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Sample records for damping ring designs

  1. Damping ring designs and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Decking, Winfried

    2003-05-12

    The luminosity performance of a future linear collider (LC) will depend critically on the performance of the damping rings. The design luminosities of the current LC proposals require rings with very short damping times, large acceptance, low equilibrium emittance and high beam intensity. We discuss the design strategies for lattices achieving the goals of dynamical stability, examine the challenges for alignment and coupling correction, and consider a variety of collective effects that threaten to limit beam quality. We put the design goals in context by referring to the experience of operating facilities, and outline the further research and development that is needed.

  2. SLC positron damping ring optics design

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, J.P.; Rivkin, L.

    1984-12-01

    The basic SLAC Linear Collider operation scheme assumes the use of two damping rings, one for the e/sup -/, one for the e/sup +/, in order to reduce the colliding beam normalized emittances to 30..pi.. ..mu..radm hence raising the corresponding luminosity by a factor 170. The e/sup -/ damping ring which optics was designed by H. Wiedemann, has been extensively studied and modelled since it's completion at the end of 1982. The e/sup +/ damping ring to be built soon will be based on the same design except for some modifications resulting from the studies on the e/sup -/ damping ring which clearly pointed out two major optics weak points: the extracted normalized emittances are 30 to 60% bigger than the design values, which already left no margin for unavoidable blow-up between the damping rings and the SLC interaction point, and the chromaticity correction based on distributed sextupole components provided by shaping the ends of the bending magnet poles was insufficient. Moreover the QDI quadrupoles introduce a strong coupling between transverse planes due to an undesirable skew component. The present note describes the basic modifications of the ring lattice and main equipment positions in order to improve the first two points in the Positron Damping Ring. The QDI quadrupole design has already been modified and magnets of a new type will be implemented in both damping rings.

  3. NLC Damping Ring Lattice Design Using TME Cells and Wigglers (LCC-0037)

    SciTech Connect

    Emma, P

    2004-03-23

    The design process is described for the damping rings of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) [1]. While the main (e{sup -}/e{sup +}) damping ring is the primary subject, some reference to the (e{sup +}) pre-damping ring is also included. An attempt is made to be systematic in the design, given the emittance and repetition rate requirements of the collider, in conjunction with the beam quality from the injector systems. In addition, qualitative efforts are made to minimize the cost and maximize the dynamic aperture. The approximate interdependencies of the various lattice parameters are derived and arguments for the parameter choices are presented. The rings are a race-track design with wiggler insertions and Theoretical Minimum Emittance (TME) cells. Collective effects and dynamic aperture calculations, while studied in previous designs [1], are not included here.

  4. Exotic damping ring lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper looks at, and compares three types of damping ring lattices: conventional, wiggler lattice with finite ..cap alpha.., wiggler lattice with ..cap alpha.. = 0, and observes the attainable equilibrium emittances for the three cases assuming a constraint on the attainable longitudinal impedance of 0.2 ohms. The emittance obtained are roughly in the ratio 4:2:1 for these cases.

  5. Design and system integration of the superconducting wiggler magnets for the Compact Linear Collider damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoerling, Daniel; Antoniou, Fanouria; Bernhard, Axel; Bragin, Alexey; Karppinen, Mikko; Maccaferri, Remo; Mezentsev, Nikolay; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Peiffer, Peter; Rossmanith, Robert; Rumolo, Giovanni; Russenschuck, Stephan; Vobly, Pavel; Zolotarev, Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    To achieve high luminosity at the collision point of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), the normalized horizontal and vertical emittances of the electron and positron beams must be reduced to 500 and 4 nm before the beams enter the 1.5 TeV linear accelerators. An effective way to accomplish ultralow emittances with only small effects on the electron polarization is using damping rings operating at 2.86 GeV equipped with superconducting wiggler magnets. This paper describes a technical design concept for the CLIC damping wigglers.

  6. Beam dynamic issues in TESLA damping ring

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we study general requirements on impedances of the linear collider TESLA damping ring design. Quantitative consideration is performed for 17-km long ``dog-bone`` ring. Beam dynamics in alternative options of 6.3 and 2.3-km long damping rings is briefly discussed. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Design and optimisation of the positron production chain for CLIC from the target to the damping ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayar, C.; Ciftci, A. K.; Doebert, S.; Latina, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CLIC Positron source has been designed to produce non-polarised positron beams using a hybrid target composed of a crystal followed by an amorphous target. After production, positrons are captured and accelerated to 200 MeV in the pre-injector linac and subsequently accelerated further up to 2.86 GeV in the injector linac. At this point they enter the pre-damping ring and afterwards the main damping ring to obtain the necessary beam quality for a linear collider. In this study, we have designed and optimised the beam transport and acceleration from the target to the pre-damping ring which has a limiting transverse and longitudinal acceptance. The goal of the study was to maximise the positron yield accepted by the pre-damping ring.

  8. Lattice design for an ILC damping ring with 3 km circumference

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2004-10-11

    We describe a simple lattice that meets the specifications for the damping times and horizontal and longitudinal emittances for the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings. The circumference of a little over 3 km leads to a bunch spacing of around 3 ns, which will require advances in kicker technology for injection and extraction. We present the lattice design, and initial results of studies of the acceptance and collective effects. With the high bunch charge and close spacing, the ion and electron cloud effects are expected to be severe; however, the simple structure of the lattice allows for easy variation of the circumference and bunch spacing, which may make it useful for future investigations.

  9. Stripline design for the extraction kicker of Compact Linear Collider damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belver-Aguilar, C.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Toral, F.; Barnes, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of the design study of future linear colliders, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) aims for electron-positron collisions with high luminosity at a nominal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. To achieve the luminosity requirements, predamping rings (PDRs) and damping rings (DRs) are required: they reduce the beam emittance before the beam is accelerated in the main linac. Several kicker systems are needed to inject and extract the beam from the PDRs and DRs. In order to achieve both low beam coupling impedance and reasonable broadband impedance matching to the electrical circuit, striplines have been chosen for the kicker elements. In this paper, we present the complete design of the striplines for the DR extraction kicker, since it is the most challenging from the field homogeneity point of view. The excellent field homogeneity required, as well as a good transmission of the high voltage pulse through the electrodes, has been achieved by choosing a novel electrode shape. With this new geometry, it has been possible to benefit from all the advantages that the most common shapes introduce separately. Furthermore, a detailed study of the different operating modes of a stripline kicker allowed the beam coupling impedance to be reduced at low frequencies: this cannot be achieved by tapering the electrodes. The optimum design of the striplines and their components has been based on studies of impedance matching, field homogeneity, power transmission, beam coupling impedance, and manufacturing tolerances. Finally, new ideas for further improvement of the performance of future striplines are reported.

  10. Status of the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, A.M.; Davies-White, W.A.; Delahaye, J.P.; Fieguth, T.H.; Hofmann, A.; Jager, J.; Kloeppel, P.K.; Lee, M.J.; Linebarger, W.A.; Rivkin, L.

    1985-06-01

    Electron beams of full design energy 1.21 GeV and nearly full design intensity 4 x 10/sup 10/ particles/pulse (design 5 x 10/sup 10/) have been extracted from the Stanford Linac and successfully stored in the electron damping ring. Beams of less intensity have been extracted from the ring and reinjected into the Linac. The present intensity limits are not thought to be fundamental. The operating experience with the electron ring and the status of the construction of the positron ring will be discussed. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Study for ILC Damping Ring at KEKB

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, J.W.; Fukuma, H.; Kanazawa, K.I.; Koiso, H.; Masuzawa, M.; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Y.; Oide, Katsunobu; Suetsugu, Y.; Tobiyama, M.; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    ILC damping ring consists of very low emittance electron and positron storage rings. It is necessary for ILC damping ring to study electron cloud effects in such low emittance positron ring. We propose a low emittance operation of KEKB to study the effects.

  12. Harmonic cavities for the NLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    de Santis, S.; Wolski, A.

    2003-05-29

    To achieve high luminosity, a linear collider needs damping rings to produce beams with very small transverse emittances. In the NLC, design constraints place the Main Damping Rings in a parameter regime where intrabeam scattering (IBS) is likely to be a limitation on the emittance, and hence on the final luminosity. It is possible to mitigate the effects of IBS by lengthening the bunch: this may be achieved by redesigning the lattice with higher momentum compaction, or by use of higher harmonic cavities. Here, we consider the latter approach. We estimate the required bunch lengthening that might be needed, outline some appropriate parameters for the harmonic cavities, and discuss some of the effects that might be introduced or exacerbated by the cavities, such as synchronous phase variation along the bunch train.

  13. Effects of damping wigglers on beam dynamics in the NLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Wu, Ying

    2001-06-16

    To achieve the required damping time in the main damping rings for the Next Linear Collider (NLC), a wiggler will be required in each ring with integrated squared field strength up to 110 T{sup 2}m. There are concerns that nonlinear components of the wiggler field will damage the dynamic aperture of the ring, leading to poor injection efficiency. Severe effects from an insertion device have been observed and corrected in SPEAR 2. In this paper, we describe a model that we have developed to study the effects of the damping wiggler, compare the predictions of the model with actual experience in the case of the SPEAR 2 wiggler, and consider the predicted effects of current damping wiggler design on the NLC main damping rings.

  14. Accelerator physics measurements at the damping ring

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, L.; Delahaye, J.P.; Wille, K.; Allen, M.; Bane, K.; Fieguth, T.; Hofmann, A.; Hutton, A.; Lee, M.; Linebarger, W.

    1985-05-01

    Besides the optics measurements described elsewhere, machine experiments were done at the SLC damping ring to determine some of its parameters. The synchrotron radiation energy loss which gives the damping rates was measured by observing the rf-voltage dependence of the synchronous phase angle. The emittance was obtained from the synchrotron light monitor, scraper measurements and by extracting the beam through a doublet and measuring its size for different quadrupole settings. Current dependent effects such as parasitic mode losses, head tail instabilities, synchrotron and betatron frequency shifts were measured to estimate the impedance. Rf-cavity beam loading and its compensation were also studied and ion collection was investigated. All results agree reasonably well with expectations and indicate no limitations to the design performance.

  15. Damping Ring R&D at CESR-TA

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, David L.

    2015-01-23

    Accelerators that collide high energy beams of matter and anti-matter are essential tools for the investigation of the fundamental constituents of matter, and the search for new forms of matter and energy. A “Linear Collider” is a machine that would bring high energy and very compact bunches of electrons and positrons (anti-electrons) into head-on collision. Such a machine would produce (among many other things) the newly discovered Higgs particle, enabling a detailed study of its properties. Among the most critical and challenging components of a linear collider are the damping rings that produce the very compact and intense beams of electrons and positrons that are to be accelerated into collision. Hot dilute particle beams are injected into the damping rings, where they are compressed and cooled. The size of the positron beam must be reduced more than a thousand fold in the damping ring, and this compression must be accomplished in a fraction of a second. The cold compact beams are then extracted from the damping ring and accelerated into collision at high energy. The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), would require damping rings that routinely produce such cold, compact and intense beams. The goal of the Cornell study was a credible design for the damping rings for the ILC. Among the technical challenges of the damping rings; the development of instrumentation that can measure the properties of the very small beams in a very narrow window of time, and mitigation of the forces that can destabilize the beams and prevent adequate cooling, or worse lead to beam loss. One of the most pernicious destabilizing forces is due to the formation of clouds of electrons in the beam pipe. The electron cloud effect is a phenomenon in particle accelerators in which a high density of low energy electrons, build up inside the vacuum chamber. At the outset of the study, it was anticipated that electron cloud effects would limit the intensity of the positron ring

  16. Electron beam depolarization in a damping ring

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.

    1993-04-01

    Depolarization of a polarized electron beam injected into a damping ring is analyzed by extending calculations conventionally applied to proton synchrotrons. Synchrotron radiation in an electron ring gives rise to both polarizing and depolarizing effects. In a damping ring, the beam is stored for a time much less than the time for self polarization. Spin flip radiation may therefore be neglected. Synchrotron radiation without spin flips, however, must be considered as the resonance strength depends on the vertical betatron oscillation amplitude which changes as the electron beam is radiation damped. An expression for the beam polarization at extraction is derived which takes into account radiation damping. The results are applied to the electron ring at the Stanford Linear Collider and are compared with numerical matrix formalisms.

  17. Recommendation for the Feasibility of more Compact LC Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Wang, L.; Demma, T.; Guiducci, S.; Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Ohmi, K.; Dugan, G.; Palmer, M.; Crittenden, J.A.; Harkay, K.; Boon, L.; Furman, M.A.; Venturini, M.; Celata, C.; Malyshev, O.B.; Papaphilippou, I.; /CERN

    2010-06-15

    As part of the international Linear Collider (ILC) collaboration, we have compared the electron cloud (EC) effect for different Damping Ring (DR) designs respectively with 6.4 km and 3.2 km circumference and investigated the feasibility of the shorter damping ring with respect to the electron cloud build-up and related beam instabilities. The studies for a 3.2 km ring were carried out with beam parameters of the ILC Low Power option. A reduced damping ring circumference has been proposed for the new ILC baseline design SB2009 [1] and would allow considerable reduction of the number of components, wiggler magnets and costs. We discuss the impact of the proposed operation of the ILC at high repetition rate 10 Hz and address the necessary modifications for the DRs. We also briefly discuss the plans for future studies including the luminosity upgrade option with shorter bunch spacing, the evaluation of mitigation techniques and the integration of the CesrTA results into the Damping Ring design.

  18. Recommendation for the Feasibility of more Compact LC Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang, L.; Demma, T.; Guiducci, S.; Suetsugu, Y.; Fukuma, H.; Shibata, K.; Dugan, K.,G.; Palmer, M.; Crittenden, J.; Harkay, K.; Boon, L.; Furman, M. A.; Venturini, M.; Celata, C.; Malyshev, O.; Papaphilippou, I.

    2010-05-23

    As part of the international Linear Collider (ILC) collaboration, we have compared the electron cloud (EC) effect for different Damping Ring (DR) designs respectively with 6.4 km and 3.2 km circumference and investigated the feasibility of a shorter damping ring with respect to the electron cloud build-up and related beam instability. The studies for a 3.2 km ring were carried out with beam parameters of the ILC Low Power option. A reduced damping ring circumference has been proposed for the new ILC baseline design SB2009 [1] and would allow to considerably reduce the number of components, wiggler magnets and costs. We discuss the impact of the proposed operation of the ILC at high repetition rate 10 Hz and address the necessary modifications for the DRs. We also briefly discuss the plans for future studies including the luminosity upgrade option with shorter bunch spacing, the evaluation of mitigations and the integration of the CesrTA results into the Damping Ring design.

  19. Injection and Extraction Lines for the ILC Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, Ina

    2007-06-20

    The current design for the injection and extraction linesintoand out of the ILC Damping Rings is presented as well as the designfor the abort line. Due to changes of the geometric boundary conditionsby other subsystems of the ILC, a modular approach has been used to beable to respond to recurring layout changes whilereusing previouslydesigned parts.

  20. Evaluation of flexible ring baffles for damping liquid oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, F.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken of damping produced by single flexible-ring baffles in a 396-cm diameter tank of liquid nitrogen. Two 24.8-cm wide baffles were tested. One baffle was 0.00635 cm thick type 301 stainless steel and the other 0.0254 cm thick Teflon FEP. Each baffle produced damping of liquid oscillations equal to or greater than that expected from rigid baffles of the same size. The equations used to determine the baffle thickness required were found to be adequate baffle design equations.

  1. The NLC Main Damping Ring Lattice(LCC-0113)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, M

    2003-10-02

    Studies of the NLC Main Damping Ring lattice since April 2001 have indicated that there are a number of collective effects that potentially limit operational performance. One possible way to reduce the impact of these effects is to raise the momentum compaction of the lattice, which requires a significant re-design. In this note, we present a lattice that has a momentum compaction four times larger than the previous design. We discuss the linear and nonlinear dynamical properties of the lattice, and present some initial estimates of the sensitivity of the new design to various magnet misalignments.

  2. Flexible ring baffles for damping liquid slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, G. W.; Stephens, D. G.

    1968-01-01

    Slosh damping, obtained through the use of small, less massive, flexible baffles, provides a relatively lightweight system for damping the motions of liquid propellants in launch vehicles, missiles, and other tankage systems.

  3. Impedance and instabilities in the NLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett,J.; Li, D.; Pivi, M.; Rimmer, R.; DeSantis, S.; Wolski, A.; Novokhatski,A.; Ng, C.

    2001-06-12

    We report on impedance calculations and single-bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in the NLC damping rings. Preliminary designs of vacuum chambers and major components have addressed beam impedance issues, with the desire to increase instability current thresholds and reducing growth rates. MAFIA calculations of short-range and long-range wakefields have allowed computations of growth rates and thresholds, which are presented here. Resistive wall instability dominates long-range effects, and requires a broadband feedback system to control coupled-bunch motion. Growth rates are within the range addressable by current feedback system technologies. Single-bunch instability thresholds are safely above nominal operating current.

  4. IMPEDANCE AND INSTABILITIES IN THE NLC DAMPING RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, Alexander

    2002-08-20

    We report on impedance calculations and single-bunch and multi-bunch instabilities in the NLC damping rings. Preliminary designs of vacuum chambers and major components have addressed beam impedance issues, with the desire to increase instability current thresholds and reducing growth rates. MAFIA calculations of short-range and long-range wakefields have allowed computations of growth rates and thresholds, which are presented here. Resistive wall instability dominates long-range effects, and requires a broadband feedback system to control coupled-bunch motion. Growth rates are within the range addressable by current feedback system technologies. Single-bunch instability thresholds are safely above nominal operating current.

  5. Ring baffle pressure distribution and slosh damping in large cylindrical tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, H. F.; Stephens, D. G.; Davis, P. K.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the pressure loads and damping associated with rigid ring baffles in relatively large cylindrical tanks. The radial and circumferential pressure distribution, as well as the damping, was measured on a ring baffle subjected to fundamental antisymmetric slosh in a 284-cm-diameter rigid tank. Experimental and analytical data are presented as a function of slosh velocity or amplitude, baffle spacing, and baffle locations both above and below the liquid surface. Results suggest that pressure distributions and damping values can be determined from available theories for the design of single and multiple baffle configurations.

  6. Transverse Field Profile of the NLC Damping Rings Eletromagnet Wiggler (LCC-0038)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M

    2004-03-19

    The primary effort for damping ring wiggler studies has been to develop a credible radiation hard electromagnet wiggler conceptual design that meets NLC main electron and positron damping ring physics requirements [1]. Based upon an early assessment of requirements, a hybrid magnet similar to existing designs satisfies basic requirements. However, radiation damage is potentially a serious problem for the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material, and cost remains an issue for samarium cobalt magnets. Superconducting magnet designs have not been pursued due to their increased complexity and our unfamiliarity with the technology. Having produced and developed an electromagnet design, we now find that the transverse field roll-off is severe, and recognizing similar experience with beamline 11 at SSRL we believe that the resulting beam quality will not meet the damping ring requirements. We therefore propose, in parallel with more detailed optics studies of the wiggler field requirements, to revisit the hybrid permanent magnet design.

  7. Frequency map analysis of nonlinear dynamics in the NLC main damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Venturini, Marco; Wan, Weishi; Marks, Steve

    2004-10-11

    To avoid radiation damage, the acceptance of linear collider damping rings must be large enough that injection efficiency close to 100 percent can be achieved. Survival plots based on tracking particles in the NLC Main Damping Ring lattice suggest a dynamic aperture with some margin over the specified injected beam size and energy spread. Here, we apply Frequency Map Analysis to give a more detailed picture of the dynamical stability of particle trajectories in the presence of lattice nonlinearities arising from the sextupoles and the damping wiggler. The techniques that we use are of general applicability to nonlinear elements in beamlines, and in particular will be used for analysis of wiggler effects in future damping ring designs.

  8. Tracking Studies to Determine the Required Wiggler Aperture forthe ILC Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, I.; Wolski, A.

    2006-06-21

    The injection efficiency of an ILC damping ring is closely tied to its acceptance. To maximize both, one wants a physical aperture as large as possible in the wiggler magnets, as these are likely to be the limiting physical apertures in the ring. On the other hand, a small aperture in the wiggler magnets is needed to achieve the required field profile, a high magnetic field that is very linear over the whole physical aperture of the magnet. Tracking studies were done for all proposed ILC damping ring lattices to determine their required physical apertures. Although a half-aperture of 8 or 10mm had been proposed, our studies showed that, for most lattices, a 16mm half-aperture is required. For some lattices a 12mm half aperture might suffice. We present here the results of our studies, which led to adopting a 16mm half-aperture in the current ILC damping ring baseline design.

  9. Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    We address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings.Already by Goldreich and Tremaine (1978) it has been argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring's viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper (Schmidt et al. 2016) we have pointed out that when - within a fluid description of the ring dynamics - the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping.We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model.This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts linear instability of density waves in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. In this case, sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. In general the model wave damping lengths depend on a set of input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability and the ground state surface mass density.Our new model compares reasonably well with the streamline model for nonlinear density waves of Borderies et al. 1986.Deviations become substantial in the highly nonlinear regime, corresponding to strong satellite forcing.Nevertheless, we generally observe good or at least qualitative agreement between the wave amplitude profiles of both models. The streamline approach is superior at matching the total wave profile of waves observed in Saturn's rings, while our new damping relation is a comparably handy tool to gain insight in the evolution of the wave amplitude with distance from resonance, and the different regimes of

  10. Analytic estimates of coupling in damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper we present analytic formulas to estimate the vertical emittance in weakly coupled electron/positron storage rings. We consider contributions from both the vertical dispersion and linear coupling of the betatron motions. In addition to simple expressions for random misalignments and rotations of the magnets, formulas are presented to calculate the vertical emittance blowup due to orbit distortions. The orbit distortions are assumed to be caused by random misalignments, but because the closed orbit is correlated from point to point, the effects must be treated differently. We consider only corrected orbits. Finally, the analytic expressions are compared with computer simulations of storage rings with random misalignments. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Dynamic aperture study for the NLC main damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Venturini, Marco; Marks, Steve

    2004-07-05

    A sufficiently large acceptance is critical for the NLC Main Damping Rings (MDR) as the high power carried by the beams demands very high injection efficiency. Chromatic sextupoles and wiggler insertions (needed for rapid damping) are substantial sources of nonlinearities limiting the dynamic aperture. We report on the techniques we are using for analysis of single-particle beam dynamics in the presence of wiggler fields with significant nonlinear components. We demonstrate that our approach gives results in good agreement with experimental data when applied to the BL11 wiggler in SPEAR2, and discuss the present status of studies for the NLC MDR.

  12. Investigation into electron cloud effects in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring

    SciTech Connect

    Crittenden, J. A.; Conway, J.; Dugan, G. F.; Palmer, M. A.; Rubin, D. L.; Shanks, J.; Sonnad, K. G.; Boon, L.; Harkay, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Furman, M. A.; Guiducci, S.; Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang, L.

    2014-03-01

    We report modeling results for electron cloud buildup and instability in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring. Updated optics, wiggler magnets, and vacuum chamber designs have recently been developed for the 5 GeV, 3.2-km racetrack layout. An analysis of the synchrotron radiation profile around the ring has been performed, including the effects of diffuse and specular photon scattering on the interior surfaces of the vacuum chamber. The results provide input to the cloud buildup simulations for the various magnetic field regions of the ring. The modeled cloud densities thus obtained are used in the instability threshold calculations. We conclude that the mitigation techniques employed in this model will suffice to allow operation of the damping ring at the design operational specifications

  13. Longitudinal single-bunch instabilities in the NLC main damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco

    2004-05-10

    Because of tight requirements on beam quality longitudinal single-bunch instabilities are a serious concern for the damping rings of the next generation of linear colliders. Unlike multi-bunch instabilities they cannot be damped using feed-back systems and need to be avoided altogether. We present an analysis of these instabilities for the current Feb. 03 NLC main damping ring design, with attention paid to coherent synchrotron radiation and vacuum chamber effects, with the latter including the main components (RF cavities, BPM's, and resistive wall). The study is carried out by solving the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation for the longitudinal motion numerically. Comparison is made, whenever possible, with linear theory. We find that collective effects are dominated by coherent synchrotron radiation and estimate the instability threshold to be safely above 6 times the design current.

  14. Intrabeam Scattering in the NLC Main Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2006-06-08

    We use Bane's approximation to the Bjorken-Mtingwa theory of intrabeam scattering to calculate the emittance growth as a function of bunch charge in the KEK ATF. We find that our results are consistent with the experimental data. We then calculate the emittance growth in the NLC Main Damping Rings using the same formulae; we allow for some uncertainty in the ATF data by using two different values for the Coulomb log factor in the formulae for the emittance growth rates. We find that despite the IBS emittance growth, it should still be possible to achieve the specified transverse and longitudinal emittances in the NLC Main Damping Rings at the specified bunch charge.

  15. Status of the SLC damping ring kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gough, D.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.; Hutchinson, D.; Nguyen, M.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must meet extreme requirements on rise and fall time, flatness, time and amplitude jitter and drift, voltage, repetition rate, and reliability. After several generations of improvements to the pulsers, magnets, and controls, and evolution in the understanding of the requirements, the kicker systems are no longer a serious constraint on SLC performance. Implications for future linear colliders are discussed. 14 refs.

  16. Optomechanical damping of a nanomembrane inside an optical ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Arzu; Schuster, Simon; Wolf, Philip; Schmidt, Dag; Eisele, Max; Zimmermann, Claus; Slama, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigate mechanical nanooscillators coupled to the light in an optical ring resonator made of dielectric mirrors. We identify an optomechanical damping mechanism that is fundamentally different to the well known cooling in standing wave cavities. While in a standing wave cavity the mechanical oscillation shifts the resonance frequency of the cavity, in a ring resonator the frequency does not change. Instead the position of the nodes is shifted with the mechanical excursion. We derive the damping rates and test the results experimentally with a silicon-nitride nanomembrane. It turns out that scattering from small imperfections of the dielectric mirror coatings has to be taken into account to explain the value of the measured damping rate. We extend our theoretical model and consider a second reflector in the cavity that captures the effects of mirror back scattering. This model can be used to also describe the situation of two membranes that both interact with the cavity fields. This may be interesting for future work on synchronization of distant oscillators that are coupled by intracavity light fields.

  17. Configuration Studies and Recommendations for the ILC DampingRings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Gao, Jie; Guiducci, Susanna

    2006-02-04

    We describe the results of studies comparing different options for the baseline configuration of the ILC damping rings. The principal configuration decisions apply to the circumference, beam energy, lattice type, and technology options for key components, including the injection/extraction kickers and the damping wigglers. To arrive at our recommended configuration, we performed detailed studies of a range of lattices representing a variety of different configuration options; these lattices are described in Chapter 2. The results of the various studies are reported in chapters covering issues of beam dynamics, technical subsystems, costs, and commissioning, reliability and upgrade ability. Our detailed recommendations for the baseline configuration are given in Chapter 7, where we also outline further research and development that is needed before a machine using our recommended configuration can be built and operated successfully. In the same chapter, we suggest possible alternatives to the baseline configuration.

  18. Configuration Studies and Recommendations for the ILC DampingRings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Gao, Jie; Guiducci, Susanna

    2006-02-04

    We describe the results of studies comparing differentoptions for the baseline configuration of the ILC damping rings. Theprincipal configuration decisions apply to the circumference, beamenergy, lattice type, and technology options for key components,including the injection/extraction kickers and the damping wigglers. Toarrive at our recommended configuration, we performed detailed studies ofa range of lattices representing a variety of different configurationoptions; these lattices are described in Chapter 2. The results of thevarious studies are reported in chapters covering issues of beamdynamics, technical subsystems, costs, and commissioning, reliability andupgradeability. Our detailed recommendations for the baselineconfiguration are given in Chapter 7, where we also outline furtherresearch and development that is needed before a machine using ourrecommended configuration can be built and operated successfully. In thesame chapter, we suggest possible alternatives to the baselineconfiguration.

  19. Direct space-charge effects on the ILC damping rings: Task ForceReport

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu

    2006-02-28

    In 2005 a global effort was initiated to conduct studies for a baseline recommendation for the various components of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Work for the damping rings was subdivided in a number of tasks. This Report contains the contribution to this effort by the Authors as Coordinators of the Task Force on space charge. (A slightly reduced version of this document can also be found as part of the ''Configuration Studies and Recommendations for the ILC Damping Rings'', Edts. A. Wolski, et al., LBNL-59449.) The studies documented in this Report were carried out for several of the reference lattices considered for the baseline recommendation. Space charge effects were found to be quite noticeable in the lattices with the longest circumference. Although it does not appear that they could prevent operation of any machine having such lattices they do favor a choice of a ring design with shorter ({approx}6km) circumference at 5 GeV.

  20. A modified post damping ring bunch compressor beamline for the TESLA linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Philippe R.-G. Piot; Winfried Decking

    2004-03-23

    We propose a modified bunch compressor beamline, downstream of the damping ring, for the TESLA linear collider. This modified beamline uses a third harmonic radio-frequency section based on the 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity under development at Fermilab. In our design the beam deceleration is about {approx}50 MeV instead of {approx}450 MeV in the original design proposed.

  1. Wake field analysis and modelling of microwave instability in the ILC damping ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostelev, M.; Wolski, A.; Thorley, A.

    2011-12-01

    Wake field simulations are performed for given technical designs of the vacuum chamber components for the 6.4 km ILC damping ring, in order to calculate longitudinal wake functions. Modelling of the microwave instability based on multi-turn tracking with many particles is described. A comparison is presented between the potential well distortion found from solving the Haissinski equation and the results of tracking simulations. The threshold for the microwave instability is found for the given designs and lattice parameters.

  2. Instantaneous Frequency and Damping from Transient Ring-Down Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Brake, Matthew Robert

    2015-10-01

    Broadband impact excitation in structural dynamics is a common technique used to detect and characterize nonlinearities in mechanical systems since it excites many frequencies of a structure at once and can be applied with a variety of boundary conditions. Non-stationary time signals from transient ring-down measurements require time-frequency analysis tools to observe variations in frequency and energy dissipation as the response evolves. This work uses the short-time Fourier transform to estimate the instantaneous frequency and damping ratio from either measured or simulated transient ring-down data. By combining the discrete Fourier transform with an expanding or contracting window function that moves along the time axis, the resulting spectrum is used to estimate the instantaneous frequencies, damping and complex Fourier coefficients. This method is demonstrated on a multi-degree-of-freedom beam with a cubic spring attachment, and investigates the amplitudefrequency dependence in connection to the undamped nonlinear normal modes. A second example shows the results from experiment ring-down response on a beam with a lap joint, and reveals how the system behaves as energy dissipates.

  3. Status of the ATF Damping Ring BPM Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Briegel, C.; Eddy, N.; Haynes, B.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Nicklaus, D.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Smith, T.; Teranuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Voy, D.; Wendt, M.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2011-12-01

    A substantial upgrade of the beam position monitors (BPM) at the ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) damping ring is currently in progress. Implementing digital read-out signal processing techniques in line with an optimized, low-noise analog downconverter, a resolution well below 1 mum could be demonstrated at 20 (of 96) upgraded BPM stations. The narrowband, high resolution BPM mode permits investigation of all types of non-linearities, imperfections and other obstacles in the machine which may limit the very low target aimed vertical beam emittance of < 2 pm. The technical status of the project, first beam measurements and an outlook to it's finalization are presented.

  4. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    SciTech Connect

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  5. Operational experience with SLC damping ring kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must provide 7 mrad kicks to 1.2 GeV beams with 60 nsec rise and fall times and fit in a 50 cm length around a 21 mm diameter ceramic beam pipe. This requires that they operate at up to 40 KV. The construction and operation of two types of quasi-coaxial ferrite magnet potted with RTV silicone rubber is discussed. Production yield has been improved by changes in RTV degassing, transfer, and cure. Operation lifetime is dominated by voltage, radiation, and thermal cycling. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Stiffness and damping of elastomeric O-ring bearing mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A test rig to measure the dynamic stiffness and damping of elastomer O rings was described. Test results for stiffness and loss coefficient in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1000 Hz are presented. Results are given for three different materials, for five temperatures, for three amplitudes, for five values of squeeze for three values of stretch for three values of cross-section diameter and for three values of groove width. All test data points were plotted. In addition, trend summary plots were presented which compare the effect of material, temperature, amplitude, squeeze, stretch, cross-section diameter, and groove width. O ring deflections under a static load for different material were presented; and effective static stiffness values were compared with dynamic values.

  7. Extension of Miles Equation for Ring Baffle Damping Predictions to Small Slosh Amplitudes and Large Baffle Widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Yang, H. Q.; Brodnick, Jacob; Sansone, Marco; Westra, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Miles equation has long been used to predict slosh damping in liquid propellant tanks due to ring baffles. The original work by Miles identifies defined limits to its range of application. Recent evaluations of the Space Launch System identified that the Core Stage baffle designs resulted in violating the limits of the application of the Miles equation. This paper describes the work conducted by NASA/MSFC to develop methods to predict slosh damping from ring baffles for conditions for which Miles equation is not applicable. For asymptotically small slosh amplitudes or conversely large baffle widths, an asymptotic expression for slosh damping was developed and calibrated using historical experimental sub-scale slosh damping data. For the parameter space that lies between region of applicability of the asymptotic expression and the Miles equation, Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of slosh damping were used to develop an expression for slosh damping. The combined multi-regime slosh prediction methodology is shown to be smooth at regime boundaries and consistent with both sub-scale experimental slosh damping data and the results of validated Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions of slosh damping due to ring baffles.

  8. Simulations of the Electron Cloud Builld Up and Instabilities for Various ILC Damping Ring Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, Mauro; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Wang, Lanfa; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Wolski, Andrzej; /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2007-03-12

    In the beam pipe of the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC), an electron cloud may be first produced by photoelectrons and ionization of residual gases and then increased by the secondary emission process. This paper reports the assessment of electron cloud effects in a number of configuration options for the ILC baseline configuration. Careful estimates were made of the secondary electron yield (sometimes in the literature also referred as secondary emission yield SEY or {delta}, with a peak value {delta}{sub max}) threshold for electron cloud build-up, and the related single- and coupled-bunch instabilities, as a function of beam current and surface properties for a variety of optics designs. When the configuration for the ILC damping rings was chosen at the end of 2005, the results from these studies were important considerations. On the basis of the joint theoretical and experimental work, the baseline configuration currently specifies a pair of 6 km damping rings for the positron beam, to mitigate the effects of the electron cloud that could present difficulties in a single 6 km ring. However, since mitigation techniques are now estimated to be sufficiently mature, a reduced single 6-km circumference is presently under consideration so as to reduce costs.

  9. Damping Ring to Interaction Point Beam Transport Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, Peter G

    2003-08-08

    One of the major challenges facing the proposed high-energy linear e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders is the preservation of the extremely small vertical emittance from the damping rings to the interaction point (IP). This emittance must be transported through bunch compression sections, the main linac and finally through the beam delivery system to the IP. Historically, the beam dynamics issues of each subsystem have been studied quasi-independently, with the beam conditions and tolerances being specified at the boundaries. As part of the recent International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee [1], new simulation tools have been developed to simulate the beam transport through the integrated system, including static and dynamic errors, stabilization systems, and tuning algorithms.

  10. Mechanical Design of the DAMPE BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yiming; Wu, Jian; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chen, Dengyi; Chang, Jin

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, DAMPE, is a new designed satellite developed for the CASs new Innovation 2020 program. As the main component of DAMPE, the new designed BGO calorimeter consists of 308 BGO Crystals coupled with photomultiplier tube.The reliability and safety of the BGO Calorimeter structure play a very important role in the operation of whole detector. During the rocket launch, the calorimeter structure should be stable against vibration and environmental factors to ensure detector works in good conditions. In this article, we make the BGO calorimeter structure design, and then prove that it will work in the environments of rocket launch and flight.

  11. Large space structure damping design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Haviland, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Several FORTRAN subroutines and programs were developed which compute complex eigenvalues of a damped system using different approaches, and which rescale mode shapes to unit generalized mass and make rigid bodies orthogonal to each other. An analytical proof of a Minimum Constrained Frequency Criterion (MCFC) for a single damper is presented. A method to minimize the effect of control spill-over for large space structures is proposed. The characteristic equation of an undamped system with a generalized control law is derived using reanalysis theory. This equation can be implemented in computer programs for efficient eigenvalue analysis or control quasi synthesis. Methods to control vibrations in large space structure are reviewed and analyzed. The resulting prototype, using electromagnetic actuator, is described.

  12. TOSCA calculations and measurements for the SLAC SLC damping ring dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Early, R.A.; Cobb, J.K.

    1985-04-01

    The SLAC damping ring dipole magnet was originally designed with removable nose pieces at the ends. Recently, a set of magnetic measurements was taken of the vertical component of induction along the center of the magnet for four different pole-end configurations and several current settings. The three dimensional computer code TOSCA, which is currently installed on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center's Cray X-MP, was used to compute field values for the four configurations at current settings near saturation. Comparisons were made for magnetic induction as well as effective magnetic lengths for the different configurations. 1 ref., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. RF cavity R&D at LBNL for the NLC damping rings, FY1999

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.A.; Corlett, J.N.; Koehler, G.; Li, D.; Hartman, N.; Rasson, J.; Saleh, T.

    1999-11-01

    This report contains a summary of the R&D activities at LBNL on RF cavities for the NLC damping rings during fiscal year19999. These activities include the optimization of the RF design for both efficiency and damping of higher-order (HOMs), by systematic study of the cavity profile, the effect of the beam pipe diameter, nosecone angle and gap, the cross section and position of the HOM damping waveguides and the coupler. The effect of the shape of the HOM waveguides and their intersection with the cavity wall on the local surface heating is also an important factor, since it determines the highest stresses in the cavity body. This was taken into account during the optimization so that the stresses could be reduced at the same time as the HOP damping was improved over previous designs. A new method of calculating the RF heating was employed, using a recently released high frequency electromagnetic element in ANSYS. This greatly facilitates the thermal and stress analysis of the design and fabrication methods have been developed with the goals of lower stresses, fewer parts and simpler assembly compared to previous designs. This should result in substantial cost savings. Preliminary designs are described for the cavity ancillary components including the RF window, HOM loads, and tuners. A preliminary manufacturing plan is included, with an initial estimate of the resource requirements. Other cavity options are discussed which might be desirable to either lower the R/Q, for reduced transient response, or lower the residual HOM impedance to reduce coupled-bunch growth rates further still.

  14. Resistive-Wall Instability in the Damping Rings of the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Bane, K.L.F.; Raubenheimer, T.; Ross, M.; /SLAC

    2006-07-05

    In the damping rings of the International Linear Collider (ILC), the resistive-wall instability is one of the dominant transverse instabilities. This instability directly influences the choice of material and aperture of the vacuum pipe, and the parameters of the transverse feedback system. This paper investigates the resistive-wall instabilities in an ILC damping ring under various conditions of beam pipe material, aperture, and fill pattern.

  15. Energy matching of 1. 2 GeV positron beam to the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) damping ring

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Helm, R.H.; Jobe, R.K.; Kulikov, A.; Sheppard, J.C.

    1989-08-01

    Positrons collected at the SLC positron source are transported over a 2-km path at 220 MeV to be reinjected into the linac for acceleration to 1.2 GeV, the energy of the emittance damping ring. Since the positron bunch length is a significant fraction of a cycle of the linac-accelerating RF, the energy spread at 1.2 GeV is considerably larger than the acceptance of the linac-to-ring (LTR) transport system. Making use of the large pathlength difference at the beginning of the LTR due to this energy spread, a standard SLAC 3-m accelerating section has been installed in the LTR to match the longitudinal phase space of the positron beam to the acceptance of the damping ring. The design of the matching system is described, and a comparison of operating results within simulations is presented. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Longitudinal Single-Bunch Instability in the ILC Damping Rings: Estimate of Current Threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco; Venturini, Marco

    2008-06-25

    Characterization of single-bunch instabilities in the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings (DRs) has been indicated as a high-priority activity toward completion of an engineering design. In this paper we report on a first estimate ofthe current thresholds for the instability using numerical and analytical models of the wake potentials associated with the various machine components. The numerical models were derived (upon appropriate scaling) from designs of the correspondingcomponents installed in existing machines. The current thresholds for instabilities were determined by numerical solution of the Vlasov equation for the longitudinal dynamics. For the DR baseline lattice as of Feb. 2007 we find the critical current forinstability to be safely above the design specifications leaving room for further optimization of the choice of the momentum compaction.

  17. Bunch lengthening calculations for the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    The problem of bunch lengthening in electron storage rings has been treated by many people, and there have been many experiments. In the typical experiment, the theory is used to determine the impedance of the ring. What has been lacking thus far, however, is a calculation of bunch lengthening that uses a carefully calculated ring impedance (or wakefield). In this paper we begin by finding the potential well distortion due to some very simple impedance models, in order to illustrate different types of bunch lengthening behavior. We then give a prescription for extending potential well calculations into the turbulent regime once the threshold is known. Then finally, using the wakefield calculated for the SLC damping rings, combined with the measured value of the threshold, we calculate bunch lengthening for the damping rings, and compare the results with the measurements. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  18. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for the Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings. Goldreich & Tremaine have already argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring’s viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper Schmidt et al., we have pointed out that when—within a fluid description of the ring dynamics—the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping, but nonlinearity of the underlying equations guarantees a finite amplitude and eventually a damping of the wave. We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model. This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts density waves to be (linearly) unstable in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. Sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. The wave’s damping lengths of the model depend on certain input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability in parameter space and the ground state surface mass density.

  19. A Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; /SLAC

    2012-05-17

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and predamping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  20. Measured Two-Dimensional Damping Effectiveness of Fuel-Sloshing Baffles applied to Ring Baffles in Cylindrical Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Henry A., Jr.; Gambucci, Bruno J.

    1961-01-01

    Measured two-dimensional damping forces of baffles with various shapes and perforations are presented for fluid conditions representative of those in liquid-fuel rocket vehicles. The effect of amplitude and frequency of fuel sloshing, and surface proximity on baffle damping are shown. Application of the result sin the prediction of damping effectiveness of ring baffles in cylindrical tanks is demonstrated. Finally, some measurements of damping in a free-free cylindrical tank are presented which verify the predictions based on two-dimensional results. Measurements of certain three-dimensional baffles show that they provide greater damping than ring baffles.

  1. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  2. An ultimate storage ring lattice with vertical emittance generated by damping wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao

    2015-01-06

    We discuss the approach of generating round beams for ultimate storage rings using vertical damping wigglers (with horizontal magnetic field). The vertical damping wigglers provide damping and excite vertical emittance. This eliminates the need to generate large linear coupling that is impractical with traditional off-axis injection. We use a PEP-X compatible lattice to demonstrate the approach. This lattice uses separate quadrupole and sextupole magnets with realistic gradient strengths. Intrabeam scattering effects are calculated. As a result, the horizontal and vertical emittances are 22.3 pm and 10.3 pm, respectively, for a 200 mA, 4.5 GeV beam, with a vertical damping wiggler of a total length of 90 m, a peak field of 1.5 T and a wiggler period of 100 mm.

  3. CESR Conversion Damping Ring Studies of Electron Cloud Instabilities (CESR-TA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, David L.; Palmer, Mark A.

    2011-08-02

    an electron DR, the EC build-up is limited by the Coulomb repulsion. But in a positron ring, the electrons are pulled into the potential well of the beam. The resulting interaction of the circulating bunches of positrons with the EC that ultimately limits DR performance. Typically we store long trains of closely space bunches in the damping ring. The interaction of stored beam and the EC that is generated by the long train is manifested by different mechanisms: (1) The cloud focuses the beam, which causes a tune shift that increases along the bunch train as the cloud density increases. (2) The cloud electrons couple the motion of bunches along a train. Transverse motion of a leading bunch is transferred to the cloud, and subsequently to a trailing bunch which can result in a multi-bunch instability. (3) The cloud couples the positrons in the head of the bunch to those in the tail of the same bunch, which can excite a 'head-tail' instability. (4) The nonlinear fields of the EC can lead to emittance growth before the onset of instabilities. The CESRTA collaboration, which includes researchers from Cornell University's Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics as well as more than 50 senior staff members from over a dozen accelerator laboratories and universities around the world, has operated CESR as a damping ring for the past three years to study these EC effects. A range of specialized instrumentation has been deployed to study the local build-up of the cloud in the vacuum chambers as well as the complicated dynamics exhibited when the beam and the EC interact. The program has significantly advanced our understanding of these issues and has helped identify the most promising methods to mitigate the impact of the EC on the DR beams. It has pointed the way towards a DR design that can meet the stringent specifications of the ILC.

  4. Intrabeam Scattering Studies for the ILC Damping Rings Using a NewMATLAB Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, I.; Wolski, A.

    2006-06-21

    A new code to calculate the effects of intrabeam scattering (IBS) has been developed in MATLAB based on the approximation suggested by K. Bane. It interfaces with the Accelerator Toolbox but can also read in lattice functions from other codes. The code has been benchmarked against results from other codes for the ATF that use this approximation or do the calculation in a different way. The new code has been used to calculate the emittance growth due to intrabeam scattering for the lattices currently proposed for the ILC Damping Rings, as IBS is a concern, especially for the electron ring. A description of the code and its user interface, as well as results for the Damping Rings, will be presented.

  5. RF cavity R&D at LBNL for the NLC Damping Rings,FY2000/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.A.; Atkinson, D.; Corlett, J.N.; Koehler, G.; Li, D.; Hartman, N.; Rasson, J.; Saleh, T.; Weidenbach, W.

    2001-06-01

    This report contains a summary of the R&D activities at LBNL on RF cavities for the NLC damping rings during fiscal years 2000/2001. This work is a continuation of the NLC RF system R&D of the previous year [1]. These activities include the further optimization and fine tuning of the RF cavity design for both efficiency and damping of higher-order modes (HOMs). The cavity wall surface heating and stresses were reduced at the same time as the HOM damping was improved over previous designs. Final frequency tuning was performed using the high frequency electromagnetic analysis capability in ANSYS. The mechanical design and fabrication methods have been developed with the goals of lower stresses, fewer parts and simpler assembly compared to previous designs. This should result in substantial cost savings. The cavity ancillary components including the RF window, coupling box, HOM loads, and tuners have been studied in more detail. Other cavity options are discussed which might be desirable to either further lower the HOM impedance or increase the stored energy for reduced transient response. Superconducting designs and the use of external ''energy storage'' cavities are discussed. A section is included in which the calculation method is summarized and its accuracy assessed by comparisons with the laboratory measurements of the PEP-II cavity, including errors, and with the beam-sampled spectrum.

  6. Design and fabrication of integrally damped composite fan blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatka, John B.; Appuhn, Geoffrey

    1999-06-01

    The design, analysis, and fabrication methods of embedding small viscoelastic damping patches into scaled composite fan blades is presented, where the goal is to improve the blade fatigue characteristics by increasing the damping in the chord-wise modes. This discussion concentrates on improving the damping levels in a research composite shell/titanium spar fan blade, developed by NASA-Lewis and Pratt and Whitney. First, the geometry and material definition of the existing composite fan blade are presented. Second, methods for sizing and locating the damping patch are presented based upon the modal strain energy method. The layered damping patch is composed of outer layers of a TEDLAR (or KAPTON) barrier film, which encompasses a viscoelastic damping material and loose- weave scrim cloth (creep protection). Two different patch sizes and locations are discussed to provide maximum damping as well as optimal damping. Finally, procedures are outlined for fabricating the integrally damped composite fan blades. Fabricated blades will be tested at the NASA-Lewis vacuum facility.

  7. HOM-damped re-entrant quasi-half-cell cavity for the SPring-8 storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ego, Hiroyasu

    2004-01-01

    A newly designed RF accelerating cavity resonating 508.58 MHz is proposed for reinforcement of beam current in the SPring-8 storage ring. Since an increase in beam current induces coupled-bunch instabilities arising from coupling impedances of higher-order modes in RF cavities, the new RF cavity is provided with three ways for damping the higher-order modes: a re-entrant quasi-half-cell structure, ports skewing the field distributions of the higher-order modes and a grooved beam pipe terminated by materials absorbing RF power. The RF properties of the higher-order modes in the RF cavity were examined by the MAFIA frequency-domain simulation. The measured RF properties of the higher-order modes in an aluminum model cavity were consistent with the simulations and verified the performance of damping the higher-order modes in the RF cavity.

  8. Active Damping of the E-P Instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.J.; Assadi, S.; Byrd, J.M.; Deibele, C.E.; Henderson, S.D.; Lee, S.Y.; McCrady, R.C.; Pivi, M.F.T.; Plum, M.A.; Walbridge, S.B.; Zaugg, T.J.; /Los Alamos

    2008-03-17

    A prototype of an analog, transverse (vertical) feedback system for active damping of the two-stream (e-p) instability has been developed and successfully tested at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). This system was able to improve the instability threshold by approximately 30% (as measured by the change in RF buncher voltage at instability threshold). The feedback system configuration, setup procedures, and optimization of performance are described. Results of several experimental tests of system performance are presented including observations of instability threshold improvement and grow-damp experiments, which yield estimates of instability growth and damping rates. A major effort was undertaken to identify and study several factors limiting system performance. Evidence obtained from these tests suggests that performance of the prototype was limited by higher instability growth rates arising from beam leakage into the gap at lower RF buncher voltage and the onset of instability in the horizontal plane, which had no feedback.

