Science.gov

Sample records for dangerous temperature change

  1. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  2. Beyond 'dangerous' climate change: emission scenarios for a new world.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Bows, Alice

    2011-01-13

    The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community's commitment to 'hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius'. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a cumulative emissions framing, broken down to Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations, to understand the implications of rapid emission growth in nations such as China and India, for mitigation rates elsewhere. The analysis suggests that despite high-level statements to the contrary, there is now little to no chance of maintaining the global mean surface temperature at or below 2°C. Moreover, the impacts associated with 2°C have been revised upwards, sufficiently so that 2°C now more appropriately represents the threshold between 'dangerous' and 'extremely dangerous' climate change. Ultimately, the science of climate change allied with the emission scenarios for Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations suggests a radically different framing of the mitigation and adaptation challenge from that accompanying many other analyses, particularly those directly informing policy.

  3. Probabilistic assessment of "dangerous" climate change and emissions pathways.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stephen H; Mastrandrea, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Climate policy decisions driving future greenhouse gas mitigation efforts will strongly influence the success of compliance with Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the prevention of "dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system." However, success will be measured in very different ways by different stakeholders, suggesting a spectrum of possible definitions for DAI. The likelihood of avoiding a given threshold for DAI depends in part on uncertainty in the climate system, notably, the range of uncertainty in climate sensitivity. We combine a set of probabilistic global average temperature metrics for DAI with probability distributions of future climate change produced from a combination of several published climate sensitivity distributions and a range of proposed concentration stabilization profiles differing in both stabilization level and approach trajectory, including overshoot profiles. These analyses present a "likelihood framework" to differentiate future emissions pathways with regard to their potential for preventing DAI. Our analysis of overshoot profiles in comparison with non-overshoot profiles demonstrates that overshoot of a given stabilization target can significantly increase the likelihood of exceeding "dangerous" climate impact thresholds, even though equilibrium warming in our model is identical for non-overshoot concentration stabilization profiles having the same target.

  4. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  5. Impact of Climate Change on Fire Danger across the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatzoglou, J. T.; Kolden, C.; Brown, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past three decades, the size and number of number of large wildfires have dramatically increased across the western United States. Large wildfires across much of the West preferentially occur during periods of extreme fire danger associated with critically low fuel moistures and limited relative humidity recovery. Anecdotal and analytical evidence suggests that fire danger and fire behavior have been unprecedented in recent years, therein contributing to the significant increase in wildland fire acres burned in recent years. Although fire danger, as a juxtaposition of climate and meteorological conditions, represents only a single determinant of wildfires, mounting evidence suggests that observed changes in climate have played a contributing role in increasing wildfire’s prevalence across the West and its subsequent effects on ecosystems and human infrastructure, Here, the impact of projected climate change on fire danger is examined across the western U.S. Projected changes in fire danger are assessed through a multimodel approach that uses downscaled daily meteorological fields. For a middle of the road climate change scenario results suggests an advance in the onset of fire season and an increase in the frequency of extreme fire danger conditions, with strong intermodel confidence across much of the desert southwest and intermountain western U.S. In addition, the alignment of climate change with low-frequency climate variability is projected to increase the likelihood of seasons that incur prolonged widespread fire danger. Such chronic and west-wide synchronous heightened wildfire potential is likely to tax fire suppression resources and reduce their efficacy, therein resulting in increased large catastrophic wildfires. Given the high degree of confidence regarding projected changes in fire danger and the increasing potential for anthropogenic ignitions, proactive efforts to mitigate the negative impacts of large wildfires are needed by land

  6. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, B. G.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interests, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network (Gleason et al. 2002) and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by NCDC an RIHMI. Data from these archives are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. Within the boundaries of the former USSR, each of the archives, GHCN and GSDN, includes more than 2100 stations with only approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses. We use three indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index uses only daily data on maximum temperature and precipitation and is developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Modified Nesterov, and (3) Zhdanko Indices (these indices are developed and widely used in Russia; their computation requires synoptic daytime data on temperature and humidity and daily precipitation and snow on the ground). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the entire Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) we found a statistically significant increase in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of the "dry weather summer days" during the past sixty

  7. Changing Horses in Midstream: The Dangers of Unplanned Head Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Quick leadership transitions may succeed in other industries, but they don't usually work in the "business of relationships" we call school. Boards that respond to a solvable problem by firing the head may believe that action is necessary and good for the school. In truth, these abrupt changes almost always hurt schools, with devastating…

  8. Dangerous news: media decision making about climate change risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joe

    2005-12-01

    This article explores the role of broadcast news media decision makers in shaping public understanding and debate of climate change risks. It locates the media within a "tangled web" of communication and debate between sources, media, and publics. The article draws on new qualitative research in the British context. The main body of it focuses on media source strategies, on climate change storytelling in news, and the "myth of detachment" sustained by many news decision makers. The empirical evidence, gathered between 1997 and 2004, is derived primarily from recordings and notes drawn from a series of seminars that has brought together equal numbers of BBC news and television decision makers and environment/development specialists. The seminars have created a rare space for extended dialogue between media and specialist perspectives on the communication of complex climate change science and policy. While the article acknowledges the distinctive nature of the BBC as a public sector broadcaster, the evidence confirms and extends current understanding of the career of climate change within the media more broadly. The working group discussions have explored issues arising out of how stories are sourced and, in the context of competitive and time-pressured newsrooms, shaped and presented in short news pieces. Particularly significant is the disjuncture between ways of talking about uncertainty within science and policy discourse and media constructions of objectivity, truth, and balance. The article concludes with a summary of developments in media culture, technology, and practice that are creating opportunities for enhanced public understanding and debate of climate change risks. It also indicates the need for science and policy communities to be more active critics and sources of news.

  9. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  10. Predation danger can explain changes in timing of migration: the case of the barnacle goose.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Rudy M; Eichhorn, Götz; van Langevelde, Frank; Bauer, Silke

    2010-06-30

    Understanding stopover decisions of long-distance migratory birds is crucial for conservation and management of these species along their migratory flyway. Recently, an increasing number of Barnacle geese breeding in the Russian Arctic have delayed their departure from their wintering site in The Netherlands by approximately one month and have reduced their staging duration at stopover sites in the Baltic accordingly. Consequently, this extended stay increases agricultural damage in The Netherlands. Using a dynamic state variable approach we explored three hypotheses about the underlying causes of these changes in migratory behavior, possibly related to changes in (i) onset of spring, (ii) potential intake rates and (iii) predation danger at wintering and stopover sites. Our simulations showed that the observed advance in onset of spring contradicts the observed delay of departure, whereas both increased predation danger and decreased intake rates in the Baltic can explain the delay. Decreased intake rates are expected as a result of increased competition for food in the growing Barnacle goose population. However, the effect of predation danger in the model was particularly strong, and we hypothesize that Barnacle geese avoid Baltic stopover sites as a response to the rapidly increasing number of avian predators in the area. Therefore, danger should be considered as an important factor influencing Barnacle goose migratory behavior, and receive more attention in empirical studies.

  11. Changes in gene expression induced by aromatic amine drugs: testing the danger hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Winnie; Uetrecht, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all drugs that contain a primary aromatic amine are associated with a high incidence of idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs), suggesting that this functional group has biological effects that may be used as biomarkers to predict IDR risk. Most IDRs exhibit evidence of immune involvement and the ability of aromatic amines to form reactive metabolites and redox cycle may be responsible for initiation of an immune response through induction of cell stress, as postulated by the Danger Hypothesis. If true, danger signals could be biomarkers of IDR risk. A previous attempt to test the Danger Hypothesis found that sulfamethoxazole (SMX), the only aromatic amine tested, was also the only drug not associated with an increase of cell stress genes in mice. To ensure that these observations were not species-specific, and to determine biomarkers of IDR risk common to aromatic amines, rats were treated with SMX and two other aromatic amine drugs, dapsone (DDS) and aminoglutethimide (AMG), and hepatic gene expression was determined using microarrays. As in mice, SMX induced minimal gene changes in the rat, and none indicated cell stress, whereas DDS and AMG induced several changes including up-regulation of enzymes such as aldo-keto reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase, which may represent danger signals. Early insulin-induced hepatic gene (Eiih) was up-regulated by all three drugs. Some mRNA changes were observed in the Keap-1-Nrf2-ARE pathway; however, the pattern was significantly different for each drug. Overall, the most salient finding was that the changes in the liver were minimal, even though aromatic amines cause a high incidence of IDRs. The liver generates a large number of reactive species; however, the ability of aromatic amines to be bioactivated by cells of the immune system may be why they cause a high incidence of IDRs.

  12. The collective-risk social dilemma and the prevention of simulated dangerous climate change.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred; Sommerfeld, Ralf D; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Reed, Floyd A; Marotzke, Jochem

    2008-02-19

    Will a group of people reach a collective target through individual contributions when everyone suffers individually if the target is missed? This "collective-risk social dilemma" exists in various social scenarios, the globally most challenging one being the prevention of dangerous climate change. Reaching the collective target requires individual sacrifice, with benefits to all but no guarantee that others will also contribute. It even seems tempting to contribute less and save money to induce others to contribute more, hence the dilemma and the risk of failure. Here, we introduce the collective-risk social dilemma and simulate it in a controlled experiment: Will a group of people reach a fixed target sum through successive monetary contributions, when they know they will lose all their remaining money with a certain probability if they fail to reach the target sum? We find that, under high risk of simulated dangerous climate change, half of the groups succeed in reaching the target sum, whereas the others only marginally fail. When the risk of loss is only as high as the necessary average investment or even lower, the groups generally fail to reach the target sum. We conclude that one possible strategy to relieve the collective-risk dilemma in high-risk situations is to convince people that failure to invest enough is very likely to cause grave financial loss to the individual. Our analysis describes the social window humankind has to prevent dangerous climate change.

  13. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  14. Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) "reasons for concern".

    PubMed

    Smith, Joel B; Schneider, Stephen H; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yohe, Gary W; Hare, William; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Patwardhan, Anand; Burton, Ian; Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Magadza, Chris H D; Füssel, Hans-Martin; Pittock, A Barrie; Rahman, Atiq; Suarez, Avelino; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal

    2009-03-17

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [United Nations (1992) http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2009] commits signatory nations to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that "would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system." In an effort to provide some insight into impacts of climate change that might be considered DAI, authors of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified 5 "reasons for concern" (RFCs). Relationships between various impacts reflected in each RFC and increases in global mean temperature (GMT) were portrayed in what has come to be called the "burning embers diagram." In presenting the "embers" in the TAR, IPCC authors did not assess whether any single RFC was more important than any other; nor did they conclude what level of impacts or what atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases would constitute DAI, a value judgment that would be policy prescriptive. Here, we describe revisions of the sensitivities of the RFCs to increases in GMT and a more thorough understanding of the concept of vulnerability that has evolved over the past 8 years. This is based on our expert judgment about new findings in the growing literature since the publication of the TAR in 2001, including literature that was assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), as well as additional research published since AR4. Compared with results reported in the TAR, smaller increases in GMT are now estimated to lead to significant or substantial consequences in the framework of the 5 "reasons for concern."

  15. Global temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W.; Medina-Elizade, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Global surface temperature has increased ≈0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West–East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ≈1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than ≈1°C, relative to 2000, will constitute “dangerous” climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

  16. Dangerous drivers foster social dilemma structures hidden behind a traffic flow with lane changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by the fact that there are quite a few ill-mannered drivers who disregard traffic rules concerning lane-changing and maximum speed, we investigated an interesting question: whether or not social dilemma structures can be formed from a frequent dangerous lane-changing attitude in a typical traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always keep to traffic regulations with respect to lane-changing and speed, while D agents (defective strategy) disregard them to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person Prisoner's Dilemma (n-PD) games or to quasi-PD games. In these situations, existing ill-mannered drivers create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency.

  17. Estimating live fuel status by drought indices: an approach for assessing local impact of climate change on fire danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Dubrovsky, Martin; Bortolu, Sara; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Bachisio; Masia, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of both Mediterranean vegetation communities and understorey vegetation. They also constitute the surface fuels primarily responsible for the ignition and the spread of wildland fires in Mediterranean forests. Although fire spread and behaviour are dependent on several factors, the water content of live fuel plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread, especially in the Mediterranean shrubland, where live fuel is often the main component of the available fuel which catches fire. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel, affecting load distribution in vegetation strata, floristic composition, and live and dead fuel ratio. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status, and consequently flammability, and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The main aim of this work was to propose a methodology for evaluating possible impacts of future climate change on moisture dynamic and length of fire danger period at local scale. Specific objectives were: i) evaluating performances of meteorological drought indices in describing seasonal pattern of live fuel moisture content (LFMC), and ii) simulating the potential impacts of future climate changes on the duration of fire danger period. Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of three Mediterranean shrub species were performed in North Western Sardinia (Italy) for 8 years. Seasonal patterns of LFMC were compared with the Drought Code of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index and the Keetch-Byram Drought Index. Analysis of frequency distribution and cumulative distribution curves were carried out in order to evaluate performance of codes and to identify

  18. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Førland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of "dry weather summer days" during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

  19. Dangers of predicting bird species distributions in response to land-cover changes.

    PubMed

    Vallecillo, Sara; Brotons, Lluís; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2009-03-01

    Land-cover changes from the last decades are leading to important declines in habitat quality, giving rise to changes in bird species distribution all over the world. However, land-cover changes result from a variety of different processes, and it is not clear how effective species distribution models are in capturing species responses to these changes. In this study, we evaluated our ability to predict the effects of land-cover changes on shifts in species distributions at large spatial and temporal scales using Mediterranean landscapes and early-successional, open-habitat birds as study models. Based on presence-absence data from the second Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas (1999-2002), we applied six different species distribution modeling techniques for 10 bird species using climate, topographic, and land-cover data as predictor variables. Then we back-projected the models on land-cover conditions from 1980 to evaluate the projections with field observation data from the first Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas (1975-1983). Finally, we assessed if, in addition to changes in habitat suitability resulting from land-cover shifts, descriptors of fire impact contributed to further explain species distribution dynamics: colonization and local extinction. We developed accurate model projections of current and past global patterns of species distribution, but our ability to predict species distribution dynamics was reduced. Colonization dynamics were generally more strongly related to fire descriptors than to changes in overall habitat suitability derived from land-cover changes. Our results warn of the dangers of projecting species distribution models onto future conditions if processes behind species distribution dynamics are not explicitly included. Consideration of ecologically meaningful processes for species (i.e., fire disturbance) when modeling species' distribution might contribute to a better explanation of species' colonization dynamics.

  20. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  1. Behaviour Change Policy Agendas for "Vulnerable" Subjectivities: The Dangers of Therapeutic Governance and Its New Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Apocalyptic crisis discourses of mental health problems and psycho-emotional dysfunction are integral to behaviour change agendas across seemingly different policy arenas. Bringing these agendas together opens up new theoretical and empirical lines of enquiry about the symbioses and contradictions surrounding the human subjects they target. The…

  2. Indian Ocean Small Island States: Indicators of Dangerous Anthropogenic Influences of Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, W. B.; Heidel, K.; Chung, C.

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on both the climatic and non-climatic stresses that affect Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are independent developing nations that are located in the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. For this project four SIDS in the Indian Ocean have been studied: Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius, and the Maldives. A general characteristic of these SIDS is that they have been little studied in the past, they have limited modern infrastructure, and hold the perception that environmental conditions on their islands are worsening at an accelerated pace. These SIDS are all densely populated, with populations per island between 90,000 to 1,200,000. The population growth rate is also high. This study has examined major environmental issues faced by all of these islands, including natural hazards (such as volcanic eruptions,tropical cyclones, and tsunamis), and climate related changes (such as warming, precipitation changes, and sea level rise). Comparisons between impacts of climate change, natural hazards, and population and tourism were made. It was concluded that the Maldives, due to such features as being a very low-lying island group, are now showing effects of climate related changes such as sea level rise, and that in the future it is likely that climatic stresses will compete with population growth as the major stressor on all of the islands.

  3. The Danger of Selectively Changing the Rules in Youth Sport: The Case of the Strike Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2010-01-01

    Albeit well-intentioned, the practice of selectively changing the strike zone to promote young players' welfare is critically flawed. After discussing the central purpose of competitive sport, the duty of officials, and the significance of impartiality in officiating, this article demonstrates that this practice presents numerous practical…

  4. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm.

