is modeled as an Euler beam evenly supported by a series of springs, the stiffness of which are reduced when the fastener is loose or missing and the ballast under the sleepers is damaged. An auxiliary mass is utilized herein and when it is mounted on the beam, the natural frequencies of the whole system will change with respect to the location of the auxiliary mass. The auxiliary mass induced frequency shift is analyzed and it is found the natural frequencies change periodically when the supports are undamaged, whereas the periodicity will be broken due to damaged supports. In fact, the natural frequencies drop clearly when the auxiliary mass moves over the damaged support. A special damage index only using the information of the damaged states is proposed and both numerical and experimental examples are carried out to validate the proposed method.

  18. Correlation of scanning microwave interferometry and digital X-ray images for damage detection in ceramic composite armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Goitia, Ryan M.; Ellingson, William A.; Green, William

    2012-05-01

    Application of non-contact, scanning, microwave interferometry for inspection of ceramic-based composite armor facilitates detection of defects which may occur in manufacturing or in service. Non-contact, one-side access permits inspection of panels while on the vehicle. The method was applied as a base line inspection and post-damage inspection of composite ceramic armor containing artificial defects, fiduciaries, and actual damage. Detection, sizing, and depth location capabilities were compared using microwave interferometry system and micro-focus digital x-ray imaging. The data demonstrates corroboration of microwave interference scanning detection of cracks and laminar features. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used, and recent results obtained.

  19. Thermography detection on the fatigue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bing

    It has always been a great temptation in finding new methods to in-situ "watch" the material fatigue-damage processes so that in-time reparations will be possible, and failures or losses can be minimized to the maximum extent. Realizing that temperature patterns may serve as fingerprints for stress-strain behaviors of materials, a state-of-art infrared (IR) thermography camera has been used to "watch" the temperature evolutions of both crystalline and amorphous materials "cycle by cycle" during fatigue experiments in the current research. The two-dimensional (2D) thermography technique records the surface-temperature evolutions of materials. Since all plastic deformations are related to heat dissipations, thermography provides an innovative method to in-situ monitor the heat-evolution processes, including plastic-deformation, mechanical-damage, and phase-transformation characteristics. With the understanding of the temperature evolutions during fatigue, thermography could provide the direct information and evidence of the stress-strain distribution, crack initiation and propagation, shear-band growth, and plastic-zone evolution, which will open up wide applications in studying the structural integrity of engineering components in service. In the current research, theoretical models combining thermodynamics and heat-conduction theory have been developed. Key issues in fatigue, such as in-situ stress-strain states, cyclic softening and hardening observations, and fatigue-life predictions, have been resolved by simply monitoring the specimen-temperature variation during fatigue. Furthermore, in-situ visulizations as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of fatigue-damage processes, such as Luders-band evolutions, crack propagation, plastic zones, and final fracture, have been performed by thermography. As a method requiring no special sample preparation or surface contact by sensors, thermography provides an innovative and convenient method to in-situ monitor

  20. A machine-learning approach for damage detection in aircraft structures using self-powered sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Hadi; Das, Saptarshi; Chakrabartty, Shantanu; Biswas, Subir; Burgueño, Rigoberto

    2017-04-01

    This study proposes a novel strategy for damage identification in aircraft structures. The strategy was evaluated based on the simulation of the binary data generated from self-powered wireless sensors employing a pulse switching architecture. The energy-aware pulse switching communication protocol uses single pulses instead of multi-bit packets for information delivery resulting in discrete binary data. A system employing this energy-efficient technology requires dealing with time-delayed binary data due to the management of power budgets for sensing and communication. This paper presents an intelligent machine-learning framework based on combination of the low-rank matrix decomposition and pattern recognition (PR) methods. Further, data fusion is employed as part of the machine-learning framework to take into account the effect of data time delay on its interpretation. Simulated time-delayed binary data from self-powered sensors was used to determine damage indicator variables. Performance and accuracy of the damage detection strategy was examined and tested for the case of an aircraft horizontal stabilizer. Damage states were simulated on a finite element model by reducing stiffness in a region of the stabilizer's skin. The proposed strategy shows satisfactory performance to identify the presence and location of the damage, even with noisy and incomplete data. It is concluded that PR is a promising machine-learning algorithm for damage detection for time-delayed binary data from novel self-powered wireless sensors.

  1. Wireless and embedded carbon nanotube networks for damage detection in concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saafi, Mohamed

    2009-09-01

    Concrete structures undergo an uncontrollable damage process manifesting in the form of cracks due to the coupling of fatigue loading and environmental effects. In order to achieve long-term durability and performance, continuous health monitoring systems are needed to make critical decisions regarding operation, maintenance and repairs. Recent advances in nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes have opened the door for new smart and advanced sensing materials that could effectively be used in health monitoring of structures where wireless and real time sensing could provide information on damage development. In this paper, carbon nanotube networks were embedded into a cement matrix to develop an in situ wireless and embedded sensor for damage detection in concrete structures. By wirelessly measuring the change in the electrical resistance of the carbon nanotube networks, the progress of damage can be detected and monitored. As a proof of concept, wireless cement-carbon nanotube sensors were embedded into concrete beams and subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading to evaluate the effect of damage on their response. Experimental results showed that the wireless response of the embedded nanotube sensors changes due to the formation of cracks during loading. In addition, the nanotube sensors were able to detect the initiation of damage at an early stage of loading.

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of filamentous actinobacteria and thermoactinomycetes present in water-damaged building materials.

    PubMed

    Suihko, M-L; Priha, O; Alakomi, H-L; Thompson, P; Mälarstig, B; Stott, R; Richardson, M

    2009-06-01

    In this study the dominant filamentous actinobacteria occurring in water-damaged building materials were detected by culture and characterized by automated ribotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fifty-two samples were taken from 20 water-damaged houses in four different countries. A total of 122 bacterial isolates were analyzed. Actinobacteria or thermoactinomycetes were present in 48% of the samples. The dominant genus was Streptomyces (58% of isolates), followed by Thermoactinomyces (23%), Laceyella (14%), Nocardiopsis (3%), Pseudonocardia (1%) and Saccharomonospora (1%). The most frequently detected species was the thermophilic Thermoactinomyces vulgaris (14 samples/4 countries). The most common streptomycetes were closely related to the heterogeneous species Streptomyces microflavus (7/2) or Streptomyces griseus (6/2). Automated ribotyping was a rapid tool for reliable characterization of these isolates. The spores of thermoactinomycetes and toxic substances of Nocardiopsis species and S. griseus may constitute a risk for human health. Harmful microbes in indoor environments are a cause of public concern. To develop rapid and simple-to-use molecular biological methods to detect the presence of harmful actinobacterial species in water-damaged buildings more information about their occurrence in those materials is needed, which this study provides.

  3. Diagnostics for the detection and evaluation of laser induced damage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-31

    The Laser Damage and Conditioning Group at LLNL is evaluating diagnostics which will help make damage testing more efficient and reduce the risk of damage during laser conditioning. The work to date has focused on photoacoustic and scattered light measurements on 1064-nm wavelength HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings. Both the acoustic and scatter diagnostics have resolved 10 {mu}m diameter damage points in these coatings. Using a scanning stage, the scatter diagnostic can map both intrinsic and laser-induced scatter. Damage threshold measurements obtained using scatter diagnostics compare within experimental error with those measured using 100x Nomarski microscopy. Scattermore » signals measured during laser conditioning can be used to detect damage related to nodular defects.« less

  4. Diagnostics for the detection and evaluation of laser induced damage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-01-03

    The Laser Damage and Conditioning Group at LLNL is evaluating diagnostics which will help make damage testing more efficient and reduce the risk of damage during laser conditioning. The work to date has focused on photoacoustic and scattered light measurements on 1064-nm wavelength HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings. Both the acoustic and scatter diagnostics have resolved 10 {mu}m diameter damage points in these coatings. Using a scanning stage, the scatter diagnostic can map both intrinsic and laser-induced scatter. Damage threshold measurements obtained using scatter diagnostics compare within experimental error with those measured using 100x Nomarski microscopy. Scattermore » signals measured during laser conditioning can be used to detect damage related to nodular defects.« less

  5. Evaluation of a Region-of-Interest Approach for Detecting Progressive Glaucomatous Macular Damage on Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Denis S. D.; Thenappan, Abinaya; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a manual region-of-interest (ROI) approach for detecting progressive macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) changes on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Methods One hundred forty-six eyes with a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma or suspected glaucoma with macular OCT scans obtained at least 1 year apart were evaluated. Changes in the GCC thickness were identified using a manual ROI approach (ROIM), whereby region(s) of observed or suspected glaucomatous damage were manually identified when using key features from the macular OCT scan on the second visit. Progression was also evaluated using the global GCC thickness and an automatic ROI approach (ROIA), where contiguous region(s) that fell below the 1% lower normative limit and exceeded 288 μm2 in size were evaluated. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated for progressive changes detected by each of these methods using individualized estimates of test–retest variability and age-related changes, obtained from 303 glaucoma and 394 healthy eyes, respectively. Results On average, the longitudinal SNR for the global thickness, ROIA and ROIM methods were −0.90 y−1, −0.91 y−1, and −1.03 y−1, respectively, and was significantly more negative for the ROIM compared with the global thickness (P = 0.003) and ROIA methods (P = 0.021). Conclusions Progressive glaucomatous macular GCC changes were optimally detected with a manual ROI approach. Translational Relevance These findings suggests that an approach based on a qualitative evaluation of OCT imaging information and consideration of known patterns of damage can improve the detection of progressive glaucomatous macular damage. PMID:29616153

  6. On-orbit damage detection and health monitoring of large space trusses: Status and critical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashangaki, Thomas A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The long lifetimes, delicate nature and stringent pointing requirements of large space structures such as Space Station Freedom and geostationary Earth sciences platforms might require that these spacecraft be monitored periodically for possible damage to the load carrying structures. A review of the literature in damage detection and health monitoring of such structures is presented, along with a candidate structure to be used as a testbed for future work in this field. A unified notation and terminology is also proposed to facilitate comparisons between candidate methods.

  7. Evaluation of a Region-of-Interest Approach for Detecting Progressive Glaucomatous Macular Damage on Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Weng, Denis S D; Thenappan, Abinaya; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate a manual region-of-interest (ROI) approach for detecting progressive macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) changes on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. One hundred forty-six eyes with a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma or suspected glaucoma with macular OCT scans obtained at least 1 year apart were evaluated. Changes in the GCC thickness were identified using a manual ROI approach (ROI M ), whereby region(s) of observed or suspected glaucomatous damage were manually identified when using key features from the macular OCT scan on the second visit. Progression was also evaluated using the global GCC thickness and an automatic ROI approach (ROI A ), where contiguous region(s) that fell below the 1% lower normative limit and exceeded 288 μm 2 in size were evaluated. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated for progressive changes detected by each of these methods using individualized estimates of test-retest variability and age-related changes, obtained from 303 glaucoma and 394 healthy eyes, respectively. On average, the longitudinal SNR for the global thickness, ROI A and ROI M methods were -0.90 y -1 , -0.91 y -1 , and -1.03 y -1 , respectively, and was significantly more negative for the ROI M compared with the global thickness ( P = 0.003) and ROI A methods ( P = 0.021). Progressive glaucomatous macular GCC changes were optimally detected with a manual ROI approach. These findings suggests that an approach based on a qualitative evaluation of OCT imaging information and consideration of known patterns of damage can improve the detection of progressive glaucomatous macular damage.

  8. Thermography Inspection for Early Detection of Composite Damage in Structures During Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Parker, F. Raymond; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Christopher W.; Bly, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composite structures are commonly tested under controlled loading. Understanding the initiation and progression of composite damage under load is critical for validating design concepts and structural analysis tools. Thermal nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is used to detect and characterize damage in composite structures during fatigue loading. A difference image processing algorithm is demonstrated to enhance damage detection and characterization by removing thermal variations not associated with defects. In addition, a one-dimensional multilayered thermal model is used to characterize damage. Lastly, the thermography results are compared to other inspections such as non-immersion ultrasonic inspections and computed tomography X-ray.

  9. On damage detection in wind turbine gearboxes using outlier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadou, Ifigeneia; Manson, Graeme; Dervilis, Nikolaos; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Worden, Keith

    2012-04-01

    The proportion of worldwide installed wind power in power systems increases over the years as a result of the steadily growing interest in renewable energy sources. Still, the advantages offered by the use of wind power are overshadowed by the high operational and maintenance costs, resulting in the low competitiveness of wind power in the energy market. In order to reduce the costs of corrective maintenance, the application of condition monitoring to gearboxes becomes highly important, since gearboxes are among the wind turbine components with the most frequent failure observations. While condition monitoring of gearboxes in general is common practice, with various methods having been developed over the last few decades, wind turbine gearbox condition monitoring faces a major challenge: the detection of faults under the time-varying load conditions prevailing in wind turbine systems. Classical time and frequency domain methods fail to detect faults under variable load conditions, due to the temporary effect that these faults have on vibration signals. This paper uses the statistical discipline of outlier analysis for the damage detection of gearbox tooth faults. A simplified two-degree-of-freedom gearbox model considering nonlinear backlash, time-periodic mesh stiffness and static transmission error, simulates the vibration signals to be analysed. Local stiffness reduction is used for the simulation of tooth faults and statistical processes determine the existence of intermittencies. The lowest level of fault detection, the threshold value, is considered and the Mahalanobis squared-distance is calculated for the novelty detection problem.

  10. Using chaotic forcing to detect damage in a structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moniz, L.; Nichols, J.; Trickey, S.; Seaver, M.; Pecora, D.; Pecora, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we develop a numerical test for Holder continuity and apply it and another test for continuity to the difficult problem of detecting damage in structures. We subject a thin metal plate with incremental damage to the plate changes, its filtering properties, and therefore the phase space trajectories of the response chaotic excitation of various bandwidths. Damage to the plate changes its filtering properties and therefore the phase space of the response. Because the data are multivariate (the plate is instrumented with multiple sensors) we use a singular value decomposition of the set of the output time series to reduce the embedding dimension of the response time series. We use two geometric tests to compare an attractor reconstructed from data from an undamaged structure to that reconstructed from data from a damaged structure. These two tests translate to testing for both generalized and differentiable synchronization between responses. We show loss of synchronization of responses with damage to the structure. ?? 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Using chaotic forcing to detect damage in a structure.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moniz, L.; Nichols, J.; Trickey, S.; Seaver, M.; Pecora, D.; Pecora, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we develop a numerical test for Holder continuity and apply it and another test for continuity to the difficult problem of detecting damage in structures. We subject a thin metal plate with incremental damage to the plate changes, its filtering properties, and therefore the phase space trajectories of the response chaotic excitation of various bandwidths. Damage to the plate changes its filtering properties and therefore the phase space of the response. Because the data are multivariate (the plate is instrumented with multiple sensors) we use a singular value decomposition of the set of the output time series to reduce the embedding dimension of the response time series. We use two geometric tests to compare an attractor reconstructed from data from an undamaged structure to that reconstructed from data from a damaged structure. These two tests translate to testing for both generalized and differentiable synchronization between responses. We show loss of synchronization of responses with damage to the structure.

  12. Lamb wave based damage detection using Matching Pursuit and Support Vector Machine classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sushant; Mitra, Mira

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the suitability of using Matching Pursuit (MP) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for damage detection using Lamb wave response of thin aluminium plate is explored. Lamb wave response of thin aluminium plate with or without damage is simulated using finite element. Simulations are carried out at different frequencies for various kinds of damage. The procedure is divided into two parts - signal processing and machine learning. Firstly, MP is used for denoising and to maintain the sparsity of the dataset. In this study, MP is extended by using a combination of time-frequency functions as the dictionary and is deployed in two stages. Selection of a particular type of atoms lead to extraction of important features while maintaining the sparsity of the waveform. The resultant waveform is then passed as input data for SVM classifier. SVM is used to detect the location of the potential damage from the reduced data. The study demonstrates that SVM is a robust classifier in presence of noise and more efficient as compared to Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Out-of-sample data is used for the validation of the trained and tested classifier. Trained classifiers are found successful in detection of the damage with more than 95% detection rate.

  13. Subepidermal moisture detection of pressure induced tissue damage on the trunk: The pressure ulcer detection study outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bates-Jensen, Barbara M; McCreath, Heather E; Patlan, Anabel

    2017-05-01

    We examined the relationship between subepidermal moisture measured using surface electrical capacitance and visual skin assessment of pressure ulcers at the trunk location (sacral, ischial tuberosities) in 417 nursing home residents residing in 19 facilities. Participants were on average older (mean age of 77 years), 58% were female, over half were ethnic minorities (29% African American, 12% Asian American, and 21% Hispanic), and at risk for pressure ulcers (mean score for Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk of 15.6). Concurrent visual assessments and subepidermal moisture were obtained at the sacrum and right and left ischium weekly for 16 weeks. Visual assessment was categorized as normal, erythema, stage 1 pressure ulcer, Deep Tissue Injury or stage 2+ pressure ulcer using the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel 2009 classification system. Incidence of any skin damage was 52%. Subepidermal moisture was measured with a dermal phase meter where higher readings indicate greater moisture (range: 0-70 tissue dielectric constant), with values increasing significantly with the presence of skin damage. Elevated subepidermal moisture values co-occurred with concurrent skin damage in generalized multinomial logistic models (to control for repeated observations) at the sacrum, adjusting for age and risk. Higher subepidermal moisture values were associated with visual damage 1 week later using similar models. Threshold values for subepidermal moisture were compared to visual ratings to predict skin damage 1 week later. Subepidermal moisture of 39 tissue dielectric constant units predicted 41% of future skin damage while visual ratings predicted 27%. Thus, this method of detecting early skin damage holds promise for clinicians, especially as it is objective and equally valid for all groups of patients. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Damage detection and isolation via autocorrelation: a step toward passive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. S.; Yuan, F. G.

    2018-03-01

    Passive sensing technique may eliminate the need of expending power from actuators and thus provide a means of developing a compact and simple structural health monitoring system. More importantly, it may provide a solution for monitoring the aircraft subjected to environmental loading from air flow during operation. In this paper, a non-contact auto-correlation based technique is exploited as a feasibility study for passive sensing application to detect damage and isolate the damage location. Its theoretical basis bears some resemblance to reconstructing Green's function from diffusive wavefield through cross-correlation. Localized high pressure air from air compressor are randomly and continuously applied on the one side surface of the aluminum panels through the air blow gun. A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was used to scan a 90 mm × 90 mm area to create a 6 × 6 2D-array signals from the opposite side of the panels. The scanned signals were auto-correlated to reconstruct a "selfimpulse response" (or Green's function). The premise for stably reconstructing the accurate Green's function requires long sensing times. For a 609.6 mm × 609.6 mm flat aluminum panel, the sensing times roughly at least four seconds is sufficient to establish converged Green's function through correlation. For the integral stiffened aluminum panel, the geometrical features of the panel expedite the formation of the diffusive wavefield and thus shorten the sensing times. The damage is simulated by gluing a magnet onto the panels. Reconstructed Green's functions (RGFs) are used for damage detection and damage isolation based on an imaging condition with mean square deviation of the RGFs from the pristine and the damaged structure and the results are shown in color maps. The auto-correlation based technique is shown to consistently detect the simulated damage, image and isolate the damage in the structure subjected to high pressure air excitation. This technique may be transformed into

  15. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor Technology for Lightning Mitigation and Damage Detection and Diagnosis for Composite Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Smith, Laura J.; Wang, Chuantong; Ticatch, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods to protect composite aircraft from lightning strike damage rely on a conductive layer embedded on or within the surface of the aircraft composite skin. This method is effective at preventing major direct effect damage and minimizes indirect effects to aircraft systems from lightning strike attachment, but provides no additional benefit for the added parasitic weight from the conductive layer. When a known lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface are visually inspected and checked for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. A new multi-functional lightning strike protection (LSP) method has been developed to provide aircraft lightning strike protection, damage detection and diagnosis for composite aircraft surfaces. The method incorporates a SansEC sensor array on the aircraft exterior surfaces forming a "Smart skin" surface for aircraft lightning zones certified to withstand strikes up to 100 kiloamperes peak current. SansEC sensors are open-circuit devices comprised of conductive trace spiral patterns sans (without) electrical connections. The SansEC sensor is an electromagnetic resonator having specific resonant parameters (frequency, amplitude, bandwidth & phase) which when electromagnetically coupled with a composite substrate will indicate the electrical impedance of the composite through a change in its resonant response. Any measureable shift in the resonant characteristics can be an indication of damage to the composite caused by a lightning strike or from other means. The SansEC sensor method is intended to diagnose damage for both in-situ health monitoring or ground inspections. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical framework is established for the use of open circuit sensors to perform damage detection and diagnosis on carbon fiber composites. Both computational and experimental analyses were conducted to validate this new method and system for

  16. Adaptive Finite Element Methods for Continuum Damage Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Tworzydlo, W. W.; Xiques, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an application of adaptive finite element methods to the modeling of low-cycle continuum damage and life prediction of high-temperature components. The major objective is to provide automated and accurate modeling of damaged zones through adaptive mesh refinement and adaptive time-stepping methods. The damage modeling methodology is implemented in an usual way by embedding damage evolution in the transient nonlinear solution of elasto-viscoplastic deformation problems. This nonlinear boundary-value problem is discretized by adaptive finite element methods. The automated h-adaptive mesh refinements are driven by error indicators, based on selected principal variables in the problem (stresses, non-elastic strains, damage, etc.). In the time domain, adaptive time-stepping is used, combined with a predictor-corrector time marching algorithm. The time selection is controlled by required time accuracy. In order to take into account strong temperature dependency of material parameters, the nonlinear structural solution a coupled with thermal analyses (one-way coupling). Several test examples illustrate the importance and benefits of adaptive mesh refinements in accurate prediction of damage levels and failure time.

  17. A comparative assessment of different frequency based damage detection in unidirectional composite plates using MFC sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, Ricardo; Sartorato, Murilo; Vandepitte, Dirk; Tita, Volnei

    2016-11-01

    The basic concept of the vibration based damage identification methods is that the dynamic behaviour of a structure can change if damage occurs. Damage in a structure can alter the structural integrity, and therefore, the physical properties like stiffness, mass and/or damping may change. The dynamic behaviour of a structure is a function of these physical properties and will, therefore, directly be affected by the damage. The dynamic behaviour can be described in terms of time, frequency and modal domain parameters. The changes in these parameters (or properties derived from these parameters) are used as indicators of damage. Hence, this work has two main objectives. The first one is to provide an overview of the structural vibration based damage identification methods. For this purpose, a fundamental description of the structural vibration based damage identification problem is given, followed by a short literature overview of the damage features, which are commonly addressed. The second objective is to create a damage identification method for detection of the damage in composite structures. To aid in this process, two basic principles are discussed, namely the effect of the potential damage case on the dynamic behaviour, and the consequences involved with the information reduction in the signal processing. Modal properties from the structural dynamic output response are obtained. In addition, experimental and computational results are presented for the application of modal analysis techniques applied to composite specimens with and without damage. The excitation of the structures is performed using an impact hammer and, for measuring the output data, accelerometers as well as piezoelectric sensors. Finite element models are developed by shell elements, and numerical results are compared to experimental data, showing good correlation for the response of the specimens in some specific frequency range. Finally, FRFs are analysed using suitable metrics, including a

  18. Efficient generation of receiver operating characteristics for the evaluation of damage detection in practical structural health monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Dobson, Jacob; Cawley, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Permanently installed guided wave monitoring systems are attractive for monitoring large structures. By frequently interrogating the test structure over a long period of time, such systems have the potential to detect defects much earlier than with conventional one-off inspection, and reduce the time and labour cost involved. However, for the systems to be accepted under real operational conditions, their damage detection performance needs to be evaluated in these practical settings. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) is an established performance metric for one-off inspections, but the generation of the ROC requires many test structures with realistic damage growth at different locations and different environmental conditions, and this is often impractical. In this paper, we propose an evaluation framework using experimental data collected over multiple environmental cycles on an undamaged structure with synthetic damage signatures added by superposition. Recent advances in computation power enable examples covering a wide range of practical scenarios to be generated, and for multiple cases of each scenario to be tested so that the statistics of the performance can be evaluated. The proposed methodology has been demonstrated using data collected from a laboratory pipe specimen over many temperature cycles, superposed with damage signatures predicted for a flat-bottom hole growing at different rates at various locations. Three damage detection schemes, conventional baseline subtraction, singular value decomposition (SVD) and independent component analysis (ICA), have been evaluated. It has been shown that in all cases, the component methods perform significantly better than the residual method, with ICA generally the better of the two. The results have been validated using experimental data monitoring a pipe in which a flat-bottom hole was drilled and enlarged over successive temperature cycles. The methodology can be used to evaluate the performance of an

  19. Efficient generation of receiver operating characteristics for the evaluation of damage detection in practical structural health monitoring applications

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Jacob; Cawley, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Permanently installed guided wave monitoring systems are attractive for monitoring large structures. By frequently interrogating the test structure over a long period of time, such systems have the potential to detect defects much earlier than with conventional one-off inspection, and reduce the time and labour cost involved. However, for the systems to be accepted under real operational conditions, their damage detection performance needs to be evaluated in these practical settings. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) is an established performance metric for one-off inspections, but the generation of the ROC requires many test structures with realistic damage growth at different locations and different environmental conditions, and this is often impractical. In this paper, we propose an evaluation framework using experimental data collected over multiple environmental cycles on an undamaged structure with synthetic damage signatures added by superposition. Recent advances in computation power enable examples covering a wide range of practical scenarios to be generated, and for multiple cases of each scenario to be tested so that the statistics of the performance can be evaluated. The proposed methodology has been demonstrated using data collected from a laboratory pipe specimen over many temperature cycles, superposed with damage signatures predicted for a flat-bottom hole growing at different rates at various locations. Three damage detection schemes, conventional baseline subtraction, singular value decomposition (SVD) and independent component analysis (ICA), have been evaluated. It has been shown that in all cases, the component methods perform significantly better than the residual method, with ICA generally the better of the two. The results have been validated using experimental data monitoring a pipe in which a flat-bottom hole was drilled and enlarged over successive temperature cycles. The methodology can be used to evaluate the performance of an

  20. Guided wave and damage detection in composite laminates using different fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro

    2009-01-01

    Guided wave detection using different fiber optic sensors and their applications in damage detection for composite laminates were systematically investigated and compared in this paper. Two types of fiber optic sensors, namely fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Doppler effect-based fiber optic (FOD) sensors, were addressed and guided wave detection systems were constructed for both types. Guided waves generated by a piezoelectric transducer were propagated through a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate and acquired by these fiber optic sensors. Characteristics of these fiber optic sensors in ultrasonic guided wave detection were systematically compared. Results demonstrated that both the FBG and FOD sensors can be applied in guided wave and damage detection for the CFRP laminates. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of guided wave signal captured by an FOD sensor is relatively high in comparison with that of the FBG sensor because of their different physical principles in ultrasonic detection. Further, the FOD sensor is sensitive to the damage-induced fundamental shear horizontal (SH(0)) guided wave that, however, cannot be detected by using the FBG sensor, because the FOD sensor is omnidirectional in ultrasound detection and, in contrast, the FBG sensor is severely direction dependent.

  1. Online damage inspection of optics for ATP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yu; Mao, Yao; Gan, Xun; Liu, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    In the Electro-Optical acquisition-tracking-pointing system (ATP), the optical components will be damaged with the several influencing factors. In this situation, the rate will increase sharply when the arrival of damage to some extent. As the complex processing techniques and long processing cycle of optical components, the damage will cause the great increase of the system development cost and cycle. Therefore, it is significant to detect the laser-induced damage in the ATP system. At present, the major research on the on-line damage detection technology of optical components is for the large optical system in the international. The relevant detection systems have complicated structures and many of components, and require enough installation space reserved, which do not apply for ATP system. To solve the problem mentioned before, This paper use a method based on machine vision to detect the damage on-line for the present ATP system. To start with, CCD and PC are used for image acquisition. Secondly, smoothing filters are used to restrain false damage points produced by noise. Then, with the shape feature included in the damage image, the OTSU Method which can define the best segmentation threshold automatically is used to achieve the goal to locate the damage regions. At last, we can supply some opinions for the lifetime of the optical components by analyzing the damage data, such as damage area, damage position. The method has the characteristics of few-detectors and simple-structures which can be installed without any changes of the original light path. With the method, experimental results show that it is stable and effective to achieve the goal of detecting the damage of optical components on-line in the ATP system.

  2. Finite element model updating and damage detection for bridges using vibration measurement.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    In this report, the results of a study on developing a damage detection methodology based on Statistical Pattern Recognition are : presented. This methodology uses a new damage sensitive feature developed in this study that relies entirely on modal :...

  3. The use of the DInSAR method in the monitoring of road damage caused by mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdzek, Radosław; Malik, Hubert; Leśniak, Andrzej

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews existing remote sensing methods of road damage detection and demonstrates the possibility of using DInSAR (Differential Interferometry SAR) method to identify endangered road sections. In this study two radar images collected by Sentinel-1 satellite have been used. Images were acquired with 24 days interval in 2015. The analysis allowed to estimate the scale of the post-mining deformation that occurred in Upper Silesia and to indicate areas where road infrastructure is particularly vulnerable to damage.