  9. Active damping of the e-p instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R. J.; Assadi, S.; Byrd, J. M.; Deibele, C. E.; Henderson, S. D.; Lee, S. Y.; McCrady, R. C.; Pivi, M. F. T.; Plum, M. A.; Walbridge, S. B.; Zaugg, T. J.

    2007-12-15

    A prototype of an analog, transverse (vertical) feedback system for active damping of the two-stream (e-p) instability has been developed and successfully tested at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). This system was able to improve the instability threshold by approximately 30% (as measured by the change in RF buncher voltage at instability threshold). The feedback system configuration, setup procedures, and optimization of performance are described. Results of several experimental tests of system performance are presented including observations of instability threshold improvement and grow-damp experiments, which yield estimates of instability growth and damping rates. A major effort was undertaken to identify and study several factors limiting system performance. Evidence obtained from these tests suggests that performance of the prototype was limited by higher instability growth rates arising from beam leakage into the gap at lower RF buncher voltage and the onset of instability in the horizontal plane, which had no feedback.

  10. Effect of Wiggler insertions on the single-particle dynamics of the NLC main damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco

    2003-07-30

    As they are expected to occupy a large portion of the lattice, wiggler insert ions will introduce significant linear and nonlinear perturbations to the single-particle dynamics in the NLC Main Damping Rings (MDR). The nonlinearities are of particular concern as a sufficiently large Dynamic Aperture (DA) is required for high injection efficiency. The main content of this report is a study of the wigglers impact on the DA of the NLC-MDR latest lattice design. The particle dynamics is modeled by transfer maps calculated by integration through the wiggler fields. For field representation we employed a 3D multipole expansion derived from the field data that were obtained with the aid of a magnet design code. Additional contents of this paper include an investigation of a simplified model of wiggler consisting of a sequence of standard magnet elements (where thin octupoles are used to represent the dominant nonlinearities) and the suggestion of a possible correction scheme to compensate the wiggler nonlinearities.

  11. Design parameters for the damped detuned accelerating structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, K.; Bane, K.; Gluckstern, R.; Hoag, H.; Kroll, N.; Lin, X.T.; Miller, R.; Ruth, R.; Thompson, K.; Wang, J. ||

    1995-06-01

    The advanced accelerating cavities for the NLCTA (and anticipated for NLC) will incorporate damping as well as detuning. The damping is provided by a set of four waveguides (which also serve as pumping manifolds) that run parallel to the structure, with strong iris coupling to each cavity cell and terminated at each end by absorbers. The previously reported equivalent circuit analysis has been refined and the dependence upon design parameters explored. The authors find that adequate damping can be provided by a single waveguide mode, leading to designs which are more compact than those initially considered. The design parameters and their rationale will be presented.

  12. Design, analysis, and testing of high frequency passively damped struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yiu, Y. C.; Davis, L. Porter; Napolitano, Kevin; Ninneman, R. Rory

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of the research are: (1) to develop design requirements for damped struts to stabilize control system in the high frequency cross-over and spill-over range; (2) to design, fabricate and test viscously damped strut and viscoelastically damped strut; (3) to verify accuracy of design and analysis methodology of damped struts; and (4) to design and build test apparatus, and develop data reduction algorithm to measure strut complex stiffness. In order to meet the stringent performance requirements of the SPICE experiment, the active control system is used to suppress the dynamic responses of the low order structural modes. However, the control system also inadvertently drives some of the higher order modes unstable in the cross-over and spill-over frequency range. Passive damping is a reliable and effective way to provide damping to stabilize the control system. It also improves the robustness of the control system. Damping is designed into the SPICE testbed as an integral part of the control-structure technology.

  13. Control of damping partition numbers in a ring accelerator with rf electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Shimosaki, Yoshito; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2013-04-12

    A novel scheme to reduce transverse beam emittance in a ring accelerator is proposed by using a pair of coupling cavities as a basic unit to control damping partition numbers. As indicated by Robinson in 1958, a simple rf electromagnetic field (e.g., a TM210 mode by a single coupling cavity) cannot control the damping partition of three eigenoscillation modes in a ring accelerator due to the cancellation between the contributions from the magnetic and electric fields. Based on both analytical and numerical studies, we show that a pair of coupling cavities that satisfy phase and optics matching conditions can overcome this cancellation. The results indicate that the horizontal emittance is reducible to the theoretical limit based on the steady state condition and also, the emittance is reducible below the reduction limit under a nonsteady state by driving the coupling cavities with gated signals.

  14. Ion Effects in the Electron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Raubenheimer, T.; Wolski, A.; /Liverpool U.

    2006-07-17

    Ion-induced beam instabilities and tune shifts are critical issues for the electron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC). To avoid conventional ion trapping, a long gap is introduced in the electron beam by omitting a number of successive bunches out of a long train. However, the beam can still suffer from the fast ion instability, driven by ions that last only for a single passage of the electron bunches. Our study shows that the ion effects can be significantly mitigated by using multiple gaps, so that the stored beam consists of a number of relatively short bunch trains. The ion effects in the ILC damping rings are investigated using both analytical and numerical methods.

  15. Landau damping effects and evolutions of energy spread in small isochronous ring

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yingjie; Wang, Langfa; Lin, Fanglei

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Landau damping effects on the microwave instability of a coasting long bunch in an isochronous ring due to finite energy spread and emittance. Our two-dimensional (2D) dispersion relation gives more accurate predictions of the microwave instability growth rates of short-wavelength perturbations than the conventional 1D formula. The long-term evolution of energy spread is also studied by measurements and simulations.

  16. ILC Damping Rings: Benefit of the Antechamber or: Antechamber vs. SEY

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M. A.

    2011-03-30

    We present simulation results of the build-up of the electron-cloud density ne for the two proposed ILC damping ring lattices, DC04 and DSB3, with particular attention to the potential benefit of an antechamber. We examine a field-free region and a dipole bending magnet, with or without an antechamber. We assume a secondary electronemission model for the chamber surface based on approximate fits to measured data for TiN, except that we let the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY), delta max, be a variable. We conclude that there is a critical value of delta max below which the antechamber provides a substantial benefit, roughly a factor ~;;40 reduction in ne relative to the case in which max exceeds the critical value. We estimate the steady-state value of ne as a function of delta max, and thereby obtain the critical value of delta max for all cases considered. Thus, from the perspective of the electron-cloud effect, the inclusion of an antechamber in the design is justified only if delta max is below the critical value. The results presented here constitute a slight extension of those previously presented in March and September, 2010 [1, 2].

  17. Fast and reliable kicker magnets for the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.S.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Gross, G.

    1995-06-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a kicker magnet with superior electromagnetic performance and greatly improved radiation tolerance is described. A short flux return of high mu ferrite improves the field strength and linearity with current, and novel metallic field-confining structures minimize the inductance. An 8-cell structure with capacitance integrated into each cell makes the magnet a nearly perfect transmission line. The capacitor dielectric is 1 cm thick alumina-loaded epoxy, processed to eliminate air voids, and cast in a multiple step procedure developed to circumvent epoxy shrinkage. The magnet operates with pulses of up to 40 kV and 3.2 kA at 120 Hz, with magnet transit times of less than 35 nsec and field rise and fall times of less than 60 nsec.

  18. FODO-Supercell Based Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction and Optimized Dynamic Aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-05-11

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and pre-damping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  19. The Conversion and operation of the Cornell electron storage ring as a test accelerator (cesrta) for damping rings research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.A.; Alexander, J.; Byrd, J.; Celata, C.M.; Corlett, J.; De Santis, S.; Furman, M.; Jackson, A.; Kraft, R.; Munson, D.; Penn, G.; Plate, D.; Rawlins, A.; Venturini, M.; Zisman, M.; Billing, M.; Calvey, J.; Chapman, S.; Codner, G.; Conolly, C.; Crittenden, J.; Dobbins, J.; Dugan, G.; Fontes, E.; Forster, M.; Gallagher, R.; Gray, S.; Greenwald, S.; Hartill, D.; Hopkins, W.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Livezey, J.; Lyndaker, A.; Medjidzade, V.; Meller, R.; Peck, S.; Peterson, D.; Rendina, M.; Revesz, P.; Rice, D.; Rider, N.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Savino, J.; Seeley, R.; Sexton, J.; Shanks, J.; Sikora, J.; Smolenski, K.; Strohman, C.; Temnykh, A.; tigner, M.; Whitney, W.; Williams, H.; Vishniakou, S.; Wilkens, T.; Harkay, K.; Holtzapple, R.; Smith, E.; Jones, J.; Wolski, A.; He, Y.; Ross, M.; Tan, C.Y.; Zwaska, R.; Flanagan, J.; Jain, P.; Kanazawa, K.; Ohmi, K.; Sakai, H.; Shibata, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Kharakh, D.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.

    2009-05-01

    In March of 2008, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) concluded twenty eight years of colliding beam operations for the CLEO high energy physics experiment. We have reconfigured CESR as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R&D. The primary goals of the CesrTA program are to achieve a beam emittance approaching that of the ILC Damping Rings with a positron beam, to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with both low emittance positron and electron beams, to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, and to develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies (in particular a fast x-ray beam size monitor capable of single pass measurements of individual bunches). We report on progress with the CESR conversion activities, the status and schedule for the experimental program, and the first experimental results that have been obtained.

  20. Comparison of Alignment Tolerances in the Linear Collider Damping with Those in Operating Rings(LCC-0112)

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T

    2004-01-05

    The next generation linear colliders require damping rings to generate beam with very small transverse emittances to attain the desired luminosity. The required emittances are smaller than that of most operating synchrotron radiation sources. In this paper, the alignment tolerances needed to attain these small emittances are compared with those of the operating synchrotron radiation facilities and a prototype damping ring, the ATF at KEK. The concept of this study originated at the Nanobeams Workshop during a discussion in the Storage Rings Working Group although the results were not discussed at that meeting.

  1. Wigglers and single-particle dynamics in the NLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco; Wolski, Andrzej; Dragt, Alex

    2003-05-06

    Wiggler insertions are expected to occupy a significant portion of the lattice of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) Main Damping Rings (MDR) and have a noticeable impact on the single-particle beam dynamics. Starting from a realistic 3D representation of the magnetic fields we calculate the transfer maps for the wigglers, accounting for linear and nonlinear effects, and we study the beam dynamics with particular attention paid to the Dynamic Aperture(DA). A DA reduction is observed but appears to remain within acceptable limits.

  2. Development of an Adder-Topology ILC Damping Ring Kicker Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao; Burkhart, Craig; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    The ILC damping ring injection and extraction kickers will require high availability modulators that can deliver {+-}5 kV pulses into 50 {Omega} with a 2 ns flattop ({approx}1 ns rise and fall time) at up to 6 MHz. An effort is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to meet these requirements using a transmission line adder topology to combine the output of an array of {approx}1 kV modules. The modules employ an ultra-fast hybrid MOSFET/driver that can switch 33 A in 1.2 ns. Experimental results for a scale adder structure are presented.

  3. Operating experience with high beam currents and transient beam loading in the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.G.; Akre, R.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.H.

    1995-06-01

    During the 1994 SLC run the nominal operating intensity in the damping rings was raised from 3.5 {times} 10{sup 10} to greater than 4 {times} 10{sup 10} particles per bunch (ppb). Stricter regulation of rf system parameters was required to maintain stability of the rf system and particle beam. Improvements were made in the feedback loops which control the cavity amplitude and loading angles. Compensation for beam loading was also required to prevent klystron saturation during repetition rate changes. To minimize the effects of transient loading on the rf system, the gain of the direct rf feedback loop and the loading angles were optimized.

  4. Klystron power specifications based on transient beam loading analysis in damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.G.; Siemann, R.H.

    1995-06-01

    A useful diagram is presented and used to study rf cavity voltage regulation in a damping ring or other circular accelerator where large beam currents are injected and extracted rapidly. With conventional feedback systems and high particle beam currents, the maximum beam current can be limited by the ability of the klystron to maintain constant gap voltage at high currents, low currents, or in the absence of beam. Techniques for storing high current beams are suggested when the maximum klystron output power is predetermined. Alternately, these techniques may be applied and used to specify the performance requirements of the klystron if the desired particle beam current and nominal rf cavity voltage are known.

  5. Simulation and analysis of rf feedback systems on the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Himel, T.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.H.; Tighe, R.

    1993-09-01

    The rf system of the SLC Damping Rings has evolved since tighter tolerances on beam stability are encountered as beam intensities are increased. There are now many feedback systems controlling the phase and amplitude of the rf, the phase of the beam, and the tune of the cavity. The bandwidths of the feedback loops range from several MHz to compensate for beam loading to a few Hz for the cavity tuners. To improve our understanding of the interaction of these loops and verify the expected behavior, we have simulated their behavior using computer models. A description of the models and the first results are discussed.

  6. Inverse design of nonlinearity in energy harvesters for optimum damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghandchi Tehrani, Maryam; Elliott, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the inverse design method for the nonlinearity in an energy harvester in order to achieve an optimum damping. A single degree-of-freedom electromechanical oscillator is considered as an energy harvester, which is subjected to a harmonic base excitation. The harvester has a limited throw due to the physical constraint of the device, which means that the amplitude of the relative displacement between the mass of the harvester and the base cannot exceed a threshold when the device is driven at resonance and beyond a particular amplitude. This physical constraint requires the damping of the harvester to be adjusted for different excitation amplitudes, such that the relative displacement is controlled and maintained below the limit. For example, the damping can be increased to reduce the amplitude of the relative displacement. For high excitation amplitudes, the optimum damping is, therefore, dependent on the amplitude of the base excitation, and can be synthesised by a nonlinear function. In this paper, a nonlinear function in the form of a bilinear is considered to represent the damping model of the device. A numerical optimisation using Matlab is carried out to fit a curve to the amplitude-dependent damping in order to determine the optimum bilinear model. The nonlinear damping is then used in the time-domain simulations and the relative displacement and the average harvested power are obtained. It is demonstrated that the proposed nonlinear damping can maintain the relative displacement of the harvester at its maximum level for a wide range of excitation, therefore providing the optimum condition for power harvesting.

  7. Electron Cloud in the Wigglers of the Positron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    The ILC positron damping ring comprises hundreds of meters of wiggler sections, where many more photons than in the arcs are emitted, and with the smallest beampipe aperture of the ring. A significant electron-cloud density can therefore be accumulated via photo-emission and via beam-induced multipacting. In field-free regions the electron-cloud build up may be suppressed by adding weak solenoid fields, but the electron cloud remaining in the wigglers as well as in the arc dipole magnets can still drive single-bunch and multi-bunch beam instabilities. This paper studies the electron-cloud formation in an ILC wiggler section for various scenarios, as well as its character, and possible mitigation schemes.

  8. Analysis of Alternative Ring Resonator Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    the ring strip of the antenna as in the case of the original design. Both the alternative dielectric laminate and the increased thickness laminate...adjustments to the geometry parameters. 2. Ring Resonator Antenna Design The ring resonator is a two port antenna consisting of a ring strip and two...differing thicknesses for resonator antennas of the same design suggests that the RF fields penetrate slightly more or that the resonator can “see” a

  9. Design of an rf quadrupole for Landau damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papke, K.; Grudiev, A.

    2017-08-01

    The recently proposed superconducting quadrupole resonator for Landau damping in accelerators is subjected to a detailed design study. The optimization process of two different cavity types is presented following the requirements of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) with the main focus on quadrupolar strength, surface peak fields, and impedance. The lower order and higher order mode (LOM and HOM) spectrum of the optimized cavities is investigated and different approaches for their damping are proposed. On the basis of an example the first two higher order multipole errors are calculated. Likewise on this example the required rf power and optimal external quality factor for the input coupler is derived.

  10. Variable structure controller design for spacecraft nutation damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt; Dwyer, Thomas A. W., III

    1987-01-01

    Variable structure systems theory is used to design an automatic controller for active nutation damping in momentum biased stabilized spacecraft. Robust feedback stabilization of roll and yaw angular dynamics is achieved with prescribed qualitative characteristics which are totally independent of the spacecraft defining parameters.

  11. Thermoelastic damping effect of the micro-ring resonator with irregular mass and stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Fundamentally, vibration characteristic is a main factor for the stability of structures. In this regard, the irregularity of mass and stiffness distributions for the structure have been an interesting issue for many years. Recently, the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are developed for various applications such as gyro sensors. In the present work, in-plane vibration of micro-ring structure with multiple finite-sized imperfections is investigated. Then, the unbalance of the structure is represented using Heaviside Step Function for the inextensional modeling of the ring. Also, thermoelastic damping (TED) due to internal friction is studied based on Fourier's one-dimensional heat conduction equation using Laplace Transform. To obtain the quality-factors (Q-factors) for imperfect micro-ring, analytical solutions are calculated from governing equations of motion with TED. And then, the natural frequencies and the Q-factors are observed to separate into lower and higher modes. Additionally, the vibration mode shapes are presented, and the frequency trimming concept due to attached imperfections is investigated.

  12. Longitudinal beam-transfer-function measurements at the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.G.; Zimmermann, F.

    1997-05-01

    A longitudinal single-bunch instability in the damping rings at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is thought to contribute to pulse-to-pulse orbit variations in downstream accelerator sections. To better understand this instability, the authors measured the beam phase and bunch length under harmonic modulations of the rf phase and rf voltage. For small phase-modulations the measured response can be explained by interaction of the beam with the cavity fundamental mode. For larger excitations, they observed bifurcation and hysteresis effects. The response to an rf voltage modulation revealed two peaks near the quadrupole-mode frequency, one of which appears to be related to the longitudinal instability. In this paper they present the experimental results.

  13. Particle-in-Cell Calculationsof the Electron Cloud in the ILCPositron Damping Ring Wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Grote, D.P.

    2007-07-01

    The self-consistent code suite WARP-POSINST is being used to study electron cloud effects in the ILC positron damping ring wiggler. WARP is a parallelized, 3D particle-in-cell code which is fully self-consistent for all species. The POSINST models for the production of photoelectrons and secondary electrons are used to calculate electron creation. Mesh refinement and a moving reference frame for the calculation will be used to reduce the computer time needed by several orders of magnitude. We present preliminary results for cloud buildup showing 3D electron effects at the nulls of the vertical wiggler field. First results from a benchmark of WARP-POSINST vs. POSINST are also discussed.

  14. Review of stripline beam impedance: application to the extraction kicker for the CLIC damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belver-Aguilar, C.; Barnes, M. J.

    2017-07-01

    The beam coupling impedance of the stripline kicker for beam extraction from the CLIC Damping Rings (DRs) has been studied analytically, numerically with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Particle Studio (PS) and measured in the laboratory, although not all the results were previously understood. In order to have a better knowledge about the beam coupling impedance of a stripline kicker, a simple model has now been studied, with flat electrodes and a cylindrical beam pipe. From this preliminary study, a new approach for the dipolar component of the horizontal impedance has been derived, when considering both odd and even operating modes of the striplines. This new approach has been used to understand the differences found between the predicted transverse impedance and the two wires measurements carried out in the laboratory for the prototype CLIC DR striplines. Future tests of beam coupling impedance with beam in the ALBA Synchrotron Light Source will complete this study.

  15. Phase detector and phase feedback for a single bunch in a two-bunch damping ring for the SLAC Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, H.D.; Judkins, J.G.

    1987-03-01

    The synchronous phase of a bunch of positrons or electrons being damped in a SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) damping ring is dependent on beam intensity. Injection for alternate bunches into the SLC linac from the damping rings should occur at a constant phase. A phase detector was developed allowing the measurement of phase of a single-stored bunch in the presence of a second bunch in reference to the phase of the linac. The single-bunch phase is derived from beam position monitor signals using a switching scheme to separate the two bunches circulating in each damping ring. The hardware is described including feedback loops to stabilize the extraction phase.

  16. Superconducting 72-pole Indirect Cooling 3Tesla Wiggler for CLIC Damping Ring and ANKA Image Beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, A.; Gusev, Ye.; Khrushchev, S.; Mezentsev, N.; Shkaruba, V.; Syrovatin, V.; Tarasenko, O.; Tsukanov, V.; Volkov, A.; K. Zolotarev; Zorin, A.

    One of the directions of BINP activity is the creation of multipole superconducting wigglers with the magnetic field levels from 2 T to 7.5 T which are installed on many SR sources. Special efforts were made by BINP to develop the cryogenic system with zero liquid helium consumption. The next significant step became the design and creation of superconducting full size prototype of damping wiggler for CLIC project where supposed the installation of 104 wigglers. For operation of CLIC damping wiggler it is required the magnetic field of 3 T and the period about 50 mm with a beam vertical aperture of 13 mm. Design features of the wiggler which was proposed and created by BINP is the application of the indirect cooling method. In this case Nb-Ti magnet with the length of 1.9 m and the weight of 700 kg is located in a vacuum and is cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. To maintain the temperature about 4.2 K on the magnet it is used the tubes with circulating liquid helium as the heat conducting elements. To increase the efficiency of pre-cooling down of the magnet it is used nitrogen-based heat pipes of siphon type. The features of the magnetic and cryogenic systems of CLIC damping wiggler full size prototype and test results are presented in this article.

  17. Recycler ring conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.

    1995-07-18

    The Tevatron Collider provides the highest center of mass energy collisions in the world. To fully exploit this unique tool, Fermilab is committed to a program of accelerator upgrades for the purpose of increasing the Collider luminosity. Over the past 7 years the luminosity has been increased from a peak of 1.6{times}10{sup 30}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} in 1989 to over 3{times}10{sup 31}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} during 1995. The Main Injector will supply a larger flux of protons for antiproton production and more intense proton bunches for use in the Collider, and this is expected to increase the peak luminosity to close to 1{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}. Further increases in luminosity will require additional upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex. This report documents the design of a new fixed-energy storage ring to be placed in the Main Injector tunnel which will provide an initial factor of 2 increase to 2{times}10{sup 32}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and ultimately provide the basis for an additional order of magnitude luminosity increase up to 1{times}10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}.

  18. Design of a 30 GHz Damped Detuned Accelerating Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehler, M.; Wilson, I.; Wuensch, W.; Jones, R. M.; Kroll, N. M.; Miller, R. H.

    1997-05-01

    Within the framework of the SLAC/CERN studies of 30 GHz linear colliders, an attempt has been made to scale the existing X-band NLC damped detuned accelerating structure to 30 GHz. A simple scaling was not chosen because of anticipated manufacturing difficulties. The new manifold-damped design has 101 cells and a minimum aperture of 3.4 mm. In order to obtain acceptably small values for both the single-bunch transverse wakefield and the long-range multibunch wakefield a relatively large non-linear variation of the iris thickness was introduced in addition to the iris diameter variation. The resulting short-range wakefield is 1270 V/pC/mm/m decreasing to less than 1after 1 ns.

  19. Aerospace Structures Technology Damping Design Guide. Volume 2. Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    could be encountered in the future, Includes the large truss type space structures when assembled with clip -on types of joints. The damping in these...a harmonic force F cos ut, the mass displacement response is given by v(t) - Vocos (4t - (3.6) 3-12 where voK ’f T- Il + r - and ( rn Tan - 2 (..-jf

  20. DESIGN OF VISIBLE DIAGNOSTIC BEAMLINE FOR NSLS2 STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, W.; Fernandes, H.; Hseuh, H.; Kosciuk, B.; Krinsky, S.; Singh, O.

    2011-03-28

    A visible synchrotron light monitor (SLM) beam line has been designed at the NSLS2 storage ring, using the bending magnet radiation. A retractable thin absorber will be placed in front of the first mirror to block the central x-rays. The first mirror will reflect the visible light through a vacuum window. The light is guided by three 6-inch diameter mirrors into the experiment hutch. In this paper, we will describe design work on various optical components in the beamline. The ultra high brightness NSLS-II storage ring is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It will have 3GeV, 500mA electron beam circulating in the 792m ring, with very low emittance (0.9nm.rad horizontal and 8pm.rad vertical). The ring is composed of 30 DBA cells with 15 fold symmetry. Three damping wigglers will be installed in long straight sections 8, 18 and 28 to lower the emittance. While electrons pass through the bending magnet, synchrotron radiation will be generated covering a wide spectrum. There are other insertion devices in the storage ring which will generate shorter wavelength radiation as well. Synchrotron radiation has been widely used as diagnostic tool to measure the transverse and longitudinal profile. Three synchrotron light beam lines dedicated for diagnostics are under design and construction for the NSLS-II storage ring: two x-ray beam lines (pinhole and CRL) with the source points from Cell 22 BM{_}A (first bending in the DBA cell) and Cell22 three-pole wiggler; the third beam line is using visible part of radiation from Cell 30 BM{_}B (second bending magnet from the cell). Our paper focuses on the design of the visible beam line - SLM.

  1. Guy cable design and damping for vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carne, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    Guy cables are frequently used to support vertical axis wind turbines since guying the turbine reduces some of the structural requirements on the tower. The guys must be designed to provide both the required strength and the required stiffness at the top of the turbine. The axial load which the guys apply to the tower, bearings, and foundations is an undesirable consequence of using guys to support the turbine. Limiting the axial load so that it does not significantly affect the cost of the turbine is an important objective of the cable design. The lateral vibrations of the cables is another feature of the cable design which needs to be considered. These aspects of the cable design are discussed, and a technique for damping cable vibrations was mathematically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental data.

  2. Recent Electron-Cloud Simulation Results for the Main Damping Rings of the NLC and the TESLA Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, Mauro T F

    2003-05-19

    In the beam pipe of the Main Damping Ring (MDR) of the Next Linear Collider (NLC), ionization of residual gases and secondary emission give rise to an electron-cloud which stabilizes to equilibrium after few bunch trains. In this paper, we present recent computer simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud at the NLC and preliminary simulation results for the TESLA main damping rings, obtained with the code POSINST that has been developed at LBNL, and lately in collaboration with SLAC, over the past 7 years. Possible remedies to mitigate the effect are also discussed. We have recently included the possibility to simulate different magnetic field configurations in our code including solenoid, quadrupole, sextupole and wiggler.

  3. Recent electron-cloud simulation results for the main damping rings of the NLC and TESLA linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Furman, M.A.

    2003-05-01

    In the beam pipe of the Main Damping Ring (MDR) of the Next Linear Collider (NLC), ionization of residual gases and secondary emission give rise to an electron-cloud which stabilizes to equilibrium after few bunch trains. In this paper, we present recent computer simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud at the NLC and preliminary simulation results for the TESLA main damping rings, obtained with the code POSINST that has been developed at LBNL, and lately in collaboration with SLAC, over the past 7 years. Possible remedies to mitigate the effect are also discussed. We have recently included the possibility to simulate different magnetic field configurations in our code including solenoid, quadrupole, sextupole and wiggler.

  4. Design, Fabrication, and Properties of High Damping Metal Matrix Composites—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Xianping; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Zhijun; Fang, Qianfeng

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays it is commonly considered that high damping materials which have both the good mechanical properties as structural materials and the high damping capacity for vibration damping are the most direct vibration damping solution. In metals and alloys however, exhibiting simultaneously high damping capacity and good mechanical properties has been noted to be normally incompatible because the microscopic mechanisms responsible for internal friction (namely damping capacity) are dependent upon the parameters that control mechanical strength. To achieve a compromise, one of the most important methods is to develop two-phase composites, in which each phase plays a specific role: damping or mechanical strength. In this review, we have summarized the development of the design concept of high damping composite materials and the investigation of their fabrication and properties, including mechanical and damping properties, and suggested a new design concept of high damping composite materials where the hard ceramic additives exhibit high damping capacity at room temperature owing to the stress-induced reorientation of high density point defects in the ceramic phases and the high damping capacity of the composite comes mainly from the ceramic phases.

  5. SHER-HIAF ring lattice design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Xia, Jia-Wen; Chai, Wei-Ping; Shi, Jian; Shen, Guo-Dong

    2014-04-01

    The Super Heavy Experimental Ring (SHER), which is one of the rings of the next accelerator complex High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) at IMP, has to be optimized for e-cooling. Its lattice is designed for two modes: the first is the isochronous mode, which is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for short-lived secondary nuclei, the second is the storage ring mode, which is used for collecting and cooling the secondary rare isotope beams from the transport line. In order to fulfil its purpose, the ion optics can be set to different ion optical modes.

  6. Bunch Length Measurements at the ATF Damping Ring in April 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Naito, T.; Okugi, T.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-12-19

    We want to accurately know the energy spread and bunch length dependence on current in the ATF damping ring. One reason is to know the strength of the impedance: From the energy spread measurements we know whether or not we are above the threshold to the microwave instability, and from the energy spread and bunch length measurements we find out the extent of potential-well bunch lengthening (PWBL). Another reason for these measurements is to help in our understanding of the intra-beam scattering (IBS) effect in the ATF. The ATF as it is now, running below design energy and with the wigglers turned off, is strongly affected by IBS. To check for consistency with IBS theory of, for example, the measured vertical beam size, we need to know all dimensions of the beam, including the longitudinal one. But beyond this practical reason for studying IBS, IBS is currently a hot research topic at many accelerators around the world (see e.g. Ref. [1]), and the effect in actual machines is not well understood. Typically, when comparing theory with measurements fudge factors are needed to get agreement (see e.g. Ref. [1]). With its strong IBS effect, the ATF is an ideal machine for studying IBS, and an indispensable ingredient for this study is a knowledge of the longitudinal phase space of the beam. The results of earlier bunch lengthening measurements in the ATF can be found in Refs. [2]-[4]. Measurements of current dependent effects, especially bunch length measurements using a streak camera, can be difficult to perform accurately. For example, space charge in the camera itself can lead to systematic errors in the measurement results. It is important the results be accurate and reproducible. In the measurements of both December 1998[3] and December 1999[4], by using light filters, the authors first checked that space charge in the streak camera was not significant. And then the Dec 99 authors show that their results agree with those Dec 98, i.e. on the dates of the two

  7. Design and Analysis of Constrained Layer Damping Treatments for Bending and Torsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    kinetic energy into heat . Passive damping methods are attractive in many applications because of their relative simplicity, low cost, low weight, and...material converts kinetic energy into heat when it undergoes mechanical strain. There are two primary viscoelastic coating classifications. In the...constrained layer damping treament on a beam of circular cross section, as well as lumped mass dampers mounted on rings (47:199). Fowler and others used

  8. Design optimization of a damped hybrid vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Y. L.; Wong, W. O.; Cheng, L.

    2012-02-01

    In this article, the H∞ optimization design of a hybrid vibration absorber (HVA), including both passive and active elements, for the minimization of the resonant vibration amplitude of a single degree-of-freedom (sdof) vibrating structure is derived by using the fixed-points theory. The optimum tuning parameters are the feedback gain, the tuning frequency, damping and mass ratios of the absorber. The effects of these parameters on the vibration reduction of the primary structure are revealed based on the analytical model. Design parameters of both passive and active elements of the HVA are optimized for the minimization of the resonant vibration amplitude of the primary system. One of the inherent limitations of the traditional passive vibration absorber is that its vibration absorption is low if the mass ratio between the absorber mass and the mass of the primary structure is low. The proposed HVA overcomes this limitation and provides very good vibration reduction performance even at a low mass ratio. The proposed optimized HVA is compared to a recently published HVA designed for similar propose and it shows that the present design requires less energy for the active element of the HVA than the compared design.

  9. Ring Laser Gyro Resonator Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-20

    vibration environment could cause errors in measured RLG rotation rates due to vibration (tilt) of the resonator mirrors . Vibration-induced mirror tilt...the RLG resonator design theoretically and calculated pertinent parameters such as the beam diameter at the aperture, cavity mirror alignment...sensitivities, and power loss due to aperture occlusion. The mirror vibration levels required to significantly affect the laser power were then calculated for

  10. Instability Thresholds And Generation of the Electron-Cloud in the GLC/NLC And Tesla Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.

    2005-04-11

    In the beam pipe of the Damping Ring (DR) of a linear collider, an electron cloud may be produced by ionization of residual gas or photoelectrons and develop by the secondary emission process [1]. Coupling between the electrons and the circulating beam can cause coupled-bunch instabilities, coherent single-bunch instabilities or incoherent tune spreads that may lead to increased emittance, beam blow-up and ultimately to beam losses. We present recent computer simulation results for the electron cloud instability thresholds in the GLC/NLC (X-Band) main DR and for the TESLA DR.

  11. Design of passive piezoelectric damping for space structures. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W., IV; Aldrich, Jack B.; Vonflotow, Andreas H.

    1994-01-01

    Passive damping of structural dynamics using piezoceramic electromechanical energy conversion and passive electrical networks is a relatively recent concept with little implementation experience base. This report describes an implementation case study, starting from conceptual design and technique selection, through detailed component design and testing to simulation on the structure to be damped. About 0.5kg. of piezoelectric material was employed to damp the ASTREX testbed, a 500kg structure. Emphasis was placed upon designing the damping to enable high bandwidth robust feedback control. Resistive piezoelectric shunting provided the necessary broadband damping. The piezoelectric element was incorporated into a mechanically-tuned vibration absorber in order to concentrate damping into the 30 to 40 Hz frequency modes at the rolloff region of the proposed compensator. A prototype of a steel flex-tensional motion amplification device was built and tested. The effective stiffness and damping of the flex-tensional device was experimentally verified. When six of these effective springs are placed in an orthogonal configuration, strain energy is absorbed from all six degrees of freedom of a 90kg. mass. A NASTRAN finite element model of the testbed was modified to include the six-spring damping system. An analytical model was developed for the spring in order to see how the flex-tensional device and piezoelectric dimensions effect the critical stress and strain energy distribution throughout the component. Simulation of the testbed demonstrated the damping levels achievable in the completed system.

  12. Optimum vibration absorber (tuned mass damper) design for linear damped systems subjected to random loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigli, Omer F.

    2012-06-01

    Optimum design of dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs) installed on linear damped systems that are subjected to random loads is studied and closed-form design formulas are provided. Three cases are considered in the optimization process: Minimizing the variance of the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the main mass. Exact optimum design parameters for the velocity case, which to the best knowledge of the author do not exist in the literature, are derived for the first time. Exact solutions are found to be directly applicable for practical use with no simplification needed. For displacement and acceleration cases, a solution for the optimum absorber frequency ratio is obtained as a function of optimum absorber damping ratio. Numerical simulations indicate that optimum absorber damping ratio is not significantly related to the structural damping, especially when the displacement variance is minimized. Therefore, optimum damping ratio derived for undamped systems is proposed for damped systems for the displacement case. When acceleration variance is minimized, however, the optimum damping ratio derived for undamped systems is found not as accurate for damped systems. Therefore, a more accurate approximate expression is derived. Numerical comparisons with published approximate expressions at the same level of complexity indicated that proposed design formula yield more accurate estimates. Another important finding of the paper is that for specific applications where all of the response parameters are desired to be minimized simultaneously, DVAs designed per velocity criteria provide the best overall performance with the least complexity in the design equations.

  13. Choke-mode damped structure design for the Compact Linear Collider main linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Hao; Shi, Jiaru; Chen, Huaibi; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter; Tang, Chuanxiang; Huang, Wenhui

    2012-12-01

    Choke-mode damped structures are being studied as an alternative design to waveguide damped structures for the main linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Choke-mode structures have the potential for lower pulsed temperature rise and simpler and less expensive fabrication. An equivalent circuit model based on transmission line theory for higher-order-mode damping is presented. Using this model, a new choke geometry is proposed and the wakefield performance is verified using Gdfidl. This structure has a comparable wakefield damping effect to the baseline design which uses waveguide damping. A prototype structure with the same iris dimensions and accelerating gradient as the nominal CLIC design, but with the new choke geometry, has been designed for high-power tests.

  14. An Adaptive Damping Network Designed for Strapdown Fiber Optic Gyrocompass System for Ships

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Yiting; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yao; Tong, Jinwu

    2017-01-01

    The strapdown fiber optic gyrocompass (strapdown FOGC) system for ships primarily works on external horizontal damping and undamping statuses. When there are large sea condition changes, the system will switch frequently between the external horizontal damping status and the undamping status. This means that the system is always in an adjustment status and influences the dynamic accuracy of the system. Aiming at the limitations of the conventional damping method, a new design idea is proposed, where the adaptive control method is used to design the horizontal damping network of the strapdown FOGC system. According to the size of acceleration, the parameters of the damping network are changed to make the system error caused by the ship’s maneuvering to a minimum. Furthermore, the jump in damping coefficient was transformed into gradual change to make a smooth system status switch. The adaptive damping network was applied for strapdown FOGC under the static and dynamic condition, and its performance was compared with the conventional damping, and undamping means. Experimental results showed that the adaptive damping network was effective in improving the dynamic performance of the strapdown FOGC. PMID:28257100

  15. Design and responses of Butterworth and critically damped digital filters.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D Gordon E; Dowling, James J

    2003-12-01

    For many years the Butterworth lowpass filter has been used to smooth many kinds of biomechanical data, despite the fact that it is underdamped and therefore overshoots and/or undershoots data during rapid transitions. A comparison of the conventional Butterworth filter with a critically damped filter shows that the critically damped filter not only removes the undershooting and overshooting, but has a superior rise time during rapid transitions. While analog filters always create phase distortion, both the critically damped and Butterworth filters can be modified to become zero-lag filters when the data are processed in both the forward and reverse directions. In such cases little improvement is realized by applying multiple passes. The Butterworth filter has superior 'roll-off' (attenuation of noise above the cutoff frequency) than the critically damped filter, but by increasing the number of passes of the critically damped filter the same 'roll-off' can be achieved. In summary, the critically damped filter was shown to have superior performance in the time domain than the Butterworth filter, but for data that need to be double differentiated (e.g. displacement data) the Butterworth filter may still be the better choice.

  16. Analysis and optimal design of thick composite structures with passive damping considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A design methodology to tailor thick composite plates for optimal static and damping performance is presented. The method is based on discrete layer composite mechanics, hence, is suitable for thick composite laminates. The design criteria include static deflections, frequency and damping constraints. Evaluations on cross-ply simply-supported plates illustrate the advantages of the methodology. Comparisons with design methods based on the classical laminate theory show significant deviations in the resultant optimal designs at higher thicknesses.

  17. Novel Slide-Ring Material/Natural Rubber Composites with High Damping Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wencai; Zhao, Detao; Yang, Jingna; Nishi, Toshio; Ito, Kohzo; Zhao, Xiuying; Zhang, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    A novel class of polymers called “slide-ring” (SR) materials with slideable junctions were used for high damping composites for the first time. The SR acts as the high damping phase dispersed in the natural rubber (NR) matrix, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) acts as the compatibilizer. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA), rubber processing analyzer (RPA), and tensile tester. AFM and TEM results showed that the SR phase was uniformly dispersed in the composites, in a small size that is a function of ENR. DMTA and RPA results showed that the damping factor of the composites is much higher than that of NR, especially at room temperatures. Stretch hysteresis was used to study the energy dissipation of the composites at large strains. The results showed that SR and ENR can significantly improve the dissipation efficiency at strains lower than 200% strain. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the strain-induced crystallization of the composites. The results indicated that the impact of the SR on the crystallization of NR is mitigated by the insulating effect of ENR.

  18. Novel Slide-Ring Material/Natural Rubber Composites with High Damping Property

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wencai; Zhao, Detao; Yang, Jingna; Nishi, Toshio; Ito, Kohzo; Zhao, Xiuying; Zhang, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of polymers called “slide-ring” (SR) materials with slideable junctions were used for high damping composites for the first time. The SR acts as the high damping phase dispersed in the natural rubber (NR) matrix, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) acts as the compatibilizer. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA), rubber processing analyzer (RPA), and tensile tester. AFM and TEM results showed that the SR phase was uniformly dispersed in the composites, in a small size that is a function of ENR. DMTA and RPA results showed that the damping factor of the composites is much higher than that of NR, especially at room temperatures. Stretch hysteresis was used to study the energy dissipation of the composites at large strains. The results showed that SR and ENR can significantly improve the dissipation efficiency at strains lower than 200% strain. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the strain-induced crystallization of the composites. The results indicated that the impact of the SR on the crystallization of NR is mitigated by the insulating effect of ENR. PMID:26949077

  19. Integrated Structural Damping and Control System Design for High-Order Flexible Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Frank Anthony

    1991-02-01

    A novel design methodology that integrates both control system and structural design activities has been developed and applied to an experimental apparatus. The procedure is motivated by applications in aerospace, machine tools, and laboratory physics experiments. In current aerospace designs, for example, control system and structural design activities are virtually independent. Furthermore, passive damping is a key parameter that has not been exploited in structural designs. These conditions limit design potential, particularly when system performance requires closed-loop control bandwidths that exceed the lowest natural frequencies of a structure. Including passive damping in structures has many potential advantages. Examples include reducing structural response to disturbances, reducing the need for control, permitting increased controller bandwidth, and providing robustness to parameter variations and unmodeled dynamics. Potential costs are added mass, reduced structural stiffness, and damping properties that are sensitive to operating conditions. The modular design procedure, which is automated in software, identifies an optical allocation of damping for controlled linear structures. The procedure is unique in that it modifies both structural topology and structural parameters to identify effective locations and levels of damping. In doing so, the procedure quantifies the payoff of damping a controlled structure. The principal application of this procedure was to the vibration isolation system of the Stanford Gravity Wave Experiment. This isolation system is a complex, high -order, six degrees-of-freedom, very lightly damped structure which is maintained at low temperature near the absolute zero. The resulting allocation of damping reflected a reasonable trade-off between the unique set of multi-disciplinary goals used in the optimization. These goals included minimizing the peak steady-state strain in the system, the total heat dissipation in damping

  20. Numerical design and test on an assembled structure of a bolted joint with viscoelastic damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammami, Chaima; Balmes, Etienne; Guskov, Mikhail

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical assemblies are subjected to many dynamic loads and modifications are often needed to achieve acceptable vibration levels. While modifications on mass and stiffness are well mastered, damping modifications are still considered difficult to design. The paper presents a case study on the design of a bolted connection containing a viscoelastic damping layer. The notion of junction coupling level is introduced to ensure that sufficient energy is present in the joints to allow damping. Static performance is then addressed and it is shown that localization of metallic contact can be used to meet objectives, while allowing the presence of viscoelastic materials. Numerical prediction of damping then illustrates difficulties in optimizing for robustness. Modal test results of three configurations of an assembled structure, inspired by aeronautic fuselages, are then compared to analyze the performance of the design. While validity of the approach is confirmed, the effect of geometric imperfections is shown and stresses the need for robust design.

  1. Damping higher order modes in the PEP-II B-Factory storage ring collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathersby, Stephen

    2007-05-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory storage ring collider at SLAC provides crucial experimental evidence for the physics of CP violation. To investigate rare B-meson decays requires high luminosity which comes mainly from increasing bunch currents and reducing bunch sizes. Electromagnetic effects of intense bunch fields in the form of wake fields couple into accelerator components, inducing Joule heating at levels detrimental to vacuum chamber components. Additionally, wake fields contribute to beam instability, decreasing luminosity. These effects are limiting B-factory performance. Computer simulations and experimental evidence indicate that beam collimators produce wake fields in the form of dipole and quadrupole waveguide modes which can propagate tens of meters from their source before depositing energy at remote locations. Simulations confirm that coupling through narrow slots into bellows cavities occurs for beam pipe modes. Two proposals are set forth to mitigate wake field effects. The first proposal is to reduce the quality factor of resonant structures with a water cooled dielectric lossy material. Electromagnetic energy coupling into resonant structures can be isolated and safely dissipated. Prototype devices have been built and have been shown to reduce resistive heating in large pumping chambers coupled to the beam chamber. Designs and simulations which incorporate such techiques into bellows devices are presented. The second proposal incorporates novel devices introduced in the accelerator vacuum chamber which selectively traps dipole and quadrupole propagating wake fields before they can couple into sensitive beam line components without introducing impedance to the beam. Scattering parameter analysis is used to tailor device response to specific modes. Dangerous modes are extracted from the beam chamber, trapped and dissipated in a water cooled lossy material. Modes which represent an impedance to the beam are not affected. After design optimization, production

  2. Integrated analysis and design of thick composite structures for optimal passive damping characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of novel composite mechanics for the analysis of damping in composite laminates and structures and the more significant results of this effort are summarized. Laminate mechanics based on piecewise continuous in-plane displacement fields are described that can represent both intralaminar stresses and interlaminar shear stresses and the associated effects on the stiffness and damping characteristics of a composite laminate. Among other features, the mechanics can accurately model the static and damped dynamic response of either thin or thick composite laminates, as well as, specialty laminates with embedded compliant damping layers. The discrete laminate damping theory is further incorporated into structural analysis methods. In this context, an exact semi-analytical method for the simulation of the damped dynamic response of composite plates was developed. A finite element based method and a specialty four-node plate element were also developed for the analysis of composite structures of variable shape and boundary conditions. Numerous evaluations and applications demonstrate the quality and superiority of the mechanics in predicting the damped dynamic characteristics of composite structures. Finally, additional development was focused on the development of optimal tailoring methods for the design of thick composite structures based on the developed analytical capability. Applications on composite plates illustrated the influence of composite mechanics in the optimal design of composites and the potential for significant deviations in the resultant designs when more simplified (classical) laminate theories are used.

  3. Waveguide ring coupling design of MOG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiang; Li, Zi-li; Chen, Yuan-you; Qin, Xiao-hu; Lv, Xin

    2010-10-01

    The key technology of micro optic gyroscopes (MOGs) is to fabricate low-loss waveguide and use coupling technology to form reciprocal structure. The main topic in this paper is to study the coupling structure of MOG's spiral-ring waveguide. Using for the reference of fiber's low-loss character, the fiber-preform project is chosen as optimization means. According to the singlemode conditions, the width and thickness of rectangle waveguide can be calculated. The bend loss waveguide can decrease by means of introducing an offset at the junction of two waveguides and etching groove at the outside of bend waveguide. In this article intersection waveguide is designed to reduce the difficulty of coupling processing. Light in-and-out port coupled at opposite side is choosen for machining easiness in experiment.What's more, the edge-coupling technology being put forward to keep light transmit along the same rotary direction. An efficient means is introduced, which uses angle 45°to reflect the light to couple two waveguide at inside-end or outside-end, and outside-end coupling is chosen for processing convenience in the design. In experiment, the waveguide be fabricated by thick photoresist AZ4620, etched by RIE, When the angle of wafer and ion is set 85°, the angle of one sidewall can be etched almost 45°. It's benefit to design the coupling structure of MOG's spiral-ring waveguide.

  4. Aerospace Structures Technology Damping Design Guide. Volume 1. Technology Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Experimental and analytical results for Plate 2, 1st torsional mode 5-44 5.17 Plate 1 modeling scheme using membrane elements 5-46 5.18 FEA results comparing...freedom that are assimed to have negligible effect on mode shapes and thus vibration response of the structure. Dynamic results are sensitive to the...1964. 5.32 Itoh, T., "Damped Vibration Mode Superposition Method for Dynamic Response Analysis ," Earthquake

  5. Design and optimization of a longitudinal feedback kicker cavity for the HLS-II storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Z. Wu, W.; He, Duo-Hui; K. Wu, Y.

    2013-03-01

    In the Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring, multibunch operation is used to obtain a high luminosity. Multibunch instabilities can severely limit light source performance with a variety of negative impacts, including beam loss, low injection efficiency, and overall degradation of the beam quality. Instabilities of a multibunch beam can be mitigated using certain techniques including increasing natural damping (operating at a higher energy), lowering the beam current, and increasing Landau damping. However, these methods are not adequate to stabilize a multibunch electron beam at a low energy and with a high current. In order to combat beam instabilities in the HLS storage ring, active feedback systems including a longitudinal feedback system (LFB) and a transverse feedback system (TFB) will be developed as part of the HLS upgrade project, the HLS- II storage ring project. As a key component of the longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system, an LFB kicker cavity with a wide bandwidth and high shunt impedance is required. In this paper we report our work on the design of the LFB kicker cavity for the HLS- II storage ring and present the new tuning and optimization techniques developed in designing this high performance LFB kicker.

  6. eRHIC ring-ring design with head-on beam-beam compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Pozdeyev, E.; Fischer, W.; MacKay, W. W.

    2009-05-04

    The luminosity of the eRHIC ring-ring design is limited by the beam-beam effect exerted on the electron beam. Recent simulation studies have shown that the beam-beam limit can be increased by means of an electron lens that compensates the beam-beam effect experienced by the electron beam. This scheme requires proper design of the electron ring, providing the correct betatron phase advance between interaction point and electron lens. We review the performance of the eRHIC ring-ring version and discuss various parameter sets, based on different cooling schemes for the proton/ion beam.

  7. Simulation of radiation damping in rings, using stepwise ray-tracing methods

    DOE PAGES

    Meot, F.

    2015-06-26

    The ray-tracing code Zgoubi computes particle trajectories in arbitrary magnetic and/or electric field maps or analytical field models. It includes a built-in fitting procedure, spin tracking many Monte Carlo processes. The accuracy of the integration method makes it an efficient tool for multi-turn tracking in periodic machines. Energy loss by synchrotron radiation, based on Monte Carlo techniques, had been introduced in Zgoubi in the early 2000s for studies regarding the linear collider beam delivery system. However, only recently has this Monte Carlo tool been used for systematic beam dynamics and spin diffusion studies in rings, including eRHIC electron-ion collider projectmore » at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Some beam dynamics aspects of this recent use of Zgoubi capabilities, including considerations of accuracy as well as further benchmarking in the presence of synchrotron radiation in rings, are reported here.« less

  8. Simulation of radiation damping in rings, using stepwise ray-tracing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.