  5. Temperature Changes During Photoablation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, M.

    1988-12-01

    The results of current microscopic investigations show that during the process of athermal photoablation the material surrounding the target is thermally stressed. In order to get more information of the target's thermal behaviour during light interaction and, furthermore, about the process itself, we developed a microthermocouple device with high spatial (um) and temporal (us) resolution. So far temperature measurements were carried out during excimer laser (351nm) irradiation with 250 to 1600 mJ/cm2 in single and repetition pulse mode. The measurements in polymers and in biological material gave the following results: 1) typical thermal effects like melting zones at polymer crater walls and tissue discoloration and smoke generation in biologic material. 2) In polymers as well as in biological materials the surface temperature increases with increasing energy density in single laser mode once the removal threshold is reached or exceeded. 3) The removal threshold depends on the heat capacity of the samples. The results indicate that photoablation of polymers and biological material (obtained with 351 nm short pulsed laser light wavelength of nearly 1000 mJ/cm2) is predominantly a photothermal process.

  6. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change is higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 is too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino, suggesting that global temperature may have moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. The warming in the United States over the past 50 years is smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there is a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism is involved in this regional cooling.

  7. Global Economic Exposure to Future Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    In global-scale analyses of future climate change, "global average temperature change" is a commonly used summary statistic. Unfortunately, this statistic may not be useful for many types of economic analyses because it is an average over the planet's entire surface and is therefore dominated by changes over oceans and other uninhabited regions. Here, we attempt to summarize projected temperature changes in a manner that is more useful for economic analyses: we construct the distributions of future temperature exposure for a randomly selected person, a random hectare of cropland, and a random dollar of value-added. Our results streamline global cost analyses, enabling future studies to estimate global losses by combining their locally derived loss-functions with our estimates of global exposure. We demonstrate this application by estimating that low and middle income populations may suffer income losses of 9% annually due only to the effects of thermal stress on workers, a mechanism previously omitted from global cost estimates. In ancillary findings, we also document that (1) when exposure distributions are substituted for global average temperature change in standard models of economic costs, projected annual losses increase by trillions of dollars; (2) low and middle income populations will be twice as exposed to harmful temperatures as high income populations, based only on their locations; and (3) it is unlikely the direct effects of warming can have a positive net impact on the global economy.

  8. Extreme High-Temperature Events: Changes in their probabilities with Changes in Mean Temperature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, Linda O.; Katz, Richard W.; Schneider, Stephen H.

    1984-12-01

    Most climate impact studies rely on changes in means of meteorological variables, such as temperature, to estimate potential climate impacts, including effects on agricultural production. However, extreme meteorological events, say, a short period of abnormally high temperatures, can have a significant harmful effect on crop growth and final yield. The characteristics of daily temperature time series, specifically mean, variance and autocorrelation, are analyzed to determine possible ranges of probabilities of certain extreme temperature events [e.g., runs of consecutive daily maximum temperatures of at least 95°F (35°C)] with changes in mean temperature of the time series. The extreme temperature events considered are motivated primarily by agricultural concerns, particularly, the effects of high temperatures on corn yields in the U.S. Corn Belt. However, runs of high temperatures can also affect, for example, energy demand or morbidity and mortality of animals and humans.The relationships between changes in mean temperature and the corresponding changes in the probabilities of these extreme temperature events are quite nonlinear, with relatively small changes in mean temperature sometimes resulting in relatively large changes in event probabilities. In particular, the likelihood of occurrence of a run of five consecutive daily maximum temperatures of at least 95°F under a 3°F (1.7°C) increase in the mean (holding the variance and autocorrelation constant) is about three times greater than that under the current climate at Des Moines, Moreover, by allowing either the variance or the autocorrelation as well as the mean to change, this likelihood of a run event varies over a relatively wide range of values. These changes in the probabilities of extreme events need to be taken into consideration in order to obtain realistic estimates of the impact of climate changes such as increases in mean temperature that may arise from increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

  9. [Change trends of summer fire danger in great Xing' an Mountains forest region of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China under climate change].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Shu, Li-Fu; Di, Xue-Ying

    2012-11-01

    By using Delta and WGEN downscaling methods and Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index, this paper analyzed the variation characteristics of summer fire in Great Xing' an Mountains forest region of Heilongjiang Province in 1966-2010, estimated the change trends of the summer fire danger in 2010-2099, compared the differences of the forest fire in summer, spring, and autumn, and proposed the prevention and control strategies of the summer fire based on the fire environment. Under the background of climate warming, the summer forest fire in the region in 2000-2010 showed a high incidence trend. In foreseeable future, the summer forest fire across the region in 2010-2099, as compared to that in the baseline period 1961-1990, would be increased by 34%, and the increment would be obviously greater than that of spring and autumn fire. Relative to that in 1961-1990, the summer fire in 2010-2099 under both SRES A2a and SRES B2a scenarios would have an increasing trend, and, with the lapse of time, the trend would be more evident, and the area with high summer fire would become wider and wider. Under the scenario of SRES A2a, the summer fire by the end of the 21st century would be doubled, as compared to that in 1961-1990, and the area with high summer fire would be across the region. In the characteristics of fire source, attributes of forest fuel, and fire weather conditions, the summer forest fire was different from the spring and autumn forest fire, and thus, the management of fire source and forest fuel load as well as the forest fire forecast (mid-long term forecast in particular) in the region should be strengthened to control the summer forest fire.

  10. Interpersonal Aspects of Dangerousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Held, Barbara S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    An interpersonal theory of dangerousness asserts that dangerousness is a function of perceptions and attributions within an interpersonal context, rather than a stable personality trait. Using the guards and 78 inmates of a penal complex, the interpersonal theory of dangerousness was tested from a racial perspective. (Author)

  11. Changes in Soil Temperature Regimes under Regional Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperatures can provide a smoothed record of regional changes in atmospheric conditions due to soil thermal properties that reduce the annual air and surface temperature amplitude. In areas with seasonal snow cover, however, its insulating effect isolates the soil thermal regime from winter air temperatures. Under changing regional climate patterns, snow cover extent, depth and duration are decreasing. The net effect is thus an expected winter cooling of soil temperature. However, the extent to which this might be mitigated by warmer summer conditions, and changing soil moisture remains to be seen. To examine the relative strength of a cold-season cooling signal versus enhanced summer warming, a network of soil temperature loggers has recorded hourly soil temperatures over the period 2005-2013 within a single watershed experiencing 'lake effect snow'. Elevations range from 168 m to 612 m, on Silurian and Ordovician shale, limestone, and sandstone that have been heavily glaciated. Most of the sites are located on NY Department of Environmental Conservation land in mixed, hardwood and spruce forests. At six sites in varied topographic and land-use setting, two ONSET HOBO Outdoor 4 channel soil temperature loggers are deployed in order to reduce concerns of data reliability and systematic logger drift. Five sites also record air temperature using HOBO Pro Series Temperature loggers at three sites and HOBO Weather Stations at two. Soil temperature data are recorded at hourly intervals at depths of 2-, 5-, 10-, and 25-cm. Several other sites have been operationalized over the 8 year period, but have been tampered with, damaged, stolen, or have failed. These partial records are included to provide greater geographic representation of changing conditions where possible. Data indicate decreasing winter soil temperatures in specific land-use and topographic settings. Only one site, located in a dense spruce plantation, experiences soil freezing within the top 5 cm

  12. Wildfire Danger Potential in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Myoung, B.; Kim, S. H.; Fujioka, F. M.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires are an important concern in California (CA) which is characterized by the semi-arid to arid climate and vegetation types. Highly variable winter precipitation and extended hot and dry warm season in the region challenge an effective strategic fire management. Climatologically, the fire season which is based on live fuel moisture (LFM) of generally below 80% in Los Angeles County spans 4 months from mid-July to mid-November, but it has lasted over 7 months in the past several years. This behavior is primarily due to the ongoing drought in CA during the last decade, which is responsible for frequent outbreaks of severe wildfires in the region. Despite their importance, scientific advances for the recent changes in wildfire risk and effective assessments of wildfire risk are lacking. In the present study, we show impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulations on an early start and then extended length of fire seasons. For example, the strong relationships of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with springtime temperature and precipitation in the SWUS that was recently revealed by our team members have led to an examination of the possible impact of NAO on wildfire danger in the spring. Our results show that the abnormally warm and dry spring conditions associated with positive NAO phases can cause an early start of a fire season and high fire risks throughout the summer and fall. For an effective fire danger assessment, we have tested the capability of satellite vegetation indices (VIs) in replicating in situ LFM of Southern CA chaparral ecosystems by 1) comparing seasonal/interannual characteristics of in-situ LFM with VIs and 2) developing an empirical model function of LFM. Unlike previous studies attempting a point-to-point comparison, we attempt to examine the LFM relationship with VIs averaged over different areal coverage with chamise-dominant grids (i.e., 0.5 km to 25 km radius circles). Lastly, we discuss implications of the results for fire danger

  13. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12°C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values

  14. Effects of temperature change on mussel, Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Zippay, Mackenzie L; Helmuth, Brian

    2012-09-01

    An increasing body of research has demonstrated the often idiosyncratic responses of organisms to climate-related factors, such as increases in air, sea and land surface temperatures, especially when coupled with non-climatic stressors. This argues that sweeping generalizations about the likely impacts of climate change on organisms and ecosystems are likely less valuable than process-based explorations that focus on key species and ecosystems. Mussels in the genus Mytilus have been studied for centuries, and much is known of their physiology and ecology. Like other intertidal organisms, these animals may serve as early indicators of climate change impacts. As structuring species, their survival has cascading impacts on many other species, making them ecologically important, in addition to their economic value as a food source. Here, we briefly review the categories of information available on the effects of temperature change on mussels within this genus. Although a considerable body of information exists about the genus in general, knowledge gaps still exist, specifically in our ability to predict how specific populations are likely to respond to the effects of multiple stressors, both climate and non-climate related, and how these changes are likely to result in ecosystem-level responses. Whereas this genus provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of climate change on natural and human-managed ecosystems, much work remains if we are to make predictions of likely impacts of environmental change on scales that are relevant to climate adaptation.

  15. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE PAGES

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  16. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  17. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  18. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  19. Danger signals in stroke.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy.

  20. Fitting the observed changes of global surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Le Mouël, J.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Gibert, D.; Lopes, F.

    2012-12-01

    The quality of the fit of a trivial or, conversely, delicately-designed model to the observed natural phenomena is the fundamental pillar stone of any forecasting, including forecasting of the Earth's Climate. Using precise mathematical and logical systems outside their range of applicability can be scientifically groundless, unwise, and even dangerous. The temperature data sets are naturally in the basis of any hypothesizing on variability and forecasting the Earth's Climate. Leaving open the question of the global temperature definitions and their determination (T), we have analyzed hemispheric and global monthly temperature anomaly series produced by the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (CRUTEM4 database) and more recently by the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature consortium (BEST database). We first fit the data in 1850-2010 with polynomials of degrees 1 to 9 and compare it with exponential fit by the adjusted R-squared criterion that takes into consideration the number of free parameters of the model. In all the cases considered, the adjusted R-squared values for polynomials are larger than for the exponential as soon as the degree exceeds 1 or 2. The polynomial fits become even more satisfactory as soon as degree 5 or 6 is reached. Extrapolations of these trends outside of the data domain show quick divergence. For example, the CRUTEM4vNH fit in the decade 2010-2020, for degrees 2 to 5, rises steeply then, for degrees 6 to 9, reverses to steep decreasing: the reversal in extrapolated trends arises from improved ability to fit the observed "~60-yr" wave in 150 years of data prior to 2010. The extrapolations prior to 1850 are even more erratic, linked with the increased dispersion of the early data. When focusing the analysis of fits on 1900-2010 we find that the apparent oscillations of T can be modeled by a series of linear segments: An optimal fit suggests 4 slope breaks indicating two clear transitions in 1940 and 1975, and two that

  1. Regime Changes in California Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E. C.; Kessomkiat, W.; Mauget, S.

    2008-12-01

    Annual and seasonal temperature trends are analyzed for California using surface data from the US Historical Climate Network and the larger COOP network. While trends in Tmax and Tmin both show warming over the last 50 years, the temporal and spatial structure of these trends is quite different. An analysis using Mann Whitney U statistics reveals that the patterns of warming and cooling from individual stations have a distinct temporal signature that differs between Tmax and Tmin. Significant cooling trends in Tmin are found between 1920-1958, while significant warming only starts after the 1970s. In contrast, Tmax trends show a more variable pattern of warming and cooling between 1920-1980, with California wide warming only occurring after 1980. These results suggest regime changes in California temperature trends that could only occur through large scale forcing. A discussion of the various forcing mechanisms contributing to California trends and their spatial and temporal variability will be presented.

  2. [Use of laser correlation spectroscopy for evaluation of metabolic changes in workers engaged in radiation-dangerous industry].

    PubMed

    Alchinova, I B; Veĭko, N N; Dmitrieva, O S; Landa, S B; Khlebnikova, N N; Karganov, M Iu

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of metabolic changes was studied in nuclear fuel plant workers by laser correlation spectroscopy (LCS) of biological fluids (blood serum and plasma, urine, oropharyngeal lavages (OPL). Plasma samples were divided into 3 groups: 1) control (unirradiated) samples; 2) those irradiated by below 100 mZv; 2) those irradiated by more than 100 mZv. With larger dose irradiation, the contribution of small particles (6-8 nm) to the dispersion of increased and the proportion of large components (300-400 nm) decreased. There was a correlation between the total accumulated dose, the dose in the past 9 months and the changes in the contribution of the above groups of particles to light diffusion. The found regulations in the changes of the subfraction composition of blood agree with earlier data on changes in the serum of nuclear fuel workers. Analysis of urine samples revealed an increase in the contribution of catabolic processes. That of OPL showed the preponderance of anabolic changes over catabolic ones in the presence of a considerable contribution of normologically similar LC spectra. Differences were found in the pattern of metabolic changes in relation to technological stages. Although the nature of the observed spectral transformations remains unknown, the simplicity and rapidity of the LCS technique may be considered as a suitable tool for detecting the effects caused by small dose irradiation and other factors.

  3. Stratospheric Temperature Changes: Observations and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Chanin, M.-L.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Gaffen, D.; Gelman, M.; Keckhut, P.; Koshelkov, Y.; Labitzke, K.; Lin, J.-J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews observations of stratospheric temperatures that have been made over a period of several decades. Those observed temperatures have been used to assess variations and trends in stratospheric temperatures. A wide range of observation datasets have been used, comprising measurements by radiosonde (1940s to the present), satellite (1979 - present), lidar (1979 - present) and rocketsonde (periods varying with location, but most terminating by about the mid-1990s). In addition, trends have also been assessed from meteorological analyses, based on radiosonde and/or satellite data, and products based on assimilating observations into a general circulation model. Radiosonde and satellite data indicate a cooling trend of the annual-mean lower stratosphere since about 1980. Over the period 1979-1994, the trend is 0.6K/decade. For the period prior to 1980, the radiosonde data exhibit a substantially weaker long-term cooling trend. In the northern hemisphere, the cooling trend is about 0.75K/decade in the lower stratosphere, with a reduction in the cooling in mid-stratosphere (near 35 km), and increased cooling in the upper stratosphere (approximately 2 K per decade at 50 km). Model simulations indicate that the depletion of lower stratospheric ozone is the dominant factor in the observed lower stratospheric cooling. In the middle and upper stratosphere both the well-mixed greenhouse gases (such as CO) and ozone changes contribute in an important manner to the cooling.

  4. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  5. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By ...

  7. A Danger-Theory-Based Immune Network Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times. PMID:23483853

  8. Postcooking temperature changes in beef patties.

    PubMed

    Berry, B W; Bigner-George, M E

    2001-09-01

    Beef patties (86 and 143 g) formed from high-fat (20 to 29%) and low-fat (6 to 10%) ground beef obtained in eight different selections for both high and low fat content were cooked by either a gas grill or an electric griddle. Patties were cooked to either 66.1 or 68.3 degrees C as determined in the thickest section, and internal temperatures were recorded after cooking at 1-s intervals for 180 s in both thick and thin sections of patties. Time-temperature curves (after cooking) were evaluated for compliance with regulatory requirements for classifying patties as fully cooked. For patties cooked to 66.1 degrees C, the maximum highest temperature in the thickest patty section often did not reach 71.1 degrees C (recommended for cooking of beef patties by consumers). Although thin sections of patties had higher temperatures than thick sections at the termination of cooking, temperature variability was greater and declines in temperature occurred sooner in thin patty sections. Failure to meet fully cooked, time-temperature requirements was greater in thin than thick sections. Thicker (143-g) patties possessed longer postcooking times before declining in temperature than thinner (86-g) patties. Although many beef patties cooked in this study achieved regulatory time requirements for maintaining 66.1 or 68.3 degrees C (as well as attaining 71.1 degrees C), some patties did not meet these requirements. Because of the considerable temperature variability that can exist within patties at the conclusion of cooking, use of end point temperatures of less than 71.1 degrees C is not recommended for consumers. Consumers should allow several minutes of holding following cooking before consumption to maximize the increases in postcooking temperature. Further research is required to establish cooking procedures that will improve temperature uniformity and eliminate "cold spots" during cooking of beef patties.