  4. Electrochemical detection of DNA damage induced by acrylamide and its metabolite at the graphene-ionic liquid-Nafion modified pyrolytic graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yanyan; Qu, Xiangjin; Dong, Jing; Ai, Shiyun; Han, Ruixia

    2011-06-15

    A new electrochemical biosensor for directly detecting DNA damage induced by acrylamide (AA) and its metabolite was presented in this work. The graphene-ionic liquid-Nafion modified pyrolytic graphite electrode (PGE) was prepared, and then horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and natural double-stranded DNA were alternately assembled on the modified electrode by the layer-by-layer method. The PGE/graphene-ionic liquid-Nafion and the construction of the (HRP/DNA)(n) film were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. With the guanine signal in DNA as an indicator, the damage of DNA was detected by differential pulse voltammetry after PGE/graphene-ionic liquid-Nafion/(HRP/DNA)(n) was incubated in AA solution or AA+H(2)O(2) solution at 37°C. This method provides a new model to mimic and directly detect DNA damage induced by chemical pollutants and their metabolites in vitro. The results indicated that, in the presence of H(2)O(2), HRP was activated and catalyzed the transformation of AA to glycidamide, which could form DNA adducts and induce more serious damage of DNA than AA. In order to further verify these results, UV-vis spectrophotometry was also used to investigate DNA damage induced by AA and its metabolites in solution and the similar results were obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Damage assessment in composite laminates via broadband Lamb wave.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Shao, Yongsheng

    2018-05-01

    Time of flight (ToF) based method for damage detection using Lamb waves is widely used. However, due to the energy dissipation of Lamb waves and the non-ignorable size of damage in composite structure, the performance of damage detection is restricted. The objective of this research is to establish an improved method to locate and assess damages in composite structure. To choose appropriate excitation parameters, the propagation characters of Lamb waves in quasi-isotropic composite laminates are firstly studied and the broadband excitation is designed. Subsequently, the pulse compression technique is adopted for energy concentration and high-accuracy distance estimation. On this basis, the gravity center of intersections of path loci is employed for damage localization and the convex envelop of identified damage edge points is taken for damage contour estimation. As a result, both damage location and size can be evaluated, thereby providing the information for quantitative damage detection. The experiment consisting of five different sizes of damage is carried for method verification and the identified results show the efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bladed wheels damage detection through Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis improved algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, P.

    2017-05-01

    Recent papers introduced the Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis for bladed wheels damage detection. This technique showed its potential in estimating the frequency of sinusoidal signals even when the acquisition time is short with respect to the vibration period, provided that some hypothesis are fulfilled. Anyway, previously proposed algorithms showed severe limitations in cracks detection at their early stage. The present paper proposes an improved algorithm which allows to detect a blade vibration frequency shift due to a crack whose size is really small compared to the blade width. Such a technique could be implemented for condition-based maintenance, allowing to use non-contact methods for vibration measurements. A stator-fixed laser sensor could monitor all the blades as they pass in front of the spot, giving precious information about the wheel health. This configuration determines an acquisition time for each blade which become shorter as the machine rotational speed increases. In this situation, traditional Discrete Fourier Transform analysis results in poor frequency resolution, being not suitable for small frequency shift detection. Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis instead showed high reliability in vibration frequency estimation even with data samples collected in a short time range. A description of the improved algorithm is provided in the paper, along with a comparison with the previous one. Finally, a validation of the method is presented, based on finite element simulations results.

  7. Detection of vulnerable neurons damaged by environmental insults in utero

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Masaaki; Chang, Yu-Wen; Ishii, Seiji; Waxman, Stephen G.; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Rakic, Pasko; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue

    2017-01-01

    Development of prognostic biomarkers for the detection of prenatally damaged neurons before manifestations of postnatal disorders is an essential step for prevention and treatment of susceptible individuals. We have developed a versatile fluorescence reporter system in mice enabling detection of Heat Shock Factor 1 activation in response to prenatal cellular damage caused by exposure to various harmful chemical or physical agents. Using an intrautero electroporation-mediated reporter assay and transgenic reporter mice, we are able to identify neurons that survive prenatal exposure to harmful agents but remain vulnerable in postnatal life. This system may provide a powerful tool for exploring the pathogenesis and treatment of multiple disorders caused by exposure to environmental stress before symptoms become manifested, exacerbated, and/or irreversible. PMID:28123061

  8. A constructive nonlinear array (CNA) method for barely visible impact detection in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfense Fierro, Gian Piero; Meo, Michele

    2017-04-01

    Currently there are numerous phased array techniques such as Full Matrix Capture (FMC) and Total Focusing Method (TFM) that provide good damage assessment for composite materials. Although, linear methods struggle to evaluate and assess low levels of damage, while nonlinear methods have shown great promise in early damage detection. A sweep and subtraction evaluation method coupled with a constructive nonlinear array method (CNA) is proposed in order to assess damage specific nonlinearities, address issues with frequency selection when using nonlinear ultrasound imaging techniques and reduce equipment generated nonlinearities. These methods were evaluated using multiple excitation locations on an impacted composite panel with a complex damage (barely visible impact damage). According to various recent works, damage excitation can be accentuated by exciting at local defect resonance (LDR) frequencies; although these frequencies are not always easily determinable. The sweep methodology uses broadband excitation to determine both local defect and material resonances, by assessing local defect generated nonlinearities using a laser vibrometer it is possible to assess which frequencies excite the complex geometry of the crack. The dual effect of accurately determining local defect resonances, the use of an image subtraction method and the reduction of equipment based nonlinearities using CNA result in greater repeatability and clearer nonlinear imaging (NIM).

  9. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolamo, D.; Girolamo, L.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  10. Electrical Resistance of Ceramic Matrix Composites for Damage Detection and Life-Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai

    2008-01-01

    The electric resistance of woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites were measured under tensile loading conditions. The results show that the electrical resistance is closely related to damage and that real-time information about the damage state can be obtained through monitoring of the resistance. Such self-sensing capability provides the possibility of on-board/in-situ damage detection or inspection of a component during "down time". The correlation of damage with appropriate failure mechanism can then be applied to accurate life prediction for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites.

  11. An extended diffraction tomography method for quantifying structural damage using numerical Green's functions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eugene; Rose, L R Francis; Wang, Chun H

    2015-05-01

    Existing damage imaging algorithms for detecting and quantifying structural defects, particularly those based on diffraction tomography, assume far-field conditions for the scattered field data. This paper presents a major extension of diffraction tomography that can overcome this limitation and utilises a near-field multi-static data matrix as the input data. This new algorithm, which employs numerical solutions of the dynamic Green's functions, makes it possible to quantitatively image laminar damage even in complex structures for which the dynamic Green's functions are not available analytically. To validate this new method, the numerical Green's functions and the multi-static data matrix for laminar damage in flat and stiffened isotropic plates are first determined using finite element models. Next, these results are time-gated to remove boundary reflections, followed by discrete Fourier transform to obtain the amplitude and phase information for both the baseline (damage-free) and the scattered wave fields. Using these computationally generated results and experimental verification, it is shown that the new imaging algorithm is capable of accurately determining the damage geometry, size and severity for a variety of damage sizes and shapes, including multi-site damage. Some aspects of minimal sensors requirement pertinent to image quality and practical implementation are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of Anomalous Machining Damages in Inconel 718 and TI 6-4 by Eddy Current Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Shimon, M.; Nakagawa, N.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on an eddy current (EC) study aimed at detecting anomalous machining damages in Inconel 718 and Ti 6-4 samples, including (i) surface discontinuities such as re-depositing of chips onto the machined surface, and (ii) microstructural damages manifested as a white surface layer and a subsurface layer of distorted grains, typically tens of microns thick. A series of pristine and machine-damaged coupons were studied by EC scans using a differential probe operated at 2 MHz to detect discontinuous surface anomalies, and by swept high frequency EC (SHFEC) measurements from 0.5 MHz to 65.5 MHz using proprietary detection coils to detect surface microstructural damages. In general, the EC c-scan data from machine-damaged surfaces show spatial variations with larger standard deviations than those from the undamaged surfaces. In some cases, the c-scan images exhibit characteristic bipolar indications in good spatial correlation with surface anomalies revealed by optical microscopy and laser profilometry. Results of the SHFEC measurements indicate a reduced near-surface conductivity of the damaged surfaces compared to the undamaged surfaces.

  13. Optimal statistical damage detection and classification in an experimental wind turbine blade using minimum instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand for carbon neutral energy in a challenging economic environment is a driving factor for erecting ever larger wind turbines in harsh environments using novel wind turbine blade (WTBs) designs characterized by high flexibilities and lower buckling capacities. To counteract resulting increasing of operation and maintenance costs, efficient structural health monitoring systems can be employed to prevent dramatic failures and to schedule maintenance actions according to the true structural state. This paper presents a novel methodology for classifying structural damages using vibrational responses from a single sensor. The method is based on statistical classification using Bayes' theorem and an advanced statistic, which allows controlling the performance by varying the number of samples which represent the current state. This is done for multivariate damage sensitive features defined as partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) estimated from vibrational responses and principal component analysis scores from PACCs. Additionally, optimal DSFs are composed not only for damage classification but also for damage detection based on binary statistical hypothesis testing, where features selections are found with a fast forward procedure. The method is applied to laboratory experiments with a small scale WTB with wind-like excitation and non-destructive damage scenarios. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed procedure and are promising for future applications of vibration-based structural health monitoring in WTBs.

  14. Damage detection in composite panels based on mode-converted Lamb waves sensed using 3D laser scanning vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczonka, Łukasz; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Staszewski, Wiesław J.; Barnoncel, David; Pérès, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces damage identification approach based on guided ultrasonic waves and 3D laser Doppler vibrometry. The method is based on the fact that the symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb wave modes differ in amplitude of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations. Moreover, the modes differ also in group velocities and normally they are well separated in time. For a given time window both modes can occur simultaneously only close to the wave source or to a defect that leads to mode conversion. By making the comparison between the in-plane and out-of-plane wave vector components the detection of mode conversion is possible, allowing for superior and reliable damage detection. Experimental verification of the proposed damage identification procedure is performed on fuel tank elements of Reusable Launch Vehicles designed for space exploration. Lamb waves are excited using low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers and 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer is used to characterize the Lamb wave propagation field. The paper presents theoretical background of the proposed damage identification technique as well as experimental arrangements and results.

  15. Three-dimensional structural damage localization system and method using layered two-dimensional array of capacitance sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Mark A (Inventor); Senibi, Simon D (Inventor); Banks, David L (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for detecting damage to a structure is provided. The system includes a voltage source and at least one capacitor formed as a layer within the structure and responsive to the voltage source. The system also includes at least one sensor responsive to the capacitor to sense a voltage of the capacitor. A controller responsive to the sensor determines if damage to the structure has occurred based on the variance of the voltage of the capacitor from a known reference value. A method for sensing damage to a structure involves providing a plurality of capacitors and a controller, and coupling the capacitors to at least one surface of the structure. A voltage of the capacitors is sensed using the controller, and the controller calculates a change in the voltage of the capacitors. The method can include signaling a display system if a change in the voltage occurs.

  16. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for detection of renal damage in children.

    PubMed

    Göya, Cemil; Hamidi, Cihad; Ece, Aydın; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Taşdemir, Bekir; Çetinçakmak, Mehmet Güli; Hattapoğlu, Salih; Teke, Memik; Şahin, Cahit

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is a promising method for noninvasive evaluation of the renal parenchyma. To investigate the contribution of ARFI quantitative US elastography for the detection of renal damage in kidneys with and without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). One hundred seventy-six kidneys of 88 children (46 male, 42 female) who had been referred for voiding cystourethrography and 20 healthy controls were prospectively investigated. Patients were assessed according to severity of renal damage on dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Ninety-eight age- and gender-matched healthy children constituted the control group. Quantitative shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements were performed in the upper and lower poles and in the interpolar region of each kidney. DMSA scintigraphy was performed in 62 children (124 kidneys). Comparisons of SWV values of kidneys with and without renal damage and/or VUR were done. Significantly higher SWV values were found in non-damaged kidneys. Severely damaged kidneys had the lowest SWV values (P < 0.001). High-grade (grade V-IV) refluxing kidneys had the lowest SWV values, while non-refluxing kidneys had the highest values (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between the mean quantitative US elastography values and DMSA scarring score (r = -0.788, P < 0.001) and VUR grade (r = -0.634, P < 0.001). SWV values of the control kidneys were significantly higher than those of damaged kidneys (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest decreasing SWV of renal units with increasing grades of vesicoureteric reflux, increasing DMSA-assessed renal damage and decreasing DMSA-assessed differential function.

  17. Hot-Spot Fatigue and Impact Damage Detection on a Helicopter Tailboom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    other 14 PZT disks were used as sensors. Among the 28 PZT disks, 16 PZT disks were placed in the two fatigue hot-spot areas to detect cracks initiated...more efficient and effective airframe maintenance, fatigue cracking and impact damage detection technologies were developed and demonstrated on a...SHM system in successfully monitoring fatigue cracks initiated from cyclical loading conditions; detecting, locating and quantifying ballistic

  18. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zagariya, Alexander M., E-mail: zagariya@uic.edu

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels inmore » apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.« less

  19. Structural damage detection using deep learning of ultrasonic guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Joseph; Alguri, K. Supreet; Deemer, Chris; Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural health monitoring using ultrasonic guided waves relies on accurate interpretation of guided wave propagation to distinguish damage state indicators. However, traditional physics based models do not provide an accurate representation, and classic data driven techniques, such as a support vector machine, are too simplistic to capture the complex nature of ultrasonic guide waves. To address this challenge, this paper uses a deep learning interpretation of ultrasonic guided waves to achieve fast, accurate, and automated structural damaged detection. To achieve this, full wavefield scans of thin metal plates are used, half from the undamaged state and half from the damaged state. This data is used to train our deep network to predict the damage state of a plate with 99.98% accuracy given signals from just 10 spatial locations on the plate, as compared to that of a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved a 62% accuracy.

  20. Compressive sensing for efficient health monitoring and effective damage detection of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardhana, Madhuka; Zhu, Xinqun; Liyanapathirana, Ranjith; Gunawardana, Upul

    2017-02-01

    Real world Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems consist of sensors in the scale of hundreds, each sensor generating extremely large amounts of data, often arousing the issue of the cost associated with data transfer and storage. Sensor energy is a major component included in this cost factor, especially in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Data compression is one of the techniques that is being explored to mitigate the effects of these issues. In contrast to traditional data compression techniques, Compressive Sensing (CS) - a very recent development - introduces the means of accurately reproducing a signal by acquiring much less number of samples than that defined by Nyquist's theorem. CS achieves this task by exploiting the sparsity of the signal. By the reduced amount of data samples, CS may help reduce the energy consumption and storage costs associated with SHM systems. This paper investigates CS based data acquisition in SHM, in particular, the implications of CS on damage detection and localization. CS is implemented in a simulation environment to compress structural response data from a Reinforced Concrete (RC) structure. Promising results were obtained from the compressed data reconstruction process as well as the subsequent damage identification process using the reconstructed data. A reconstruction accuracy of 99% could be achieved at a Compression Ratio (CR) of 2.48 using the experimental data. Further analysis using the reconstructed signals provided accurate damage detection and localization results using two damage detection algorithms, showing that CS has not compromised the crucial information on structural damages during the compression process.

  1. Simulation of Detecting Damage in Composite Stiffened Panel Using Lamb Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Ross, Richard W.; Huang, Guo L.; Yuan, Fuh G.

    2013-01-01

    Lamb wave damage detection in a composite stiffened panel is simulated by performing explicit transient dynamic finite element analyses and using signal imaging techniques. This virtual test process does not need to use real structures, actuators/sensors, or laboratory equipment. Quasi-isotropic laminates are used for the stiffened panels. Two types of damage are studied. One type is a damage in the skin bay and the other type is a debond between the stiffener flange and the skin. Innovative approaches for identifying the damage location and imaging the damage were developed. The damage location is identified by finding the intersection of the damage locus and the path of the time reversal wave packet re-emitted from the sensor nodes. The damage locus is a circle that envelops the potential damage locations. Its center is at the actuator location and its radius is computed by multiplying the group velocity by the time of flight to damage. To create a damage image for estimating the size of damage, a group of nodes in the neighborhood of the damage location is identified for applying an image condition. The image condition, computed at a finite element node, is the zero-lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) of the time-reversed incident wave signal and the time reversal wave signal from the sensor nodes. This damage imaging process is computationally efficient since only the ZLCC values of a small amount of nodes in the neighborhood of the identified damage location are computed instead of those of the full model.

  2. On the spot damage detection methodology for highway bridges during natural crises : tech transfer summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a : low-cost portable damage detection tool to : assess and predict damage areas in highway : bridges. : The proposed tool was based on standard : vibration-based damage identification (VBDI) : techniques but...

  3. Structural Health Monitoring and Impact Detection Using Neural Networks for Damage Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    Detection of damage due to foreign object impact is an important factor in the development of new aerospace vehicles. Acoustic waves generated on impact can be detected using a set of piezoelectric transducers, and the location of impact can be determined by triangulation based on the differences in the arrival time of the waves at each of the sensors. These sensors generate electrical signals in response to mechanical motion resulting from the impact as well as from natural vibrations. Due to electrical noise and mechanical vibration, accurately determining these time differentials can be challenging, and even small measurement inaccuracies can lead to significant errors in the computed damage location. Wavelet transforms are used to analyze the signals at multiple levels of detail, allowing the signals resulting from the impact to be isolated from ambient electromechanical noise. Data extracted from these transformed signals are input to an artificial neural network to aid in identifying the moment of impact from the transformed signals. By distinguishing which of the signal components are resultant from the impact and which are characteristic of noise and normal aerodynamic loads, the time differentials as well as the location of damage can be accurately assessed. The combination of wavelet transformations and neural network processing results in an efficient and accurate approach for passive in-flight detection of foreign object damage.

  4. Damage evaluation and repair methods for prestressed concrete bridge members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanafelt, G. O.; Horn, W. B.

    1980-11-01

    The types of accidental damage occurring and the severity and frequency of their occurrence are summarized. Practices and equipment used for assessing damage and making repairs are presented and evaluated. Guidelines for inspection, assessing damage, and selection of repair methods are given. Methods of repair includes adding external prestress, a metal sleeve splice, and splicing broken strands or rods. The findings of this study suggest that in some instances better repair techniques should be used. The findings of this study also indicate that proper selection of repair methods may reduce the number of damaged girders presently being replaced. Plausible methods of repair requiring additional research are identified and techniques for testing are outlined.

  5. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  6. Damage detection of building structures under ambient excitation through the analysis of the relationship between the modal participation ratio and story stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Oh, Byung Kwan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the damage detection of building structures under ambient excitation based on the inherent modal characteristics. In this study, without the extraction of modal parameters widely utilized in the previous studies on damage detection, a new index called the modal participation ratio (MPR), which is a representative value of the modal response extracted from dynamic responses measured in ambient vibration tests, is proposed to evaluate the change of the system of a structure according to the reduction of the story stiffness. The relationship between the MPR, representing a modal contribution for a specific mode and degree of freedom in buildings, and the story stiffness damage factor (SSDF), representing the extent of reduction in the story stiffness, is analyzed in various damage scenarios. From the analyses with three examples, several rules for the damage localization of building structures are found based on the characteristics of the MPR variation for the first mode subject to change in the SSDF. In addition, a damage severity function, derived from the relationship between the MPR for the first mode in the lowest story and the SSDF, is constructed to identify the severity of story stiffness reduction. Furthermore, the locations and severities of multiple damages are identified via the superposition of the presented damage severity functions. The presented method was applied to detect damage in a three-dimensional reinforced concrete (RC) structure.

  7. Damage detection in rotating machinery by means of entropy-based parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocarciuc, Alexandru; Bereteu, Liviu; ǎgǎnescu, Gheorghe Eugen, Dr

    2014-11-01

    The paper is proposing two new entropy-based parameters, namely Renyi Entropy Index (REI) and Sharma-Mittal Entropy Index (SMEI), for detecting the presence of failures (or damages) in rotating machinery, namely: belt structural damage, belt wheels misalignment, failure of the fixing bolt of the machine to its baseplate and eccentricities (i.e.: due to detaching a small piece of material or bad mounting of the rotating components of the machine). The algorithms to obtain the proposed entropy-based parameters are described and test data is used in order to assess their sensitivity. A vibration test bench is used for measuring the levels of vibration while artificially inducing damage. The deviation of the two entropy-based parameters is compared in two states of the vibration test bench: not damaged and damaged. At the end of the study, their sensitivity is compared to Shannon Entropic Index.

  8. Detection of Non-Symmetrical Damage in Smart Plate-Like Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanks, H. T.; Emeric, P. R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional model for in-plane vibrations of a cantilever plate with a non-symmetrical damage is used in the context of defect identification in materials with piezoelectric ceramic patches bonded to their surface. These patches can act both as actuators and sensors in a self-analyzing fashion, which is a characteristic of smart materials. A Galerkin method is used to approximate the dynamic response of these structures. The natural frequency shifts due to the damage are estimated numerically and compared to experimental data obtained from tests on cantilever aluminum plate-like structures damaged at different locations with defects of different depths. The damage location and extent are determined by an enhanced least square identification method. Efficacy of the frequency shift based algorithms is demonstrated using experimental data.

  9. Molecular level detection and localization of mechanical damage in collagen enabled by collagen hybridizing peptides.

    PubMed

    Zitnay, Jared L; Li, Yang; Qin, Zhao; San, Boi Hoa; Depalle, Baptiste; Reese, Shawn P; Buehler, Markus J; Yu, S Michael; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2017-03-22

    Mechanical injury to connective tissue causes changes in collagen structure and material behaviour, but the role and mechanisms of molecular damage have not been established. In the case of mechanical subfailure damage, no apparent macroscale damage can be detected, yet this damage initiates and potentiates in pathological processes. Here, we utilize collagen hybridizing peptide (CHP), which binds unfolded collagen by triple helix formation, to detect molecular level subfailure damage to collagen in mechanically stretched rat tail tendon fascicle. Our results directly reveal that collagen triple helix unfolding occurs during tensile loading of collagenous tissues and thus is an important damage mechanism. Steered molecular dynamics simulations suggest that a likely mechanism for triple helix unfolding is intermolecular shearing of collagen α-chains. Our results elucidate a probable molecular failure mechanism associated with subfailure injuries, and demonstrate the potential of CHP targeting for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of tissue disease and injury.

  10. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yi; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.

    2015-01-01

    Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry (FCM) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases. PMID:26287253

  11. Using electrolyte leakage tests to determine lifting windows and detect tissue damage

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Tinus

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing is rapidly coming into use as a means to determine the condition of nursery stock and predict how it will respond to treatment or use. One such test, the electrolyte leakage test, can be used to measure cold hardiness and detect tissue damage. The principle of this test is that when cell membranes are damaged, electrolytes leak out into the water...

  12. Development of a wireless, self-sustaining damage detection sensor system based on chemiluminescence for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, K. S. C.

    2014-03-01

    A novel application of chemiluminescence resulting from the chemical reaction in a glow-stick as sensors for structural health monitoring is demonstrated here. By detecting the presence of light emitting from these glow-sticks, it is possible to develop a low-cost sensing device with the potential to provide early warning of damage in a variety of engineering applications such as monitoring of cracks or damage in concrete shear walls, detecting of ground settlement, soil liquefaction, slope instability, liquefaction-related damage of underground structure and others. In addition, this paper demonstrates the ease of incorporating wireless capability to the sensor device and the possibility of making the sensor system self-sustaining by means of a renewable power source for the wireless module. A significant advantage of the system compared to previous work on the use of plastic optical fibre (POF) for damage detection is that here the system does not require an electrically-powered light source. Here, the sensing device, embedded in a cement host, is shown to be capable of detecting damage. A series of specimens with embedded glow-sticks have been investigated and an assessment of their damage detection capability will be reported. The specimens were loaded under flexure and the sensor responses were transmitted via a wireless connection.

  13. Damage detection and quantification in a structural model under seismic excitation using time-frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chun-Kai; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Wu, Tzu-Hsiu

    2015-04-01

    In civil engineering, health monitoring and damage detection are typically carry out by using a large amount of sensors. Typically, most methods require global measurements to extract the properties of the structure. However, some sensors, like LVDT, cannot be used due to in situ limitation so that the global deformation remains unknown. An experiment is used to demonstrate the proposed algorithms: a one-story 2-bay reinforce concrete frame under weak and strong seismic excitation. In this paper signal processing techniques and nonlinear identification are used and applied to the response measurements of seismic response of reinforced concrete structures subject to different level of earthquake excitations. Both modal-based and signal-based system identification and feature extraction techniques are used to study the nonlinear inelastic response of RC frame using both input and output response data or output only measurement. From the signal-based damage identification method, which include the enhancement of time-frequency analysis of acceleration responses and the estimation of permanent deformation using directly from acceleration response data. Finally, local deformation measurement from dense optical tractor is also use to quantify the damage of the RC frame structure.

  14. Optimal filter design with progressive genetic algorithm for local damage detection in rolling bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodecki, Jacek; Michalak, Anna; Zimroz, Radoslaw

    2018-03-01

    Harsh industrial conditions present in underground mining cause a lot of difficulties for local damage detection in heavy-duty machinery. For vibration signals one of the most intuitive approaches of obtaining signal with expected properties, such as clearly visible informative features, is prefiltration with appropriately prepared filter. Design of such filter is very broad field of research on its own. In this paper authors propose a novel approach to dedicated optimal filter design using progressive genetic algorithm. Presented method is fully data-driven and requires no prior knowledge of the signal. It has been tested against a set of real and simulated data. Effectiveness of operation has been proven for both healthy and damaged case. Termination criterion for evolution process was developed, and diagnostic decision making feature has been proposed for final result determinance.

  15. Vibration-based damage detection in a concrete beam under temperature variations using AR models and state-space approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, A.; Laurens, S.

    2011-07-01

    The Structural Health Monitoring of civil structures subjected to ambient vibrations is very challenging. Indeed, the variations of environmental conditions and the difficulty to characterize the excitation make the damage detection a hard task. Auto-regressive (AR) models coefficients are often used as damage sensitive feature. The presented work proposes a comparison of the AR approach with a state-space feature formed by the Jacobian matrix of the dynamical process. Since the detection of damage can be formulated as a novelty detection problem, Mahalanobis distance is applied to track new points from an undamaged reference collection of feature vectors. Data from a concrete beam subjected to temperature variations and damaged by several static loading are analyzed. It is observed that the damage sensitive features are effectively sensitive to temperature variations. However, the use of the Mahalanobis distance makes possible the detection of cracking with both of them. Early damage (before cracking) is only revealed by the AR coefficients with a good sensibility.

  16. Structural damage identification using damping: a compendium of uses and features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, M. S.; Sha, G. G.; Gao, Y. F.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2017-04-01

    The vibration responses of structures under controlled or ambient excitation can be used to detect structural damage by correlating changes in structural dynamic properties extracted from responses with damage. Typical dynamic properties refer to modal parameters: natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping. Among these parameters, natural frequencies and mode shapes have been investigated extensively for their use in damage characterization by associating damage with reduction in local stiffness of structures. In contrast, the use of damping as a dynamic property to represent structural damage has not been comprehensively elucidated, primarily due to the complexities of damping measurement and analysis. With advances in measurement technologies and analysis tools, the use of damping to identify damage is becoming a focus of increasing attention in the damage detection community. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that damping has greater sensitivity for characterizing damage than natural frequencies and mode shapes in various applications, but damping-based damage identification is still a research direction ‘in progress’ and is not yet well resolved. This situation calls for an overall survey of the state-of-the-art and the state-of-the-practice of using damping to detect structural damage. To this end, this study aims to provide a comprehensive survey of uses and features of applying damping in structural damage detection. First, we present various methods for damping estimation in different domains including the time domain, the frequency domain, and the time-frequency domain. Second, we investigate the features and applications of damping-based damage detection methods on the basis of two predominant infrastructure elements, reinforced concrete structures and fiber-reinforced composites. Third, we clarify the influential factors that can impair the capability of damping to characterize damage. Finally, we recommend future research directions

  17. Automated detection of insect-damaged sunflower seeds by X-ray imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of insect-resistant sunflowers is hindered by the lack of a quick and effective method for scoring samples in terms of insect damage. The current method for scoring insect damage, which involves manual inspection of seeds for holes bored into the shell, is tedious, requiring approxi...

  18. Damage Detection in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers using Acoustic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, A.; Kaewunruen, S.; Janeliukstis, R.; Papaelias, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are safety-critical elements in railway tracks that distribute the wheel loads from the rails to the track support system. Over a period of time, the concrete sleepers age and deteriorate in addition to experiencing various types of static and dynamic loading conditions, which are attributable to train operations. In many cases, structural cracks can develop within the sleepers due to high intensity impact loads or due to poor track maintenance. Often, cracks of sleepers develop and present at the midspan due to excessive negative bending. These cracks can cause broken sleepers and sometimes called ‘center bound’ problem in railway lines. This paper is the world first to present an application of non-destructive acoustic emission technology for damage detection in railway concrete sleepers. It presents experimental investigations in order to detect center-bound cracks in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Experimental laboratory testing involves three-point bending tests of four concrete sleepers. Three-point bending tests correspond to a real failure mode, when the loads are not transferred uniformly to the ballast support. It is observed that AE sensing provides an accurate means for detecting the location and magnitude of cracks in sleepers. Sensor location criticality is also highlighted in the paper to demonstrate the reliability-based damage detection of the sleepers.

  19. Damage localization of marine risers using time series of vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Yang, Hezhen; Liu, Fushun

    2014-10-01

    Based on dynamic response signals a damage detection algorithm is developed for marine risers. Damage detection methods based on numerous modal properties have encountered issues in the researches in offshore oil community. For example, significant increase in structure mass due to marine plant/animal growth and changes in modal properties by equipment noise are not the result of damage for riser structures. In an attempt to eliminate the need to determine modal parameters, a data-based method is developed. The implementation of the method requires that vibration data are first standardized to remove the influence of different loading conditions and the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is used to fit vibration response signals. In addition, a damage feature factor is introduced based on the autoregressive (AR) parameters. After that, the Euclidean distance between ARMA models is subtracted as a damage indicator for damage detection and localization and a top tensioned riser simulation model with different damage scenarios is analyzed using the proposed method with dynamic acceleration responses of a marine riser as sensor data. Finally, the influence of measured noise is analyzed. According to the damage localization results, the proposed method provides accurate damage locations of risers and is robust to overcome noise effect.