    2015-06-26

    The ray-tracing code Zgoubi computes particle trajectories in arbitrary magnetic and/or electric field maps or analytical field models. It includes a built-in fitting procedure, spin tracking many Monte Carlo processes. The accuracy of the integration method makes it an efficient tool for multi-turn tracking in periodic machines. Energy loss by synchrotron radiation, based on Monte Carlo techniques, had been introduced in Zgoubi in the early 2000s for studies regarding the linear collider beam delivery system. However, only recently has this Monte Carlo tool been used for systematic beam dynamics and spin diffusion studies in rings, including eRHIC electron-ion collider project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Some beam dynamics aspects of this recent use of Zgoubi capabilities, including considerations of accuracy as well as further benchmarking in the presence of synchrotron radiation in rings, are reported here.

  9. Damping and vibration considerations for the design of optical systems in a launch/space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Ralph M.

    1990-01-01

    Engineering philosophies for the design of optical systems launched into space and operating in a vacuum or cryovacuum environment are reviewed. Particular attention is given to sources of energy dissipation which are usually lumped under a single modal parameter denoted as the equivalent viscous damping coefficient. Caging and/or damping system components or application of viscoelastic materials and/or dry friction devices are considered to be alternative methods for stabilizing instruments sensitive to motion.

  10. Damping and vibration considerations for the design of optical systems in a launch/space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Ralph M.

    1990-01-01

    Engineering philosophies for the design of optical systems launched into space and operating in a vacuum or cryovacuum environment are reviewed. Particular attention is given to sources of energy dissipation which are usually lumped under a single modal parameter denoted as the equivalent viscous damping coefficient. Caging and/or damping system components or application of viscoelastic materials and/or dry friction devices are considered to be alternative methods for stabilizing instruments sensitive to motion.

  11. The structure design and performance analysis for damping system of the airborne equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chun-xia; Yan, Cong-lin; Cui, Ding; Ma, She

    2015-02-01

    Vibration is an important factor that could affect the performance of airbone optical system, the damping device based on the wire-rope vibration isolators was designed in this paper, in which the optical system mounted on the helicopter was taken as an example. The transmissibility of the damping device was about 40% which obtained by finite element method, the transmissibility of the damping device was about 36% which obtained by vibration platform test, the result obtained by finite element method was proved by vibration platform test. The vibration of the optical system could been reduced significantly as a result of the device with good damping effect, thereby the stability of the optical system could be enhanced.

  12. Design of passive vehicle suspensions for maximal least damping ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm C.; Swift, Stuart J.

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the use of the least damping ratio among system poles as a performance metric in passive vehicle suspensions. Methods are developed which allow optimal solutions to be computed in terms of non-dimensional quantities in a quarter-car vehicle model. Solutions are provided in graphical form for convenient use across vehicle types. Three suspension arrangements are studied: the standard suspension involving a parallel spring and damper and two further suspension arrangements involving an inerter. The key parameters for the optimal solutions are the ratios of unsprung mass to sprung mass and suspension static stiffness to tyre vertical stiffness. A discussion is provided of performance trends in terms of the key parameters. A comparison is made with the optimisation of ride comfort and tyre grip metrics for various vehicle types.

  13. Collimator design for the NSNS accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Schmidt, E.; Aronson, A.; Walker, J.; Todosow, M.; Mughabghab, S.

    1997-10-01

    Collimators are used to remove halo or off-momentum particles from the main proton beam. Off-momentum particles are removed by situating collimators in high dispersion areas of the beam. In addition to removing halo particles collimators will also act as shielding for the remainder of the accelerator structures. Thus, collimators reduce uncontrolled losses around the ring and reduce activation of the accelerator components. Requirements and performance goals for the collimator are summarized. In order to meet these goals a self-shielding collimator configuration will be designed. An arrangement consisting of a layered structure will be considered. The initial layers (in the direction of the proton beam) are transparent to protons, and become progressively less transparent (blacker) with depth into the collimator. In addition, a high density (iron) shield will be added around this structure, particularly in the backward direction, to attenuate any reflected protons. The protons are stopped in the approximate center of the collimator, and thus the bulk of the secondary particles will also be generated there. Since these secondary particles are primarily produced isotropically their leakage path length will be maximized in this manner (high probability of capture or attenuation). In the case of neutrons a black layer is included at each end in order to further minimize their leakage in the direction of the beam. This design will therefore minimize the activation of surrounding accelerator components.

  14. Optimal uniform-damping ratio controller for sequential design of multivariable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, Leang G.; Liu, Zhen; Sunkel, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An optimal uniform-damping ratio controller is developed for the sequential design of a multivariable control system so that the designed closed-loop poles of the respective multivariable system and reduced-order observer are exactly placed on the negative real axis and/or the boundaries of desired sectors with constant-damping ratios. The functions in the quadratic performance index to be minimized are chosen as a combination of the weighted outputs, reduced states and inputs. Also, the optimal uniform-damping ratio controller is a combination of optimal output-feedback and optimal reduced-order state-feedback controllers. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the design procedure.

  15. Straw Formation and Enhanced Damping of Strong Density Waves in Saturn’s Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2017-06-01

    High resolution Cassini images of strong density waves in Saturn’s rings often show kilometer-scale structures in the wave troughs that are sometimes described as straw-like structures. These structures are likely formed by transient gravitational instabilities within the density wave and have the potential to greatly enhance the local viscous angular momentum transport and thereby limit the maximum amplitude of the density wave. A Hamiltonian theory for density waves has been developed that can describe the rate of local gravitational instabilities in the wave train. The Hamiltonian for single particle motion in the vicinity of an inner Lindblad resonance with a Saturnian satellite can be formulated such that the angle variable conjugate to the radial action is the resonant argument for the resonance. The density wave can then be derived using Hamiltonian perturbation methods to remove the satellite perturbation such that the transformed radial action and conjugate angles include the usual solution for self-gravitating density waves. Local gravitational instabilities in the density wave can now be formulated using a linearized collisionless Boltzmann equation that is expressed in terms of the transformed action-angle variables that contain the density wave solution. The gravitational potential of the linearized perturbation is found to be enhanced by a factor of ten or more in strong density waves, which likely explains the observation of kilometer-scale structures in these waves. The Hamiltonian formalism can also be used to derive an enhanced effective viscosity that results from these straw-like structures.

  16. Electromagnetic characterization of nonevaporable getter properties between 220-330 and 500-750 GHz for the Compact Linear Collider damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukovini-Platia, E.; Rumolo, G.; Zannini, C.

    2017-01-01

    Due to its effective pumping ability, nonevaporable getter (NEG) coating is considered for the vacuum chambers of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) electron damping rings (EDR). The aim is to suppress fast beam ion instabilities. The electromagnetic (EM) characterization of the NEG properties up to ultra-high frequencies is required for the correct impedance modeling of the damping ring (DR) components. The properties are determined using rectangular waveguides which are coated with NEG. The method is based on a combination of complex transmission coefficient S21 measurements with a vector network analyzer (VNA) and 3D simulations using CST Microwave Studio® (CST MWS). The frequency ranges discussed in this paper are 220-330 and 500-750 GHz.

  17. Design of static synchronous series compensator based damping controller employing invasive weed optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashik; Al-Amin, Rasheduzzaman; Amin, Ruhul

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes designing of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller to enhance the stability of a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system by means of Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO) technique. Conventional PI controller is used as the SSSC damping controller which takes rotor speed deviation as the input. The damping controller parameters are tuned based on time integral of absolute error based cost function using IWO. Performance of IWO based controller is compared to that of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based controller. Time domain based simulation results are presented and performance of the controllers under different loading conditions and fault scenarios is studied in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the IWO based design approach.

  18. A design of a quasi-isochronous storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; Trbojevic, D.

    1993-07-01

    Isochronous electron storage rings may offer advantages for future high luminosity meson factories. A Quasi-isochronous lattice based on the design principle of flexible {gamma}{tau} lattice is studied. The emittance and chromatic properties of such a lattice are studied. Applications of this design techniques for electron storage rings will be discussed.

  19. Analysis and design of a nonlinear stiffness and damping system with a scissor-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuting; Jing, Xingjian

    2016-01-01

    An n-layer Scissor-Like Structured (SLS) vibration isolation platform is studied in this paper, focusing on the analysis and design of nonlinear stiffness, friction forces and damping characteristics for an advantageous vibration isolation performance. The system nonlinear stiffness and damping characteristics are theoretically investigated by considering the influence incurred by different structural parameters, friction forces and link inertia. Since stiffness and damping properties are both asymmetrical nonlinear functions, and Coulomb friction is piecewise nonlinear function, Perturbation Method (PM) and Average Method (AM) are applied together to achieve better solutions. The vibration isolation performance of the SLS platform is compared with known quasi-zero-stiffness vibration isolators in the literature, and a typical application case study as a vehicle seat suspension is also conducted, subjected to different load masses, and base excitations. The results show that much better vibration isolation performance and loading capacity can be easily achieved with the SLS platform by designing structural parameters, and the scissor-like structure provides a very powerful, practical and passive solution to design and realization of beneficial nonlinear stiffness and damping characteristics in vibration control.

  20. Lattice Design of the VLHC Rings

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Johnstone et al.

    2001-07-12

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) is comprised of 2 rings, each having a 233 km circumference. the high-field (HF) ring is characterized by 90{degree} FODO cells constructed from separated-function magnets and vertical beam separation. the low-field (LF) accelerator is also constructed from separated-function magnets and vertical beam separation. The low-field (LF) accelerator is also constructed from 90{degree} cell, but these employ combined function transmission line magnets and horizontally separated beams. The optics of the 2 rings are virtually identical. The HF machine operates in the synchrotron radiation dominated regime. Doublet final focusing is employed to take advantage of the flat beam optics.

  1. Radiation Safety Design for SSRL Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, Hesham; Liu, James; Fasso, Alberto; Prinz, Alyssa; Rokni, Sayed; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    In 2003, the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) has upgraded its storage ring to a 3rd generation storage ring (SPEAR3). SPEAR3 is deigned to operate at 500 mA stored beam current and 3 GeV energy. The 234-meter circumference SPEAR3 ring utilizes 60-cm-thick concrete lateral walls, 30-cm-thick concrete roof, as well as 60-cm or 90-cm-thick concrete ratchet walls. A total of 3.5 x 10{sup 15} e{sup -}/y will be injected into the ring with an injection power of 4 W and an injection efficiency of 75%. Normal beam losses occur due to both injection and stored beam operations in the total of 20 low loss as well as 3 high loss limiting apertures. During the 6-minutes injection period, an instantaneous power loss of 0.05 W occurs at each low loss aperture. When averaged over the operational year, the loss of both the injection and stored beams is equivalent to an average loss of 2 mW at each low loss aperture. On the other hand, the average losses in the high loss apertures are 16 mW for the injection septum, 47 mW for the beam abort dump, and 13 mW for the ring stoppers. The shielding requirements for losses in the new ring were based on a generic approach that used both FLUKA Monte Carlo particle generation and transport code and empirical computer codes and formulae.

  2. Design of 3 GeV booster ring lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Etisken, O. Ciftci, A. K.

    2016-03-25

    The aim of this study is to design of a 3 GeV booster ring for the 3 GeV storage ring. Electrons are needed to be accelerated to 3.0 GeV from 0.15 GeV energy. In this frame, we studied on two options for booster ring; a compact booster and the booster that shares the same tunnel with the storage ring. The lattice type has been chosen FODO for both options, lattice parameters are calculated, sextupole magnets are used to decrease dynamic aperture problem and dynamic aperture calculations are also made with considering of the necessary conditions. After designing and calculating of the parameters, these designs have been compared with each other. In addition to this comparison, these booster design parameters have been compared with some world centers design parameters and the reliability of the booster design is seen. Beam optics, OPA and Elegant simulation programs have been used in the study calculations.

  3. High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C>

    1998-05-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam via muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design.

  4. Measurement of damping of graphite epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Work on a damping measurement test apparatus is discussed. The device is designed to excite tube specimens in a vacuum chamber. Also some experiments were conducted on a tube specimen to confirm previously reported results. A table of data showing the results of forced vibration tests using a half ring and a free-free boundary is given. The main purpose was to study the effect of the frequency resolution on the damping ratio measurements.

  5. Design Considerations for High Energy Electron -- Positron Storage Rings

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Richter, B.

    1966-11-01

    High energy electron-positron storage rings give a way of making a new attack on the most important problems of elementary particle physics. All of us who have worked in the storage ring field designing, building, or using storage rings know this. The importance of that part of storage ring work concerning tests of quantum electrodynamics and mu meson physics is also generally appreciated by the larger physics community. However, I do not think that most of the physicists working tin the elementary particle physics field realize the importance of the contribution that storage ring experiments can make to our understanding of the strongly interacting particles. I would therefore like to spend the next few minutes discussing the sort of things that one can do with storage rings in the strongly interacting particle field.

  6. Conceptual design of a pre-booster ring for FCC e+e- injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etisken, O.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Ciftci, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    The FCC-e+e- injector complex needs to produce and to transport a high-intensity e+/e- beam at a fast repetition rate of about 0.1 Hz for topping up the collider at its collision energy. A basic parameter set exists for all the collider energies, assuming a 10 GeV linac operating with a large number of bunches being accumulated in the existing SPS, which serves as pre-accelerator and damping ring before the bunches are transferred to the high-energy booster. The purpose of this study is to provide the conceptual design of an alternative accelerator ring, replacing the SPS in the present scheme. This ring will have injection energy of 6 GeV and extraction energy of 20 GeV. In this study, the basic parameters of the ring are established, including the optics design and layout. Preliminary consideration for non-linear dynamics optimization and the impact of intra beam scattering are also presented.

  7. "Perfect" designer chromosome V and behavior of a ring derivative.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ze-Xiong; Li, Bing-Zhi; Mitchell, Leslie A; Wu, Yi; Qi, Xin; Jin, Zhu; Jia, Bin; Wang, Xia; Zeng, Bo-Xuan; Liu, Hui-Min; Wu, Xiao-Le; Feng, Qi; Zhang, Wen-Zheng; Liu, Wei; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Li, Xia; Zhao, Guang-Rong; Qiao, Jian-Jun; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Meng; Kuang, Zheng; Wang, Xuya; Martin, J Andrew; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Yang, Kun; Bai, Xue; Zhao, Juan; Hu, Meng-Long; Lin, Qiu-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Shen, Ming-Hua; Chen, Si; Su, Wan; Wang, En-Xu; Guo, Rui; Zhai, Fang; Guo, Xue-Jiao; Du, Hao-Xing; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Song, Tian-Qing; Dai, Jun-Jun; Li, Fei-Fei; Jiang, Guo-Zhen; Han, Shi-Lei; Liu, Shi-Yang; Yu, Zhi-Chao; Yang, Xiao-Na; Chen, Ken; Hu, Cheng; Li, Da-Shuai; Jia, Nan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Lin-Ting; Wang, Su; Wei, Xiao-Tong; Fu, Mei-Qing; Qu, Lan-Meng; Xin, Si-Yu; Liu, Ting; Tian, Kai-Ren; Li, Xue-Nan; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Song, Li-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Gui; Lv, Jia-Fei; Xu, Hang; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Deng, Ye-Xuan; Wang, Yi-Ran; Li, Ting; Ye, Guang-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Ran; Xia, Zheng-Bao; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Lin; Ding, Wen-Qi; Liu, Zhen-Ning; Zhu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Ning-Zhi; Walker, Roy; Luo, Yisha; Wang, Yun; Shen, Yue; Yang, Huanming; Cai, Yizhi; Ma, Ping-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Bader, Joel S; Boeke, Jef D; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-03-10

    Perfect matching of an assembled physical sequence to a specified designed sequence is crucial to verify design principles in genome synthesis. We designed and de novo synthesized 536,024-base pair chromosome synV in the "Build-A-Genome China" course. We corrected an initial isolate of synV to perfectly match the designed sequence using integrative cotransformation and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated editing in 22 steps; synV strains exhibit high fitness under a variety of culture conditions, compared with that of wild-type V strains. A ring synV derivative was constructed, which is fully functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under all conditions tested and exhibits lower spore viability during meiosis. Ring synV chromosome can extends Sc2.0 design principles and provides a model with which to study genomic rearrangement, ring chromosome evolution, and human ring chromosome disorders.

  8. Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Brandon; Singh, Tarunraj

    2011-05-01

    This paper addresses the issue of design of a passive vibration absorber in the presence of uncertainties in the forcing frequency. A minimax problem is formulated to determine the parameters of a vibration absorber which minimize the maximum motion of the primary mass over the domain of the forcing frequency. The limiting solutions corresponding to the forcing frequency being unrestricted and to that where the forcing frequency is known exactly, are shown to match those available in the literature. The transition of the optimal vibration absorber parameters between the extreme two cases is presented and the solutions are generalized by permitting the mass ratio of the absorber mass and the primary mass to be design parameters. For the specific case where the primary system is undamped, detailed analysis is presented to determine the transition of the optimal vibration absorber parameters between three distinct domains of solutions.

  9. Design of a novel electrostatic ion storage ring at KACST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Alshammari, S. M.; Welsch, C. P.; Alharbi, H. H.

    2013-05-01

    A new electrostatic storage ring for beams at energies up to 30 keV·q is currently under development at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). The ring design is based on the existing electrostatic storage rings, but stretches significantly beyond them in that it shall form the core of a unique flexible experimental facility at KACST. The lattice of this ring has been designed in a way that enables the use of state-of-the-art experimental methods to study electron-ion, laser-ion, and ion-neutral beams interactions. The lattice design also allows for a future upgrade of the ring to a double storage ring structure that would enable ion-ion beam interactions to be performed. In this paper, we present the design of this ring with a focus on beam dynamics calculations for the 7° single-bend racetrack layout. The study is principally based on the SIMION8 program. We complemented this study further by using purpose-written routine and MAD-X simulation code. An in-depth investigation into beam stability under consideration of non-linear field components in the electrostatic optical elements, is presented. Finally, different working points and stability regions are discussed.

  10. Design Study of a Free Electron Laser Storage Ring,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    rAD-AU2 75TAFORD UNVCA7 HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS LAB F/G 20/5 DESIGN STUDY OF A FREE ELECTRON LASER STORAGE RING, (U)~jUN 80 H WIEOMANN UNCLASSIFIED HELT...particle to emit a high energy photon which causes a large pertdrbation of the betatron and synchro- tron oscillation. Calculations of this effect 1 show...in this storage ring design too. The most significant effect to limit the beam lifetime in low energy , high intensity storage rings is the so-called

  11. Design of three-element dynamic vibration absorber for damped linear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, N. D.; Nguyen, N. X.; Hoa, L. T.

    2013-09-01

    The standard type of dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) called the Voigt DVA is a classical model and has long been investigated. In the paper, we will consider an optimization problem of another model of DVA that is called three-element type DVA for damped primary structures. Unlike the standard absorber configuration, the three-element DVA contains two spring elements in which one is connected to a dashpot in series and the other is placed in parallel. There have been some studies on the design of the three-element DVA for undamped primary structures. Those studies have shown that the three-element DVA produces better performance than the Voigt DVA does. When damping is present at the primary system, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has been no study on the three-element dynamic vibration absorber. This work presents a simple approach to determine the approximate analytical solutions for the H∞ optimization of the three-element DVA attached to the damped primary structure. The main idea of the study is based on the criteria of the equivalent linearization method in order to replace approximately the original damped structure by an equivalent undamped one. Then the approximate analytical solution of the DVA's parameters is given by using known results for the undamped structure obtained. The comparisons have been done to verify the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  12. Design of the magnetorheological mount with high damping force for medium speed diesel generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, O.-H.; Kim, W.-H.; Joo, W. H.; Park, J.-H.

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates the controllable magnetorheological (MR) mount for the marine diesel-generator (D/G) sets. Sometimes, significant vibrations over the allowable limit are observed on the D/G sets due to their huge excitation forces. Because the severe vibration can lead to structural damages to the D/G sets, it should be reduced to below the limit. Although passive mounts with rubber isolators are usually used, the vibration reduction performance is not always sufficient. In addition, expecting that the vibration levels required by customers will get more severe, semi-active vibration isolation system needs to be developed. To the aim, the valve (flow) mode type of MR mount has been designed. Especially, the annular-radial configuration was adopted to enhance the damping force within the restricted space. The geometry of the mount has been optimized to obtain the required damping force and the magnetic field analysis has been carried out using ANSYS APDL. To verify the performance of the developed MR mount, excitation test was conducted and the dynamic characteristics were identified. Since damping property of the MR fluid is changed by the applied magnetic field strength and excitation frequency, responses to changing applied currents and frequencies were obtained. From the results, damping performance of the MR mount was evaluated.

  13. Structural Design and Sealing Performance Analysis of Biomimetic Sealing Ring

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the failure probability of rubber sealing rings in reciprocating dynamic seal, a new structure of sealing ring based on bionics was designed. The biomimetic ring has three concave ridges and convex bulges on each side which are very similar to earthworms. Bulges were circularly designed and sealing performances of the biomimetic ring in both static seal and dynamic seal were simulated by FEM. In addition, effects of precompression, medium pressure, speed, friction coefficient, and material parameters on sealing performances were discussed. The results show that von Mises stress of the biomimetic sealing ring distributed symmetrically in no-pressure static sealing. The maximum von Mises stress appears on the second bulge of the inner side. High contact stress concentrates on left bulges. Von Mises stress distribution becomes uneven under medium pressure. Both von Mises stress and contact stress increase when precompression, medium pressure, and rubber hardness increase in static sealing. Biomimetic ring can avoid rolling and distortion in reciprocating dynamic seal, and its working life is much longer than O-ring and rectangular ring. The maximum von Mises stress and contact stress increase with the precompression, medium pressure, rubber hardness, and friction coefficient in reciprocating dynamic seal. PMID:27019582

  14. Lattice Design for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC expertise in designing and operating high current storage rings and the availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel present an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the SPEAR3 storage ring in the future. The PEP-X 'baseline' design, with 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. As a next step, a so-called 'ultimate' PEP-X lattice, reducing the emittance to 11 pm-rad at zero current, has been designed. This emittance approaches the diffraction limited photon emittance for multi-keV photons, providing near maximum photon brightness and high coherence. It is achieved by using 7-bend achromat cells in the ring arcs and a 90-m damping wiggler in one of the 6 long straight sections. Details of the lattice design, dynamic aperture, and calculations of the intra-beam scattering effect and Touschek lifetime at a nominal 0.2 A current are presented. Accelerator-based light sources are in high demand for many experimental applications. The availability of the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel at SLAC presents an opportunity for building a next generation light source - PEP-X - that would replace the existing SPEAR3 light source in the future. The PEP-X study started in 2008, and the 'baseline' design, yielding 164 pm-rad emittance at 4.5 GeV beam energy and a current of 1.5 A, was completed in 2010. This relatively conservative design can be built using existing technology. However, for a long term future, it is natural to investigate a more aggressive, so-called 'ultimate' ring design. The goal is to reduce the electron emittance in both x and y planes to near the diffraction limited photon emittance of 8 pm-rad at hard X-ray photon wavelength of 0.1 nm. This would provide a near maximum photon brightness and significant increase in photon coherence. This study was motivated by the advances in low emittance design at MAX-IV. The latter was used as a starting point for the PEP-X arc lattice

  15. Lattice design of a quasi-isochronous ring for a storage-ring FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ohgaki, H.; Robin, D.; Yamazaki, T.

    1995-12-31

    Design work for a Quasi-Isochronous Ring (QI-Ring) dedicated to Storage Ring FELs in Electrotechnical Laboratory has been completed. The motivation for this work is to shorten the electron bunch length in order to get a high peak current in a compact Storage-Ring (SR). By placing an inverted dipole field in a location where the energy dispersion function is relatively large, one can reduce the momentum compaction factor ({alpha}) and shorten a bunch length in a SR. The main requirements for the QI-Ring are: 1.5GeV maximum beam energy; 80m circumference; two 10m-long dispersion free straight sections for insertion devices. A few meters dispersion free straight sections for RF cavities and injection bumpers; and a wide tune ability in betatron functions and momentum compaction factor ({alpha}). As shown in figure 1, the lattice includes two 49 degree, 3 T superconducting bending magnets to reduce the circumference of the ring, a -8 degree normal inverted dipole magnet (ID), 4 families quadrupole magnets (QF, QD, QFA, QDA), and 3 families sextupole magnets. Each quadrupole family has a specific function: QF & QD control the betatron tunes, and QFA & QDA control the {alpha} and suppress the energy dispersion in a straight section. In this type of ring it is important to compensate the second order momentum compaction factor ({alpha}{sub 2}), so at least three families of sextupoles are required.

  16. A computer package for the design and eigenproblem solution of damped linear multidegree of freedom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadian, M.; Inman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Systems described by the matrix differental equation are considered. An interactive design routine is presented for positive definite mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. Designing is accomplished by adjusting the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices to obtain a desired oscillation behavior. The algorithm also features interactively modifying the physical structure of the system, obtaining the matrix structure and a number of other system properties. In case of a general system, where the M, C, and K matrices lack any special properties, a routine for the eigenproblem solution of the system is developed. The latent roots are obtained by computing the characteristic polynomial of the system and solving for its roots. The above routines are prepared in FORTRAN IV and prove to be usable for the machines with low core memory.

  17. Physics issues in diffraction limited storage ring design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wei; Bai, ZhengHe; Gao, WeiWei; Feng, GuangYao; Li, WeiMin; Wang, Lin; He, DuoHui

    2012-05-01

    Diffraction limited electron storage ring is considered a promising candidate for future light sources, whose main characteristics are higher brilliance, better transverse coherence and better stability. The challenge of diffraction limited storage ring design is how to achieve the ultra low beam emittance with acceptable nonlinear performance. Effective linear and nonlinear parameter optimization methods based on Artificial Intelligence were developed for the storage ring physical design. As an example of application, partial physical design of HALS (Hefei Advanced Light Source), which is a diffraction limited VUV and soft X-ray light source, was introduced. Severe emittance growth due to the Intra Beam Scattering effect, which is the main obstacle to achieve ultra low emittance, was estimated quantitatively and possible cures were discussed. It is inspiring that better performance of diffraction limited storage ring can be achieved in principle with careful parameter optimization.

  18. High-precision robotic equatorial C-ring telescope mounts: design, fabrication, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubberley, Matthew A.

    2010-07-01

    The performance of the C-ring telescope mount rivals other designs in stiffness, tracking, simplicity, lack of field rotation, mechanical size and operating envelope. Issues relating to cost, fabrication, and complexity have suppressed the prevalence of the C-ring mount. The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) robotic C-ring telescope mounts, built for its network of 1.0m and 0.4m telescopes, solve many of these issues. The design yields a scalable mount with performance capabilities well suited for telescopes located at the best astronomical sites in the world at a low cost. Pointing has been demonstrated to be under 7 arc-sec RMS. Unguided tracking performance is 0.6 arc-sec for 1 minute and 2 arc-sec for 15 minutes. Slew speeds of 10deg/sec are reliably used with sub-second settling times. The mount coupled with the 1.0m telescope yields a well damped 16 Hz system. Axes are driven with zero backlash direct drive motors with a 0.01 arc-sec resolution. High system bandwidth yields superb disturbance rejection making it ideal for open air operation. Drive and bearings are maintenance free and feature a novel "bug cover" to seal them from wear and damage. Low costs are achieved with the drive/feedback configuration, structure design, and fabrication techniques, as well minimizing operating and maintenance.

  19. Design of high gradient, high repetition rate damped C -band rf structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesini, David; Bellaveglia, Marco; Bini, Simone; Gallo, Alessandro; Lollo, Valerio; Pellegrino, Luigi; Piersanti, Luca; Cardelli, Fabio; Migliorati, Mauro; Mostacci, Andrea; Palumbo, Luigi; Tocci, Simone; Ficcadenti, Luca; Pettinacci, Valerio

    2017-03-01

    The gamma beam system of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics project foresees the use of a multibunch train colliding with a high intensity recirculated laser pulse. The linac energy booster is composed of 12 traveling wave C -band structures, 1.8 m long with a field phase advance per cell of 2 π /3 and a repetition rate of 100 Hz. Because of the multibunch operation, the structures have been designed with a dipole higher order mode (HOM) damping system to avoid beam breakup (BBU). They are quasiconstant gradient structures with symmetric input couplers and a very effective damping of the HOMs in each cell based on silicon carbide (SiC) rf absorbers coupled to each cell through waveguides. An optimization of the electromagnetic and mechanical design has been done to simplify the fabrication and to reduce the cost of the structures. In the paper, after a review of the beam dynamics issues related to the BBU effects, we discuss the electromagnetic and thermomechanic design criteria of the structures. We also illustrate the criteria to compensate the beam loading and the rf measurements that show the effectiveness of the HOM damping.

  20. Design and commissioning of the RIKEN cryogenic electrostatic ring (RICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Y.; Enomoto, Y.; Masunaga, T.; Menk, S.; Bertier, P.; Azuma, T.

    2017-03-01

    A new electrostatic ion storage ring, the RIKEN cryogenic electrostatic ring, has been commissioned with a 15-keV ion beam under cryogenic conditions. The ring was designed with a closed ion beam orbit of about 2.9 m, where the ion beam is guided entirely by electrostatic components. The vacuum chamber of the ring is cooled using a liquid-He-free cooling system to 4.2 K with a temperature difference of 0.4 K at most within all the positions measured by calibrated silicon diode sensors. The first cryogenic operation with a 15-keV Ne+ beam was successfully performed in August 2014. During the measurement, the Ne+ beam was stored under a ring temperature of 4.2 K with a residual-gas lifetime of more than 10 min. This permits an estimation of the residual gas density at a few 104 cm-3, which corresponds to a room-temperature-equivalent pressure of around 1 ×10-10 Pa. An effect of longitudinal pulse compression at the bunching cavity in the ring was clearly identified by monitoring the pick-up beam detector. The detailed design and mechanical structure of the storage ring, as well as the results from the commissioning run, are reported.

  1. Design and commissioning of the RIKEN cryogenic electrostatic ring (RICE).

    PubMed

    Nakano, Y; Enomoto, Y; Masunaga, T; Menk, S; Bertier, P; Azuma, T

    2017-03-01

    A new electrostatic ion storage ring, the RIKEN cryogenic electrostatic ring, has been commissioned with a 15-keV ion beam under cryogenic conditions. The ring was designed with a closed ion beam orbit of about 2.9 m, where the ion beam is guided entirely by electrostatic components. The vacuum chamber of the ring is cooled using a liquid-He-free cooling system to 4.2 K with a temperature difference of 0.4 K at most within all the positions measured by calibrated silicon diode sensors. The first cryogenic operation with a 15-keV Ne(+) beam was successfully performed in August 2014. During the measurement, the Ne(+) beam was stored under a ring temperature of 4.2 K with a residual-gas lifetime of more than 10 min. This permits an estimation of the residual gas density at a few 10(4) cm(-3), which corresponds to a room-temperature-equivalent pressure of around 1×10(-10) Pa. An effect of longitudinal pulse compression at the bunching cavity in the ring was clearly identified by monitoring the pick-up beam detector. The detailed design and mechanical structure of the storage ring, as well as the results from the commissioning run, are reported.

  2. Application and design of induction machine damping unit (IMDU) for eliminating subsynchronous resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, Sujit

    The IEEE First and Second Benchmark Models for subsynchronous resonance (SSR) are used to analyze the damping properties of an induction machine damping unit (IMDU) coupled to the shaft of a turbo-generator set. This study investigates the rating and location of the induction machine that, without the aid of any controllers, effectively damps sub-synchronous resonance for all line series compensation levels. Eigenvalue analyses are performed on linearized models of the shaft system including the induction machine to find the optimum location. The best location of the IMDU, providing maximum damping, is next to the HP turbine at the end of the shaft. Time domain simulations are conducted to find the adequate rating of the induction machine. It is observed that a small size, high power (about 10% of the generator rating), low energy machine effectively damps SSR. The IMDU reduces peak torques in shaft sections during transients. In the study, it is demonstrated that the addition of an IMDU at the end of the shaft would have prevented the SSR events of 1970 and 1971 that caused major damage to the Mohave Desert generator shafts. A basic design of the IMDU is presented derived from a closed form solution of Maxwell's equations in squirrel cage induction motors. The solution is obtained for a cylindrical multi-layer geometry. The squirrel cage is represented by an equivalent anisotropic homogeneous medium. The effect of stator slots and teeth is included by a second anisotropic homogeneous medium. The induction motor is modeled as six concentric cylindrical layers representing the different construction components of the motor. The governing partial differential equations are solved for the excitation source, conducting and non-conducting regions. The formulas obtained allow for efficient calculations of machine performance which may help the motor designer to select the proper parameters of the machine that fit the design requirements. Accuracy of the modeling method

  3. Optimal design of damping layers in SMA/GFRP laminated hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghdoust, P.; Cinquemani, S.; Lo Conte, A.; Lecis, N.

    2017-10-01

    This work describes the optimization of the shape profiles for shape memory alloys (SMA) sheets in hybrid layered composite structures, i.e. slender beams or thinner plates, designed for the passive attenuation of flexural vibrations. The paper starts with the description of the material and architecture of the investigated hybrid layered composite. An analytical method, for evaluating the energy dissipation inside a vibrating cantilever beam is developed. The analytical solution is then followed by a shape profile optimization of the inserts, using a genetic algorithm to minimize the SMA material layer usage, while maintaining target level of structural damping. Delamination problem at SMA/glass fiber reinforced polymer interface is discussed. At the end, the proposed methodology has been applied to study the hybridization of a wind turbine layered structure blade with SMA material, in order to increase its passive damping.

  4. Design of variable-damping control for prosthetic knee based on a simulated biped.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Berns, Karsten; de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio Padilha L

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a variable-damping controller for a prosthetic knee using a simulated biped in a virtual environment before real tests are conducted on humans. The simulated biped incorporates several features of human walking, such as functional morphology, exploitation of inherent dynamics, hierarchical control network, combination of feed-forward and feedback controllers and phase-dependent modulation. Based on this virtual model of human walking, we have studied biomechanical aspects of the knee joint during walking. Observing the damping profile developed by the simulated biped throughout a gait cycle, we designed a controller for the knee joint. This controller has been evaluated on a modified version of the simulated biped, in which the model of a real prosthetic leg was incorporated. Results of such experiments for walking on flat and rough terrains have provided satisfactory outputs, including improved robustness.

  5. Design and Optimization of Composite Gyroscope Momentum Wheel Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Stress analysis and preliminary design/optimization procedures are presented for gyroscope momentum wheel rings composed of metallic, metal matrix composite, and polymer matrix composite materials. The design of these components involves simultaneously minimizing both true part volume and mass, while maximizing angular momentum. The stress analysis results are combined with an anisotropic failure criterion to formulate a new sizing procedure that provides considerable insight into the design of gyroscope momentum wheel ring components. Results compare the performance of two optimized metallic designs, an optimized SiC/Ti composite design, and an optimized graphite/epoxy composite design. The graphite/epoxy design appears to be far superior to the competitors considered unless a much greater premium is placed on volume efficiency compared to mass efficiency.

  6. Update on the MEIC electron collider ring design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Fangei; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Harwood, Leigh; Hutton, Andrew; Morozov, Vasiliy; Pilat, Fulvia; Zhang, Yuhong; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, Michael; Wang, M.-H; Wienands, Uli

    2015-09-01

    The electron collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is designed to accumulate and store a high-current polarized electron beam for collisions with an ion beam. We consider a design of the electron collider ring based on reusing PEP-II components, such as magnets, power supplies, vacuum system, etc. This has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition. This paper reports on an electron ring optics design considering the balance of PEP-II hardware parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and electron beam quality in terms of equilibrium emittances.

  7. Update on the MEIC electron collider ring design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Morozov, V. S.; Pilat, F.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, M.; Wang, M-H; Wienands, U.

    2015-07-14

    The electron collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is designed to accumulate and store a high-current polarized electron beam for collisions with an ion beam. We consider a design of the electron collider ring based on reusing PEPII components, such as magnets, power supplies, vacuum system, etc. This has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition. This paper reports on an electron ring optics design considering the balance of PEP-II hardware parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and electron beam quality in terms of equilibrium emittances.

  8. Design of coupler for the NSLS-II storage ring superconducting RF cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yeddulla, M.; Rose, J.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II is a 3GeV, 500mA, high brightness, 1 MW beam power synchrotron facility that is designed with four superconducting cavities working at 499.68 MHz. To operate the cavities in over-damped coupling condition, an External Quality Factor (Qext) of {approx}65000 is required. We have modified the existing coupler for the CESR-B cavity which has a Qext of {approx}200,000 to meet the requirements of NSLS-II. CESR-B cavity has an aperture coupler with a coupler 'tongue' connecting the cavity to the waveguide. We have optimized the length, width and thickness of the 'tongue' as well as the width of the aperture to increase the coupling using the three dimensional electromagnetic field solver, HFSS. Several possible designs will be presented. We have modified the coupler of the CESR-B cavity to be used in the storage ring at the NSLS-II project using HFSS and verified using CST Microwave Studio. Using a combination of increasing the length and width of the coupler tongue and increasing the width of the aperture, the external Q of the cavity coupler was decreased to {approx}65000 as required for the design of the NSLS-II storage ring design.

  9. SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.

    2005-05-16

    After six years, the delivery of components for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring (AR) and the transport lines was completed in Spring 2005. Designed to deliver 1.5 MW beam power (1.5 x 10{sup 14} protons of 1 GeV kinetic energy at a repetition rate of 60 Hz), stringent measures were implemented in the fabrication, test, and assembly to ensure the quality of the accelerator systems. This paper summarizes the design, R&D, and construction of the ring and transport systems.

  10. Design studies of high-luminoisty ring-ring- eletron-ion collider at CEBAF.

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Bruell, A.; Cardman, L.; Delayen, J.; Ostroumov, P.; Derbenev, Y.; Ent, R.; Evtushenko, P.; Grames, J.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Poelker, M.; Thomas, A.; Wojteshowski, B.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Montag, C.; Dudnikov, V.; Belov, A.; Derenchuk, V.; Physics; Jefferson Lab.; BNL; BTG; INR; IUCF

    2007-08-01

    Experimental studies of fundamental structure of nucleons require an electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with both beams polarized. A CEBAF-based collider of 9 GeV electrons/positrons and 225 GeV ions is envisioned to meet this science need and as a next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. A ring-ring scheme of this collider developed recently takes advantage of the existing polarized electron CW beam from the CEBAF and a green-field design of an ion complex with electron cooling. We present a conceptual design and report design studies of this high-luminosity collider.

  11. Simple analysis and design of annular ring microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khamy, S. E.; El-Awadi, R. M.; El-Sharrawy, E.-B. A.

    1986-06-01

    A simple analysis of thin annular-ring microstrip antennas (AR-MSA), along with a design technique that yields the optimum ring dimensions which maximizes the radiation efficiency and the bandwidth, is presented in this paper. Using the cavity model, exact closed form solutions for the radiation fields are derived. The antenna fields distribution, resonance dimensions, radiation patterns, directivity, radiation conductance, quality factor and bandwidth are investigated for the different TMnm modes. AR-MSAs operated at the high order TMn2 modes are found to have better radiation properties and broader bandwidths than the corresponding disk-MSAs. A design table for the optimum ring dimensions for different types of the dielectric substrate material is also given in the paper.

  12. Numerical simulations supporting the process design of ring rolling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkouk, V.; Hirt, G.; Seitz, J.

    2013-05-01

    In conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of radial-axial ring rolling (RAR) the motions of all tools are usually defined prior to simulation in the preprocessing step. However, the real process holds up to 8 degrees of freedom (DOF) that are controlled by industrial control systems according to actual sensor values and preselected control strategies. Since the histories of the motions are unknown before the experiment and are dependent on sensor data, the conventional FEA cannot represent the process before experiment. In order to enable the usage of FEA in the process design stage, this approach integrates the industrially applied control algorithms of the real process including all relevant sensors and actuators into the FE model of ring rolling. Additionally, the process design of a novel process 'the axial profiling', in which a profiled roll is used for rolling axially profiled rings, is supported by FEA. Using this approach suitable control strategies can be tested in virtual environment before processing.

  13. Guy-cable design and damping for vertical-axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.

    1981-05-01

    Guy cables are frequently used to support vertical axis wind turbines since guying the turbine reduces some of the structural requirements on the tower. The guys must be designed to provide both the required strength and the required stiffness at the top of the turbine. The axial load which the guys apply to the tower, bearings, and foundations is an undesirable consequence of using guys to support the turbine. Limiting the axial load so that it does not significantly affect the cost of the turbine is an important objective of the cable design. The lateral vibration of the cables is another feature of the cable design which needs to be considered. These aspects of the cable design are discussed in this paper, and a technique for damping cable vibrations is mathematically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental data.

  14. The PEP-II Project: Low-Energy Ring Design and Project Status

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-01-02

    We describe the present status of the PEP-II project. The project comprises four major systems: Injector, High-Energy Ring (HER), Low-Energy Ring (LER), and Interaction Region (IR). We focus in detail on the design of the LER, as its parameters and requirements are most closely related to those required for the Beijing Tau-Charm Factory rings. The PEP-II LER is a high-current, 3.1-GeV positron ring mounted above the 9-GeV HER. The LER uses a wiggler located in one of its six straight sections to provide emittance control and additional damping. We describe the rather complicated IR, which must transport the LER beam into the plane of the HER, focus it to a common beam size, and separate the beams after the head-on collisions. Both permanent magnet and conventional electromagnets are used in this area. The LER lattice has now adopted a simplified non-interleaved sextupole correction scheme that has reduced the required number of sextupoles substantially. We describe the LER vacuum system, one of the most challenging subsystems in PEP-II. It employs several technologies. In the arcs, aluminum extrusions and titanium sublimation pumps are employed; the straight sections use stainless steel chambers with lumped ion pumps. In the wiggler area, an extended copper photon dump with nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps is employed to handle the very large synchrotron radiation power. The design of the room-temperature RF system, the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, and some of the special diagnostics will be described briefly. The PEP-II project remains on schedule to begin commissioning of the HER in April 1997, followed by the LER a year later.

  15. Using simulation to aid trial design: Ring-vaccination trials

    PubMed Central

    Hitchings, Matt David Thomas; Grais, Rebecca Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2014–6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines. A challenge for trial design is making sample size calculations based on incidence within the trial, total vaccine effect, and intracluster correlation, when these parameters are uncertain in the presence of indirect effects of vaccination. Methods and findings We present a stochastic, compartmental model for a ring vaccination trial. After identification of an index case, a ring of contacts is recruited and either vaccinated immediately or after 21 days. The primary outcome of the trial is total vaccine effect, counting cases only from a pre-specified window in which the immediate arm is assumed to be fully protected and the delayed arm is not protected. Simulation results are used to calculate necessary sample size and estimated vaccine effect. Under baseline assumptions about vaccine properties, monthly incidence in unvaccinated rings and trial design, a standard sample-size calculation neglecting dynamic effects estimated that 7,100 participants would be needed to achieve 80% power to detect a difference in attack rate between arms, while incorporating dynamic considerations in the model increased the estimate to 8,900. This approach replaces assumptions about parameters at the ring level with assumptions about disease dynamics and vaccine characteristics at the individual level, so within this framework we were able to describe the sensitivity of the trial power and estimated effect to various parameters. We found that both of these quantities are sensitive to properties of the vaccine, to setting-specific parameters over which investigators have little control, and to parameters that are determined by the study design. Conclusions Incorporating simulation into the trial design process can improve robustness of sample size calculations. For this specific trial design, vaccine effectiveness depends on properties of the ring

  16. Two-plane balance and slip-ring design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    A 3.25 cm (1.28 in.) two plane balance and eight channel slip ring assembly has been designed to measure and transmit the thrust (667-N;150-lb) and torque (135-N-m;100-lb-ft) components produced by wind tunnel model turboprops and drive motors operating at 300 Hz.

  17. Large acceptance muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.; Autin, B.

    2000-01-06

    The possibility of achieving the high muon fluxes suggested in recent work on muon colliders has revived interest in the idea of using muon storage rings for neutrino production. Through proper design of the lattice, a significant fraction of the stored muons can be converted into an intense, low-divergence beam of neutrinos. This work examines the incorporation of a long, high-beta straight section for production of neutrino beams into a lattice which is otherwise optimized for transverse and longitudinal admittance. The ring must be able to accept a very large emittance and large momentum spread muon beam.

  18. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Vasiliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Harwood, Leigh; Hutton, Andrew; Lin, Fanglei; Pilat, Fulvia; Zhang, Yuhong; Cai, Yunhai; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, Michael; Wang, M.-H.; Wienands, Uli; Gerity, James; Mann, Thomas; McIntyre, Peter; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2015-09-01

    We present an update on the design of the ion collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab. The design is based on the use of super-ferric magnets. It provides the necessary momentum range of 8 to 100 GeV/c for protons and ions, matches the electron collider ring design using PEP-II components, fits readily on the JLab site, offers a straightforward path for a future full-energy upgrade by replacing the magnets with higher-field ones in the same tunnel, and is more cost effective than using presently available current-dominated super-conducting magnets. We describe complete ion collider optics including an independently-designed modular detector region.

  19. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, V. S.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Lin, F.; Pilat, F.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, M.; Wang, M-H; Wienands, U.; Gerity, J.; Mann, T.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N. J.; Satttarov, A.

    2015-07-14

    We present an update on the design of the ion collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab. The design is based on the use of super-ferric magnets. It provides the necessary momentum range of 8 to 100 GeV/c for protons and ions, matches the electron collider ring design using PEP-II components, fits readily on the JLab site, offers a straightforward path for a future full-energy upgrade by replacing the magnets with higher-field ones in the same tunnel, and is more cost effective than using presently available current-dominated superconducting magnets. We describe complete ion collider optics including an independently-designed modular detector region.

  20. DAMPING THE HIGH ORDER MODES IN THE PUMPING CHAMBER OF THE PEP-II LOW ENERGY RING

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A

    2004-06-30

    The Low Energy Ring of the PEP-II B-factory operates with extremely high currents of short positron bunches. Any discontinuity in the vacuum chamber can excite a broad-band spectrum of high order modes (HOM). A temperature rise has been found in the vacuum chamber elements in one junction of straight and arc chambers. The power in the wake fields was high enough to char beyond use the feed-through for the titanium sublimation pump (TSP). This pumping section is 5.5 m long and consists of the beam chamber and an ante-chamber. Electromagnetic fields, excited in the beam chamber penetrate to the ante-chamber and then through the heater feed-through come out. To be sure that these electromagnetic fields are present a small ceramic tile with a high loss tangent was placed near the TSP feed-through outside of the pumping chamber. A thermocouple that was attached to this tile showed a strong temperature rise. A short wire antenna was also placed there. The antenna was connected directly to a spectrum analyzer. Measurements show a wide frequency HOM spectrum with a maximum in the 2-3 GHz region. Based on these measurements a special water cooled HOM absorber was designed and installed in the vacuum chamber. As a result, the HOM power in the section decreased and the temperature rise went down. The power loss in the absorber reaches 1200 W for a positron beam current of 2.4 A. The absorber helped to find the source of HOM. Steering the beam on the vertical collimators upstream of the absorber resulted in the significant HOM power change in the absorber.

  1. Sub-nm emittance lattice design for CANDLE storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Zanyan, G.; Sahakyan, V.; Tsakanov, V.

    2016-10-01

    The most effective way to increase the brilliance of synchrotron light sources is the reduction of beam emittance. Following the recent developments in low emittance lattice design, a new sub-nm emittance lattice based on implementation of multi-band achromat concept and application of longitudinal gradient bending magnets was developed for CANDLE storage ring. The paper presents the main design considerations, linear and non-linear beam dynamics aspects of the new lattice proposed.

  2. 40-{angstrom} FEL designs for the PEP storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.C.; Nuhn, H.D.; Tatchyn, R.; Winick, H.; Pellegrini, C.

    1991-12-31

    We explore the use of the 2.2-km PEP storage ring at SLAC to drive a 40-{Angstrom} free-electron laser in the self-amplified spontaneous emission configuration. Various combinations for electron-beam and undulator parameters, as well as special undulator designs, are discussed. Saturation and high peak, in-band, coherent power (460 MW) are possible with a 67-m, hybrid permanent-magnet undulator in a ring bypass. A 100-m, cusp-field undulator can achieve high average, in-band, coherent power (0.25 W) in the main ring. The existing, 25.6-m, Paladin undulator at LLNL, with the addition of optical-klystron dispersive sections, is considered for both peak and average power. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 40- angstrom FEL designs for the PEP storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.C. ); Nuhn, H.D.; Tatchyn, R.; Winick, H. . Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Pellegrini, C. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    We explore the use of the 2.2-km PEP storage ring at SLAC to drive a 40-{Angstrom} free-electron laser in the self-amplified spontaneous emission configuration. Various combinations for electron-beam and undulator parameters, as well as special undulator designs, are discussed. Saturation and high peak, in-band, coherent power (460 MW) are possible with a 67-m, hybrid permanent-magnet undulator in a ring bypass. A 100-m, cusp-field undulator can achieve high average, in-band, coherent power (0.25 W) in the main ring. The existing, 25.6-m, Paladin undulator at LLNL, with the addition of optical-klystron dispersive sections, is considered for both peak and average power. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Recent Progress on Design Studies of High-Luminosity Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Bruell, A; Chevtsov, P; Derbenev, Y S; Ent, R; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Merminga, L; Yunn, B C

    2009-05-01

    The conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF has been continuously optimized to cover a wide center-of-mass energy region and to achieve high luminosity and polarization to support next generation nuclear science programs. Here, we summarize the recent design improvements and R&D progress on interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation, matching and tracking of electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, beam-beam simulations and ion beam cooling studies.