  9. Noble Gas Temperature Proxy for Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noble gases in groundwater appear to offer a practical approach for quantitatively determining past surface air temperatures over recharge areas for any watershed. The noble gas temperature (NGT) proxy should then permit a paleothermometry of a region over time. This terrestria...

  10. Modeling air temperature changes in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchin, A.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.; Burenina, T.; Musokhranova, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on time series (1950-2005) of monthly temperatures from 73 weather stations in Northern Asia (limited by 70-180° EL and 48-75° NL), it is shown that there are statistically significant spatial differences in character and intensity of the monthly and yearly temperature trends. These differences are defined by geomorphological and geographical parameters of the area including exposure of the territory to Arctic and Pacific air mass, geographic coordinates, elevation, and distances to Arctic and Pacific oceans. Study area has been divided into six domains with unique groupings of the temperature trends based on cluster analysis. An original methodology for mapping of temperature trends has been developed and applied to the region. The assessment of spatial patterns of temperature trends at the regional level requires consideration of specific regional features in the complex of factors operating in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere system.

  11. Sensitivity of flowering phenology to changing temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Fu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Plant phenology is one of the preferred indicators of climate change, and its variation potentially impacts community dynamics and ecosystem functions. To better understand the responses of plants' flowering phenology to rising temperatures, we investigated the temperature sensitivity (expressed as the date of changes in phenology per change in temperature in degree Celsius, d °C-1) of flowering phenology for more than 220 plant species at 59 sites in China during the period 1963-1988. Our results indicated that most flowerings in China were significantly sensitive to the temperature in the 2 months (60 days) prior to the flowering dates. Plants in warmer regions showed larger sensitivities to increased temperatures. Species flowering in the late spring and early summer were generally less sensitive to changing temperature than species flowering at other times of the year. For plants flowering in the spring, species that flower earlier showed higher temperature sensitivity; however, for plants flowering in the summer and autumn, species that flower earlier showed lower temperature sensitivity. The responses of the first and last flowering times to changing temperature were mostly consistent, so flowering durations were rarely (6.1%) sensitive to changing temperature. We hypothesize that plants in cold regions may have adapted to the more variable temperatures and thus showed lower temperature sensitivities than plants in warm regions. Overall, the responses of flowering phenology to temperature varied significantly among temperature zones and plant species, so it should be considered carefully when estimating the impacts of climate warming on the terrestrial biosphere.

  12. Assessing stream temperature response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature controls aquatic ecosystem function by directly influencing water quality, ecosystem productivity, and the physiological functioning of aquatic organisms. To date, there are limited studies of the impacts of environmental disturbance on stream temperature, particularly on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. This region provides key habitat for native salmonid species such as westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are listed as ‘threatened’ and ‘species of special concern’, respectively. Increases in stream temperature could limit habitat availability, reduce competitive advantage, and potentially increase mortality rates for these native species. This study uses field data collected at high spatiotemporal resolution to develop a spatial stream temperature model that simulates the mass and energy balance of the stream system. Preliminary field results demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability in processes governing stream temperature in three study stream reaches. Groundwater/surface water interactions, topographic setting, and local meteorological conditions all contribute in determining stream thermal regimes. This work discusses how these primary drivers of stream temperature can be incorporated into a physically based spatial model, and demonstrates how depending on the scale of interest, the temperature of a stream can be governed by very different contributing factors.

  13. Seasonal Surface Temperature Changes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.; Coustenis, Athena; Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini has been measuring surface brightness temperatures on Titan since 2004 (Jennings et al. 2011; Cottini et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2015). Radiation from the surface reaches space through a window of minimum opacity in Titan’s atmosphere near 19 microns wavelength. We mapped surface temperatures in five time periods, each about 2 years, centered on solar longitudes Ls = 313°, 335°, 0°, 28° and 53° degrees. Using zonally-averaged spectra binned in 10-degree latitude intervals, we clearly see the seasonal progression of the pole-to-pole temperature distribution. Whereas peak temperatures in the vicinity of the Equator have been close to 94 K throughout the Cassini mission, early in the mission temperatures at the North Pole were as low as 90 K and at the South Pole were 92 K. Late in the mission the pattern has reversed: 92 K in the north and 90 K in the south. Over 2005 to 2014 the peak temperature moved in latitude from about 15 S to 15 N. We estimate a seasonal lag of 0.2 Titan month. In 2010 the temperature distribution was approximately symmetric north and south, agreeing with Voyager 1 from one Titan year earlier. The surface temperatures follow closely the predictions of Tokano (2005). Our measurements may indicate a lower thermal inertia in the south than in the north.Jennings, D.E. et al., ApJ Lett. 737, L15 (2011)Cottini, V. et al., 2012. Planet. Space Sci. 60, 62 (2012)Tan, S. P. et al., Icarus 250, 64 (2015)Tokano, T., Icarus 204, 619 (2005)

  14. Radon: The Silent Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Jennifer

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

  15. A Danger to Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied…

  16. Trauma is Danger

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    significant danger signal to the immune system. Cell Stress Chaperones 2003, 8:272-286. 35. Martinon F, Petrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J: Gout ...understanding of gout . Arthritis Res Ther 2008, 10:221. 37. Hawkins PN, Lachmann HJ, Aganna E, McDermott MF: Spectrum of clinical features in Muckle-Wells

  17. Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Janzen, F J

    1994-08-02

    Despite increasing concern over the possible impact of global temperature change, there is little empirical evidence of direct temperature effects on biotic interactions in natural systems. Clear assessment of the ecological and evolutionary impact of changing climatic temperature requires a natural system in which populations exhibit a direct unambiguous fitness response to thermal fluctuation. I monitored nests of a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination to investigate the causal relationship between local climatic variation in temperature and offspring sex ratio. Consistent with theoretical predictions, annual offspring sex ratio was highly correlated with mean July air temperature, validating concerns about the effect of climate change on population demography. This correlation implies that even modest increases in mean temperature (< 2 degrees C) may drastically skew the sex ratio. Statistical evaluation of the variance in climate change indicates that an increase in mean temperature of 4 degrees C would effectively eliminate production of male offspring. Quantitative genetic analyses and behavioral data suggest that populations with temperature-dependent sex determination may be unable to evolve rapidly enough to counteract the negative fitness consequences of rapid global temperature change. Populations of species with temperature-dependent sex determination may serve as ideal indicators of the biological impact of global temperature change.

  18. Perceived temperature in the course of climate change: an analysis of global heat index from 1979-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Brenner, T.

    2015-03-01

    The increase in global mean temperatures resulting from climate change has wide reaching consequences for the earth's ecosystems and other natural systems. Many studies have been devoted to evaluating the distribution and effects of these changes. We go a step further and evaluate global changes to the heat index, a measure of temperature as perceived by humans. Heat index, which is computed from temperature and relative humidity, is more important than temperature for the health of humans and other animals. Even in cases where the heat index does not reach dangerous levels from a health perspective, it has been shown to be an important factor in worker productivity and thus in economic productivity. We compute heat index from dewpoint temperature and absolute temperature 2 m above ground from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the years 1979-2013. The data is provided aggregated to daily minima, means and maxima (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.841057). Furthermore, the data is temporally aggregated to monthly and yearly values and spatially aggregated to the level of countries after being weighted by population density in order to demonstrate its usefulness for the analysis of its impact on human health and productivity. The resulting data deliver insights into the spatiotemporal development of near-ground heat index during the course of the past 3 decades. It is shown that the impact of changing heat index is unevenly distributed through space and time, affecting some areas differently than others. The likelihood of dangerous heat index events has increased globally. Also, heat index climate groups that would formerly be expected closer to the tropics have spread latitudinally to include areas closer to the poles. The data can serve in future studies as a basis for evaluating and understanding the evolution of heat index in the course of climate change, as well as its impact on human health and productivity.

  19. [Dangerous scorpions from Niger].

    PubMed

    Goyffon, M; Guette, C

    2005-11-01

    Two dangerous scorpion species are responsible for the severe human envenomations in Niger, Leiurus quinquestriatus (H. et E.), the most abundant, and Androctonus aeneas C.L. Koch, less frequent and described in a Sahel country for the first time. Up to now, A. aeneas was known in North Africa only. Its venom is highly toxic for humans, similar to those of the most dangerous species living in Africa, such as L. quinquestriatus and other species belonging to the genus Androctonus, A. australis (L.) and A. mauretanicus (Poc.), for the envenoming treatment of which specific antivenoms are prepared. Taking into account the absence of a specific antivenom for A. aeneas, the paraspecific neutralising effect of these antivenoms should be tested.

  20. Localized enhancements in fire danger during the 'Black Saturday' fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, T. P.; Engel, C. B.; Reeder, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    On Saturday 7 February 2009 a series of fire complexes occurred over the state of Victoria, Australia. The fires caused more than 150 fatalities, the destruction of more than 2000 residences, and decimated a number of townships. The meteorological conditions on 7 February for the region were categorized as the worst fire weather conditions on record. Specifically, the maximum temperature exceeded 45 C (113 F) and gusty surface winds were sustained at 15 m/s (30 knots) for most of the day. These conditions were followed by the passage of a strong cold front in the late afternoon / early evening. Moreover, vegetation and fuels had suffered significant drying over the prior weeks due to a sequence of hot days and a record heatwave. In addition to these broad scale meteorological conditions, numerous mesoscale atmospheric processes contributed to localized enhancement in fire danger in the vicinity of many of the fires; these phenomena may have contributed to the extraordinary nature of some of the fires occurring that day. This study documents these localized processes using a combination of surface observations and an extremely high-resolution numerical weather prediction model with a horizontal resolution of 500 m. The observations and model forecast identify many notable phenomena of relevance to fire danger that persist throughout the day. These include enhanced down-slope surface winds and organized boundary layer horizontal convective rolls (HCRs). The HCRs are responsible for significant spatial variability in surface winds and forest fire danger index (FFDI). The model forecast elucidates the complex interaction between the cold front and the terrain, including the large variability in the timing and direction of the cool change. Finally, two nocturnal bores are identified that propagate ahead of the cool change; such bores have the potential to cause rapid, yet unexpected, changes to fire danger. In addition to documenting these important phenomena, the model

  1. Temperature, global climate change and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accelerated climate change is expected to have a significant, but variable impact on the world’s major cropping zones. Crops will experience increasingly warmer, drier and more variable growing conditions in the temperate to subtropical latitudes towards 2050 and beyond. Short-term (1-5 day) spikes ...

  2. The Effect of Temperature Changes in Vitreoretinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Mario R.; Romano, Vito; Mauro, Alessandro; Angi, Martina; Costagliola, Ciro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies on temperature control in biology and medicine have found the temperature as a new instrument in healthcare. In this manuscript, we reviewed the effects of temperature and its potential role in pars plana vitrectomy. We also examined the relationship between intraocular pressure, viscosity, and temperature in order to determine the best balance to manipulate the tamponades during the surgery. Methods A literature review was performed to identify potentially relevant studies on intraocular temperature. Physics equations were applied to explain the described effects of temperature changes on the behavior of the endotamponades commonly used during vitreoretinal surgery. We also generated an operating diagram on the pressure–temperature plane for the values of both vapor–liquid equilibrium and intraocular pressure. Results The rapid circulation of fluid in the vitreous cavity reduces the heat produced by the retinal and choroidal surface, bringing the temperature toward room temperature (22°C, deep hypothermia). Temperature increases with endolaser treatment, air infusion, and the presence of silicone oil. The variations in temperature during vitreoretinal surgery are clinically significant, as the rheology of tamponades can be better manipulated by modulating intraocular pressure and temperature. Conclusions During vitreoretinal surgery, the intraocular temperature showed rapid and significant fluctuations at different steps of the surgical procedure inside the vitreous cavity. Temperature control can modulate the rheology of tamponades. Translational Relevance Intraoperative temperature control can improve neuroprotection during vitreoretinal surgery, induce the vaporization of perfluorcarbon liquid, and change the shear viscosity of silicone oil. PMID:26929884

  3. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society.

  4. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the possibility that the hippocampus performs the function of alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature, using unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits. The results indicate that the hippocampal theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hyppocampal neuron which is, in turn, connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  5. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate ‘realized’ thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the ‘fundamental’ norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing ‘thermal safety margins’. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  6. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  7. Modeling Climate Change Effects on Stream Temperatures in Regulated Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, S. E.; Akhbari, M.; Ligare, S. T.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    We provide a method for examining mesoscale stream temperature objectives downstream of dams with anticipated climate change using an integrated multi-model approach. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact stream temperatures within reservoirs and below dams, and affect downstream ecology. We model hydrology and water temperature using a series of linked models that includes a hydrology model to predict natural unimpaired flows in upstream reaches, a reservoir temperature simulation model , an operations model to simulate reservoir releases, and a stream temperature simulation model to simulate downstream conditions . All models are 1-dimensional and operate on either a weekly or daily timestep. First, we model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with climate-forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage stream temperatures for coldwater habitat. Results are presented as stream temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoir releases are cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with climate change. We also apply our method to a case study in California's Yuba River watershed to evaluate water regulation and hydropower operation effects on stream temperatures with climate change. Catchments of the upper Yuba River are highly-engineered, with multiple, interconnected infrastructure to provide hydropower, water supply, flood control, environmental flows, and recreation. Results illustrate climate-driven versus operations-driven changes to stream temperatures. This work highlights the need for methods to consider reservoir regulation effects on stream temperatures with climate change, particularly for hydropower relicensing (which currently ignores climate change) such that impacts to other beneficial uses like coldwater habitat and instream ecosystems can be

  8. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOEpatents

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  9. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  10. Kangaroo rats change temperature when investigating rattlesnake predators.

    PubMed

    Schraft, Hannes A; Clark, Rulon W

    2017-02-08

    Predator presence causes acute stress in mammals. A prey animal's stress response increases its chance of survival during life-threatening situations through adaptive changes in behavior and physiology. Some components of the physiological stress response can lead to changes in body surface temperatures. Body temperature changes in prey could provide information about prey state to predators that sense heat, such as pit vipers. We determined whether wild rodents undergo a stress-induced change in body surface temperature upon detecting and investigating rattlesnake predators. We staged encounters between free-ranging Merriam's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) and tethered Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) at baited feeding stations, and recorded interactions with a thermal-imaging camera. Kangaroo rats showed a significant change in maximum head temperature, snout temperature, and hind leg temperature during interactions with rattlesnakes. This supports the hypothesis that presence of a predator induces body temperature changes in prey animals. If changes in prey heat signature are detectable by heat-sensitive rattlesnakes, rattlesnakes could use this information to evaluate prey vigilance or arousal before striking; however, more detailed information on the sensory ecology of the pit organ under field conditions is needed to evaluate this possibility.

  11. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  12. Dangers of the menopause. 1910.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Anne E

    2012-06-01

    Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over the last century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month's article, from the September 1910 issue, is "Dangers of the Menopause." The author, Anne E. Perkins, MD, states that its purpose is to correct "popular fallacies," so nurses can "disseminate knowledge of the real dangers" of menopause. It's interesting how much information in the article is still valid 100 years later, such as the need to investigate any postmenopausal bleeding. It's also noteworthy that the three symptoms causing women the most distress-hot flashes, insomnia, and mood problems-haven't changed, although a comparison of Dr. Perkins's article with "Managing Menopausal Symptoms" in this issue reveals that menopause management certainly has: from a "trip abroad" and avoiding "fancy work" in 1910 to physical exercise and acupuncture in 2012. To read the complete article from our archives, go to http://bit.ly/IZkCiD.