  20. Preliminary Results of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage Detection with Object-Based Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, A.; Uca Avci, Z. D.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes are the most destructive natural disasters, which result in massive loss of life, infrastructure damages and financial losses. Earthquake-induced building damage detection is a very important step after earthquakes since earthquake-induced building damage is one of the most critical threats to cities and countries in terms of the area of damage, rate of collapsed buildings, the damage grade near the epicenters and also building damage types for all constructions. Van-Ercis (Turkey) earthquake (Mw= 7.1) was occurred on October 23th, 2011; at 10:41 UTC (13:41 local time) centered at 38.75 N 43.36 E that places the epicenter about 30 kilometers northern part of the city of Van. It is recorded that, 604 people died and approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or seriously damaged by the earthquake. In this study, high-resolution satellite images of Van-Ercis, acquired by Quickbird-2 (Digital Globe Inc.) after the earthquake, were used to detect the debris areas using an object-based image classification. Two different land surfaces, having homogeneous and heterogeneous land covers, were selected as case study areas. As a first step of the object-based image processing, segmentation was applied with a convenient scale parameter and homogeneity criterion parameters. As a next step, condition based classification was used. In the final step of this preliminary study, outputs were compared with streetview/ortophotos for the verification and evaluation of the classification accuracy.

  1. Detection of structural damage in multiwire cables by monitoring the entropy evolution of wavelet coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Flor; Baltazar, Arturo; Mijarez, Rito; Aranda, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Multiwire cables are widely used in important civil structures. Since they are exposed to several dynamic and static loads, their structural health can be compromised. The cables can also be submitted to mechanical contact, tension and energy propagation in addition to changes in size and material within their wires. Due to the critical role played by multiwire cables, it is necessary to develop a non-destructive health monitoring method to maintain their structure and proper performance. Ultrasonic inspection using guided waves is a promising non-destructive damage monitoring technique for rods, single wires and multiwire cables. The propagated guided waves are composed by an infinite number of vibrational modes making their analysis difficult. In this work, an entropy-based method to identify small changes in non-stationary signals is proposed. A system to capture and post-process acoustic signals is implemented. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is computed in order to obtain the reconstructed wavelet coefficients of the signals and to analyze the energy at different scales. The feasibility of using the concept of entropy evolution of non-stationary signals to detect damage in multiwire cables is evaluated. The results show that there is a high correlation between the entropy value and damage level of the cable. The proposed method has low sensitivity to noise and reduces the computational complexity found in a typical time-frequency analysis.

  2. Interfacial damage identification of steel and concrete composite beams based on piezoceramic wave method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi; Dai, Yong; Zhao, Putian; Liu, Weiling

    2018-01-01

    Steel-concrete composite structures are playing an increasingly important role in economic construction because of a series of advantages of great stiffness, good seismic performance, steel material saving, cost efficiency, convenient construction, etc. However, in service process, due to the long-term effects of environmental impacts and dynamic loading, interfaces of a composite structure might generate debonding cracks, relative slips or separations, and so on, lowering the composite effect of the composite structure. In this paper, the piezoceramics (PZT) are used as transducers to perform experiments on interface debonding slips and separations of composite beams, respectively, aimed at proposing an interface damage identification model and a relevant damage detection innovation method based on PZT wave technology. One part of various PZT patches was embedded in concrete as "smart aggregates," and another part of the PZT patches was pasted on the surface of the steel beam flange, forming a sensor array. A push-out test for four specimens was carried out and experimental results showed that, under the action of the external loading, the received signal amplitudes will increasingly decrease with increase of debonding slips along the interface. The proposed signal energy-based interface damage detection algorithm is highly efficient in surface state evaluations of composite beams.

  3. Impact damage detection in sandwich composite structures using Lamb waves and laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamboul, B.; Passilly, B.; Roche, J.-M.; Osmont, D.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study explores the feasibility of impact damage detection in composite sandwich structures using Lamb wave excitation and signals acquired with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Energy maps are computed from the transient velocity wave fields and used to highlight defect areas in impacted coupons of foam core and honeycomb core sandwich materials. The technique performs well for the detection of barely visible damage in this type of material, and is shown to be robust in the presence of wave reverberation. Defect extent information is not always readily retrieved from the obtained defect signatures, which depend on the wave - defect interaction mechanisms.

  4. Experimental strain modal analysis for beam-like structure by using distributed fiber optics and its damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Liangliang; Busca, Giorgio; Cigada, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    Modal analysis is commonly considered as an effective tool to obtain the intrinsic characteristics of structures including natural frequencies, modal damping ratios, and mode shapes, which are significant indicators for monitoring the health status of engineering structures. The complex mode indicator function (CMIF) can be regarded as an effective numerical tool to perform modal analysis. In this paper, experimental strain modal analysis based on the CMIF has been introduced. Moreover, a distributed fiber-optic sensor, as a dense measuring device, has been applied to acquire strain data along a beam surface. Thanks to the dense spatial resolution of the distributed fiber optics, more detailed mode shapes could be obtained. In order to test the effectiveness of the method, a mass lump—considered as a linear damage component—has been attached to the surface of the beam, and damage detection based on strain mode shape has been carried out. The results manifest that strain modal parameters can be estimated effectively by utilizing the CMIF based on the corresponding simulations and experiments. Furthermore, damage detection based on strain mode shapes benefits from the accuracy of strain mode shape recognition and the excellent performance of the distributed fiber optics.

  5. Detection of multiple damages employing best achievable eigenvectors under Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapat, Kanta; Ray-Chaudhuri, Samit

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach is presented in this work to localize simultaneously multiple damaged elements in a structure along with the estimation of damage severity for each of the damaged elements. For detection of damaged elements, a best achievable eigenvector based formulation has been derived. To deal with noisy data, Bayesian inference is employed in the formulation wherein the likelihood of the Bayesian algorithm is formed on the basis of errors between the best achievable eigenvectors and the measured modes. In this approach, the most probable damage locations are evaluated under Bayesian inference by generating combinations of various possible damaged elements. Once damage locations are identified, damage severities are estimated using a Bayesian inference Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by carrying out a numerical study involving a 12-story shear building. It has been found from this study that damage scenarios involving as low as 10% loss of stiffness in multiple elements are accurately determined (localized and severities quantified) even when 2% noise contaminated modal data are utilized. Further, this study introduces a term parameter impact (evaluated based on sensitivity of modal parameters towards structural parameters) to decide the suitability of selecting a particular mode, if some idea about the damaged elements are available. It has been demonstrated here that the accuracy and efficiency of the Bayesian quantification algorithm increases if damage localization is carried out a-priori. An experimental study involving a laboratory scale shear building and different stiffness modification scenarios shows that the proposed approach is efficient enough to localize the stories with stiffness modification.

  6. Validation of the shake test for detecting freeze damage to adsorbed vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kartoglu, Umit; Ozgüler, Nejat Kenan; Wolfson, Lara J; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław

    2010-08-01

    To determine the validity of the shake test for detecting freeze damage in aluminium-based, adsorbed, freeze-sensitive vaccines. A double-blind crossover design was used to compare the performance of the shake test conducted by trained health-care workers (HCWs) with that of phase contrast microscopy as a "gold standard". A total of 475 vials of 8 different types of World Health Organization prequalified freeze-sensitive vaccines from 10 different manufacturers were used. Vaccines were kept at 5 degrees C. Selected numbers of vials from each type were then exposed to -25 degrees C and -2 degrees C for 24-hour periods. There was complete concordance between HCWs and phase-contrast microscopy in identifying freeze-damaged vials and non-frozen samples. Non-frozen samples showed a fine-grain structure under phase contrast microscopy, but freeze-damaged samples showed large conglomerates of massed precipitates with amorphous, crystalline, solid and needle-like structures. Particles in the non-frozen samples measured from 1 microm (vaccines against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis; Haemophilus influenzae type b; hepatitis B; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B) to 20 microm (diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, alone or in combination). By contrast, aggregates in the freeze-damaged samples measured up to 700 microm (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis) and 350 microm on average. The shake test had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in this study, which confirms its validity for detecting freeze damage to aluminium-based freeze-sensitive vaccines.

  7. Satellite detection of vegetative damage and alteration caused by pollutants emitted by a zinc smelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Fritz, E. L.; Pennypacker, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field observations and data collected by low flying aircraft were used to verify the accuracy of maps produced from the satellite data. Although areas of vegetation as small as six acres can accurately be detected, a white pine stand that was severely damaged by sulfur dioxide could not be differentiated from a healthy white pine stand because spectral differences were not large enough. When winter data were used to eliminate interference from herbaceous and deciduous vegetation, the damage was still undetectable. The analysis was able to produce a character map that accurately delineated areas of vegetative alteration due to high zinc levels accumulating in the soil. The map depicted a distinct gradient of less damage and alteration as the distance from the smelter increased. Although the satellite data will probably not be useful for detecting small acreages of damaged vegetation, it is concluded that the data may be very useful as an inventory tool to detect and delineate large vegetative areas possessing differing spectral signatures.

  8. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  9. A Novel Approach to Rotorcraft Damage Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Everett, Richard A.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Damage-tolerance methodology is positioned to replace safe-life methodologies for designing rotorcraft structures. The argument for implementing a damage-tolerance method comes from the fundamental fact that rotorcraft structures typically fail by fatigue cracking. Therefore, if technology permits prediction of fatigue-crack growth in structures, a damage-tolerance method should deliver the most accurate prediction of component life. Implementing damage-tolerance (DT) into high-cycle-fatigue (HCF) components will require a shift from traditional DT methods that rely on detecting an initial flaw with nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods. The rapid accumulation of cycles in a HCF component will result in a design based on a traditional DT method that is either impractical because of frequent inspections, or because the design will be too heavy to operate efficiently. Furthermore, once a HCF component develops a detectable propagating crack, the remaining fatigue life is short, sometimes less than one flight hour, which does not leave sufficient time for inspection. Therefore, designing a HCF component will require basing the life analysis on an initial flaw that is undetectable with current NDI technology.

  10. Nonlinear damage identification of breathing cracks in Truss system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; DeSmidt, Hans

    2014-03-01

    The breathing cracks in truss system are detected by Frequency Response Function (FRF) based damage identification method. This method utilizes damage-induced changes of frequency response functions to estimate the severity and location of structural damage. This approach enables the possibility of arbitrary interrogation frequency and multiple inputs/outputs which greatly enrich the dataset for damage identification. The dynamical model of truss system is built using the finite element method and the crack model is based on fracture mechanics. Since the crack is driven by tensional and compressive forces of truss member, only one damage parameter is needed to represent the stiffness reduction of each truss member. Assuming that the crack constantly breathes with the exciting frequency, the linear damage detection algorithm is developed in frequency/time domain using Least Square and Newton Raphson methods. Then, the dynamic response of the truss system with breathing cracks is simulated in the time domain and meanwhile the crack breathing status for each member is determined by the feedback from real-time displacements of member's nodes. Harmonic Fourier Coefficients (HFCs) of dynamical response are computed by processing the data through convolution and moving average filters. Finally, the results show the effectiveness of linear damage detection algorithm in identifying the nonlinear breathing cracks using different combinations of HFCs and sensors.

  11. Novel Methods in Terminal Ballistics and Mechanochemistry of Damage 2. Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage in Solid Brittle Dielectrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage in Solid Brittle Dielectrics by MA Grinfeld Approved for public release...Army Research Laboratory Novel Methods in Terminal Ballistics and Mechanochemistry of Damage 2. Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage...2. Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage in Solid Brittle Dielectrics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  12. Selection of experimental modal data sets for damage detection via model update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doebling, S. W.; Hemez, F. M.; Barlow, M. S.; Peterson, L. D.; Farhat, C.

    1993-01-01

    When using a finite element model update algorithm for detecting damage in structures, it is important that the experimental modal data sets used in the update be selected in a coherent manner. In the case of a structure with extremely localized modal behavior, it is necessary to use both low and high frequency modes, but many of the modes in between may be excluded. In this paper, we examine two different mode selection strategies based on modal strain energy, and compare their success to the choice of an equal number of modes based merely on lowest frequency. Additionally, some parameters are introduced to enable a quantitative assessment of the success of our damage detection algorithm when using the various set selection criteria.

  13. Selective Excitation of Lamb-Waves for Damage Detection in Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petculescu, G.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    2006-03-01

    Sensors based on periodic arrays of coherent piezoelectric sources (comb design) are used to selectively excite and detect Lamb waves in aluminum and AS4/3601 unidirectional carbon-epoxy plates. 110 μm PVDF film poled in the thickness direction is used as piezoelectric material. An algorithm to eliminate the effect of coupling in amplitude measurements, using individual Lamb modes excited/detected by the same transducer pair, is described. A multiple-impact test showing a decrease in amplitude and group velocity as damage progresses is used as an example.

  14. Experimental study of thin film sensor networks for wind turbine blade damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, A.; Laflamme, S.; Ubertini, F.; Sauder, H.; Sarkar, P.

    2017-02-01

    Damage detection of wind turbine blades is difficult due to their complex geometry and large size, for which large deployment of sensing systems is typically not economical. A solution is to develop and deploy dedicated sensor networks fabricated from inexpensive materials and electronics. The authors have recently developed a novel skin-type strain gauge for measuring strain over very large surfaces. The skin, a type of large-area electronics, is constituted from a network of soft elastomeric capacitors. The sensing system is analogous to a biological skin, where local strain can be monitored over a global area. In this paper, we propose the utilization of a dense network of soft elastomeric capacitors to detect, localize, and quantify damage on wind turbine blades. We also leverage mature off-the-shelf technologies, in particular resistive strain gauges, to augment such dense sensor network with high accuracy data at key locations, therefore constituting a hybrid dense sensor network. The proposed hybrid dense sensor network is installed inside a wind turbine blade model, and tested in a wind tunnel to simulate an operational environment. Results demonstrate the ability of the hybrid dense sensor network to detect, localize, and quantify damage.

  15. A procedure for damage detection and localization of framed buildings based on curvature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Mossucca, Antonello; Nigro, Domenico; Nigro, Antonella

    2014-05-01

    Structural Health Monitoring and Damage Detection are topics of current interest in civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering. Damage Detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature of the last years. The basic idea arises from the observation that spectral properties, described in terms of the so-called modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping), are functions of the physical properties of the structure (mass, energy dissipation mechanisms and stiffness). Structural damage exhibits its main effects in terms of stiffness and damping variation. As a consequence, a permanent dynamic monitoring system makes it possible to detect and, if suitably concentrated on the structure, to localize structural and non-structural damage occurred on the structure during a strong earthquake. In the last years many researchers are working to set-up new methodologies for Non-destructive Damage Evaluation (NDE) based on the variation of the dynamic behaviour of structures under seismic loads. Pandey et al. (1991) highlighted on the possibility to use the structural mode shapes to extract useful information for structural damage localization. In this paper a new procedure for damage detection on framed structures based on changes in modal curvature is proposed. The proposed approach is based on the use of Stockwell Transform, a special kind of integral transformation that become a powerful tool for nonlinear signal analysis and then to analyse the nonlinear behaviour of a general structure. Using this kind of approach, it is possible to use a band-variable filter (Ditommaso et al., 2012) to extract from a signal recorded on a structure (excited by an earthquake) the response related to a single mode of vibration for which the related frequency changes over time (if the structure is being damaged). İn general, by acting simultaneously in both frequency and

  16. Damage Detection Using Lamb Waves for Structural Health Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    experiments have been reported by Seth Kessler [8]. 2.2 Large Aluminum Plate The second experiment included a 2024-0 aluminum plate with dimensions of...Mechanical Engineering Congress , (IMECE2002- 39017) (17-22 November 2002). 6. Kessler , Seth S. Piezoelectric-Based In-Situ Damage Detection of...Composite Materials for Structural Health Monitoring Systems. Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, January 2002. 7. Kessler , Seth S. “Metis

  17. Study of cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts with nonlinear output frequency response functions based on NARMAX modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Honglan; Mao, Hanying; Mao, Hanling; Zheng, Weixue; Huang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Xianghong

    2017-12-01

    Cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts plays a key role in the process of remanufacturing engineering and is related to the service safety of the remanufactured parts. In light of the nonlinear properties of used parts caused by cumulative fatigue damage, the based nonlinear output frequency response functions detection approach offers a breakthrough to solve this key problem. First, a modified PSO-adaptive lasso algorithm is introduced to improve the accuracy of the NARMAX model under impulse hammer excitation, and then, an effective new algorithm is derived to estimate the nonlinear output frequency response functions under rectangular pulse excitation, and a based nonlinear output frequency response functions index is introduced to detect the cumulative fatigue damage in used parts. Then, a novel damage detection approach that integrates the NARMAX model and the rectangular pulse is proposed for nonlinear output frequency response functions identification and cumulative fatigue damage detection of used parts. Finally, experimental studies of fatigued plate specimens and used connecting rod parts are conducted to verify the validity of the novel approach. The obtained results reveal that the new approach can detect cumulative fatigue damages of used parts effectively and efficiently and that the various values of the based nonlinear output frequency response functions index can be used to detect the different fatigue damages or working time. Since the proposed new approach can extract nonlinear properties of systems by only a single excitation of the inspected system, it shows great promise for use in remanufacturing engineering applications.

  18. Damage identification via asymmetric active magnetic bearing acceleration feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; DeSmidt, Hans; Yao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A Floquet-based damage detection methodology for cracked rotor systems is developed and demonstrated on a shaft-disk system. This approach utilizes measured changes in the system natural frequencies to estimate the severity and location of shaft structural cracks during operation. The damage detection algorithms are developed with the initial guess solved by least square method and iterative damage parameter vector by updating the eigenvector updating. Active Magnetic Bearing is introduced to break the symmetric structure of rotor system and the tuning range of proper stiffness/virtual mass gains is studied. The system model is built based on energy method and the equations of motion are derived by applying assumed modes method and Lagrange Principle. In addition, the crack model is based on the Strain Energy Release Rate (SERR) concept in fracture mechanics. Finally, the method is synthesized via harmonic balance and numerical examples for a shaft/disk system demonstrate the effectiveness in detecting both location and severity of the structural damage.

  19. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel single-cell method provides direct evidence of persistent DNA damage in senescent cells and aged mammalian tissues.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Alessandro; Beauséjour, Christian; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) arrests cell cycle progression until DNA lesions, like DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), are repaired. The presence of DSBs in cells is usually detected by indirect techniques that rely on the accumulation of proteins at DSBs, as part of the DDR. Such detection may be biased, as some factors and their modifications may not reflect physical DNA damage. The dependency on DDR markers of DSB detection tools has left questions unanswered. In particular, it is known that senescent cells display persistent DDR foci, that we and others have proposed to be persistent DSBs, resistant to endogenous DNA repair activities. Others have proposed that these peculiar DDR foci might not be sites of damaged DNA per se but instead stable chromatin modifications, termed DNA-SCARS. Here, we developed a method, named 'DNA damage in situ ligation followed by proximity ligation assay' (DI-PLA) for the detection and imaging of DSBs in cells. DI-PLA is based on the capture of free DNA ends in fixed cells in situ, by ligation to biotinylated double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides, which are next recognized by antibiotin anti-bodies. Detection is enhanced by PLA with a partner DDR marker at the DSB. We validated DI-PLA by demonstrating its ability to detect DSBs induced by various genotoxic insults in cultured cells and tissues. Most importantly, by DI-PLA, we demonstrated that both senescent cells in culture and tissues from aged mammals retain true unrepaired DSBs associated with DDR markers. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  2. Lamb wave-based damage quantification and probability of detection modeling for fatigue life assessment of riveted lap joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingjing; Wang, Dengjiang; Zhang, Weifang

    2015-03-01

    This study presents an experimental and modeling study for damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer-type sensors are employed to perform in-situ non-destructive testing during fatigue cyclical loading. A multi-feature integration method is developed to quantify the crack size using signal features of correlation coefficient, amplitude change, and phase change. In addition, probability of detection (POD) model is constructed to quantify the reliability of the developed sizing method. Using the developed crack size quantification method and the resulting POD curve, probabilistic fatigue life prediction can be performed to provide comprehensive information for decision-making. The effectiveness of the overall methodology is demonstrated and validated using several aircraft lap joint specimens from different manufactures and under different loading conditions.

  3. A new EEMD-based scheme for detection of insect damaged wheat kernels using impact acoustics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internally feeding insects inside wheat kernels cause significant, but unseen economic damage to stored grain. In this paper, a new scheme based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) using impact acoustics is proposed for detection of insect-damaged wheat kernels, based on its capability t...

  4. Detection of airway ischaemic damage after lung transplantation by using autofluorescence imaging bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Iga, Norichika; Oto, Takahiro; Okada, Masanori; Harada, Masaaki; Nishikawa, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Otani, Shinji; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2014-03-01

    Airway complications related to ischaemia are a major cause of morbidity after lung transplantation. Early detection of airway ischaemia and optimal management of the anastomotic site could reduce the risk of airway complications. Autofluorescence imaging (AFI) bronchoscopy has been increasingly recognized as an effective technique for detecting abnormal mucosal thickening. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AFI bronchoscopy can facilitate the detection of airway ischaemic damage in lung transplant patients. Twenty Landrace pigs were used to create a tracheal autotransplantation model. A four-ring length of trachea was excised and implanted orthotopically. The tracheal autograft was observed on postoperative days 0, 2, 4 and 7 with AFI bronchoscopy. The extent and origin of graft autofluorescence were examined using histology and measured according to fluorescence intensity. The lesions on the tracheal autografts appeared as bright green fluorescence on AFI bronchoscopy. On confocal fluorescence microscopy, high-intensity green fluorescence was observed in the elastin fibre layer of the submucosa. The fluorescence intensity of elastin was significantly higher in the graft showing fluorescence than the graft that did not show fluorescence and that at the control site. Bright green fluorescence was seen in an elastin fibre layer in the submucosa, which was likely a result of epithelial sloughing. There is a close relationship between the bright green fluorescence pattern observed using AFI bronchoscopy and airway ischaemic damage. We conclude that AFI bronchoscopy may detect airway ischaemic damage after lung transplantation.

  5. Non-supervised method for early forest fire detection and rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artés, Tomás; Boca, Roberto; Liberta, Giorgio; San-Miguel, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Natural hazards are a challenge for the society. Scientific community efforts have been severely increased assessing tasks about prevention and damage mitigation. The most important points to minimize natural hazard damages are monitoring and prevention. This work focuses particularly on forest fires. This phenomenon depends on small-scale factors and fire behavior is strongly related to the local weather. Forest fire spread forecast is a complex task because of the scale of the phenomena, the input data uncertainty and time constraints in forest fire monitoring. Forest fire simulators have been improved, including some calibration techniques avoiding data uncertainty and taking into account complex factors as the atmosphere. Such techniques increase dramatically the computational cost in a context where the available time to provide a forecast is a hard constraint. Furthermore, an early mapping of the fire becomes crucial to assess it. In this work, a non-supervised method for forest fire early detection and mapping is proposed. As main sources, the method uses daily thermal anomalies from MODIS and VIIRS combined with land cover map to identify and monitor forest fires with very few resources. This method relies on a clustering technique (DBSCAN algorithm) and on filtering thermal anomalies to detect the forest fires. In addition, a concave hull (alpha shape algorithm) is applied to obtain rapid mapping of the fire area (very coarse accuracy mapping). Therefore, the method leads to a potential use for high-resolution forest fire rapid mapping based on satellite imagery using the extent of each early fire detection. It shows the way to an automatic rapid mapping of the fire at high resolution processing as few data as possible.

  6. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  7. Use of sensitive methods for detection of DNA damage on human lymphocytes exposed to p,p'-DDT: Comet assay and new criteria for scoring micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Ravlic, Sanda; Capuder, Zeljka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2007-08-01

    Wide distribution, stability and long persistence in the environment of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), probably the best-known and most useful insecticide in the world, imposes the need for further examination of the effect of this chemical on human health and especially on the human genome. In this study, peripheral blood human lymphocytes from a healthy donor were exposed to 0.025 mg/L concentration of p,p'-DDT at different time periods (1, 2, 24 and 48 h). For the assessment of genotoxic effect, the new criteria for scoring micronucleus test and alkaline comet assay were used. Both methods showed that p,p'-DDT induces DNA damage in low concentration used in this research. Results of micronucleus test showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) genotoxic effect of p,p'-DDT on human lymphocytes compared with corresponding control and a different exposure time. A comet assay also showed increased DNA damage caused in p,p'-DDT-exposed human lymphocytes than in corresponding control cells for the tail length. Results obtained by measuring the level of DNA migration and incidence of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) indicate the sensitivity of these tests and their application in detection of primary genome damage after long-term exposure to establish the effect of p,p'-DDT on human genome.

  8. Guided wave localization of damage via sparse reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Ross M.; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Lee, Sang Jun

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves are frequently applied for structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation of plate-like metallic and composite structures. Spatially distributed arrays of fixed piezoelectric transducers can be used to detect damage by recording and analyzing all pairwise signal combinations. By subtracting pre-recorded baseline signals, the effects due to scatterer interactions can be isolated. Given these residual signals, techniques such as delay-and-sum imaging are capable of detecting flaws, but do not exploit the expected sparse nature of damage. It is desired to determine the location of a possible flaw by leveraging the anticipated sparsity of damage; i.e., most of the structure is assumed to be damage-free. Unlike least-squares methods, L1-norm minimization techniques favor sparse solutions to inverse problems such as the one considered here of locating damage. Using this type of method, it is possible to exploit sparsity of damage by formulating the imaging process as an optimization problem. A model-based damage localization method is presented that simultaneously decomposes all scattered signals into location-based signal components. The method is first applied to simulated data to investigate sensitivity to both model mismatch and additive noise, and then to experimental data recorded from an aluminum plate with artificial damage. Compared to delay-and-sum imaging, results exhibit a significant reduction in both spot size and imaging artifacts when the model is reasonably well-matched to the data.

  9. Airborne Detection of Southern Pine Beetle Damage Using Key Spectral Bands

    Treesearch

    Gregory A. Carter; Michael R. Seal; Tim Haley

    1998-01-01

    Damage by the southern pine beetle(SPB) (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) occurs frequently in the southeastern United States and can result in tree death over large areas. A new technique for detection of SPB activity was tested for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) in the Caney Creek Wilderness, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas. Digital images...

  10. Numerical modeling of the load effect on PZT-induced guided wave for load compensation of damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hu; Zhang, Aijia; Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin P.

    2017-04-01

    Guided wave-based structural health monitoring (SHM) has been given considerable attention and widely studied for large-scale aircraft structures. Nevertheless, it is difficult to apply SHM systems on board or online, for which one of the most serious reasons is the environmental influence. Load is one fact that affects not only the host structure, in which guided wave propagates, but also the PZT, by which guided wave is transmitted and received. In this paper, numerical analysis using finite element method is used to study the load effect on guided wave acquired by PZT. The static loads with different grades are considered to analyze its effect on guided wave signals that PZT transmits and receives. Based on the variation trend of guided waves versus load, a load compensation method is developed to eliminate effects of load in the process of damage detection. The probabilistic reconstruction algorithm based on the signal variation of transmitter-receiver path is employed to identify the damage. Numerical tests is conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the given method.

  11. Detection of damaged areas caused by the oil extraction in a steppe region using winter landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjachina, Ksenya; Hu, Zhiyong; Chibilyev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Oil production in a steppe region disturbs the landscape and damages the steppe ecosystem. The objective of this research was to detect areas damaged by oil production in an oil field within the Russian Volga-Ural steppe region using winter Landsat imagery. We developed a practicable and effective approach using winter snow season multispectral Landsat satellite imagery. To this end, we applied seven algorithms of spectral or texture-based transformation: K-means, maximum likelihood estimation, topsoil grain size index, soil brightness, normalized differential snow index, tasselled cap, and co-occurrence measures. The co-occurrence texture measure variance shows the optimal result of identifying damaged areas. The unique feature of our method is that it can differentiate damaged areas from the bare soil of cropland within a cold steppe region where the area damaged by oil production is mixed with bare (fallow) croplands that have a polygonal shape similar to well pads. Such similarities can lead to confusion in object-based classification. Using the co-occurrence measures, we found that from 1988 to 2015, damaged area is nearly three times as big in the peak period of the oil field development (2001 and 2009) as in 1988. Landscape fragmentation also peaked in 2001 and 2009. Our approach for this project is useful and cost effective regular monitoring of damages from oil production for both the Volga-Ural steppe region and other cold steppe regions.

  12. Detection of impact damage on thermal protection systems using thin-film piezoelectric sensors for integrated structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Kuhr, Samuel J.; Jata, Kumar V.

    2008-03-01

    Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) can be subjected to impact damage during flight and/or during ground maintenance and/or repair. AFRL/RXLP is developing a reliable and robust on-board sensing/monitoring capability for next generation thermal protection systems to detect and assess impact damage. This study was focused on two classes of metallic thermal protection tiles to determine threshold for impact damage and develop sensing capability of the impacts. Sensors made of PVDF piezoelectric film were employed and tested to evaluate the detectability of impact signals and assess the onset or threshold of impact damage. Testing was performed over a range of impact energy levels, where the sensors were adhered to the back of the specimens. The PVDF signal levels were analyzed and compared to assess damage, where digital microscopy, visual inspection, and white light interferometry were used for damage verification. Based on the impact test results, an assessment of the impact damage thresholds for each type of metallic TPS system was made.

  13. Computational inverse methods of heat source in fatigue damage problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aizhou; Li, Yuan; Yan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Fatigue dissipation energy is the research focus in field of fatigue damage at present. It is a new idea to solve the problem of calculating fatigue dissipation energy by introducing inverse method of heat source into parameter identification of fatigue dissipation energy model. This paper introduces the research advances on computational inverse method of heat source and regularization technique to solve inverse problem, as well as the existing heat source solution method in fatigue process, prospects inverse method of heat source applying in fatigue damage field, lays the foundation for further improving the effectiveness of fatigue dissipation energy rapid prediction.