  5. Characterization of NiTi Shape Memory Damping Elements designed for Automotive Safety Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, Joachim; Clipa, Victor; Gheorghita, Viorel; Gümpel, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Actuator elements made of NiTi shape memory material are more and more known in industry because of their unique properties. Due to the martensitic phase change, they can revert to their original shape by heating when subjected to an appropriate treatment. This thermal shape memory effect (SME) can show a significant shape change combined with a considerable force. Therefore such elements can be used to solve many technical tasks in the field of actuating elements and mechatronics and will play an increasing role in the next years, especially within the automotive technology, energy management, power, and mechanical engineering as well as medical technology. Beside this thermal SME, these materials also show a mechanical SME, characterized by a superelastic plateau with reversible elongations in the range of 8%. This behavior is based on the building of stress-induced martensite of loaded austenite material at constant temperature and facilitates a lot of applications especially in the medical field. Both SMEs are attended by energy dissipation during the martensitic phase change. This paper describes the first results obtained on different actuator and superelastic NiTi wires concerning their use as damping elements in automotive safety systems. In a first step, the damping behavior of small NiTi wires up to 0.5 mm diameter was examined at testing speeds varying between 0.1 and 50 mm/s upon an adapted tensile testing machine. In order to realize higher testing speeds, a drop impact testing machine was designed, which allows testing speeds up to 4000 mm/s. After introducing this new type of testing machine, the first results of vertical-shock tests of superelastic and electrically activated actuator wires are presented. The characterization of these high dynamic phase change parameters represents the basis for new applications for shape memory damping elements, especially in automotive safety systems.

  6. Design of the readout electronics for the DAMPE Silicon Tracker detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fei; Peng, Wen-Xi; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Dong, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Rui; Fan, Rui-Rui; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Wang, Huan-Yu; Wu, Xin; La Marra, Daniel; Azzarello, Philipp; Gallo, Valentina; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Nardinocchi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The Silicon Tracker (STK) is one of the detectors of the DAMPE satellite used to measure the incidence direction of high energy cosmic rays. It consists of 6 X-Y double layers of silicon micro-strip detectors with 73728 readout channels. It is a great challenge to read out the channels and process the huge volume of data in the harsh environment of space. 1152 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and 384 ADCs are used to read out the detector channels. 192 Tracker Front-end Hybrid (TFH) modules and 8 identical Tracker Readout Board (TRB) modules are designed to control and digitalize the front signals. In this paper, the design of the readout electronics for the STK and its performance are presented in detail.

  7. Structure design and enviromental test of BGO calorimeter for satellite DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yiming; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chen, Dengyi; Chang, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer, DAMPE, is a new designed satellite developed for the new Innovation 2020 program of Chinese Academy of Sciences. As the most important payload of China's first scientific satellite for detecting dark matter, the primary purposes of BGO calorimeter is to measure the energy of incident high energy electrons and gamma rays (5GeV-10TeV) and to identify hadron and electronics. BGO calorimeter also provides an important background discriminator by measuring the energy deposition due to the particle shower that produced by the e^{±}, γ and imaging their shower development profile. Structure design of BGO calorimeter is described in this paper. The new designed BGO calorimeter consists of 308 BGO crystals coupled with photomultiplier tubes on its two ends. The envelop size of the BGO calorimeter is 907.5mm×907.5mm×494.5mm,and the weight of which is 1051.4Kg. The most important purpose of mechanical design is how to package so heavy crystals into a detector as required arrangement and to make sure reliability and safety. This paper describes the results of vibration tests using the Flight Module of the BGO Calorimeter for the DAMPE satellite. During the vibration tests, no degradation of the mechanical assembly was observed. After random or sinusoidal vibrations, there was no significant changes of the frequency signatures observed during the modal surveys. The comparison of results of cosmic ray tests before and after the vibration shows no change in the performance of the BGO calorimeter.

  8. Fermilab Recycler Ring: Technical design report. Revision 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the technical design of the Fermilab Recycler Ring. The purpose of the Recycler is to augment the luminosity increase anticipated from the implementation of the Fermi III upgrade project, which has as its main component the Fermilab Main Injector construction project. The Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring. It is located in the Main Injector tunnel directly above the Main Injector beamline, near the ceiling. The construction schedule calls for the installation of the Recycler ring before the installation shutdown of the Main Injector. This aggressive construction schedule is made possible by the exclusive use of permanent magnets in the ring lattice, removing the need for expensive conventional iron/copper magnet construction along with the related power supplies, cooling water system, and electrical safety systems. The location, operating energy, and mode of construction are chosen to minimize operational impacts on both Fermilab`s ongoing High Energy Physics program and the Main Injector construction project.

  9. The effective damping approach to design a dynamic vibration absorber using Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viet, L. D.; Anh, N. D.; Matsuhisa, H.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the vibration reduction of a pendulum structure with dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using Coriolis force is investigated. When the pendulum structure is subjected to a single harmonic excitation, the effective damping of Coriolis force is used with the second-order approximations to obtain the closed forms of optimal parameters of the DVA. The closed forms obtained show that the natural frequency of the absorber should be tuned to twice that of the pendulum. The closed forms of optimal parameters are verified by numerical optimization. The modified forms of optimal parameters are proposed to be used in case of general excitation. Base on this modified form, the design procedure is demonstrated by the numerical calculation of the free vibration and wind-induced vibration of a ropeway gondola.

  10. Fractional order phase shaper design with Bode's integral for iso-damped control system.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suman; Das, Saptarshi; Ghosh, Ratna; Goswami, Bhaswati; Balasubramanian, R; Chandra, A K; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava

    2010-04-01

    The phase curve of an open loop system is flat in nature if the derivative of its phase with respect to frequency is zero. With a flat-phase curve, the corresponding closed loop system exhibits an iso-damped property i.e. maintains constant overshoot with the change of gain. This implies enhanced parametric robustness e.g. to variation in system gain. In the recent past, fractional order (FO) phase shapers have been proposed by contemporary researchers to achieve enhanced parametric robustness. In this paper, a simple methodology is proposed to design an appropriate FO phase shaper to achieve phase flattening in a control loop, comprising a plant controlled by a classical Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. The methodology is demonstrated with MATLAB simulation of representative plants and accompanying PID controllers.

  11. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller.

    PubMed

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M A; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation.

  12. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller

    PubMed Central

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M. A.; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation. PMID:26745265

  13. Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers: Design, fabrication, and directional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongjun

    Monolithic semiconductor ring lasers (SRLs) are attractive light sources for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) due to their convenience in monolithic integration: neither cleaved facets nor gratings are required for optical feedback. They are promising candidates for wavelength filtering, multiplexing-demultiplexing applications, electrical or all-optical switching, gating, and memories, and particularly, optical inertial rotation sensors or ring laser gyros. As the major part of a NASA-supported project "Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring laser gyro for space applications," this dissertation research was focused on design, fabrication, and directional control of monolithically integrated SRLs with relatively large size and sophisticated OEIC structures. The main potential application is the next-generation monolithic ring laser gyros. Specifically, monolithic SRLs with the longest reported cavity of 10.28 mm have been demonstrated. In device characterization, differential I-V analysis has been used for the first time in SRLs for purely electrical identification of lasing threshold and directional switching. Sophisticated device structures have been devised, including optically independent novel ring laser pairs, from which frequency beating between monolithically integrated SRLs was reported for the first time. In addition, no frequency lock-in was observed in the beating spectra, indicating an important progress for proposed gyro applications. Functional OEIC components including photodetectors, passive and active waveguides, and novel Joule heaters have been integrated on-chip along with the ring lasers. Mode competition, directional switching, bistability, and bidirectional and unidirectional operation in SRLs have been investigated. Directional control techniques with asymmetric mechanisms including spiral and S-section waveguides have been implemented. The S-section was investigated and analyzed in great detail for its suppression of

  14. Damped leaf flexure hinge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  15. Damped leaf flexure hinge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  16. Design improvement of a pump wear ring labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, David L.; Morrison, G. L.; Ko, S. H.; Waughtal, S. P.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was successful in obtaining two improved designs for the impeller wear ring seal of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of interest. A finite difference computer code was extensively used in a parametric computational study in determining a cavity configuration with high flow resistance due to turbulence dissipation. These two designs, along with that currently used, were fabricated and tested. The improved designs were denoted Type O and Type S. The measurements showed that Type O and Type S given 67 and 30 percent reduction in leakage over the current design, respectively. It was found that the number of cavities, the step height and the presence of a small stator groove are quite important design features. Also, the tooth thickness is of some significance. Finally, the tooth height and an additional large cavity cut out from the stator (upstream of the step) are of negligible importance.

  17. The Vibration Ring. Phase 1; [Seedling Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Delap, Damon C.; Stringer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled axis when excited by radial driveline forces. The stack in turn generates electrical energy, which is either dissipated or harvested using the shunt circuit. Removing energy from the system creates a net damping effect. The vibration ring is much stiffer than traditional damping devices, which allows it to be used in a driveline without disrupting normal operation. In phase 1 of this NASA Seedling Fund project, a combination of design and analysis was used to examine the feasibility of this concept. Several designs were evaluated using solid modeling, finite element analysis, and by creating prototype hardware. Then an analytical model representing the coupled electromechanical response was formulated in closed form. The model was exercised parametrically to examine the stiffness and loss factor spectra of the vibration ring, as well as simulate its damping effect in the context of a simplified driveline model. The results of this work showed that this is a viable mechanism for driveline damping, and provided several lessons for continued development.

  18. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, M. S.

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption.

  19. Magnet design for a low-emittance storage ring.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Martin; Anderberg, Bengt; Lindgren, Lars Johan

    2014-09-01

    The MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring, currently under construction, pursues the goal of low electron beam emittance by using a multi-bend achromat magnet lattice, which is realised by having several consecutive magnet elements precision-machined out of a common solid iron block, 2.3-3.4 m long. With this magnet design solution, instead of having 1320 individual magnets, the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring is built up using 140 integrated `magnet block' units, containing all these magnet elements. Major features of this magnet block design are compactness, vibration stability and that the alignment of magnet elements within each unit is given by the mechanical accuracy of the CNC machining rather than individual field measurement and adjustment. This article presents practical engineering details of implementing this magnet design solution, and mechanical + magnetic field measurement results from the magnet production series. At the time of writing (spring 2014), the production series, which is totally outsourced to industry, is roughly half way through, with mechanical/magnetic QA conforming to specifications. It is the conclusion of the authors that the MAX IV magnet block concept, which has sometimes been described as new or innovative, is from a manufacturing point of view simply a collection of known mature production methods and measurement procedures, which can be executed at fixed cost with a low level of risk.

  20. Magnet design for a low-emittance storage ring

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Martin; Anderberg, Bengt; Lindgren, Lars-Johan

    2014-01-01

    The MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring, currently under construction, pursues the goal of low electron beam emittance by using a multi-bend achromat magnet lattice, which is realised by having several consecutive magnet elements precision-machined out of a common solid iron block, 2.3–3.4 m long. With this magnet design solution, instead of having 1320 individual magnets, the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring is built up using 140 integrated ‘magnet block’ units, containing all these magnet elements. Major features of this magnet block design are compactness, vibration stability and that the alignment of magnet elements within each unit is given by the mechanical accuracy of the CNC machining rather than individual field measurement and adjustment. This article presents practical engineering details of implementing this magnet design solution, and mechanical + magnetic field measurement results from the magnet production series. At the time of writing (spring 2014), the production series, which is totally outsourced to industry, is roughly half way through, with mechanical/magnetic QA conforming to specifications. It is the conclusion of the authors that the MAX IV magnet block concept, which has sometimes been described as new or innovative, is from a manufacturing point of view simply a collection of known mature production methods and measurement procedures, which can be executed at fixed cost with a low level of risk. PMID:25177980

  1. Magnet designs for muon collider ring and interactions regions

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Alexahin, Y.I.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Conceptual designs of superconducting magnets for the storage ring of a Muon Collider with a 1.5 TeV c.o.m. energy and an average luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} are presented. All magnets are based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor and designed to provide an adequate operating field/field gradient in the aperture with the critical current margin required for reliable magnet operation in the machine. Magnet cross-sections were optimized to achieve the accelerator field quality in the magnet aperture occupied with beams. The magnets and corresponding protective measures are designed to handle about 0.5 kW/m of dynamic heat load from the muon beam decays. Magnet parameters are reported and compared with the requirements.

  2. The magnet design for the HLS storage ring upgrade project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Wei-Min; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Li, Wei; Liang, Jun-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of the Hefei Light Source (HLS), in particular to get higher brilliance synchrotron radiation and increase the number of straight section insertion devices, an upgrade project called HLSII will be launched soon. The storage ring lattice, which has a double bend achromatic structure with four periods, comprises eight dipoles, 32 quadrupoles and 32 combined function sextupoles. The design and analysis of the magnets are shown in this paper, along with the optimization of the multipurpose combined function magnet, which consists of three magnets: skew quadrupole, horizontal dipole and vertical dipole, with the main sextupole magnet. This type of magnet is the first one that has been designed and used in China. The mechanical design and fabrication procedures for the magnets are also presented.

  3. Mechanical testing of high-damping elastomer materials for determining design parameters of seismic isolation bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.H.; Kulak, R.F.

    1994-06-01

    High-damping steel-laminated elastomeric bearings are one of the devices used for isolating large buildings and structures from earthquake damage. These load-bearing isolators are constructed from alternating layers of high-damping rubber and steel plates. In this paper the mechanical testing of small specimens of some elastomer compounds proposed for the isolation of advanced nuclear reactors is discussed. Variation of shear stiffness and damping with respect to shear strain level (5 % to 300 %), temperature ({minus}40{degrees}C to +50{degrees}C) and frequency (0.002Hz to 5Hz) are reported. Problems involved in obtaining reliable and repeatable results are also discussed.

  4. Design consideration for design a flat and ring plastics part using Solidworks software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, M. A. M.; Faizal, K. M.; Salleh, M. S.; Sulaiman, M. A.; Mohamad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Various considerations on design of plastic injection moulded parts were applied in initial stage to prevent any defects of end products. Therefore, the objective of this project is to design the plastic injection moulded part by taking consideration on several factors such as draft angle, corner radius and location of gate. In this project, flat plastic part, ring plastic part, core inserts for flat and ring plastic part were designed using SolidWorks software. The plastic part was drawn in sketching mode then the 3D modeling of solid part was generated using various commands. Considerations of plastic part such as draft angle and corner radius with location of gate was considered in the design stage. Finally, it was successfully designed the two plastic parts with their respectively insert by using SolidWorks software. The flat plastic part and ring plastic part were designed for the purpose for future researches for study the weld lines, meld lines, air trapped and geometrical size of the product. Thus, by designing the flat plastic part and ring plastic part having core insert on each part, the completed mould design of two plate mould can be considered. This is because, plastic injection parts are needed to be designed properly in order to neglect any defect when the mould was made.

  5. Design and manufacturing for a composite multi-ring flywheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Douglas M.; Kirk, James A.

    Results are presented of a design-methodology and manufacturing-process analysis of a multi-ring composite flywheel for use in magnetic-bearing inertial energy storage systems. The results indicate that the preferred flywheel geometry is a constant-thickness disk with a hole in the center, with an inside-to-outside diameter ratio of 0.45. The usable stored energy density of the interference assembled flywheel is 65 W-hr/kg, when operating over a speed range of 37.5-75 percent of maximum speed. The preferred flywheel fabrication method is wet filament winding in an epoxy matrix, with high-strength carbon fibers arranged in the hoop direction. A composite material test program was designed to validate the required performance of the composite material.

  6. Engineered damping treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Ray, Manas C.; Baz, Amr M.

    2001-07-01

    Engineered Damping Treatments (EDT) that have high damping characteristics per unit volume are presented. The EDT's under consideration, consist of cellular viscoelastic damping matrices with optimally selected cell configuration, size and distribution. The cellular topology of the EDT's is designed using Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) strategies and the obtained optimal configurations will be manufactured using the state-of-the-art technology of Rapid Prototyping (RP). The EDT's are modeled using the finite element method in an attempt to determine the optimal topologies that maximize the strain energy, maximize the damping characteristics and minimize the total weight. The CAD files of the prototypes of the EDT's. The damping characteristics of the manufactured EDT's are evaluated and compared with the corresponding characteristics obtained by conventional solid damping treatments in order to emphasize the importance of using optimally configured damping treatment to achieve high damping characteristics. The presented procedures are invaluable for designing efficient damping treatments for many military and civilian structures whose vibrations and noise must be effectively controlled.

  7. Dynamic Aperture and Tolerances for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Design

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    A lattice for the PEP-X ultimate storage ring light source, having 11 pm-rad natural emittance at a beam energy of 4.5 GeV at zero current, using 90 m of damping wiggler and fitting into the existing 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel, has been recently designed. Such a low emittance lattice requires very strong sextupoles for chromaticity correction, which in turn introduce strong non-linear field effects that limit the beam dynamic aperture. In order to maximize the dynamic aperture we choose the cell phases to cancel the third and fourth order geometric resonances in each 8-cell arc. Four families of chromatic sextupoles and six families of geometric (or harmonic) sextupoles are added to correct the chromatic and amplitude-dependent tunes. To find the best settings of the ten sextupole families, we use a Multi-Objective Genetic Optimizer employing elegant to optimize the beam lifetime and dynamic aperture simultaneously. Then we evaluate dynamic aperture reduction caused by magnetic field multipole errors, magnet fabrication errors and misalignments. A sufficient dynamic aperture is obtained for injection, as well as workable beam lifetime.

  8. Damped flexible seal

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, Neil J.; Amaral, Antonio M.

    1992-10-27

    A damped flexible seal assembly for a torpedo isolates the tailcone thereof rom vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly. A pair of outside flanges, each of which include an inwardly facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, provide a watertight seal against the outer non-rotating surface of the drive shaft assembly. An inside flange includes an outwardly-facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, and provides a watertight seal against the inner surface of the tail cone. Two cast-in-place elastomeric seals provide a watertight seal between the flanges and further provide a damping barrier between the outside flanges and the inside flanges for damping vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly before the energy can reach the tailcone through the seal assembly.

  9. The electronic properties of concentric double quantum ring and possibility designing XOR gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Badry, Lafy. F.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper I have investigated the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in concentric double quantum ring. The outer ring attached to leads while the inner ring only tunnel-coupled to the outer ring. The effect of inner ring on electron transport properties through outer ring studied and found that the conductance spectrum consists of two types of oscillations. One is the normal Aharonov-Bohm oscillation, and other is a small oscillations superposed above AB oscillation. The AB oscillation utilized to designing nanoscale XOR gate by choosing the magnetic flux and tuning the gate voltages which realization XOR gate action.

  10. Vacuum design of storage ring and front ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Weilun

    1988-09-01

    The vacuum chambers of the 2.8 GeV BEPC storage ring consists of Al alloy 6061 extrusions as the bending magnet chambers, all stainless steel flanges and roll bond Al/SS clad metal as the transitions. The double-decker distributed ion pumps were designed to have pumping speeds of ≳0.16 m3.s-1.m-1, and are mounted inside the slotted Al extrusions. To improve the vacuum at the interaction region, additional radial ion pumps and NEGs would be connected with the beam pipe. There are three front ends joining the beam ports to the experimental beamlines. Each front end contains a fast closing valve, and all metal gate valve, masks and shutters, triode sputter ion pumps, Ti sublimation pumps, total and partial pressure gauges, etc.

  11. Polarized wiggler for NSLS x-ray ring design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Krinsky, S.; Blum, E.

    1992-03-01

    We examine the properties of an elliptically polarized wiggler that will generate circularly polarized photons with energy spectrum of 3--12 KeV. The vertical wiggler magnetic field is produced by permanent magnets while the horizontal wiggler field is generated by electric coils capable of AC excitation. The radiation parameters of the wiggler are presented, including photon flux, circular and linear polarization and spectrum. These parameters are compared to the synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet. Numerical values are calculated for radiation from the wiggler and bending magnet for the NSLS X-ray ring parameters. A conceptual design for such a wiggler is discussed and several different alternatives are analyzed. We consider AC excitation of the wiggler to produce the time modulation of the elliptic polarization, and also to produce time modulated linearly polarized radiation.

  12. Design study for a liquid metal slip ring solar array orientation mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a single axis orientation mechanism for solar arrays on high power synchronous satellites is studied primarily with respect to providing 116 liquid metal slip rings for reduced friction and improved electrical characteristics. Designs and tradeoff studies for the slip rings and other components are presented. An assembly containing 33 slip rings of three design approaches was designed, fabricated, and vacuum tested to 30 amperes and 30,000 volts. Containment of the liquid metal gallium in large diameter slip rings was difficult. A design approach is presented which is expected to provide improved retention of the liquid metal.

  13. Quadratic Damping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2012-01-01

    Quadratic friction involves a discontinuous damping term in equations of motion in order that the frictional force always opposes the direction of the motion. Perhaps for this reason this topic is usually omitted from beginning texts in differential equations and physics. However, quadratic damping is more realistic than viscous damping in many…

  14. Quadratic Damping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2012-01-01

    Quadratic friction involves a discontinuous damping term in equations of motion in order that the frictional force always opposes the direction of the motion. Perhaps for this reason this topic is usually omitted from beginning texts in differential equations and physics. However, quadratic damping is more realistic than viscous damping in many…

  15. Structure reliability design and analysis of support ring for cylinder seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minmin, Zhao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the general reliability design process of the cross-sectional dimension of the support ring is introduced, which is used for the cylinder sealing. Then, taking a certain section shape support ring as an example, the every size parameters of section are determined from the view point of reliability design. Last, the static strength and reliability of the support ring are analyzed to verify the correctness of the reliability design result.

  16. Application of polynomial control to design a robust oscillation-damping controller in a multimachine power system.

    PubMed

    Hasanvand, Hamed; Mozafari, Babak; Arvan, Mohammad R; Amraee, Turaj

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the application of a static Var compensator (SVC) to improve the damping of interarea oscillations. Optimal location and size of SVC are defined using bifurcation and modal analysis to satisfy its primary application. Furthermore, the best-input signal for damping controller is selected using Hankel singular values and right half plane-zeros. The proposed approach is aimed to design a robust PI controller based on interval plants and Kharitonov's theorem. The objective here is to determine the stability region to attain robust stability, the desired phase margin, gain margin, and bandwidth. The intersection of the resulting stability regions yields the set of kp-ki parameters. In addition, optimal multiobjective design of PI controller using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented. The effectiveness of the suggested controllers in damping of local and interarea oscillation modes of a multimachine power system, over a wide range of loading conditions and system configurations, is confirmed through eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time domain simulation. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Damping device for a stationary labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Aini, Yehia M. (Inventor); Mitchell, William S. (Inventor); Roberts, Lawrence P. (Inventor); Montgomery, Stuart K. (Inventor); Davis, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A stationary labyrinth seal system includes a seal housing having an annular cavity, a plurality of damping devices, and a retaining ring. The damping devices are positioned within the annular cavity and are maintained within the annular cavity by the retaining ring.

  18. Simplified seismic collapse capacity-based evaluation and design of frame buildings with and without supplemental damping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidia, Mohammad Javad

    A simplified procedure is developed for estimating the seismic sidesway collapse capacity of frame building structures. The procedure is then extended to quantify the seismic collapse capacity of buildings incorporating supplemental damping systems. The proposed procedure is based on a robust database of seismic peak displacement responses of viscously damped nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom systems for various seismic intensities and uses nonlinear static (pushover) analysis without the need for nonlinear time history dynamic analysis. The proposed procedure is assessed by comparing its collapse capacity predictions on 1470 different building models with those obtained from incremental nonlinear dynamic analyses. A straightforward unifying collapse capacity based design procedure aimed at achieving a pre-determined probability of collapse under maximum considered earthquake event is also introduced for structures equipped with viscous dampers (linear and nonlinear) and hysteretic dampers. The proposed simplified procedure offers a simple, yet efficient, computational/analytical tool that is capable of predicting collapse capacities with acceptable accuracy for a wide variety of frame building structures incorporate several types of supplemental damping systems.

  19. Design of a new adaptive fuzzy controller and its implementation for the damping force control of a magnetorheological damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Shah, Kruti; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive fuzzy controller and its implementation for the damping force control of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper in order to validate the effectiveness of the control performance. An interval type 2 fuzzy model is built, and then combined with modified adaptive control to achieve the desired damping force. In the formulation of the new adaptive controller, an enhanced iterative algorithm is integrated with the fuzzy model to decrease the time of calculation (D Wu 2013 IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst. 21 80-99) and the control algorithm is synthesized based on the {{H}^{\\infty }} tracking technique. In addition, for the verification of good control performance of the proposed controller, a cylindrical MR damper which can be applied to the vibration control of a washing machine is designed and manufactured. For the operating fluid, a recently developed plate-like particle-based MR fluid is used instead of a conventional MR fluid featuring spherical particles. To highlight the control performance of the proposed controller, two existing adaptive fuzzy control algorithms proposed by other researchers are adopted and altered for a comparative study. It is demonstrated from both simulation and experiment that the proposed new adaptive controller shows better performance of damping force control in terms of response time and tracking accuracy than the existing approaches.

  20. Variable input coupler design for storage ring cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1995-08-18

    Magnetic loop type input couplers are used for coupling rf power from waveguides to the storage ring cavities: In a high rf power and high beam current accelerating cavity, the change in beam loading results in high reflected power due to input rf mismatch. The coupler can be matched for a specific loading condition, but cannot be matched in other conditions. The input mismatch results in poor rf power efficiency and overheating of the ceramic window in the coupler. Therefore, coupling through the coupling loop must be adjustable for maximum operating power efficiency and coupler reliability. The adjustment of coupling can be made by changing the magnetic flux linkage through the loop area. This can be done either mechanically by moving the coupling loop position or electronically by using impedance matching to change the properties of low loss material such as ferrite. In the existing coupler design, to change the coupling the coupler loop is turned physically for matching. The cavity vacuum must be broken and pumped down again; this can cause long system down time.

  1. Design of the muon collider isochronous storage ring lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trbojevic, D.; Ng, K. Y.; Courant, E. D.; Lee, S. Y.; Johnstone, C.; Gallardo, J.; Palmer, R.; Tepikian, S.

    1996-04-01

    The muon collider would extend the limitations of e+ e- colliders and provide new physics potentials, with possible discovery of the heavy Higgs bosons. At the maximum energy of 2 TeV the projected luminosity is of the order of 1035 cm-2 s-1. The colliding μ+ μ- bunches have to be focused to a very small transverse size of 2.8 μm, which is accomplished by the betatron functions at the crossing point of β*=3 mm. This requires a longitudinal space of the same length, 3 mm. These very short bunches at 2 TeV could circulate only in a quasi-isochronous storage ring where the momentum compaction is very close to zero. We report on a design of a muon collider isochronous lattice. The momentum compaction is brought to zero by having the average value of the dispersion function through dipoles equal to zero. This is accomplished by a combination of FODO cells with a low-beta insertion. The dispersion function oscillates between negative and positive values.

  2. The synergistic effects of slip ring-brush design and materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, N. E.; Cole, S. R.; Glossbrenner, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and subsequent testing of four power slip rings for synchronous orbit application are described. The synergistic effects of contact materials and slip ring-brush design are studied by means of frequent and simultaneous recording of friction, wear, and electrical noise. Data generated during the test period are presented along with post test analysis data.

  3. Landau damping

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Section 2.5.8 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering on Landau damping is rewritten. An solvable example is first given to demonstrate the interplay between Landau damping and decoherence. This example is an actual one when the beam oscillatory motion is driven by a wake force. The dispersion relation is derived and its implication on Landau damping is illustrated. The rest of the article touches on the Landau damping of transverse and longitudinal beam oscillations. The stability criteria are given for a bunched beam and the changes of the criteria when the beam is lengthened and becomes unbunched.

  4. GOES-R Active Vibration Damping Controller Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Weigl, Harald J.; Goodzeit, Neil E.; Carter, Delano R.; Rood, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    GOES-R series spacecraft feature a number of flexible appendages with modal frequencies below 3.0 Hz which, if excited by spacecraft disturbances, can be sources of undesirable jitter perturbing spacecraft pointing. In order to meet GOES-R pointing stability requirements, the spacecraft flight software implements an Active Vibration Damping (AVD) rate control law which acts in parallel with the nadir point attitude control law. The AVD controller commands spacecraft reaction wheel actuators based upon Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) inputs to provide additional damping for spacecraft structural modes below 3.0 Hz which vary with solar wing angle. A GOES-R spacecraft dynamics and attitude control system identified model is constructed from pseudo-random reaction wheel torque commands and IMU angular rate response measurements occurring over a single orbit during spacecraft post-deployment activities. The identified Fourier model is computed on the ground, uplinked to the spacecraft flight computer, and the AVD controller filter coefficients are periodically computed on-board from the Fourier model. Consequently, the AVD controller formulation is based not upon pre-launch simulation model estimates but upon on-orbit nadir point attitude control and time-varying spacecraft dynamics. GOES-R high-fidelity time domain simulation results herein demonstrate the accuracy of the AVD identified Fourier model relative to the pre-launch spacecraft dynamics and control truth model. The AVD controller on-board the GOES-16 spacecraft achieves more than a ten-fold increase in structural mode damping of the fundamental solar wing mode while maintaining controller stability margins and ensuring that the nadir point attitude control bandwidth does not fall below 0.02 Hz. On-orbit GOES-16 spacecraft appendage modal frequencies and damping ratios are quantified based upon the AVD system identification, and the increase in modal damping provided by the AVD controller for each structural

  5. Coulomb Damping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2012-01-01

    Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…

  6. Coulomb Damping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2012-01-01

    Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…

  7. A Design Report of the Baseline for PEP-X: an Ultra-Low Emittance Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl; Bertsche, Kirk; Cai, Yunhai; Chao, Alex; Corbett, Willian; Fox, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Xiaobiao; Huang, Zhirong; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nosochkov, Yuri; Novokhatski, Sasha; Radedeau, Thomas; Raubenheimer, Tor; Rivetta, Claudio; Safranek, James; Seeman, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2010-06-02

    Over the past year, we have worked out a baseline design for PEP-X, as an ultra-low emittance storage ring that could reside in the existing 2.2-km PEPII tunnel. The design features a hybrid lattice with double bend achromat (DBA) cells in two arcs and theoretical minimum emittance (TME) cells in the remaining four arcs. Damping wigglers are used to reduce the horizontal emittance to 86 pm-rad at zero current for a 4.5 GeV electron beam. At a design current of 1.5 A, the horizontal emittance increases, due to intrabeam scattering, to 164 pm-rad when the vertical emittance is maintained at a diffraction limited 8 pm-rad. The baseline design will produce photon beams achieving a brightness of 10{sup 22} (ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW) at 10 keV in a 3.5-m conventional planar undulator. Our study shows that an optimized lattice has adequate dynamic aperture, while accommodating a conventional off-axis injection system. In this report, we present the results of study, including the lattice properties, nonlinear dynamics, intra-beam scattering and Touschek lifetime, RF system, and collective instabilities. Finally, we discuss the possibility of partial lasing at soft X-ray wavelengths using a long undulator in a straight section.

  8. High-intensity muon storage rings for neutrino production: Lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.

    1998-08-01

    Five energies, 250, 100, 50, 20, and 10 GeV, have been explored in the design of a muon storage ring for neutrino-beam production. The ring design incorporates exceptionally long straight sections with large beta functions in order to produce an intense, parallel neutrino beam {ital via} muon decay. To emphasize compactness and reduce the number of muon decays in the arcs, high-field superconducting dipoles are used in the arc design. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Spatial cyclotron damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. L.

    1970-01-01

    To examine spatial electron cyclotron damping in a uniform Vlasov plasma, it is noted that the plasma response to a steady-state transverse excitation consists of several terms (dielectric-pole, free-streaming, and branch-cut), but that the cyclotron-damped pole term is the dominant term for z l = c/w sub ce provided (w sub pe/w sub ce) squared (c/a) is much greater than 1. If the latter inequality does not hold, then the free-streaming and branch-cut terms persist well past z = c/w sub ce as w sub 1 approaches w sub ce, making experimental measurement of cyclotron damping essentially impossible. Considering only (w sub pe/w sub ce) squared (c/a) is much greater than 1, it is shown how collisional effects should be estimated and how a finite-width excitation usually has little effect on the cyclotron-damped part of the response. Criteria is established concerning collisional damping, measurable damping length sizes, and allowed uncertainty in the magnetic field Beta. Results of numerical calculations, showing the regions in the appropriate parameter spaces that meet these criteria, are presented. From these results, one can determine the feasibility of, or propose parameter values for, an experiment designed to measure spatial cyclotron damping. It is concluded that the electron temperature T sub e should be at least 1 ev., and preferably 10 ev. or higher, for a successful experiment.

  10. A FODO racetrack ring for nuSTORM: design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, A.; Bross, A.; Neuffer, D.

    2017-07-01

    The goal of nuSTORM is to provide well-defined neutrino beams for precise measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The nuSTORM decay ring is a compact racetrack storage ring with a circumference of ~ 480 m that incorporates large aperture (60 cm diameter) magnets. There are many challenges in the design. In order to incorporate the Orbit Combination section (OCS), used for injecting the pion beam into the ring, a dispersion suppressor is needed adjacent to the OCS . Concurrently, in order to maximize the number of useful muon decays, strong bending dipoles are needed in the arcs to minimize the arc length. These dipoles create strong chromatic effects, which need to be corrected by nonlinear sextupole elements in the ring. In this paper, a FODO racetrack ring design and its optimization using sextupolar fields via both a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm will be discussed.

  11. Interactive design of large end rings on stiffened conical shells using composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Cooper, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    Design study methods and results for a composite reinforced base ring for the conical aeroshell structure of the planetary lander vehicle for Project Viking, an unmanned mission to Mars, are presented. The aeroshell is a ring and stringer-stiffened conical shell structure having a half angle of 70 degrees with a large base ring mounted at the outer edge of the cone and a large pay-load ring in the interior with many smaller rings spaced along the inside shell surface. The purpose of the structure is to develop the aerodynamic drag required to decelerate the lander in the Mars atmosphere to facilitiate a soft landing. The design of a shell structure of this complexity requires the use of the latest technology available in a large general-purpose shell buckling program. The large general-purpose non-linear shell buckling program (BOSOR 2) which was used for this purpose is described.

  12. Design and implementation of a fiber optic link for a token ring local area network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Thomas J.

    1992-09-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of a fiber optic link for a token ring local area network (LAN). It features the use of fiber optic channels as the transmission medium between a computer system and a wiring concentrator to convert a physical ring design into a starwired configuration. The LAN was controlled by the TMS380 LAN Adapter chipset, which provided all diagnostic and network management features to include the 4 Mb/s electrical signal for operation. Since this adapter was developed for systems using twisted wire pair adapter cables, design modifications required that the fiber link be able to simulate impedance and current characteristics of copper wire link. This allows the use of adapter diagnostic checks for ring continuity and proper ring operation. Design evaluations using test signals and adapter signals from within the computer-concentrator link showed mixed results. All transmission objectives were met but the circuit loaded down the LAN adapter causing hardware error messages.

  13. New hard layer design of MRAM based on ring elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Anand Subra

    Memories are characterized by their ability to store and retain data, by data access times and by their robustness under extreme operating conditions. Magnetic Random Access Memory devices are one of the emerging technologies, which promise a lot of scope for faster and denser memories. Non-volatility and insensitivity to radiation are two most important aspects of MRAM. Faster selective writing is obtained by controlling the formation of two stable data storing states and by simple switching between these states. We present three patterns- circular rings, square rings, and rectangular rings for the hard layer of the MRAM with controlled asymmetry. The patterns were studied with a focus on the uniformity and predictability of data switching, and stability of data storage. Magnetic Force Microscopy experiments and OOMMF (Object Oriented Micro Magnetic Framework) code were used for testing the magnetic behavior of these patterns under the influence of an applied magnetic field. The results revealed that the shape of the pattern used for the storage layer and the direction of applied field greatly influences the switching process in the patterns and the formation of stable data storing states.

  14. Design of dual ring wavelength filters for WDM applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyadevaki, R.; Shanmuga sundar, D.; Sivanantha Raja, A.

    2016-12-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing plays a prime role in an optical communication due to its advantages such as easy network expansion, longer span lengths etc. In this work, photonic crystal based filters with the dual rings are proposed which act as band pass filters (BPF) and channel drop filter (CDF) that has found a massive applications in C and L-bands used for wavelength selection and noise filtering at erbium doped fiber amplifiers and dense wavelength division multiplexing operation. These filters are formulated on the square lattice with crystal rods of silicon material of refractive index 3.4 which are perforated on an air of refractive index 1. Dual ring double filters (band pass filter and channel drop filter) on single layout possess passing and dropping band of wavelengths in two distinct arrangements with entire band quality factors of 92.09523 & 505.263 and 124.85019 & 456.8633 for the pass and drop filters of initial setup and amended setup respectively. These filters have the high-quality factor with broad and narrow bandwidths of 16.8 nm & 3.04 nm and 12.85 nm & 3.3927 nm. Transmission spectra and band gap of the desired filters is analyzed using Optiwave software suite. Two dual ring filters incorporated on a single layout comprises the size of 15×11 μm which can also be used in the integrated photonic chips for the ultra-compact unification of devices.

  15. Cabling design of booster and storage ring construction progress of TPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y.-S.; Liu, K.-B.; Liu, C.-Y.; Wang, b.-S.

    2017-06-01

    The 2012 Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) cable construction project started after 10 months to complete the cable laying and installation of power supply. The circumference of the booster ring (BR) is 496.8 m, whereas that of the storage ring (SR) is 518.4 m. Beam current is set to 500 mA at 3.3 GeV. The paper on grounding systems discusses the design of the ground wire (< 0.2 Ω) with low impedance, power supply of the accelerator and cabling tray. The flow and size of the ground current are carefully evaluated to avoid grounded current from flowing everywhere, which causes interference problems. In the design of the TPS, special shielding will be established to isolate the effects of electromagnetic interference on the magnet and ground current. Booster ring dipoles are connected by a series of 54-magnet bending dipole; the cable size of its stranded wire measures 250 mm2, with a total length of 5000 m. Booster ring and storage ring quadrupoles have 150 magnets; the cable size of their stranded wire is 250 mm2, with a total length of 17000 m. Storage ring dipole consists of 48 magnets; the cable size of its stranded wire is 325 mm2, with a total length of 6000 m. This study discusses the power supply cabling design of the storage ring and booster ring construction progress of TPS. The sections of this paper are divided into discussions of the construction of the control and instrument area, cabling layout of booster ring and storage ring, as well as the installation and commission machine. This study also discusses the use of a high-impedance meter to determine the effect of cabling insulation and TPS power supply machine on energy transfer to ensure the use of safe and correct magnet.

  16. Acoustic transducer with damping means

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard W.; Adamson, Gerald E.

    1976-11-02

    An ultrasonic transducer specifically suited to high temperature sodium applications is described. A piezoelectric active element is joined to the transducer faceplate by coating the faceplate and juxtaposed active element face with wetting agents specifically compatible with the bonding procedure employed to achieve the joint. The opposite face of the active element is fitted with a backing member designed to assure continued electrical continuity during adverse operating conditions which can result in the fracturing of the active element. The fit is achieved employing a spring-loaded electrode operably arranged to electrically couple the internal transducer components, enclosed in a hermetically sealed housing, to accessory components normally employed in transducer applications. Two alternative backing members are taught for assuring electrical continuity. The first employs a resilient, discrete multipoint contact electrode in electrical communication with the active element face. The second employs a resilient, elastomeric, electrically conductive, damped member in electrical communication with the active element face in a manner to effect ring-down of the transducer. Each embodiment provides continued electrical continuity within the transducer in the event the active element fractures, while the second provides the added benefit of damping.

  17. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  18. Parametric design-based modal damped vibrational piezoelectric energy harvesters with arbitrary proof mass offset: Numerical and analytical validations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumentut, Mikail F.; Howard, Ian M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the primary development of novel numerical and analytical techniques of the modal damped vibration energy harvesters with arbitrary proof mass offset. The key equations of electromechanical finite element discretisation using the extended Lagrangian principle are revealed and simplified to give matrix and scalar forms of the coupled system equations, indicating the most relevant numerical technique for the power harvester research. To evaluate the performance of the numerical study, the analytical closed-form boundary value equations have been developed using the extended Hamiltonian principle. The results from the electromechanical frequency response functions (EFRFs) derived from two theoretical studies show excellent agreement with experimental studies. The benefit of the numerical technique is in providing effective and quick predictions for analysing parametric designs and physical properties of piezoelectric materials. Although analytical technique provides a challenging process for analysing the complex smart structure, it shows complementary study for validating the numerical technique.

  19. Design, modeling and testing of integrated ring extractor for high resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yiwei; Dong, Jingyan

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an integrated ring extractor design in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, which can overcome the standoff height limitation in the EHD printing process, and improve printing capability for 3D structures. Standoff height in the EHD printing will affect printing processes and limit the height of the printed structure when the ground electrode is placed under the substrate. In this work, we designed and integrated a ring electrode with the printing nozzle to achieve a self-working printer head, which can start and maintain the printing process without the involvement of the substrate. We applied a FEA method to model the electric field potential distribution and strength to direct the ring extractor design, which provides a similar printing capability with the system using substrate as the ground electrode. We verified the ring electrode design by experiments, and those results from the experiments demonstrated a good match with results from the FEA simulation. We have characterized the printing processes using the integrated ring extractor, and successfully applied this newly designed ring extractor to print polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D structures.

  20. Optical design of color light-emitting diode ring light for machine vision inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing-Tao; Lu, Rong-Sheng; Shi, Yan-Qiong; Xia, Rui-Xue; Li, Qi; Xu, Yan

    2011-04-01

    Uniform irradiance and color adjustability are the key features in the design of lighting for machine vision inspection systems. A simple and practical design tool of angled light-emitting-diode (LED) ring arrays for uniform near-field irradiance has been developed by introducing a simple model to simplify the complexity of nonrotational symmetric irradiance distribution of angled LEDs. The color distribution and color uniformity of the ring array assembled with RGB LEDs are analyzed based on the analytical model of color mixing. According to the theoretical analysis, the simulated results, and the design exemplifications, the practical design tool offers an easy way to estimate the performance of an RGB LED ring array and can be considered as a starting point to reduce the computation time for exact designs that must use a realistic LED model.

  1. On the scalability of ring fiber designs for OAM multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Gregg, P; Kristensen, P; Golowich, S E

    2015-02-09

    The promise of the infinite-dimensionality of orbital angular momentum (OAM) and its application to free-space and fiber communications has attracted immense attention in recent years. In order to facilitate OAM-guidance, novel fibers have been proposed and developed, including a class of so-called ring-fibers. In these fibers, the wave-guiding region is a high-index annulus instead of a conventional circular core, which for reasons related to polarization-dependent differential phase shifts for light at waveguide boundaries, leads to enhanced stability for OAM modes. We review the theory and implementation of this nascent class of waveguides, and discuss the opportunities and limitations they present for OAM scalability.

  2. Design of a focused electron beam column for ring-cathode sources.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes focused electron beam columns designed for ring-cathode sources. Each cathode is intended to have a nano-size ring-edge thickness (typically around 50 nm), while its radius can measure hundreds of microns or larger, providing an area of emission that is several orders of magnitude greater than that of conventional field emission cathodes. Using methods of first-order and second-order geometric aberration correction, direct ray tracing simulations predict that these columns will be capable of combining high probe current (>1 μA) with high spatial resolution (<20 nm). Several simple column designs consisting of a ring-cathode gun unit combined with either a single magnetic or electric objective lens are presented. The ring-cathode concept is applicable to both field emission and photo-cathode guns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of the transfer line from booster to storage ring at 3 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bayar, C. Ciftci, A. K.

    2016-03-25

    The Synchrotron Booster Ring accelerates the e-beam up to 3 GeV and particles are transported from booster to storage ring by transfer line. In this study, two options are considered, the first one is a long booster which shares the same tunnel with storage ring and the second one is a compact booster. As a result, two transfer line are designed based on booster options. The optical design is constrained by the e-beam Twiss parameters entering and leaving the transfer line. Twiss parameters in the extraction point of booster are used for the entrance of transfer line and are matched in the exit of transfer line to the injection point of the storage ring.

  4. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SNS RING VACUUM INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    HSEUH,H.C.; SMART,L.A.; TANG,J.Y.

    2001-06-18

    BNL is undertaking the design, construction and commissioning of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring and the beam transport lines [l]. Ultrahigh vacuum of 10{sup {minus}9} Torr is required in the accumulator ring to minimize beam-gas ionization, a contributing factor to the e-p instability observed in a few high-intensity proton storage rings. All vacuum instrumentation must be capable of local and remote operation to achieve a reliable vacuum system, especially in this extremely high intensity accelerator. The design and development of the SNS ring vacuum instrumentation and control through the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) distributed real-time software tools are presented.

  5. Design summary of the magnet support structures for the proton storage ring injection line upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J.D.; Ledford, J.E.; Smith, B.G.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the technical engineering and design issues associated with the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) Injection Line upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The main focus is on the engineering design calculations of several magnet support structures. The general procedure based upon a set number of design criteria is outlined, followed by a case-by-case summary of the engineering design analyses, reutilization or fabrication callouts and design safety factors.

  6. The modified design of ring electrode quartz crystal resonator for uniform mass sensitivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinyang; Huang, Xianhe; Wang, Yan

    2013-09-01

    The mass sensitivity distribution curve of quartz crystal resonators (QCRs) with common circular electrodes is bell-shaped; however, a uniform mass sensitivity distribution is expected for highly accurate and repeatable measuring results. Pioneers designed a ring electrode QCR with a bimodal distribution curve of mass sensitivity, and an obvious concavity is presented between two peak points for a fundamental operating frequency of 10 MHz. The concavity is an obstacle to uniform mass sensitivity distribution, so eliminating the concavity is the goal of this study; two methods-changing overtone order and designing electrode geometry-are proposed to do so. An analytical theory for sensitivity distribution is introduced in this paper first. Analysis results show that the fifth overtone of 10 MHz is desirable for eliminating the concavity but with a drawback of sacrificing absolute mass sensitivity. The method of designing the electrode geometry can overcome this drawback and dot-ring and double-ring electrode geometries are proposed. When electrode parameters were selected properly, the maximum difference of mass sensitivity between two peak points was reduced by about 42.21% for dot-ring electrode QCR and 77.63% for double-ring electrode QCR compared with that of ring electrode QCR.

  7. Design of a compact ring for proton radiation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang-Rui; Zheng, Shu-Xin; Yao, Hong-Juan; Guan, Xia-Ling; Wang, Xue-Wu; Huang, Wen-Hui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a compact proton synchrotron, including lattice structure, injection system and extraction system, for radiation applications. The lattice is based on a DBFO cell and shows good properties like small β max and decent kick arm. Radiation applications require relative strong and continuous beam, so we propose strip injection and resonance extraction for the design. A phase space painting scheme is designed and simulated by ORBIT. The scheme achieves good uniformity in phase space. The extraction system is designed and optimized by multi-particle tracking.

  8. Ring design of the Prague synchrotron for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodozhentsev, A.; Makoveev, V.; Minashkin, V.; Shevtsov, V.; Sidorov, G.; Prokesh, K.; Sedlak, J.; Kuzmiak, M.

    1998-04-01

    The paper presents main elements of a dedicated proton synchrotron for hadron therapy. The beam parameters for active scanning of tumours are discussed. The output energy of the beam should be variable in the range 60-220 MeV. The average current of the proton beam is equal to 10 nA. The repetition rate of the accelerator is chosen of 1 Hz to get a spill time for slow extraction of about 500 ms. The timing cycle of the accelerator including the quasi-adiabatic capture process and acceleration is described. The RF gymnastics is utilized to prepare the unbunched beam for slow extraction. The magnetic elements of the ring, compact RF and VCO systems are presented in the paper. The maximum magnet field of the dipole magnet should be 1.2 T and the maximum magnetic field on the pole of the quadrupole lenses should be less than 1 T. The resonator should work on the first harmonic with a frequency from 1.298 MHz till 4.804 MHz. The length of the resonator should be less than 1 m. The maximum voltage on the accelerator gap should be about 2 kV.

  9. A Novel Shape Memory Alloy Annuloplasty Ring for Minimally Invasive Surgery: Design, Fabrication, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    A novel annuloplasty ring with a shape memory alloy core has been developed to facilitate minimally invasive mitral valve repair. In its activated (austenitic) phase, this prototype ring has comparable mechanical properties to commercial semi-rigid rings. In its pre-activated (martensitic) phase, this ring is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and easily manipulated with robotic instruments within the confines of a left atrial model. The core is constructed of 0.50 mm diameter NiTi, which is maintained below its martensitic transition temperature (24 °C) during deployment and suturing. After suturing, the ring is heated above its austenitic transition temperature (37 °C, normal human body temperature) enabling the NiTi core to attain its optimal geometry and stiffness characteristics indefinitely. This article summarizes the design, fabrication, and evaluation of this prototype ring. Experimental results suggest that the NiTi core ring could be a viable alternative to flexible bands in robot-assisted minimally invasive mitral valve repair. PMID:20652747

  10. BEAM-LOSS DRIVEN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) RING.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; CAMERON,P.; DANBY,G.; GARDNER,C.J.; JACKSON,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; LUDEWIG,H.; MALITSKY,N.; RAPARIA,D.; TSOUPAS,N.; WENG,W.T.; ZHANG,S.Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper summarizes three-stage design optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring: linear machine design (lattice, aperture, injection, magnet field errors and misalignment), beam core manipulation (painting, space charge, instabilities, RF requirements), and beam halo consideration (collimation, envelope variation, e-p issues etc.).