  13. South Asia: Danger Ahead?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2011 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE South Asia: Danger Ahead? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...its opponent and preclude a devastating retaliatory response. 4 Fundamen­ tally, both countries are restricted to use their nuclear forces to threaten...threaten India’s hold in the Kashmir Valley; to control a part of the Himalayan Range to facili­ tate insurgent movement into the Kashmir Valley and the

  14. Paraventricular Thalamus Balances Danger and Reward.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun A; McNally, Gavan P

    2017-03-15

    Foraging animals balance the need to seek food and energy against the accompanying dangers of injury and predation. To do so, they rely on learning systems encoding reward and danger. Whereas much is known about these separate learning systems, little is known about how they interact to shape and guide behavior. Here we show a key role for the rat paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), a nucleus of the dorsal midline thalamus, in this interaction. First, we show behavioral competition between reward and danger: the opportunity to seek food reward negatively modulates expression of species-typical defensive behavior. Then, using a chemogenetic approach expressing the inhibitory hM4Di designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug in PVT neurons, we show that the PVT is central to this behavioral competition. Chemogenetic PVT silencing biases behavior toward either defense or reward depending on the experimental conditions, but does not consistently favor expression of one over the other. This bias could not be attributed to changes in fear memory retrieval, learned safety, or memory interference. Rather, our results demonstrate that the PVT is essential for balancing conflicting behavioral tendencies toward danger and reward, enabling adaptive responding under this basic selection pressure.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Among the most basic survival problems faced by animals is balancing the need to seek food and energy against the accompanying dangers of injury and predation. Although much is known about the brain mechanisms that underpin learning about reward and danger, little is known about how these interact to solve basic survival problems. Here we show competition between defensive (to avoid predatory detection) and approach (to obtain food) behavior. We show that the paraventricular thalamus, a nucleus of the dorsal midline thalamus, is integral to this behavioral competition. The paraventricular thalamus balances the competing behavioral demands

  15. Shallow groundwater temperature response to climate change and urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Craig A.; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryGroundwater temperatures, especially in shallow (quaternary) aquifers respond to ground surface temperatures which in turn depend on climate and land use. Groundwater temperatures, therefore, are modified by climate change and urban development. In northern temperate climate regions seasonal temperature cycles penetrate the ground to depths on the order of 10-15 m. In this paper, we develop and apply analytic heat transfer relationships for 1-D unsteady effective diffusion of heat through an unsaturated zone into a flowing aquifer a short distance below the ground surface. We estimate how changes in land use (urban development) and climate change may affect shallow groundwater temperatures. We consider both long-term trends and seasonal cycles in surface temperature changes. Our analysis indicates that a fully urbanized downtown area at the latitude of Minneapolis/St. Paul is likely to have a groundwater temperature that is nearly 3 °C warmer than an undeveloped agricultural area at the same geographic location. Pavements are the main cause of this change. Data collected by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) in the St. Cloud, MN area confirm that land use influences groundwater temperatures. Ground surface temperatures are also projected to rise in response to global warming. In the extreme case of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (2 × CO 2 climate scenario), groundwater temperatures in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area could therefore rise by up to 4 °C. Compounding a land use change from "undeveloped" to "fully urbanized" and a 2 × CO 2 climate scenario, groundwater temperatures are projected to rise by about 5 °C at the latitude of Minneapolis/St. Paul.

  16. Compensating temperature-induced ultrasonic phase and amplitude changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Peng; Hay, Thomas R.; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    In ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), environmental and operational conditions, especially temperature, can significantly affect the propagation of ultrasonic waves and thus degrade damage detection. Typically, temperature effects are compensated using optimal baseline selection (OBS) or optimal signal stretch (OSS). The OSS method achieves compensation by adjusting phase shifts caused by temperature, but it does not fully compensate phase shifts and it does not compensate for accompanying signal amplitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new temperature compensation strategy to address both phase shifts and amplitude changes. In this strategy, OSS is first used to compensate some of the phase shifts and to quantify the temperature effects by stretching factors. Based on stretching factors, empirical adjusting factors for a damage indicator are then applied to compensate for the temperature induced remaining phase shifts and amplitude changes. The empirical adjusting factors can be trained from baseline data with temperature variations in the absence of incremental damage. We applied this temperature compensation approach to detect volume loss in a thick wall aluminum tube with multiple damage levels and temperature variations. Our specimen is a thick-walled short tube, with dimensions closely comparable to the outlet region of a frac iron elbow where flow-induced erosion produces the volume loss that governs the service life of that component, and our experimental sequence simulates the erosion process by removing material in small damage steps. Our results show that damage detection is greatly improved when this new temperature compensation strategy, termed modified-OSS, is implemented.

  17. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems.

  18. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper.

  19. On Similarities Between the Earth Rotation and Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L. V.

    Earths rotation reflects processes in the atmosphere, ocean, Earths interior. The similarities between the global temperature oscillations and Earths rotation speed changes are well known, but still are not explained. We also have found similarities between ~ 20-year temperature oscillations, Chandler excitation envelope and cycle of regression of the Moon orbital nodes. In this short article we want to attract attention to this fact.

  20. Achieving temperature-size changes in a unicellular organism.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2013-01-01

    The temperature-size rule (TSR) is an intraspecific phenomenon describing the phenotypic plastic response of an organism size to the temperature: individuals reared at cooler temperatures mature to be larger adults than those reared at warmer temperatures. The TSR is ubiquitous, affecting >80% species including uni- and multicellular groups. How the TSR is established has received attention in multicellular organisms, but not in unicells. Further, conceptual models suggest the mechanism of size change to be different in these two groups. Here, we test these theories using the protist Cyclidium glaucoma. We measure cell sizes, along with population growth during temperature acclimation, to determine how and when the temperature-size changes are achieved. We show that mother and daughter sizes become temporarily decoupled from the ratio 2:1 during acclimation, but these return to their coupled state (where daughter cells are half the size of the mother cell) once acclimated. Thermal acclimation is rapid, being completed within approximately a single generation. Further, we examine the impact of increased temperatures on carrying capacity and total biomass, to investigate potential adaptive strategies of size change. We demonstrate no temperature effect on carrying capacity, but maximum supported biomass to decrease with increasing temperature.

  1. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  2. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-05-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30-80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species.

  3. Effect of Climate Change on Water Temperature and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 deg C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 deg C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7 to 1.6 deg C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may ameliorate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 deg C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 deg C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (rang

  4. The changing shape of Northern Hemisphere summer temperature distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Karen A.; Rhines, Andrew; Tingley, Martin P.; Huybers, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of recent summer temperature extremes in the midlatitudes has raised questions about whether and how the distributions of summer temperature are changing. While it is clear that in most regions the average temperature is increasing, there is less consensus regarding the presence or nature of changes in the shape of the distributions, which can influence the probability of extreme events. Using data from over 4000 weather stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily database, we quantify the changes in daily maximum and minimum temperature distributions for peak summer in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes during 1980-2015 using quantile regression. A large majority (87-88%) of the trends across percentiles and stations can be explained by a shift of the distributions with no change in shape. The remaining variability is summarized through projections onto orthogonal basis functions that are closely related to changes in variance, skewness, and kurtosis. North America and Eurasia show significant shifts in the estimated distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures. Although no general change in summer variance is found, variance has regionally increased in Eurasia and decreased in most of North America. Changes in shape that project onto the skewness and kurtosis basis functions have a much smaller spatial scale and are generally insignificant.

  5. Historical Change of Equilibrium Water Temperature in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in freshwater ecosystems due to a climate change have been great concern for sustainable river basin management both for water resources utilization and ecological conservation. However, their impact seems to be difficult to evaluate because of wide variety of basin characteristics along a river network both in nature and social environment. This presentation uses equilibrium water temperature as a simple criterion index for evaluating the long-term changes of stream thermal environment due to the historical climate change in Japan. It examines, at first, the relationship between the equilibrium water temperature and the stream temperature observed for 7 years at a lower reach in the Ibo River, Japan. It analyzes, then, the seasonal and regional trends of the equilibrium water temperature change for the last 50 years at 133 meteorological station sites throughout Japan, discussing their rising or falling characteristics. The correlation analysis at the local reach of the Ibo River shows that the equilibrium water temperature has similar trend of change as the stream temperature. However, its value tends to be higher than the stream temperature in summer, while lower in winter. The onset of the higher equilibrium water temperature fluctuates annually from mid February to early April. This onset fluctuation at each spring could be influenced by the different amount of snow at the antecedent winter. The rising or falling trends of the equilibrium water temperature are analyzed both annually and seasonally through the regression analysis of the 133 sites in Japan. Consequently, the trends of the temperature change could be categorized by 12 patterns. As for the seasonal analysis, the results shows that there are many sites indicating the falling trend in spring and summer, and rising trends in autumn and winter. In particular, winter has the strong rising tendency throughout Japan. As for the regional analysis, the result illustrates the precise rationality; e

  6. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    PubMed

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured.

  7. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  8. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change.

    PubMed

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Caldeira, Ken; Keith, David W

    2014-12-28

    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damage from anthropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used to maintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal time scales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternative scenario in which solar geoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depends on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum approximately 0.3°C per decade rate of change in an RCP 4.5 pathway to 0.1°C per decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP 6.0, the required time nearly doubles. We demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. Finally, we note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in a gradual phase-out.

  9. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  10. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  11. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  12. Recent temporal and spatial temperature changes in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domroes, Manfred; El-Tantawi, Attia

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect and to estimate trends of temperature change in Egypt, trend analyses applying the least-squares method and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test for trends were carried out at six stations for the period 1941-2000 (60 years), and at nine stations for the period 1971-2000 (30 years).According to the trend computations for the period 1941-2000, variable temperature trends over time and space have been observed. Decreasing trends of the mean annual temperature were observed in northern Egypt and (weakly) increasing trends in southern Egypt. Seasonally, positive trends prevailed in summer compared with negative trends in winter. For the recent period, 1971-2000, positive trends were computed for the mean annual and mean minimum temperatures at all stations except Port Said in northern Egypt, where the annual trend was weakly negative. The mean maximum temperature trends were, however, negative at most stations. Seasonally, a definite trend of warming occurred in summer, in contrast to the observations of a global temperature increase in winter.A principal component analysis was applied to compute the all-Egypt temperature trends. For the observation period, 1941-2000, decreasing trends were shown for annual, maximum, winter and autumn temperatures and increasing trends for minimum, winter and spring temperatures. For the recent period, 1971-2000, all trends were positive except maximum temperature.

  13. Stimulation of bioluminescence in Noctiluca sp. using controlled temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Li, GuiJuan; Liu, HuanYing; Hu, HaoHao; Zhang, XueGang

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence induced by multifarious stimuli has long been observed and is remains under investigation because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism underlying bioluminescence is not yet fully understood. This work presents a new experimental method for studying Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation. It is a study of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence using controlled temperature changes in a tank. A characteristic of this experiment is the large volume of water used (1 m(3) in a tank of 2 × 1 × 1 m). Temperature changes were controlled by two methods. In the first, a flask filled with hot water was introduced into the tank and in the second, a water heater was used in the tank. Temperature changes were recorded using sensors. Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence was recorded using a Canon 5D Mark II and this allowed the characteristics of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation to be monitored.

  14. Perceived Dangerousness of Recreational Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, Terrence S.; Merrel, Judy C.

    1995-01-01

    In this study both college students and degreed nurses were asked to estimate the abuse potential and lethality of recreational drugs, both licit and illicit. Findings indicate that the illicit drugs under consideration were perceived as presenting the greatest danger to the user. Dangers attributed to the use of licit recreational drugs were…

  15. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other.

  16. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner’s mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  17. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  18. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  19. Exploring Terrestrial Temperature Changes during the Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, K. E.; Clyde, W. C.; Fricke, H. C.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Eocene is marked by a number of rapid global warming events called hyperthermals. These hyperthermals are associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) in both marine and terrestrial records. Multiple theories exist to explain the connection of these hyperthermals with the CIEs and each theory predicts different responses by the climate system. Characterizing the timing, duration and magnitude of temperature change that is associated with these hyperthermals is important for determining whether the hyperthermals are all driven by the same underlying climate dynamics or perhaps differ from one another in cause and climatic consequences. In the simplest case, all share a common underlying mechanism; this predicts that the associated temperature changes scale in a predictable way with the magnitude of the CIE (and perhaps exhibit other similarities, such as the relative amplitudes of marine and terrestrial temperature change). To our knowledge, however, the only hyperthermal with paleotemperature data from land is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Here we present preliminary carbonate clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for Early Eocene hyperthermal ETM2/H2 from paleosol carbonates from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming, USA. We compare the results to existing clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for the PETM in the Bighorn Basin. Temperatures recorded by paleosol carbonates (which likely reflect near-peak summer ground temperatures) prior to each CIE are ~30°C and increase to ~40-43°C during the apex of each CIE. Following both CIEs, temperatures drop back to pre-CIE values. In the case of ETM2/H2, temperatures begin to rise again immediately, possibly in association with a later hyperthermal, though further work needs to be done to establish this with certainty. These preliminary data suggest that both the absolute values and the magnitudes of temperature changes associated with the PETM and ETM2/H2 are similar; the

  20. Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

  1. Ambient Temperature Changes and the Impact to Time Measurement Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrizovic, V.; Gucevic, J.; Delcev, S.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements in Geodetic Astronomy are mainly outdoors and performed during a night, when the temperature often decreases very quickly. The time-keeping during a measuring session is provided by collecting UTC time ticks from a GPS receiver and transferring them to a laptop computer. An interrupt handler routine processes received UTC impulses in real-time and calculates the clock parameters. The characteristics of the computer quartz clock are influenced by temperature changes of the environment. We exposed the laptop to different environmental temperature conditions, and calculate the clock parameters for each environmental model. The results show that the laptop used for time-keeping in outdoor measurements should be kept in a stable temperature environment, at temperatures near 20° C.

  2. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  3. Drug dangers and reactions.

    PubMed

    WEILERSTEIN, R W

    1961-01-01

    The protection of the consumer against dangerous, adulterated, and misbranded drugs provided by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act has failed in some instances. A general program of reporting adverse drug reactions has been initiated on a pilot basis. Arrangements are being made to extend this program into larger hospitals. Better and more complete reporting of adverse drug reactions together with tightening of the Food and Drug law regarding new drugs will improve this situation. Recently the president of the National Academy of Sciences appointed a committee at the request of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to review the policies and procedures used by the Food and Drug Administration in reaching decisions and to present recommendations. This committee has completed its work and has made specific recommendations that would give the Food and Drug Administration authority to require proof of efficacy as well as safety of all new drugs, and would provide it with sufficient resources to meet the responsibilities assigned to it.

  4. DRUG DANGERS AND REACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Weilerstein, Ralph W.

    1961-01-01

    The protection of the consumer against dangerous, adulterated, and misbranded drugs provided by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act has failed in some instances. A general program of reporting adverse drug reactions has been initiated on a pilot basis. Arrangements are being made to extend this program into larger hospitals. Better and more complete reporting of adverse drug reactions together with tightening of the Food and Drug law regarding new drugs will improve this situation. Recently the president of the National Academy of Sciences appointed a committee at the request of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to review the policies and procedures used by the Food and Drug Administration in reaching decisions and to present recommendations. This committee has completed its work and has made specific recommendations that would give the Food and Drug Administration authority to require proof of efficacy as well as safety of all new drugs, and would provide it with sufficient resources to meet the responsibilities assigned to it. PMID:13783849

  5. Dangers of limited SDI

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.E.

    1987-03-01

    Recent efforts to redefine the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) are mostly aimed at building support for a system to defend US land-based missiles. This is thought to be a more feasible goal than President Reagan's dream of an impregnable shield to defend the US population against ballistic missiles. But a feasible idea is not necessarily a good one. While chasing the population-defense fantasy would destroy the existing arms control regime and waste the national treasure of money and talent, defending land-based missiles would be dangerous and destabilizing. Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger held fast to the idea of population defense in January, when he told the Senate Armed Services Committee that even early deployments of SDI systems that could be developed in the near future should be the first phase of a system that would protect the continent. But such statements may reflect the administration's determination to do away with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty more than its belief that population defense is a reasonable goal. The author notes that, to those longstanding problems of defense decision making, they must now add the pressures of SDI. Furthermore, whatever the motives of those who advocate redirecting SDI, it is clear that concerns about the vulnerability of land-based missiles could be addressed in more sensible ways. 5 references.

  6. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  7. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available. PMID:26796343

  8. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available.

  9. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Lisenkov, S; Mani, B K; Glazkova, E; Miller, C W; Ponomareva, I

    2016-01-22

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available.

  10. Temporal changes and variability in temperature series over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin

    2015-02-01

    With the current concern over climate change, the descriptions on how temperature series changed over time are very useful. Annual mean temperature has been analyzed for several stations over Peninsular Malaysia. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for assessing the significance and detection of trends, while a nonparametric Pettitt's test and sequential Mann-Kendall test are adopted to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significance increasing trends for annual mean temperature are detected for almost all studied stations with the magnitude of significant trend varied from 0.02°C to 0.05°C per year. The results shows that climate over Peninsular Malaysia is getting warmer than before. In addition, the results of the abrupt changes in temperature using Pettitt's and sequential Mann-Kendall test reveal the beginning of trends which can be related to El Nino episodes that occur in Malaysia. In general, the analysis results can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean events in the region.