  14. Optimum electrode configuration selection for electrical resistance change based damage detection in composites using an effective independence measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalona, Luis; Díaz-Montiel, Paulina; Venkataraman, Satchi

    2016-04-01

    Laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are increasingly used in aerospace structures due to their superior mechanical properties and reduced weight. Assessing the health and integrity of these structures requires non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and measure interlaminar delamination and intralaminar matrix cracking damage. The electrical resistance change (ERC) based NDE technique uses the inherent changes in conductive properties of the composite to characterize internal damage. Several works that have explored the ERC technique have been limited to thin cross-ply laminates with simple linear or circular electrode arrangements. This paper investigates a method of optimum selection of electrode configurations for delamination detection in thick cross-ply laminates using ERC. Inverse identification of damage requires numerical optimization of the measured response with a model predicted response. Here, the electrical voltage field in the CFRP composite laminate is calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) models for different specified delamination size and locations, and location of ground and current electrodes. Reducing the number of sensor locations and measurements is needed to reduce hardware requirements, and computational effort needed for inverse identification. This paper explores the use of effective independence (EI) measure originally proposed for sensor location optimization in experimental vibration modal analysis. The EI measure is used for selecting the minimum set of resistance measurements among all possible combinations of selecting a pair of electrodes among the n electrodes. To enable use of EI to ERC required, it is proposed in this research a singular value decomposition SVD to obtain a spectral representation of the resistance measurements in the laminate. The effectiveness of EI measure in eliminating redundant electrode pairs is demonstrated by performing inverse identification of

  15. A Tensor-Based Structural Damage Identification and Severity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Anaissi, Ali; Makki Alamdari, Mehrisadat; Rakotoarivelo, Thierry; Khoa, Nguyen Lu Dang

    2018-01-01

    Early damage detection is critical for a large set of global ageing infrastructure. Structural Health Monitoring systems provide a sensor-based quantitative and objective approach to continuously monitor these structures, as opposed to traditional engineering visual inspection. Analysing these sensed data is one of the major Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) challenges. This paper presents a novel algorithm to detect and assess damage in structures such as bridges. This method applies tensor analysis for data fusion and feature extraction, and further uses one-class support vector machine on this feature to detect anomalies, i.e., structural damage. To evaluate this approach, we collected acceleration data from a sensor-based SHM system, which we deployed on a real bridge and on a laboratory specimen. The results show that our tensor method outperforms a state-of-the-art approach using the wavelet energy spectrum of the measured data. In the specimen case, our approach succeeded in detecting 92.5% of induced damage cases, as opposed to 61.1% for the wavelet-based approach. While our method was applied to bridges, its algorithm and computation can be used on other structures or sensor-data analysis problems, which involve large series of correlated data from multiple sensors. PMID:29301314

  16. Impact Damage Detection of Toughened CFRP Laminates with Time Domain Reflectometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    detect damage of the CFRP structures. 3. Experiments Material used for the experiments is IM600/133 highly toughened CFRP prepreg produced by Toho...Tenux Co. Ltd. The long specimen shown in Fig. 5 is made from the prepreg . The cure condition is 180°C×0.7MPa×2h. The specimen’s stacking sequence

  17. On the classification of normalized natural frequencies for damage detection in cantilever beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahak, Mustapha; Touat, Noureddine; Benseddiq, Noureddine

    2017-08-01

    The presence of a damage on a beam causes changes in the physical properties, which introduce flexibility, and reduce the natural frequencies of the beam. Based on this, a new method is proposed to locate the damage zone in a cantilever beam. In this paper, the cantilever beam is discretized into a number of zones, where each zone has a specific classification of the first four normalized natural frequencies. The damaged zone is distinguished by only the classification of the normalized frequencies of the structure. In the case when the damage is symmetric to the vibration node, we use the unchanged natural frequency as a second information to obtain a more accurate location. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by a numerical simulation with ANSYS software and experimental investigation of a cantilever beam with different damage.

  18. Detection and localization of damage using empirical mode decomposition and multilevel support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushyanth, N. D.; Suma, M. N.; Latte, Mrityanjaya V.

    2016-03-01

    Damage in the structure may raise a significant amount of maintenance cost and serious safety problems. Hence detection of the damage at its early stage is of prime importance. The main contribution pursued in this investigation is to propose a generic optimal methodology to improve the accuracy of positioning of the flaw in a structure. This novel approach involves a two-step process. The first step essentially aims at extracting the damage-sensitive features from the received signal, and these extracted features are often termed the damage index or damage indices, serving as an indicator to know whether the damage is present or not. In particular, a multilevel SVM (support vector machine) plays a vital role in the distinction of faulty and healthy structures. Formerly, when a structure is unveiled as a damaged structure, in the subsequent step, the position of the damage is identified using Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated in both simulation and experimental tests on a 6061 aluminum plate with dimensions 300 mm × 300 mm × 5 mm which accordingly yield considerable improvement in the accuracy of estimating the position of the flaw.

  19. Metamodel-based inverse method for parameter identification: elastic-plastic damage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Changwu; El Hami, Abdelkhalak; Radi, Bouchaïb

    2017-04-01

    This article proposed a metamodel-based inverse method for material parameter identification and applies it to elastic-plastic damage model parameter identification. An elastic-plastic damage model is presented and implemented in numerical simulation. The metamodel-based inverse method is proposed in order to overcome the disadvantage in computational cost of the inverse method. In the metamodel-based inverse method, a Kriging metamodel is constructed based on the experimental design in order to model the relationship between material parameters and the objective function values in the inverse problem, and then the optimization procedure is executed by the use of a metamodel. The applications of the presented material model and proposed parameter identification method in the standard A 2017-T4 tensile test prove that the presented elastic-plastic damage model is adequate to describe the material's mechanical behaviour and that the proposed metamodel-based inverse method not only enhances the efficiency of parameter identification but also gives reliable results.

  20. Remote detection of forest damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Vogelmann, A. F.; Hoshizaki, T.; Williams, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to discriminate, measure, and map forest damage is evaluated. TM spectal coverage, a helicopter-mounted radiometer, and ground-based surveys were utilized to examine the responses of the spruces and firs of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont to stresses, such as pollution and trace metals. The basic spectral properties of vegetation are described. Forest damage at the site was estimated as 11.8-76.0 percent for the spruces and 19-43.8 percent for the balsam firs. Shifts in the spectra of the conifers in particular in the near IR region are analyzed, and variations in the mesophyll cell anatomy and pigment content of the spruces and firs are investigated. The relations between canopy moisture and damage is studied. The TM data are compared to aircraft data and found to be well correlated.

  1. Development of a peptide substrate for detection of Sunn pest damage in wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Hançerlioğulları, Begüm Zeynep; Köksel, Hamit; Dudak, Fahriye Ceyda

    2018-05-07

    Since the common protease substrates did not give satisfactory results for the determination of Sunn pest protease activity in damaged wheat, different peptide substrates derived from the repeat sequences of high molecular weight glutenin subunits were synthesized. Hydrolysis of peptides by pest protease was determined by HPLC. Among three peptides having the same consensus motifs, peptide1 (PGQGQQGYYPTSPQQ) showed the best catalytic efficiency. A novel assay was described for monitoring the enzymatic activity of protease extracted from damaged wheat flour. The selected peptide was labeled with a fluorophore (EDANS) and quencher (Dabcyl) to display fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The proteolytic activity was measured by the change in fluorescence intensity that occurred when the protease cleaved the peptide substrate. Furthermore, the developed assay was modified for rapid and easy detection of bug damage in flour. Flour samples were suspended in water and mixed with fluorescence peptide substrate. After centrifugation, the fluorescence intensities of the supernatants were determined which is proportional with the protease content of the flour. The total analysis time for the developed assay is estimated as 15 minutes. The developed assay permits a significant decrease in time and labor, offering sensitive detection of Sunn pest damage in wheat flour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements by terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Liu, Yu-Wei; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) terrestrial laser scanning technologies with higher precision and higher capability are developing rapidly. The growing maturity of laser scanning has gradually approached the required precision as those have been provided by traditional structural monitoring technologies. Together with widely available fast computation for massive point cloud data processing, 3D laser scanning can serve as an efficient structural monitoring alternative for civil engineering communities. Currently most research efforts have focused on integrating/calculating the measured multi-station point cloud data, as well as modeling/establishing the 3D meshes of the scanned objects. Very little attention has been spent on extracting the information related to health conditions and mechanical states of structures. In this study, an automated numerical approach that integrates various existing algorithms for geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements were established. Specifically, adaptive meshes were employed for classifying the point cloud data of the structural elements, and detecting the associated damages from the calculated eigenvalues in each area of the structural element. Furthermore, kd-tree was used to enhance the searching efficiency of plane fitting which were later used for identifying the boundaries of structural elements. The results of geometric identification were compared with M3C2 algorithm provided by CloudCompare, as well as validated by LVDT measurements of full-scale reinforced concrete beams tested in laboratory. It shows that 3D laser scanning, through the established processing approaches of the point cloud data, can offer a rapid, nondestructive, remote, and accurate solution for geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements.

  3. [Endonuclease modified comet assay for oxidative DNA damage induced by detection of genetic toxicants].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Hongli; Zhai, Qingfeng; Qiu, Yugang; Niu, Yong; Dai, Yufei; Zheng, Yuxin; Duan, Huawei

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of the lesion-specific endonucleases-modified comet assay for analysis of DNA oxidation in cell lines. DNA breaks and oxidative damage were evaluated by normal alkaline and formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (FPG) modified comet assays. Cytotoxicity were assessed by MTT method. The human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) were treated with benzo (a) pyrene (B(a)P), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), colchicine (COL) and vincristine (VCR) respectively, and the dose is 20 µmol/L, 25 mg/ml, 5 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L for 24 h, respectively. Oxidative damage was also detected by levels of reactive oxygen species in treated cells. Four genotoxicants give higher cytotoxicity and no significant changes on parameters of comet assay treated by enzyme buffer. Cell survival rate were (59.69 ± 2.60) %, (54.33 ± 2.81) %, (53.11 ± 4.00) %, (51.43 ± 3.92) % in four groups, respectively. There was the direct DNA damage induced by test genotoxicants presented by tail length, Olive tail moment (TM) and tail DNA (%) in the comet assay. The presence of FPG in the assays increased DNA migration in treated groups when compared to those without it, and the difference was statistically significant which indicated that the clastogen and aneugen could induce oxidative damage in DNA strand. In the three parameters, the Olive TM was changed most obviously after genotoxicants treatment. In the contrast group, the Olive TM of B(a) P,MMS, COL,VCR in the contrast groups were 22.99 ± 17.33, 31.65 ± 18.86, 19.86 ± 9.56 and 17.02 ± 9.39, respectively, after dealing with the FPG, the Olive TM were 34.50 ± 17.29, 43.80 ± 10.06, 33.10 ± 12.38, 28.60 ± 10.53, increased by 58.94%, 38.48%, 66.86% and 68.21%, respectively (t value was 3.91, 3.89, 6.66 and 3.87, respectively, and all P < 0.05), and the correlation between Olive TM and reactive oxygen species was better than other parameters (r = 0.77, P < 0.05). This study indicates that FPG-comet assay

  4. Damage evaluation by a guided wave-hidden Markov model based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hanfei; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Zhang, Jinjin

    2016-02-01

    Guided wave based structural health monitoring has shown great potential in aerospace applications. However, one of the key challenges of practical engineering applications is the accurate interpretation of the guided wave signals under time-varying environmental and operational conditions. This paper presents a guided wave-hidden Markov model based method to improve the damage evaluation reliability of real aircraft structures under time-varying conditions. In the proposed approach, an HMM based unweighted moving average trend estimation method, which can capture the trend of damage propagation from the posterior probability obtained by HMM modeling is used to achieve a probabilistic evaluation of the structural damage. To validate the developed method, experiments are performed on a hole-edge crack specimen under fatigue loading condition and a real aircraft wing spar under changing structural boundary conditions. Experimental results show the advantage of the proposed method.

  5. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Burnham, Alan K.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Wegner, Paul J.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Feit, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  6. Structural health monitoring using DOG multi-scale space: an approach for analyzing damage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tian; Xu, Zili

    2018-03-01

    Measurement noise is inevitable in practice; thus, it is difficult to identify defects, cracks or damage in a structure while suppressing noise simultaneously. In this work, a novel method is introduced to detect multiple damage in noisy environments. Based on multi-scale space analysis for discrete signals, a method for extracting damage characteristics from the measured displacement mode shape is illustrated. Moreover, the proposed method incorporates a data fusion algorithm to further eliminate measurement noise-based interference. The effectiveness of the method is verified by numerical and experimental methods applied to different structural types. The results demonstrate that there are two advantages to the proposed method. First, damage features are extracted by the difference of the multi-scale representation; this step is taken such that the interference of noise amplification can be avoided. Second, a data fusion technique applied to the proposed method provides a global decision, which retains the damage features while maximally eliminating the uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulations are utilized to validate that the proposed method has a higher accuracy in damage detection.

  7. On-Line Multi-Damage Scanning Spatial-Wavenumber Filter Based Imaging Method for Aircraft Composite Structure.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuanqiang; Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao

    2017-05-11

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM topic. In this paper, a new scanning spatial-wavenumber filter (SSWF) based imaging method for multiple damages is proposed to conduct on-line monitoring of aircraft composite structures. Firstly, an on-line multi-damage SSWF is established, including the fundamental principle of SSWF for multiple damages based on a linear piezoelectric (PZT) sensor array, and a corresponding wavenumber-time imaging mechanism by using the multi-damage scattering signal. Secondly, through combining the on-line multi-damage SSWF and a PZT 2D cross-shaped array, an image-mapping method is proposed to conduct wavenumber synthesis and convert the two wavenumber-time images obtained by the PZT 2D cross-shaped array to an angle-distance image, from which the multiple damages can be directly recognized and located. In the experimental validation, both simulated multi-damage and real multi-damage introduced by repeated impacts are performed on a composite plate structure. The maximum localization error is less than 2 cm, which shows good performance of the multi-damage imaging method. Compared with the existing spatial-wavenumber filter based damage evaluation methods, the proposed method requires no more than the multi-damage scattering signal and can be performed without depending on any wavenumber modeling or measuring. Besides, this method locates multiple damages by imaging instead of the geometric method, which helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, it can be easily applied to on-line multi-damage monitoring of aircraft composite structures.

  8. On-Line Multi-Damage Scanning Spatial-Wavenumber Filter Based Imaging Method for Aircraft Composite Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yuanqiang; Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM topic. In this paper, a new scanning spatial-wavenumber filter (SSWF) based imaging method for multiple damages is proposed to conduct on-line monitoring of aircraft composite structures. Firstly, an on-line multi-damage SSWF is established, including the fundamental principle of SSWF for multiple damages based on a linear piezoelectric (PZT) sensor array, and a corresponding wavenumber-time imaging mechanism by using the multi-damage scattering signal. Secondly, through combining the on-line multi-damage SSWF and a PZT 2D cross-shaped array, an image-mapping method is proposed to conduct wavenumber synthesis and convert the two wavenumber-time images obtained by the PZT 2D cross-shaped array to an angle-distance image, from which the multiple damages can be directly recognized and located. In the experimental validation, both simulated multi-damage and real multi-damage introduced by repeated impacts are performed on a composite plate structure. The maximum localization error is less than 2 cm, which shows good performance of the multi-damage imaging method. Compared with the existing spatial-wavenumber filter based damage evaluation methods, the proposed method requires no more than the multi-damage scattering signal and can be performed without depending on any wavenumber modeling or measuring. Besides, this method locates multiple damages by imaging instead of the geometric method, which helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, it can be easily applied to on-line multi-damage monitoring of aircraft composite structures. PMID:28772879

  9. On impact damage detection and quantification for CFRP laminates using structural response data only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, M. T. H.; Worden, K.; Pierce, S. G.; Hickey, D.; Staszewski, W. J.; Dulieu-Barton, J. M.; Hodzic, A.

    2011-11-01

    The overall purpose of the research is to detect and attempt to quantify impact damage in structures made from composite materials. A study that uses simplified coupon specimens made from a Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) prepreg with 11, 12 and 13 plies is presented. PZT sensors were placed at three separate locations in each test specimen to record the responses from impact events. To perform damaging impact tests, an instrumented drop-test machine was used and the impact energy was set to cover a range of 0.37-41.72 J. The response signals captured from each sensor were recorded by a data acquisition system for subsequent evaluation. The impacted specimens were examined with an X-ray technique to determine the extent of the damaged areas and it was found that the apparent damaged area grew monotonically with impact energy. A number of simple univariate and multivariate features were extracted from the sensor signals recorded during impact by computing their spectra and calculating frequency centroids. The concept of discordancy from the statistical discipline of outlier analysis is employed in order to separate the responses from non-damaging and damaging impacts. The results show that the potential damage indices introduced here provide a means of identifying damaging impacts from the response data alone.

  10. Molecular profiling of fungal communities in moisture damaged buildings before and after remediation - a comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indoor microbial contamination due to excess moisture is an important contributor to human illness in both residential and occupational settings. However, the census of microorganisms in the indoor environment is limited by the use of selective, culture-based detection techniques. By using clone library sequencing of full-length internal transcribed spacer region combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 69 fungal species or assay groups and cultivation, we have been able to generate a more comprehensive description of the total indoor mycoflora. Using this suite of methods, we assessed the impact of moisture damage on the fungal community composition of settled dust and building material samples (n = 8 and 16, correspondingly). Water-damaged buildings (n = 2) were examined pre- and post- remediation, and compared with undamaged reference buildings (n = 2). Results Culture-dependent and independent methods were consistent in the dominant fungal taxa in dust, but sequencing revealed a five to ten times higher diversity at the genus level than culture or qPCR. Previously unknown, verified fungal phylotypes were detected in dust, accounting for 12% of all diversity. Fungal diversity, especially within classes Dothideomycetes and Agaricomycetes tended to be higher in the water damaged buildings. Fungal phylotypes detected in building materials were present in dust samples, but their proportion of total fungi was similar for damaged and reference buildings. The quantitative correlation between clone library phylotype frequencies and qPCR counts was moderate (r = 0.59, p < 0.01). Conclusions We examined a small number of target buildings and found indications of elevated fungal diversity associated with water damage. Some of the fungi in dust were attributable to building growth, but more information on the material-associated communities is needed in order to understand the dynamics of microbial communities between building structures

  11. Molecular profiling of fungal communities in moisture damaged buildings before and after remediation--a comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Pitkäranta, Miia; Meklin, Teija; Hyvärinen, Anne; Nevalainen, Aino; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Lignell, Ulla; Rintala, Helena

    2011-10-21

    Indoor microbial contamination due to excess moisture is an important contributor to human illness in both residential and occupational settings. However, the census of microorganisms in the indoor environment is limited by the use of selective, culture-based detection techniques. By using clone library sequencing of full-length internal transcribed spacer region combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 69 fungal species or assay groups and cultivation, we have been able to generate a more comprehensive description of the total indoor mycoflora. Using this suite of methods, we assessed the impact of moisture damage on the fungal community composition of settled dust and building material samples (n = 8 and 16, correspondingly). Water-damaged buildings (n = 2) were examined pre- and post- remediation, and compared with undamaged reference buildings (n = 2). Culture-dependent and independent methods were consistent in the dominant fungal taxa in dust, but sequencing revealed a five to ten times higher diversity at the genus level than culture or qPCR. Previously unknown, verified fungal phylotypes were detected in dust, accounting for 12% of all diversity. Fungal diversity, especially within classes Dothideomycetes and Agaricomycetes tended to be higher in the water damaged buildings. Fungal phylotypes detected in building materials were present in dust samples, but their proportion of total fungi was similar for damaged and reference buildings. The quantitative correlation between clone library phylotype frequencies and qPCR counts was moderate (r = 0.59, p < 0.01). We examined a small number of target buildings and found indications of elevated fungal diversity associated with water damage. Some of the fungi in dust were attributable to building growth, but more information on the material-associated communities is needed in order to understand the dynamics of microbial communities between building structures and dust. The sequencing

  12. Damage detection in bridges through fiber optic structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornink, J. D.; Phares, B. M.; Wipf, T. J.; Wood, D. L.

    2006-10-01

    A fiber optic structural health monitoring (SHM) system was developed and deployed by the Iowa State University (ISU) Bridge Engineering Center (BEC) to detect gradual or sudden damage in fracture-critical bridges (FCBs). The SHM system is trained with measured performance data, which are collected by fiber optic strain sensors to identify typical bridge behavior when subjected to ambient traffic loads. Structural responses deviating from the trained behavior are considered to be signs of structural damage or degradation and are identified through analytical procedures similar to control chart analyses used in statistical process control (SPC). The demonstration FCB SHM system was installed on the US Highway 30 bridge near Ames, IA, and utilizes 40 fiber bragg grating (FBG) sensors to continuously monitor the bridge response when subjected to ambient traffic loads. After the data is collected and processed, weekly evaluation reports are developed that summarize the continuous monitoring results. Through use of the evaluation reports, the bridge owner is able to identify and estimate the location and severity of the damage. The information presented herein includes an overview of the SHM components, results from laboratory and field validation testing on the system components, and samples of the reduced and analyzed data.

  13. Applications of matched field processing to damage detection in composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippmann, Jeffery D.; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    There are many structures serving vital infrastructure, energy, and national security purposes. Inspecting the components and areas of the structure most prone to failure during maintenance operations by using non- destructive evaluation methods has been essential in avoiding costly, but preventable, catastrophic failures. In many cases, the inspections are performed by introducing acoustic, ultrasonic, or even thermographic waves into the structure and then evaluating the response. Sometimes the structure, or a component, is not accessible for active inspection methods. Because of this, there is a growing interest to use passive methods, such as using ambient noise, or sources of opportunity, to produce a passive impulse response function similar to the active approach. Several matched field processing techniques most notably used in oceanography and seismology applications are examined in more detail. While sparse array imaging in structures has been studied for years, all methods studied previously have used an active interrogation approach. Here, structural damage detection is studied by use of the reconstructed impulse response functions in ambient noise within sparse array imaging techniques, such as matched-field processing. This has been studied in experiments on a 9-m wind turbine blade.

  14. Wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging via laser for hidden damage detection inside a steel box girder bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Song, Homin; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging (WUWI) technique for detecting hidden damage inside a steel box girder bridge. The proposed technique allows (1) complete wireless excitation of piezoelectric transducers and noncontact sensing of the corresponding responses using laser beams, (2) autonomous damage visualization without comparing against baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure and (3) robust damage diagnosis even for real structures with complex structural geometries. First, a new WUWI hardware system was developed by integrating optoelectronic-based signal transmitting and receiving devices and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Next, a damage visualization algorithm, self-referencing f-k filter (SRF), was introduced to isolate and visualize only crack-induced ultrasonic modes from measured ultrasonic wavefield images. Finally, the performance of the proposed technique was validated through hidden crack visualization at a decommissioned Ramp-G Bridge in South Korea. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique instantaneously detects and successfully visualizes hidden cracks even in the complex structure of a real bridge.

  15. Smart-aggregate-based damage detection of fiber-reinforced-polymer-strengthened columns under reversed cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howser, Rachel; Moslehy, Yashar; Gu, Haichang; Dhonde, Hemant; Mo, Y. L.; Ayoub, Ashraf; Song, Gangbing

    2011-07-01

    Structural health monitoring is an important aspect of the maintenance of large civil infrastructures, especially for bridge columns in areas of high seismic activity. In this project, recently developed innovative piezoceramic-based sensors were utilized to perform the health monitoring of a shear-critical reinforced concrete (RC) bridge column subjected to reversed cyclic loading. After the column failed, it was wrapped with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, commonly used to retrofit seismically damaged structures. The FRP-strengthened column was retested under the same reversed cyclic loading pattern. Innovative piezoceramic-based sensors, called 'smart aggregates', were utilized as transducers for health monitoring purposes. On the basis of the smart aggregates developed, an active-sensing approach and an impact-hammer-based approach were used to evaluate the health status of the RC column during the loading procedure. Wave transmission energy is attenuated by the existence of cracks during the loading procedure, and this attenuation phenomenon alters the curve of the transfer function between the actuator and sensor. To detect the damage occurrence and evaluate the damage severity, transfer function curves were compared with those obtained during the period of healthy status. A transfer-function-based damage index matrix was developed to demonstrate the damage severity at different locations. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the smart aggregates in health monitoring of the FRP-strengthened column as well as the unstrengthened column. The experimental results show that the proposed smart-aggregate-based approach can successfully detect damage occurrence and evaluate its severity.

  16. A study of two unsupervised data driven statistical methodologies for detecting and classifying damages in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaduiza, D.-A.; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Mujica, L. E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    2013-12-01

    This article is concerned with the practical use of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Squared Prediction Error (SPE) measures and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to detect and classify damages in mechanical structures. The formalism is based on a distributed piezoelectric active sensor network for the excitation and detection of structural dynamic responses. Statistical models are built using PCA when the structure is known to be healthy either directly from the dynamic responses or from wavelet coefficients at different scales representing Time-frequency information. Different damages on the tested structures are simulated by adding masses at different positions. The data from the structure in different states (damaged or not) are then projected into the different principal component models by each actuator in order to obtain the input feature vectors for a SOM from the scores and the SPE measures. An aircraft fuselage from an Airbus A320 and a multi-layered carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate are used as examples to test the approaches. Results are presented, compared and discussed in order to determine their potential in structural health monitoring. These results showed that all the simulated damages were detectable and the selected features proved capable of separating all damage conditions from the undamaged state for both approaches.

  17. Comparing Alternative Methods of Measuring Skin Color and Damage

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Lauren C.; Heckman, Carolyn J.; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the reliability and validity of several skin color and damage measurement strategies and explored their applicability among participants of different races, skin types, and sexes. Methods: One hundred college-aged participants completed an online survey about their perceived skin damage and skin protection. They also attended an in-person session in which an observer rated their skin color; additionally, UV photos and spectrophotometry readings were taken. Results: Trained research assistants rated the damage depicted in the UV photos reliably. Moderate to high correlations emerged between skin color self-report and spectrophotometry readings. Observer rating correlated with spectrophotometry rating of current but not natural skin color. Lighter-skinned individuals reported more cumulative skin damage, which was supported by UV photography. Although women's current skin color was lighter and their UV photos showed similar damage to men's, women reported significantly more damaged skin than men did. Conclusions: These findings suggest that self-report continues to be a valuable measurement strategy when skin reflectance measurement is not feasible or appropriate and that UV photos and observer ratings may be useful but need to be tested further. The results also suggest that young women and men may benefit from different types of skin cancer prevention interventions. PMID:18931926

  18. Detection of DNA damage based on metal-mediated molecular beacon and DNA strands displacement reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yanxiang; Wei, Min; Wei, Wei; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Liu, Songqin

    2014-01-01

    DNA hairpin structure probes are usually designed by forming intra-molecular duplex based on Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. In this paper, a molecular beacon based on silver ions-mediated cytosine-Ag+-cytosine base pairs was used to detect DNA. The inherent characteristic of the metal ligation facilitated the design of functional probe and the adjustment of its binding strength compared to traditional DNA hairpin structure probes, which make it be used to detect DNA in a simple, rapid and easy way with the help of DNA strands displacement reaction. The method was sensitive and also possesses the good specificity to differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was also successfully applied to study the damage effect of classic genotoxicity chemicals such as styrene oxide and sodium arsenite on DNA, which was significant in food science, environmental science and pharmaceutical science.

  19. Evaluation of ikonos satellite imagery for detecting ice storm damage to oak forests in Eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; Tracy Roof

    2006-01-01

    Ice storms are a recurring landscape-scale disturbance in the eastern U.S. where they may cause varying levels of damage to upland hardwood forests. High-resolution Ikonos imagery and semiautomated detection of ice storm damage may be an alternative to manually interpreted aerial photography. We evaluated Ikonos multispectral, winter and summer imagery as a tool for...

  20. Methods for assessment of keel bone damage in poultry.

    PubMed

    Casey-Trott, T; Heerkens, J L T; Petrik, M; Regmi, P; Schrader, L; Toscano, M J; Widowski, T

    2015-10-01

    Keel bone damage (KBD) is a critical issue facing the laying hen industry today as a result of the likely pain leading to compromised welfare and the potential for reduced productivity. Recent reports suggest that damage, while highly variable and likely dependent on a host of factors, extends to all systems (including battery cages, furnished cages, and non-cage systems), genetic lines, and management styles. Despite the extent of the problem, the research community remains uncertain as to the causes and influencing factors of KBD. Although progress has been made investigating these factors, the overall effort is hindered by several issues related to the assessment of KBD, including quality and variation in the methods used between research groups. These issues prevent effective comparison of studies, as well as difficulties in identifying the presence of damage leading to poor accuracy and reliability. The current manuscript seeks to resolve these issues by offering precise definitions for types of KBD, reviewing methods for assessment, and providing recommendations that can improve the accuracy and reliability of those assessments. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. [A Method Research on Environmental Damage Assessment of a Truck Rollover Pollution Incident].

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Zhao, Shi-ho; Chen, Gang-cai; Xian, Si-shu; Yang, Qing-ling; Zhou, Xian-jie; Yu, Hai

    2015-05-01

    With high occurrence of sudden water pollution incident, China faces an increasingly severe situation of water environment. In order to deter the acts of environmental pollution, ensure the damaged resources of environment can be restored and compensated, it is very critical to quantify the economic losses caused by the sudden water pollution incident. This paper took truck rollover pollution incidents in Chongqing for an example, established a set of evaluation method for quantifying the environmental damage, and then assessed the environmental damage by the method from four aspects, including the property damage, ecological environment and resources damages, the costs of administrative affairs in emergency disposal, and the costs of investigation and evaluation.

  2. Gear Fault Detection Effectiveness as Applied to Tooth Surface Pitting Fatigue Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Heath, Gregory F.; Shanthakumaran, Perumal

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate fault detection effectiveness as applied to gear tooth pitting fatigue damage. Vibration and oil-debris monitoring (ODM) data were gathered from 24 sets of spur pinion and face gears run during a previous endurance evaluation study. Three common condition indicators (RMS, FM4, and NA4) were deduced from the time-averaged vibration data and used with the ODM to evaluate their performance for gear fault detection. The NA4 parameter showed to be a very good condition indicator for the detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The FM4 and RMS parameters performed average to below average in detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The ODM sensor was successful in detecting a significant amount of debris from all the gear tooth pitting fatigue failures. Excluding outliers, the average cumulative mass at the end of a test was 40 mg.