  11. Towards a Small Emittance Design of the JLEIC Electron Collider Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Fanglei; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Hutton, Andrew M.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Pilat, Fulvia C.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2016-05-01

    The electron collider ring of the Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) is designed to provide an electron beam with a small beam size at the IP for collisions with an ion beam in order to reach a desired high luminosity. For a chosen beta-star at the IP, electron beam size is determined by the equilibrium emittance that can be obtained through a linear optics design. This paper briefly describes the baseline design of the electron collider ring reusing PEP-II components and considering their parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and reports a few approaches to reducing the equilibrium emittance in the electron collider ring.

  12. Damping of thermoacoustic oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tward, E.; Mason, P. V.

    1982-01-01

    A commonly encountered and troublesome problem in cryogenic systems is related to the occurrence of thermoacoustic oscillations (TAO). The oscillations are accompanied by large heat fluxes which can cause large increases in the boiloff from dewars. Such a boiloff can lead to a serious degradation in performance. It appears, therefore, highly advisable to incorporate mechanisms for damping TAO in those parts of the system where there oscillations might occur. The present investigation is concerned with the criteria for the design of such damping mechanisms. Attention is given to the theory regrading the suppression of TAO, a damper consisting of a capillary with a surge tank, and porous solid dampers.

  13. Damping in Space Constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vreugd, Jan; de Lange, Dorus; Winters, Jasper; Human, Jet; Kamphues, Fred; Tabak, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Monolithic structures are often used in optomechanical designs for space applications to achieve high dimensional stability and to prevent possible backlash and friction phenomena. The capacity of monolithic structures to dissipate mechanical energy is however limited due to the high Q-factor, which might result in high stresses during dynamic launch loads like random vibration, sine sweeps and shock. To reduce the Q-factor in space applications, the effect of constrained layer damping (CLD) is investigated in this work. To predict the damping increase, the CLD effect is implemented locally at the supporting struts in an existing FE model of an optical instrument. Numerical simulations show that the effect of local damping treatment in this instrument could reduce the vibrational stresses with 30-50%. Validation experiments on a simple structure showed good agreement between measured and predicted damping properties. This paper presents material characterization, material modeling, numerical implementation of damping models in finite element code, numerical results on space hardware and the results of validation experiments.

  14. The Joint Damping Experiment (JDX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkman, Steven L.; Bingham, Jeff G.; Crookston, Jess R.; Dutson, Joseph D.; Ferney, Brook D.; Ferney, Greg D.; Rowsell, Edwin A.

    1997-01-01

    The Joint Damping Experiment (JDX), flown on the Shuttle STS-69 Mission, is designed to measure the influence of gravity on the structural damping of a high precision three bay truss. Principal objectives are: (1) Measure vibration damping of a small-scale, pinjointed truss to determine how pin gaps give rise to gravity-dependent damping rates; (2) Evaluate the applicability of ground and low-g aircraft tests for predicting on-orbit behavior; and (3) Evaluate the ability of current nonlinear finite element codes to model the dynamic behavior of the truss. Damping of the truss was inferred from 'Twang' tests that involve plucking the truss structure and recording the decay of the oscillations. Results are summarized as follows. (1) Damping, rates can change by a factor of 3 to 8 through changing the truss orientation; (2) The addition of a few pinned joints to a truss structure can increase the damping by a factor as high as 30; (3) Damping is amplitude dependent; (4) As gravity induced preloads become large (truss long axis perpendicular to gravity vector) the damping is similar to non-pinjointed truss; (5) Impacting in joints drives higher modes in structure; (6) The torsion mode disappears if gravity induced preloads are low.

  15. Viscosity in Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Shu, F. H.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of estimating the viscosity in Saturn's rings from the damping rate of waves observed to be propagating within the rings is discussed. The wavetrains of attempts using spiral density waves as a diagnostic suffer significant complications that compromise the interpretations. A method that considers the damping of spiral bending waves was used to deduce a kinematic viscosity of 260 (+150, -100) sqcm/sec for the middle of the A ring where bending waves are excited by the 5:3 vertical resonance with Mimas. This value implies upper limits on the particle velocity dispersion and local ring thickness of 0.4 cm/sec and 30 m, respectively.

  16. Development and application of ride-quality criteria. [considering vehicle vibration damping design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    Ride quality vibration criteria applicable to the design and evaluation of air and surface transportation systems are described. Consideration is given to the magnitude of vehicle vibration experienced by the passenger, the frequency of vibration, the direction of vibration measurements are presented for a variety of air and surface transportation systems. In addition, simulator data on seat dynamics and passenger response are presented. Results suggest the relative merits of various physical descriptors and measurement locations for characterizing the vibration in terms suitable for the design and/or evaluation of transportation systems.

  17. Status of RF deflecting cavity design for the generation of short x-ray pulses in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.C.; Harkay, K.; Horan, D.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is exploring the possibility of using radio frequency deflection to generate x-ray radiation pulses on the order of 1 pico-second (Delta t - 70%) or less. This scheme is based on a proposal by A. Zholents et al. that relies on manipulating the transverse momentum of the electrons in a bunch by using an rf deflecting cavity to induce a longitudinally dependent vertical deflection of the beam. The beam will then travel through a number of undulators before arriving at a second set of deflecting cavities where the deflection is reversed such that the remainder of the storage ring is largely unperturbed. Considerable effort has been expended on the design of a superconducting rf deflecting cavity operating in the S-band at 2.8 GHz to address fundamental design issues including cavity geometry, deflecting voltage, rf power coupling, tuning, and damping of higher-order and lower-order modes. In this paper we present simulation results and analysis of an optimized superconducting rf deflecting cavity design for the APS storage ring.

  18. Design of the Proposed Low Energy Ion Collider Ring at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, Edward W.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong

    2013-06-01

    The polarized Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) envisioned at Jefferson Lab will cover a range of center-of-mass energies up to 65 GeV. The present MEIC design could also allow the accommodation of low energy electron-ion collisions (LEIC) for additional science reach. This paper presents the first design of the low energy ion collider ring which is converted from the large ion booster of MEIC. It can reach up to 25 GeV energy for protons and equivalent ion energies of the same magnetic rigidity. An interaction region and an electron cooler designed for MEIC are integrated into the low energy collider ring, in addition to other required new elements including crab cavities and ion spin rotators, for later reuse in MEIC itself. A pair of vertical chicanes which brings the low energy ion beams to the plane of the electron ring and back to the low energy ion ring are also part of the design.

  19. Interaction-Region Design Options for a Linac-Ring LHeC

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, Frank; Bettoni, Simona; Bruning, Oliver; Holzer, Bernhard; Russenschuck, Stephan; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas, Rogelio; Aksakal, Husnu; Appleby, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Korostelev, Maxim; Ciftci, Abbas; Ciftci, Rena; Zengin, Kahraman; Dainton, John; Klein, Max; Eroglu, Emre; Tapan, Ilhan; Kostka, Peter; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Paoloni, Eugenio; /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Bologna /DESY /SLAC

    2012-06-21

    The interaction-region design for a linac-ring electron-proton collider based on the LHC ('LR-LHeC') poses numerous challenges related to collision scheme, synchrotron radiation, aperture, magnet technology, and optics. We report a first assessment and various options.

  20. Design and development of a bipolar power supply for APS storage ring correctors

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) requires a number of correction magnets. Basically, two different types of bipolar power supplies (BPS) will be used for all the correction magnets. One requires dc correction only, and the other requires dc and ac correction. For the storage ring horizontal/vertical (H/V) correctors, the BPS should be able to supply dc and ac current. This paper describes the design aspects and considerations for a bipolar power supply for the APS storage ring H/V correctors.

  1. Ring Catalog: A resource for designing self-assembling RNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Parlea, Lorena; Bindewald, Eckart; Sharan, Rishabh; Bartlett, Nathan; Moriarty, Daniel; Oliver, Jerome; Afonin, Kirill A; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    Designing self-assembling RNA ring structures based on known 3D structural elements connected via linker helices is a challenging task due to the immense number of motif combinations, many of which do not lead to ring-closure. We describe an in silico solution to this design problem by combinatorial assembly of RNA 3-way junctions, bulges, and kissing loops, and tabulating the cases that lead to ring formation. The solutions found are made available in the form of a web-accessible Ring Catalog. As an example of a potential use of this resource, we chose a predicted RNA square structure consisting of five RNA strands and demonstrate experimentally that the self-assembly of those five strands leads to the formation of a square-like complex. This is a demonstration of a novel "design by catalog" approach to RNA nano-structure generation. The URL https://rnajunction.ncifcrf.gov/ringdb can be used to access the resource. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Design and Fabrication of a Ring-Stiffened Graphite-Epoxy Corrugated Cylindrical Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Design and fabrication of supplement test panels that represent key portions of the cylinder are described, as are supporting tests of coupons, sample joints, and stiffening ring elements. The cylindrical shell is a ring-stiffened, open corrugation design that uses T300/5208 graphite-epoxy tape as the basic material for the shell wall and stiffening rings. The test cylinder is designed to withstand bending loads producing the relatively low maximum load intensity in the shell wall of 1,576 N/cm. The resulting shell wall weight, including stiffening rings and fasteners, is 0.0156 kg/m. The shell weight achieved in the graphite-epoxy cylinder represents a weight saving of approximately 23 percent, compared to a comparable aluminum shell. A unique fabrication approach was used in which the cylinder wall was built in three flat segments, which were then wrapped to the cylindrical shape. Such an approach, made possible by the flexibility of the thin corrugated wall in a radial direction, proved to be a simple approach to building the test cylinder. Based on tooling and fabrication methods in this program, the projected costs of a production run of 100 units are reported.

  3. Possibility designing XNOR and NAND molecular logic gates by using single benzene ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Mohammed A.; Hanoon, Falah H.; Al-Badry, Lafy F.

    2017-09-01

    This study focused on examining electronic transport through single benzene ring and suggested how such ring can be employed to design XNOR and NAND molecular logic gates. The single benzene ring was threaded by a magnetic flux. The magnetic flux and applied gate voltages were considered as the key tuning parameter in the XNOR and NAND gates operation. All the calculations are achieved by using steady-state theoretical model, which is based on the time-dependent Hamiltonian model. The transmission probability and the electric current are calculated as functions of electron energy and bias voltage, respectively. The application of the anticipated results can be a base for the progress of molecular electronics.

  4. Design of Accumulator and Compressor Rings for the Project-X Based Proton Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Neuffer, D.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    A Muon Collider (MC) and a Neutrino Factory (NF) - which may be considered as a step towards a MC - both require a high-power ({approx}4 MW) proton driver providing short (<1 m r.m.s. length) bunches for muon production. However, the driver repetition rates required for these two machines are different: {approx}15 Hz for MC and {approx}60 Hz for NF. This difference suggests employing two separate rings: one for accumulation of the proton beam from the Project-X linac in a few (e.g. 4) long bunches, the other for bunch compression - one by one for NF or all at a time for MC with simultaneous delivery to the target. The lattice requirements for these two rings are different: the momentum compaction factor in the accumulator ring should be large (and possibly negative) to avoid the microwave instability, while the compressor ring can be nearly isochronous in order to limit the required RF voltage and reduce the dispersion contribution to the beam size. In the present report we consider ring lattice designs which achieve these goals.

  5. The DAMPE Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhang; Tao, Ma; Yongyi, Huang

    2016-07-01

    The first Chinese space observatory DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) was successfully launched on Dec. 17th, 2015. One major scientific object of DAMPE is to measure electrons between 5GeV to 10TeV with excellent energy resolution (1.5% at 800GeV) to search for possible dark matter signatures. The detector consists of four subsystems: a plastic scintillator detector (PSD), a silicon-tungsten tracker (STK), a BGO calorimeter (BGO), and a neutron detector (NUD). The NUD on board DAMPE is designed to detect moderated neutrons via the boron capture of thermal neutrons in boron-doped plastics. Given the fact that hadron showers initiated in the BGO calorimeter by incident nuclei tend to be followed by significantly more neutron activities comparing to electromagnetic cascades triggered by electrons, the NUD provides an additional order of magnitude hadron rejection capability to improve the overall e/p discrimination of DAMPE up to 10 ^{5}. Preliminary analysis of the in-orbit data is given, together with comparisons to the results obtained by a detailed GEANT4 simulation of the NUD instrument.

  6. The influence of sampling design on tree-ring-based quantification of forest growth.

    PubMed

    Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph; Babst, Flurin; Klesse, Stefan; Nötzli, Magdalena; Bouriaud, Olivier; Neukom, Raphael; Dobbertin, Matthias; Frank, David

    2014-09-01

    Tree-rings offer one of the few possibilities to empirically quantify and reconstruct forest growth dynamics over years to millennia. Contemporaneously with the growing scientific community employing tree-ring parameters, recent research has suggested that commonly applied sampling designs (i.e. how and which trees are selected for dendrochronological sampling) may introduce considerable biases in quantifications of forest responses to environmental change. To date, a systematic assessment of the consequences of sampling design on dendroecological and-climatological conclusions has not yet been performed. Here, we investigate potential biases by sampling a large population of trees and replicating diverse sampling designs. This is achieved by retroactively subsetting the population and specifically testing for biases emerging for climate reconstruction, growth response to climate variability, long-term growth trends, and quantification of forest productivity. We find that commonly applied sampling designs can impart systematic biases of varying magnitude to any type of tree-ring-based investigations, independent of the total number of samples considered. Quantifications of forest growth and productivity are particularly susceptible to biases, whereas growth responses to short-term climate variability are less affected by the choice of sampling design. The world's most frequently applied sampling design, focusing on dominant trees only, can bias absolute growth rates by up to 459% and trends in excess of 200%. Our findings challenge paradigms, where a subset of samples is typically considered to be representative for the entire population. The only two sampling strategies meeting the requirements for all types of investigations are the (i) sampling of all individuals within a fixed area; and (ii) fully randomized selection of trees. This result advertises the consistent implementation of a widely applicable sampling design to simultaneously reduce uncertainties in

  7. Design and implementation of a fiber optic token-ring local area network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibeau, Gary

    1991-12-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of a fiber optic token-ring local area network (LAN). This design features fiber optic channels between stations on the network without the use of a wiring concentrator. The initial LAN electrical signal operating at 4 Mbps was provided by a LAN adapter card based on the TMS380 chipset developed for twisted pair copper wire. Since the physical characteristics of fiber and wire vary, use of this adapter necessitated that the design be able to deceive system initialization diagnostics and continuity checks designed for a wire system. Successful LAN communications over the fiber optic channels are described.

  8. Design of a family of ring-core fibers for OAM transmission studies.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Charles; Ung, Bora; Wang, Lixian; Messaddeq, Younès; LaRochelle, Sophie; Rusch, Leslie A

    2015-04-20

    We propose a family of ring-core fibers, designed for the transmission of OAM modes, that can be fabricated by drawing five different fibers from a single preform. This novel technique allows us to experimentally sweep design parameters and speed up the fiber design optimization process. Such a family of fibers could be used to examine system performance, but also facilitate understanding of parameter impact in the transition from design to fabrication. We present design parameters characterizing our fiber, and enumerate criteria to be satisfied. We determine targeted fiber dimensions and explain our strategy for examining a design family rather than a single fiber design. We simulate modal properties of the designed fibers, and compare the results with measurements performed on fabricated fibers.

  9. Self-Damping Sprung Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Self-damping sprung wheel provides shock-absorbing suspension for wheelchair, reducing user's discomfort when traversing rough terrain or obstacles. Pair of self-damping sprung wheels installed in place of conventional large rear wheels of standard wheelchair, which user operates in conventional manner. Rim deflects in vicinity of contact with ground or floor. Includes inner and outer hoops bending when obstacle encountered. Shear deformation of elastomeric hoop between them absorbs energy. Thus, three hoops act together as damping spring. Alternative version of wheel designed for bicycle.

  10. Bearing-Cartridge Damping Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggins, David G.; Scharrer, Joseph K.; Chen, Wei C.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed design for improved ball-bearing cartridge, damping seal in form of thin-layer fluid journal bearing incorporated into cartridge. Damping seal acts as auxiliary bearing, relieving bearing balls of significant portions of both static and dynamic bearing loads. Damping from seal reduces dynamic loads even further by reducing amplitude of vibrations in second vibrational mode of rotor, which mode occurs when rotor turning at nearly full operating speed. Intended for use in high-pressure-oxygen turbopump of Space Shuttle main engine, also applicable to other turbomachinery bearings.

  11. Self-Damping Sprung Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Self-damping sprung wheel provides shock-absorbing suspension for wheelchair, reducing user's discomfort when traversing rough terrain or obstacles. Pair of self-damping sprung wheels installed in place of conventional large rear wheels of standard wheelchair, which user operates in conventional manner. Rim deflects in vicinity of contact with ground or floor. Includes inner and outer hoops bending when obstacle encountered. Shear deformation of elastomeric hoop between them absorbs energy. Thus, three hoops act together as damping spring. Alternative version of wheel designed for bicycle.

  12. Critically stable damping in flexible structure control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhigang; Zheng, Gangtie

    2017-10-01

    The concept of critically stable damping and its application to flexible structure control are presented. Critically stable damping was originally noted from the viewpoint of control-structure integration. It was recognized that a slight augmentation of structural damping would result in substantially more robust control without decreased performance and could guarantee the stability margin for any structural frequency increase. This paper illustrates the wide occurrence of critically stable damping phenomenon, establishes its basic relationship for the insight of the general design procedure, and applies the concept into the practical design of a satellite with a large deployable antenna. It is noted that the critically stable damping concept could provide a feasible approach to overcome the difficulty in ultra-large space structure design and control, and enhance the performance of a variety of excellent control design methodologies for flexible structure control. This critically stable damping provides new insight into the integrated design of control and structure.

  13. Cocured damped layers in composite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rotz, C.A. ); Barrett, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    A study was made on the feasibility of laminating and cocuring graphite fiber-epoxy prepreg with plies of commercially available damping materials for form beams and hat-stiffened panels. Experiments showed that cocuring did not adversely affect the damping materials and that excellent structural damping properties could be obtained. The construction of the hat-stiffened panels proved that complex parts containing damping materials could be fabricated. Dynamic testing of these components showed that internal architectural features could be designed to promote damping in primary structure.

  14. Foucault pendulum with eddy-current damping of the elliptical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastner, G.; Vokurka, V.; Maschek, M.; Vogt, E.; Kaufmann, H. P.

    1984-10-01

    A newly designed Foucault pendulum is described in which the mechanical Charron ring, used throughout in previous designs for damping of the elliptical motion of the pendulum, is replaced by an electromagnetic eddy-current brake, consisting of a permanent magnet attached to the bottom of the bob and a metallic ring. This damping device is very efficient, as it is self-aligning, symmetrical in the damping effect, and never wears out. The permanent magnet is also used, together with a coil assembly and an electronic circuitry, for the dipole-torque drive of the pendulum as well as for accurate stabilization of the amplitude of the swing. A latched time display, controlled by Hall probes activated by the magnet, is used to visualize the Foucault rotation. The pendulum system and its associated electronic circuitry are described in detail. The optimizing of the drive mode is discussed. Measurements of deviations from theoretical value of the Foucault rotation velocity made automatically in a continuous run show a reproducible accuracy of ±1% or better in individual 360° rotations during the summer months. The quality factor of the pendulum as mechanical resonator was measured as a function of the amplitude in the presence of the eddy-current damping ring.

  15. Use of the Halbach perturbation theory for the multipole design of the ALS storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1995-02-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate in the primary or sextupole mode and in three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. Klaus Halbach developed a perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets which provides the basis for this design. Many magnet designers, certainly those who have been exposed to Klaus, are familiar with this theory and have used it for such things as evaluating the effect of assembly alignment errors. The ALS sextupole design process was somewhat novel in its use of the perturbation theory to design essential features of the magnet. In particular, the steering and skew quadrupole functions are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber. Prototype testing verified all operating modes of the magnet and confirmed the expected performance from calculations based upon the Halbach perturbation theory. A total of 48 sextupole magnets of this design are now installed and operating successfully in the ALS storage ring.

  16. Optimal design of imperfect, anisotropic, ring-stiffened cylinders under combined loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ley, Robert P.; Gurdal, Zafer; Johnson, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Development of an algorithm to perform the optimal sizing of buckling resistant, imperfect, anisotropic ring-stiffened cylinders subjected to axial compression, torsion, and internal pressure is presented. The enforcement of stability constraints is treated in a way that does not require any eigenvalue analysis. Assumption of criticality of these stability constraints during the optimal sizing of the cylinders produced designs that nevertheless satisfied all of the stress constraints as well as the stability constraints. Case studies performed using a combination of penalty function and feasible direction optimization methods indicate that the presence of the axisymmetric initial imperfection in the cylinder wall can significantly affect the optimal designs. Weight savings associated with the addition of two rings to the unstiffened cylinder and/or the addition of internal pressure is substantial when torsion makes up a significant fraction of the combined load state.

  17. Optimal design of imperfect, anisotropic, ring-stiffened cylinders under combined loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ley, Robert P.; Gurdal, Zafer; Johnson, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Development of an algorithm to perform the optimal sizing of buckling resistant, imperfect, anisotropic ring-stiffened cylinders subjected to axial compression, torsion, and internal pressure is presented. The enforcement of stability constraints is treated in a way that does not require any eigenvalue analysis. Assumption of criticality of these stability constraints during the optimal sizing of the cylinders produced designs that nevertheless satisfied all of the stress constraints as well as the stability constraints. Case studies performed using a combination of penalty function and feasible direction optimization methods indicate that the presence of the axisymmetric initial imperfection in the cylinder wall can significantly affect the optimal designs. Weight savings associated with the addition of two rings to the unstiffened cylinder and/or the addition of internal pressure is substantial when torsion makes up a significant fraction of the combined load state.

  18. Design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity of novel pleuromutilin derivatives bearing an amino thiazolyl ring.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yong; Wang, Xinyang; Wang, Hui; Yu, Jianghe; Tang, Junming; Wang, Donggeng; Chen, Guangtong; Huang, Jinhua; Li, Yuqin; Zheng, Heng

    2012-08-01

    A series of novel pleuromutilin derivatives containing the amino thiazolyl ring were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activities in vitro against Gram-positive clinical bacteria. All the target compounds showed better aqueous solubility compared with the lead compound (10). Most compounds displayed strong antibacterial activities against both susceptible and resistant bacteria, particularly for the compound (12f) which showed extraordinary antibacterial properties superior to amoxicillin and tiamulin. Molecular docking studies revealed that the amino thiazolyl ring, the side chains of the pleuromutilin derivatives, can be adopted in the binding pocket of the 50S ribosomal subunit near the mutilin core. Therefore, our novel findings may provide new insights into the design of novel pleuromutilin derivatives and lay the basis for further studies on these promising antibiotics for human clinical use. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. TlCaBaCuO high Tc superconducting microstrip ring resonators designed for 12 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanyam, G.; Kapoor, V. J.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave properties of sputtered Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films were investigated by designing, fabricating, and testing microstrip ring resonators. Ring resonators designed for 12 GHz fundamental resonance frequency, were fabricated and tested. From the unloaded Q values for the resonators, the surface resistance was calculated by separating the conductor losses from the total losses. The penetration depth was obtained from the temperature dependence of resonance frequency, assuming that the shift in resonance frequency is mainly due to the temperature dependence of penetration depth. The effective surface resistance at 12 GHz and 77 K was determined to be between 1.5 and 2.75 mOmega, almost an order lower than Cu at the same temperature and frequency. The effective penetration depth at 0 K is approximately 7000 A.

  20. Harmonics suppression in electromagnets with application to the ALS storage ring corrector magnet design

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1991-01-28

    This memo presents an analytical development for prediction of skew harmonics in a iron core C-magnet to due arbitrarily positioned electromagnet coils. A structured approach is presented for the suppression of an arbitrary number of harmonic components to arbitrarily low values. Application of the analytical harmonic strength calculations coupled to the structured harmonic suppression approach is presented in the context of the design of the ALS storage ring corrector magnets.

  1. Overall design concepts for the APS storage ring machine protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Fuja, R.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Shu, D.; Stepp, J.; Arnold, N.; Nawrocki, G.; Decker, G.; Chung, Y.

    1995-07-01

    The basic design and status of the machine protection system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are discussed. The machine is passively safe to the bending magnet sources, but the high power of the insertion devices requires missteering conditions to be identified and the beam aborted in less than one millisecond. The basic aspects of waterflow, temperature, beam position, etc. monitoring are addressed. Initial commissioning of subsystems and sensors is statused.

  2. Conceptual design of an isochronous ring to generate coherent terahertz synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, H.; Tanaka, H.; Kumagai, N.; Kawai1, M.; Hinode, F.; Muto, T.; Nanbu, K.; Tanaka, T.; Kasamsook, K.; Akiyama, K.; Yasuda, M.

    2006-11-01

    A novel coherent light source project in the terahertz wavelength region has been developed at Tohoku University. The project may involve development of high brightness electron guns employing cathode of single crystal LaB6 for production of a very short bunch length less than 100 fs. The light source has been designed based on isochronous ring optics to preserve the short bunch length. Although the ring is not a storage ring, the lattice of isochronous optics has resulted from consideration of path length differences due to the betatron motion. The coherent terahertz photons are emitted from circulating electron bunches injected from the linac. Even though the beam is bent by dipole magnets, the bunch shape does not collapse because of the nearly complete isochronous optics of the ring. Since production of the coherent terahertz radiation requires a bunch length less than 100 fs (stdv, if Gaussian), the maximum path length difference created by passing through the dipoles is controlled to not exceed a couple of tens of femtoseconds. The predicted spectrum of the coherent terahertz radiation and its characteristics are also presented.

  3. Damping of thermoacoustic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Tward, E.; Mason, P.V.

    1982-01-01

    The design criteria for the damping mechanism required to suppress thermoacoustic oscillation is discussed. The theory is presented with formulas stated. Incident acoustic wave generation is illustrated with the pipes and damper positions indicated. Capillary and surge tank functions are described with illustrations and formulas relevant to the thermoacoustic oscillation process. Porous solid dampers were introduced which used glass wool. The problem of damping of the thermoacoustic oscillation appears to be solvable in many applications through the use of an orifice and surge tank. This device can be installed either as a termination in an oscillating pipe or in a branch. It is suggested that such a device be incorporated into cryogenic systems whenever thermoacoustic oscillations could cause a problem.

  4. Design and construction of an Offner spectrometer based on geometrical analysis of ring fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Hyun; Kong, Hong Jin; Lee, Jong Ung; Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Jai Hoon

    2014-08-01

    A method to obtain an aberration-corrected Offner spectrometer without ray obstruction is proposed. A new, more efficient spectrometer optics design is suggested in order to increase its spectral resolution. The derivation of a new ring equation to eliminate ray obstruction is based on geometrical analysis of the ring fields for various numerical apertures. The analytical design applying this equation was demonstrated using the optical design software Code V in order to manufacture a spectrometer working in wavelengths of 900-1700 nm. The simulation results show that the new concept offers an analytical initial design taking the least time of calculation. The simulated spectrometer exhibited a modulation transfer function over 80% at Nyquist frequency, root-mean-square spot diameters under 8.6 μm, and a spectral resolution of 3.2 nm. The final design and its realization of a high resolution Offner spectrometer was demonstrated based on the simulation result. The equation and analytical design procedure shown here can be applied to most Offner systems regardless of the wavelength range.

  5. A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler Design

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Douglas, David R.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Nissen, Edward W.

    2013-05-01

    An electron cooling facility which is capable to deliver a beam with energy up to 55 MeV and average current up to 1.5 A at a high bunch repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. In this paper, we present a proposal of a test facility utilizing the JLab FEL ERL for a technology demonstration of this cooler design concept. Beam studies will be performed and supporting technologies will also be developed in this test facility.

  6. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bartkoski, Dirk A; Deibele, Craig E; Polsky, Yarom

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  7. Hybrid Damping System for an Electronic Equipment Mounting Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David; Kolkailah, Faysal A.; Cavalli, J. R.; Elghandour, Eltahry

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and construct a vibration control system for an electronic equipment shelf to be evaluated in the NASA Dryden FTF-11. The vibration control system was a hybrid system which included passive and active damping techniques. Passive damping was fabricated into the equipment shelf using ScothDamp(trademark) damping film and aluminum constraining layers. Active damping was achieved using a two channel active control circuit employing QuickPack(trademark) sensors and actuators. Preliminary Chirp test results indicated passive damping smoothed the frequency response while active damping reduced amplitudes of the frequency response for most frequencies below 500Hz.

  8. Hybrid Damping System for an Electronic Equipment Mounting Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David; Kolkailah, Faysal A.; Cavalli, J. R.; Elghandour, Eltahry

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and construct a vibration control system for an electronic equipment shelf to be evaluated in the NASA Dryden FTF-II. The vibration control system was a hybrid system which included passive and active damping techniques. Passive damping was fabricated into the equipment shelf using ScothDamp(trademark) damping film and aluminum constraining layers. Active damping was achieved using a two channel active control circuit employing QuickPack(trademark) sensors and actuators. Preliminary Chirp test results indicated passive damping smoothed the frequency response while active damping reduced amplitudes of the frequency response for most frequencies below 500Hz.

  9. New design of a triplexer using ring resonator integrated with directional coupler based on photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yaw-Dong; Shih, Tien-Tsorng; Lee, Jian-Jang

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we proposed the design of directional coupler integrated with ring resonator based on two-dimensional photonic crystals (2D PCs) to develop a triplexer filter. It can be widely used as the fiber access network element for multiplexer-demultiplexer wavelength selective in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) communication systems. The directional coupler is chosen to separate the wavelengths of 1490nm and 1310nm. The ring resonator separates the wavelength of 1550nm. The transmission efficiency is larger than 90%. Besides, the total size of propose triplexer is only 19μm×12μm. We present simulation results using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the proposed structure.

  10. Injector Design for a Model Electron Ring at the University of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlove, T.; Bernal, S.; Deng, J. J.; Li, Y.; Reiser, M.; Wang, J. G.; Zou, Y.

    1997-05-01

    A model electron recirculator is being developed at the University of Maryland. It employs a 10-keV, space-charge-dominated beam injected into a 1.8-m radius ring equipped with a strong-focusing lattice based on printed-circuit quadrupoles and dipoles. The motivation and general features are described in separate papers. Here we describe the design for injecting a single-turn bunch into the ring. The system includes a low-emittance e-gun, matching section, pulsed dipole and Panofsky quadrupole. The dipole at the injection point must deflect the beam -10^circ during entry and +10^circ after entry, with about 25 ns transition time. The Panofsky quadrupole must be off during entry and on for subsequent laps, with a similar rise time.

  11. Structural design of 3m class ground based telescope elevation ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yufeng; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Xie, Zongliang; Zhu, Fuyin; Jiang, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the dynamic stiffness of telescope mount, the accuracy of aiming and stability of optical system, a topology optimization method based on the theory of variable density and taking maximum stiffness as objective function is studied. In the topology optimization analysis of elevation ring, one of the most important members of the telescope mount, two kinds of structural are designed: one is a traditional plate welding structure and the other is a combination of plate welding and truss welding. Furthermore, the stiffness and modal performance of the elevation ring in different performances are analyzed and compared. The results show that in meeting the strength and stiffness of the premise, the mass of elevation ring with plate welding and truss welding is 7.00T and the moment of inertia is 11.94 t•m2. What`s more, the total deformation in the horizontal direction and the zenith direction are 6.70μm and 55.86μm, respectively; the stress is within stress range of material's promise; the modal is 105.9Hz.Compared with the traditional structural with plate welding, this new structural design approached to ensure the dynamic stiffness while effectively reducing its own weight with reduction rate 10.7% and moments of inertia with reduction rate 12.3%. This new structural of plate welding and truss welding has obvious advantages in lightweight design. This new design method based on topology optimization will provide efficient help to later components design of the telescope mount.

  12. Design and optimization of polymer ring resonator modulators for analog microwave photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2016-02-01

    Efficient modulation of electrical signals onto an optical carrier remains the main challenge in full implementation of microwave photonic links (MPLs) for applications such as antenna remoting and wireless access networks. Current MPLs utilize Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) with sinusoidal transfer function as electro-optic modulators causing nonlinear distortions in the link. Recently ring resonator modulators (RRM) consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a base waveguide attracted interest to enhance linearity, reduce the size and power consumption in MPLs. Fabrication of a RRM is more challenging than the MZI not only in fabrication process but also in designing and optimization steps. Although RRM can be analyzed theoretically for MPLs, physical structures need to be designed and optimized utilizing simulation techniques in both optical and microwave regimes with consideration of specific material properties. Designing and optimization steps are conducted utilizing full-wave simulation software package and RRM function analyzed in both passive and active forms and confirmed through theoretical analysis. It is shown that RRM can be completely designed and analyzed utilizing full-wave simulation techniques and as a result linearity effect of the modulator on MPLs can be studied and optimized. The material nonlinearity response can be determined computationally and included in modulator design and readily adaptable for analyzing other materials such as silicon or structures where theoretical analysis is not easily achieved.

  13. Tuned vibration absorbers with nonlinear viscous damping for damped structures under random load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The classical problem for the application of a tuned vibration absorber is to minimize the response of a structural system, such as displacement, velocity, acceleration or to maximize the energy dissipated by tuned vibration absorber. The development of explicit optimal absorber parameters is challenging for a damped structural system since the fixed points no longer exist in the frequency response curve. This paper aims at deriving a set of simple design formula of tuned vibration absorber with nonlinear viscous damping based on the frequency tuning for harmonic load for a damped structural system under white noise excitation. The vibration absorbers being considered include tuned mass damper (TMD) and liquid column vibration absorber (LCVA). Simple approximate expression for the standard deviation velocity response of tuned vibration absorber for damped primary structure is also derived in this study to facilitate the estimation of the damping coefficient of TMD with nonlinear viscous damping and the head loss coefficient of LCVA. The derived results indicate that the higher the structural inherent damping the smaller the supplementary damping provided by a tuned vibration absorber. Furthermore, the optimal damping of tuned vibration absorber is shown to be independent of structural damping when it is tuned using the frequency tuning for harmonic load. Finally, the derived closed-form expressions are demonstrated to be capable of predicting the optimal parameters of tuned vibration absorbers with sufficient accuracy for preliminary design of tuned vibration absorbers with nonlinear viscous damping for a damped primary structure.

  14. Ringing wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplya, R.A.; Molina, C.

    2005-06-15

    We investigate the response of traversable wormholes to external perturbations through finding their characteristic frequencies and time-domain profiles. The considered solution describes traversable wormholes between the branes in the two brane Randall-Sundrum model and was previously found within Einstein gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field. The evolution of perturbations of a wormhole is similar to that of a black hole and represents damped oscillations (ringing) at intermediately late times, which are suppressed by power-law tails (proportional to t{sup -2} for monopole perturbations) at asymptotically late times.

  15. Conceptual Design Report. Antiproton - Proton Collider Upgrade 20 GeV Rings. Technical Components and Civil Construction May, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-05-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of two new 20 GeV rings which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider with a luminosity goal of 5x10 31 cm-2s-1. The new rings include an antiproton post-accumulator, denoted the Antiproton Super Booster (ASB), and a proton post-booster, denoted the Proton Super Booster (PSB). The siting of the rings is shown in Figure I-1. Both rings are capable of operation at 20 GeV, eliminating the need for ever again injecting beam into the Main Ring below transition, and significantly enhancing Main Ring performance. The Antiproton Super Booster is designed to accept and accumulate up to 4x1012 antiprotons from the existing Antiproton Accumulator, and deliver them to the Main Ring at 20 GeV for acceleration and injection into the Collider. It is also designed to accept diluted antiprotons from the Main Ring at 20 GeV for recooling. The PSB accepts 8.9 GeV protons from the existing Booster and accelerates them to 20 GeV for injection into the Main Ring. The PSB is designed to operate at 5 Hz. The siting shown in Figure I-1 has the attractive feature that it removes all Main Ring injection hardware from the AO straight section, opening the possibility of installing a third proton-antiproton interaction region in the Tevatron Collider.

  16. Exact mesh shape design of large cable-network antenna reflectors with flexible ring truss supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wang; Li, Dong-Xu; Yu, Xin-Zhan; Jiang, Jian-Ping

    2014-04-01

    An exact-designed mesh shape with favorable surface accuracy is of practical significance to the performance of large cable-network antenna reflectors. In this study, a novel design approach that could guide the generation of exact spatial parabolic mesh configurations of such reflector was proposed. By incorporating the traditional force density method with the standard finite element method, this proposed approach had taken the deformation effects of flexible ring truss supports into consideration, and searched for the desired mesh shapes that can satisfy the requirement that all the free nodes are exactly located on the objective paraboloid. Compared with the conventional design method, a remarkable improvement of surface accuracy in the obtained mesh shapes had been demonstrated by numerical examples. The present work would provide a helpful technical reference for the mesh shape design of such cable-network antenna reflector in engineering practice. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Magnetic design of trim excitations for the advanced light source storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1995-06-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

  18. Magnetic design of trim excitations for the Advanced Light Source storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

  19. Triband phase shifter design using split-ring resonator and complementary split-ring resonator-loaded ground plane for wireless applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulandhaisamy, Indhumathi; Shrivastav, Arun Kumar; Kanagasabai, Malathi; Kizhekke Pakkathillam, Jayaram

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel linear analog planar phase shifter deploying split-ring resonator (SRR) and complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) structures. Based on the advantages of these structures, a triband phase shifter is designed for multiple target systems to operate at 0.85, 1.69, and 2.46 GHz bands finding applications for European RFIDs, Satellite Radio Broadcast System, Mobile Services, and ISM Band, respectively. The effect of SRR and CSRR coupling with host transmission line is also analyzed on the basis of Bloch mode theory and the modes are validated through Eigen mode analysis. The proposed phase shifter design shows a good agreement between simulated and measured results. A 90° ± 8° shift in phase is observed at lower and upper bands, and a 135° ± 8° shift is observed in center band with reasonable group delay components.

  20. Next generation HOM-damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marhauser, Frank

    2017-06-01

    can push the envelope towards quasi HOM-free operation suited for next generation storage and collider rings. Geometrical end-cell shape alterations for the five-cell cavity with already efficient mode damping are discussed as a possibility to further lower specific high impedance modes. The findings are eventually put into relation with demanding impedance instability thresholds in future collider rings.

  1. Next generation HOM-damping

    DOE PAGES

    Marhauser, Frank

    2017-05-15

    since it can push the envelope towards quasi HOM-free operation suited for next generation storage and collider rings. Geometrical end-cell shape alterations for the five-cell cavity with already efficient mode damping are discussed as a possibility to further lower specific high impedance modes. Lastly, the findings are eventually put into relation with demanding impedance instability thresholds in future collider rings.« less

  2. Analysis and design of a uniform-clearance, pumping-ring rod seal for the Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1980-01-01

    A uniform clearance pumping ring, as opposed to the conventional taper clearance one, is described. The uniform clearance concept eliminates complex elastohydrodynamic problems and enables a simple analytical treatment to be made. An analytical expression is derived for the pumping rate showing the effect of various design parameters on the pumping ring's performance. An optimum clearance is found by which the pumping rate is maximized and a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the potential of the uniform clearance design.

  3. Investigating an alternative ring design of transducer arrays for tumor treating fields (TTFields).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Mario; Wenger, Cornelia; Salvador, Ricardo; Fernandes, Sofia R; Miranda, Pedro C

    2016-08-01

    Tumor treating fields (TTFields) is a therapy that inhibits cell proliferation and has been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme. This anti-mitotic technique works non-invasively and regionally, and is associated with less toxicity and a better quality of life. Currently a device called Optune™ is clinically used which works with two perpendicular and alternating array pairs each consisting of 3×3 transducers. The aim of this study is to investigate a theoretical alternative array design which consists of two rings of 16 transducers and thus permits various field directions. A realistic human head model with isotropic tissues was used to simulate the electric field distribution induced by the two types of array layouts. One virtual tumour was modelled as a sphere in the white matter close to one lateral ventricle. Four alternative ring design directions were evaluated by activating arrays of 2×2 transducers on opposite sides of the head. The same amount of current was passed through active transducer arrays of the Optune system and the ring design. The electric field distribution in the brain differs for the various array configurations, with higher fields between activated transducer pairs and lower values in distant areas. Nonetheless, the average electric field strength values in the tumour are comparable for the various configurations. Values between 1.00 and 1.91 V/cm were recorded, which are above the threshold for effective treatment. Increasing the amount of field directions could possibly also increase treatment efficacy, because TTFields' effect on cancer cells is highest when the randomly distributed cell division axis is aligned with the field. The results further predict that slightly changing transducer positions only has a minor effect on the electric field. Thus patients might have some freedom to adjust array positions without major concern for treatment efficacy.

  4. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-11-01

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~103; while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors.

  5. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~103; while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors. PMID:25403698

  6. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-11-18

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~10(3); while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors.

  7. Harmonic Resonant Kicker Design for the MEIC Electron Circular Cooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    Bunched-beam electron cooling of the high-energy ion beam emittance may be a crucial technology for the proposed Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) to achieve its design luminosity. A critical component is a fast kicker system in the Circular Ring (CR) that periodically switches electron bunches in and out of the ring from and to the driver Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Compared to a conventional strip-line type kicker, a quarter-wave resonator (QWR)-based deflecting structure has a much higher shunt impedance and so requires much less RF power. The cavity has been designed to resonate simultaneously at many harmonic modes that are integer multiples of the fundamental mode. In this way the resulting waveform will kick only a subset of the circulating bunches. In this paper, analytical shunt impedance optimization, the electromagnetic simulations of this type of cavity, as well as tuner and coupler concept designs to produce 5 odd and 5 even harmonics of 47.63MHz will be presented, in order to kick every 10th bunch in a 476.3 MHz bunch train.

  8. Lattice design and optimization for the PEP-X ultra low emittance storage ring at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Min-Huey; Nosochkov, Yuri; Bane, Karl; Cai, Yunhai; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    SLAC is developing a long-range plan to transfer the evolving scientific programs at SSRL from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing photon source. One of the possibilities is a new PEP-X 4.5 GeV storage ring that would be housed in the 2.2 km PEP-II tunnel. The PEP-X is designed to produce photon beams having brightness near 10{sup 22} (ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW) at 10 keV with 3.5 m undulator at beam current of 1.5 A. This report presents an overview of the PEP-X baseline lattice design and describes the lattice optimization procedures in order to maximize the beam dynamic aperture. The complete report of PEP-X baseline design is published in SLAC report.

  9. Design and Construction of the PEP-II Low Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, H.; Yourd, R.; Zisman, M.S.

    1996-06-01

    We describe the design and construction status of theLow-Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II project, a collaboration of SLAC,LBNL, and LLNL. In the past year we have optimized LER parameters andstarted component fabrication. By reusing the original wigglers, we wereable to simplify the design of the distributed wiggler photon dump, whichmust dissipate 260 kW of power. The number of RF stations (eachcomprising a klystron powering two 476-MHz cavities) was reduced from 4to 3. We have begun fabrication of the arc vacuum system based on anextruded Al antechamber configuration with discrete photon stops andTSPs. The design of the straight section vacuum components, to befabricated from stainless steel pipe, is also completed. Quadrupoles anddipoles are provided under a collaborative agreement with IHEP (Beijing);correctors and skew quadrupoles are built domestically and sextupoles arerefurbished from existing PEP magnets. LER commissioning will begin earlyin 1998.

  10. Value engineering on the designed operator work tools for brick and rings wells production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayu Bidiawati J., R.; Muchtiar, Yesmizarti; Wariza, Ragil Okta

    2017-06-01

    Operator working tools in making brick and ring wells were designed and made, and the value engineering was calculated to identify and develop the function of these tools in obtaining the balance between cost, reliability and appearance. This study focused on the value of functional components of the tools and attempted to increase the difference between the costs incurred by the generated values. The purpose of this study was to determine the alternatives of tools design and to determine the performance of each alternative. The technique was developed using FAST method that consisted of five stages: information, creative, analytical, development and presentation stage. The results of the analysis concluded that the designed tools have higher value and better function description. There were four alternative draft improvements for operator working tools. The best alternative was determined based on the rank by using matrix evaluation. Best performance was obtained by the alternative II, amounting to 98.92 with a value of 0.77.

  11. Automatic local beam steering systems for NSLS x-ray storage ring: Design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, O.V.; Nawrocky, R.; Flannigan, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, two local automatic steering systems, controlled by microprocessors, have been installed and commissioned in the NSLS X- Ray storage ring. In each system, the position of the electron beam is stabilized at two locations by four independent servo systems. This paper describes three aspects of the local feedback program: design; commissioning; and limitation. The system design is explained by identifying major elements such as beam position detectors, signal processors, compensation amplifiers, ratio amplifiers, trim equalizers and microprocessor feedback controllers. System commissioning involves steps such as matching trim compensation, determination of local orbit bumps, measurement of open loop responses and design of servo circuits. Several limitations of performance are also discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. The design improvement of horizontal stripline kicker in TPS storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, P. J.; Chan, C. K.; Chang, C. C.; Hsu, K. T.; Hu, K. H.; Kuan, C. K.; Sheng, I. C.

    2017-07-01

    We plan to replace the existing horizontal stripline kicker of the transverse feedback system with an improved design. Large reflected power was observed at the downstream port of stripline kicker driven by the feedback amplifier. A rapid surge of vacuum pressure was observed when we tested the high current operation in TPS storage ring in April 2016. A burned feedthrough of the horizontal stripline kicker was discovered during a maintenance shutdown. The improved design is targeted to reduce the reflection of driving power from feedback system and to reduce beam induced RF heating. This major modification of the design is described. The results of RF simulation performed with the electromagnetic code GdfidL are reported as well.

  13. Parametric design analysis of a hybrid composite flywheel using a laminated central disc and a filament wound outer ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, R. P.

    1980-09-01

    A hybrid flywheel design concept based on the use of a laminated central disk with a filament-wound outer ring is analyzed for several different combinations of composite materials. Some of the results of this study are: (1) an optimized E-glass disk with Kevlar-49 outer ring offers the prospect of 30% additional energy density over a laminated disk without a ring; (2) a laminated S2-glass disk is capable of storing more energy per unit mass than an E-glass disk because of its higher tensile strength; and (3) the use of wound graphite outer rings with S2-glass disks leads to substantial reductions in the size of the interference fit while offering still higher energy densities than for a Kevlar-49 outer ring.

  14. Viscous damped space structure for reduced jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James F.; Davis, L. Porter

    1987-01-01

    A technique to provide modal vibration damping in high performance space structures was developed which uses less than one once of incompressible fluid. Up to 50 percent damping can be achieved which can reduce the settling times of the lowest structural mode by as much as 50 to 1. This concept allows the designers to reduce the weight of the structure while improving its dynamic performance. Damping by this technique is purely viscous and has been shown by test to be linear over 5 orders of input magnitude. Amplitudes as low as 0.2 microinch were demonstrated. Damping in the system is independent of stiffness and relatively insensitive to temperature.

  15. Design analysis of a self-acting spiral-groove ring seal for counter-rotating shafts. [o ring seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Russo, EL

    1983-01-01

    A self-acting spiral groove inter-shaft ring seal of nominal 16.33 cm (6.43 in.) diameter for sealing fan bleed air between counter rotating shafts in advanced turbofan engines was analyzed. The analysis focused on the lift force characteristics of the spiral grooves. A NASA Lewis developed computer program for predicting the performance of gas lubricated face seals was used to optimize the spiral groove geometry to produce maximum lift force. Load capacity curves (lift force as function of film thickness) were generated for four advanced turbofan engine operating conditions at relative seal speeds ranging from 17,850 to 29,800 rpm, sealed air pressures from 6 to 42 N/sq cm (9 to 60 Psi) absolute and temperatures from 95 to 327 C (203 to 620 F). The relative seal sliding speed range was 152 to 255 m/sec (500 to 836 ft/sec). The analysis showed that the spiral grooves are capable of producing sufficient lift force such that the ring seal will operate in a noncontacting mode over the operating range of typical advanced turbofan engines. Previously announced in STAR as N83-23306

  16. Design analysis of a self-acting spiral-groove ring seal for counter-rotating shafts. [o ring seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirusso, E.

    1983-01-01

    A self-acting spiral groove inter-shaft ring seal of nominal 16.33 cm (6.43 in.) diameter for sealing fan bleed air between counter rotating shafts in advanced turbofan engines was analyzed. The analysis focused on the lift force characteristics of the spiral grooves. A NASA Lewis developed computer program for predicting the performance of gas lubricated face seals was used to optimize the spiral groove geometry to produce maximum lift force. Load capacity curves (lift force as function of film thickness) were generated for four advanced turbofan engine operating conditions at relative seal speeds ranging from 17,850 to 29,800 rpm, sealed air pressures from 6 to 42 N/sq cm (9 to 60 psi) absolute and temperatures from 95 to 327 C (203 to 620 F). The relative seal sliding speed range was 152 to 255 m/sec (500 to 836 ft/sec). The analysis showed that the spiral grooves are capable of producing sufficient lift force such that the ring seal will operate in a noncontacting mode over the operating range of typical advanced turbofan engines.