  11. Asymmetrical response of anaerobic digestion microbiota to temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Chapleur, Olivier; Mazeas, Laurent; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bouchez, Théodore

    2015-10-22

    In natural settings, anaerobic digestion can take place in a wide temperature range, but industrial digesters are usually operated under either mesophilic (~35 °C) or thermophilic (~55 °C) conditions. The ability of anaerobic digestion microbiota to switch from one operating temperature to the other remains poorly documented. We therefore studied the effect of sudden temperature changes (35 °C/55 °C) in lab-scale bioreactors degrading (13)C-labelled cellulose. An asymmetric behaviour was observed. In terms of methane production, after an adaptation period, mesophilic inoculum exhibited a functional resistance to temperature increase but no functional resilience when temperature was reset to 35 °C, while thermophilic inoculum methanogenic activity strongly decreased under mesophilic conditions but partially recovered when temperature was reset to 55 °C. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis community fingerprints evidenced a strong influence of temperature on microbial diversity, particularly pronounced and persistent for Archaea. Key phylotypes involved in (13)C-cellulose degradation were identified with a coupled stable isotope probing (SIP)-16S rDNA pyrotag sequencing approach, suggesting that the hydrolytic and fermentative metabolic functions could be maintained thanks to functional redundancy between members of the class Clostridia, whereas methanogenic activity primarily relied on specialized groups affiliated either to genus Methanosarcina (mesophilic conditions), Methanothermobacter or Methanoculleus (thermophilic conditions) that were irreversibly modified by temperature increase.

  12. An overview of mainland China temperature change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guoyu; Ding, Yihui; Tang, Guoli

    2017-02-01

    There has been significant effort devoted to investigating long-term trends in land surface air temperature over mainland China by Chinese scientists over the past 50 years, and much progress has been made in understanding dynamics of the changes. This review highlights research conducted by early Chinese climatologists, and particularly Professor Shaowu Wang from Peking University, with special focus on systematic work that has been conducted since the mid to late 1970s. We also discuss major issues that remain unresolved in past and current studies. The most recent analyses indicate that the country-average annual mean surface air temperature rose by 1.12°C over the past 115 years (1901-2015), with a rate of increase of about 0.10°C decade-1. Temperatures have risen more rapidly since the 1950s, with the rate of increase of more than 0.25°C decade-1. However, the recent increase in temperatures is in large part due to contamination by systematically biased data. These data are influenced by unprecedented urbanization in China, with a contribution of urbanization to the overall increase of annual mean temperatures in mainland China of about one third over the past half a century. If the bias is corrected, the rate of increase for the country-average annual mean surface air temperature is 0.17°C decade-1 over the last 50-60 years, which is approximately the same as global and Northern Hemispheric averages in recent decades. Future efforts should be focused towards the recovery and digitization of early-year observational records, the homogenization of observational data, the evaluation and adjustment of urbanization bias in temperature data series from urban stations, the analysis of extreme temperatures over longer periods including the first half of the 20th century, and the investigation of the observed surface air temperature change mechanisms in mainland China.

  13. Change point detection of the Persian Gulf sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric change point models (CPMs) were applied to detect change point in the annual Persian Gulf sea surface temperature anomalies (PGSSTA) time series for the period 1951-2013. The PGSSTA time series, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series. The pre-whitened PGSSTA time series were utilized as the input file of change point models. Both the applied parametric and nonparametric CPMs estimated the change point in the PGSSTA in 1992. The PGSSTA follow the normal distribution up to 1992 and thereafter, but with a different mean value after year 1992. The estimated slope of linear trend in PGSSTA time series for the period 1951-1992 was negative; however, that was positive after the detected change point. Unlike the PGSSTA, the applied CPMs suggested no change point in the Niño3.4SSTA time series.

  14. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales.

  15. Age-dependent changes in temperature regulation - a mini review.

    PubMed

    Blatteis, Clark M

    2012-01-01

    It is now well recognized that the body temperature of older men and women is lower than that of younger people and that their tolerance of thermal extremes is more limited. The regulation of body temperature does not depend on a single organ, but rather involves almost all the systems of the body, i.e. systems not exclusively dedicated to thermoregulatory functions such as the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Since these deteriorate naturally with advancing age, the decrement in their functions resonates throughout all the bodily processes, including those that control body temperature. To the extent that the age-related changes in some of these, e.g. in the musculoskeletal system, can be slowed, or even prevented, by certain measures, e.g. fitness training, so can the decrements in thermoregulatory functions. Some deficits, however, are unavoidable, e.g. structural skin changes and metabolic alterations. These impact directly on the ability of the elderly to maintain thermal homeostasis, particularly when challenged by ambient thermal extremes. Since the maintenance of a relatively stable, optimal core temperature is one of the body's most important activities, its very survival can be threatened by these disorders. The present article describes the principal, age-associated changes in physiological functions that could affect the ability of seniors to maintain their body temperature when exposed to hot or cold environments.

  16. Detection and attribution of near surface temperature changes over homogenous temperature zones in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achutarao, K. M.; R, D.

    2015-12-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "More than half of the observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) from 1951 to 2010 is very likely due to the observed anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations." Detecting and attributing the changes over regional scales can provide more relevant information to policymakers at the national level but the low signal-to-noise ratios at smaller spatial scales make this a harder problem. In this study, we analyze changes in temperature (annual and seasonal means of mean, minimum, and maximum temperatures) over 7 homogeneous temperature zones of India from 1901 -2005 using models from the CMIP5 database and multiple observational datasets (CRU-3.22, and IITM). We perform Detection and Attribution (D&A) analysis using fingerprint methods by defining a signal that concisely express both spatial and temporal changes found in the model runs with the CMIP5 individual forcing runs; greenhouse (historicalGHG), natural (historicalNat), anthropogenic (historicalAnthro), and anthropogenic aerosols (historicalAA). We are able to detect changes in annual mean temperature over many of the homogenous temperature zones as well as seasonal means in some of the homogenous zones. We quantify the contributions resulting from individual forcings in these cases. Preliminary results indicate large contributions from anthropogenic, forcings with a negligible contribution from natural forcings.

  17. Changes in Sea Surface Temperature and North Atlantic Hurricane Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, R.; Mahani, S.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2006-05-01

    People of United States from Maine to Texas in the years 1995 to 2005 experienced the highest level of North Atlantic hurricane activity in the reliable collected data and reports in compare with the generally low activity of the previous two decays (1970 to 1994). The greater activity might be a consequence of instantaneous changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and air temperature. This thermal energy of increased Sea Surface Temperature (warm water) is known as tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) partly powers a hurricane and has been called hurricane fuel. In primary steps of this research we are trying to examine the association of variation of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Sea Surface Height (SSH) and air temperature in the past decades with changes in hurricane number, duration and intensity. Preliminary analysis demonstrated that there is correlation between global warming and the occurrence of hurricanes because of the anticipated enhancement of energy available to the storms due to higher sea surface temperatures. The goal is to characterize and specify significant factors on tropical storms to improve the capability of predicting a hurricane and its damages to human lives and the economy. This information can be used to advise strategies for warning and also minimizing the magnitude of hurricane destruction, damages, and life losses.

  18. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  19. Changes in temperature preferences and energy homeostasis in dystroglycan mutants.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ken-Ichi; Nakano, Yoshiro; Kato, Utako; Kaneda, Mizuho; Aizu, Masako; Awano, Wakae; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Mori, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Umeda, Masato

    2009-03-27

    Temperature affects the physiology, behavior, and evolution of organisms. We conducted mutagenesis and screens for mutants with altered temperature preference in Drosophila melanogaster and identified a cryophilic (cold-seeking) mutant, named atsugari (atu). Reduced expression of the Drosophila ortholog of dystroglycan (DmDG) induced tolerance to cold as well as preference for the low temperature. A sustained increase in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism caused by the reduced expression of DmDG accounted for the cryophilic phenotype of the atu mutant. Although most ectothermic animals do not use metabolically produced heat to regulate body temperature, our results indicate that their thermoregulatory behavior is closely linked to rates of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and that a mutation in a single gene can induce a sustained change in energy homeostasis and the thermal responses.

  20. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    PubMed Central

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S.; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A.; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L.; González, Francisco J.; Campos-Lara, Nadia P.; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  1. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    PubMed

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  2. Dynamic modeling of temperature change in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Androga, Dominic Deo; Uyar, Basar; Koku, Harun; Eroglu, Inci

    2017-04-06

    In this study, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to analyze the temperature variation of tubular photobioreactors operated outdoors and the validity of the model was tested by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data. The model included the effects of convection and radiative heat exchange on the reactor temperature throughout the day. The temperatures in the reactors increased with increasing solar radiation and air temperatures, and the predicted reactor temperatures corresponded well to the measured experimental values. The heat transferred to the reactor was mainly through radiation: the radiative heat absorbed by the reactor medium, ground radiation, air radiation, and solar (direct and diffuse) radiation, while heat loss was mainly through the heat transfer to the cooling water and forced convection. The amount of heat transferred by reflected radiation and metabolic activities of the bacteria and pump work was negligible. Counter-current cooling was more effective in controlling reactor temperature than co-current cooling. The model developed identifies major heat transfer mechanisms in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors, and accurately predicts temperature changes in these systems. This is useful in determining cooling duty under transient conditions and scaling up photobioreactors. The photobioreactor design and the thermal modeling were carried out and experimental results obtained for the case study of photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus, but the approach is applicable to photobiological systems that are to be operated under outdoor conditions with significant cooling demands.

  3. Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2015-03-09

    Anthropogenically-driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature . The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt . We find that current trends in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the last 1000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25±0.05 (1σ) °C per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous 1-2 millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  4. Effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Aoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet holds approximately 10% of the fresh water on earth. If it melts all, sea level rises about 7.2meter. It is reported that mass of Greenland ice sheet is decreasing with temperature rising of climate change. Melting of the coastal area is particularly noticeable. It is established that 4 to 23% of the sea level rising from 1993 to 2005 is caused by the melting of Greenland ice sheet. In 2010, amount of melting per year became the largest than the past. However many climate models aren't able to simulate the recent melting of snow and ice in the Arctic including Greenland. One of the possible causes is albedo reduction of snow and ice surface by light absorbing snow impurities such as black carbon and dust and by glacial microorganisms. But there are few researches for effect of glacial microorganism in wide area. So it is important to clarify the impact of glacial microorganisms in wide area. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using satellite images of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared wavelength range and observation carried out in northwestern Greenland. We use MODIS Land Surface Temperature Product as ice sheet surface temperature. It estimates land surface temperature based on split window method using thermal infrared bands. MODIS data is bound to cover the whole of Greenland, and calculated the ratio of the temperature change per year. Analysis period is from December 2002 to November 2010. Results of calculating Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using the MODIS data, our analysis shows that it is upward trend in the whole region. We find a striking upward trend in northern and western part of Greenland. The rate is 0.33±0.03 degree Celsius per a year from 47.5°W to 49°W. While in the coastal area from 49°W to 50.7°W, the rate is 0.26±0.06 degree Celsius per a year. This large upward trend area is the same area as dark region

  5. Perceived temperature in the course of climate change: an analysis of global heat index from 1979 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Brenner, T.

    2015-08-01

    The increase in global mean temperatures resulting from climate change has wide reaching consequences for the earth's ecosystems and other natural systems. Many studies have been devoted to evaluating the distribution and effects of these changes. We go a step further and propose the use of the heat index, a measure of the temperature as perceived by humans, to evaluate global changes. The heat index, which is computed from temperature and relative humidity, is more important than temperature for the health of humans and animals. Even in cases where the heat index does not reach dangerous levels from a health perspective, it has been shown to be an important factor in worker productivity and thus in economic productivity. We compute the heat index from dew point temperature and absolute temperature 2 m above ground from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data set for the years 1979-2013. The described data set provides global heat index aggregated to daily minima, means and maxima per day (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.841057). This paper examines these data, as well as showing aggregations to monthly and yearly values. Furthermore, the data are spatially aggregated to the level of countries after being weighted by population density in order to facilitate the analysis of its impact on human health and productivity. The resulting data deliver insights into the spatiotemporal development of near-ground heat index during the course of the past three decades. It is shown that the impact of changing heat index is unevenly distributed through space and time, affecting some areas differently than others. The data can serve as a basis for evaluating and understanding the evolution of heat index in the course of climate change, as well as its impact on human health and productivity.

  6. [Temperature effect correction for Chang'E-3 alpha particle X-ray spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ye; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Yang, Jia-Wei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Liu, Ya-Qing; Dong, Yi-Fan; Wu, Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang'E-3 lunar rover of China's Lunar Exploration Project. The present paper introduces briefly the components of APXS, how it works and its working environment on the lunar surface. The environmental temperature effect has been studied with simulations and experiments, and the results show that the temperature of the APXS sensor will be varying during the measuring on the lunar surface. And another experiment reveals that the energy resolution becomes worse if the sensor's temperature is varying. In this paper, a correction method based on Pearson's chi-squared test is presented. The method can improve the energy resolution when the sensor's temperature is varying. We have tested the method with the spectra acquired by APXS in the temperature varying period of Temperature Cycling Test, and the results show that the method is efficient and reliable.

  7. New data on temperature optimum and temperature changes in energy crop digesters.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, H; Waltenberger, R; Köllner, K; Braun, R; Kirchmayr, R

    2008-10-01

    As a result of self-heating in anaerobic digesters when using energy crops in the feedstock, the influence of temperature on the digestion process came back into focus. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such temperature increases on process stability. Furthermore, different strategies for the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions and the resulting methane yields at different temperature levels were evaluated. Two main effects were identified with different bio-slurries from agricultural biogas plants: (1) a failure of methane production connected to changes in the microbial community; and (2), a slow but continuous accumulation of propionic acid, though without an immediate effect on methane production. All strategies for increasing the operating temperature showed negative effects on digester performance, some with serious economic consequences for the operator. It was shown that methane yields at different temperature levels in the mesophilic and sub-thermophilic ranges are similar.

  8. Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Hanson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature observations were collected from 142 lakes across Wisconsin, USA, to examine variation in temperature of lakes exposed to similar regional climate. Whole lake water temperatures increased across the state from 1990 to 2012, with an average trend of 0.042°C yr−1 ± 0.01°C yr−1. In large (>0.5 km2) lakes, the positive temperature trend was similar across all depths. In small lakes (<0.5 km2), the warming trend was restricted to shallow waters, with no significant temperature trend observed in water >0.5 times the maximum lake depth. The differing response of small versus large lakes is potentially a result of wind-sheltering reducing turbulent mixing magnitude in small lakes. These results demonstrate that small lakes respond differently to climate change than large lakes, suggesting that current predictions of impacts to lakes from climate change may require modification.

  9. Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang

    2016-03-01

    An attribution analysis of extreme temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of extreme temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm extremes. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold extremes. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual extreme temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. Extreme indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of extreme temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.

  10. Model-based estimation of changes in air temperature seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global warming context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of air temperature over the 20th century. The analysed data are global air temperature values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of air temperature over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ

  11. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  12. Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.-C.; Nakaegawa, T.

    2013-10-01

    Precise understanding of Greenland temperature variability is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising temperature is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland temperatures are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). In our earlier study, we found that Greenland temperature deviated negatively (positively) from northern hemispheric (NH) temperature trend during stronger (weaker) solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO) over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013). Therefore, a precise Greenland temperature record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland temperature through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar variability, the modelled and observed Greenland temperatures agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34-0.36 (p = 0.1-0.04) in 21 yr running means (RMs) and r = 0.38-0.45 (p = 0.1-0.05) on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs). Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland temperature in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90-96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland temperature continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high-latitude temperatures

  13. 49 CFR 172.521 - DANGEROUS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.521 DANGEROUS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the DANGEROUS...

  14. 49 CFR 172.521 - DANGEROUS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.521 DANGEROUS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the DANGEROUS...

  15. 49 CFR 172.521 - DANGEROUS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.521 DANGEROUS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the DANGEROUS...

  16. 49 CFR 172.521 - DANGEROUS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.521 DANGEROUS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the DANGEROUS...