  3. CometQ: An automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage using comet assay image analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Sreelatha; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri; Chand, Parkash; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2016-09-01

    DNA damage analysis plays an important role in determining the approaches for treatment and prevention of various diseases like cancer, schizophrenia and other heritable diseases. Comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for DNA damage analysis. The main objective of this work is to implement a fully automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage by analysing comet assay images. The comet assay image analysis consists of four stages: (1) classifier (2) comet segmentation (3) comet partitioning and (4) comet quantification. Main features of the proposed software are the design and development of four comet segmentation methods, and the automatic routing of the input comet assay image to the most suitable one among these methods depending on the type of the image (silver stained or fluorescent stained) as well as the level of DNA damage (heavily damaged or lightly/moderately damaged). A classifier stage, based on support vector machine (SVM) is designed and implemented at the front end, to categorise the input image into one of the above four groups to ensure proper routing. Comet segmentation is followed by comet partitioning which is implemented using a novel technique coined as modified fuzzy clustering. Comet parameters are calculated in the comet quantification stage and are saved in an excel file. Our dataset consists of 600 silver stained images obtained from 40 Schizophrenia patients with different levels of severity, admitted to a tertiary hospital in South India and 56 fluorescent stained images obtained from different internet sources. The performance of "CometQ", the proposed standalone application for automated analysis of comet assay images, is evaluated by a clinical expert and is also compared with that of a most recent and related software-OpenComet. CometQ gave 90.26% positive predictive value (PPV) and 93.34% sensitivity which are much higher than those of OpenComet, especially in the case of silver stained images. The

  4. Finite Element Modelling and Analysis of Damage Detection Methodology in Piezo Electric Sensor and Actuator Integrated Sandwich Cantilever Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, K. R.; Thomas, A. M.; Basker, V. T.

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an essential component of futuristic civil, mechanical and aerospace structures. It detects the damages in system or give warning about the degradation of structure by evaluating performance parameters. This is achieved by the integration of sensors and actuators into the structure. Study of damage detection process in piezoelectric sensor and actuator integrated sandwich cantilever beam is carried out in this paper. Possible skin-core debond at the root of the cantilever beam is simulated and compared with undamaged case. The beam is actuated using piezoelectric actuators and performance differences are evaluated using Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors. The methodology utilized is the voltage/strain response of the damaged versus undamaged beam against transient actuation. Finite element model of piezo-beam is simulated in ANSYSTM using 8 noded coupled field element, with nodal degrees of freedoms are translations in the x, y directions and voltage. An aluminium sandwich beam with a length of 800mm, thickness of core 22.86mm and thickness of skin 0.3mm is considered. Skin-core debond is simulated in the model as unmerged nodes. Reduction in the fundamental frequency of the damaged beam is found to be negligible. But the voltage response of the PVDF sensor under transient excitation shows significantly visible change indicating the debond. Piezo electric based damage detection system is an effective tool for the damage detection of aerospace and civil structural system having inaccessible/critical locations and enables online monitoring possibilities as the power requirement is minimal.

  5. Development of dual field magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection technology to detect mechanical damage.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    This report details the development and testing of a dual magnetization in-line inspection (ILI) : tool for detecting mechanical damage in operating pipelines, including the first field trials of a : fully operational dual-field magnetic flux leakage...

  6. Damage Detection/Locating System Providing Thermal Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas W. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Qamar, A. Shams (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A damage locating system also provides thermal protection. An array of sensors substantially tiles an area of interest. Each sensor is a reflective-surface conductor having operatively coupled inductance and capacitance. A magnetic field response recorder is provided to interrogate each sensor before and after a damage condition. Changes in response are indicative of damage and a corresponding location thereof.

  7. High Sensitive Methods for Health Monitoring of Compressor Blades and Fatigue Detection

    PubMed Central

    Witoś, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic and research aspects of compressor blade fatigue detection have been elaborated in the paper. The real maintenance and overhaul problems and characteristic of different modes of metal blade fatigue (LCF, HCF, and VHCF) have been presented. The polycrystalline defects and impurities influencing the fatigue, along with their related surface finish techniques, are taken into account. The three experimental methods of structural health assessment are considered. The metal magnetic memory (MMM), experimental modal analysis (EMA) and tip timing (TTM) methods provide information on the damage of diagnosed objects, for example, compressor blades. Early damage symptoms, that is, magnetic and modal properties of material strengthening and weakening phases (change of local dislocation density and grain diameter, increase of structural and magnetic anisotropy), have been described. It has been proven that the shape of resonance characteristic gives abilities to determine if fatigue or a blade crack is concerned. The capabilities of the methods for steel and titanium alloy blades have been illustrated in examples from active and passive experiments. In the conclusion, the MMM, EMA, and TTM have been verified, and the potential for reliable diagnosis of the compressor blades using this method has been confirmed. PMID:24191135

  8. Gear Fault Detection Effectiveness as Applied to Tooth Surface Pitting Fatigue Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Heath, Gregory F.; Shanthakumaran, Perumal

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate fault detection effectiveness as applied to gear-tooth-pitting-fatigue damage. Vibration and oil-debris monitoring (ODM) data were gathered from 24 sets of spur pinion and face gears run during a previous endurance evaluation study. Three common condition indicators (RMS, FM4, and NA4 [Ed. 's note: See Appendix A-Definitions D were deduced from the time-averaged vibration data and used with the ODM to evaluate their performance for gear fault detection. The NA4 parameter showed to be a very good condition indicator for the detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The FM4 and RMS parameters perfomu:d average to below average in detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The ODM sensor was successful in detecting a significant 8lDOunt of debris from all the gear tooth pitting fatigue failures. Excluding outliers, the average cumulative mass at the end of a test was 40 mg.

  9. Object-based change detection: dimension of damage in residential areas of Abu Suruj, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demharter, Timo; Michel, Ulrich; Ehlers, Manfred; Reinartz, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Given the importance of Change Detection, especially in the field of crisis management, this paper discusses the advantage of object-based Change Detection. This project and the used methods give an opportunity to coordinate relief actions strategically. The principal objective of this project was to develop an algorithm which allows to detect rapidly damaged and destroyed buildings in the area of Abu Suruj. This Sudanese village is located in West-Darfur and has become the victim of civil war. The software eCognition Developer was used to per-form an object-based Change Detection on two panchromatic Quickbird 2 images from two different time slots. The first image shows the area before, the second image shows the area after the massacres in this region. Seeking a classification for the huts of the Sudanese town Abu Suruj was reached by first segmenting the huts and then classifying them on the basis of geo-metrical and brightness-related values. The huts were classified as "new", "destroyed" and "preserved" with the help of a automated algorithm. Finally the results were presented in the form of a map which displays the different conditions of the huts. The accuracy of the project is validated by an accuracy assessment resulting in an Overall Classification Accuracy of 90.50 percent. These change detection results allow aid organizations to provide quick and efficient help where it is needed the most.

  10. Detection of DNA damage based on metal-mediated molecular beacon and DNA strands displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanxiang; Wei, Min; Wei, Wei; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Liu, Songqin

    2014-01-24

    DNA hairpin structure probes are usually designed by forming intra-molecular duplex based on Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. In this paper, a molecular beacon based on silver ions-mediated cytosine-Ag(+)-cytosine base pairs was used to detect DNA. The inherent characteristic of the metal ligation facilitated the design of functional probe and the adjustment of its binding strength compared to traditional DNA hairpin structure probes, which make it be used to detect DNA in a simple, rapid and easy way with the help of DNA strands displacement reaction. The method was sensitive and also possesses the good specificity to differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was also successfully applied to study the damage effect of classic genotoxicity chemicals such as styrene oxide and sodium arsenite on DNA, which was significant in food science, environmental science and pharmaceutical science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Research on Damage Identification of Bridge Based on Digital Image Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yingjing; Huan, Shi; Tao, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the number of the damage bridge due to excessive deformation gradually increased, which caused significant property damage and casualties. Hence health monitoring and the damage detection of the bridge structure based on the deflection measurement are particularly important. The current conventional deflection measurement methods, such as total station, connected pipe, GPS, etc., have many shortcomings as low efficiency, heavy workload, low degree of automation, operating frequency and working time constrained. GPS has a low accuracy in the vertical displacement measurement and cannot meet the dynamic measured requirements of the current bridge engineering. This paper presents a bridge health monitoring and damage detection technology based on digital image measurement method in which the measurement accuracy is sub-millimeter level and can achieve the 24-hour automatic non-destructive monitoring for the deflection. It can be concluded from this paper that it is feasible to use digital image measurement method for identification of the damage in the bridge structure, because it has been validated by the theoretical analysis, the laboratory model and the application of the real bridge.

  12. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Yang, Jinsong

    2017-06-12

    Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE) for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification.

  13. Lamb Wave Damage Quantification Using GA-Based LS-SVM

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fuqiang; Wang, Ning; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Yang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Lamb waves have been reported to be an efficient tool for non-destructive evaluations (NDE) for various application scenarios. However, accurate and reliable damage quantification using the Lamb wave method is still a practical challenge, due to the complex underlying mechanism of Lamb wave propagation and damage detection. This paper presents a Lamb wave damage quantification method using a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Three damage sensitive features, namely, normalized amplitude, phase change, and correlation coefficient, were proposed to describe changes of Lamb wave characteristics caused by damage. In view of commonly used data-driven methods, the GA-based LS-SVM model using the proposed three damage sensitive features was implemented to evaluate the crack size. The GA method was adopted to optimize the model parameters. The results of GA-based LS-SVM were validated using coupon test data and lap joint component test data with naturally developed fatigue cracks. Cases of different loading and manufacturer were also included to further verify the robustness of the proposed method for crack quantification. PMID:28773003

  14. Impact of early screening for reflux in siblings on the detection of renal damage.

    PubMed

    Houle, Anne-Marie; Cheikhelard, Alaa; Barrieras, Diego; Rivest, Marie-Christine; Gaudreault, Valérie

    2004-07-01

    To assess the impact of screening siblings after detecting significant vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) and renal scarring, as such screening might identify patients with VUR before urinary tract infections develop, but might also detect clinically insignificant VUR. We used a previously reported screening protocol to assess the clinical characteristics of patients, including the incidence of renal scarring, and their siblings, and compared the results. In all, 123 children were screened and 44 (36%) had VUR on voiding cystography. The median (range) age at screening was 9 (1-90) months. The grades of VUR detected were < III in 61% and > or = III in 39%; VUR was bilateral in 48%. In all, 37 siblings with VUR were assessed by ultrasonography; 70% were normal, including 12 (32%) children with VUR of grade > or = III. When used, renal scintigraphy was normal in 74% of siblings, vs 18% of index patients. However, when screened after 2 years old, siblings had twice the risk of already having renal damage on renal scintigraphy (P = 0.04). Early screening (< or = 2 years) appears to be more protective for avoiding renal damage than screening older patients. Thus we propose early screening in asymptomatic siblings to detect VUR before it becomes clinically significant.

  15. Damage Characterization Using the Extended Finite Element Method for Structural Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    The development of validated multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools, technologies, and techniques to enable detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation in the presence of adverse conditions during flight will provide effective solutions to deal with safety related challenges facing next generation aircraft. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage/cracks due to fatigue and low velocity foreign impact that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. Hence, development of efficient methodologies to determine the presence, location, and severity of damage/cracks in critical structural components is highly important in developing efficient structural health management systems.

  16. Damages detection in cylindrical metallic specimens by means of statistical baseline models and updated daily temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamizar-Mejia, Rodolfo; Mujica-Delgado, Luis-Eduardo; Ruiz-Ordóñez, Magda-Liliana; Camacho-Navarro, Jhonatan; Moreno-Beltrán, Gustavo

    2017-05-01

    In previous works, damage detection of metallic specimens exposed to temperature changes has been achieved by using a statistical baseline model based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), piezodiagnostics principle and taking into account temperature effect by augmenting the baseline model or by using several baseline models according to the current temperature. In this paper a new approach is presented, where damage detection is based in a new index that combine Q and T2 statistical indices with current temperature measurements. Experimental tests were achieved in a carbon-steel pipe of 1m length and 1.5 inches diameter, instrumented with piezodevices acting as actuators or sensors. A PCA baseline model was obtained to a temperature of 21º and then T2 and Q statistical indices were obtained for a 24h temperature profile. Also, mass adding at different points of pipe between sensor and actuator was used as damage. By using the combined index the temperature contribution can be separated and a better differentiation of damages respect to undamaged cases can be graphically obtained.

  17. Detecting and Segregating Black Tip-Damaged Wheat Kernels Using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Detection of individual wheat kernels with black tip symptom (BTS) and black tip damage (BTD) was demonstrated using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and silicon light-emitting-diode (LED) based instruments. The two instruments tested, a single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy instrume...

  18. Improved detection following Neuro-Eye Therapy in patients with post-geniculate brain damage.

    PubMed

    Sahraie, Arash; Macleod, Mary-Joan; Trevethan, Ceri T; Robson, Siân E; Olson, John A; Callaghan, Paula; Yip, Brigitte

    2010-09-01

    Damage to the optic radiation or the occipital cortex results in loss of vision in the contralateral visual field, termed partial cortical blindness or hemianopia. Previously, we have demonstrated that stimulation in the field defect using visual stimuli with optimal properties for blindsight detection can lead to increases in visual sensitivity within the blind field of a group of patients. The present study was aimed to extend the previous work by investigating the effect of positive feedback on recovery of visual sensitivity. Patients' abilities for detection of a range of spatial frequencies within their field defect were determined using a temporal two-alternative forced-choice technique, before and after a period of visual training (n = 4). Patients underwent Neuro-Eye Therapy which involved detection of temporally modulated spatial grating patches at specific retinal locations within their field defect. Three patients showed improved detection ability following visual training. Based on our previous studies, we had hypothesised that should the occipital brain lesion extend anteriorly to the thalamus, little recovery would be expected. Here, we describe one such case who showed no improvements after extensive training. The present study provides further evidence that recovery (a) can be gradual and may require a large number of training sessions (b) can be accelerated using positive feedback and (c) may be less likely to take place if the occipital damage extends anteriorly to the thalamus.

  19. Detection of DNA damage in individual cells by flow cytometric analysis using anti-DNA monoclonal antibody

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Frankfurt, O.S.

    A new method for the measurement of DNA damage in individual cells treated with alkylating agents is described. The method is based on the binding of anti-DNA monoclonal antibody to DNA in situ. Binding of antibody was evaluated by flow cytometry with indirect immunofluorescence. No binding of antibody to DNA in non-treated HeLa S3 cells was detected. Treatment of cells with HN2 or L-phenylalanine mustard induced binding of antibody to DNA in situ. Binding of antibody was observed after treating cells with doses of drugs which reduced the surviving fraction below 20%. Intensity of binding increased in proportion to themore » drug dose. In HN2-treated cells a cell subset with the lowest antibody binding was observed among cells in G1 phase. Binding of antibody to DNA in HN2-treated cells was eliminated by single-strand (ss) specific S1 nuclease. In competition assay, antibody was inhibited by thermally denatured DNA, but not by native double-stranded (ds) DNA, RNA, nucleosides and deoxyribohomopolymers. Immunoreactivity of cells with the monoclonal antibody F7-26 may be a useful probe for the assessment of cell damage induced by alkylating agents, especially in heterogeneous cell populations.« less

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging can detect the early stages of cartilage damage: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Ukai, Taku; Sato, Masato; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Imai, Yutaka; Mitani, Genya; Takagaki, Tomonori; Serigano, Kenji; Mochida, Joji

    2015-02-21

    In the present study, we measured damaged areas of cartilage with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and T2 mapping, and investigated the extent to which cartilage damage could be determined using these techniques. Forty-one patients underwent arthroscopic knee surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee, a meniscus injury, or an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the knee was performed, including T2 mapping and diffusion tensor imaging. The presence of cartilage injury involving the medial and lateral femoral condyles and tibia plateau was assessed during surgery using the Outerbridge scale. The ADC, T2 values and fractional anisotropy of areas of cartilage injury were then retrospectively analysed. The ADC results identified significant differences between Outerbridge grades 0 and 2 (P = 0.041); 0 and 3 (P < 0.001); 1 and 2 (P = 0.045); 1 and 3 (P < 0.001); and 2 and 3 (P = 0.028). The FA results identified significant differences between grades 0 and 1 (P < 0.001); 0 and 2 (P < 0.001); and 0 and 3 (P < 0.001). T2 mapping identified significant differences between Outerbridge grades 0 and 2 (P = 0.032); 0 and 3 (P < 0.001); 1 and 3 (P < 0.001); and 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). Both the T2 mapping (R(2) = 0.7883) and the ADC (R(2) = 0.9184) correlated significantly with the Outerbridge grade. The FA (R(2) = 0.6616) correlated slightly with the Outerbridge grade. T2 mapping can be useful for detecting moderate or severe cartilage damage, and the ADC can be used to detect early stage cartilage damage. The FA can also distinguish normal from damaged cartilage.

  1. Detection of Earthquake-Induced Damage in a Framed Structure Using a Finite Element Model Updating Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Park, Taewon; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Damage of a 5-story framed structure was identified from two types of measured data, which are frequency response functions (FRF) and natural frequencies, using a finite element (FE) model updating procedure. In this study, a procedure to determine the appropriate weightings for different groups of observations was proposed. In addition, a modified frame element which included rotational springs was used to construct the FE model for updating to represent concentrated damage at the member ends (a formulation for plastic hinges in framed structures subjected to strong earthquakes). The results of the model updating and subsequent damage detection when the rotational springs (RS model) were used were compared with those obtained using the conventional frame elements (FS model). Comparisons indicated that the RS model gave more accurate results than the FS model. That is, the errors in the natural frequencies of the updated models were smaller, and the identified damage showed clearer distinctions between damaged and undamaged members and was more consistent with observed damage. PMID:24574888

  2. Plasma spectrum peak extraction algorithm of laser film damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dan; Su, Jun-hong; Xu, Jun-qi

    2012-10-01

    The plasma spectrometry is an emerging method to distinguish the thin-film laser damage. Laser irradiation film surface occurrence of flash, using the spectrometer receives the flash spectrum, extracting the spectral peak, and by means of the spectra of the thin-film materials and the atmosphere has determine the difference, as a standard to determine the film damage. Plasma spectrometry can eliminate the miscarriage of justice which caused by atmospheric flashes, and distinguish high accuracy. Plasma spectra extraction algorithm is the key technology of Plasma spectrometry. Firstly, data de noising and smoothing filter is introduced in this paper, and then during the peak is detecting, the data packet is proposed, and this method can increase the stability and accuracy of the spectral peak recognition. Such algorithm makes simultaneous measurement of Plasma spectrometry to detect thin film laser damage, and greatly improves work efficiency.

  3. A robust damage-detection technique with environmental variability combining time-series models with principal components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, K.; Rama Mohan Rao, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel output-only damage-detection technique based on time-series models for structural health monitoring in the presence of environmental variability and measurement noise is presented. The large amount of data obtained in the form of time-history response is transformed using principal component analysis, in order to reduce the data size and thereby improve the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The time instant of damage is obtained by fitting the acceleration time-history data from the structure using autoregressive (AR) and AR with exogenous inputs time-series prediction models. The probability density functions (PDFs) of damage features obtained from the variances of prediction errors corresponding to references and healthy current data are found to be shifting from each other due to the presence of various uncertainties such as environmental variability and measurement noise. Control limits using novelty index are obtained using the distances of the peaks of the PDF curves in healthy condition and used later for determining the current condition of the structure. Numerical simulation studies have been carried out using a simply supported beam and also validated using an experimental benchmark data corresponding to a three-storey-framed bookshelf structure proposed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Studies carried out in this paper clearly indicate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for damage detection in the presence of measurement noise and environmental variability.

  4. Multigrid contact detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kejing; Dong, Shoubin; Zhou, Zhaoyao

    2007-03-01

    Contact detection is a general problem of many physical simulations. This work presents a O(N) multigrid method for general contact detection problems (MGCD). The multigrid idea is integrated with contact detection problems. Both the time complexity and memory consumption of the MGCD are O(N) . Unlike other methods, whose efficiencies are influenced strongly by the object size distribution, the performance of MGCD is insensitive to the object size distribution. We compare the MGCD with the no binary search (NBS) method and the multilevel boxing method in three dimensions for both time complexity and memory consumption. For objects with similar size, the MGCD is as good as the NBS method, both of which outperform the multilevel boxing method regarding memory consumption. For objects with diverse size, the MGCD outperform both the NBS method and the multilevel boxing method. We use the MGCD to solve the contact detection problem for a granular simulation system based on the discrete element method. From this granular simulation, we get the density property of monosize packing and binary packing with size ratio equal to 10. The packing density for monosize particles is 0.636. For binary packing with size ratio equal to 10, when the number of small particles is 300 times as the number of big particles, the maximal packing density 0.824 is achieved.

  5. Damage localization by statistical evaluation of signal-processed mode shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulriksen, M. D.; Damkilde, L.

    2015-07-01

    Due to their inherent, ability to provide structural information on a local level, mode shapes and t.lieir derivatives are utilized extensively for structural damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical methods are implemented to identify damage-induced discontinuities in the spatial mode shape signals, hereby potentially facilitating damage detection and/or localization. However, by being based on distinguishing damage-induced discontinuities from other signal irregularities, an intrinsic deficiency in these methods is the high sensitivity towards measurement, noise. The present, article introduces a damage localization method which, compared to the conventional mode shape-based methods, has greatly enhanced robustness towards measurement, noise. The method is based on signal processing of spatial mode shapes by means of continuous wavelet, transformation (CWT) and subsequent, application of a generalized discrete Teager-Kaiser energy operator (GDTKEO) to identify damage-induced mode shape discontinuities. In order to evaluate whether the identified discontinuities are in fact, damage-induced, outlier analysis of principal components of the signal-processed mode shapes is conducted on the basis of T2-statistics. The proposed method is demonstrated in the context, of analytical work with a free-vibrating Euler-Bernoulli beam under noisy conditions.

  6. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  7. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    DOE PAGES

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; ...

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in thismore » impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.« less

  8. Investigation of Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Detection Using Oil Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Krieder, Gary; Fichter, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage to tapered roller bearings. Tapered roller bearings are used in helicopter transmissions and have potential for use in high bypass advanced gas turbine aircraft engines. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from failure progression tests performed by The Timken Company in their Tapered Roller Bearing Health Monitoring Test Rig. Failure progression tests were performed under simulated engine load conditions. Tests were performed on one healthy bearing and three predamaged bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor was monitored and recorded for the occurrence of debris generated during failure of the bearing. The bearing was removed periodically for inspection throughout the failure progression tests. Results indicate the accumulated oil debris mass is a good predictor of damage on tapered roller bearings. The use of a fuzzy logic model to enable an easily interpreted diagnostic metric was proposed and demonstrated.

  9. Damage detection methodology under variable load conditions based on strain field pattern recognition using FBGs, nonlinear principal component analysis, and clustering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Alvarez-Montoya, Joham

    2018-01-01

    Structural health monitoring consists of using sensors integrated within structures together with algorithms to perform load monitoring, damage detection, damage location, damage size and severity, and prognosis. One possibility is to use strain sensors to infer structural integrity by comparing patterns in the strain field between the pristine and damaged conditions. In previous works, the authors have demonstrated that it is possible to detect small defects based on strain field pattern recognition by using robust machine learning techniques. They have focused on methodologies based on principal component analysis (PCA) and on the development of several unfolding and standardization techniques, which allow dealing with multiple load conditions. However, before a real implementation of this approach in engineering structures, changes in the strain field due to conditions different from damage occurrence need to be isolated. Since load conditions may vary in most engineering structures and promote significant changes in the strain field, it is necessary to implement novel techniques for uncoupling such changes from those produced by damage occurrence. A damage detection methodology based on optimal baseline selection (OBS) by means of clustering techniques is presented. The methodology includes the use of hierarchical nonlinear PCA as a nonlinear modeling technique in conjunction with Q and nonlinear-T 2 damage indices. The methodology is experimentally validated using strain measurements obtained by 32 fiber Bragg grating sensors bonded to an aluminum beam under dynamic bending loads and simultaneously submitted to variations in its pitch angle. The results demonstrated the capability of the methodology for clustering data according to 13 different load conditions (pitch angles), performing the OBS and detecting six different damages induced in a cumulative way. The proposed methodology showed a true positive rate of 100% and a false positive rate of 1.28% for a

  10. An impedance-based approach for detection and quantification of damage in cracked plates and loose bolts in bridge structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiei, Masoud; Sheldon, Jeremy; Palmer, Carl

    2012-04-01

    The applicability of Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) approach to damage detection, localization and quantification in a mobile bridge structure is investigated in this paper. The developments in this paper focus on assessing the health of Armored Vehicle Launched Bridges (AVLBs). Specifically, two key failure mechanisms of the AVLB to be monitored were fatigue crack growth and damaged (loose) rivets (bolts) were identified. It was shown through experiment that bolt damage (defined here as different torque levels applied to bolts) can be detected, quantified and located using a network of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers distributed on the structure. It was also shown that cracks of various sizes can be detected and quantified using the EMI approach. The experiments were performed on smaller laboratory specimens as well as full size bridge-like components that were built as part of this research. The effects of various parameters such as transducer type and size on the performance of the proposed health assessment approach were also investigated.

  11. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  12. Locating damage using integrated global-local approach with wireless sensing system and single-chip impedance measurement device.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hsuan; Lu, Yung-Chi; Hung, Shih-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study developed an integrated global-local approach for locating damage on building structures. A damage detection approach with a novel embedded frequency response function damage index (NEFDI) was proposed and embedded in the Imote2.NET-based wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) system to locate global damage. Local damage is then identified using an electromechanical impedance- (EMI-) based damage detection method. The electromechanical impedance was measured using a single-chip impedance measurement device which has the advantages of small size, low cost, and portability. The feasibility of the proposed damage detection scheme was studied with reference to a numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure and a small-scale experimental steel frame. Numerical and experimental analysis using the integrated global-local SHM approach reveals that, after NEFDI indicates the approximate location of a damaged area, the EMI-based damage detection approach can then identify the detailed damage location in the structure of the building.

  13. The Determination Method of Extreme Earthquake Disaster Area Based on the Dust Detection Result from GF-4 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, A.; Ding, L.; Chen, M.; Wang, X.

    2018-04-01

    The remote sensing has played an important role in many earthquake emergencies by rapidly providing the building damage, road damage, landslide and other disaster information. The earthquake in the mountains often caused to the loosening of the mountains and the blowing of the dust in the epicentre area. The dust particles are more serious in the epicentre area than the other disaster area. Basis on the analysis of abnormal spectrum characteristics, the dust detection methods from medium and high resolutions satellite imagery are studied in order to determinate the extreme earthquake disaster area. The results indicate the distribution of extreme disaster can be acquired using the dust detection information from imagery, which can provide great help for disaster intensity assessment.

  14. Using CdTe/ZnSe core/shell quantum dots to detect DNA and damage to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Moulick, Amitava; Milosavljevic, Vedran; Vlachova, Jana; Podgajny, Robert; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    CdTe/ZnSe core/shell quantum dot (QD), one of the strongest and most highly luminescent nanoparticles, was directly synthesized in an aqueous medium to study its individual interactions with important nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine) in detail. The results obtained from the optical analyses indicated that the interactions of the QDs with different nucleobases were different, which reflected in different fluorescent emission maxima and intensities. The difference in the interaction was found due to the different chemical behavior and different sizes of the formed nanoconjugates. An electrochemical study also confirmed that the purines and pyrimidines show different interactions with the core/shell QDs. Based on these phenomena, a novel QD-based method is developed to detect the presence of the DNA, damage to DNA, and mutation. The QDs were successfully applied very easily to detect any change in the sequence (mutation) of DNA. The QDs also showed their ability to detect DNAs directly from the extracts of human cancer (PC3) and normal (PNT1A) cells (detection limit of 500 pM of DNA), which indicates the possibilities to use this easy assay technique to confirm the presence of living organisms in extreme environments. PMID:28243089

  15. On-Line Database of Vibration-Based Damage Detection Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Doebling, Scott W.; Kholwad, Tina D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new, on-line bibliographic database of vibration-based damage detection experiments. Publications in the database discuss experiments conducted on actual structures as well as those conducted with simulated data. The database can be searched and sorted in many ways, and it provides photographs of test structures when available. It currently contains 100 publications, which is estimated to be about 5-10% of the number of papers written to date on this subject. Additional entries are forthcoming. This database is available for public use on the Internet at the following address: http://sdbpappa-mac.larc.nasa.gov. Click on the link named "dd_experiments.fp3" and then type "guest" as the password. No user name is required.

  16. DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoya, A.; Shikazono, N.; Fujii, K.; Urushibara, A.; Akamatsu, K.; Watanabe, R.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation. The yields of single- (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB), base lesions and clustered damage were measured using the agarose gel electrophoresis method after exposing to various kinds of radiations to a simple model DNA molecule, fully hydrated closed-circular plasmid DNA (pUC18). The yield of SSB does not show significant dependence on linear energy transfer (LET) values. On the other hand, the yields of base lesions revealed by enzymatic probes, endonuclease III (Nth) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which excise base lesions and leave a nick at the damage site, strongly depend on LET values. Soft X-ray photon (150 kVp) irradiation gives a maximum yield of the base lesions detected by the enzymatic probes as SSB and clustered damage, which is composed of one base lesion and proximate other base lesions or SSBs. The clustered damage is visualized as an enzymatically induced DSB. The yields of the enzymatically additional damages strikingly decrease with increasing levels of LET. These results suggest that in higher LET regions, the repair enzymes used as probes are compromised because of the dense damage clustering. The studies using simple plasmid DNA as a irradiation sample, however, have a technical difficulty to detect multiple SSBs in a plasmid DNA. To detect the additional SSBs induced in opposite strand of the first SSB, we have also developed a novel technique of DNA-denaturation assay. This allows us to detect multiply induced SSBs in both strand of DNA, but not induced DSB.