  17. Damping constant estimation in magnetoresistive readers

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej Hernandez, Stephanie

    2015-05-07

    The damping constant is a key design parameter in magnetic reader design. Its value can be derived from bulk or sheet film ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line width. However, dynamics of nanodevices is usually defined by presence of non-uniform modes. It triggers new damping mechanisms and produces stronger damping than expected from traditional FMR. This work proposes a device-level technique for damping evaluation, based on time-domain analysis of thermally excited stochastic oscillations. The signal is collected using a high bandwidth oscilloscope, by direct probing of a biased reader. Recorded waveforms may contain different noise signals, but free layer FMR is usually a dominating one. The autocorrelation function is a reflection of the damped oscillation curve, averaging out stochastic contributions. The damped oscillator formula is fitted to autocorrelation data, producing resonance frequency and damping constant values. Restricting lag range allows for mitigation of the impact of other phenomena (e.g., reader instability) on the damping constant. For a micromagnetically modeled reader, the technique proves to be much more accurate than the stochastic FMR line width approach. Application to actual reader waveforms yields a damping constant of ∼0.03.

  18. Rotor burst protection program: Experimentation to provide guidelines for the design of turbine rotor burst fragment containment rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangano, G. J.; Salvino, J. T.; Delucia, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Empirical guidelines for the design of minimum weight turbine rotor disk fragment containment rings made from a monolithic metal were generated by experimentally establishing the relationship between a variable that provides a measure of containment ring capability and several other variables that both characterized the configurational aspects of the rotor fragments and containment ring, and had been found from exploratory testing to have had significant influence on the containment process. Test methodology and data analysis techniques are described. Results are presented in graphs and tables.

  19. Application of a mapping function technique to the design of damped detuned structures and rapid calculation of their wakefields

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.; Kroll, N.M. |

    1998-08-01

    In order to reduce the dipole wake encountered by the first few bunches accelerated in a multi-bunch NLC scenario the DDS (damped detuned structure) was redesigned such that a much improved Gaussian fall-off occurs in the initial wake-function. From the 9 parameterized model of DDS1 the authors use a mapping function to allow DDS 3 and 4 to be modeled and hence avoid additional and prohibitively time consuming MAFIA runs. The equivalent circuit parameters and geometrical parameters are treated as functions of the synchronous frequency and are readily mapped onto the new synchronous frequencies. The new geometrical parameters form a family where each is associated with the iris diameter.

  20. Design of a cavity ring-down spectroscopy diagnostic for negative ion rf source SPIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualotto, R.; Alfier, A.; Lotto, L.

    2010-10-15

    The rf source test facility SPIDER will test and optimize the source of the 1 MV neutral beam injection systems for ITER. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will measure the absolute line-of-sight integrated density of negative (H{sup -} and D{sup -}) ions, produced in the extraction region of the source. CRDS takes advantage of the photodetachment process: negative ions are converted to neutral hydrogen atoms by electron stripping through absorption of a photon from a laser. The design of this diagnostic is presented with the corresponding simulation of the expected performance. A prototype operated without plasma has provided CRDS reference signals, design validation, and results concerning the signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Design and characterization of a novel toroidal split-ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobowski, J. S.; Nakahara, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    The design and characterization of a novel toroidal split-ring resonator (SRR) are described in detail. In conventional cylindrical SRRs, there is a large magnetic flux within the bore of the resonator. However, there also exists a non-negligible magnetic flux in the free space surrounding the resonator. The energy losses associated with this radiated power diminish the resonator's quality factor. In the toroidal SRR, on the other hand, the magnetic field lines are strongly confined within the bore of the resonator resulting in high intrinsic quality factors and stable resonance frequencies without requiring additional electromagnetic shielding. This paper describes the design and construction of a toroidal SRR as well as an experimental investigation of its cw response in the frequency-domain and its time-domain response to a rf pulse. Additionally, the dependence of the toroidal SRR's resonant frequency and quality factor on the strength of inductive coupling to external circuits is investigated both theoretically and experimentally.

  2. Lattice design for the high energy ring of the SLAC B-Factory (PEP-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R.; Cai, Y.; Irwin, J.

    1995-04-01

    The design of the lattice for the High Energy Ring (HER) of the SLAC B-Factory has several special features, notably provision for octupole compensation of amplitude dependent tune shift effects and a beta-beat scheme for semi-local chromaticity correction. In the arcs adjacent to the interaction point (IP) the beta functions are enhanced to allow the use of non-interlaced sextupoles to compensate the chromaticity of the interaction region. A closed bump of beta {open_quotes}mismatch{close_quotes} is generated by two vertically focusing quadrupoles spaced 2 betatron wavelengths apart. The beta-beat has two advantages: it enhances the ratio between the horizontal and vertical beta functions at the sextupoles and, because of the locally higher beta function, allows weaker sextupoles to be used. The standard design uses a 60 degree/cell lattice but a 90 degree/cell lattice may also be used if lower emittances and momentum compaction factor are desired.

  3. Scientific potential and design considerations for an undulator beam line on Aladdin storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A. J.; Bader, S. D.; Dehmer, Joseph L.; Kim, S. H.; Knapp, G. S.; Shenoy, G. K.; Veal, B. W.; Young, C. E.; Brown, F. C.; Weaver, J. W.

    1985-04-08

    The unique features of undulator radiation, i.e., high photon flux and brightness, partial coherence, small beam divergence, spectral tunability, etc., mandate that undulators be included in the future plans for Aladdin. This will make it possible to perform the next generation of experiments in photon-stimulated spectroscopies. A team of scientists (see Appendix) has now been assembled to build an insertion device (ID) and the associated beam line at Aladdin. In considering the specifications for the ID, it was assumed that the ID beamline will be an SRC user facility. Consequently, design parameters were chosen with the intent of maximizing experimental flexibility consistent with a conservative design approach. A tunable ''clamshell'' undulator device was Chosen with a first harmonic tunable from 35 to 110 eV to operate on a 1 GeV storage ring. Higher harmonics will be utilized for experiments needing higher photon energies.

  4. Ground-up circular Higgs Factory ring design and cell length optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard

    2017-02-01

    A “ground-up” Higgs Factory design methodology is described. For concreteness, numerical parameter choices are drawn primarily from CEPC, the Circular Electron Positron Collider. The goals are to find: (i) optimal parameters, (ii) improved understanding , (iii) a tentative lattice design. As illustration of the method, six chromaticity-corrected lattices, with cell lengths ranging from 45 m to 280 m, all with identical βy = 2 mm or βy = 10 mm intersection region optics, are designed and their properties compared. For simplicity only a single “toy ring,” circumference (76 km), with one interaction point, and a single beam energy (120 GeV) is considered. For the cell-length optimization a figure of merit FOM (essentially integrated luminosity) is maximized consistent with a dimensionless “fine tuning penalty function” or figure of demerit FOD not being allowed to exceed a conservatively chosen upper limit. The tentative recommendation from this investigation is that the optimal CEPC route is (except for obvious changes) to simply copy LEP: 80 m cell length and two-in-one single-ring operation. The main luminosity-increasing improvements are increased radius and power, top-off-full-energy-injection, noninterleaved sextupoles, more than 100 beam bunch operation, and improved intersection region design. Local chromaticity compensation (with its inevitable intense hard X-rays incident on the detectors) is found to be unnecessary. With these changes luminosity in excess of 1034cm‑2s‑1 is projected to be achievable.

  5. Magnetic Damping For Maglev

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, S.; Cai, Y.; Rote, D. M.; ...

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic damping is one of the important parameters that control the response and stability of maglev systems. An experimental study to measure magnetic damping directly is presented. A plate attached to a permanent magnet levitated on a rotating drum was tested to investigate the effect of various parameters, such as conductivity, gap, excitation frequency, and oscillation amplitude, on magnetic damping. The experimental technique is capable of measuring all of the magnetic damping coefficients, some of which cannot be measured indirectly.

  6. Design and simulation of a full-ring multi-lofthole collimator for brain SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Audenhaege, Karen; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Deprez, Karel; Vandeghinste, Bert; Van Holen, Roel

    2013-09-01

    Currently, clinical brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is mostly performed using rotating dual-head gamma cameras equipped with low-energy-high-resolution parallel-beam collimators (LEHR PAR). The resolution of these systems is rather poor (8-10 mm) and the rotation of the heavy gamma cameras can introduce misalignment errors. Therefore, we designed a static full-ring multi-lofthole brain SPECT insert for an existing ring of LaBr3 (5% Ce) detectors. The novelty of the design is found in the shutter mechanism that makes the system very flexible and eliminates the need for rotating parts. A stationary SPECT insert is not only more robust, it is also easier to integrate in a magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI) for simultaneous SPECT-MRI. The target spatial resolution of our design is 6 mm. In this study we used analytical calculations to optimize the collimator for an existing ring of LaBr3 (5% Ce) detectors. We fixed the target spatial resolution at 6 mm in the center of the field-of-view and maximized the volume sensitivity by changing the collimator radius, the aperture and the number of loftholes. Based on these optimal parameters we simulated phantom data and evaluated the image quality of our multi-lofthole system. We simulated a noiseless uniform and Defrise phantom to assess artifacts and sampling completeness and a noiseless hot-rod phantom to assess the reconstructed spatial resolution. We visually evaluated a simulated noisy Hoffman phantom with two lesions. Then, we evaluated the non-prewhitening matched filter signal-to-noise ratio (NPW-SNR) in two lesion detectability phantoms: one with hot lesions and one with cold lesions. Finally, a contrast-to-noise (CNR) study was performed on a phantom with both hot and cold lesions of different sizes (6-16 mm). All results were compared to a LEHR PAR system. The optimization resulted in a final collimator design with a volume sensitivity of 1.55 × 10-4 cps Bq-1, which is 2.5 times lower

  7. Design and simulation of a full-ring multi-lofthole collimator for brain SPECT.

    PubMed

    Van Audenhaege, Karen; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Deprez, Karel; Vandeghinste, Bert; Van Holen, Roel

    2013-09-21

    Currently, clinical brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is mostly performed using rotating dual-head gamma cameras equipped with low-energy-high-resolution parallel-beam collimators (LEHR PAR). The resolution of these systems is rather poor (8-10 mm) and the rotation of the heavy gamma cameras can introduce misalignment errors. Therefore, we designed a static full-ring multi-lofthole brain SPECT insert for an existing ring of LaBr3 (5% Ce) detectors. The novelty of the design is found in the shutter mechanism that makes the system very flexible and eliminates the need for rotating parts. A stationary SPECT insert is not only more robust, it is also easier to integrate in a magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI) for simultaneous SPECT-MRI. The target spatial resolution of our design is 6 mm. In this study we used analytical calculations to optimize the collimator for an existing ring of LaBr3 (5% Ce) detectors. We fixed the target spatial resolution at 6 mm in the center of the field-of-view and maximized the volume sensitivity by changing the collimator radius, the aperture and the number of loftholes. Based on these optimal parameters we simulated phantom data and evaluated the image quality of our multi-lofthole system. We simulated a noiseless uniform and Defrise phantom to assess artifacts and sampling completeness and a noiseless hot-rod phantom to assess the reconstructed spatial resolution. We visually evaluated a simulated noisy Hoffman phantom with two lesions. Then, we evaluated the non-prewhitening matched filter signal-to-noise ratio (NPW-SNR) in two lesion detectability phantoms: one with hot lesions and one with cold lesions. Finally, a contrast-to-noise (CNR) study was performed on a phantom with both hot and cold lesions of different sizes (6-16 mm). All results were compared to a LEHR PAR system. The optimization resulted in a final collimator design with a volume sensitivity of 1.55 × 10(-4) cps Bq(-1), which is 2.5

  8. Assessing Equivalent Viscous Damping Using Piping System test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Morante, R.

    2010-07-18

    The specification of damping for nuclear piping systems subject to seismic-induced motions has been the subject of many studies and much controversy. Damping estimation based on test data can be influenced by numerous factors, consequently leading to considerable scatter in damping estimates in the literature. At present, nuclear industry recommendations and nuclear regulatory guidance are not consistent on the treatment of damping for analysis of nuclear piping systems. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a more complete and consistent technical basis for specification of appropriate damping values for use in design and analysis. This paper summarizes the results of recent damping studies conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  9. Design and construction of a large 4C ring laser: ROMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, André; Schreiber, Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Hadziioannou, Céline; Donner, Stefanie; Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Edgorf, Sven; Simonelli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    State of the art ring laser technology gives access to measure very small rotation changes in geodesy and geophysics over a wide frequency range. The interferometric observation technique use two counter-propagating laser beam, the Sagnac effect. This yields to the fact that these observation method is entirely insensitive to translational motions. Until beginning this year only one component ring laser observations was available around the vertical axis. The ROMY project will deliver 4 components in space measuring rotations redundancy for geosciences computed into the Cartesian three directions. Followings that ROMY is the first instrument able to measure the full rotation vector. The sensitivity scales with the size of the instrument and ended up in a tetrahedron shape of 12 m side length standing on a tip. A compromise between the involved parameters and the possibility of physical constructing of such a large instrument. The pure hardware construction has needed more than 1.5 years. It is outlined the design, development and construction from scratch up to receiving the proposed observation. Involved are the characterisation and the potential of ROMY now and in future.

  10. Novel design of optical channel drop filters based on two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashki, Zohreh; Seyyed Mahdavi Chabok, Seyyed Javad

    2017-07-01

    Ring resonators are useful elements especially in channel drop filters. In this paper, a novel design of optical channel drop filter (CDF) based on two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonators with square lattice is proposed. The rods of this structure is silicon with the refractive index nsi=3.46 and the surrounding environment is air with the refractive index of nair=1. The widest photonic band gap obtains for the filling ratio of r/a=0.2. The filter's transmission spectrum is calculated using the two-dimensional (2D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical method. The simulation shows, close to, 100% dropping efficiency and suitable quality factor at 1644.7 nm wavelength achieved for this filter. Also in this paper, we investigate parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength and transmission spectra in this CDF, such as refractive index of inner rods and the refractive index of whole rods of the structure. The area of the proposed structure is about 12.36 μm×12.36 μm which is suitable for photonic integrated circuits and optical communication network applications.

  11. Performance of Metal and Polymeric O-Ring Seals during Beyond-Design-Basis Thermal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiann C; Hnetkovsky, Edward; Rinehart, Doris; Fernandez, Marco; Gonzalez, Felix; Borowsky, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    This paper summarizes the small scale thermal exposure test results of the performance of metallic and polymeric O-ring seals typically used in radioactive material transportation packages. Five different O-ring materials were evaluated: Inconel/silver, ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), silicone, butyl, and Viton. The overall objective of this study is to provide test data and insights to the performance of these Oring seals when exposed to beyond-design-basis temperature conditions due to a severe fire. Tests were conducted using a small-scale stainless steel pressure vessel pressurized with helium to 2 bar or 5 bar at room temperature. The vessel was then heated in an electric furnace to temperatures up to 900 °C for a pre-determined period (typically 8 h to 9 h). The pressure drop technique was used to determine if leakage occurred during thermal exposure. Out of a total of 46 tests performed, leakage (loss of vessel pressure) was detected in 13 tests.

  12. Design of beam optics for the future circular collider e+e- collider rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oide, K.; Aiba, M.; Aumon, S.; Benedikt, M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomyagkov, A.; Boscolo, M.; Burkhardt, H.; Cai, Y.; Doblhammer, A.; Haerer, B.; Holzer, B.; Jowett, J. M.; Koop, I.; Koratzinos, M.; Levichev, E.; Medina, L.; Ohmi, K.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Piminov, P.; Shatilov, D.; Sinyatkin, S.; Sullivan, M.; Wenninger, J.; Wienands, U.; Zhou, D.; Zimmermann, F.

    2016-11-01

    A beam optics scheme has been designed for the future circular collider-e+e- (FCC-ee). The main characteristics of the design are: beam energy 45 to 175 GeV, 100 km circumference with two interaction points (IPs) per ring, horizontal crossing angle of 30 mrad at the IP and the crab-waist scheme [P. Raimondi, D. Shatilov, and M. Zobov, arXiv:physics/0702033; P. Raimondi, M. Zobov, and D. Shatilov, in Proceedings of the 22nd Particle Accelerator Conference, PAC-2007, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, New York, 2007), p. TUPAN037.] with local chromaticity correction. The crab-waist scheme is implemented within the local chromaticity correction system without additional sextupoles, by reducing the strength of one of the two sextupoles for vertical chromatic correction at each side of the IP. So-called "tapering" of the magnets is applied, which scales all fields of the magnets according to the local beam energy to compensate for the effect of synchrotron radiation (SR) loss along the ring. An asymmetric layout near the interaction region reduces the critical energy of SR photons on the incoming side of the IP to values below 100 keV, while matching the geometry to the beam line of the FCC proton collider (FCC-hh) [A. Chancé et al., Proceedings of IPAC'16, 9-13 May 2016, Busan, Korea, TUPMW020 (2016).] as closely as possible. Sufficient transverse/longitudinal dynamic aperture (DA) has been obtained, including major dynamical effects, to assure an adequate beam lifetime in the presence of beamstrahlung and top-up injection. In particular, a momentum acceptance larger than ±2 % has been obtained, which is better than the momentum acceptance of typical collider rings by about a factor of 2. The effects of the detector solenoids including their compensation elements are taken into account as well as synchrotron radiation in all magnets. The optics presented in this paper is a step toward a full conceptual design for the collider. A number of issues have been identified for further

  13. Design of beam optics for the future circular collider e+e- collider rings

    DOE PAGES

    Oide, Katsunobu; Aiba, M.; Aumon, S.; ...

    2016-11-21

    A beam optics scheme has been designed for the future circular collider- e+e- (FCC-ee). The main characteristics of the design are: beam energy 45 to 175 GeV, 100 km circumference with two interaction points (IPs) per ring, horizontal crossing angle of 30 mrad at the IP and the crab-waist scheme [P. Raimondi, D. Shatilov, and M. Zobov, arXiv:physics/0702033; P. Raimondi, M. Zobov, and D. Shatilov, in Proceedings of the 22nd Particle Accelerator Conference, PAC-2007, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, New York, 2007), p. TUPAN037.] with local chromaticity correction. The crab-waist scheme is implemented within the local chromaticity correction system without additional sextupoles,more » by reducing the strength of one of the two sextupoles for vertical chromatic correction at each side of the IP. So-called “tapering” of the magnets is applied, which scales all fields of the magnets according to the local beam energy to compensate for the effect of synchrotron radiation (SR) loss along the ring. An asymmetric layout near the interaction region reduces the critical energy of SR photons on the incoming side of the IP to values below 100 keV, while matching the geometry to the beam line of the FCC proton collider (FCC-hh) [A. Chancé et al., Proceedings of IPAC’16, 9–13 May 2016, Busan, Korea, TUPMW020 (2016).] as closely as possible. Sufficient transverse/longitudinal dynamic aperture (DA) has been obtained, including major dynamical effects, to assure an adequate beam lifetime in the presence of beamstrahlung and top-up injection. In particular, a momentum acceptance larger than ±2% has been obtained, which is better than the momentum acceptance of typical collider rings by about a factor of 2. The effects of the detector solenoids including their compensation elements are taken into account as well as synchrotron radiation in all magnets. The optics presented in this study is a step toward a full conceptual design for the collider. Finally, a number of issues have

  14. Material Damping Experiments at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Marie; White, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A unique experimental facility has been designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures. The test facility pays special attention to removing other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device; Damping data is obtained for materials (AI, GrEp, Be, Fused Quartz), strain amplitudes (less than 10-6 ppm), frequencies (20Hz-330Hz) and temperatures (20K-293K) relevant to future precision optical space missions. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures and can be as low as 10-4%, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. Contrary to the other materials whose damping monotonically decreased with temperature, damping of Fused Quartz increased substantially at cryo, after reaching a minimum at around l50 K. The damping is also shown to be insensitive to strain for low strain levels. At room temperatures, the test data correlates well to the analytical predictions of the Zener damping model. Discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the model predictions and the test data are observed.

  15. Prediction of Liquid Slosh Damping Using a High Resolution CFD Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; Purandare, Ravi; Peugeot, John; West, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Propellant slosh is a potential source of disturbance critical to the stability of space vehicles. The slosh dynamics are typically represented by a mechanical model of a spring mass damper. This mechanical model is then included in the equation of motion of the entire vehicle for Guidance, Navigation and Control analysis. Our previous effort has demonstrated the soundness of a CFD approach in modeling the detailed fluid dynamics of tank slosh and the excellent accuracy in extracting mechanical properties (slosh natural frequency, slosh mass, and slosh mass center coordinates). For a practical partially-filled smooth wall propellant tank with a diameter of 1 meter, the damping ratio is as low as 0.0005 (or 0.05%). To accurately predict this very low damping value is a challenge for any CFD tool, as one must resolve a thin boundary layer near the wall and must minimize numerical damping. This work extends our previous effort to extract this challenging parameter from first principles: slosh damping for smooth wall and for ring baffle. First the experimental data correlated into the industry standard for smooth wall were used as the baseline validation. It is demonstrated that with proper grid resolution, CFD can indeed accurately predict low damping values from smooth walls for different tank sizes. The damping due to ring baffles at different depths from the free surface and for different sizes of tank was then simulated, and fairly good agreement with experimental correlation was observed. The study demonstrates that CFD technology can be applied to the design of future propellant tanks with complex configurations and with smooth walls or multiple baffles, where previous experimental data is not available.

  16. A novel ring type ultrasonic motor with multiple wavenumbers: design, fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W. H.; Quek, S. T.; Wang, Q.

    2009-12-01

    A novel ring type traveling wave ultrasonic motor (USM) with multiple wavenumbers has been designed, fabricated and characterized. This multiple wavenumber operation is realized by means of a new electrode configuration of the piezoelectric element. The experimental and numerical performance results for the multiple wavenumbers show that USM with multiple wavenumbers significantly outperform the single wavenumber motor as regards the range of speed and torque output. This novel implementation of the traveling wave motor also offers extra control for stable operation of USM. The performances of the control variables, the wavenumber and the amplitude, are compared to show their advantages and disadvantages. The speed control range for the wavenumber is larger than that for amplitude control; wavenumber control has better stability at low speed while amplitude control can work continuously with less wear. Hybrid control using both methods may result in better performance of USM.

  17. Complementary split ring resonator metamaterial to achieve multifrequency operation in microstrip-based radiating structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Shobhit K.; Kosta, Yogeshwar

    2014-02-01

    Following recent findings on metamaterials, a miniaturized microstrip patch antenna loaded with a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) was investigated for multiband operation. The proposed structure has a CSRR loaded in the base of the antenna to improve its performance and to make it a metamaterial. Metamaterials exhibit qualitatively new electromagnetic response functions that cannot be found in nature. The CSRR-loaded base allows simultaneous operation over several frequencies. Here, a total of seven bands were achieved by loading the patch antenna with the CSRR. The seven bands were centered around frequencies of 4.33 GHz, 5.29 GHz, 6.256 GHz, 7.066 GHz, 7.846 GHz, 8.86 GHz, and 9.75 GHz. Design results were obtained by using a high-frequency structure simulator that is used for simulating microwave passive components.

  18. Design of a homopolar generator for 400 m/s slip ring velocity brush testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. H.; Kitzmiller, J. R.

    1986-11-01

    Design and performance features of a high speed brush tester (HSBT) homopolar generator (HPG) developed for testing active cooling concepts for brushgears at slip ring velocities up to 400 m/sec are described. The HPG is a 4.6 MJ, 1.0 MA, 36 V device which accommodates tests in environments different from the standard atmosphere. Component details of the rotor, machine structure, output conductors and insulation system, brush mechanisms, bearings, seals and dynamics, field coils, and the drive system are summarized. Features which allow radial access for service and testing of brushgear, quick disconnects in the high contact area output terminals, clearance monitoring in the thrust bearing, and retraction of the shaft seal at high shaft speeds are discussed.

  19. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 5: Elastomer performance limits and the design and test of an elastomer damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tecza, J. A.; Darlow, M. S.; Smalley, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were performed on elastomer specimens of the material polybutadiene to determine the performance limitations imposed by strain, temperature, and frequency. Three specimens were tested: a shear specimen, a compression specimen, and a second compression specimen in which thermocouples were embedded in the elastomer buttons. Stiffness and damping were determined from all tests, and internal temperatures were recorded for the instrumented compression specimen. Measured results are presented together with comparisons between predictions of a thermo-viscoelastic analysis and the measured results. Dampers of polybutadiene and Viton were designed, built, and tested. Vibration measurements were made and sensitivity of vibration to change in unbalance was also determined. Values for log decrement were extracted from the synchronous response curves. Comparisons were made between measured sensitivity to unbalance and log decrement and predicted values for these quantities.

  20. Design and implementation of dual-band antennas based on a complementary split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Noelia; Iriarte, Juan Carlos; Crespo, Gonzalo; Falcone, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    A simple dual-band antenna design and implementation method is proposed in this work, based on the equivalent media properties inspired by resonant metamaterial elements. The equivalent circuit model of dual-band patch antennas based on a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) is presented and validated. The dual-band patch antenna is designed etching a CSRR in the patch of a conventional rectangular microstrip patch antenna. The first resonance is governed by the quasi-static resonance of the CSRR while the second resonance is originated by the rectangular patch. The fact of etching a CSRR on a rectangular patch antenna also produces a miniaturization of a conventional patch antenna. The equivalent circuit model proposed in this letter is sound in order to understand the functionality of dual-band patch antennas based on a CSRR. Good agreement between simulation, equivalent circuit model and experimental results is shown and discussed. These results lead the equivalent circuit model to become a simple and straightforward tool for the design of this type of multiband antennas, of low cost and versatile operation for a broad range of wireless communication systems.

  1. Design of photonic crystal based ring resonator for detection of different blood constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Poonam; Sharan, Preeta

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a photonic crystal based ring resonator structure (PCRR) which can sense different bio-constituents in blood in the wavelength range of 1530-1565 nm for biomedical applications has been successfully demonstrated. Simulation and analysis has been done for Biotin-Streptavidin, Bovine Serum Albumin, Cytop (polymer), Ethanol, Glucose solution (40gm/100 ml), Hemoglobin, Blood Plasma, Polyacrylamide and Sylgard184. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method has been used for the analysis. MEEP (MIT Electromagnetic Equation Propagation) and MPB (MIT Photonic Bands) simulation tools have been used for modeling and designing of PCRR and IPKISS software framework has been used for generation of mask design which can be used for the fabrication of the PCRR sensor. The optical properties of different bio-constituents are studied and the normalized transmitted output power, transmission wavelength and Q factor have been observed for different blood-constituents which can be used for blood analysis.It has been observed that for little change in dielectric constant (ɛ) according to the blood-constituent taken there will be a moderate shift in the transmitted output power, transmission wavelength and quality factor and hence it acts as a sensor. This indicates that it is highly sensitive even for little change in refractive index. Our designed sensor has achieved sensitivity of 343 nm/RIU.

  2. Industrial Process Design for Manufacturing Inconel 718 Extremely Large Forged Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambielli, John F.

    2011-12-01

    Inconel 718 is a Ni-Fe-based superalloy that has been central to the gas turbine industry since its discovery in 1963. While much more difficult to process than carbon or stainless steels, among its superalloy peers Inconel 718 has relatively high forgeability and has been used to make discs, rings, shells, and structural components. A metal forming process design algorithm is presented to incorporate key criteria relevant to superalloy processing. This algorithm was applied to conceptual forging and heat treating extremely large rings of Inconel 718 of diameter 1956 mm (77in) and weight 3252 kg (7155 lb). A 3-stage standard thermomechanical (TMP) processing was used, where Stage 1 strain varied from 0.1190 to 0.2941, Stage 2 from 0.0208 to 0.0357 and Stage 3 from 0.0440 to 0.0940. This was followed by heat treatment of a solution anneal (954°C/1750°F for 4 hour hold), air cool, then a double aging (718°C/1325°F for 8 hour hold; furnace cool to 621°C/1150°F 56°C/100°F per hr; 18 hour total time for both steps). Preliminary mechanical testing was performed. Average yield strength of 951 MPa/138 ksi (longitudinal) and 979 MPa/142 ksi (axial) was achieved. Tensile strengths were 1276 MPa/185 ksi (longitudinal) and 1255 MPa/182 ksi (axial). Elongations and reduction of areas attained were, respectively, 18 (long) and 25 (axial) and 28 (long) and 27 (axial).

  3. LOW LOSS DESIGN OF THE LINAC AND ACCUMULATOR RING FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    RAPARIA,D.

    2003-02-03

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a second generation pulsed neutron source and is presently in the fourth year of a seven-year construction cycle at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A collaboration of six national laboratories (ANL, BNL, LANL, LBNL, ORNL, TJNAF) is responsible for the design and construction of the various subsystems. The operation of the facility will begin in 2006 and deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam with pulse length of 650 nanosecond at a repetition rate of 60 Hz, on a liquid mercury target. It consists of an RF volume H{sup -} source of 50 mA peak current at 6% duty; an all electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) which also serves as a first stage beam chopper with {+-} 25 ns rise/fall time; a 402.5 MHz, 4-vane Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for acceleration up to 2.5 MeV; a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) housing a second stage chopper (<{+-} 10ns rise/fall), an adjustable beam halo scraper, and diagnostics devices; a 6-tank Drift Tube Linac (DTL) with permanent magnet quadrupoles up to 87 MeV; an 805 MHz, 4-module, Side Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) up to 186 MeV; an 805 MHz, superconducting RF (SRF) linac with eleven medium beta ({beta} = 0.61) cryo-modules and twelve high beta ({beta} = 0.81) cryo-modules accelerating the beam to the full energy; a High Energy Beam transport (HEBT) for diagnostics, transverse and longitudinal collimation, energy correction, painting and matching; an accumulator ring compressing the 1 GeV, 1 ms pulse to 650 ns for delivery onto the target through a Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) with transverse collimators.

  4. Spin-Damping in an RF atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alem, Orang; Romalis, Michael V.; Sauer, Karen L.

    2009-05-01

    Optically pumped atomic magnetometers have demonstrated an improved sensitivity over standard tuned coils for frequencies less than 50 MHz, making these radio-frequency (RF) magnetometers attractive for low-field NMR (for example, Budker and Romalis, Nature Physics 3, April 2007). Such magnetometers are often plagued by transient effects resulting in decreased sensitivity. The decay time of these transients, or ringing, can last for milliseconds, which is particularly detrimental for rapidly decaying NMR signals. We have found that actively damping the ringing of the atomic spins can significantly reduce such dead time. This spin-damping of the atomic transients is achieved through a negative feedback mechanism in which part of the optical signal during ringing is used to apply an RF field forcing the realignment of the atomic spins with the static magnetic field. We have successfully implemented spin-damping in 100 μs and recovered our femto-Tesla signal previously obscured by the ringing.

  5. Design and characterization of a novel toroidal split-ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Bobowski, J. S. Nakahara, Hiroko

    2016-02-15

    The design and characterization of a novel toroidal split-ring resonator (SRR) are described in detail. In conventional cylindrical SRRs, there is a large magnetic flux within the bore of the resonator. However, there also exists a non-negligible magnetic flux in the free space surrounding the resonator. The energy losses associated with this radiated power diminish the resonator’s quality factor. In the toroidal SRR, on the other hand, the magnetic field lines are strongly confined within the bore of the resonator resulting in high intrinsic quality factors and stable resonance frequencies without requiring additional electromagnetic shielding. This paper describes the design and construction of a toroidal SRR as well as an experimental investigation of its cw response in the frequency-domain and its time-domain response to a rf pulse. Additionally, the dependence of the toroidal SRR’s resonant frequency and quality factor on the strength of inductive coupling to external circuits is investigated both theoretically and experimentally.

  6. A multi-length bunch design for electron storage rings with odd buckets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-Jing; Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Xiang, Dao; Huang, Xiao-Biao

    2015-07-01

    A scheme with two superconducting RF cavities is designed to upgrade electron storage rings with odd buckets to multi-length bunches. In this paper, the Hefei Light Source II (HLS II) is given as an example for odd buckets. As it is designed for 45 buckets, which is a multiple of 3, simultaneous generation of three different lengths of bunches is proposed with the presently applied user optics. The final result, without low-α optics, is to fill HLS II with long bunches of length 50 ps, medium bunches of 23 ps and short bunches of 6 ps. Every third bucket can be filled with short bunches, of which the current limit is up to 6.6 mA, more than 60 times the limit for low-α mode. Moreover, particle tracking simulations to examine the beam dynamics, performed by ELEGANT, and calculations of the beam instabilities are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11327902, 11175180, 11175182) and U.S. DOE (DE-AC02-76SF00515)

  7. Critically damped quantum search.

    PubMed

    Mizel, Ari

    2009-04-17

    Although measurement and unitary processes can accomplish any quantum evolution in principle, thinking in terms of dissipation and damping can be powerful. We propose a modification of Grover's algorithm in which the idea of damping plays a natural role. Remarkably, we find that there is a critical damping value that divides between the quantum O(sqrt[N]) and classical O(N) search regimes. In addition, by allowing the damping to vary in a fashion we describe, one obtains a fixed-point quantum search algorithm in which ignorance of the number of targets increases the number of oracle queries only by a factor of 1.5.

  8. Problems with the equation for viscous damping of density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J.; Salo, H.; Spahn, F.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous resonances with external satellites excite density waves in Saturn's rings. A theoretical expression for the damping of these waves, when they propagate away from the resonance location, is derived from a fluid model (GT78: Goldreich and Tremaine, 1978, Icarus, 34, 240, see also: Shu et al., 1984, in Planetary Rings). The magnitude of the shear viscosity of Saturn's rings is inferred from comparison of this theory to the actual damping length of density waves observed in various data sets (e.g. Esposito et al., 1983, Lissauer et al., 1984, Tiscareno et al., 2007). In the theoretical expression for the damping length the fluid's bulk viscosity enters (in addition to the shear viscosity) as well as the dependence of both viscosities on the density of the ring matter. However, generally the bulk viscosity and the effects of the density dependences are neglected when the shear viscosity is inferred from the data. It has already been pointed out in the original paper (GT78) that this neglect lacks adequate justification. This raises the question in how far the inferred viscosities are representative for the rings. In particular, if one takes into acount the density dependence of the viscosities, the expression for the viscous damping transforms into a relation that is equivalent to the stability criterion for viscous overstability. In this case the theory implies that there might be ring regions where density waves do not damp at all but grow in amplitude (GT78). In this paper we re-derive the expression for the wave damping, including the terms stemming from the density dependence of the viscosities. We discuss their effect in the light of the presence of self-gravity wakes in the rings, contributing to viscosity, the probable detection of viscous overstability in parts of Saturn's ring system, and the behaviour of the Janus/Epimetheus m:m-1 wavetrains.

  9. The simulation and improved design of tunable channel drop filter using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design of tunable two dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) channel drop filter (CDF) using ring resonators. The increasing interest in photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and the increasing use of all-optical fiber networks as backbones for global communication systems have been based in large part on the extremely wide optical transmission bandwidth provided by dielectric materials. Based on the analysis we present novel photonic crystal channel drop filters. Simulations demonstrate that these filters exhibit ideal transfer characteristics. Channel dropping filters (CDF's) that access one channel of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signal while leaving other channels undisturbed are essential components of PIC's and optical communication systems. In this paper we have investigated such parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength in this Channel Drop Filter, such as dielectric constant of inner, coupling, adjacent and whole rods of the structure. The dimensions of these structures are taken as 20a×19a and the area of the proposed structure is about 125.6μm{sup 2}; therefore this structure can be used in the future photonic integrated circuits. While using this design the dropping efficiency at the resonance of single ring are 100%. The spectrum of the power transmission is obtained with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. FDTD method is the most famous method for PhC analysis. In this paper the dielectric rods have a dielectric constant of 10.65, so the refractive index is 3.26 and radius r=0.213a is located in air, where a is a lattice constant. In this we have used five scatter rods for obtaining more coupling efficiency; radius of scatter rods is set to 0.215a. The proposed structure is simulated with OptiFDTD.v.8.0 software, the different dielectric constant of rods equal to ε{sub r}−0.4, ε{sub r} and ε{sub r}+0.4 at wavelength of 1570 nm.

  10. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  11. Decoherence and Landau-Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    The terminologies, decoherence and Landau damping, are often used concerning the damping of a collective instability. This article revisits the difference and relation between decoherence and Landau damping. A model is given to demonstrate how Landau damping affects the rate of damping coming from decoherence.

  12. Novel design of ring resonator based temperature sensor using photonics technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhouene, Massoudi; Chhipa, Mayur Kumar; Najjar, Monia; Robinson, S.; Suthar, Bhuvneshwer

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, we study the transmission of the two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) superellipse ring resonator. The fast growing applications of optomechanical systems lead to strong demands in new sensing mechanism in order to design the sensing elements to nanometer scale. The photonic crystal based resonator has been investigated as promising solutions because the band gap structure and resonator characteristics are extremely sensitive to the deformation and position shift of rod / cavity in PC resonators. This structure opens a single channel filter. The study is extended for tuning of channel filter's wavelength with a temperature of this structure. The transmission of the channel filter shows a red shift with temperature linearly. This wavelength shift of the channel filter is used for the sensor application. The sensitivity for the proposed structure is found to be 65.3 pm/°C. The outstanding sensing capability renders PC resonators as a promising optomechanical sensing element to be integrated into various transducers for temperature sensing applications.

  13. Influence analysis of secondary O-ring seals in dynamic behavior of spiral groove gas face seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Songtao; Huang, Weifeng; Liu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yuming

    2016-05-01

    The current research on secondary O-ring seals used in mechanical seals has begun to focus on their dynamic properties. However, detailed analysis of the dynamic properties of O-ring seals in spiral groove gas face seals is lacking. In particular a transient study and a difference analysis of steady-state and transient performance are imperative. In this paper, a case study is performed to gauge the effect of secondary O-ring seals on the dynamic behavior (steady-state performance and transient performance) of face seals. A numerical finite element method (FEM) model is developed for the dynamic analysis of spiral groove gas face seals with a flexibly mounted stator in the axial and angular modes. The rotor tilt angle, static stator tilt angle and O-ring damping are selected to investigate the effect of O-ring seals on face seals during stable running operation. The results show that the angular factor can be ignored to save time in the simulation under small damping or undamped conditions. However, large O-ring damping has an enormous effect on the angular phase difference of mated rings, affecting the steady-state performance of face seals and largely increasing the possibility of face contact that reduces the service life of face seals. A pressure drop fluctuation is carried out to analyze the effect of O-ring seals on the transient performance of face seals. The results show that face seals could remain stable without support stiffness and O-ring damping during normal stable operation but may enter a large-leakage state when confronting instantaneous fluctuations. The oscillation-amplitude shortening effect of O-ring damping on the axial mode is much greater than that on the angular modes and O-ring damping prefers to cater for axial motion at the cost of angular motion. This research proposes a detailed dynamic-property study of O-ring seals in spiral groove gas face seals, to assist in the design of face seals.

  14. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships studies on the D ring of the natural product triptolide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongtao; Tang, Huanyu; Feng, Huijin; Li, Yuanchao

    2014-02-01

    Triptolide is a diterpene triepoxide natural product isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Triptolide has previously been shown to possess antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antifertility activities. Earlier reports suggested that the five-membered unsaturated lactone ring (D ring) is essential for potent cytotoxicity, however, to the best of our knowledge, systematic structure-activity relationship studies have not yet been reported. Here, four types of D ring-modified triptolide analogues were designed, synthesized and evaluated against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and prostate (PC-3) carcinoma cell lines. The results suggest that the D ring is essential to potency, however it can be modified, for example to C18 hydrogen bond acceptor and/or donor furan ring analogues, without complete loss of cytotoxic activity. Interestingly, evaluation of the key series of C19 analogues showed that this site is exquisitely sensitive to polarity. Together, these results will guide further optimization of this natural product lead compound for the development of potent and potentially clinically useful triptolide analogues.

  15. Turbine blade damping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Research results and progress on the performance of bladed systems is reported the different topics discussed include: the study of turbine blade damping; forced vibrations of friction damped beam moistures in two dimensions; and a users manual for a computer program for dynamic analysis of bladed systems.

  16. A study of the problem of designing airplanes with satisfactory inherent damping of the dutch roll oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O , Jr

    1954-01-01

    Considerable interest has recently been shown in means of obtaining satisfactory stability of the dutch roll oscillation for modern high-performance airplanes without resort to complicated artificial stabilizing devices. One approach to this problem is to lay out the airplane in the earliest stages of design so that it will have the greatest practicable inherent stability of the lateral oscillation. The present report presents some preliminary results of a theoretical analysis to determine the design features that appear most promising in providing adequate inherent stability. These preliminary results cover the case of fighter airplanes at subsonic speeds. The investigation indicated that it is possible to design fighter airplanes to have substantially better inherent stability than most current designs. Since the use of low-aspect-ratio swept-back wings is largely responsible for poor dutch roll stability, it is important to design the airplane with the maximum aspect ratio and minimum sweep that will permit attainment of the desired performance. The radius of gyration in roll should be kept as low as possible and the nose-up inclination of the principal longitudinal axis of inertia should be made as great as practicable. (author)

  17. Turbojet engine blade damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Cutts, D. G.; Sridhar, S.

    1981-01-01

    The potentials of various sources of nonaerodynamic damping in engine blading are evaluated through a combination of advanced analysis and testing. The sources studied include material hysteresis, dry friction at shroud and root disk interfaces as well as at platform type external dampers. A limited seris of tests was conducted to evaluate damping capacities of composite materials (B/AL, B/AL/Ti) and thermal barrier coatings. Further, basic experiments were performed on titanium specimens to establish the characteristics of sliding friction and to determine material damping constants J and n. All the tests were conducted on single blades. Mathematical models were develthe several mechanisms of damping. Procedures to apply this data to predict damping levels in an assembly of blades are developed and discussed.

  18. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  19. Design of a silicone reservoir intravaginal ring for the delivery of oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, A D; Malcolm, R K; Gallagher, R J

    2003-09-04

    Oxybutynin, a drug of choice in the treatment of urinary incontinence, has low oral bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism. A toxic metabolite, N-desethyloxybutynin, has been linked to adverse reactions to oral oxybutynin. This study, therefore, reports on the design of an oxybutynin intravaginal ring (IVR) of reservoir design, comprising an oxybutynin silicone elastomer core encased in a non-medicated silicone sheath, manufactured by reaction injection moulding at 50 degrees C. An unusually high initial burst release of oxybutynin (42.7 mg in 24 h) was observed in vitro with a full length core (100 mg drug loading), with subsequent non-zero order drug release. Use of fractional segment cores substantially reduced the burst effect, yielding linear cumulative drug release versus time plots from days 2 to 14. Thus, a 1/8 fractional segment core gave a 24 h burst of 11.28 mg oxybutynin and, thereafter, zero order release at the target dose of 5 mg/day over 14 days. Two oxybutynin cores, each 1/16 of full length, gave a greater release than a single 1/8 core, due to core segment end effects resulting in an increased surface area for release. The burst release was investigated by determining drug solubilities in the propan-1-ol product of elastomer condensation cure (390 mg/ml) and in the elastomer itself (13.9-20.21 mg/ml, by direct extraction and indirect thermal methods). These high oxybutynin solubilities were considered the major contributors to the burst effect. It was concluded that use of a fractional segment core would allow development of a suitable oxybutynin reservoir IVR.

  20. Variations of hybrid damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Margaretha J.; Inman, Daniel J.; Saunders, William R.

    1998-06-01

    Damping is important to structures and can be achieved through the addition of viscoelastic materials (VEM). The damping of the VEM is enhanced if a constraining layer is attached to the VEM. If this constraining layer is active, the treatment is called active constrained layer damping (ACLD). In the last few years, ACLD has proven to be superior in vibration control to active or passive damping. The active element makes ACLD more effective than passive constrained layer damping. It also provides a fail-safe in case of breakdown of the active element that is not present for purely active control. It is shown that the control effort needed to damp vibration using ACLD can be significantly higher than purely active control. In order to combine the inherent damping of passive control with the effectiveness of the active element, this paper will explore different variations of active, passive and hybrid damping. Some of the variations include: passive constrained layer damping (PCLD) separate from active element but on the same side of beam, PCLD separate from active on the opposite side of the beam, and active element underneath PCLD. The discretized system equations will be obtained using assumed modes method and Lagrange's equation. The damping will be modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. The optimal placement and size of the active, passive, ACLD and hybrid treatments will be found using different schemes. The issue of overshoot and settling time of the output and control force using LQR will be addressed, as well as the control effort, passive and active vibration suppression, and LQR cost function. It will be shown that the hybrid treatments are capable of greater vibration control for lower control effort for different optimization schemes. 31

  1. Square-tooth split ring resonator - a novel metamaterial for bandwidth and radiation improvement in microstrip-based radiating structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Shobhit K.; Kosta, Y. P.

    2013-11-01

    A square multiband truncated microstrip patch antenna was investigated using a square-tooth split ring resonator for multiband applications in both S- and C-bands. The square-tooth split ring resonator is formed from metallic inclusions in a substrate to create a metamaterial. We introduce a new square-tooth split ring resonator which increases the radiation of the antenna as well as the bandwidth. This new design creates a slow wave structure. The square-tooth addition to the split ring resonator works like a slow wave structure. The square-tooth split ring resonator design is compared with the simple split ring resonator design. The square-tooth design has four bands with center frequencies of 3.88, 4.81, 5.4, and 5.62 GHz, whereas design with the simple split ring resonator has just three bands with center frequencies of 3.88, 4.74, and 5.50 GHz. The bandwidth is increased by 20% to 30% using the square-tooth split ring resonator compared to the simple split ring resonator.

  2. Ring-plane traveling-wave tube slow-wave circuit design simulations at V-Band frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kory, C.L.; Wilson, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The V-Band frequency range of 59-64 GHz is a region of the millimeter-wave spectrum that has been designated for intersatellite communications. As a first effort to develop a high-efficiency V-band TWT, variations on a ring-plane slow-wave circuit were computationally investigated to develop an alternative to the more conventional ferruled coupled-cavity circuit. The ring-plane circuit was chosen because of its high interaction impedance, large beam aperture, and excellent thermal dissipation properties. Despite the high-power capabilities of the ring-plane TWT, disadvantages of low bandwidth and high voltage requirements have until now prevented its acceptance outside the laboratory. In this paper, the authors use the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation code MAFIA to investigate methods of increasing the bandwidth and lowering the operating voltage. Dispersion, impedance, and attenuation calculations for various geometric variations and loading distributions were performed. Based on the results of the variations, a circuit termed the finned-ladder TWT slowwave circuit was designed and is compared here to the scaled ring-plane prototype and the conventional ferruled coupled-cavity TWT circuit over the V-band frequency range.

  3. Ring-plane traveling-wave tube slow-wave circuit design simulations at V-Band frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    The V-Band frequency range of 59-64 GHz is a region of the millimeter-wave spectrum that has been designated for intersatellite communications. As a first effort to develop a high-efficiency V-band TWT, variations on a ring-plane slow-wave circuit were computationally investigated to develop an alternative to the more conventional ferruled coupled-cavity circuit. The ring-plane circuit was chosen because of its high interaction impedance, large beam aperture, and excellent thermal dissipation properties. Despite the high-power capabilities of the ring-plane TWT, disadvantages of low bandwidth and high voltage requirements have until now prevented its acceptance outside the laboratory. In this paper, we use the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation code MAFIA to investigate methods of increasing the bandwidth and lowering the operating voltage. Dispersion, impedance, and attenuation calculations for various geometric variations and loading distributions were performed. Based on the results of the variations, a circuit termed the finned-ladder TWT slowwave circuit was designed and is compared here to the scaled ring-plane prototype and the conventional ferruled coupled-cavity TWT circuit over the V-band frequency range.

  4. Optimal constrained layer damping with partial coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelin, J.-L.; Trompette, Ph.; Smati, A.

    1992-12-01

    This paper deals with the optimal damping of beams constrained by viscoelastic layers when only one or several portions of the beam are covered. An efficient finite element model for dynamic analysis of such beams is used. The design variables are the dimensions and prescribed locations of the viscoelastic layers and the objective is the maximum viscoelastic damping factor. The method for nonlinear programming in structural optimization is the so-called method of moving asymptotes.

  5. Validation Of Equivalent Viscous Damping Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquer Araujo, Xavier; Fransen, S. H. J. A.; Germes, S.; Thiry, N.

    2012-07-01

    An important step in the design and verification process of spacecraft structures is the coupled dynamic analysis with the launch vehicle in the low-frequency domain. To obtain accurate predictions of the satellite’s dynamic environment it is essential that the damping of the system is correctly defined and taken into account within the resolution methodologies for the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). When working with finite element models, the materials’ damping is characterized by structural damping ratios. In addition, most of the load cases present in the CLA are transient excitations so the resolution of the equations of motion must be done in the time domain. Unfortunately, transient analyses cannot be carried out using structural damping models. Thus, a transformation from a structural to a viscous damping characterization is necessary. Nevertheless, this transformation is not trivial. There exist many methodologies aiming at computing an equivalent viscous damping matrix of the system so it can be used in transient analyses. This paper describes the results obtained in the validation of equivalent viscous damping methodologies used in the European Space Agency. This work permitted to identify the limitations of these methodologies and to come up with an enhanced methodology that predicts more reliable results.