  17. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  18. Climate change and river temperature sensitivity to warmer nighttime vs. warmer daytime air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the July river temperature response to atmospheric warming over the diurnal cycle in a 36 km reach of the upper Middle Fork John Day River of Oregon, USA. The physical model Heat Source was calibrated and used to run 3 different cases of increased air temperature during July: 1) uniform increase over the whole day ("delta method"), 2) warmer daytime, and 3) warmer nighttime. All 3 cases had the same mean daily air temperatures - a 4 °C increase relative to 2002. Results show that the timing of air temperature increases has a significant effect on the magnitude, timing and duration of changes in water temperatures relative to current conditions. In all cases, river temperatures in the lower reach increased by at least 1.1 °C . For the delta case, water temperature increases never exceeded 2.3 °C. In contrast, under the warmer daytime case, water temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 6.6 hours/day on average, with the largest increases occurring during mid-day. In the warmer night case the river temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 4.3 hours/day on average with the largest increases occurring around midnight. In addition, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the delta case increased the water temperature by an average of 1.9 °C uniformly during daytime and nighttime. Still, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer daytime case increased water temperature by an average of at least 1.6 °C during the daytime and by an average of up to 2.5 °C during the nighttime, while an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer nighttime case increased the water temperature by an average of at least 1.4 °C during the nighttime and by an average of up to 2.4 °C during the daytime. The spatial response of temperature was different for each case. The lower 13 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the delta case, while only the lower 6 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the warmer daytime case

  19. Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-09-01

    High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease.

  20. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Robert K; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L; Stock, James H

    2011-07-19

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects.

  1. Temperature changes over storms from measurements of spacecraft TIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylypenko, S. Motsyk, O.; Kozak, L.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work we have studied changes of mesospheric temperature over the powerful storms Wilma, Haitang, and Katrina using measurements of the space vehicle TIMED. We have found the temperature increasing at the altitude range 80-100 km. We have found the explanations for the obtained results by the dissipation of the gravity waves. Propagation of atmospheric gravity waves in a non-isothermal, windless atmosphere, with taking into account the viscosity and the thermal conductivity, has also been modelled in this work. We have determined that the maximum of amplitude of the atmospheric-gravity waves at the considered characteristics corresponds to altitudes of near 90 km (mesopause). It was found that the main factor influencing propagation and dissipation of the wave in such cases is the vertical temperature gradient. Viscosity and thermal conductivity have less influence on the wave amplitude.

  2. Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.; Parshall, L.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change alters local climates everywhere. Many climate change impacts, such as those affecting health, agriculture and labor productivity, depend on these local climatic changes, not global mean change. Traditional, spatially averaged climate change estimates are strongly influenced by the response of icecaps and oceans, providing limited information on human-experienced climatic changes. If used improperly by decision-makers, these estimates distort estimated costs of climate change. We overlay the IPCC’s 20 GCM simulations on the global population distribution to estimate local climatic changes experienced by the world population in the 21st century. The A1B scenario leads to a well-known rise in global average surface temperature of +2.0°C between the periods 2011-2030 and 2080-2099. Projected on the global population distribution in 2000, the median human will experience an annual average rise of +2.3°C (4.1°F) and the average human will experience a rise of +2.4°C (4.3°F). Less than 1% of the population will experience changes smaller than +1.0°C (1.8°F), while 25% and 10% of the population will experience changes greater than +2.9°C (5.2°F) and +3.5°C (6.2°F) respectively. 67% of the world population experiences temperature changes greater than the area-weighted average change of +2.0°C (3.6°F). Using two approaches to characterize the spatial distribution of income, we show that the wealthiest, middle and poorest thirds of the global population experience similar changes, with no group dominating the global average. Calculations for precipitation indicate that there is little change in average precipitation, but redistributions of precipitation occur in all income groups. These results suggest that economists and policy-makers using spatially averaged estimates of climate change to approximate local changes will systematically and significantly underestimate the impacts of climate change on the 21st century population. Top: The

  3. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  4. Power change in amorphous silicon technology by low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Ankit; Rennhofer, Marcus; Dangel, Angelika; Duman, Bogdan; Schlosser, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one of the best established thin-film solar-cell technologies. Despite its long history of research, it still has many critical issues because of its defect rich material and its susceptibility to degrade under light also called as Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE). This leads to an increase in the defect density of a-Si, but as a metastable effect it can be completely healed at temperatures above 170 °C. Our study is focused on investigating the behavior of annealing of different a-Si modules under low temperature conditions below 80 °C indicated by successive change of module power. These conditions reflect the environmental temperature impact of the modules in the field, or integrated in buildings as well. The power changes were followed by STC power rating and investigation of module-power evolution under low irradiance conditions at 50 W/m2. Our samples were recovered close to their initial state of power, reaching as high as 99% from its degraded value. This shows the influence of low temperature annealing and light on metastable module behavior in a-Si thin-film modules.

  5. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change.

    PubMed

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-13

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species.

  6. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    PubMed Central

    Armellin, E.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson's χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin) was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure. PMID:27195282

  7. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  8. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  9. What matters most: Are summer stream temperatures more sensitive to changing air temperature, changing discharge, or changing riparian vegetation under future climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated stream temperature responses to changes in both air temperature and stream discharge projected for 2040-2060 from downscaled GCMs and changes in the height and canopy density of streamside vegetation. We used Heat Source© calibrated for a 37 km section of the Middle Fork John Day River located in Oregon, USA. The analysis used the multiple-variable-at-a-time (MVAT) approach to simulate various combinations of changes: 3 levels of air warming, 5 levels of stream flow (higher and lower discharges), and 6 types of streamside vegetation. Preliminary results show that, under current discharge and riparian vegetation conditions, projected 2 to 4 °C increase in air temperature will increase the 7-day Average Daily Maximum Temperature (7dADM) by 1 to 2 °C. Changing stream discharge by ±30% changes stream temperature by ±0.5 °C, and the influence of changing discharge is greatest when the stream is poorly shaded. In contrast, the 7dADM could change by as much as 11°C with changes in riparian vegetation from unshaded conditions to heavily shaded conditions along the study section. The most heavily shaded simulations used uniformly dense riparian vegetation over the full 37-km reach, and this vegetation was composed of the tallest trees and densest canopies that can currently occur within the study reach. While this simulation represents an extreme case, it does suggest that managing riparian vegetation to substantially increase stream shade could decrease 7dADM temperatures relative to current temperatures, even under future climates when mean air temperatures have increased from 2 to 4 °C.

  10. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  11. Piglets' surface temperature change at different weights at birth.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva Dos Santos, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets' weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets' surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (-0.824 and -0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet's surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  12. Changes in spectral sensitivity of multiplier phototubes resulting from changes in temperature.

    PubMed

    Boileau, A R; Miller, F D

    1967-07-01

    The change in cathode spectral sensitivity of Westinghouse WX 4582 (S-11) and RCA 1P21(S-4) multiplier phototubes was measured across the visible spectrum, i.e., from 400 nm to 700 nm, for various temperature changes, both increases and decreases. Two methods were used for these measurements, viz., an adaptation of the Hardy spectrophotometer and the use of an environmental chamber. A decrease in temperature usually caused an increase in sensitivity in the short wavelength part of the spectrum and a decrease (as much as 90% at 700 nm) in the long wavelength part of the spectrum, with the crossover point (no appreciable change of sensitivity with change of temperature) at about 590 nm. An increase in temperature was accompanied by a reversal of spectral sensitivity changes, i.e., a decrease in the short wavelength part of spectrum and an increase in the long wavelength part of the spectrum. The change in cathode sensitivity varied with different types of phototubes and with phototubes of the same type.

  13. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C.; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  14. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100.

  15. Acute Changes in Ambient Temperature Are Associated With Adverse Changes in Cardiac Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Erin B.; Zareba, Wojciech; Utell, Mark J.; Oakes, David; Hopke, Philip K.; Frampton, Mark; Chalupa, David; Beckett, William; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both increases and decreases in ambient temperature have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Objectives We examined associations between biomarkers of pathways thought to, in part, explain these associations and changes in ambient temperature in a panel of predominantly post-myocardial infarction or post-stent patients. Methods We studied 76 subjects who had a recent coronary event and were participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. In these patients, we measured heart rate variability, repolarization, and baroreflex sensitivity parameters using Holter ECG recordings before and during supervised, graded, twice weekly, exercise sessions. Hourly temperature measurements were made at a monitoring site near the rehabilitation center. Results Using linear mixed models, we observed decreases in rMSSD (square root of the mean of the sum of the squared differences between adjacent NN intervals) and deceleration capacity, associated with increases in ambient temperature in the previous four days. Additionally, decreased rMSSD was associated with both increasing temperature (mean in previous 6 hours) in the summer and decreasing temperature (mean in the previous 3 weeks) in the winter. Conclusions In a panel of cardiac rehabilitation patients, changes in ambient temperature were associated with decreases in markers of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity, which may lead to increased risk of arrhythmic events and sudden death in post-infarction patients. PMID:25368681

  16. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  17. Predators modify the evolutionary response of prey to temperature change.

    PubMed

    Tseng, M; O'Connor, M I

    2015-12-01

    As climate regimes shift in many ecosystems worldwide, evolution may be a critical process allowing persistence in rapidly changing environments. Organisms regularly interact with other species, yet whether climate-mediated evolution can occur in the context of species interactions is not well understood. We tested whether a species interaction could modify evolutionary responses to temperature. We demonstrate that predation pressure by Dipteran larvae (Chaoborus americanus) modified the evolutionary response of a freshwater crustacean (Daphnia pulex) to its thermal environment over approximately seven generations in laboratory conditions. Daphnia kept at 21°C evolved higher population growth rates than those kept at 18°C, but only in those populations that were also reared with predators. Furthermore, predator-mediated selection resulted in the evolution of elevated Daphnia thermal plasticity. This laboratory natural selection experiment demonstrates that biotic interactions can modify evolutionary adaptation to temperature. Understanding the interplay between multiple selective forces can improve predictions of ecological and evolutionary responses of organisms to rapid environmental change.

  18. Quiet Danger in Chemistry Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Piyush; Singh, Karan

    1985-01-01

    Indicates that the most dangerous laboratory hazards are the least dramatic ones and that hazardous chemicals are often used in laboratories without proper precautions. Selected sources of information essential for secondary schools and recommendations for safe practices and chemical use statistics from a study of Ohio high schools are given. (DH)

  19. Students' Ideas about Dangerous Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the concepts and thoughts of primary education students about dangerous animals. A total of 316 primary education students attending a primary school in Turkey participated in the study. The research data was obtained through open-ended questions and word association tests. Data obtained from the questions…

  20. Trichomes as dangerous lollipops

    PubMed Central

    Stork, William F. J.; Weinhold, Alexander; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2011-01-01

    When attacked by herbivores, plants produce toxic secondary metabolites that function as direct defenses, as well as indirect defenses that attract and reward predators of the offending herbivores. These indirect defenses include both nutritive rewards such as extra floral nectar, as well as informational rewards, such as the production and release of volatile compounds that betray the location of feeding herbivores to predators. Herbivory of Nicotiana attenuata by the tobacco hornworm (Manduca larvae) alters the volatile profiles of both the plant and larval headspace. Herbivory-elicited specific changes in the volatile profiles are detected by arthropod predators of Manduca larvae. The known predators that perceive volatile cues induced by Manduca herbivory of N. attenuata are insects that target Manduca at early developmental stages, when the larvae are still small; large, late-instar larvae may have outgrown these predation risks. However, here we offer evidence that branched chain aliphatic acids derived from the digestion of plant O-acyl sugars from trichomes may betray Manduca larvae to lizard predators during late developmental stages as well. PMID:22095147

  1. Projected changes in precipitation extremes linked to temperature over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, S.; Dairaku, K.; Takayabu, I.; Suzuki-Parker, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have argued that the extreme precipitation intensities are increasing in many regions across the globe due to atmospheric warming. This argument is based on the principle of Clausius-Clapeyron relationship which states that the atmosphere can hold more moisture in warmer air temperature (~7%/°C). In our study, we have investigated the precipitation extremes linked to temperature in current climate (1981-2000) and their projected changes in late 21st century (2081-2100, RCP4.5) over Japan from multi-model ensemble downscaling experiments by three RCMs (NHRCM, NRAMS, WRF) forced by JRA25 as well as three GCMs (CCSM4, MIROC5, MRI-GCM3). To do this, the precipitation intensities of wet days (defined as ≥ 0.05 mm/d) are stratified to different bins with 1°C temperature interval. We have also identified the occurrences of precipitation extremes in different spell durations and associated peak intensities exceeding various thresholds in two climate periods. We found that extreme precipitation intensities are increased by 5 mm/d in future climate for temperatures above 21°C (Fig. 1). Precipitation extremes of higher percentiles are projected to have larger increase rates in future climate scenarios (3-5%/°C in the current climate and 4-6%/°C in the future climate scenarios). The joint probability distribution of wet hours (≥1mm/h) with various peak intensities under future climate scenarios (RCP4.5) of the late 21st century suggests an increase of long-lived (>10hr) and short-lived (1-2hr) events. On the other hand, a relatively decrease of medium-lived events (3-10hr) are noticed in future climate scenario. The increase of extreme precipitation intensities in future climate is due to the increase in temperature under RCP4.5 (~2°C). Increase in temperature causes more evapotranspiration and subsequently increases the water vapor in the atmosphere.

  2. Forced and Unforced Changes of Indian Ocean Temperature and Land-Sea Temperature Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achutarao, K. M.; Thanigachalam, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) over the Indian Ocean is directly connected with circulation, winds, precipitation, humidity, etc. over India. Increased SSTs are a major consequence of climate change driven largely by anthropogenic factors. Recent literature points to weakening of the Indian Summer Monsoon possibly because of decreased land-sea temperature gradient due to faster rate of warming of the oceans compared to land regions. We examine changes in the SST over the Indian Ocean using two observational datasets; HadISST (v1.1) and ERSST (v3b). Based on trend differences between two time periods (1979-2009 and 1948-1978) we identify four regions in the Indian Ocean with different signatures of change - Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS), Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO), and Southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO). We first quantify the extent to which the SST trends over multiple time-scales (20, 30, 50 and 100-years) are outside of the range expected from internal variability of the climate system. We make use of output data from long control run simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) database in order to estimate the contribution of external forcings to the observed trends. Using optimal fingerprint Detection and Attribution methods we quantify the contributions of various natural and anthropogenic forcings by making use of the suite of experiments (piControl, historical, historicalNat, historicalAnt, historicalGHG, and historicalAA) from CMIP5 are used in this study. We will also address the question of what drives the observed weakening of land-ocean temperature gradients.

  3. Dangerous Near-Earth Asteroids and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Grigoryan, A. E.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs; Astreoids and Meteorites) is discussed. To have an understanding on the probablity of encounters with such objects, one may use two different approaches: 1) historical, based on the statistics of existing large meteorite craters on the Earth, estimation of the source meteorites size and the age of these craters to derive the frequency of encounters with a given size of meteorites and 2) astronomical, based on the study and cataloging of all medium-size and large bodies in the Earth's neighbourhood and their orbits to estimate the probability, angles and other parameters of encounters. Therefore, we discuss both aspects and give our present knowledge on both phenomena. Though dangerous NEOs are one of the main source for cosmic catastrophes, we also focus on other possible dangers, such as even slight changes of Solar irradiance or Earth's orbit, change of Moon's impact on Earth, Solar flares or other manifestations of Solar activity, transit of comets (with impact on Earth's atmosphere), global climate change, dilution of Earth's atmosphere, damage of ozone layer, explosion of nearby Supernovae, and even an attack by extraterrestrial intelligence.

  4. Graded changes in central chemoreceptor input by local temperature changes on the ventral surface of medulla

    PubMed Central

    Cherniack, N. S.; von Euler, C.; Homma, I.; Kao, F. F.

    1979-01-01

    1. In cats under pentobarbitone anaesthesia the effects of focal temperature changes of the `chemoceptive' areas on the ventral surface of medulla, described by Loeschcke and his associates, were studied with respect to tidal volume, VT, tidal variation in efferent phrenic activity, PhrT, and respiratory rate. The cats were either paralysed and ventilated at various constant PA,CO2 and Pa,O2 levels, or breathing spontaneously. 2. It was confirmed that focal bilateral cooling of the intermediate, `I(S)', areas caused rapid depression of respiration even at constant artificial ventilation. In normocapnic and normoxic conditions apnoea usually ensued at brain surface temperatures of 20-22 °C. 3. The effects were graded along continuous temperature—response curves with enhancements of ventilation above and depression below normal body temperature. 4. The strongest effects on VT and PhrT were obtained from the I(S) areas with no or only small effects on inspiratory or expiratory timing in the vagotomized animal. The Hering—Breuer inflation reflex and its effects on timing and amplitudes were not affected by cooling this area. 5. Focal cooling of the caudal or the rostral `chemoceptive' areas, `C(L)' and `R(M)' areas, caused smaller effects on VT and PhrT but produced significant effects on respiratory rate even after vagotomy. 6. The effects of focal cooling of these areas could be mimicked by topical application of procaine solution which has been shown not to penetrate deeper than 100 μm from the surface. 7. Moderate focal cooling of area I(S) to temperatures above 28-30 °C caused a parallel shift in the CO2—response (VT, PhrT) curves to the right with little change in slope. The PCO2 thresholds for apnoea were correspondingly raised. These focal temperature effects could be compensated by changes in PCO2 with, on the average, 2·7 torr/°C. Focal temperatures below 28 °C usually caused some decrease in slope of the CO2—response curves in addition to

  5. Danger of Antibiotic Overuse (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse KidsHealth > For Parents > The Danger of Antibiotic ... by not reaching for the prescription pad. How Antibiotics Work Antibiotics, first used in the 1940s, are ...