  17. Time-frequency vibration analysis for the detection of motor damages caused by bearing currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudhom, Aurelien; Antonino-Daviu, Jose; Razik, Hubert; Climente-Alarcon, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Motor failure due to bearing currents is an issue that has drawn an increasing industrial interest over recent years. Bearing currents usually appear in motors operated by variable frequency drives (VFD); these drives may lead to common voltage modes which cause currents induced in the motor shaft that are discharged through the bearings. The presence of these currents may lead to the motor bearing failure only few months after system startup. Vibration monitoring is one of the most common ways for detecting bearing damages caused by circulating currents; the evaluation of the amplitudes of well-known characteristic components in the vibration Fourier spectrum that are associated with race, ball or cage defects enables to evaluate the bearing condition and, hence, to identify an eventual damage due to bearing currents. However, the inherent constraints of the Fourier transform may complicate the detection of the progressive bearing degradation; for instance, in some cases, other frequency components may mask or be confused with bearing defect-related while, in other cases, the analysis may not be suitable due to the eventual non-stationary nature of the captured vibration signals. Moreover, the fact that this analysis implies to lose the time-dimension limits the amount of information obtained from this technique. This work proposes the use of time-frequency (T-F) transforms to analyse vibration data in motors affected by bearing currents. The experimental results obtained in real machines show that the vibration analysis via T-F tools may provide significant advantages for the detection of bearing current damages; among other, these techniques enable to visualise the progressive degradation of the bearing while providing an effective discrimination versus other components that are not related with the fault. Moreover, their application is valid regardless of the operation regime of the machine. Both factors confirm the robustness and reliability of these tools

  18. Extended Kalman filtering for the detection of damage in linear mechanical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Escamilla-Ambrosio, P. J.; Lieven, N. A. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of assessing the location and extent of damage in a vibrating structure by means of vibration measurements. Frequency domain identification methods (e.g. finite element model updating) have been widely used in this area while time domain methods such as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method, are more sparsely represented. The difficulty of applying EKF in mechanical system damage identification and localisation lies in: the high computational cost, the dependence of estimation results on the initial estimation error covariance matrix P(0), the initial value of parameters to be estimated, and on the statistics of measurement noise R and process noise Q. To resolve these problems in the EKF, a multiple model adaptive estimator consisting of a bank of EKF in modal domain was designed, each filter in the bank is based on different P(0). The algorithm was iterated by using the weighted global iteration method. A fuzzy logic model was incorporated in each filter to estimate the variance of the measurement noise R. The application of the method is illustrated by simulated and real examples.

  19. A new scenario-based approach to damage detection using operational modal parameter estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. B.; Brincker, R.; López-Aenlle, M.; Overgaard, C. F.; Kloborg, K.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper a vibration-based damage localization and quantification method, based on natural frequencies and mode shapes, is presented. The proposed technique is inspired by a damage assessment methodology based solely on the sensitivity of mass-normalized experimental determined mode shapes. The present method differs by being based on modal data extracted by means of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) combined with a reasonable Finite Element (FE) representation of the test structure and implemented in a scenario-based framework. Besides a review of the basic methodology this paper addresses fundamental theoretical as well as practical considerations which are crucial to the applicability of a given vibration-based damage assessment configuration. Lastly, the technique is demonstrated on an experimental test case using automated OMA. Both the numerical study as well as the experimental test case presented in this paper are restricted to perturbations concerning mass change.

  20. Damage Characterization Method for Structural Health Management Using Reduced Number of Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of validated multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools, technologies, and techniques to enable detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation in the presence of adverse conditions during flight will provide effective solutions to deal with safety related challenges facing next generation aircraft. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage (cracks) due to fatigue and low velocity foreign impacts that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. Hence, development of efficient methodologies to determine the presence, location, and severity of damage in critical structural components is highly important in developing efficient structural health management systems.

  1. Detection of Fatigue Crack in Basalt FRP Laminate Composite Pipe using Electrical Potential Change Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altabey, Wael A.; Noori, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    Novel modulation electrical potential change (EPC) method for fatigue crack detection in a basalt fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) laminate composite pipe is carried out in this paper. The technique is applied to a laminate pipe with an embedded crack in three layers [0º/90º/0º]s. EPC is applied for evaluating the dielectric properties of basalt FRP pipe by using an electrical capacitance sensor (ECS) to discern damages in the pipe. Twelve electrodes are mounted on the outer surface of the pipe and the changes in the modulation dielectric properties of the piping system are analyzed to detect damages in the pipe. An embedded crack is created by a fatigue internal pressure test. The capacitance values, capacitance change and node potential distribution of ECS electrodes are calculated before and after crack initiates using a finite element method (FEM) by ANSYS and MATLAB, which are combined to simulate sensor characteristics and fatigue behaviour. The crack lengths of the basalt FRP are investigated for various number of cycles to failure for determining crack growth rate. Response surfaces are adopted as a tool for solving inverse problems to estimate crack lengths from the measured electric potential differences of all segments between electrodes to validate the FEM results. The results show that, the good convergence between the FEM and estimated results. Also the results of this study show that the electrical potential difference of the basalt FRP laminate increases during cyclic loading, caused by matrix cracking. The results indicate that the proposed method successfully provides fatigue crack detection for basalt FRP laminate composite pipes.

  2. Application of Laser Based Ultrasound for NDE of Damage in Thick Stitched Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Friedman, Adam D.; Hinders, Mark K.; Madaras, Eric I.

    1997-01-01

    As design engineers implement new composite systems such as thick, load bearing composite structures, they must have certifiable confidence in structure s durability and worthiness. This confidence builds from understanding the structural response and failure characteristics of simple components loaded in testing machines to tests on full scale sections. Nondestructive evaluation is an important element which can provide quantitative information on the damage initiation, propagation, and final failure modes for the composite structural components. Although ultrasound is generally accepted as a test method, the use of conventional ultrasound for in-situ monitoring of damage during tests of large structures is not practical. The use of lasers to both generate and detect ultrasound extends the application of ultrasound to in- situ sensing of damage in a deformed structure remotely and in a non-contact manner. The goal of the present research is to utilize this technology to monitor damage progression during testing. The present paper describes the application of laser based ultrasound to quantify damage in thick stitched composite structural elements to demonstrate the method. This method involves using a Q-switched laser to generate a rapid, local linear thermal strain on the surface of the structure. This local strain causes the generation of ultrasonic waves into the material. A second laser used with a Fabry-Perot interferometer detects the surface deflections. The use of fiber optics provides for eye safety and a convenient method of delivering the laser over long distances to the specimens. The material for these structural elements is composed of several stacks of composite material assembled together by stitching through the laminate thickness that ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 inches. The specimens used for these nondestructive evaluation studies had either impact damage or skin/stiffener interlaminar failure. Although little or no visible surface damage existed

  3. A multi-damages identification method for cantilever beam based on mode shape curvatures and Kriging surrogate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fengle; Jiang, Zhansi; Jiang, Hui

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a multi-damages identification method for Cantilever Beam. First, the damage location is identified by using the mode shape curvatures. Second, samples of varying damage severities at the damage location and their corresponding natural frequencies are used to construct the initial Kriging surrogate model. Then a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to identify the damage severities based on Kriging surrogate model. The simulation study of a double-damaged cantilever beam demonstrated that the proposed method is effective.

  4. Analysis of Actinobacteria from mould-colonized water damaged building material.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Jenny; Jäckel, Udo; Kämpfer, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Mould-colonized water damaged building materials are frequently co-colonized by actinomycetes. Here, we report the results of the analyses of Actinobacteria on different wall materials from water damaged buildings obtained by both cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. Actinobacteria were detected in all but one of the investigated materials by both methods. The detected concentrations of Actinobacteria ranged between 1.8 x 10(4) and 7.6 x 10(7) CFUg(-1) of investigated material. A total of 265 isolates from 17 materials could be assigned to 31 different genera of the class Actinobacteria on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. On the basis of the cultivation-independent approach, 16S rRNA gene inserts of 800 clones (50%) were assigned to 47 different genera. Representatives of the genera Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Promicromonospora, and Pseudonocardia were found most frequently. The results derived from both methods indicated a high abundance and variety of Actinobacteria in water damaged buildings. Four bioaerosol samples were investigated by the cultivation-based approach in order to compare the communities of Actinobacteria in building material and associated air samples. A comparison of the detected genera of bioaerosol samples with those directly obtained from material samples resulted in a congruent finding of 9 of the overall 35 detected genera (25%), whereas four genera were only detected in bioaerosol samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated crack detection in conductive smart-concrete structures using a resistor mesh model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Austin; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Ubertini, Filippo; Laflamme, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Various nondestructive evaluation techniques are currently used to automatically detect and monitor cracks in concrete infrastructure. However, these methods often lack the scalability and cost-effectiveness over large geometries. A solution is the use of self-sensing carbon-doped cementitious materials. These self-sensing materials are capable of providing a measurable change in electrical output that can be related to their damage state. Previous work by the authors showed that a resistor mesh model could be used to track damage in structural components fabricated from electrically conductive concrete, where damage was located through the identification of high resistance value resistors in a resistor mesh model. In this work, an automated damage detection strategy that works through placing high value resistors into the previously developed resistor mesh model using a sequential Monte Carlo method is introduced. Here, high value resistors are used to mimic the internal condition of damaged cementitious specimens. The proposed automated damage detection method is experimentally validated using a 500 × 500 × 50 mm3 reinforced cement paste plate doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to 100 identical impact tests. Results demonstrate that the proposed Monte Carlo method is capable of detecting and localizing the most prominent damage in a structure, demonstrating that automated damage detection in smart-concrete structures is a promising strategy for real-time structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure.

  6. Improved Collision-Detection Method for Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Chris

    2003-01-01

    An improved method has been devised for the computational prediction of a collision between (1) a robotic manipulator and (2) another part of the robot or an external object in the vicinity of the robot. The method is intended to be used to test commanded manipulator trajectories in advance so that execution of the commands can be stopped before damage is done. The method involves utilization of both (1) mathematical models of the robot and its environment constructed manually prior to operation and (2) similar models constructed automatically from sensory data acquired during operation. The representation of objects in this method is simpler and more efficient (with respect to both computation time and computer memory), relative to the representations used in most prior methods. The present method was developed especially for use on a robotic land vehicle (rover) equipped with a manipulator arm and a vision system that includes stereoscopic electronic cameras. In this method, objects are represented and collisions detected by use of a previously developed technique known in the art as the method of oriented bounding boxes (OBBs). As the name of this technique indicates, an object is represented approximately, for computational purposes, by a box that encloses its outer boundary. Because many parts of a robotic manipulator are cylindrical, the OBB method has been extended in this method to enable the approximate representation of cylindrical parts by use of octagonal or other multiple-OBB assemblies denoted oriented bounding prisms (OBPs), as in the example of Figure 1. Unlike prior methods, the OBB/OBP method does not require any divisions or transcendental functions; this feature leads to greater robustness and numerical accuracy. The OBB/OBP method was selected for incorporation into the present method because it offers the best compromise between accuracy on the one hand and computational efficiency (and thus computational speed) on the other hand.

  7. Building damage assessment using airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axel, Colin; van Aardt, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of building damage following a natural disaster is a crucial step in determining the impact of the event itself and gauging reconstruction needs. Automatic methods for deriving damage maps from remotely sensed data are preferred, since they are regarded as being rapid and objective. We propose an algorithm for performing unsupervised building segmentation and damage assessment using airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) data. Local surface properties, including normal vectors and curvature, were used along with region growing to segment individual buildings in lidar point clouds. Damaged building candidates were identified based on rooftop inclination angle, and then damage was assessed using planarity and point height metrics. Validation of the building segmentation and damage assessment techniques were performed using airborne lidar data collected after the Haiti earthquake of 2010. Building segmentation and damage assessment accuracies of 93.8% and 78.9%, respectively, were obtained using lidar point clouds and expert damage assessments of 1953 buildings in heavily damaged regions. We believe this research presents an indication of the utility of airborne lidar remote sensing for increasing the efficiency and speed at which emergency response operations are performed.

  8. Guided Wave Delamination Detection and Quantification With Wavefield Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Campbell Leckey, Cara A.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Yu, Lingyu

    2014-01-01

    Unexpected damage can occur in aerospace composites due to impact events or material stress during off-nominal loading events. In particular, laminated composites are susceptible to delamination damage due to weak transverse tensile and inter-laminar shear strengths. Developments of reliable and quantitative techniques to detect delamination damage in laminated composites are imperative for safe and functional optimally-designed next-generation composite structures. In this paper, we investigate guided wave interactions with delamination damage and develop quantification algorithms by using wavefield data analysis. The trapped guided waves in the delamination region are observed from the wavefield data and further quantitatively interpreted by using different wavenumber analysis methods. The frequency-wavenumber representation of the wavefield shows that new wavenumbers are present and correlate to trapped waves in the damage region. These new wavenumbers are used to detect and quantify the delamination damage through the wavenumber analysis, which can show how the wavenumber changes as a function of wave propagation distance. The location and spatial duration of the new wavenumbers can be identified, providing a useful means not only for detecting the presence of delamination damage but also allowing for estimation of the delamination size. Our method has been applied to detect and quantify real delamination damage with complex geometry (grown using a quasi-static indentation technique). The detection and quantification results show the location, size, and shape of the delamination damage.

  9. An Improved Spectral Analysis Method for Fatigue Damage Assessment of Details in Liquid Cargo Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng-yuan; Huang, Xiao-ping

    2018-03-01

    Errors will be caused in calculating the fatigue damages of details in liquid cargo tanks by using the traditional spectral analysis method which is based on linear system, for the nonlinear relationship between the dynamic stress and the ship acceleration. An improved spectral analysis method for the assessment of the fatigue damage in detail of a liquid cargo tank is proposed in this paper. Based on assumptions that the wave process can be simulated by summing the sinusoidal waves in different frequencies and the stress process can be simulated by summing the stress processes induced by these sinusoidal waves, the stress power spectral density (PSD) is calculated by expanding the stress processes induced by the sinusoidal waves into Fourier series and adding the amplitudes of each harmonic component with the same frequency. This analysis method can take the nonlinear relationship into consideration and the fatigue damage is then calculated based on the PSD of stress. Take an independent tank in an LNG carrier for example, the accuracy of the improved spectral analysis method is proved much better than that of the traditional spectral analysis method by comparing the calculated damage results with the results calculated by the time domain method. The proposed spectral analysis method is more accurate in calculating the fatigue damages in detail of ship liquid cargo tanks.

  10. Renal damage detected by DMSA, despite normal renal ultrasound, in children with febrile UTI.

    PubMed

    Bush, N C; Keays, M; Adams, C; Mizener, K; Pritzker, K; Smith, W; Traylor, J; Villanueva, C; Snodgrass, W T

    2015-06-01

    2011 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines recommended renal-bladder ultrasound (RBUS) as the only evaluation after febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) in infants aged 2-24 months. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and false negative rate of RBUS to identify DMSA-detected renal damage in this age group as well as in older children. Consecutive patients referred to pediatric urology with a history of FUTI underwent DMSA ≥ 3 months after FUTI. Abnormal RBUS was defined as: Society of Fetal Urology hydronephrosis grades I-IV; hydroureter ≥ 7 mm; renal scar defined as focal parenchymal thinning; and/or size discrepancy ≥ 1 cm between kidneys. Abnormal DMSA was presence of any focal uptake defects and/or split renal function < 44%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and false negative rates of RBUS compared to DMSA. 618 patients (79% female), median age 3.4 years, were referred for FUTIs. Of the 512 (83%) with normal RBUS, 99 (19%) had abnormal DMSA. Children with normal RBUS after their first FUTI had abnormal DMSA in 15/151 (10%) aged ≤ 24 months and 23/119 (19%) aged > 24 months. RBUS had poor sensitivity (34%) and low positive predictive value (47%) to identify patients with renal damage. 99/149 (66%) children with renal damage on DMSA had normal RBUS. After FUTI, 66% of children with reduced renal function and/or renal cortical defects found by DMSA scintigraphy had a normal RBUS. Since abnormal DMSA may correlate with increased risk for VUR, recurrent FUTI and renal damage, our data suggest RBUS alone will fail to detect a significant proportion of patients at risk. The data suggest that imaging after FUTI should include acute RBUS and delayed DMSA, reserving VCUG for patients with abnormal DMSA and/or recurrent FUTI. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Damage identification of a reinforced concrete frame by finite element model updating using damage parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Sheng-En; Perera, Ricardo; De Roeck, Guido

    2008-06-01

    This paper develops a sensitivity-based updating method to identify the damage in a tested reinforced concrete (RC) frame modeled with a two-dimensional planar finite element (FE) by minimizing the discrepancies of modal frequencies and mode shapes. In order to reduce the number of unknown variables, a bidimensional damage (element) function is proposed, resulting in a considerable improvement of the optimization performance. For damage identification, a reference FE model of the undamaged frame divided into a few damage functions is firstly obtained and then a rough identification is carried out to detect possible damage locations, which are subsequently refined with new damage functions to accurately identify the damage. From a design point of view, it would be useful to evaluate, in a simplified way, the remaining bending stiffness of cracked beam sections or segments. Hence, an RC damage model based on a static mechanism is proposed to estimate the remnant stiffness of a cracked RC beam segment. The damage model is based on the assumption that the damage effect spreads over a region and the stiffness in the segment changes linearly. Furthermore, the stiffness reduction evaluated using this damage model is compared with the FE updating result. It is shown that the proposed bidimensional damage function is useful in producing a well-conditioned optimization problem and the aforementioned damage model can be used for an approximate stiffness estimation of a cracked beam segment.

  12. A new hand-held microfluidic cytometer for evaluating irradiation damage by analysis of the damaged cells distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junsheng; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yile; Song, Younan; Chu, Hui; Song, Wendong; Song, Yongxin; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2016-03-17

    Space radiation brings uneven damages to cells. The detection of the distribution of cell damage plays a very important role in radiation medicine and the related research. In this paper, a new hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer was developed to evaluate the degree of radiation damage of cells. The device we propose overcomes the shortcomings (e.g., large volume and high cost) of commercial flow cytometers and can evaluate the radiation damage of cells accurately and quickly with potential for onsite applications. The distribution of radiation-damaged cells is analyzed by a simultaneous detection of immunofluorescence intensity of γ-H2AX and resistance pulse sensor (RPS) signal. The γ-H2AX fluorescence intensity provides information of the degree of radiation damage in cells. The ratio of the number of cells with γ-H2AX fluorescence signals to the total numbers of cells detected by RPS indicates the percentage of the cells that are damaged by radiation. The comparison experiment between the developed hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer and a commercial confocal microscope indicates a consistent and comparable detection performance.

  13. A new hand-held microfluidic cytometer for evaluating irradiation damage by analysis of the damaged cells distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yile; Song, Younan; Chu, Hui; Song, Wendong; Song, Yongxin; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2016-03-01

    Space radiation brings uneven damages to cells. The detection of the distribution of cell damage plays a very important role in radiation medicine and the related research. In this paper, a new hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer was developed to evaluate the degree of radiation damage of cells. The device we propose overcomes the shortcomings (e.g., large volume and high cost) of commercial flow cytometers and can evaluate the radiation damage of cells accurately and quickly with potential for onsite applications. The distribution of radiation-damaged cells is analyzed by a simultaneous detection of immunofluorescence intensity of γ-H2AX and resistance pulse sensor (RPS) signal. The γ-H2AX fluorescence intensity provides information of the degree of radiation damage in cells. The ratio of the number of cells with γ-H2AX fluorescence signals to the total numbers of cells detected by RPS indicates the percentage of the cells that are damaged by radiation. The comparison experiment between the developed hand-held microfluidic flow cytometer and a commercial confocal microscope indicates a consistent and comparable detection performance.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  15. Experimental study on Statistical Damage Detection of RC Structures based on Wavelet Packet Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. Q.; Law, S. S.; Jayawardhan, M.

    2011-07-01

    A novel damage indicator based on wavelet packet transform is developed in this study for structural health monitoring. The response signal of a structure under an impact load is normalized and then decomposed into wavelet packet components. Energies of these wavelet packet components are then calculated to obtain the energy distribution. A statistical indicator is developed to describe the damage extent of the structure. This approach is applied to the test results from simply supported reinforced concrete beams in the laboratory. Cases with single damage are created from static loading, and accelerations of the structure from under impact loads are analyzed. Results show that the method can be used for the damage monitoring and assessment of the structure.

  16. Analysis of nonlinear modulation between sound and vibrations in metallic structure and its use for damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Gang, Tie; Wan, Chuhao; Wang, Changxi; Luo, Zhiwei

    2015-07-01

    Vibro-acoustic modulation technique is a nonlinear ultrasonic method in nondestructive testing. This technique detects the defects by monitoring the modulation components generated by the interaction between the vibration and the ultrasound wave due to the nonlinear material behaviour caused by the damage. In this work, a swept frequency signal was used as high frequency excitation, then the Hilbert transform based amplitude and phase demodulation and synchronous demodulation (SD) were used to extract the modulation information from the received signal, the results were graphed in the time-frequency domain after the short time Fourier transform. The demodulation results were quite different from each other. The reason for the difference was investigated by analysing the demodulation process of the two methods. According to the analysis and the subsequent verification test, it was indicated that the SD method was more proper for the test and a new index called MISD was defined to evaluate the structure quality in the Vibro-acoustic modulation test with swept probing excitation.

  17. Satellite change detection of forest damage near the Chernobyl accident

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McClellan, G.E.; Anno, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A substantial amount of forest within a few kilometers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor station was badly contaminated with radionuclides by the April 26, 1986, explosion and ensuing fire at reactor No. 4. Radiation doses to conifers in some areas were sufficient to cause discoloration of needles within a few weeks. Other areas, receiving smaller doses, showed foliage changes beginning 6 months to a year later. Multispectral imagery available from Landsat sensors is especially suited for monitoring such changes in vegetation. A series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images was developed that span the 2 yr following the accident. Quantitative dosemore » estimation for the exposed conifers requires an objective change detection algorithm and knowledge of the dose-time response of conifers to ionizing radiation. Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation's Hyperscout{trademark} algorithm is based on an advanced, sensitive technique for change detection particularly suited for multispectral images. The Hyperscout algorithm has been used to assess radiation damage to the forested areas around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.« less

  18. 3D Mapping of plasma effective areas via detection of cancer cell damage induced by atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Yueing; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for irradiation of oral cancer cells. Since cancer cells are very susceptible to plasma treatment, they can be used as a tool for detection of APPJ-effective areas, which extended much further than the visible part of the APPJ. An immunofluorescence assay was used for DNA damage identification, visualization and quantification. Thus, the effective damage area and damage level were determined and plotted as 3D images.

  19. Investigation of Time Series Representations and Similarity Measures for Structural Damage Pattern Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, R. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the time series representation methods and similarity measures for sensor data feature extraction and structural damage pattern recognition. Both model-based time series representation and dimensionality reduction methods are studied to compare the effectiveness of feature extraction for damage pattern recognition. The evaluation of feature extraction methods is performed by examining the separation of feature vectors among different damage patterns and the pattern recognition success rate. In addition, the impact of similarity measures on the pattern recognition success rate and the metrics for damage localization are also investigated. The test data used in this study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case datasets and damage test data with different damage modalities are used. The simulation results show that both time series representation methods and similarity measures have significant impact on the pattern recognition success rate. PMID:24191136

  20. Applying robust variant of Principal Component Analysis as a damage detector in the presence of outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharibnezhad, Fahit; Mujica, Luis E.; Rodellar, José

    2015-01-01

    Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has received considerable attention over the past few years. PCA has been used not only as a direct method to identify, classify and localize damages but also as a significant primary step for other methods. Despite several positive specifications that PCA conveys, it is very sensitive to outliers. Outliers are anomalous observations that can affect the variance and the covariance as vital parts of PCA method. Therefore, the results based on PCA in the presence of outliers are not fully satisfactory. As a main contribution, this work suggests the use of robust variant of PCA not sensitive to outliers, as an effective way to deal with this problem in SHM field. In addition, the robust PCA is compared with the classical PCA in the sense of detecting probable damages. The comparison between the results shows that robust PCA can distinguish the damages much better than using classical one, and even in many cases allows the detection where classic PCA is not able to discern between damaged and non-damaged structures. Moreover, different types of robust PCA are compared with each other as well as with classical counterpart in the term of damage detection. All the results are obtained through experiments with an aircraft turbine blade using piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators and adding simulated damages.

  1. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing.

    PubMed

    Chandarana, Neha; Sanchez, Daniel Martinez; Soutis, Constantinos; Gresil, Matthieu

    2017-06-22

    Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin) cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life.

  2. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chandarana, Neha; Sanchez, Daniel Martinez; Soutis, Constantinos; Gresil, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin) cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life. PMID:28773048

  3. Study of Composite Plate Damages Using Embedded PZT Sensors with Various Center Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Son, Ju-Hyun; Byun, Joon-Hyung; Um, Moon-Kwang; Lee, Sang-Kwan

    This study presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for damage detection of composite structural. Embedded piezoceramic (PZT) sensors were excited with the high power ultrasonic wave generator generating a propagation of stress wave along the composite plate. The same embedded piezoceramic (PZT) sensors are used as receivers for acquiring stress signals. The effects of center frequency of embedded sensor were evaluated for the damage identification capability with known localized defects. The study was carried out to assess damage in composite plate by fusing information from multiple sensing paths of the embedded network. It was based on the Hilbert transform, signal correlation and probabilistic searching. The obtained results show that satisfactory detection of defects could be achieved by proposed method.

  4. Faint Debris Detection by Particle Based Track-Before-Detect Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetsuhara, M.; Ikoma, N.

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes a particle method to detect faint debris, which is hardly seen in single frame, from an image sequence based on the concept of track-before-detect (TBD). The most widely used detection method is detect-before-track (DBT), which firstly detects signals of targets from single frame by distinguishing difference of intensity between foreground and background then associate the signals for each target between frames. DBT is capable of tracking bright targets but limited. DBT is necessary to consider presence of false signals and is difficult to recover from false association. On the other hand, TBD methods try to track targets without explicitly detecting the signals followed by evaluation of goodness of each track and obtaining detection results. TBD has an advantage over DBT in detecting weak signals around background level in single frame. However, conventional TBD methods for debris detection apply brute-force search over candidate tracks then manually select true one from the candidates. To reduce those significant drawbacks of brute-force search and not-fully automated process, this study proposes a faint debris detection algorithm by a particle based TBD method consisting of sequential update of target state and heuristic search of initial state. The state consists of position, velocity direction and magnitude, and size of debris over the image at a single frame. The sequential update process is implemented by a particle filter (PF). PF is an optimal filtering technique that requires initial distribution of target state as a prior knowledge. An evolutional algorithm (EA) is utilized to search the initial distribution. The EA iteratively applies propagation and likelihood evaluation of particles for the same image sequences and resulting set of particles is used as an initial distribution of PF. This paper describes the algorithm of the proposed faint debris detection method. The algorithm demonstrates performance on image sequences acquired

  5. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Byers, Loren W.; Ten Cate, James A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately,more » nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.« less

  6. Retinal nerve fibre thickness measured with optical coherence tomography accurately detects confirmed glaucomatous damage

    PubMed Central

    Hood, D C; Harizman, N; Kanadani, F N; Grippo, T M; Baharestani, S; Greenstein, V C; Liebmann, J M; Ritch, R

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting damage to a hemifield, patients with hemifield defects confirmed on both static automated perimetry (SAP) and multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) were studied. Methods Eyes of 40 patients with concomitant SAP and mfVEP glaucomatous loss and 25 controls underwent OCT retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), mfVEP and 24‐2 SAP tests. For the mfVEP and 24‐2 SAP, a hemifield was defined as abnormal based upon cluster criteria. On OCT, a hemifield was considered abnormal if one of the five clock hour sectors (3 and 9 o'clock excluded) was at <1% (red) or two were at <5% (yellow). Results Seventy seven (43%) of the hemifields were abnormal on both mfVEP and SAP tests. The OCT was abnormal for 73 (95%) of these. Only 1 (1%) of the 100 hemifields of the controls was abnormal on OCT. Sensitivity/specificity (one eye per person) was 95/98%. Conclusions The OCT RNFL test accurately detects abnormal hemifields confirmed on both subjective and objective functional tests. Identifying abnormal hemifields with a criterion of 1 red (1%) or 2 yellow (5%) clock hours may prove useful in clinical practice. PMID:17301118

  7. Analysis Methods for Progressive Damage of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of recent accomplishments and lessons learned in the development of general progressive damage analysis methods for predicting the residual strength and life of composite structures. These developments are described within their State-of-the-Art (SoA) context and the associated technology barriers. The emphasis of the authors is on developing these analysis tools for application at the structural level. Hence, modeling of damage progression is undertaken at the mesoscale, where the plies of a laminate are represented as a homogenous orthotropic continuum. The aim of the present effort is establish the ranges of validity of available models, to identify technology barriers, and to establish the foundations of the future investigation efforts. Such are the necessary steps towards accurate and robust simulations that can replace some of the expensive and time-consuming "building block" tests that are currently required for the design and certification of aerospace structures.

  8. Vibration-based damage detection in wind turbine blades using Phase-based Motion Estimation and motion magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafi, Aral; Mao, Zhu; Niezrecki, Christopher; Poozesh, Peyman

    2018-05-01

    , having proper lighting while working with high-speed cameras can be an issue, therefore image enhancement and contrast manipulation has also been performed to enhance the raw images. Ultimately, the extracted resonant frequencies and operational deflection shapes are used to detect the presence of damage, demonstrating the feasibility of implementing non-contact video measurements to perform realistic structural damage detection.