  6. Material damping experiments at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Marie B.; White, Christopher

    2003-12-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be operating at temperatures below 40K to image in the infrared. The 7-m class telescope will require nanometric jitter stability of the optical elements such as the primary and secondary mirrors. Of particular concern is the vibration response of these cryogenic systems when subjected to on-board disturbance sources such as the reaction wheels, the amplitude of which is governed by damping. Unfortunately there is relatively little data available for flight grade materials at these temperatures and within the frequency bands of interest. The paper will describe the experimental setup designed to measure viscous damping to values as low 10^-4%. The tests measure damping from room temperature all the way down to 20K in a controlled thermal and disturbance free environment. Data is obtained for strain levels of about 0.1 micro-strain down to nano-strains to verify vibration level effects on material damping. Damping is also measured for several frequencies in the range of 20Hz to 300Hz to assess the trend of damping as a function of vibrational frequency. Data for several materials, such as Aluminum, Beryllium, Quartz, and various composites are presented. The data is compared to analytical predictions using the Zener damping theory and is shown to match well at room temperature but to disagree at colder temperatures.

  7. Design of 8-ft-Diameter Barrel Test Article Attachment Rings for Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project includes the testing of sub-scale cylinders to validate new shell buckling knockdown factors for use in the design of the Ares-I and Ares-V launch vehicles. Test article cylinders represent various barrel segments of the Ares-I and Ares-V vehicles, and also include checkout test articles. Testing will be conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for test articles having an eight-foot diameter outer mold line (OML) and having lengths that range from three to ten feet long. Both ends of the test articles will be connected to the test apparatus using attachment rings. Three multiple-piece and one single-piece design for the attachment rings were developed and analyzed. The single-piece design was chosen and will be fabricated from either steel or aluminum (Al) depending on the required safety factors (SF) for test hardware. This report summarizes the design and analysis of these attachment ring concepts.

  8. Electron Cloud Mitigation in the Spallation Neutron Source Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brodowski, J.; Cameron, P.; Davino, Daniele; Fedotov, A.; He, P.; Hseuh, H.; Lee, Y.Y.; Ludewig, H.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, S.Y.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Macek, R.J.; Furman, Miguel A.; Aleksandrov, A.; Cousineau, S.; Danilov, V.; Henderson, S.; /Brookhaven /CERN /LANL, Ctr. for Nonlinear Studies /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /SLAC

    2008-03-17

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring is designed to accumulate, via H{sup -} injection, protons of 2 MW beam power at 1 GeV kinetic energy at a repetition rate of 60 Hz [1]. At such beam intensity, electron-cloud is expected to be one of the intensity-limiting mechanisms that complicate ring operations. This paper summarizes mitigation strategy adopted in the design, both in suppressing electron-cloud formation and in enhancing Landau damping, including tapered magnetic field and monitoring system for the collection of stripped electrons at injection, TiN coated beam chamber for suppression of the secondary yield, clearing electrodes dedicated for the injection region and parasitic on BPMs around the ring, solenoid windings in the collimation region, and planning of vacuum systems for beam scrubbing upon operation.

  9. Electron-cloud mitigation in the spallation neutron source ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brodowski, J.; Cameron, P.; Davino, D.; Fedotov, A.; He, P.; Hseuh, H.; Lee, Y.Y.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, S.Y.; Danilov, V.; Henderson, S.; Furman, M.; Pivi, M.; Macek, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring is designed to accumulate, via H- injection, protons of 2 MW beam power at 1 GeV kinetic energy at a repetition rate of 60 Hz [1]. At such beam intensity, electron cloud is expected to be one of the intensity-limiting mechanisms that complicate ring operations. This paper summarizes mitigation strategy adopted in the design, both in suppressing electron-cloud formation and in enhancing Landau damping, including tapered magnetic field and monitoring system for the collection of stripped electrons at injection, TiN coated beam chamber for suppression of the secondary yield, clearing electrodes dedicated for the injection region and parasitic on BPMs around the ring, solenoid windings in the collimation region, and planning of vacuum systems for beam scrubbing upon operation.

  10. THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE 53 MHZ RF CAVITIES FOR THE NSLS X-RAY RING.

    SciTech Connect

    KEANE,J.; MORTAZAVI,P.; THOMAS,M.; TOWNE,N.; WOODLE,M.

    1999-03-29

    Four single cell rf cavities currently provide the required energy to the x-ray ring beam. Mechanical deficiencies and limitations of these early cavities necessitated their replacement with newly designed units. The selection of forged OFHC copper, replacement of traditional Conflat flanges with integrally machined Marmon type flanges, use of commercial spring loaded metal seals for both vacuum and rf purposes and an enhanced thermal cooling system are among the new design features. Ancillary components such as the input couplers and HOM antennae have also been redesigned utilizing a thermally conductivity ceramic material. The design characteristics and performance will be reviewed.

  11. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  12. Control System Damps Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopf, E. H., Jr.; Brown, T. K.; Marsh, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    New control system damps vibrations in rotating equipment with help of phase-locked-loop techniques. Vibrational modes are controlled by applying suitable currents to drive motor. Control signals are derived from sensors mounted on equipment.

  13. The plastic scintillator detector for DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuhong; Sun, Zhiyu; Su, Hong; Yang, Yaqing; Liu, Jie; Kong, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Hongyun; Mo, Dan; Zhang, Yongjie; Yang, Peng; Chen, Junling; Yang, Haibo; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Shengxia; Yao, HuiJun; Duan, Jinglai; Niu, Xiaoyang; Hu, Zhengguo; Wang, Zhaomin; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jingzhe; Liu, Wenqiang

    2017-09-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a general purpose satellite-borne high energy γ - ray and cosmic ray detector. Among the scientific objectives of DAMPE are the search for the origin of cosmic rays and an understanding of the Dark Matter particles. As one of the four detectors in DAMPE, the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) plays an important role in the particle charge measurement and the photons/electrons discrimination. It can identify the atomic number Z/charge states of relativistic ions from H to Fe and the detection efficiency for Z = 1 particles can reach 0.9999. The PSD has been working reliably since the successfully launching of DAMPE on December 17, 2015. In this paper, the design, assembly, qualification tests of the PSD and some of the performance measured on the ground are presented in detail.

  14. Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction.

  15. DAMPs, ageing, and cancer: The 'DAMP Hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Xie, Yangchun; Sun, Xiaofang; Zeh, Herbert J; Kang, Rui; Lotze, Michael T; Tang, Daolin

    2015-11-01

    Ageing is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of many forms of damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue level with advancing age. Ageing increases the risk of the onset of chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease. In particular, ageing and cancer share some common origins and hallmarks such as genomic instability, epigenetic alteration, aberrant telomeres, inflammation and immune injury, reprogrammed metabolism, and degradation system impairment (including within the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagic machinery). Recent advances indicate that damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) such as high mobility group box 1, histones, S100, and heat shock proteins play location-dependent roles inside and outside the cell. These provide interaction platforms at molecular levels linked to common hallmarks of ageing and cancer. They can act as inducers, sensors, and mediators of stress through individual plasma membrane receptors, intracellular recognition receptors (e.g., advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptors, AIM2-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, and NOD1-like receptors, and toll-like receptors), or following endocytic uptake. Thus, the DAMP Hypothesis is novel and complements other theories that explain the features of ageing. DAMPs represent ideal biomarkers of ageing and provide an attractive target for interventions in ageing and age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design, installation, and commissioning of the D0 overpass at the Fermilab main ring

    SciTech Connect

    Gerig, R.; May, M.; Moore, C.; Ohnuma, S.; Pruss, S.; Turkot, F.

    1985-06-01

    In order to accommodate large detectors for anti pp studies at the Tevatron, the Main Ring has been modified to be non-planar. A 700 foot-long portion of the ring has been reworked to create an overpass which displaces the beam orbit upwards by 51 inches at the D0 long straight section. The overpass region follows the ''screw'' geometry proposed by T. Collins. A set of four vertically bending dipoles were inserted into the Main Ring lattice; they are powered on a separate bus and operate at twice the current and field level of a standard bend. To make space for these vertical bends, at each vertical bend point two of the four standard dipoles in a half-cell are removed and the other two are powered at twice the current and field level of the rest of the ring. The vertical bends also have a set of trim coils powered by a separate supply so that any difference in the horizontal and vertical bending strengths can be compensated. The D0 overpass was commissioned with beam in November-December 1984. The principal effect on beam dynamics - predicted and observed - is the introduction of momentum dispersion in the vertical dimension of peak value 1.9m. To preserve closed orbit quality during acceleration, the vertical bends must track the rest of the ring with a precision of better than 0.1%. The Main Ring-Tevatron complex has now been running the fixed-target program for four months; the impact of the D0 overpass on accelerator performance has been minimal.

  17. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE SNS RING AND DESIGN OF EXTRACTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS, N.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; LEE, Y.Y.; MI, J.L.; SOUKAS, A.; WANG, J.G.; WEI, J.; ZHANG, S.Y.

    2000-06-30

    The accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] will accumulate a proton beam, injected from a LINAC, into a single bunch containing {approximately} 2.1 x 10{sup 14} protons at a maximum energy of 1.3 GeV. The single bunch with length {approximately}650 nsec and a gap of {approximately}290 nsec will circulate into the accumulator ring for {approximately}1.0 msec before it is extracted into the RTBT transfer line. The accumulation, extraction frequency is set at 60 Hz. This paper discusses the extraction process and the requirements of the fast beam extraction system.

  18. Design and Analysis of Orthotrophic Ring-Stiffened Cylindrical Shells Subjected to External Hydrostatic Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-28

    and the ring stiffeners constructed of aluminum . Conversely, the skin could be an isotropic material such as aluminum or steel and the rings made of...from 7075-T6 aluminum bar stock with a nominal yield strength of 80,000 psi. A schematic of these shells is given in Figure 9. Each specimen had six...5741 0.949 5744 0.949 5559 6150 0.904 24 20-52 4500 IGI 5302 0.849 4874 0.923 5305 0.848 4595 5260 0.874 25 15-58 7050 IGI 6406 1.101 6891 1.023 6602

  19. Collision mechanics and the structure of planetary ring edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaute, Dominique; Greenberg, Richard

    1987-01-01

    The present numerical simulation of collisional evolution, in the case of a hypothetical ring whose parameters are modeled after those of Saturn's rings, gives attention to changes in radial structure near the ring edges and notes that when random motion is in equilibrium, the rings tend to spread in order to conserve angular momentum while energy is dissipated in collisions. As long as random motion is damped, ring edges may contract rather than spread, producing a concentration of material at the ring edges. For isotropic scattering, damping dominates for a coefficient of restitution of velocity value of up to 0.83.

  20. Flexible magnetoinductive ring MRI detector: Design for invariant nearest-neighbour coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, R. R. A.; Floume, T.; Young, I. R.; Solymar, L.; Rea, M.

    2010-05-01

    A flexible birdcage-type resonant RF detector for magnetic resonance imaging is described. The circuit consists of a polygonal ring of magnetically coupled L- C resonators, a periodic structure supporting backward magnetoinductive waves. The elements are mechanically linked to allow relative rotation, and the pivot point is optimised to hold the nearest-neighbour coupling coefficient invariant to small changes in the angle of an undistorted joint. Simple theory based on a parallel wire approximation to rectangular inductors is developed to allow the variation of the coupling coefficient with angle and radius to be estimated, and hence determine the location of the pivot. The optimised pivot is shown to reduce resonance splitting in octagonal rings. However, second-neighbour interactions degrade performance. The theory is verified experimentally using printed circuit board elements coupled by flexible hinges, and the invariance of the nearest-neighbour coupling coefficient is confirmed. Octagonal ring resonators are constructed for operation at 63.8 MHz frequency and the mode spectra of regular and distorted rings are measured. Magnetic resonance imaging properties are investigated using 1H MRI of simple objects in a 1.5 T field. Images are obtained from undistorted and distorted resonators and the effect of distortion on SNR is quantified.

  1. Design and performance of a frequency-stabilized ring dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    Divens, W.G.; Jarrett, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    A commercial version of a scannable, frequency-stabilized, cw ring dye laser is described. The optical and electronic systems are presented along with the results of long-term stability tests and linewidth measurements. Spectral data obtained using the technique of polarization spectroscopy are also discussed.

  2. Design low crosstalk ring-slot array structure for label-free multiplexed sensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lijun; Tian, Huiping; Zhou, Jian; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-08-25

    We theoretically demonstrate a low crosstalk ring-slot array structure used for label-free multiplexed sensing. The proposed sensors array is based on an array of three ring-slot and input/output line defect coupling waveguides. Each ring-slot cavity has slightly different cavity spacing and different resonant frequency. Results obtained using two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) simulation indicate that the resonant frequencies of each sensor unit in response to the refractive index variations are independent. The refractive index sensitivity is 134 ~ 145.5 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the Q factors more than 10(4) can be achieved. The calculated detect limit lower than 1.13 × 10(-4) RIU is obtained. In addition, an extremely small crosstalk lower than -25.8 dB is achieved among the array of three ring-slot cavities. The results demonstrate that this multiplexed sensor array is a promising platform for integrated optical devices and enables highly parallel label-free detection.

  3. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination. In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:26215666

  4. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola.

    PubMed

    2015-07-27

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination.In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods.

  5. Damping modeling in Timoshenko beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Wang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical results of damping model studies for composite material beams using the Timoshenko theory is presented. Based on the damping models developed for Euler-Bernoulli beams, the authors develop damping methods for both bending and shear in investigation of Timoshenko beams. A computational method for the estimation of the damping parameters is given. Experimental data with high-frequency excitation were used to test Timoshenko beam equations with different types of damping models for bending and shear in various combinations.

  6. Hetero-ring-expansion design for purine analogs: A theoretical study on the structural, electronic, and excited-state properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Laibin; Zhou, Liuzhu; Tian, Jianxiang; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-03-01

    A series of hetero-ring-expanded purine analogs are designed and their structural, electronic and excited-state properties are investigated by DFT calculations. The results indicate that the designed analogs can form stable base pairs with natural counterparts. Compared with natural ones, these size-expanded analogs and corresponding base pairs have smaller ionization potentials and HOMO-LUMO gaps. Furthermore, the A-analogs have ionization potentials even lower than natural G. Finally, the electronic absorption spectra are calculated and the nature of the low-lying excited states is discussed. These observations imply their promising applications as molecular wires and new DNA motifs.

  7. On the design of a miniature haptic ring for cutaneous force feedback using shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Donghyun; Lee, Jaemin; Kim, Keehoon

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a miniature haptic ring that can display touch/pressure and shearing force to the user’s fingerpad. For practical use and wider application of the device, it is developed with the aim of achieving high wearability and mobility/portability as well as cutaneous force feedback functionality. A main body of the device is designed as a ring-shaped lightweight structure with a simple driving mechanism, and thin shape memory alloy (SMA) wires having high energy density are applied as actuating elements. Also, based on a band-type wireless control unit including a wireless data communication module, the whole device could be realized as a wearable mobile haptic device system. These features enable the device to take diverse advantages on functional performances and to provide users with significant usability. In this work, the proposed miniature haptic ring is systematically designed, and its working performances are experimentally evaluated with a fabricated functional prototype. The experimental results obviously demonstrate that the proposed device exhibits higher force-to-weight ratio than conventional finger-wearable haptic devices for cutaneous force feedback. Also, it is investigated that operational performances of the device are strongly influenced by electro-thermomechanical behaviors of the SMA actuator. In addition to the experiments for performance evaluation, we conduct a preliminary user test to assess practical feasibility and usability based on user’s qualitative feedback.

  8. Research on damping properties optimization of variable-stiffness plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-kai, QI; Xian-tao, YIN; Cheng, SHEN

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates damping optimization design of variable-stiffness composite laminated plate, which means fibre paths can be continuously curved and fibre angles are distinct for different regions. First, damping prediction model is developed based on modal dissipative energy principle and verified by comparing with modal testing results. Then, instead of fibre angles, the element stiffness and damping matrixes are translated to be design variables on the basis of novel Discrete Material Optimization (DMO) formulation, thus reducing the computation time greatly. Finally, the modal damping capacity of arbitrary order is optimized using MMA (Method of Moving Asymptotes) method. Meanwhile, mode tracking technique is employed to investigate the variation of modal shape. The convergent performance of interpolation function, first order specific damping capacity (SDC) optimization results and variation of modal shape in different penalty factor are discussed. The results show that the damping properties of the variable-stiffness plate can be increased by 50%-70% after optimization.

  9. Validation of equivalent viscous damping methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquer Araujo, Xavier; Fransen, Sebastiaan H. J. A.; Germès, Sylvain; Thiry, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    An important step in the design and verification process of spacecraft structures is the coupled dynamic analysis with the launch vehicle in the low-frequency domain. To obtain accurate predictions of the satellite's dynamic environment, it is essential that the damping of the system is correctly defined and taken into account within the resolution methodologies for the coupled loads analysis (CLA). When working with finite element models, the materials' damping is characterized by structural damping ratios. In addition, most of the load cases present in the CLA are transient excitations, and so the resolution of the equations of motion must be done in the time domain. Unfortunately, in the CLA, transient analyses cannot be carried out using structural damping models. Thus, a transformation from a structural to a viscous damping characterization is necessary in this case. Nevertheless, this transformation is not trivial. There exist many methodologies for computing an equivalent viscous damping (EqVD) matrix of the system which can be used in transient analyses. This paper describes the results obtained from the validation of EqVD methodologies used in the European Space Agency. This work identifies the limitations of these methodologies and comes up with an enhanced methodology that predicts more reliable results.

  10. A unique multipurpose damping circuit for shunt capacitor bank switching

    SciTech Connect

    Sabot, A.; Morin, C.; Guillaume, C.; Pons, A. . Les Renardieres Lab.); Taisne, J.P. . Transmission Division); Pizzo, G.L.; Morf, H.U. )

    1993-07-01

    Considerations on disturbances related to Shunt Capacitor Bank (SCB) switching are summarized and a unique damping circuit able to cope with all of them is proposed. This damping circuit consists of a reactor in parallel with a resistor which is in series with a Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV), the latter being used to switch on the resistor only during transients. The design parameter of this damping circuit are described and the main tests performed are presented.

  11. Analysis and design of a 1×2 ring resonator-based plasmonic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatuzian, Hassan; Keshavarz Moazzam, Mostafa

    2014-08-01

    Relying on the next generation chip-scale technology, Plasmonics, here is presented a novel plan for Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton-based Ring Resonator (DLSPP-RR) switching configuration. The device is a 1x2 switch with a left-rob Y splitter in the middle of coupling region to share the electromagnetic energy between the two straight and bend output waveguides. Like other active devices, specially switching structures, this plan also will have the potential to be prepared as an active device if its trapped-modes into ring resonator can be controlled on the frequency axis. We implemented simulation of the device by means of the rigorous 3D Finite Element Method (3D-FEM) to certificate its truly passive performance. The obtained results are mixed as transmission spectrums of two output ports on a relatively close frequency band around the telecommunication wavelength of λ = 1550 nm.

  12. Implementation and Evaluation of Two Design Concepts of the Passive Ring Resonator Laser Gyroscope.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    The cavity mirrors consist of 23 dielec- tric layers on a Zerodur substrate (Ref 1). The reflectivity of each mirror is 0.99995 (Ref 1). The...Conditions at the Cavity Input Mirror ...II1-8 6 Cavity Power Transmission vs. Frequency.. ........ II-10 7 Spatial Phase Distortion of the Reflected...32 16 Piano-Spherical Square vty.........II3 17 Astigmatism of a Spherical Mirror in a Ring 18 Case Is Circular-Circular Mode Match..........e...II

  13. D-ring modified novel isosteviol derivatives: design, synthesis and cytotoxic activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Lu, Li-Hui; Liu, Hao; Wang, Jun-Wei; Wang, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Yun-Xiao; Tao, Jing-Chao

    2012-09-15

    A series of polyhydric, amino alcohol and tricyclic derivatives were facilely synthesized by D-ring modification of isosteviol. These compounds were screened for their cytotoxic activities against four human tumor cell lines in vitro. Among them, the 15-α-aminomethyl-16-β-hydroxyl isosteviol 23 exhibits significant cytotoxicity superior to the positive control (cisplatin) against EC9706, PC-3 and HCT-116 cell lines.

  14. Luminescent Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This view shows the unlit face of Saturn's rings, visible via scattered and transmitted light. In these views, dark regions represent gaps and areas of higher particle densities, while brighter regions are filled with less dense concentrations of ring particles.

    The dim right side of the image contains nearly the entire C ring. The brighter region in the middle is the inner B ring, while the darkest part represents the dense outer B Ring. The Cassini Division and the innermost part of the A ring are at the upper-left.

    Saturn's shadow carves a dark triangle out of the lower right corner of this image.

    The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on June 8, 2005, at a distance of approximately 433,000 kilometers (269,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 22 kilometers (14 miles) per pixel.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

    For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

  15. Designing a ring-VCO for RFID transponders in 0.18 μm CMOS process.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5-2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of -126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency.

  16. Designing a Ring-VCO for RFID Transponders in 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5–2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of −126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

  17. Computer-aided studies of the ALS 500 MHz storage ring cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.C.; Taylor, B.

    1989-03-01

    The design of the ALS storage ring 500 MHz cavity has been modeled with Mafia and Urmel codes. The effects of the holes cut for the drive port, the higher order mode damping port, the probe port and tuner plunger were modeled with the Mafia codes. The frequency dependence on the shape and spacing of the nose cones and the general shape of the cavity were modeled with Urmel codes. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Cavity and HOM coupler design for CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong-Juan; Gao, Jie; Liu, Zhen-Chao

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we will show a cavity and higher order mode (HOM) coupler designing scheme for the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) main ring. The cavity radio frequency (RF) design parameters are shown in this paper. The HOM power is calculated based on the beam parameters in the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (Pre-CDR). The damping results of the higher order modes (HOMs) and same order modes (SOMs) show that they reach the damping requirements for beam stability. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175192)

  19. Active member bridge feedback control for damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Gun-Shing; Lurie, Boris J.

    1992-01-01

    An active damping augmentation approach using active members in a structural system is described. The problem of maximizing the vibration damping in a lightly damped structural system is considered using the analogy of impedance matching between the load and source impedances in an electrical network. The proposed active damping augmentation approach therefore consists of finding the desired active member impedances that maximize the vibration damping, and designing a feedback control in order to achieve desired active member impedances. This study uses a bridge feedback concept that feeds back a combination of signals from sensors of the axial force and relative velocity across the active member to realize the desired active member impedance. The proposed active damping augmentation approach and bridge feedback concept were demonstrated on a three-longeron softly suspended truss structure.

  20. Design of all-optical memory cell using EIT and lasing without inversion phenomena in optical micro ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyar, N.; Yadipour, R.; Baghban, H.

    2017-07-01

    The proposed design of the optical memory unit cell contains dual micro ring resonators in which the effect of lasing without inversion (LWI) in three-level nano particles doped over the optical resonators or integrators as the gain segment is used for loss compensation. Also, an on/off phase shifter based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in three-level quantum dots (QDs) has been used for data reading at requested time. Device minimizing for integrated purposes and high speed data storage are the main advantages of the optical integrator based memory.

  1. A Compact Light Source: Design and Technical Feasibility Study of a Laser-Electron Storage Ring X-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, R

    2004-02-02

    Thomson scattering infrared photons off energetic electrons provides a mechanism to produce hard X-rays desirable for applied sciences research. Using a small, modest energy (25MeV) electron storage ring together with a resonantly-driven optical storage cavity, a narrow spectrum of hard X-rays could be produced with the quality and monochromatic intensity approaching that of beamline sources at large synchrotron radiation laboratories. The general design of this X-ray source as well as its technical feasibility are presented. In particular, the requirements of optical pulse gain enhancement in an external cavity are described and experimentally demonstrated using a CW mode-locked laser.

  2. Rubber-coated bellows improves vibration damping in vacuum lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegland, D. E.; Smith, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Compact-vibration damping systems, consisting of rubber-coated metal bellows with a sliding O-ring connector, are used in vacuum lines. The device presents a metallic surface to the vacuum system and combines flexibility with the necessary stiffness. It protects against physical damage, reduces fatigue failure, and provides easy mating of nonparallel lines.

  3. Superconducting Cavity Design for Short-Pulse X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Waldschmidt, R. Nassiri, G. Cheng, R.A. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting cavities have been analyzed for the short-pulse x-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Due to the strong damping requirements in the APS storage ring, single-cell superconducting cavities have been designed. The geometry has been optimized for lower-order and higher-order mode damping, reduced peak surface magnetic fields, and compact size. The integration of the cavity assembly, with dampers and waveguide input coupler, into a cryomodule will be discussed.

  4. Apiary B Factory Lattice Design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-05-03

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper presents the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent.

  5. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R. ); Garren, A.A. )

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab.

  6. A simple theoretical model for erbium doped PCF ring lasers design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, J. A.; Álvarez, J. M.; Rebolledo, M. A.; Andrés, M. V.; Vallés, J. A.; Martín, J. C.; Berdejo, V.; Díez, A.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper a simple theoretical model is presented where the energy conservation principle is used. The model is based on semi-analytical equations describing the behaviour of an erbium-doped photonic crystal fibre (PCF) inside a ring laser. These semi-analytical equations allow the characterisation of the erbium-doped PCF. Spectral absorption and emission coefficients can be determined through the measurement of the gain in the PCF as a function of pump power attenuation for several fibre lengths by means of a linear fitting. These coefficients are proportional to the erbium concentration and to the corresponding absorption or emission cross section. So if the concentration is known the erbium cross sections can be immediately determined. The model was successfully checked by means of two different home-made erbium doped PCFs. Once the fibres were characterised the values of the spectral absorption and emission coefficients were used to simulate the behaviour of a back propagating ring laser made of each fibre. Passive losses of the components in the cavity were previously calibrated. A good agreement was found between simulated and experimental values of efficiency, pump power threshold and output laser power for a wide set of experimental situations (several values of the input pump power, output coupling factor, laser wavelength and fibre length).

  7. Ring system-based chemical graph generation for de novo molecular design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyao, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Hiromasa; Funatsu, Kimito

    2016-05-01

    Generating chemical graphs in silico by combining building blocks is important and fundamental in virtual combinatorial chemistry. A premise in this area is that generated structures should be irredundant as well as exhaustive. In this study, we develop structure generation algorithms regarding combining ring systems as well as atom fragments. The proposed algorithms consist of three parts. First, chemical structures are generated through a canonical construction path. During structure generation, ring systems can be treated as reduced graphs having fewer vertices than those in the original ones. Second, diversified structures are generated by a simple rule-based generation algorithm. Third, the number of structures to be generated can be estimated with adequate accuracy without actual exhaustive generation. The proposed algorithms were implemented in structure generator Molgilla. As a practical application, Molgilla generated chemical structures mimicking rosiglitazone in terms of a two dimensional pharmacophore pattern. The strength of the algorithms lies in simplicity and flexibility. Therefore, they may be applied to various computer programs regarding structure generation by combining building blocks.

  8. Dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, Thomas E.; Xia, Houchun; Chen, Yung

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of constrained viscoelastic layer damping treatment designs is evaluated separately as passive control measures for low frequency joint dominated modes and higher frequency boom flexure dominated modes using a NASTRAN finite element analysis. Passive damping augmentation is proposed which is based on a constrained viscoelastic layer damping treatment applied to the surface of the manipulators's flexible booms. It is pointed out that even the joint compliance dominated modes can be damped to some degree through appropriate design of the treatment.

  9. Nutational Damping Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. A.; Sharma, I.

    2000-10-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of complex rotational states for several asteroids and comets, as well as by the ongoing and planned spacecraft missions to such bodies, which should allow their rotational states to be accurately determined, we revisit the problem of the nutational damping of small solar system bodies. The nutational damping of asteroids has been approximately analyzed by Prendergast (1958), Burns and Safronov (1973), and Efroimsky and Lazarian (2000). Many other similar dynamical studies concern planetary wobble decay (e.g., Peale 1973; Yoder and Ward 1979), interstellar dust grain alignment (e.g., Purcell 1979; Lazarian and Efroimsky 1999) and damping of Earth's Chandler wobble (Lambeck 1980). Recall that rotational energy loss for an isolated body aligns the body's angular momentum vector with its axis of maximum inertia. Assuming anelastic dissipation, simple dimensional analysis determines a functional form of the damping timescale, on which all the above authors agree. However, the numerical coefficients of published results are claimed to differ by orders of magnitude. Differences have been ascribed to absent physics, to solutions that fail to satisfy boundary conditions perfectly, and to unphysical choices for the Q parameter. The true reasons for the discrepancy are unclear since, despite contrary claims, the full 3D problem (nutational damping of an anelastic ellipsoid) is analytically intractable so far. To move the debate forward, we compare the solution of a related 2D problem to the expressions found previously, and we present results from a finite element model. On this basis, we feel that previous rates for the decay of asteroidal tumbling (Harris 1994), derived from Burns and Safronov (1973), are likely to be accurate, at least to a factor of a few. Funded by NASA.

  10. Damping and induced damping of a lightweight sandwich panel with simple and complex attachments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlon, S. C.; Hambric, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Accurately estimating a structure's broadband response is highly dependent on a proper characterization of the system's internal damping as well as induced (or effective) damping when coupled systems are considered. In many aerospace and related applications a primary or master structure is loaded with equipment or substructures. The effects of these attachments on the master structure are often poorly understood and frequently overlooked, but in many cases can dominate the master structure's response. In this work various measures of damping of a lightweight aerospace panel (aluminum sandwich honeycomb core panel) with simple (lumped mass) and complex (electronic equipment) attachments are investigated using experimental techniques and simple statistical energy analysis models. The panel's various measures of damping in steady-state conditions are defined and explored. The panels with simple and complex attachments are experimentally evaluated using power injection methods. The results show that at different frequencies the simple panel's response is controlled by internal and then acoustic radiation damping. The complex attachment's induced damping effects, however, can far exceed both the structure internal and acoustic radiation components. A range of complex attachment configurations are evaluated and general design assessment procedures developed for use by designers. Future work is planned to explore the systems transient response and derived parameters, as well as investigate the effects when the attachment mass varies over a greater range of values, a realistic condition applicable to many aerospace systems.

  11. A new paradigm for designing ring construction strategies for green organic synthesis: implications for the discovery of multicomponent reactions to build molecules containing a single ring.

    PubMed

    Andraos, John

    2016-01-01

    A new way of developing novel synthesis strategies for the construction of monocyclic rings found in organic molecules is presented. The method is based on the visual application of integer partitioning to chemical structures. Two problems are addressed: (1) the determination of the total number of possible ways to construct a given ring by 2-, 3-, and 4-component couplings; and (2) the systematic enumeration of those possibilities. The results of the method are illustrated using cyclohexanone, pyrazole, and the Biginelli adduct as target ring systems with a view to discover new and greener strategies for their construction using multicomponent reactions. The application of the method is also extended to various heterocycles found in many natural products and pharmaceuticals.

  12. A new paradigm for designing ring construction strategies for green organic synthesis: implications for the discovery of multicomponent reactions to build molecules containing a single ring

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new way of developing novel synthesis strategies for the construction of monocyclic rings found in organic molecules is presented. The method is based on the visual application of integer partitioning to chemical structures. Two problems are addressed: (1) the determination of the total number of possible ways to construct a given ring by 2-, 3-, and 4-component couplings; and (2) the systematic enumeration of those possibilities. The results of the method are illustrated using cyclohexanone, pyrazole, and the Biginelli adduct as target ring systems with a view to discover new and greener strategies for their construction using multicomponent reactions. The application of the method is also extended to various heterocycles found in many natural products and pharmaceuticals. PMID:28144310

  13. Damping formulas and experimental values of damping in flutter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Robert P

    1940-01-01

    The problem of determining values of structural damping for use in flutter calculations is discussed. The concept of equivalent viscous damping is reviewed and its relation to the structural damping coefficient g introduced in NACA Technical Report No. 685 is shown. The theory of normal modes is reviewed and a number of methods are described for separating the motions associated with different modes. Equations are developed for use in evaluating the damping parameters from experimental data. Experimental results of measurements of damping in several flutter models are presented.

  14. Vibration reduction in advanced composite turbo-fan blades using embedded damping materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatka, John B.; Lapid, Alex J.; Mehmed, Oral

    1996-05-01

    A preliminary design and analysis procedure for locating an integral damping treatment in composite turbo-propeller blades has been developed. This finite element based approach, which is based upon the modal strain energy method, is used to size and locate the damping material patch so that the damping (loss factor) is maximized in a particular mode while minimizing the overall stiffness loss (minimal reductions in the structural natural frequencies). Numerical results are presented to illustrate the variation in the natural frequencies and damping levels as a result of stacking sequence, integral damping patch size and location, and border materials. Experimental studies were presented using flat and pretwisted (30 degrees) integrally damped composite blade-like structures to show how a small internal damping patch can significantly increase the damping levels without sacrificing structural integrity. Moreover, the use of a soft border material around the patch can greatly increase the structural damping levels.

  15. Mechanical design upgrade of the APS storage ring rf cavity tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.; Bromberek, D.; Kang, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring (SR) rf system employs four banks of four spherical, single-cell resonant cavities. Each cavity is tuned by varying the cavity volume through insertion/retraction of a copper piston located at the circumference of the cavity and oriented perpendicular to the accelerator beam. During the commissioning of the APS SR, the tuners and cavity tuner ports were prone to extensive arcing and overheating. The existing tuners were modified to eliminate the problems, and two new, redesigned tuners were installed. In both cases marked improvements were obtained in the tuner mechanical performance. As measured by tuner piston and flange surface temperatures, tuner heating has been reduced by a factor of five in the new version. Redesign considerations discussed include tuner piston-to-housing alignment, tuner piston and housing materials and cooling configurations, and tuner piston sliding electrical contacts. The tuner redesign is also distinguished by a modular, more maintainable assembly.

  16. A new design of a Nitinol ring-like wire for suturing in deep surgical field.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Dallolio, Villiam; Villa, Elena; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposes a new suturing procedure based on self-accommodating suture points. Each suture point is made of a commercial NiTi wire hot-shaped in a single loop ring; a standard suture needle is then fixed at one end of the NiTi suture. According to this simple geometry, several NiTi suture stitches have been prepared and tested by tensile test to verify the closing force in comparison to that of commercial sutures. Further experimental tests have also been performed on anatomic samples from animals to verify the handiness of the NiTi suture. Moreover, surface quality of sutures has been carefully investigated via microscopy. Results show that the NiTi suture expresses high stiffness and a good surface quality. In addition, the absence of manual knotting allows for a simple, fast and safe procedure.

  17. Introduction to DAMPE event reconstruction (On behalf of DAMPE collaboration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Jingjing

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a high energy particle physics experiment satellite, launched on 17 Dec 2015. To measure basic attributes of cosmic ray particles, DAMPE is equipped with four sub-detectors, BGO calorimeter (BGO), plastic scintillator detector (PSD), silicon tungsten tracker (STK) and neutron detector (NUD). On orbit, the high energy particle data are acquired and recorded by well-designed Data Acquisition system. After that, a series of elaborate event reconstruction algorithms are implemented to determine the energy, direction and particle ID of each event. The energy reconstruction algorithm firstly treats the sum of the BGO crystal energy as the overall energy estimator and various corrections are performed to calculate energy leakage from side and back of the calorimeter. The track reconstruction starts with cluster finding in STK, then shower axis of BGO and barycentre of clusters are used to extract seed of tracks. These seeds will be projected on the next layer by Kalman Filter method which will finally give location and direction of particle tracks. Based on shower development in BGO and tracks reconstructed by STK, we also combine data from PSD and NUD and developed a series of algorithms to evaluate particle's charge and identification. In this talk, we will describe technical strategies of event reconstruction and provide their basic performance.

  18. Noise Transmission Characteristics of Damped Plexiglas Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    2002-01-01

    Most general aviation aircraft utilize single layer plexiglas material for the windshield and side windows. Adding noise control treatments to transparent panels is a challenging problem. In this paper, damped plexiglas windows are evaluated for replacement of conventional windows in general aviation aircraft to reduce the structure-borne and airborne noise transmitted into the interior. In contrast to conventional solid windows, the damped plexiglas window panels are fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. Results from acoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility are used to compare different designs of the damped plexiglas panels with solid windows of the same nominal thickness. Comparisons of the solid and damped plexiglas panels show reductions in the radiated sound power of up to 8 dB at low frequency resonances and as large as 4.5 dB over a 4000 Hz bandwidth. The weight of the viscoelastic treatment was approximately 1% of the panel mass. Preliminary FEM/BEM modeling shows good agreement with experimental results for radiated sound power.

  19. Damping by branching: a bioinspiration from trees.

    PubMed

    Theckes, B; Langre, E de; Boutillon, X

    2011-12-01

    Man-made slender structures are known to be sensitive to high levels of vibration due to their flexibility which often cause irreversible damage. In nature, trees repeatedly endure large amplitudes of motion, mostly caused by strong climatic events, yet with minor or no damage in most cases. A new damping mechanism inspired by the architecture of trees is identified here and characterized in the simplest tree-like structure, a Y-shaped branched structure. Through analytical and numerical analyses of a simple two-degree-of-freedom model, branching is shown to be the key ingredient in this protective mechanism that we call damping-by-branching. It originates in the geometrical nonlinearities so that it is specifically efficient to damp out large amplitudes of motion. A more realistic model, using flexible beam approximation, shows that the mechanism is robust. Finally, two bioinspired architectures are analyzed, showing significant levels of damping achieved via branching with typically 30% of the energy being dissipated in one oscillation. This concept of damping-by-branching is of simple practical use in the design of very slender and flexible structures subjected to extreme dynamical loadings.

  20. Active damping in a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Trung T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active damping in a flexible manipulator are presented. Topics covered include: Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS); flexible structures; vibration; modeling of a flexible manipulator dynamical structure; designing control law criterion that minimizes vibration; and candidate application of fuzzy logic control law to the problem.

  1. AN N-BODY INTEGRATOR FOR GRAVITATING PLANETARY RINGS, AND THE OUTER EDGE OF SATURN'S B RING

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    2013-08-01

    A new symplectic N-body integrator is introduced, one designed to calculate the global 360 Degree-Sign evolution of a self-gravitating planetary ring that is in orbit about an oblate planet. This freely available code is called epi{sub i}nt, and it is distinct from other such codes in its use of streamlines to calculate the effects of ring self-gravity. The great advantage of this approach is that the perturbing forces arise from smooth wires of ring matter rather than discreet particles, so there is very little gravitational scattering and so only a modest number of particles are needed to simulate, say, the scalloped edge of a resonantly confined ring or the propagation of spiral density waves. The code is applied to the outer edge of Saturn's B ring, and a comparison of Cassini measurements of the ring's forced response to simulations of Mimas's resonant perturbations reveals that the B ring's surface density at its outer edge is {sigma}{sub 0} = 195 {+-} 60 g cm{sup -2}, which, if the same everywhere across the ring, would mean that the B ring's mass is about 90% of Mimas's mass. Cassini observations show that the B ring-edge has several free normal modes, which are long-lived disturbances of the ring-edge that are not driven by any known satellite resonances. Although the mechanism that excites or sustains these normal modes is unknown, we can plant such a disturbance at a simulated ring's edge and find that these modes persist without any damping for more than {approx}10{sup 5} orbits or {approx}100 yr despite the simulated ring's viscosity {nu}{sub s} = 100 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. These simulations also indicate that impulsive disturbances at a ring can excite long-lived normal modes, which suggests that an impact in the recent past by perhaps a cloud of cometary debris might have excited these disturbances, which are quite common to many of Saturn's sharp-edged rings.

  2. Viscous damping of perforated planar micromechanical structures

    PubMed Central

    Homentcovschi, D.; Miles, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an analytical approximation to the viscous damping coefficient due to the motion of a gas between a pair of closely spaced fluctuating plates in which one of the plates contains a regular system of circular holes. These types of structures are important parts of many microelectromechanical devices realized in MEMS technology as microphones, microaccelerometers, resonators, etc. The pressure satisfies a Reynolds’ type equation with coefficients accounting for all the important effects: compressibility of the gas, inertia and possibly slip of the gas on the plates. An analytical expression for the optimum number of circular holes which assure a minimum value of the total damping coefficient is given. This value realizes an equilibrium between the squeeze-film damping and the viscous resistance of the holes. The paper also provides analytical design formulas to be used in the case of regular circular perforated plates. PMID:19365579

  3. Biomimetic Gradient Polymers with Enhanced Damping Capacities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Huan; Guo, Jing; Cheng, Beichen; Cao, Yuan; Lu, Shengjun; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Designing gradient structures, mimicking biological materials, such as pummelo peels and tendon, is a promising strategy for developing advanced materials with superior energy damping capacities. Here a facile and effective approach for fabricating polymers with composition gradients at millimeter length scale is presented. The gradient thiol-ene polymers (TEPs) are created by the use of density difference of ternary thiol-ene-ene precursors and the subsequent photo-crosslinking via thiol-ene reaction. The compositional gradients are analyzed via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), compressive modulus testing, atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation, and swelling measurements. In contrast to homogeneous TEPs networks, the resultant gradient polymer shows a broader effective damping temperature range combining with good mechanical properties. The present result provides an effective route toward high damping materials by the fabrication of gradient structures.

  4. Measurement of damping of graphite epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an experiment to measure the damping of a cylindrical graphite-epoxy specimen with a three point support and a knife edge support is described as well as equipment used in tests conducted to determine the influence of the support at the two ends of the specimen and to simulate an idealized free-free boundary condition at the two edges. A curve fitting technique is being used to process the frequency response data obtained. Experiments conducted on the thin plate specimen also reveal the influence of the end support condition on the damping ratio of the specimen. The damping ratio values measured for both specimens appear to be strongly influenced by the shape of the specimen and appear to depend on length and fiber orientation as well as the presence of discontinuities such as sharp bends, corners, and notches.

  5. Bellows design for the PEP-II High Energy Ring arc chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Nordby, M.E.; Kurita, N.; Ng, C.K.

    1995-08-01

    An overview of the current bellows module design and performance parameters is presented. Performance requirements based on external chamber design constraints, and operational needs are discussed. Parameters include beam impedance of the RF shield, and electrical resistance of the shield gap joint. Also discussed is the analysis of the high-current thermal management, and structural and cyclic behavior of the bellows and RF shield. Experiments of the tribology and electrical resistance of the shield sliding joint are summarized, and their results presented. Existing and new design options are discussed in light of the analyses and experiments. The final design is presented as the optimal compromise between the varying parameters.

  6. Analysis and design of ring-resonator integrated hemi-elliptical lens antenna at terahertz frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Kumud Ranjan; Singh, G.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a novel lens integrated ring-resonator microstrip antenna is analyzed and simulated at 600 GHz. A mathematical model to compute the directivity of this kind of the antenna has been developed and the directivity of the antenna has been computed which is 18 dBi. The proposed model has been simulated by using CST Microwave Studio a commercially available simulator based on finite integral technique and similar result has been obtained. Further, the directivity of the antenna has also been computed by using the techniques reported in the literature and in this case also we have obtained the similar result. Later, a probe-fed patch integrated lens antenna has also been investigated to validate the correctness of the numerical method. To find the potential advantages of this kind of the structure, the - 10 dB impedance bandwidth of the antenna has been compared to a lens-integrated probe-fed microstrip patch antenna and a significant enhancement in the bandwidth has been observed.

  7. A laser feedback control design for passive ring laser gyros in a very high finesse cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, M. A.

    1985-12-01

    The Frank J. Seiler Research Laboratory is currently developing a Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyroscope (PRRLG) enclosing 58 sq m for proposed use in testing high precision rate sensors and for possibly validating the Theory of General Relativity. The sensitivities required for such experiments are in the 10 to the minus 7th power to 10 to the minus 10th power Earth Rate Unit (ERU) range. This high sensitivity necessitates the use of a large, high finesse cavity. In dealing with high finesse cavities new considerations arise. For example, the cavity linewidth is narrower than linewidths of commercially available stabilized He-Ne lasers. The stability of the laser then becomes the limiting factor in the performance of the PRRLG because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio that arises in this situation. In addition, high finesse cavities exhibit photon lifetimes on the order of 10 to the minus 3rd power to 10 to the minus 6th power seconds, which limits the bandwidth of practical controllers. In this research, a PRRLG was constructed in which a He-Ne laser was frequency locked to 25,000 finesse, 169 sq. cm. resonant cavity, as opposed to the more traditional technique of locking the resonant condition of the cavity to the laser frequency.

  8. Design optimization and testing of a pump wear ring labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, D. L.; Morrison, G. L.; Ko, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that design optimization of labyrinth seals using the present numerical model is quite beneficial. The results shown include important, but previously unknown effects on the leakage rate, especially that of step height. Further, complete details are given of a very effective seal designed using this technique for the SSME high pressure hydrogen turbopump. Measurements using turbine flow meters revealed that the optimized configuration gives 67 percent leakage reduction over the original design. These measurements also reveal important leakage effects of the axial straining of the stator, which begins during pump start-up.

  9. Design optimization and testing of a pump wear ring labyrinth seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, D. L.; Morrison, G. L.; Ko, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that design optimization of labyrinth seals using the present numerical model is quite beneficial. The results shown include important, but previously unknown effects on the leakage rate, especially that of step height. Further, complete details are given of a very effective seal designed using this technique for the SSME high pressure hydrogen turbopump. Measurements using turbine flow meters revealed that the optimized configuration gives 67 percent leakage reduction over the original design. These measurements also reveal important leakage effects of the axial straining of the stator, which begins during pump start-up.

  10. Design and construction of the front-end electronics data acquisition for the SLD CRID (Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeflich, J.; McShurley, D.; Marshall, D.; Oxoby, G.; Shapiro, S.; Stiles, P. ); Spencer, E. . Inst. for Particle Physics)

    1990-10-01

    We describe the front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) of the SLD at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The design philosophy and implementation are discussed with emphasis on the low-noise hybrid amplifiers, signal processing and data acquisition electronics. The system receives signals from a highly efficient single-photo electron detector. These signals are shaped and amplified before being stored in an analog memory and processed by a digitizing system. The data from several ADCs are multiplexed and transmitted via fiber optics to the SLD FASTBUS system. We highlight the technologies used, as well as the space, power dissipation, and environmental constraints imposed on the system. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Multiple-bunch-length operating mode design for a storage ring using hybrid low alpha and harmonic cavity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Lin; Li, Heting

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we design a simultaneous three bunch length operating mode at the HLS-II (Hefei Light Source II) storage ring by installing two harmonic cavities and minimizing the momentum compaction factor. The short bunches (2.6 mm) presented in this work will meet the requirement of coherent millimeter-wave and sub-THz radiation experiments, while the long bunches (20 mm) will efficiently increase the total beam current. Therefore, this multiple-bunch-length operating mode allows present synchrotron users and coherent millimeter-wave users (or sub THz users) to carry out their experiments simultaneously. Since the relatively low energy characteristic of HLS-II we achieve the multiple-bunch-length operating mode without multicell superconducting RF cavities, which is technically feasible.

  12. Design and Analysis of Miniaturized Microstrip Patch Antenna with Metamaterials Based on Modified Split-Ring Resonator for UWB Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedrouche, D.; Bougoutaia, T.; Hocini, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized microstrip patch antenna using a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) unit cells is proposed for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The new design of metamaterial based microstrip patch antenna has been optimized to provide an improved bandwidth and multiple frequency operations. All the antenna performance parameters are presented in response-graphs. Also it is mentioned that the physical dimensions of the metamaterial based patch antenna are very small, which is convenient to modern communication. A 130 % bandwidth, covering the frequency band of 2.9-13.5 GHz, (for return loss less than or equal -10 dB) is achieved, which allow the antenna to operate in the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) band. In addition, the antenna has a good radiation pattern in the ultra-wide band spectrum, and it is nearly omnidirectional.

  13. Passive temperature compensation in hybrid magnets with application to the Fermilab stacker and recycler ring dipole design

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.; Marks, S.; Loper, C.; Halbach, K.

    1995-06-01

    Design theory of hybrid (permanent magnet plus iron) accelerator magnets with application to the proposed permanent magnet recycler and stacker rings at the Fermi National Laboratory is presented. Field stability in such devices requires that changes in the strength of the permanent magnet material with temperature be compensated. Field tuning techniques, including those employing variable capacitance between energized pole and magnet yoke and those employing variable energization of magnet pole pieces, are described. Mechanical configurations capable of achieving temperature compensation passively, including use of expanding liquids/gases and bimetallic springs are outlined. Active configurations, relying on a actuator, in addition to temperature compensation, have the additional benefit of enabling magnet tuning about a nominal operating field level.

  14. Structural dynamics and vibrations of damped, aircraft-type structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Maurice I.

    1992-01-01

    Engineering preliminary design methods for approximating and predicting the effects of viscous or equivalent viscous-type damping treatments on the free and forced vibration of lightly damped aircraft-type structures are developed. Similar developments are presented for dynamic hysteresis viscoelastic-type damping treatments. It is shown by both engineering analysis and numerical illustrations that the intermodal coupling of the undamped modes arising from the introduction of damping may be neglected in applying these preliminary design methods, except when dissimilar modes of these lightly damped, complex aircraft-type structures have identical or nearly identical natural frequencies. In such cases, it is shown that a relatively simple, additional interaction calculation between pairs of modes exhibiting this 'modal response' phenomenon suffices in the prediction of interacting modal damping fractions. The accuracy of the methods is shown to be very good to excellent, depending on the normal natural frequency separation of the system modes, thereby permitting a relatively simple preliminary design approach. This approach is shown to be a natural precursor to elaborate finite element, digital computer design computations in evaluating the type, quantity, and location of damping treatment.