  6. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  7. Variation in the sensitivity of organismal body temperature to climate change over local and geographic scales.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Sarah E; Wethey, David S; Helmuth, Brian

    2006-06-20

    Global climate change is expected to have broad ecological consequences for species and communities. Attempts to forecast these consequences usually assume that changes in air or water temperature will translate into equivalent changes in a species' organismal body temperature. This simple change is unlikely because an organism's body temperature is determined by a complex series of interactions between the organism and its environment. Using a biophysical model, validated with 5 years of field observations, we examined the relationship between environmental temperature change and body temperature of the intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus over 1,600 km of its geographic distribution. We found that at all locations examined simulated changes in air or water temperature always produced less than equivalent changes in the daily maximum mussel body temperature. Moreover, the magnitude of body temperature change was highly variable, both within and among locations. A simulated 1 degrees C increase in air or water temperature raised the maximum monthly average of daily body temperature maxima by 0.07-0.92 degrees C, depending on the geographic location, vertical position, and temperature variable. We combined these sensitivities with predicted climate change for 2100 and calculated increases in monthly average maximum body temperature of 0.97-4.12 degrees C, depending on location and climate change scenario. Thus geographic variation in body temperature sensitivity can modulate species' experiences of climate change and must be considered when predicting the biological consequences of climate change.

  8. Global Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Associated Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2016-06-01

    The trends in the sea ice cover in the two hemispheres have been observed to be asymmetric with the rate of change in the Arctic being negative at -3.8 % per decade while that of the Antarctic is positive at 1.7 % per decade. These observations are confirmed in this study through analyses of a more robust data set that has been enhanced for better consistency and updated for improved statistics. With reports of anthropogenic global warming such phenomenon appears physically counter intuitive but trend studies of surface temperature over the same time period show the occurrence of a similar asymmetry. Satellite surface temperature data show that while global warming is strong and dominant in the Arctic, it is relatively minor in the Antarctic with the trends in sea ice covered areas and surrounding ice free regions observed to be even negative. A strong correlation of ice extent with surface temperature is observed, especially during the growth season, and the observed trends in the sea ice cover are coherent with the trends in surface temperature. The trend of global averages of the ice cover is negative but modest and is consistent and compatible with the positive but modest trend in global surface temperature. A continuation of the trend would mean the disappearance of summer ice by the end of the century but modelling projections indicate that the summer ice could be salvaged if anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are kept constant at the current level.

  9. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  12. A linear regression model for predicting PNW estuarine temperatures in a changing climate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest coastal regions, estuaries, and associated ecosystems are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change, especially to changes in nearshore water temperature. While predictive climate models simulate future air temperatures, no such projections exist for...

  13. Simulated Climate Change Effects of Snowpack Manipulations on Soil Temperature and Moisture in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. G.; Jasoni, R. L.; Arnone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Future changes in climate are predicted to significantly affect the type and amount of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and Nevada. Because most of the yearly precipitation in this region falls as snow, changes in snowfall amount, snowfall timing, and duration of the snowpack may dramatically affect the timing and persistence of soil temperature and moisture, and biological processes dependent on these soil factors. The objective of our study was to quantify the effects of manipulating snowpack amounts on soil temperature and moisture over a two year period, including both the addition and removal of snow in a Pinus jeffreii (Jeffrey Pine) forest located northeast of Lake Tahoe, Nevada. Soil temperatures measured during the first winter (above average snow year) remained higher in control plots when snow was present, and in snow-addition plots, than in snow-removal plots. However, these effects did not persist in the second year when total snowfall amounted to only 20% of that occurring in the first year. Surprisingly, the effects on soil moisture persisted through the summer of year two with soil VWC in snow removal plots averaging approximately 50% drier than the snow addition plots (6.5% average VWC in snow removal and 13.2% in snow addition plots) and 13% drier on average than the control plots (7.5% average VWC in control plots).These results suggest the possibility of prolonged reductions in soil moisture, soil microbial activity, plant growth, and even increased danger of wildfires if anthropogenic climate change reduces snowfall amount and snowpack duration.

  14. Atmospheric temperature changes over the 20th century at very high elevations in the European Alps from englacial temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Vincent, C.

    2013-05-01

    the paucity of observations, a great deal of uncertainty remains concerning temperature changes at very high altitudes over the last century. Englacial temperature measurements performed in boreholes provide a very good indicator of atmospheric temperatures for very high elevations although they are not directly related to air temperatures. Temperature profiles from seven deep boreholes drilled at three different sites between 4240 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc area (French Alps) have been analyzed using a heat flow model and a Bayesian inverse modeling approach. Atmospheric temperature changes over the last century were estimated by simultaneous inversion of these temperature profiles. A mean warming rate of 0.14°C/decade between 1900 and 2004 was found. This is similar to the observed regional low altitude trend in the northwestern Alps, suggesting that air temperature trends are not altitude dependent.

  15. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by…

  16. Understanding and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, S. G.

    The mechanisms associated with sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic are explored using observation-based reconstructions of the historical surface states of the atmosphere and ocean as well as simulations run with the Community Earth System Model, version 1 (CESM1). The relationship between air-sea heat flux and SST between 1948 and 2009 yields evidence of a positive heat flux feedback at work in the subpolar gyre region on quasi-decadal timescales. Warming of the high latitude Atlantic precedes an atmospheric response which resembles a negative NAO state. The historical flux data set is used to estimate temporal variations in North Atlantic deep water formation which suggest that NAO variations drove strong decadal changes in thermohaline circulation strength in the last half century. Model simulations corroborate the observation-based inferences that substantial changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) ensued as a result of NAO-driven water mass perturbations, and that changes in the large-scale ocean circulation played a significant role in modulating North Atlantic SST. Surface forcing perturbation experiments show that the simulated low-frequency AMOC variability is mainly driven by turbulent buoyancy forcing over the Labrador Sea region, and that the decadal ocean variability, in uncoupled experiments, derives from low-frequency variability in the overlying atmospheric state. Surface momentum forcing accounts for most of the interannual variability in AMOC at all latitudes, and also most of the decadal AMOC variability south of the Equator. We show that the latter relates to the trend in wind stress forcing of the Southern Ocean, but that Southern Ocean forcing explains very little of the North Atlantic signal. The sea surface height in the Labrador Sea is identified as a strongly buoyancy-forced observable which supports its use as a monitor of AMOC strength. The dynamics which characterize the

  17. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  18. Volume and density changes of biological fluids with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of human blood, plasma, ultrafiltrate, and erythrocycte concentration at temperatures in the range of 4-48 C is studied. The mechanical oscillator technique which has an accuracy of 1 x 10 to the -5 th g/ml is utilized to measure fluid density. The relationship between thermal expansion, density, and temperature is analyzed. The study reveals that: (1) thermal expansion increases with increasing temperature; (2) the magnitude of the increase declines with increasing temperature; (3) thermal expansion increases with density at temperatures below 40 C; and (4) the thermal expansion of intracellular fluid is greater than that of extracellular fluid in the temperature range of 4-10 C, but it is equal at temperatures greater than or equal to 40 C.

  19. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Erwan G.; Cragg, Barry A.; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S.; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John

    2015-01-01

    The impact of temperature (0–80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple ‘windows’ within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, ‘Bathyarchaeota’) changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  20. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J; Parkes, R John

    2015-08-01

    The impact of temperature (0-80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple 'windows' within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, 'Bathyarchaeota') changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry.

  1. Effects of Changing Meteoric Precipitation Patterns on Groundwater Temperature in Karst Environments.

    PubMed

    Brookfield, A E; Macpherson, G L; Covington, M D

    2017-03-01

    Climate predictions indicate that precipitation patterns will change and average air temperatures will increase across much of the planet. These changes will alter surface water and groundwater temperatures which can significantly affect the local and regional environment. Here, we examine the role of precipitation timing in changes to groundwater temperature in carbonate-karst aquifers using measured groundwater level and temperature data from the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research Site, Kansas. We demonstrate that shifts to increased cool-season precipitation may mitigate the increases in groundwater temperature produced by increases in average annual air temperature. In karst, the solution-enlarged conduits allow faster and focused recharge, and the recharge-event temperature can strongly influence the groundwater temperature in the aquifer. Our field data and analysis show that predictions of future groundwater conditions in karst aquifers need to consider changes in precipitation patterns, in addition to changes to average annual air temperature.

  2. Seasonal Change Detection and Attribution of Surface Temperature changes over Interior Peninsular Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Sonali; Nagesh Kumar, Dasika

    2015-04-01

    A good number of studies have investigated recent trends in the observed and simulated hydrometeorological variables across the world. It has been challenging for the research community to address whether the significant change in climate over the course of 2nd half of 20th century is caused either due to natural or manmade effects. Although evidences for an anthropogenic contribution to climatic trends have been accumulated rapidly worldwide, for India these are scarce. Hence the formal efforts have been undertaken to distinguish whether the recent changes in seasonal temperature over India occurred due to natural internal variation of climate system or human influence using rigorous detection and attribution (D&A) procedure. The surface temperature is the most widely cited indicator of climate fluctuation. Hence maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax & Tmin) which are among the six most commonly used variables for impact assessment studies are analyzed here. Seasonal divisions are based on conventional meteorological seasons: January-February (winter); March-May (pre monsoon); June-September (monsoon); October-December (post monsoon). Time span considered for this study is 1950-2005. Climate Research Unit (Version 3.21) gridded monthly temperature datasets are considered as observed data. Initially TFPW-MK (Trend Free Pre Whitening Mann Kendall) test is used to search the significant trends in the four seasons over all India. Temporal change detection analysis in evapotranspiration (which is one of the key processes in hydrological cycle) is essential for progress in water resources planning and management. Hence along with Tmax and Tmin, potential evapotranspiration (PET) has also been analyzed for the similar conditions. Significant upward trends in Tmax, Tmin and PET are observed over most of the grid points in Interior Peninsula (IP) region over India. Significant correlation was obtained between PET and Tmax compared to PET and Tmin. Trends in Tmin clearly

  3. Soil erosion under climate change: simulatingthe response of temperature and rainfall changes in three UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Walker-Springett, Kate J.; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, Tristram C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion by water cost in environmental damages across the Great Britain is estimated in over £200m (2014 GBP) each year and could increase for the effect of climate change. Assessing the potential for increased climate-driven soil erosion, due to the several water processes involved (e.g., infiltration excess, return flow, direct precipitation onto saturated soil),is recognizedas a complex task. Climate change can have a positive and direct effect on soil erosionsuch the case of increasing rainfall in amount and intensity, or an indirect effect through the variation of the atmospheric CO2 level, which can improve plant productivityandwater infiltration capacity of soil reducing the likelihood of soil erosion. Changes in vegetation patterns and typologies with a different protection effect can lead also the soil system to dramatic changes in soil erosion rates, potentially amplifying or ameliorating the direct effects of climate change.Climate, vegetation and soil erosion are thus connected and several feedback effects could be accounted in the study of global change. Understanding these interactions may be a primary goal for clarifying the impact of global change on soil erosion and its consequences on related soil functions such as water and organic carbon storage support to vegetation and agricultural production. In this research, focused on three UK catchments (i.e. Conwy, 627 km2, Wales; Ehen, 225 km2, England; and Dee, 2100 km2, Scotland), we simulated soil erosionapplying SRES climatic scenarios(IPCC, 2000) for different CO2 emission levels. We modelled using Pesera "The Pan European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment" (Kirkby et al., 2004), a model for vegetation growing and soil erosion evaluation at regional scale. For each catchment,we realised a sensitivity - analysis - like test investigating different increments in temperature and rainfall, then, we compared the results of the SRES scenarios with the issues of the parametric sensitivity analysis. The

  4. Determination of time-dependent skin temperature decrease rates in the case of abrupt changes of environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mall, G; Hubig, M; Beier, G; Büttner, A; Eisenmenger, W

    2000-09-11

    The present study deals with the development of a method for determining time-dependent temperature decrease rates and its application to postmortem surface cooling. The study concentrates on evaluating skin cooling behavior since data on skin cooling in the forensic literature are scarce. Furthermore, all heat transfer mechanisms strongly depend on the temperature gradient between body surface and environment. One of the main problems in modelling postmortem cooling processes is the dependence on the environmental temperature. All models for postmortem rectal cooling essentially presuppose a constant environmental temperature. In medico-legal practice, the temperature of the surrounding of a corpse mostly varies; therefore, an approach for extending the models to variable environmental temperatures is desirable. It consists in 'localizing' them to infinitesimal small intervals of time. An extended model differential equation is obtained and solved explicitly. The approach developed is applied to the single-exponential Newtonian model of surface cooling producing the following differential equation:T(S)'(t)=-lambda(t)(T(S)(t)-T(E)(t))(with T(S)(t) the surface/skin temperature, T(E)(t) the environmental temperature, lambda(t) the temperature decrease rate and T(S)'(t) the actual change of skin temperature or first-order derivative of T(S)). The differential equation directly provides an estimator:lambda(t)=-T(S)'(t)T(S)(t)-T(E)(t)for the time-dependent temperature decrease rate. The estimator is applied to two skin cooling experiments with different types of abrupt changes of environmental temperature, peak-like and step-like; the values of the time-dependent temperature decrease rate function were calculated. By reinserting them, the measured surface temperature curve could be accurately reconstructed, indicating that the extended model is well suited for describing surface cooling in the case of abrupt changes of environmental temperature.

  5. Danger signs in drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kathrin; Bircher, Andreas J

    2010-07-01

    ADRs are frequently considered iatrogenic complications and, therefore, pose a specific challenge for the physician-patient relationship. Early recognition of a potential ADR is possible, especially on the skin, in addition to characteristic clinical danger signs. Cutaneous manifestations are variable, depending on the causative pathomechanism. It is impossible to conclude the causative agent from the morphology of the cutaneous lesions. The intake of several drugs in the time before the elicitation of the drug reaction usually poses a diagnostic challenge. It is crucial for the precision of any further allergological work-up to document the type of rash precisely as well as the time course of drug intake and appearance of the first symptoms. involvement of internal organs or circulating blood cells. Timely recognition of such cutaneous lesions and the correct differential diagnosis with prompt withdrawal of the putative culprit drug are essential to reducing morbidity and preventing mortality. This article discusses risk factors, early symptoms, and danger signs indicating a possibly severe course of an ADR and advises on early actions.

  6. Too Much Too Fast: The Dangers of Technological Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Dean

    This paper discusses the dangers of technological momentum. Technological momentum is defined as the increase in the rate of the evolution of technology, its infusion into societal tasks and recreations, society's dependence on technology, and the impact of technology on society. Topics of discussion include changes in response to user needs,…

  7. PERSPECTIVE: On the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegler, Elmar

    2007-03-01

    The recent publication of the summary for policy makers by Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1] has injected a renewed sense of urgency to address climate change. It is therefore timely to review the notion of preventing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' as put forward in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The article by Danny Harvey in this issue [2] offers a fresh perspective by rephrasing the concept of 'dangerous interference' as a problem of risk assessment. As Harvey points out, identification of 'dangerous interference' does not require us to know with certainty that future climate change will be dangerous—an impossible task given that our knowledge about future climate change includes uncertainty. Rather, it requires the assertion that interference would lead to a significant probability of dangerous climate change beyond some risk tolerance, and therefore would pose an unacceptable risk. In his article [2], Harvey puts this idea into operation by presenting a back-of-the-envelope calculation to identify allowable CO2 concentrations under uncertainty about climate sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing and the location of a temperature threshold beyond which dangerous climate change will occur. Conditional on his assumptions, Harvey delivers an interesting result. With the current atmospheric CO2 concentration exceeding 380 ppm, a forcing contribution from other greenhouse gases adding an approximate 100 110 ppm CO2 equivalent on top of it, and a global dimming effect of aerosols that roughly compensates for this contribution (albeit still subject to considerable uncertainty) ([1], figures SPM-1 and 2), we are on the verge of or even committed to dangerous interference with the climate system if we (1) set the risk tolerance for experiencing dangerous climate change to 1% and (2) allocate at least 5% probability to the belief that climate sensitivity is 4

  8. Estimation of early postmortem intervals by a multiple regression analysis using rectal temperature and non-temperature based postmortem changes.