  9. Evaluation of nutria (Myocastor coypus) detection methods in Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, Margaret A.; Herrmann, Valentine; Hines, James; Nichols, James D.; Kendrot, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Nutria (Myocaster coypus), invasive, semi-aquatic rodents native to South America, were introduced into Maryland near Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR) in 1943. Irruptive population growth, expansion, and destructive feeding habits resulted in the destruction of thousands of acres of emergent marshes at and surrounding BNWR. In 2002, a partnership of federal, state and private entities initiated an eradication campaign to protect remaining wetlands from further damage and facilitate the restoration of coastal wetlands throughout the Chesapeake Bay region. Program staff removed nearly 14,000 nutria from five infested watersheds in a systematic trapping and hunting program between 2002 and 2014. As part of ongoing surveillance activities, the Chesapeake Bay Nutria Eradication Project uses a variety of tools to detect and remove nutria. Project staff developed a floating raft, or monitoring platform, to determine site occupancy. These platforms are placed along waterways and checked periodically for evidence of nutria visitation. We evaluated the effectiveness of monitoring platforms and three associated detection methods: hair snares, presence of scat, and trail cameras. Our objectives were to (1) determine if platform placement on land or water influenced nutria visitation rates, (2) determine if the presence of hair snares influenced visitation rates, and (3) determine method-specific detection probabilities. Our analyses indicated that platforms placed on land were 1.5–3.0 times more likely to be visited than those placed in water and that platforms without snares were an estimated 1.7–3.7 times more likely to be visited than those with snares. Although the presence of snares appears to have discouraged visitation, seasonal variation may confound interpretation of these results. Scat was the least effective method of determining nutria visitation, while hair snares were as effective as cameras. Estimated detection probabilities provided by occupancy

  10. The development of damage identification methods for buildings with image recognition and machine learning techniques utilizing aerial photographs of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohei, N.; Nakamura, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Naoichi, M.; Hiromitsu, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to get schematic information of the damage situation immediately after the earthquake utilizing photographs shot from an airplane in terms of the investigation and the decision-making for authorities. In case of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, we have acquired more than 1,800 orthographic projection photographs adjacent to damaged areas. These photos have taken between April 16th and 19th by airplanes, then we have distinguished damages of all buildings with 4 levels, and organized as approximately 296,000 GIS data corresponding to the fundamental Geospatial data published by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. These data have organized by effort of hundreds of engineers. However, it is not considered practical for more extensive disasters like the Nankai Trough earthquake by only human powers. So, we have been developing the automatic damage identification method utilizing image recognition and machine learning techniques. First, we have extracted training data of more than 10,000 buildings which have equally damage levels divided in 4 grades. With these training data, we have been raster scanning in each scanning ranges of entire images, then clipping patch images which represents damage levels each. By utilizing these patch images, we have been developing discriminant models by two ways. One is a model using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). First, extract a feature quantity of each patch images. Then, with these vector values, calculate the histogram density as a method of Bag of Visual Words (BoVW), then classify borders with each damage grades by SVM. The other one is a model using the multi-layered Neural Network. First, design a multi-layered Neural Network. Second, input patch images and damage levels based on a visual judgement, and then, optimize learning parameters with error backpropagation method. By use of both discriminant models, we are going to discriminate damage levels in each patches, then create the image that shows

  11. Acoustic emission based damage localization in composites structures using Bayesian identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, A.; Eaton, M. J.; Al-Jumali, S.; Sikdar, S.; Pullin, R.

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic emission based damage detection in composite structures is based on detection of ultra high frequency packets of acoustic waves emitted from damage sources (such as fibre breakage, fatigue fracture, amongst others) with a network of distributed sensors. This non-destructive monitoring scheme requires solving an inverse problem where the measured signals are linked back to the location of the source. This in turn enables rapid deployment of mitigative measures. The presence of significant amount of uncertainty associated with the operating conditions and measurements makes the problem of damage identification quite challenging. The uncertainties stem from the fact that the measured signals are affected by the irregular geometries, manufacturing imprecision, imperfect boundary conditions, existing damages/structural degradation, amongst others. This work aims to tackle these uncertainties within a framework of automated probabilistic damage detection. The method trains a probabilistic model of the parametrized input and output model of the acoustic emission system with experimental data to give probabilistic descriptors of damage locations. A response surface modelling the acoustic emission as a function of parametrized damage signals collected from sensors would be calibrated with a training dataset using Bayesian inference. This is used to deduce damage locations in the online monitoring phase. During online monitoring, the spatially correlated time data is utilized in conjunction with the calibrated acoustic emissions model to infer the probabilistic description of the acoustic emission source within a hierarchical Bayesian inference framework. The methodology is tested on a composite structure consisting of carbon fibre panel with stiffeners and damage source behaviour has been experimentally simulated using standard H-N sources. The methodology presented in this study would be applicable in the current form to structural damage detection under varying

  12. Rapid detection of microbes in the dialysis solution by the microcolony fluorescence staining method (Millflex quantum).

    PubMed

    Osono, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Eiko; Inoue, Yuki; Honda, Kazumi; Kumagai, Takuya; Negishi, Hideki; Okamatsu, Kentaro; Ichimura, Kyoko; Kamano, Chisako; Suzuki, Fumi; Norose, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Megumi; Takaku, Shun; Fujioka, Noriaki; Hayama, Naoaki; Takizawa, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    A chemiluminescence system, Milliflex Quantum (MFQ), to detect microcolonies, has been used in the pharmaceutical field. In this study, we investigated aquatic bacteria in hemodialysis solutions sampled from bioburden areas in 4 dialysis faculties. Using MFQ, microcolonies could be detected after a short incubation period. The colony count detected with MFQ after a 48-hour incubation was 92% ± 39%, compared to that after the conventionally used 7-14-day incubation period; in addition, the results also showed a linear correlation. Moreover, MFQ-based analysis allowed the visualization of damaged cells and of the high density due to the excessive amount of bacteria. These results suggested that MFQ had adequate sensitivity to detect microbacteria in dialysis solutions, and it was useful for validating the conditions of conventional culture methods.

  13. Carbon Nanofiber Cement Sensors to Detect Strain and Damage of Concrete Specimens Under Compression

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, F. Javier; Garcés, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cement composites with nano-additions have been vastly studied for their functional applications, such as strain and damage sensing. The capacity of a carbon nanofiber (CNF) cement paste has already been tested. However, this study is focused on the use of CNF cement composites as sensors in regular concrete samples. Different measuring techniques and humidity conditions of CNF samples were tested to optimize the strain and damage sensing of this material. In the strain sensing tests (for compressive stresses up to 10 MPa), the response depends on the maximum stress applied. The material was more sensitive at higher loads. Furthermore, the actual load time history did not influence the electrical response, and similar curves were obtained for different test configurations. On the other hand, damage sensing tests proved the capability of CNF cement composites to measure the strain level of concrete samples, even for loads close to the material’s strength. Some problems were detected in the strain transmission between sensor and concrete specimens, which will require specific calibration of each sensor one attached to the structure. PMID:29186797

  14. Carbon Nanofiber Cement Sensors to Detect Strain and Damage of Concrete Specimens Under Compression.

    PubMed

    Galao, Oscar; Baeza, F Javier; Zornoza, Emilio; Garcés, Pedro

    2017-11-24

    Cement composites with nano-additions have been vastly studied for their functional applications, such as strain and damage sensing. The capacity of a carbon nanofiber (CNF) cement paste has already been tested. However, this study is focused on the use of CNF cement composites as sensors in regular concrete samples. Different measuring techniques and humidity conditions of CNF samples were tested to optimize the strain and damage sensing of this material. In the strain sensing tests (for compressive stresses up to 10 MPa), the response depends on the maximum stress applied. The material was more sensitive at higher loads. Furthermore, the actual load time history did not influence the electrical response, and similar curves were obtained for different test configurations. On the other hand, damage sensing tests proved the capability of CNF cement composites to measure the strain level of concrete samples, even for loads close to the material's strength. Some problems were detected in the strain transmission between sensor and concrete specimens, which will require specific calibration of each sensor one attached to the structure.

  15. Synthetic Modifications In the Frequency Domain for Finite Element Model Update and Damage Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    Sensitivity-based finite element model updating and structural damage detection has been limited by the number of modes available in a vibration test and...increase the number of modes and corresponding sensitivity data by artificially constraining the structure under test, producing a large number of... structural modifications to the measured data, including both springs-to-ground and mass modifications. This is accomplished with frequency domain

  16. Use of near-infrared video recording system for the detection of freeze damaged citrus leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobar, D. E.; Bowen, R. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cooper, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A video recording system with a visible light blocking filter to give sensitivity in the 0.78 m to 1.1 m waveband detected freeze-damaged citrus leaves rapidly. With this technique, the time to analyze images can be decreased from about one day for conventional photography to less than one hour for video recording.

  17. A comparison of moving object detection methods for real-time moving object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan, Aditya; Zhang, Yun

    2014-06-01

    Moving object detection has a wide variety of applications from traffic monitoring, site monitoring, automatic theft identification, face detection to military surveillance. Many methods have been developed across the globe for moving object detection, but it is very difficult to find one which can work globally in all situations and with different types of videos. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate existing moving object detection methods which can be implemented in software on a desktop or laptop, for real time object detection. There are several moving object detection methods noted in the literature, but few of them are suitable for real time moving object detection. Most of the methods which provide for real time movement are further limited by the number of objects and the scene complexity. This paper evaluates the four most commonly used moving object detection methods as background subtraction technique, Gaussian mixture model, wavelet based and optical flow based methods. The work is based on evaluation of these four moving object detection methods using two (2) different sets of cameras and two (2) different scenes. The moving object detection methods have been implemented using MatLab and results are compared based on completeness of detected objects, noise, light change sensitivity, processing time etc. After comparison, it is observed that optical flow based method took least processing time and successfully detected boundary of moving objects which also implies that it can be implemented for real-time moving object detection.

  18. [A computer tomography assisted method for the automatic detection of region of interest in dynamic kidney images].

    PubMed

    Jing, Xueping; Zheng, Xiujuan; Song, Shaoli; Liu, Kai

    2017-12-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which can be estimated by Gates method with dynamic kidney single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, is a key indicator of renal function. In this paper, an automatic computer tomography (CT)-assisted detection method of kidney region of interest (ROI) is proposed to achieve the objective and accurate GFR calculation. In this method, the CT coronal projection image and the enhanced SPECT synthetic image are firstly generated and registered together. Then, the kidney ROIs are delineated using a modified level set algorithm. Meanwhile, the background ROIs are also obtained based on the kidney ROIs. Finally, the value of GFR is calculated via Gates method. Comparing with the clinical data, the GFR values estimated by the proposed method were consistent with the clinical reports. This automatic method can improve the accuracy and stability of kidney ROI detection for GFR calculation, especially when the kidney function has been severely damaged.

  19. Feasibility of OCT to detect radiation-induced esophageal damage in small animal models (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; Alderliesten, Tanja; Salguero, Javier; Borst, Gerben; Song, Ji-Ying; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de Boer, Johannes F.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van Herk, Marcel B.

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer survival is poor and radiotherapy patients often suffer serious treatment side effects. The esophagus is particularly sensitive leading to reduced food intake or even fistula formation. Only few direct techniques exist to measure radiation-induced esophageal damage, for which knowledge is needed to improve the balance between risk of tumor recurrence and complications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a minimally-invasive imaging technique that obtains cross-sectional, high-resolution (1-10µm) images and is capable of scanning the esophageal wall up to 2-3mm depth. In this study we investigated the feasibility of OCT to detect esophageal radiation damage in mice. In total 30 mice were included in 4 study groups (1 main and 3 control groups). Mice underwent cone-beam CT imaging for initial setup assessment and dose planning followed by single-fraction dose delivery of 4, 10, 16, and 20Gy on 5mm spots, spaced 10mm apart. Mice were repeatedly imaged using OCT: pre-irradiation and up to 3 months post-irradiation. The control groups received either OCT only, irradiation only, or were sham-operated. We used histopathology as gold standard for radiation-induced damage diagnosis. The study showed edema in both the main and OCT-only groups. Furthermore, radiation-induced damage was primarily found in the highest dose region (distal esophagus). Based on the histopathology reports we were able to identify the radiation-induced damage in the OCT images as a change in tissue scattering related to the type of induced damage. This finding indicates the feasibility and thereby the potentially promising role of OCT in radiation-induced esophageal damage assessment.

  20. Design and analysis of FBG based sensor for detection of damage in oil and gas pipelines for safety of marine life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedi, Amna; Kothari, Vaishali; Kumar, Santosh

    2018-02-01

    The under laid gas and oil pipelines on the seafloor are prone to various disturbances like seismic movements of the sea bed, oceanic currents, tsunamis. These factors tend to damage such pipelines connecting different locations of the world dependent on these pipelines for their day-to-day use of oil and natural gas. If damaged, the oil spills in the water bodies cause grave loss to marine life along with serious economic issues. It is not feasible to monitor the undersea pipelines manually because of the huge seafloor depth. For timely detection of such damage, a new technique using optical Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and its installation has been given in this work. The idea of an FBG sensor for detecting damage in pipeline structure based on the acoustic emission has been worked out. The numerical calculation has been done based on the fundamental of strain measurement and the output has been simulated using MATLAB.

  1. Evaluation of landsat imagery for detecting ice storm damage in upland forests of Eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Henry W. McNab; Tracy Roof; Jeffrey F. Lewis; David L. Loftis

    2007-01-01

    Two categories of forest canopy damage (none to light vs. moderate to heavy) resulting from a 2003 ice storm in eastern Kentucky could be identified on readily available Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery using change detection techniques to evaluate the ratio of spectral bands 4 and 5. Regression analysis was used to evaluate several model formulations based on the...

  2. Evaluation of basal DNA damage and oxidative stress in Wistar rat leukocytes after exposure to microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Gajski, Goran; Trosić, Ivancica; Pavicić, Ivan

    2009-05-17

    The aim of this study was to assess whether microwave-induced DNA damage is basal or it is also generated through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. After having irradiated Wistar rats with 915MHz microwave radiation, we assessed different DNA alterations in peripheral leukocytes using standard and formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay. The first is a sensitive tool for detecting primary DNA damage, and the second is much more specific for detecting oxidative damage. The animals were irradiated for 1h a day for 2 weeks at a field power density of 2.4W/m(2), and the whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.6W/kg. Both the standard and the Fpg-modified comet assay detected increased DNA damage in blood leukocytes of the exposed rats. The significant increase in Fpg-detected DNA damage in the exposed rats suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanisms may also be involved. In addition, both methods served proved sensitive enough to measure basal and oxidative DNA damage after long-term exposure to 915MHz microwave radiation in vivo.

  3. Method for Estimating Thread Strength Reduction of Damaged Parent Holes with Inserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David L.; Stratton, Troy C.

    2005-01-01

    During normal assembly and disassembly of bolted-joint components, thread damage and/or deformation may occur. If threads are overloaded, thread damage/deformation can also be anticipated. Typical inspection techniques (e.g. using GO-NO GO gages) may not provide adequate visibility of the extent of thread damage. More detailed inspection techniques have provided actual pitch-diameter profiles of damaged-hardware holes. A method to predict the reduction in thread shear-out capacity of damaged threaded holes has been developed. This method was based on testing and analytical modeling. Test samples were machined to simulate damaged holes in the hardware of interest. Test samples containing pristine parent-holes were also manufactured from the same bar-stock material to provide baseline results for comparison purposes. After the particular parent-hole thread profile was machined into each sample a helical insert was installed into the threaded hole. These samples were tested in a specially designed fixture to determine the maximum load required to shear out the parent threads. It was determined from the pristine-hole samples that, for the specific material tested, each individual thread could resist an average load of 3980 pounds. The shear-out loads of the holes having modified pitch diameters were compared to the ultimate loads of the specimens with pristine holes. An equivalent number of missing helical coil threads was then determined based on the ratio of shear-out loads for each thread configuration. These data were compared with the results from a finite element model (FEM). The model gave insights into the ability of the thread loads to redistribute for both pristine and simulated damage configurations. In this case, it was determined that the overall potential reduction in thread load-carrying capability in the hardware of interest was equal to having up to three fewer threads in the hole that bolt threads could engage. One- half of this potential reduction

  4. Structural Anomaly Detection Using Fiber Optic Sensors and Inverse Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alex; Moore, Jason P.; Cooper, Eric G.; Spangler, Jan. L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating a variety of techniques for mitigating aircraft accidents due to structural component failure. One technique under consideration combines distributed fiber optic strain sensing with an inverse finite element method for detecting and characterizing structural anomalies anomalies that may provide early indication of airframe structure degradation. The technique identifies structural anomalies that result in observable changes in localized strain but do not impact the overall surface shape. Surface shape information is provided by an Inverse Finite Element Method that computes full-field displacements and internal loads using strain data from in-situ fiberoptic sensors. This paper describes a prototype of such a system and reports results from a series of laboratory tests conducted on a test coupon subjected to increasing levels of damage.

  5. Fractal dimension based damage identification incorporating multi-task sparse Bayesian learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Li, Hui; Wu, Stephen; Yang, Yongchao

    2018-07-01

    Sensitivity to damage and robustness to noise are critical requirements for the effectiveness of structural damage detection. In this study, a two-stage damage identification method based on the fractal dimension analysis and multi-task Bayesian learning is presented. The Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) based damage index is first proposed, directly examining the time-frequency characteristic of local free vibration data of structures based on the irregularity sensitivity and noise robustness analysis of HFD. Katz’s fractal dimension is then presented to analyze the abrupt irregularity change of the spatial curve of the displacement mode shape along the structure. At the second stage, the multi-task sparse Bayesian learning technique is employed to infer the final damage localization vector, which borrow the dependent strength of the two fractal dimension based damage indication information and also incorporate the prior knowledge that structural damage occurs at a limited number of locations in a structure in the absence of its collapse. To validate the capability of the proposed method, a steel beam and a bridge, named Yonghe Bridge, are analyzed as illustrative examples. The damage identification results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of localizing single and multiple damages regardless of its severity, and show superior robustness under heavy noise as well.

  6. Early Detection of Salt Stress Damage by Biophotons in Red Bean Seedling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, Tomoyuki; Kurashige, Hideaki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Kai, Shoichi

    2000-06-01

    The optical detection of the stress damage to plants by NaCl solutions was attempted during germination of a seed and growth of a root. We compared the photon intensity of red beans before and after NaCl treatment and found that the photon intensity after NaCl treatment decreased as the NaCl concentration increased. For the saturated NaCl concentration (4.5 M), however, the observed photon intensity drastically increased, and the simultaneous destruction of cell membranes was observed. The intensity of biophoton emission from red beans showed characteristic change with salt concentrations. When the salt stress was applied to the red beans at an early growth stage, their root elongations were suppressed and photon intensity from the root decreased. This was not the case for the root at the late stage. This shows that biophoton intensity due to salt stress depends on not only NaCl concentration but also the growth stage of the plant. We may conclude that the extent of damage to roots by salt stress can be evaluated from biophoton response.

  7. Adaptive Piezoelectric Circuitry Sensor Network with High-Frequency Harmonics Interrogation for Structural Damage Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0255 ADAPTIVE PIEZOELECTRIC CIRCUITRY SENSOR NETWORK KON -WELL WANG MICHIGAN UNIV ANN ARBOR Final Report 09/17/2014 DISTRIBUTION A...Harmonics Interrogation for Structural Damage Detection FA9550-11-1-0072 Kon -Well Wang and Jiong Tang The Regents of the University of Michigan, 3003...mechanism. These efforts have yielded a complete methodology of adaptive high-frequency piezoelectric self-sensing interrogation. None None None SAR Kon

  8. Detection of oral HPV infection - Comparison of two different specimen collection methods and two HPV detection methods.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Marjorie M A; Hartel, Gunter; Whiteman, David C; Antonsson, Annika

    2018-04-01

    Very little is known about the natural history of oral HPV infection. Several different methods exist to collect oral specimens and detect HPV, but their respective performance characteristics are unknown. We compared two different methods for oral specimen collection (oral saline rinse and commercial saliva kit) from 96 individuals and then analyzed the samples for HPV by two different PCR detection methods (single GP5+/6+ PCR and nested MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ PCR). For the oral rinse samples, the oral HPV prevalence was 10.4% (GP+ PCR; 10% repeatability) vs 11.5% (nested PCR method; 100% repeatability). For the commercial saliva kit samples, the prevalences were 3.1% vs 16.7% with the GP+ PCR vs the nested PCR method (repeatability 100% for both detection methods). Overall the agreement was fair or poor between samples and methods (kappa 0.06-0.36). Standardizing methods of oral sample collection and HPV detection would ensure comparability between future oral HPV studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The detection methods of dynamic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, N. L.; Denisova, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the application of cluster analysis methods for solving the task of aircraft detection on the basis of distribution of navigation parameters selection into groups (clusters). The modified method of cluster analysis for search and detection of objects and then iterative combining in clusters with the subsequent count of their quantity for increase in accuracy of the aircraft detection have been suggested. The course of the method operation and the features of implementation have been considered. In the conclusion the noted efficiency of the offered method for exact cluster analysis for finding targets has been shown.

  10. Impact induced damage assessment by means of Lamb wave image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is an analysis of full wavefield Lamb wave interaction with impact-induced damage at various impact energies in order to find out the limitation of the wavenumber adaptive image filtering method. In other words, the relation between impact energy and damage detectability will be shown. A numerical model based on the time domain spectral element method is used for modeling of Lamb wave propagation and interaction with barely visible impact damage in a carbon-epoxy laminate. Numerical studies are followed by experimental research on the same material with an impact damage induced by various energy and also a Teflon insert simulating delamination. Wavenumber adaptive image filtering and signal processing are used for damage visualization and assessment for both numerical and experimental full wavefield data. It is shown that it is possible to visualize and assess the impact damage location, size and to some extent severity by using the proposed technique.

  11. Signal processing techniques for damage detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors and embedded ultrasonic structural radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2004-07-01

    Embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm is developed for using piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) array to detect defects within a large area of a thin-plate specimen. Signal processing techniques are used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages, and thereby to determine the location of the defects with the EUSR algorithm. In our research, the transient tone-burst wave propagation signals are generated and collected by the embedded PWAS. Then, with signal processing, the frequency contents of the signals and the time of flight of individual frequencies are determined. This paper starts with an introduction of embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm. Then we will describe the signal processing methods used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages. The signal processing methods being used include the wavelet denoising, the cross correlation, and Hilbert transform. Though hardware device can provide averaging function to eliminate the noise coming from the signal collection process, wavelet denoising is included to ensure better signal quality for the application in real severe environment. For better recognition of time of flight, cross correlation method is used. Hilbert transform is applied to the signals after cross correlation in order to extract the envelope of the signals. Signal processing and EUSR are both implemented by developing a graphical user-friendly interface program in LabView. We conclude with a description of our vision for applying EUSR signal analysis to structural health monitoring and embedded nondestructive evaluation. To this end, we envisage an automatic damage detection application utilizing embedded PWAS, EUSR, and advanced signal processing.

  12. Evaluation of the damage of cell wall and cell membrane for various extracellular polymeric substance extractions of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuesong; Liu, Junxin; Xiao, Benyi

    2014-10-20

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are susceptible to contamination by intracellular substances released during the extraction of EPS owing to the damage caused to microbial cell structures. The damage to cell walls and cell membranes in nine EPS extraction processes of activated sludge was evaluated in this study. The extraction of EPS (including proteins, carbohydrates and DNA) was the highest using the NaOH extraction method and the lowest using formaldehyde extraction. All nine EPS extraction methods in this study resulted in cell wall and membrane damage. The damage to cell walls, evaluated by 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO) and N-acetylglucosamine content changes in extracted EPS, was the most significant in the NaOH extraction process. Formaldehyde extraction showed a similar extent of damage to cell walls to those detected in the control method (centrifugation), while those in the formaldehyde-NaOH and cation exchange resin extractions were slightly higher than those detected in the control. N-acetylglucosamine was more suitable than KDO for the evaluation of cell wall damage in the EPS extraction of activated sludge. The damage to cell membranes was characterized by two fluorochromes (propidium iodide and FITC Annexin V) with flow cytometry (FCM) measurement. The highest proportion of membrane-damaged cells was detected in NaOH extraction (26.54% of total cells) while membrane-damaged cells comprised 8.19% of total cells in the control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of interface waves for near surface damage detection in hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanbin, M.; Santhanam, S.; Ihn, J.-B.; Cox, A.

    2017-04-01

    Guided waves are acoustic waves that are guided by boundaries. Depending on the structural geometry, guided waves can either propagate between boundaries, known as plate waves, or propagate on the surface of the objects. Many different types of surface waves exist based on the material property of the boundary. For example Rayleigh wave in solid - air, Scholte wave in solid - liquid, Stoneley in solid - solid interface and many other different forms like Love wave on inhomogeneous surfaces, creeping waves, etc. This research work is demonstrating the application of surface and interface waves for detection of interfacial damages in hybrid bonded structures.

  14. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kiminezhadmalaie, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26539245

  15. A new method for the characterization of the degree of fire damage to gypsum wallboard for use in fire investigations.

    PubMed

    Gorbett, Gregory E; Morris, Sarah M; Meacham, Brian J; Wood, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    A new method to characterize the degree of fire damage to gypsum wallboard is introduced, implemented, and tested to determine the efficacy of its application among novices. The method was evaluated by comparing degree of fire damage assessments of novices with and without the method. Thirty-nine "novice" raters assessed damage to a gypsum wallboard surface, completing 66 ratings, first without the method, and then again using the method. The inter-rater reliability was evaluated for ratings of damage without and with the method. For novice fire investigators rating degree of damage without the aid of the method, ICC(1,2) = 0.277 with 95% CI (0.211, 0.365), and with the method, ICC(2,1) = 0.593 with 95% CI (0.509, 0.684). Results indicate that the raters were more reliable in their analysis of the degree of fire damage when using the method, which support the use of standardized processes to decrease the variability in data collection and interpretation. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Optical and electrical characterization methods of plasma-induced damage in silicon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyama, Tomohiro; Eriguchi, Koji

    2018-06-01

    We proposed evaluation methods of plasma-induced damage (PID) in silicon nitride (SiN) films. The formation of an oxide layer by air exposure was identified for damaged SiN films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Bruggeman’s effective medium approximation was employed for an optical model consisting of damaged and undamaged layers, which is applicable to an in-line monitoring by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The optical thickness of the damaged layer — an oxidized layer — extended after plasma exposure, which was consistent with the results obtained by a diluted hydrofluoric acid (DHF) wet etching. The change in the conduction band edge of the damaged SiN films was presumed from two electrical techniques, i.e., current–voltage (I–V) measurement and time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) test with a constant voltage stress. The proposed techniques can be used for assigning the plasma-induced structural change in an SiN film widely used as an etch-protecting layer.

  17. Vibro-Acoustic Modulation Based Damage Identification in a Composite Skin-Stiffener Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ooijevaar, T. H.; Loendersloot, R.; Rogge, M. D.; Akkerman, R.; Tinga, T.

    2014-01-01

    The vibro-acoustic modulation method is applied to a composite skin-stiffener structure to investigate the possibilities to utilize this method for damage identification in terms of detection, localisation and damage quantification. The research comprises a theoretical part and an experimental part. An impact load is applied to the skin-stiffener structure, resulting in a delamination underneath the stiffener. The structure is interrogated with a low frequency pump excitation and a high frequency carrier excitation. The analysis of the response in a frequency band around the carrier frequency is employed to assess the damage identification capabilities and to gain a better understanding of the modulations occurring and the underlying physical phenomena. Though vibro-acoustic is shown to be a sensitive method for damage identification, the complexity of the damage, combined with a high modal density, complicate the understanding of the relation between the physical phenomena and the modulations occurring. more research is recommended to reveal the physics behind the observations.

  18. Damage severity estimation from the global stiffness decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitescu, C.; Gillich, G. R.; Abdel Wahab, M.; Manescu, T.; Korka, Z. I.

    2017-05-01

    In actual damage detection methods, localization and severity estimation can be treated separately. The severity is commonly estimated using fracture mechanics approach, with the main disadvantage of involving empirically deduced relations. In this paper, a damage severity estimator based on the global stiffness reduction is proposed. This feature is computed from the deflections of the intact and damaged beam, respectively. The damage is always located where the bending moment achieves maxima. If the damage is positioned elsewhere on the beam, its effect becomes lower, because the stress is produced by a diminished bending moment. It is shown that the global stiffness reduction produced by a crack is the same for all beams with a similar cross-section, regardless of the boundary conditions. One mathematical relation indicating the severity and another indicating the effect of removing damage from the beam. Measurements on damaged beams with different boundary conditions and cross-sections are carried out, and the location and severity are found using the proposed relations. These comparisons prove that the proposed approach can be used to accurately compute the severity estimator.

  19. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei; Yang, Litao; Shen, Kailin; Kim, Banghyun; Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans JP; Guo, Rong; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-01-01

    Background Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. Results GMO Detection method Database (GMDD) has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific), and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. Conclusion GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier. PMID:18522755

  20. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Yang, Litao; Shen, Kailin; Kim, Banghyun; Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans J P; Guo, Rong; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-06-04

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. GMO Detection method Database (GMDD) has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific), and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier.

  1. Comparing CNV detection methods for SNP arrays.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Laura; Yau, Christopher; Ragoussis, Jiannis

    2009-09-01

    Data from whole genome association studies can now be used for dual purposes, genotyping and copy number detection. In this review we discuss some of the methods for using SNP data to detect copy number events. We examine a number of algorithms designed to detect copy number changes through the use of signal-intensity data and consider methods to evaluate the changes found. We describe the use of several statistical models in copy number detection in germline samples. We also present a comparison of data using these methods to assess accuracy of prediction and detection of changes in copy number.

  2. Acoustic Emission Detection of Impact Damage on Space Shuttle Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Gorman, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia as a result of impact damage from foam debris during ascent has led NASA to investigate the feasibility of on-board impact detection technologies. AE sensing has been utilized to monitor a wide variety of impact conditions on Space Shuttle components ranging from insulating foam and ablator materials, and ice at ascent velocities to simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts. Impact testing has been performed on both reinforced carbon composite leading edge materials as well as Shuttle tile materials on representative aluminum wing structures. Results of these impact tests will be presented with a focus on the acoustic emission sensor responses to these impact conditions. These tests have demonstrated the potential of employing an on-board Shuttle impact detection system. We will describe the present plans for implementation of an initial, very low frequency acoustic impact sensing system using pre-existing flight qualified hardware. The details of an accompanying flight measurement system to assess the Shuttle s acoustic background noise environment as a function of frequency will be described. The background noise assessment is being performed to optimize the frequency range of sensing for a planned future upgrade to the initial impact sensing system.

  3. Detection of in vivo DNA damage induced by ethanol in multiple organs of pregnant mice using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Kido, Ryoko; Sato, Itaru; Tsuda, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol is principal ingredient of alcohol beverage, but considered as human carcinogen, and has neurotoxicity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy often causes fetal alcohol syndrome. The DNA damage is one of the important factors in carcinogenicity or teratogenicity. To detect the DNA damage induced by ethanol, we used an in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in pregnant mice organs and embryos. Pregnant ICR mice on Day 7 of gestation were treated with 2, 4 or 8 g/kg ethanol, and maternal organs/tissues and embryos were subjected to the Comet assay at 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr after ethanol treatment. Four and 8 g/kg ethanol induced DNA damage in brain, lung and embryos at 4 or 8 hr after the treatment. Two g/kg ethanol did not cause any DNA damage, and 8 g/kg ethanol only increased the duration of DNA damage without distinct increase in the degree of the damage. No significant DNA damage was observed in the liver. To detect the effect of acetaldehyde, disulfiram, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, was administered before 4 g/kg ethanol treatment. No significant increase of DNA damage was observed in the disulfiram pre-treated group. These data indicate that ethanol induces DNA damage, which might be related to ethanol toxicity. Since pre-treatment of disulfiram did not increase DNA damage, DNA damage observed in this study might not be the effect of acetaldehyde.