  15. Robot vibration control using inertial damping forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns the suppression of the vibration of a large flexible robot by inertial forces of a small robot which is located at the tip of the large robot. A controller for generating damping forces to a large robot is designed based on the two time scale model. The controller does not need to calculate the quasi-steady variables and is efficient in computation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the inertial forces and the controller designed.

  16. Robot vibration control using inertial damping forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han; Book, Wayne J.

    1989-01-01

    The suppression is examined of the vibration of a large flexible robot by inertial forces of a small robot which is located at the tip of the large robot. A controller for generating damping forces to a large robot is designed based on the two time scale mode. The controller does not need to calculate the quasi-steady state variables and is efficient in computation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the inertial forces and the controller designed.

  17. Study on the Ring Type Stator Design Technique for a Traveling Wave Rotary Type Ultrasonic Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jin-Heon; Yuk, Hyung-Sang; Lim, Kee-Joe

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the technique of design for the stator of traveling wave rotary type ultrasonic motor was proposed. To establish the design technique, the distribution of internal stresses of the stator was analyzed by applying the cylindrical bodies contact model of Hertz theory and the concept of “horn effect” was used to consider the influence of the projection structure. To verify the proposed technique, the prototype motor was fabricated on the authority of the projection shape dimension and the design specification. And its performance was evaluated. According to the estimate production of the experiment results using the extrapolation, we confirmed that the values obtained through the verification experiment were similar to those deduced by the proposed method properly.

  18. Characteristic analysis and shape optimal design of a ring-type traveling wave ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Jong-Suk; Yi, Kyung-Pyo; Chung, Tae-Kyung; Jung, Hyun-Kyo

    2013-07-01

    The contact mechanism should be analyzed for an estimation of the performance of a traveling wave ultra-sonic motor (TWUSM), because the operation of this type of motor depends on the frictional force between the rotor and the stator. However, the nonlinearity of the contact mechanism of the TWUSM makes it difficult to proposed a proper contact model, a characteristic analysis method and an optimal design method. To address these problems, a characteristic analysis and optimal design method using a cylindrical dynamic contact model (CDCM), an analytical method, a numerical method and an evolutionary strategy algorithm (ESA) is proposed in this research. The feasibility and usefulness of the proposed characteristic analysis and optimal design method are verified through experimental data. Furthermore, the importance of the shape of the teeth and the reason for the improvement of motor performances by the chamfering at the teeth are proposed and verified in this paper.

  19. Comparison of damping treatments for gas turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    1996-05-01

    High frequency vibration of gas turbine fan blades is a high cycle fatigue concern. Friction damping devices are ineffective in suppressing high frequency vibration modes and external damping treatments are plagued by creep concerns. An alternative approach is to apply viscoelastic material internally in the blades. In this paper, an analytical comparison of internal damping treatments for fan blades is presented. The fan blade is modeled as a solid, flat, cantilevered titanium plate. Internal portions are removed producing cavities that are filled with viscoelastic material. Configurations with one, two, and three cavities are modeled using the modal strain energy method in conjunction with finite element analysis to estimate damping. Results show that appreciable damping levels for high frequency modes are possible with stiff viscoelastic material. Other design criteria are also considered. Results indicate that the hydrostatic load from the viscoelastic material on the cavity walls may be a concern.

  20. Prevalence of dampness and mold in European housing stock.

    PubMed

    Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2012-09-01

    An assessment of the prevalence of dampness and mold in European housing stock was carried out. It is based on general indicators of dampness and mold in dwellings reported in the literature. The assessment relies on recent studies, taking into account regional and climatic differences, as well as differences in study design, methodology, and definitions. Data were available from 31 European countries. Weighted prevalence estimates are 12.1% for damp, 10.3% for mold, 10.0% for water damage, and 16.5% for a combination of any one or more indicators. Significant (up to 18%) differences were observed for dampness and mold prevalence estimates depending on survey factors, region, and climate. In conclusion, dampness and/or mold problems could be expected to occur in one of every six of the dwellings in Europe. Prevalence and occurrence of different types of problems may vary across geographical areas, which can be partly explained by differences in climate.

  1. Passive Vibration Control of Airborne Equipment using a Circular Steel Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Joseph; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Kehoe, Mike

    1997-01-01

    Vibration isolation is needed to protect avionics equipment from adverse aircraft vibration environments. Passive isolation is the simplest means to achieve this goal. The system used here consists of a circular steel ring with a lump mass on top and exposed to base excitation. Sinusoidal and filtered zero-mean Gaussian white noise are used to excite the structure and the acceleration response spectra at the top of the ring are computed. An experiment is performed to identify the natural frequencies and modal damping of the circular ring. Comparison is made between the analytical and experimental results and good agreement is observed. The ring response is also evaluated with a concentrated mass attached to the top of the ring. The effectiveness of the ring in isolating the equipment from base excitation is studied. The acceleration response spectra of a single degree of freedom system attached to the top of the ring are evaluated and the results are compared with those exposed directly to the base excitation. It is shown that a properly designed ring could effectively protect the avionics from possible damaging excitation levels.

  2. A proposed design and fabrication of lenses and mirrors from a set of spherical rings that produce desired energy distributions for solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Jorge; Vazquez-Montiel, Sergio; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cordero-Davila, Alberto; Castro-Gonzalez, Graciela

    2009-12-15

    The amount of energy contained in the solar aureole affects the performance of solar systems. Solar optical systems are, therefore, dependent on the characteristics of the shape of the sun in a specific geographical location. For this reason, the present study proposes the design of solid lenses and mirrors modelled from a set of concentric spherical rings that give a desired distribution of energy in the focal plane. One hundred spherical rings, whose optimum curvature radius values were calculated by Genetic Algorithms, were employed in the modelling process. The study also proposes a design of a petal tool to polish lens and mirror surfaces. (author)

  3. On damping mechanisms in beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Inman, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A partial differential equation model of a cantilevered beam with a tip mass at its free end is used to study damping in a composite. Four separate damping mechanisms consisting of air damping, strain rate damping, spatial hysteresis and time hysteresis are considered experimentally. Dynamic tests were performed to produce time histories. The time history data is then used along with an approximate model to form a sequence of least squares problems. The solution of the least squares problem yields the estimated damping coefficients. The resulting experimentally determined analytical model is compared with the time histories via numerical simulation of the dynamic response. The procedure suggested here is compared with a standard modal damping ratio model commonly used in experimental modal analysis.

  4. On damping mechanisms in beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Inman, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    A partial differential equation model of a cantilevered beam with a tip mass at its free end is used to study damping in a composite. Four separate damping mechanisms consisting of air damping, strain rate damping, spatial hysteresis and time hysteresis are considered experimentally. Dynamic tests were performed to produce time histories. The time history data is then used along with an approximate model to form a sequence of least squares problems. The solution of the least squares problem yields the estimated damping coefficients. The resulting experimentally determined analytical model is compared with the time histories via numerical simulation of the dynamic response. The procedure suggested here is compared with a standard modal damping ratio model commonly used in experimental modal analysis.

  5. Design and fabrication of a 20 MHz pn-diode silicon ring resonator with in-plane vibration mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahi, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Nishino, Tomoki; Furutsuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenichiro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report a new microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator based on the pn-diode principle. The pn-diode-based resonator can eliminate the narrow gap that conventional electrostatic MEMS resonators need between driving electrodes. This is expected to solve several serious problems related to fabrication, packaging, and lifetime. However, the resonators previously reported had pn-diodes formed in the vertical direction. Because the resonant frequency is determined by the thickness of the resonator plate, the resonant frequency in formed resonators cannot be changed in the same chip. To solve this problem, we newly design a pn-diode resonator with a lateral vibration. Because the resonant frequency is determined by plate width, this new resonator can provide various resonators with different frequencies in a chip, which is most suitable for the integration of MEMS resonators with electronic circuits. Our research objective at present is related to design and fabrication. By using a simulator, we design a ring resonator of 20 MHz. In the fabrication, we develop a technique of using ion implantation to form a 3-µm-thick pn-diode. The results shown here are very useful for improving the MEMS resonators.

  6. Computational design and biological testing of highly cytotoxic colchicine ring A modifications.

    PubMed

    Torin Huzil, John; Winter, Philip; Johnson, Lorelei; Weis, Alexander L; Bakos, Tamas; Banerjee, Asok; Luduena, Richard F; Damaraju, Sambasivarao; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2010-06-01

    Microtubules are the primary target for many anti-cancer drugs, the majority of which bind specifically to beta-tubulin. The existence of several beta-tubulin isotypes, coupled with their varied expression in normal and cancerous cells provides a platform upon which to construct selective chemotherapeutic agents. We have examined five prevalent human beta-tubulin isotypes and identified the colchicine-binding site as the most promising for drug design based on specificity. Using this binding site as a template, we have designed several colchicine derivatives and computationally probed them for affinity to the beta-tubulin isotypes. These compounds were synthesized and subjected to cytotoxicity assays to determine their effectiveness against several cancerous cell lines. We observed a correlation between computational-binding predictions and experimentally determined IC(50) values, demonstrating the utility of computational screening in the design of more effective colchicine derivatives. The most promising derivative exhibited an IC(50) approximately threefold lower than values previously reported for either colchicine or paclitaxel, demonstrating the utility of computational design and assessment of binding to tubulin.

  7. Embedding viscoelastic damping materials in low-cost VARTM composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. J.; Kosmatka, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    It has been well established that using viscoelastic damping materials in structural applications can greatly reduce the dynamic response and thus improve structural fatigue life. Previously these materials have been used to solve vibration problems in metallic structures, where the damping material is attached to the structure and then a stiff outer layer is attached to promote shear deformation in the damping material. More recently, these materials have been used successfully in expensive aerospace composite structures, where the damping material is embedded between plies of prepreg graphite/epoxy prior to being cured in a high-temperature, high-pressure autoclave. The current research involves embedding these damping layers into low-cost composite structures fabricated using the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process. The damping layers are perforated with a series of small holes to allow the resin to flow through the damping layer and completely wet-out the structure. Experimental fabrication, vibration testing, and stiffness testing investigate the effect of hole diameter versus hole spacing. Results show that the damping and stiffness can be very sensitive to perforation spacing and size. It is shown that for closely spaced perforations (95% damping area) that damping increases by only a factor of 2.2 over the undamped plate. However, for greater perforation spacing (99.7% damping area) the damping is increased by a factor of 14.3. Experimental results as well as practical design considerations for fabricating damped composite structures using the VARTM process are presented.

  8. Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF) breadboard is being developed in response to NASA's mission and goals to advance the scientific knowledge of microgravity research, materials science, and related technologies. The objective of the MDF is to dampen the fluid flows due to density gradients and surface tension gradients in conductive melts by introducing a magnetic field during the sample processing. The MDF breadboard will serve as a proof of concept that the MDF performance requirements can be attained within the International Space Station resource constraints.

  9. Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF) breadboard is being developed in response to NASA's mission and goals to advance the scientific knowledge of microgravity research, materials science, and related technologies. The objective of the MDF is to dampen the fluid flows due to density gradients and surface tension gradients in conductive melts by introducing a magnetic field during the sample processing. The MDF breadboard will serve as a proof of concept that the MDF performance requirements can be attained within the International Space Station resource constraints.

  10. Translational damping on high-frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Perry A.

    Flapping fliers such as insects and birds depend on passive translational and rotational damping to terminate quick maneuvers and to provide a source of partial stability in an otherwise unstable dynamic system. Additionally, passive translational and rotational damping reduce the amount of active kinematic changes that must be made to terminate maneuvers and maintain stability. The study of flapping-induced damping phenomena also improves the understanding of micro air vehicle (MAV) dynamics needed for the synthesis of effective flight control strategies. Aerodynamic processes which create passive translational and rotational damping as a direct result of symmetric flapping with no active changes in wing kinematics have been previously studied and were termed flapping counter-force (FCF) and flapping counter-torque (FCT), respectively. In this first study of FCF measurement in air, FCF generation is measured using a pendulum system designed to isolate and measure the relationship of translational flapping-induced damping with wingbeat frequency for a 2.86 gram mechanical flapper equipped with real cicada wings. Analysis reveals that FCF generation and wingbeat frequency are directly proportional, as expected from previous work. The quasi-steady FCF model using Blade-Element-Theory is used as an estimate for translational flapping-induced damping. In most cases, the model proves to be accurate in predicting the relationship between flapping-induced damping and wingbeat frequency. "Forward-backward" motion proves to have the strongest flapping-induced damping while "up-down" motion has the weakest.

  11. High stability design for new centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, H.; Katayama, K.; Morii, S.; Mouri, Y.; Umemura, S.; Ozawa, U.; Oda, T.

    1989-01-01

    It is essential that high-performance centrifugal compressors be free of subsynchronous vibrations. A new high-performance centrifugal compressor has been developed by applying the latest rotordynamics knowledge and design techniques: (1) To improve the system damping, a specially designed oil film seal was developed. This seal attained a damping ratio three times that of the conventional design. The oil film seal contains a special damper ring in the seal cartridge. (2) To reduce the destabilizing effect of the labyrinth seal, a special swirl canceler (anti-swirl nozzle) was applied to the balance piston seal. (3) To confirm the system damping margin, the dynamic simulation rotor model test and the full load test applied the vibration exciting test in actual load conditions.

  12. Window frame or ''superferric'' magnet design for low B(<3T) heavy ion storage ring study

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Keohane, G., Lee, Y.; Phillips, R.; Plate, S.; Repata, L.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, L.

    1985-01-01

    Double magnets share common laminations without magnetic coupling. Single layer coils of rectangular conductor are dry wound on extruded bore tubes. Magnet construction requires no molding or prestress. Absence of superconducting (SC) magnetization fields in the aperture results in very large dynamic range. The coil is wound continuously across the modplane to give unusually large dynamic aperture. Above approx.2.2 T saturation is corrected by simple sextupole windings with no inductive coupling to the dipole. Ultrastable design requires no internal quench protection. A quadrupole pair of novel design gives excellent field quality to B > 2 T without corrections, with no SC magnetization. Experience shows magnets are accurate enough for the assembly to take place at its final location. No training is required. Test procedures (measurements with search coils or with the beam) and cooldown properties are discussed. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Window frame or ''superferric'' magnet design for low B(< 3T) heavy ion storage ring study

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Keohane, G.; Lee, Y.; Phillips, R.; Plate, S.; Repeta, L.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, L.

    1985-10-01

    Double magnets share common laminations without magnetic coupling. Single layer coils of rectangular conductor are dry wound on extruded bore tubes. Magnet construction requires no molding or prestress. Absence of superconducting (SC) magnetization fields in the aperture results in very large dynamic range. The coil is wound continuously across the midplane to give unusually large dynamic aperture. Above about2.2 T saturation is corrected by simple sextupole windings with no inductive coupling to the dipole. Ultrastable design requires no internal quench protection. A quadrupole pair of novel design gives excellent field quality to B > 2 T without corrections, with no SC magnetization. Experience shows magnets are accurate enough for the assembly to take place at its final location. No training is required. Test procedures (measurements with search coils or with the beam) and cooldown properties are discussed.

  14. Design and analysis of dual ring resonator based 2D-photonic crystal WDDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, K.; Robinson, S.; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, four channel 2D Photonic Crystal (PC) based Wavelength Division Demultiplexer (WDDM) using 2D-Photonic Crystal is proposed and designed. The important functional parameters of the proposed demultiplexer such as transmission efficiency, Q factor and resonant wavelength are analyzed. The Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method and Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method are employed to calculate the photonic band gap and normalized output spectrum of the proposed demultiplexer. The average transmission efficiency and Q factor of this proposed device is about 93% and 781, respectively. The overall size of the demultiplexer is around 681 µm2 which will be suitable for integrated optics for future all optical networks.

  15. The Fermilab recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  16. Characterization of viscoelastic response and damping of composite materials used in flywheel rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianmin

    The long-term goal for spacecraft flywheel systems with higher energy density at the system level requires new and innovative composite material concepts. Multi-Direction Composite (MDC) offers significant advantages over traditional filament-wound and multi-ring press-fit filament-wound wheels in providing higher energy density (i.e., less mass), better crack resistance, and enhanced safety. However there is a lack of systematic characterization for dynamic properties of MDC composite materials. In order to improve the flywheel materials reliability, durability and life time, it is very important to evaluate the time dependent aging effects and damping properties of MDC material, which are significant dynamic parameter for vibration and sound control, fatigue endurance, and impact resistance. The physical aging effects are quantified based on a set of creep curves measured at different aging time or different aging temperature. One parameter (tau) curve fit was proposed to represent the relationship of aging time and aging temperature between different master curves. The long term mechanical behavior was predicted by obtained master curves. The time and temperature shift factors of matrix were obtained from creep curves and the aging time shift rate were calculated. The aging effects on composite are obtained from experiments and compared with prediction. The mechanical quasi-behavior of MDC composite was analyzed. The correspondence principle was used to relate quasi-static elastic properties of composite materials to time-dependent properties of its constituent materials (i.e., fiber and matrix). The Prony series combined with the multi-data fitting method was applied to inverse Laplace transform and to calculate the time dependent stiffness matrix effectively. Accelerated time-dependent deformation of two flywheel rim designs were studied for a period equivalent to 31 years and are compared with hoop reinforcement only composite. Damping of pure resin and T700

  17. Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    The rings are changing before our eyes; structure varies on all timescales and unexpected things have been discovered. Many questions have been answered, but some answers remain elusive (see Cuzzi et al 2010 for a review). Here we highlight the major ring science progress over the mission to date, and describe new observations planned for Cassini's final three years. Ring Composition and particle sizes: The rings are nearly all water ice with no other ices - so why are they reddish? The C Ring and Cassini Division are "dirtier" than the more massive B and A Rings, as shown by near-IR and, recently, microwave observations. Particle sizes, from stellar and radio occultations, vary from place to place. Ring structure, micro and macro: numerous spiral density waves and ubiquitous "self-gravity wakes" reveal processes which fostered planet formation in the solar system and elsewhere. However, big puzzles remain regarding the main ring divisions, the C Ring plateau structures, and the B Ring irregular structure. Moonlets, inside and out, seen and unseen: Two gaps contain sizeable moonlets, but more gaps seem to contain none; even smaller embedded "propeller" objects wander, systematically or randomly, through the A ring. Rubble pile ringmoons just outside the rings may escaped from the rings, and the recently discovered "Peggy" may be trying this as we watch. Impact bombardment of the rings: Comet fragments set the rings to rippling on century-timescales, and boulders crash through hourly; meanwhile, the constant hail of infalling Kuiper belt material has a lower mass flux than previously thought. Origin and Age of the Rings: The ring mass and bombardment play key roles. The ring mass is well known everywhere but in the B Ring (where most of it is). New models suggest how tidal breakup of evolving moons may have formed massive ancient rings, of which the current ring is just a shadow. During its last three years, the Cassini tour profile will allow entirely new

  18. Physics and design issues of asymmetric storage ring colliders as B-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-08-01

    This paper concentrates on generic R D and design issues of asymmetric colliders via a specific example, namely a 9 GeV {times} 3 GeV collider based on PEP at SLAC. An asymmetric e{sup +}-e{sup -} collider at the Y(4s) and with sufficiently high luminosity (10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) offers the possibility of studying mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} meson system, as well as beautiful'' tau-charm physics, and has certain qualitative advantages from detection and machine design points of view. These include: the energy constraint; clean environment ({approximately}25% B{sup +}B{sup -}, B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0}); large cross section (1 nb); vertex reconstruction (from the time development of space-time separated B and {bar B} decays due to moving center-of-mass); reduced backgrounds; greatest sensitivity to CP violation in B {yields} CP eigenstate; the possibility of using higher collision frequencies, up to 100 MHz, in a head-on colliding mode using magnetic separation. It is estimated that for B {yields} {Psi}K{sub s}, an asymmetric collider has an advantage equivalent to a factor of five in luminosity relative to a symmetric one. There are, however, questions with regard to the physics of the asymmetric beam-beam coulomb interaction that may limit the intrinsic luminosity and the possibility of realizing the small beam pipes necessary to determine the vertices. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Experimental Observations on Material Damping at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Chia-Yen; Levine, Marie; Shido, Lillian; Leland, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a unique experimental facility designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The test facility removes other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device. Damping data reported herein are obtained for materials (Aluminum, Aluminum/Terbium/Dysprosium, Titanium, Composites) vibrating in free-free bending modes with low strain levels (< 10(exp -6) ppm). The fundamental frequencies of material samples are ranged from 14 to 202 Hz. To provide the most beneficial data relevant to TPF-like precision optical space missions, the damping data are collected from room temperatures (around 293 K) to cryogenic temperatures (below 40 K) at unevenly-spaced intervals. More data points are collected over any region of interest. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic damping can be as low as 10(exp -4) %, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. However, Titanium 15-3-3-3 shows a remarkable increase in damping at cryogenic temperatures. It demonstrates over one order of magnitude increase in damping in comparison to Aluminum 6061-T6. Given its other properties (e.g., good stiffness and low conductivity) this may prove itself to be a good candidate for the application on TPF. At room temperatures, the test data are correlated well with the damping predicted by the Zener theory. However, large discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the Zener theory and the test data are observed.

  20. Experimental Observations on Material Damping at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Chia-Yen; Levine, Marie; Shido, Lillian; Leland, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a unique experimental facility designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The test facility removes other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device. Damping data reported herein are obtained for materials (Aluminum, Aluminum/Terbium/Dysprosium, Titanium, Composites) vibrating in free-free bending modes with low strain levels (< 10(exp -6) ppm). The fundamental frequencies of material samples are ranged from 14 to 202 Hz. To provide the most beneficial data relevant to TPF-like precision optical space missions, the damping data are collected from room temperatures (around 293 K) to cryogenic temperatures (below 40 K) at unevenly-spaced intervals. More data points are collected over any region of interest. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic damping can be as low as 10(exp -4) %, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. However, Titanium 15-3-3-3 shows a remarkable increase in damping at cryogenic temperatures. It demonstrates over one order of magnitude increase in damping in comparison to Aluminum 6061-T6. Given its other properties (e.g., good stiffness and low conductivity) this may prove itself to be a good candidate for the application on TPF. At room temperatures, the test data are correlated well with the damping predicted by the Zener theory. However, large discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the Zener theory and the test data are observed.

  1. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jack C.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

  2. Development of Transverse Modes Damped DLA Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.

    2009-01-22

    As the dimensions of accelerating structures become smaller and beam intensities higher, the transverse wakefields driven by the beam become quite large with even a slight misalignment of the beam from the geometric axis. These deflection modes can cause inter-bunch beam breakup and intra-bunch head-tail instabilities along the beam path, and thus BBU control becomes a critical issue. All new metal based accelerating structures, like the accelerating structures developed at SLAC or power extractors at CLIC, have designs in which the transverse modes are heavily damped. Similarly, minimizing the transverse wakefield modes (here the HEMmn hybrid modes in Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structures) is also very critical for developing dielectric based high energy accelerators. In this paper, we present the design of a 7.8 GHz transverse mode damped DLA structure currently under construction, along with plans for the experimental program.

  3. Neptune's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by the Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged. Also visible in this image is the inner faint ring and the faint band which extends smoothly from the ring roughly halfway between the two bright rings. Both of these newly discovered rings are broad and much fainter than the two narrow rings. The bright glare is due to over-exposure of the crescent on Neptune. Numerous bright stars are evident in the background. Both bright rings have material throughout their entire orbit, and are therefore continuous. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  4. Ring World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-01

    Our robotic emissary, flying high above Saturn, captured this view of an alien copper-colored ring world. The overexposed planet has deliberately been removed to show the unlit rings alone, seen from an elevation of 60 degrees

  5. Neptune Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-29

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by NASA Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged.

  6. Ring Backdrop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-03

    Saturn moon Enceladus brightly reflects sunlight before a backdrop of the planet rings and the rings shadows cast onto the planet. NASA Cassini spacecraft captured this snapshot during its flyby of the moon on Nov. 30, 2010.

  7. An Improved Model for Air Damping of Perforated Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cunhao; Li, Pu

    2017-07-01

    the prediction of air damping of micromachined mechanical resonant structures is significant in the design of high quality factor devices. In rarefied air, based on Bao’s molecule model, Li gives an analytical model for air damping of perforated structures. By studying the action of molecules going through holes and reflected by the fixed plate, this paper gives a probability of molecules through holes going into the gap between the moving plate and the fixed one. Comparison with Li’s model, the new model can play a better performance of air damping for perforated structures, at a wide range of size of holes.

  8. Backup nutation damping strategy for the Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eke, Fidelis O.; Eke, Estelle M.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the design and testing of remedial measures that can be taken to achieve reasonable nutation damping of the Galileo spacecraft in the event of failure of its boom damper in flight. One scheme exploits the effects of payload motion on the nutational stability of a spinning spacecraft. However, the spacecraft-motion-compensation algorithm can only be used if the scan platform bore sight is pointed in a direction chosen to produce rapid damping of spacecraft nutation. A second method suggested for nutation damping is a thruster-based open-loop control algorithm, utilizing a pair of thrusters as actuators.

  9. Damping measurements using operational data

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H.; Carne, T.G.; Veers, P.S.

    1996-08-01

    The authors have measured modal damping using strain-gauge data from an operating wind turbine. This new technique for measuring modal damping is easier and less expensive than previously used methods. Auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of the strain-gauge data have been shown to consist of decaying sinusoids which correspond to the modal frequencies and damping ratios of the wind turbine. The authors have verified the method by extracting damping values from an analytically generated data set. Actual operating response data from the DOE/Sandia 34-m Test Bed has been used to calculate modal damping ratios as a function of rotor rotation rate. This capability will allow more accurate fatigue life prediction and control.

  10. Rational design of hetero-ring-expanded guanine analogs with enhanced properties for modified DNA building blocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinmei; Cukier, Robert I; Bu, Yuxiang

    2007-07-19

    The properties and modes of recognition of physiological DNAs associated with the four natural nucleobases might be extended, in principle, by the design of non-natural nucleobase derivatives. The goal is an expansion of the genetic alphabet, with the possible outcome of producing new DNAs with improved physical or biological properties. In this work, a new series of hetero-ring-expanded guanine analogs are proposed, and their relevant structural characteristics and electronic properties are determined by density functional theory. The stabilities of the decamer DNA duplexes (dn.dC)10 (where n represents the corresponding expanded guanine analog designed here) are also examined, using molecular dynamics. The simulations show that the designed motifs can form stable DNA-like structures. We determined the pairing energies for the Watson-Crick (WC) hydrogen-bonded dimers between the expanded G-analogs and the natural C, and found that the pairing energies are close to those of the natural GC pair. The calculated adiabatic ionization potentials (IPs) of the size-expanded guanine analogs and their base pairs, and the corresponding vertical ionization potentials, show that some are distinctly smaller than the corresponding natural versions. The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps for most of the size-expanded guanine analogs and their WC base pairs are considerably lower than those of the corresponding natural base and base pairs. Thus, the expanded G bases may be considered as DNA genetic motifs, and they may serve as building blocks for potential biological applications and the development of molecular electronic devices.

  11. The design of delay-dependent wide-area DOFC with prescribed degree of stability α for damping inter-area low-frequency oscillations in power system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miaoping; Nian, Xiaohong; Dai, Liqiong; Guo, Hua

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the delay-dependent wide-area dynamic output feedback controller (DOFC) with prescribed degree of stability is proposed for interconnected power system to damp inter-area low-frequency oscillations. Here, the prescribed degree of stability α is used to maintain all the poles on the left of s=-α in the s-plane. Firstly, residue approach is adopted to select input-output control signals and the schur balanced truncation model reduction method is utilized to obtain the reduced power system model. Secondly, based on Lyapunov stability theory and transformation operation in complex plane, the sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for closed-loop power system with prescribed degree of stability α is derived. Then, a novel method based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) is presented to obtain the parameters of DOFC and calculate delay margin of the closed-loop system considering the prescribed degree of stability α. Finally, case studies are carried out on the two-area four-machine system, which is controlled by classical wide-area power system stabilizer (WAPSS) in reported reference and our proposed DOFC respectively. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are verified by the simulation results under different operating conditions. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of a three-axis magnetic field measurement system for the magnetic shield of the ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Chuiyu; Yao, Xu

    2015-10-01

    The magnetic field is one of the main causes of zero drift in a Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG), which should be avoided by adopting a magnetic shielding system. The Gauss Meter is usually used to measure the magnetic shielding effectiveness. Generally, the traditional Gauss Meter has advantages of high measure range and high reliability, however, its drawbacks such as complex structure, high price and the PC client software cannot be customized at will, are also obvious. In this paper, aiming at a type of experimental magnetic shielding box of RLG, we design a new portable three-axis magnetic field measurement system. This system has both high modularity degree and reliability, with measuring range at ±48Gs, max resolution at 1.5mGs and can measure the magnetic field in x, y and z direction simultaneously. Besides, its PC client software can be easily customized to achieve the automatic DAQ, analysis, plotting and storage functions. The experiment shows that, this system can meet the measuring requirements of certain type of experimental magnetic shielding box for RLG, meanwhile, for the measurement of some other magnetic shielding effectiveness, this system is also applicable.

  13. Analysis and design of a high-current, high-voltage accurate power supply for the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1993-08-01

    There are 81 dipole magnets contained in the storage ring at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). These magnets are connected in series and are energized by only one 12-phase power supply. The eighty-first magnet is located in a temperature-controlled room with an NMR probe to monitor the magnetic field in the magnet and provide a reference signal for correction of the field drift due to aging of the components. The current in the magnets will be held at 497 A. The required current stability of the power supply is {plus_minus}30 ppM, the current reproducibility is {plus_minus}50 ppM, and the current ripple is {plus_minus}400 ppM. The voltage required to maintain such a current in the magnets is about 1700 V. Different schemes for regulating current in the magnets are studied. Pspice software is used to simulate the behavior and the design of such a power supply under different conditions. The pros and cons of each scheme will be given and the proper power and regulating scheme will be selected.

  14. Performance Enhancement of Space-Time Adaptive Processing for GPS and Microstrip Antenna Design Using Ferrite Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Albino, Alix

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system widely used in civilian and military application, but its accuracy is highly impacted with consequential fading, and possible loss of communication due to multipath propagation and high power interferences. This dissertation proposes alternatives to improve the performance of the GPS receivers to obtain a system that can be reliable in critical situations. The basic performance of the GPS receiver consists of receiving the signal with an antenna array, delaying the signal at each antenna element, weighting the delayed replicas, and finally, combining the weighted replicas to estimate the desired signal. Based on these, three modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the system. The first proposed modification is the use of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm with two variations to decrease the convergence time of the classic LMS while achieving good system stability. The results obtained by the proposed LMS demonstrate that the algorithm can achieve the same stability as the classic LMS using a small step size, and its convergence rate is better than the classic LMS using a large step size. The second proposed modification is to replace the uniform distribution of the time delays (or taps) by an exponential distribution that decreases the bit-error rate (BER) of the system without impacting the computational efficiency of the uniform taps. The results show that, for a BER of 0.001, the system can operate with a 1 to 2 dB lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when an exponential distribution is used rather than a uniform distribution. Finally, the third modification is implemented in the design of the antenna array. In this case, the gain of each microstrip element is enhanced by embedding ferrite rings in the substrate, creating a hybrid substrate. The ferrite rings generates constructive interference between the incident and reflected fields; consequently, the gain of a single microstrip element

  15. Cellular Magnesium Matrix Foam Composites for Mechanical Damping Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Mansoor, Bilal; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The damping characteristics of metal alloys and metal matrix composites are relevant to the automotive, aerospace, and marine structures. Use of lightweight materials can help in increasing payload capacity and in decreasing fuel consumption. Lightweight composite materials possessing high damping capabilities that can be designed as structural members can greatly benefit in addressing these needs. In this context, the damping properties of lightweight metals such as aluminum and magnesium and their respective composites have been studied in the existing literature. This review focuses on analyzing the damping properties of aluminum and magnesium alloys and their cellular composites. The damping properties of various lightweight alloys and composites are compared on the basis of their density to understand the potential for weight saving in structural applications. Magnesium alloys are observed to possess better damping properties in comparison to aluminum. However, aluminum matrix syntactic foams reinforced with silicon carbide hollow particles possess a damping capacity and density comparable to magnesium alloy. By using the data presented in the study, composites with specific compositions and properties can be selected for a given application. In addition, the comparison of the results helps in identifying the areas where attention needs to be focused to address the future needs.

  16. Saturn's rings - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    2005-08-01

    Saturn's rings embody in their diversity the entire spectrum of ring properties seen across the outer solar system, and remain unique in fundamental ways. The Voyager flybys revealed their complexity in 1980-1981, while groundbased and HST observations have provided important new insights since that time. Since July 2004, when it skimmed only tens of thousands of km over the unlit face of the rings - collecting unique remote and in-situ observations as it entered orbit - Cassini has been fulfilling the long-held dream of understanding Saturn's rings in depth. As of this meeting, if all continues as planned, seven orbits designed specifically with ring observations in mind will have been completed - each providing even better geometric opportunities than an entire Voyager flyby (to a spacecraft with far more powerful instruments than Voyager). Even these represent only a fraction of what the complete mission will tell us about the rings. This talk will review the key properties of the rings, highlight the themes and new insights emerging from recent studies, and serve as a context for new results presented at the meeting. The key properties include the relationship of the rings to their close-in and embedded moons; the composition of the rings and its spatial variation; and the complex radial and vertical structure of the rings, as related to local particle sizes and mass density. The main themes are that several evolutionary processes cause all these to vary - we think substantially - with time, and that the rings may be much younger than Saturn. To achieve our goal of understanding the origin of the rings, we must start from an in-depth characterization of their current state, and peer back through their extensive evolution. Cassini observations, and their theoretical analysis, will ultimately make this possible.

  17. Damping characteristics of friction damped braced frame and its effectiveness in the mega-sub controlled structure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yeda; Zhang, Xunan; Sheldon, Cherry

    2007-06-01

    Based on energy dissipation and structural control principle, a new structural configuration, called the mega-sub controlled structure (MSCS) with friction damped braces (FDBs), is first presented. Meanwhile, to calculate the damping coefficient in the slipping state a new analytical method is proposed. The damping characteristics of one-storey friction damped braced frame (FDBF) are investigated, and the influence of the structural parameters on the energy dissipation and the practical engineering design are discussed. The nonlinear dynamic equations and the analytical model of the MSCS with FDBs are established. Three building structures with different structural configurations, which were designed with reference to the conventional mega-sub structures such as used in Tokyo City Hall, are comparatively investigated. The results illustrate that the structure presented in the paper has excellent dynamic properties and satisfactory control effectiveness.

  18. Optimized design method for trench-assisted grade-index ring-core fiber with low DMD and large Aeff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xihui; Tu, Jiajing; Long, Keping

    2017-02-01

    We propose a kind of trench-assisted graded-index ring-core fiber (TA-GI-RCF) with a low refractive index rod deployed in the center of the core, which supports three LP modes (LP01, LP11 and LP21) transmission. There are two difficulties about designing TA-GI-RCF, one is to depart LP21 mode from LP02 mode because their effective indices are too close which makes it difficult to realize only three LP modes transmission; the other one is how to make sure these three LP modes reach the receiver end with low differential mode delay (DMD), so that the computation complexity of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) digital signal process (DSP) can be reduced. At first, we realize the separation of LP21 mode and LP02 mode in TA-GI-RCF by enlarging the size of low refractive index rod. We next investigate the influence of the TA-GI-RCF structural parameters on DMD and DMD slope, and find that a graded-index core and a low refractive index rod can flexibly tune the DMD, and a trench can flexibly control the DMD slope. Through optimizing the core parameters, we find that the design region of α is 1.01 2.23 and that of Δ1 is 0.28% 0.46% at r1=30 μm, where α is the profile exponent and Δ1 is the relative refractive index difference between core and cladding. Simulation results show that TA-GI-RCF can achieve the effective area (Aeff) of LP01 mode over 2000 μm2 and the |DMD| between LP01 mode and LP11 mode is <=100 ps/km over C+L band. Above all, we can achieve three LP modes transmission in TA-GIRCF with low DMD over whole C+L band and large Aeff.

  19. Atomistic Mechanisms for Viscoelastic Damping in Inorganic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganathan, Raghavan

    the microstructural length-scale of the composite. The second class of materials consist of structurally heterogeneous binary alloys that are either ordered, random or glassy. Vastly different mechanisms for viscoelastic damping arise for the three structures - random alloy and glass are observed to exhibit significant damping owing to large anharmonicity in the coupling between vibrational modes, which is a direct consequence of the chemical heterogeneity. Additionally, at low shear frequencies, glass exhibits significant long-time scale structural relaxation that results in persistent damping over a large range of frequencies. Finally, a critical analysis of various factors that affect damping in inorganic glasses is made. We show that damping in glasses exhibits a striking commonality - at high frequencies, vibrational anharmonicity leads to a peak in damping for all glasses commensurate with the range of vibrational frequencies of the glass; at intermediate and low frequencies, structural relaxation leads to persistent, nearly-constant damping. The frequency-dependent damping mechanisms and structure-property relations observed with respect to damping are expected to enable the design of novel structures with favorable damping characteristics.

  20. Uranus Rings and Two Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-19

    Voyager 2 has discovered two hepherd satellites associated with the rings of Uranus. The two moons, designated 1986U7 and 1986U8, are seen here on either side of the bright epsilon ring; all nine of the known Uranian rings are visible.

  1. Transverse instability at the recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    Sporadic transverse instabilities have been observed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring leading to increase in transverse emittances and beam loss. The driving source of these instabilities has been attributed to the resistive-wall impedance with space-charge playing an important role in suppressing Landau damping. Growth rates of the instabilities are computed. Remaining problems are discussed.

  2. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10- 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of

  3. Validation of High-Resolution CFD Method for Slosh Damping Extraction of Baffled Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Determination of slosh damping is a very challenging task as there is no analytical solution. The damping physics involve the vorticity dissipation which requires the full solution of the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations. As a result, previous investigations and knowledge were mainly carried out by extensive experimental studies. A Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) based CFD program developed at NASA MSFC was applied to extract slosh damping in a baffled tank from the first principle. First, experimental data using water with subscale smooth wall tank were used as the baseline validation. CFD simulation was demonstrated to be capable of accurately predicting natural frequency and very low damping value from the smooth wall tank at different fill levels. The damping due to a ring baffle at different liquid fill levels from barrel section and into the upper dome was then investigated to understand the slosh damping physics due to the presence of a ring baffle. Based on this study, the Root-Mean-Square error of our CFD simulation in estimating slosh damping was less than 4.8%, and the maximum error was less than 8.5%. Scalability of subscale baffled tank test using water was investigated using the validated CFD tool, and it was found that unlike the smooth wall case, slosh damping with baffle is almost independent of the working fluid and it is reasonable to apply water test data to the full scale LOX tank when the damping from baffle is dominant. On the other hand, for the smooth wall, the damping value must be scaled according to the Reynolds number. Comparison of experimental data, CFD, with the classical and modified Miles equations for upper dome was made, and the limitations of these semi-empirical equations were identified.

  4. Electrorheologically damped impact system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardt, Lee R.

    1991-05-01

    An impact switch is described having a housing containing a rigid coaxial conductor entering one end. An inner cylindrical contact extends axially inward from and beyond the in housing end of an outer tubular contact which has a spiral spring extending axially from within a recess therein. The free end of the spring supports a mass spaced from the end of the inner contact. The contacts, spring and mass are enclosed within a flexible shroud spaced from the inner wall of the housing. The space between the shroud and housing contains an electrorheological fluid, the viscosity of which is a function of the voltage supplied by two electrodes extending through the housing and into the fluid. The voltage controlled viscosity permits control of damping of the shroud, mass, and spring movements in response to impact caused switch deceleration and control of time for switch closure and fuze delay by means of mass contact with the inner cylindrical contact, or spring contact with the outer tubular contact.

  5. CASTOR damping experiment in-flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay, Philippe; Bousquet, Paul W.; Courau, E.; Mercier, F.

    2001-07-01

    Over the past ten years, space structures such as optical systems, large antennae or sensitive microgravity payloads have increased their stability requirements. To answer this need, prediction and reduction of vibration levels have been widely studied. The 'CASTOR' truss experiment (French acronym for ChAracterization of STructures in ORbit) is mainly dedicated to the investigation of the dynamic behaviour -in zero g conditions- of a truss mock-up with various damping technologies. The performances of various dampers have been validated in flight, measurements compared with the predictions and the results analysed for different technological solutions. This project was developed under CNES management, and the final experimental work was performed in orbit by a French cosmonaut on MIR station during the summer of 1999. In the first place, the French space agency's interest in structural dynamics behind the CASTOR experiment will be recalled. The flight hardware will then be fully described and a short clip filmed during the PERSEUS mission in MIR will supported this. The truss test bench will be presented, together with the design drivers for damping the first structural modes below 100Hz. The dampers -which are efficient- are located in some strategic bars in the truss. Their performance has been optimized using an energetic criterion. This paper will then focus on the design of the damping, using either piezoelectric active control or passive energy dissipation in elastomer or fluid devices. Particular emphasis will be laid upon the excellent flight results obtained with all the various damping systems, and on the effect of in-orbit conditions. A comparison between the different technologies here tested will also be made with regards to performances achieved and their suitability for space applications. In conclusion, lessons learned during the development process will be highlighted and further work on spacecraft applications discussed.

  6. Operation and performance of a longitudinal damping system using parallel digital signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.

    1994-06-01

    A programmable longitudinal feedback system based on four AT&T 1610 digital signal processors has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R&D program. This Longitudinal Quick Prototype is a proof of concept for the PEP-II system and implements full speed bunch-by-bunch signal processing for storage rings with bunch spacings of 4 ns. The design implements, via software, a general purpose feedback controller which allows the system to be operated at several accelerator facilities. The system configuration used for tests at the LBL Advanced Light Source is described. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented, and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of injection transients and analysis of open loop bunch motion.

  7. Damping measurements using operational data

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H.; Carne, T.G.; Veers, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured modal damping using strain-gauge data from an operating wind turbine. Previously, such measurements were difficult and expensive. Auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of the strain-gauge data have been shown to consist of decaying sinusoids which correspond to the modal frequencies and damping ratios of the wind turbine. We have verified the method by extracting damping values from an analytically generated data set. Actual operating response data from the DOE/Sandia 34-meter Test Bed has been used to calculate modal damping ratios as a function of rotor rotation rate. This capability will allow more accurate fatigue life prediction and control. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Landau damping in space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Summers, Danny

    1991-01-01

    The Landau damping of electrostatic Langmuir waves and ion-acoustic waves in a hot, isotropic, nonmagnetized, generalized Lorentzian plasma is analyzed using the modified plasma dispersion function. Numerical solutions for the real and imaginary parts of the wave frequency omega sub 0 - (i)(gamma) have been obtained as a function of the normalized wave number (k)(lambda sub D), where lambda sub D is the electron Debye length. For both particle distributions the electrostatic modes are found to be strongly damped at short wavelengths. At long wavelengths, this damping becomes less severe, but the attenuation of Langmuir waves is much stronger for a generalized Lorentzian plasma than for a Maxwellian plasma. It is concluded that Landau damping of ion-acoustic waves is only slightly affected by the presence of a high energy tail, but is strongly dependent on the ion temperature.

  9. Vortex rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how core dynamics affects overall ring motion, and laminar vortex structures are described in two dimensions. Viscous and inviscid structures are related in terms of 'leapfrogging', head-on collisions, and collisions with a no-slip wall. Linear instability theory is shown to successfully describe observational data, although late stages in the breakdown are not completely understood. This study of vortex rings has important implications for key aerodynamic issues including sound generation, transport and mixing, and vortex interactions.

  10. Mooring Line Damping Estimation for a Floating Wind Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design. PMID:25243231

  11. Mooring line damping estimation for a floating wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design.

  12. An integrated methodology for optimizing structural composite damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for tailoring plate and shell composite structures for optimal forced damped dynamic response. The damping of specific vibration modes is optimized with respect to dynamic performance criteria including placement of natural frequencies and minimization of resonance amplitudes. The structural composite damping is synthesized from the properties of the constituent materials, laminate parameters, and structural geometry based on a specialty finite element. Application studies include the optimization of laminated composite beams and composite shells with fiber volume ratios and ply angles as design variables. The results illustrate the significance of damping tailoring to the dynamic performance of composite structures, and the effectiveness of the method in optimizing the structural dynamic response.

  13. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

  14. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, J.M.; Barney, P.S.; Parker, G.G.; Smith, D.A.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof. 38 figs.

  15. Shape optimization of damping layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Scott, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Shape optimization of unconstrained and constrained damping layers is completed. The specific problem analyzed is a cantilever beam loaded at its tip by a harmonic force. Finite element modeling and mathematical programming techniques are used to obtain the solution. Performance measures are taken to be reduction of maximum diplacement and increase in fatigue lifetime. Results include the improvement, over the uniform treatment case, of these measures when the profile of the damping layer is optimized.

  16. Translucent Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-08

    Although solid-looking in many images, Saturn's rings are actually translucent. In this picture, we can glimpse the shadow of the rings on the planet through (and below) the A and C rings themselves, towards the lower right hand corner. For centuries people have studied Saturn's rings, but questions about the structure and composition of the rings lingered. It was only in 1857 when the physicist James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that the rings must be composed of many small particles and not solid rings around the planet, and not until the 1970s that spectroscopic evidence definitively showed that the rings are composed mostly of water ice. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 17 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 12, 2014 in near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.4 million miles (2.3 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 24 degrees. Image scale is 85 miles (136 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18295

  17. Turbomachinery rotor support with damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, George L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Damping seals, damping bearings, and a support sleeve are presented for the ball bearings of a high speed rotor. The ball bearings consist of a duplex set having the outer races packaged tightly within the sleeve while the sleeve provides a gap with a support member so that the bearings may float with the sleeve. The sleeve has a web extending radially between the pair of outer races and acts in conjunction with one or more springs to apply an axial preload to the outer races. The sleeves have a series of slits which provide the sleeve with a spring-like quality so that the spring acts to center the rotor upon which the bearings are mounted during start up and shut down. A damping seal or a damping bearing may be used in conjunction with the ball bearings and supporting sleeve, the damping seal and damping bearing having rotor portions including rigid outer surfaces mounted within the bore of a stator portion having triangular shaped pockets on the surface facing the rotor. Axial gates are provided between adjacent pockets in sections of the stator permitting fluid to flow with less resistance axially relative to the flow of fluids circumferentially between the rotor and the stator.

  18. Damping Measurements of Plasma Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2010-11-01

    For azimuthally symmetric plasma modes in a magnesium ion plasma, confined in a 3 Tesla Penning-Malmberg trap with a density of n ˜10^7cm-3, we measure a damping rate of 2s-1< γ< 10^4s-1 over a wide range in temperature (5 x10-6 eV< T < 5eV) and aspect ratio (0.25 < α< 25), with a wave amplitude of δn / n ˜5%. Changing the aspect ratio, α= Lp/ 2rp, of the plasma column, alters the frequency of the mode from 16 KHz to 192 KHz. The oscillatory fluid displacement is small compared to the wavelength of the mode; in contrast, the fluid velocity, δvf, can be large compared to v. The real part of the frequency satisfies a linear dispersion relation. In long thin plasmas (α> 10) these modes are Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, and for smaller values of α they are Dubin spheroidal modes. However the damping appears to be non-linear; initially large waves have weaker exponential damping, which is not yet understood. Recent theoryootnotetextM.W. Anderson and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007). calculates the damping of TG modes expected from viscosity due to ion-ion collisions; but the measured damping, while having a similar temperature and density dependence, is about 40 times larger than calculated. This discrepancy might be due to an external damping mechanism.

  19. Damping characterization in large structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eke, Fidelis O.; Eke, Estelle M.

    1991-01-01

    This research project has as its main goal the development of methods for selecting the damping characteristics of components of a large structure or multibody system, in such a way as to produce some desired system damping characteristics. The main need for such an analytical device is in the simulation of the dynamics of multibody systems consisting, at least partially, of flexible components. The reason for this need is that all existing simulation codes for multibody systems require component-by-component characterization of complex systems, whereas requirements (including damping) often appear at the overall system level. The main goal was met in large part by the development of a method that will in fact synthesize component damping matrices from a given system damping matrix. The restrictions to the method are that the desired system damping matrix must be diagonal (which is almost always the case) and that interbody connections must be by simple hinges. In addition to the technical outcome, this project contributed positively to the educational and research infrastructure of Tuskegee University - a Historically Black Institution.

  20. HVDC system control for damping subsynchronous oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Piwko, R.J.; Larsen, E.V.

    1982-07-01

    A method for designing a supplemental subsynchronous damping control (SSDC) for an HVDC transmission system is described. The SSDC eliminates torsional instabilities caused by interaction between conventional HVDC controls and turbine-generator rotor torsional modes of vibration. Results of digital simulation used in the design process are compared with measurements made on an HVDC simulator. Results of both digital simulations and HVDC simulator tests which demonstrate SSDC performance are shown. This research and development effort was sponsored by EPRI under RP1425-1.