  4. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond; Doug Adams

    the context of structural stiffness reductions and impact damage. A method by which the sensitivity to damage could be increased for simple structures was presented, and the challenges of applying that technique to a more complex structure were identi fi ed. The structural dynamic changes in a weak adhesive bond were investigated, and the results showed promise for identifying weak bonds that show little or no static reduction in stiffness. To address these challenges in identifying highly localized impact damage, the possi- bility of detecting damage through nonlinear dynamic characteristics was also identi fi ed, with a proposed technique which would leverage impact location estimates to enable the detection of impact damage. This nonlinear damage identi fi cation concept was evaluated on a composite panel with a substructure disbond, and the results showed that the nonlinear dynamics at the damage site could be observed without a baseline healthy reference. By further developing impact load identi fi cation technology and combining load and damage estimation techniques into an integrated solution, the challenges associated with impact detection in composite struc- tures can be effectively solved, thereby reducing costs, improving safety, and enhancing the operational readiness and availability of high value assets.« less

  5. T1ρ MRI detects cartilage damage in asymptomatic individuals with a cam deformity.

    PubMed

    Anwander, Helen; Melkus, Gerd; Rakhra, Kawan S; Beaulé, Paul E

    2016-06-01

    Hips with a cam deformity are at risk for early cartilage degeneration, mainly in the anterolateral region of the joint. T1ρ MRI is a described technique for assessment of proteoglycan content in hyaline cartilage and subsequently early cartilage damage. In this study, 1.5 Tesla T1ρ MRI was performed on 20 asymptomatic hips with a cam deformity and compared to 16 healthy control hips. Cam deformity was defined as an alpha angle at 1:30 o'clock position over 60° and/or at 3:00 o'clock position over 50.5°. Hip cartilage was segmented and divided into four regions of interest (ROIs): anterolateral, anteromedial, posterolateral, and posteromedial quadrants. Mean T1ρ value of the entire weight bearing cartilage in hips with a cam deformity (34.0 ± 4.6 ms) was significantly higher compared to control hips (31.3 ± 3.2 ms, p = 0.050). This difference reached significance in the anterolateral (p = 0.042) and posteromedial quadrants (p = 0.041). No significant correlation between the alpha angle and T1ρ values was detected. The results indicate cartilage damage occurs in hips with a cam deformity before symptoms occur. A significant difference in T1ρ values was found in the anterolateral quadrant, the area of direct engagement of the deformity, and in the posteromedial quadrant. To conclude, T1ρ MRI can detect early chondral damage in asymptomatic hips with a cam deformity. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1004-1009, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Novel method for minority-carrier mobility measurement using photoconductance decay with chemically passivated and plasma damaged surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, A. W.; Green, M. A.

    1996-10-01

    A method for measuring minority-carrier mobility using microwave-detected photoconductance decay without requiring bulk lifetime, estimates is presented. Three different measurements on a single sample yield values for surface recombination velocity, bulk lifetime, and diffusivity. For each measurement the surface conditions of the sample are changed, allowing extraction of different parameters. The usefulness of 0.08 molar ethanol/iodine solution as a means of achieving such good surface passivation is demonstrated. The following procedure was used to achieve high surface recombination. A CF4 plasma surface etch was shown to achieve the same level of surface damage as mechanical abrasion. The advantage of the new method is that it completely eliminates the chance of breaking samples during the abrasion process, which is of particular advantage for thin samples. The new experimental method for minority-carrier mobility measurement is evaluated using carrier lifetime measurements made on a commercially available Leo Giken ``Wafer-τ'' lifetime tester.

  7. Optimization of a low noise detection circuit for probing the structure of damage cascades with IBIC

    DOE PAGES

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Bielejec, Edward; ...

    2015-06-18

    Optimal detector / pre-amplifier combinations have been identified for the use of light ion IBIC (ion beam induced charge) to probe the physical structure of electrically active defects in damage cascades caused by heavy ion implantation. The ideal detector must have a sufficiently thin dead layer that incident ions will produce the majority of damage cascades in the depletion region of the detector rather than the dead layer. Detector and circuit noise must be low enough to detect the implantation of a single heavy ion as well as the decrease in the light ion IBIC signal caused by Shockley-Read-Hall recombinationmore » when the beam scans regions of the detector damaged by the heavy ion. The IBIC signals from three detectors irradiated with 750 keV He⁺ ions are measured with commercial and bespoke charge sensitive pre-amplifiers to identify the combination with the lowest noise.« less

  8. Development of integrated damage detection system for international America's Cup class yacht structures using a fiber optic distributed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, Shimada; Naruse, Hiroshi; Uzawa, Kyoshi; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro

    2000-06-01

    We constructed a new health monitoring system to detect damage using a fiber optic distributed sensor, namely a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR), and installed it in International America's Cup Class (IACC) yachts, the Japanese entry in America's Cup 2000. IACC yachts are designed to be as fast as possible, so it is essential that they are lightweight and encounter minimum water resistance. Advanced composite sandwich structures, made with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) skins and a honeycomb core, are used to achieve the lightweight structure. Yacht structure designs push the strength of the materials to their limit and so it is important to detect highly stressed or damaged regions that might cause a catastrophic fracture. The BOTDR measures changes in the Brillouin frequency shift caused by distributed strain along one optical fiber. We undertook two experiments: a pulling test and a four point bending test on a composite beam. The former showed that no slippage occurred between the optical fiber glass and its coating. The latter confirmed that a debonding between the skin and the core of 300 mm length could be found with the BOTDR. Next we examined the effectiveness with which this system can assess the structural integrity of IACC yachts. The results show that our system has the potential for use as a damage detection system for smart structures.

  9. Early detection of materials degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  10. Seismic damage diagnosis of a masonry building using short-term damping measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouris, Leonidas Alexandros S.; Penna, Andrea; Magenes, Guido

    2017-04-01

    It is of considerable importance to perform dynamic identification and detect damage in existing structures. This paper describes a new and practical method for damage diagnosis of masonry buildings requiring minimum computational effort. The method is based on the relative variation of modal damping and validated against experimental data from a full scale two storey shake table test. The experiment involves a building subjected to uniaxial vibrations of progressively increasing intensity at the facilities of EUCENTRE laboratory (Pavia, Italy) up to a near collapse damage state. Five time-histories are applied scaling the Montenegro (1979) accelerogram. These strong motion tests are preceded by random vibration tests (RVT's) which are used to perform modal analysis. Two deterministic methods are applied: the single degree of freedom (SDOF) assumption together with the peak-picking method in the discrete frequency domain and the Eigen realisation algorithm with data correlations (ERA-DC) in the discrete time domain. Regarding the former procedure, some improvements are incorporated to locate rigorously the natural frequencies and estimate the modal damping. The progressive evolution of the modal damping is used as a key indicator to characterise damage on the building. Modal damping is connected to the structural mass and stiffness. A square integrated but only with two components expression for proportional (classical) damping is proposed to fit better with the experimental measurements of modal damping ratios. Using this Rayleigh order formulation the contribution of each of the damping components is evaluated. The stiffness component coefficient is proposed as an effective index to detect damage and quantify its intensity.

  11. Damage evolution analysis of coal samples under cyclic loading based on single-link cluster method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Nan; Li, Xuelong; Wang, Xiaoran; Li, Zhonghui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) response of coal samples under cyclic loading is measured. The results show that there is good positive relation between AE parameters and stress. The AE signal of coal samples under cyclic loading exhibits an obvious Kaiser Effect. The single-link cluster (SLC) method is applied to analyze the spatial evolution characteristics of AE events and the damage evolution process of coal samples. It is found that a subset scale of the SLC structure becomes smaller and smaller when the number of cyclic loading increases, and there is a negative linear relationship between the subset scale and the degree of damage. The spatial correlation length ξ of an SLC structure is calculated. The results show that ξ fluctuates around a certain value from the second cyclic loading process to the fifth cyclic loading process, but spatial correlation length ξ clearly increases in the sixth loading process. Based on the criterion of microcrack density, the coal sample failure process is the transformation from small-scale damage to large-scale damage, which is the reason for changes in the spatial correlation length. Through a systematic analysis, the SLC method is an effective method to research the damage evolution process of coal samples under cyclic loading, and will provide important reference values for studying coal bursts.

  12. On the modal characteristics of damaging structures subjected to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Mossucca, Antonello; Nigro, Antonella; Nigro, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring, especially for structures located in seismic prone areas, has assumed a meaning of great importance in last years, for the possibility to make a more objective and more rapid estimation of the damage occurred on buildings after a seismic event. In the last years many researchers are working to set-up new methodologies for Non-destructive Damage Evaluation based on the variation of the dynamic behaviour of structures under seismic loads. The NDE methods for damage detection and evaluation can be classified into four levels, according to the specific criteria provided by the Rytter. Each level of identification is correlated with specific information related to monitored structure. In fact, by increasing the level it is possible to obtain more information about the state of the health of the structures, to know if damage occurred on the structures, to quantify and localize the damage and to evaluate its impact on the monitored structure. Several authors discussed on the possibility to use the mode shape curvature to localize damage on structural elements, for example, by applying the curvature-based method to frequency response function instead of mode shape, and demonstrated the potential of this approach by considering real data. Damage detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature. In earthquake engineering field, the recourse to experimental research is necessary to understand the mechanical behaviour of the various structural and non-structural components. In this paper a new methodology to detect and localize a possible damage occurred on a framed structure after an earthquake is presented and discussed. The main outcomes retrieved from many numerical non linear dynamic models of reinforced concrete framed structures characterized by 3, 5 and 8 floors with different geometric configurations and designed for gravity loads only

  13. Stress-induced DNA Damage biomarkers: Applications and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Hellweg, Christine; Georgakilas, Alexandros; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2015-06-01

    A variety of environmental stresses like chemicals, UV and ionizing radiation and organism’s endogenous processes like replication stress and metabolism can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can attack cellular vital components like DNA, proteins and lipid membranes. Among them, much attention has been focused on DNA since DNA damages play a role in several biological disorders and aging processes. Thus, DNA damage can be used as a biomarker in a reliable and accurate way to quantify for example radiation exposure and can indicate its possible long term effects and cancer risk. Based on the type of DNA lesions detected one can hypothesize on the most probable mechanisms involved in the formation of these lesions for example in the case of UV and ionizing radiation (e.g. X- or α-, γ-rays, energetic ions, neutrons). In this review we describe the most accepted chemical pathways for DNA damage induction and the different types of DNA lesions, i.e. single, complex DNA lesions etc. that can be used as biomarkers. We critically compare DNA damage detection methods and their limitations. In addition to such DNA damage products, we suggest possible gene inductions that can be used to characterize responses to different types of stresses i.e. radiation, oxidative and replication stress, based on bioinformatic approaches and stringent meta-analysis of literature data.

  14. Practical implementation of the double linear damage rule and damage curve approach for treating cumulative fatigue damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Simple procedures are presented for treating cumulative fatigue damage under complex loading history using either the damage curve concept or the double linear damage rule. A single equation is provided for use with the damage curve approach; each loading event providing a fraction of damage until failure is presumed to occur when the damage sum becomes unity. For the double linear damage rule, analytical expressions are provided for determining the two phases of life. The procedure involves two steps, each similar to the conventional application of the commonly used linear damage rule. When the sum of cycle ratios based on phase 1 lives reaches unity, phase 1 is presumed complete, and further loadings are summed as cycle ratios on phase 2 lives. When the phase 2 sum reaches unity, failure is presumed to occur. No other physical properties or material constants than those normally used in a conventional linear damage rule analysis are required for application of either of the two cumulative damage methods described. Illustrations and comparisons of both methods are discussed.

  15. Practical implementation of the double linear damage rule and damage curve approach for treating cumulative fatigue damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    Simple procedures are given for treating cumulative fatigue damage under complex loading history using either the damage curve concept or the double linear damage rule. A single equation is given for use with the damage curve approach; each loading event providing a fraction of damage until failure is presumed to occur when the damage sum becomes unity. For the double linear damage rule, analytical expressions are given for determining the two phases of life. The procedure comprises two steps, each similar to the conventional application of the commonly used linear damage rule. Once the sum of cycle ratios based on Phase I lives reaches unity, Phase I is presumed complete, and further loadings are summed as cycle ratios based on Phase II lives. When the Phase II sum attains unity, failure is presumed to occur. It is noted that no physical properties or material constants other than those normally used in a conventional linear damage rule analysis are required for application of either of the two cumulative damage methods described. Illustrations and comparisons are discussed for both methods.

  16. Error detection method

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  17. Damage detection and repair methods for GFRP bridge decks : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) decks offer : advantages as replacements for worn steel bridge : decks because of their high strength-to-weight : ratio and fast installation time. However, before : GFRP decks can be put into service, methods : ...

  18. Detection and characterization of exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) via thermography and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdelidis, N. P.; Kappatos, V.; Georgoulas, G.; Karvelis, P.; Deli, C. K.; Theodorakeas, P.; Giakas, G.; Tsiokanos, A.; Koui, M.; Jamurtas, A. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD), is usually experienced in i) humans who have been physically inactive for prolonged periods of time and then begin with sudden training trials and ii) athletes who train over their normal limits. EIMD is not so easy to be detected and quantified, by means of commonly measurement tools and methods. Thermography has been used successfully as a research detection tool in medicine for the last 6 decades but very limited work has been reported on EIMD area. The main purpose of this research is to assess and characterize EIMD, using thermography and image processing techniques. The first step towards that goal is to develop a reliable segmentation technique to isolate the region of interest (ROI). A semi-automatic image processing software was designed and regions of the left and right leg based on superpixels were segmented. The image is segmented into a number of regions and the user is able to intervene providing the regions which belong to each of the two legs. In order to validate the image processing software, an extensive experimental investigation was carried out, acquiring thermographic images of the rectus femoris muscle before, immediately post and 24, 48 and 72 hours after an acute bout of eccentric exercise (5 sets of 15 maximum repetitions), on males and females (20-30 year-old). Results indicate that the semi-automated approach provides an excellent bench-mark that can be used as a clinical reliable tool.

  19. Automated methods for multiplexed pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Straub, Timothy M; Dockendorff, Brian P; Quiñonez-Díaz, Maria D; Valdez, Catherine O; Shutthanandan, Janani I; Tarasevich, Barbara J; Grate, Jay W; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J

    2005-09-01

    Detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental samples is a difficult process. Concentration of the organisms of interest also co-concentrates inhibitors of many end-point detection methods, notably, nucleic acid methods. In addition, sensitive, highly multiplexed pathogen detection continues to be problematic. The primary function of the BEADS (Biodetection Enabling Analyte Delivery System) platform is the automated concentration and purification of target analytes from interfering substances, often present in these samples, via a renewable surface column. In one version of BEADS, automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is used to separate cells from their samples. Captured cells are transferred to a flow-through thermal cycler where PCR, using labeled primers, is performed. PCR products are then detected by hybridization to a DNA suspension array. In another version of BEADS, cell lysis is performed, and community RNA is purified and directly labeled. Multiplexed detection is accomplished by direct hybridization of the RNA to a planar microarray. The integrated IMS/PCR version of BEADS can successfully purify and amplify 10 E. coli O157:H7 cells from river water samples. Multiplexed PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella on bead suspension arrays was demonstrated for the detection of as few as 100 cells for each organism. Results for the RNA version of BEADS are also showing promising results. Automation yields highly purified RNA, suitable for multiplexed detection on microarrays, with microarray detection specificity equivalent to PCR. Both versions of the BEADS platform show great promise for automated pathogen detection from environmental samples. Highly multiplexed pathogen detection using PCR continues to be problematic, but may be required for trace detection in large volume samples. The RNA approach solves the issues of highly multiplexed PCR and provides "live vs. dead" capabilities. However

  20. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    potential to detect the impact of climatic effects, such as frost, on crop growth, which is relevant information to evaluate the negative impact on sugarcane production. Thus, the objective of the present study is to detect the impact of the frost occurred on 28 June 2011 in the sugarcane production region of São Paulo state, using MODIS images acquired on board of Terra and Aqua satellites before and after the frost event. Also, Landsat type images were used to map the harvested sugarcane fields up to the frost event based on a sugarcane crop map for year 2011. The remaining sugarcane fields available for harvest in 2011 were monitored with the MODIS images acquired on 17, 19, 27, 28 June and 8 and 9 July, to detect frost damage. Field work was conducted shortly after frost occurrence to identify sugarcane fields with frost damage for training and validation purposes. MODIS images transformed to vegetation indices and morphometric variables extracted from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data are being analyzed to detect and quantify the damage of the frost from 28 July 2011 on sugarcane crop.

  1. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  2. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  3. A biological evaluation of DNA damage detected by comet assay in healthy populations residing in areas that differ in lung cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Heepchantree, Worapa; Paratasilpin, Thipmani; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2006-06-01

    The comet assay was performed to evaluate the effect of environmental exposure between human populations residing in two areas that differ in lung cancer incidence, Saraphi (n = 91) and Chom Thong (n = 94). Three parameters, the tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment, were used to detect DNA damage in peripheral blood and stimulated lymphocytes with and without the DNA repair inhibitor, aphidicolin. Internal standards, cryopreserved isolated lymphocytes, and isolated lymphocytes irradiated with 2 Gy gamma rays, were used to correct the interexperimental variability. Results revealed a significant difference between two populations only when the tail length was used to measure DNA damage. The evaluation of various potential confounding factors, such as gender, pesticide exposure, smoking, alcohol drinking, and fermented tea leaf or betel nut chewing, indicated no significant influence in DNA damage. In conclusion, significant difference in DNA damage, detected only by tail length between the two populations residing in the areas with different incidence of lung cancer, may reflect a nonhazardous level of exposure to toxic substances.

  4. Damage localization in aluminum plate with compact rectangular phased piezoelectric transducer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zenghua; Sun, Kunming; Song, Guorong; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a detection method for the damage in plate-like structure with a compact rectangular phased piezoelectric transducer array of 16 piezoelectric elements was presented. This compact array can not only detect and locate a single defect (through hole) in plate, but also identify multi-defects (through holes and surface defect simulated by an iron pillar glued to the plate). The experiments proved that the compact rectangular phased transducer array could detect the full range of plate structures and implement multiple-defect detection simultaneously. The processing algorithm proposed in this paper contains two parts: signal filtering and damage imaging. The former part was used to remove noise from signals. Continuous wavelet transform was applicable to signal filtering. Continuous wavelet transform can provide a plot of wavelet coefficients and the signal with narrow frequency band can be easily extracted from the plot. The latter part of processing algorithm was to implement damage detection and localization. In order to accurately locate defects and improve the imaging quality, two images were obtained from amplitude and phase information. One image was obtained with the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and another phase image was obtained with the Sign Coherence Factor (SCF). Furthermore, an image compounding technique for compact rectangular phased piezoelectric transducer array was proposed in this paper. With the proposed technique, the compounded image can be obtained by combining TFM image with SCF image, thus greatly improving the resolution and contrast of image.

  5. Active investigation of material damage under load using micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalgund, Megha; Zunjarrao, Suraj; Mishra, Debasish; Manoharan, V.

    2015-03-01

    Due the growth of composite materials across multiple industries such as Aviation, Wind there is an increasing need to not just standardize and improve manufacturing processes but also to design these materials for the specific applications. One of the things that this translates to is understanding how failure initiates and grows in these materials and at what loads, especially around internal flaws such as voids or features such as ply drops. Traditional methods of investigating internal damage such as CT lack the resolution to resolve ply level damage in composites. Interrupted testing with layer removal can be used to investigate internal damage using microscopy; however this is a destructive method. Advanced techniques such as such as DIC are useful for in-situ damage detection, however are limited to surface information and would not enable interrogating the volume. Computed tomography has become a state of the art technique for metrology and complete volumetric investigation especially for metallic components. However, its application to the composite world is still nascent. This paper demonstrates micro-CT's capability as a gauge to quantitatively estimate the extent of damage & understand the propagation of damage in PMC composites while the component is under stress.

  6. A detection method in living plant cells for rapidly monitoring the response of plants to exogenous lanthanum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengzhu; Wang, Lihong; Yang, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2018-08-30

    The pollution of rare earth elements (REEs) in ecosystem is becoming more and more serious, so it is urgent to establish methods for monitoring the pollution of REEs. Monitoring environmental pollution via the response of plants to pollutants has become the most stable and accurate method compared with traditional methods, but scientists still need to find the primary response of plants to pollutants to improve the sensitivity and speed of this method. Based on the facts that the initiation of endocytosis is the primary cellular response of the plant leaf cells to REEs and the detection of endocytosis is complex and expensive, we constructed a detection method in living plant cells for rapidly monitoring the response of plants to exogenous lanthanum [La(III), a representative of REEs] by designing a new immuno-electrochemical method for detecting the content change in extracellular vitronectin-like protein (VN) that are closely related to endocytosis. Results showed that when 30 μM La(III) initiated a small amount of endocytosis, the content of extracellular VN increased by 5.46 times, but the structure and function of plasma membrane were not interfered by La(III); when 80 μM La(III) strongly initiated a large amount of endocytosis, the content of extracellular VN increased by 119 times, meanwhile, the structure and function of plasma membrane were damaged. In summary, the detection method can reflect the response of plants to La(III) via detecting the content change in extracellular VN, which provides an effective and convenient way to monitor the response of plants to exogenous REEs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  8. [Detection of Hawthorn Fruit Defects Using Hyperspectral Imaging].

    PubMed

    Liu, De-hua; Zhang, Shu-juan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Ke-qiang; Zhao, Yan-ru; He, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology covered the range of 380-1000 nm was employed to detect defects (bruise and insect damage) of hawthorn fruit. A total of 134 samples were collected, which included damage fruit of 46, pest fruit of 30, injure and pest fruit of 10 and intact fruit of 48. Because calyx · s⁻¹ tem-end and bruise/insect damage regions offered a similar appearance characteristic in RGB images, which could produce easily confusion between them. Hence, five types of defects including bruise, insect damage, sound, calyx, and stem-end were collected from 230 hawthorn fruits. After acquiring hyperspectral images of hawthorn fruits, the spectral data were extracted from region of interest (ROI). Then, several pretreatment methods of standard normalized variate (SNV), savitzky golay (SG), median filter (MF) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used and partial least squares method(PLS) model was carried out to obtain the better performance. Accordingly to their results, SNV pretreatment methods assessed by PLS was viewed as best pretreatment method. Lastly, SNV was chosen as the pretreatment method. Spectral features of five different regions were combined with Regression coefficients(RCs) of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was used to identify the important wavelengths and ten wavebands at 483, 563, 645, 671, 686, 722, 777, 819, 837 and 942 nm were selected from all of the wavebands. Using Kennard-Stone algorithm, all kinds of samples were randomly divided into training set (173) and test set (57) according to the proportion of 3:1. And then, least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) discriminate model was established by using the selected wavebands. The results showed that the discriminate accuracy of the method was 91.23%. In the other hand, images at ten important wavebands were executed to Principal component analysis (PCA). Using "Sobel" operator and region growing algrorithm "Regiongrow", the edge and defect

  9. Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Nonlinear Continuum Damage Mechanics and Critical Plane Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. R.; Li, X.; Fang, L.; Song, Y. D.

    2018-04-01

    A new multiaxial fatigue life prediction model has been proposed in this paper. The concepts of nonlinear continuum damage mechanics and critical plane criteria were incorporated in the proposed model. The shear strain-based damage control parameter was chosen to account for multiaxial fatigue damage under constant amplitude loading. Fatigue tests were conducted on nickel-based superalloy GH4169 tubular specimens at the temperature of 400 °C under proportional and nonproportional loading. The proposed method was checked against the multiaxial fatigue test data of GH4169. Most of prediction results are within a factor of two scatter band of the test results.

  10. Numerical-graphical method for describing the creep of damaged highly filled polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, D. L.; Martynova, E. D.; Mel'nikov, V. P.

    2015-09-01

    A method for describing the creep behavior until fracture of a highly filled polymer material previously damaged in preliminary tests is proposed. The constitutive relations are the relations of nonlinear endochronic theory of aging viscoelastic materials (NETAVEM) [1]. The numerical-graphical method for identifying the functions occurring in NETAVEM, which was proposed in [2] for describing loading processes at a constant strain rate, is used here for the first time in creep theory. We use the results of experiments with undamaged and preliminary damaged specimens under the action of the same constant tensile loads. The creep kernel is determined in experiments with an undamaged specimen. The reduced time function contained in NETAVEM is determined from the position of points corresponding to the same values of strain on the creep curves of the damaged and undamaged specimens. An integral equation is solved to obtain the aging function, and then the viscosity function is determined. The knowledge of all functions contained in the constitutive relations permits solving the creep problem for products manufactured from a highly filled polymer material.

  11. Early Wheel Train Damage Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazilah, A. F. M.; Azemi, S. N.; Azremi, A. A. H.; Soh, P. J.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    Antenna for a wireless sensor network for early wheel trains damage detection has successfully developed and fabricated with the aim to minimize the risk and increase the safety guaranty for train. Current antenna design is suffered in gain and big in size. For the sensor, current existing sensor only detect when the wheel malfunction. Thus, a compact microstrip patch antenna with operating frequency at 2.45GHz is design with high gain of 4.95dB will attach to the wireless sensor device. Simulation result shows that the antenna is working at frequency 2.45GHz and the return loss at -34.46dB are in a good agreement. The result also shows the good radiation pattern and almost ideal VSWR which is 1.04. The Arduino Nano, LM35DZ and ESP8266-07 Wi-Fi module is applied to the core system with capability to sense the temperature and send the data wirelessly to the cloud. An android application has been created to monitor the temperature reading based on the real time basis. The mainly focuses for the future improvement is by minimize the size of the antenna in order to make in more compact. In addition, upgrade an android application that can collect the raw data from cloud and make an alarm system to alert the loco pilot.

  12. A universal method for detection of amyloidogenic misfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Yam, Alice Y; Wang, Xuemei; Gao, Carol Man; Connolly, Michael D; Zuckermann, Ronald N; Bleu, Thieu; Hall, John; Fedynyshyn, Joseph P; Allauzen, Sophie; Peretz, David; Salisbury, Cleo M

    2011-05-24

    Diseases associated with the misfolding of endogenous proteins, such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes, are becoming increasingly prevalent. The pathophysiology of these diseases is not totally understood, but mounting evidence suggests that the misfolded protein aggregates themselves may be toxic to cells and serve as key mediators of cell death. As such, an assay that can detect aggregates in a sensitive and selective fashion could provide the basis for early detection of disease, before cellular damage occurs. Here we report the evolution of a reagent that can selectively capture diverse misfolded proteins by interacting with a common supramolecular feature of protein aggregates. By coupling this enrichment tool with protein specific immunoassays, diverse misfolded proteins and sub-femtomole amounts of oligomeric aggregates can be detected in complex biological matrices. We anticipate that this near-universal approach for quantitative misfolded protein detection will become a useful research tool for better understanding amyloidogenic protein pathology as well as serve as the basis for early detection of misfolded protein diseases.

  13. Crack Damage Detection Method via Multiple Visual Features and Efficient Multi-Task Learning Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoxian; Zhao, Weigang; Gao, Po; Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Zhe

    2018-06-02

    This paper proposes an effective and efficient model for concrete crack detection. The presented work consists of two modules: multi-view image feature extraction and multi-task crack region detection. Specifically, multiple visual features (such as texture, edge, etc.) of image regions are calculated, which can suppress various background noises (such as illumination, pockmark, stripe, blurring, etc.). With the computed multiple visual features, a novel crack region detector is advocated using a multi-task learning framework, which involves restraining the variability for different crack region features and emphasizing the separability between crack region features and complex background ones. Furthermore, the extreme learning machine is utilized to construct this multi-task learning model, thereby leading to high computing efficiency and good generalization. Experimental results of the practical concrete images demonstrate that the developed algorithm can achieve favorable crack detection performance compared with traditional crack detectors.

  14. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  15. Parallel evaluation of broad virus detection methods.

    PubMed

    Modrof, Jens; Berting, Andreas; Kreil, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The testing for adventitious viruses is of critical importance during development and production of biological products. The recent emergence and ongoing development of broad virus detection methods calls for an evaluation of whether these methods can appropriately be implemented into current adventitious agent testing procedures. To assess the suitability of several broad virus detection methods, a comparative experimental study was conducted: four virus preparations, which were spiked at two different concentrations each into two different cell culture media, were sent to four investigators in a blinded fashion for analysis with broad virus detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS), microarray, and two approaches utilizing massively parallel sequencing. The results that were reported by the investigators revealed that all methods were able to identify the majority of samples correctly (mean 83%), with a surprisingly narrow range among the methods, that is, between 72% (PCR-ESI/MS) and 95% (microarray). In addition to the correct results, a variety of unexpected assignments were reported for a minority of samples, again with little variation regarding the methods used (range 20-45%), while false negatives were reported for 0-25% of the samples. Regarding assay sensitivity, the viruses were detected by all methods included in this study at concentrations of about 4-5 log10 quantitative PCR copies/mL, and probably with higher sensitivity in some cases. In summary, the broad virus detection methods investigated were shown to be suitable even for detection of relatively low virus concentrations. However, there is also some potential for the production of false-positive as well as false-negative assignments, which indicates the requirement for further improvements before these methods can be considered for routine use. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  16. Improving Glaucoma Detection Using Spatially Correspondent Clusters of Damage and by Combining Standard Automated Perimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Ali S.; Zhang, Xian; De Moraes, Carlos G. V.; Reisman, Charles A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To improve the detection of glaucoma, techniques for assessing local patterns of damage and for combining structure and function were developed. Methods. Standard automated perimetry (SAP) and frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT) data, consisting of macular retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (mRGCPL) as well as macular and optic disc retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL and dRNFL) thicknesses, were collected from 52 eyes of 52 healthy