    PubMed

    Honjyo, Kohji; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Tsunenari, Shigeyuki

    2005-10-01

    Five general methods based on rectal temperature and a multiple regression analysis using rectal temperature and non-temperature based postmortem changes were applied to 212 postmortem cases of within 24h postmortem (PM) intervals. Non-temperature based postmortem changes of rigidity, hypostasis and corneal turbidity were numerically categorized and used with rectal temperatures as four statistical variables in the multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficient values between true and calculated postmortem intervals were 0.78-0.82 in the five general methods based on rectal temperature. The multiple regression analysis produced a multiple correlation coefficient value of 0.89 and according to the error ranges of the PM intervals, 72% of the cases were estimated within the error of +/-1.0 h and 92% within +/-5.0 h. Although assessments of non-temperature based PM changes are mostly subjective and have a wide variation, the present study demonstrated a usefulness of non-temperature based PM changes in the estimation of PM intervals.

  9. Personal Safety in Dangerous Places

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terry; Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Hamid, Ansley

    2009-01-01

    Personal safety during fieldwork is seldom addressed directly in the literature. Drawing from many prior years of ethnographic research and from field experience while studying crack distributors in New York City, the authors provide a variety of strategies by which ethnographic research can be safely conducted in dangerous settings. By projecting an appropriate demeanor, ethnographers can seek others for protector and locator roles, routinely create a safety zone in the field, and establish compatible field roles with potential subjects. The article also provides strategies for avoiding or handling sexual approaches, common law crimes, fights, drive-by shootings, and contacts with the police. When integrated with other standard qualitative methods, ethnographic strategies help to ensure that no physical harm comes to the field-worker and other staff members. Moreover, the presence of researchers may actually reduce (and not increase) potential and actual violence among crack distributors/abusers or others present in the field setting. PMID:19809525

  10. Ecstasy is a dangerous drug.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    2001-06-01

    Ecstasy, a dangerous psychoactive drug, has become a popular recreational drug on college campuses and dance halls in the United States, United Kingdom, and around the world. No reports on ecstasy have shown addictiveness, and some users of ecstasy claim they prefer infrequent use which is not the usual addictive pattern. Jaw clenching, bruxism, and some cardiac arrhythmias requiring medical attention have been associated with consumption of ecstasy and some fatalities. In large scale retrospective questionnaire studies of subjective experiences users claimed that they felt a gentle relaxation and openness to others and few adversive effects. In rats and monkeys ecstasy has caused depletion of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain but similar effects have not been identified for humans. Case reports have shown panic attacks, flashbacks, paranoia, and even fatalities. The Drug Enforcement Administration in 1985 placed ecstasy in Schedule I, the most restrictive drug category.

  11. On forced temperature changes, internal variability, and the AMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Steinman, Byron A.; Miller, Sonya K.

    2014-05-01

    We estimate the low-frequency internal variability of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature using observed temperature variations, which include both forced and internal variability components, and several alternative model simulations of the (natural + anthropogenic) forced component alone. We then generate an ensemble of alternative historical temperature histories based on the statistics of the estimated internal variability. Using this ensemble, we show, first, that recent NH mean temperatures fall within the range of expected multidecadal variability. Using the synthetic temperature histories, we also show that certain procedures used in past studies to estimate internal variability, and in particular, an internal multidecadal oscillation termed the "Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation" or "AMO", fail to isolate the true internal variability when it is a priori known. Such procedures yield an AMO signal with an inflated amplitude and biased phase, attributing some of the recent NH mean temperature rise to the AMO. The true AMO signal, instead, appears likely to have been in a cooling phase in recent decades, offsetting some of the anthropogenic warming. Claims of multidecadal "stadium wave" patterns of variation across multiple climate indices are also shown to likely be an artifact of this flawed procedure for isolating putative climate oscillations.

  12. Effect of climate change on water temperature and attainment of water temperature criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Cheryl A.; Sharp, Darrin; Mochon Collura, T. Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 °C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 °C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7-1.6 °C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may mitigate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 °C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 °C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (ranging from 31 to 19 days).

  13. [The temperature and temperature gradient distribution in the thermophysical model of the rabbit body subjected internal and external changes of temperature].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2002-03-01

    In a laboratory heat-physical model of the rabbit reflecting basic heat-physical parameters of animal body (weight, heat absorption and heat production, size of a relative surface, capacity heat-production etc.), the changes of radial distribution of temperature and size of a cross superficial temperature gradient of the body were investigated with various parities (ratio) of environmental temperature and size of capacity heat production imitated by an electrical heater. Superficial layer of the body dependent from capacity heat production and environmental temperature can serve for definition of general heat content changes in the body for maintaining its thermal balance within the environment.

  14. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  15. Microbially Induced Temperature Changes in a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.

    2007-12-01

    The degradation reactions of organic contaminants are often exothermic. Given this, the degradation of organic contaminants in an aquifer should produce measurable temperature increases if the heat is generated faster than it is dissipated. The groundwater contaminant plume at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA, has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for 28 years. At this site, the theoretical degradation of 100 mg/L phenol, a representative compound, under aerobic conditions could generate a 2°C increase in groundwater temperature with no heat loss and an aquifer heat capacity of 2,494 J/L-°C. The temperature in the aquifer was measured with an accurate thermistor (≤±0.01°C) that was lowered to multiple depths in 13 monitoring wells along a groundwater flowpath. The measurements were taken from 0.15 to 12.62 m below the water table. Temperatures ranged from 6.35°C in the background aquifer to 9.19°C just under the crude oil source. These data revealed a thermal plume co-located with a previously observed area of BTEX biodegradation under iron-reducing and methanogenic conditions. The results indicate that evidence of exothermal microbial reactions within contaminant plumes can be detected using sensitive and detailed temperature measurements in wells.

  16. A moderate change in temperature induces changes in fatty acid composition of storage and membrane lipids in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Ellers, Jacintha

    2010-02-01

    A moderate change in ambient temperature can lead to vital physiological and biochemical adjustments in ectotherms, one of which is a change in fatty acid composition. When temperature decreases, the composition of membrane lipids (phospholipid fatty acids) is expected to become more unsaturated to be able to maintain homeoviscosity. Although different in function, storage lipids (triacylglycerol fatty acids) are expected to respond to temperature changes in a similar way. Age-specific differences, however, could influence this temperature response between different life stages. Here, we investigate if fatty acid composition of membrane and storage lipids responds similarly to temperature changes for two different life stages of Orchesella cincta. Juveniles and adults were cold acclimated (15 degrees C-->5 degrees C) for 28 days and then re-acclimated (5 degrees C-->15 degrees C) for another 28 days. We found adult membranes had a more unsaturated fatty acid composition than juveniles. Membrane lipids became more unsaturated during cold acclimation, and a reversed response occurred during warm acclimation. Membrane lipids, however, showed no warm acclimation, possibly due to the moderate temperature change. The ability to adjust storage lipid composition to moderate changes in ambient temperature may be an underestimated fitness component of temperature adaptation because fluidity of storage lipids permits accessibility of enzymes to energy reserves.

  17. Dangerous Spaces, Dangerous Memories, Dangerous Emotions: Informal Education and Heteronormativity--A Manchester UK Youth Work Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsleer, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This article makes a connection between youth work spaces, emotions and some elements of memory, exploring the construction of spaces dangerous for social justice in both meanings of the term "dangerous for". It investigates the contribution to social justice of lesbian and gay youth work and other non-heteronormative youth work in a…

  18. Associations of day-to-day temperature change and diurnal temperature range with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the impacts of temperature on mortality and morbidity have been documented, few studies have investigated whether day-to-day temperature change and diurnal temperature range (DTR) are independent risk factors for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design This was a prospective, population-based, observational study. Methods We obtained all OHCA data from 2005-2013 from six major prefectures in Japan: Hokkaido, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, and Osaka. We used a quasi-Poisson regression analysis with a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the associations of day-to-day temperature change and DTR with OHCA for each prefecture. Results In total, 271,698 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were reported during the study period. There was a significant increase in the risk of OHCA associated with cold temperature in five prefectures, with relative risks (RRs) ranging from 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.649) in Hokkaido to 3.893 (95% CI 1.713-8.845) in Kyoto. DTR was adversely associated with OHCA on hot days in Aichi (RR 1.158; 95% CI 1.028-1.304) and on cold days in Tokyo (RR 1.030; 95% CI 1.000-1.060), Kanagawa (RR 1.042; 95% CI 1.005-1.082), Kyoto (RR 1.060; 95% CI 1.001-1.122), and Osaka (RR 1.050; 95% CI 1.014-1.088), whereas there was no significant association between day-to-day temperature change and OHCA. Conclusion We found that associations between day-to-day temperature change and DTR and OHCA were generally small compared with the association with mean temperature. Our findings suggest that preventative measures for temperature-related OHCA may be more effective when focused on mean temperature and DTR.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sağlam, Bülent; Bilgili, Ertuğrul; Durmaz, Bahar Dinç; Kadıoğulları, Ali İhsan; Küçük, Ömer

    2008-01-01

    Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%. PMID:27879918

  20. Denying the Dangerous: Preventing Firearms from Entering the Hands of the Dangerously Mentally Ill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    DANGEROUS : PREVENTING FIREARMS FROM ENTERING THE HANDS OF THE DANGEROUSLY MENTALLY ILL by David M. Bonk December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Lauren...REPORT TYPE A ND DATES COVERED December 2014 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE A ND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DENYING THE DANGEROUS : PREVENTING FIREARMS...FROM ENTERING THE HANDS OF THE DANGEROUSLY MENTALLY ILL 6. A UTHOR(S) David M. Bonk 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) A ND A DDRESS(ES) 8

  1. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  2. Volcanic Contribution to Decadal Changes in Tropospheric Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Bonfils, Celine; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Zelinka, Mark D.; Mears, Carl; Solomon, Susan; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Fyfe, John C.; Cole, Jason N.S.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Taylor, Karl E.; Wentz, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued growth in atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, global mean surface and tropospheric temperatures have shown slower warming since 1998 than previously. Possible explanations for the slow-down include internal climate variability, external cooling influences and observational errors. Several recent modelling studies have examined the contribution of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions to the muted surface warming. Here we present a detailed analysis of the impact of recent volcanic forcing on tropospheric temperature, based on observations as well as climate model simulations. We identify statistically significant correlations between observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth and satellite-based estimates of both tropospheric temperature and short-wave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We show that climate model simulations without the effects of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions overestimate the tropospheric warming observed since 1998. In two simulations with more realistic volcanic influences following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, differences between simulated and observed tropospheric temperature trends over the period 1998 to 2012 are up to 15% smaller, with large uncertainties in the magnitude of the effect. To reduce these uncertainties, better observations of eruption-specific properties of volcanic aerosols are needed, as well as improved representation of these eruption-specific properties in climate model simulations.

  3. Changes in Population Occupancy of Bradyrhizobia under Diffrent Temperature Regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (USDA 6T, 38, and 123) and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strain (USDA 76T) were conducted to compare their respective proliferation traits under different cultivation temperature conditions with yeast-extract mannitol broth medium and to estimate the strain p...

  4. Continental temperature change during Early Eocene hyperthermal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Martin; Abels, Hemmo; de Winter, Nils; Gingerich, Philip; Bernasconi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry has great potential for solving long-standing questions in paleoclimatology as it provides temperature estimates that are independent from assumptions regarding the isotopic or elemental composition of water from which the carbonate precipitated. The clumped isotope group at ETH has worked towards decreasing the sample size requirements and derived new calibrations for the Kiel method based on synthetic and natural calcites. Here we present results of clumped isotope based continental temperatures across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The Bighorn Basin of northwestern Wyoming provides hundreds of meters of excellently exposed river floodplain strata of Paleocene and early Eocene age. Records of the the largest greenhouse-warming episode in this interval of time, were recovered soon after their discovery in deep marine sediments. This has allowed intensive study of the major impact this greenhouse warming event had on continental interior climate. Recently, records of four successive, smaller, transient greenhouse warming events in the early Eocene - ETM2/H1/Elmo, H2, I1, and I2 - were located in the fluvial rock record of the basin. We show that the (summer) temperature excursions during hyperthermal events in continental mid-latitudes were amplified compared to marine temperatures and proportional to the size of associated carbon isotope excursions.

  5. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  6. Rumen temperature change monitored with remote rumen temperature boluses after challenges with bovine viral diarrhea virus and Mannheimia haemolytica.

    PubMed

    Rose-Dye, T K; Burciaga-Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R; Step, D L; Fulton, R W; Confer, A W; Richards, C J

    2011-04-01

    Remote rumen temperature monitoring is a potential method for early disease detection in beef cattle. This experiment was conducted to determine if remotely monitored rumen temperature boluses could detect a temperature change in steers exposed to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and challenged with a common bovine respiratory disease pathogen, Mannheimia haemolytica (MH). Twenty-four Angus crossbred steers (BW = 313 ± 31 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) no challenge (control); 2) challenge by a 72-h exposure to 2 steers persistently infected with BVDV; 3) bacterial challenge with MH; and 4) viral challenge by a 72-h exposure to 2 steers persistently infected with BVDV followed by bacterial challenge with MH (BVDV + MH). Remotely monitored rumen temperature boluses programmed to transmit temperature every minute were placed in the rumen before the time of exposure to steers persistently infected with BVDV. Rectal temperatures were taken before MH challenge (0) and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h after MH challenge. Rumen temperatures were recorded 3 d before (-72 h; period of BVDV exposure) through 14 d after (336 h) MH challenge. Rumen temperatures were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a first-order autoregressive covariance structure for repeated measures. A treatment × day interaction was observed for average daily rumen temperature (P < 0.01). A treatment difference (P < 0.01) was observed on d 0, when MH-challenged steers had greater rumen temperatures than steers not challenged with MH. There was no BVDV × day interaction (P > 0.01). Rumen temperatures averaged every 2 h resulted in a BVDV × hour interaction (P < 0.01) and an MH × hour interaction (P < 0.01). The BVDV × hour differences occurred at h -18 to -14, 40 to 46, 110, 122, and 144 to 146 (P < 0.01). The MH × hour difference occurred at h 4 to 24 (P < 0.01). Maximum rumen temperature was increased (P

  7. Spring temperature change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in North America from 1982 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Junsheng; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Koven, Charlie; Chen, Anping

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how vegetation growth responds to climate change is a critical requirement for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. Parts of North America (NA) have experienced a spring cooling trend over the last three decades, but little is known about the response of vegetation growth to this change. Using observed climate data and satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2006, we investigated changes in spring (April–May) temperature trends and their impact on vegetation growth in NA. A piecewise linear regression approach shows that the trend in spring temperature is not continuous through the 25-year period. In the northwestern region of NA, spring temperature increased until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and stalled or decreased afterwards. In response, a spring vegetation greening trend, which was evident in this region during the 1980s, stalled or reversed recently. Conversely, an opposite phenomenon occurred in the northeastern region of NA due to different spring temperature trends. Additionally, the trends of summer vegetation growth vary between the periods before and after the turning point (TP) of spring temperature trends. This change cannot be fully explained by summer drought stress change alone and is partly explained by changes in the trends of spring temperature as well as those of summer temperature. As reported in previous studies, summer vegetation browning trends have occurred in the northwestern region of NA since the early 1990s, which is consistent with the spring and summer cooling trends in this region during this period. PMID:21220297

  8. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    PubMed

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level.

  9. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  10. Tennessee Killing Underscores Job Dangers for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…

  11. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  12. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  16. Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…

  17. Analysis of Future High Temperature Region in Urban Area under Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Jeong, W.; Sung, S.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    Urban air temperature is higher than surrounding air temperature. It is called Urban Heat Island. Furthermore, according to climate change, Urban air temperature is expected to be increased in the future. Therefore, Preparing for high temperature event result from climate change is important as well as preparing for presence of the urban heat. In this study, we analyzed Seoul temperature change according to the climate change scenarios, and suggested some strategies to fight against climate change and urban heat island. For doing this, Firstly, Seoul was divided into 1km² cells which matches the climate change scenario resolution. Then, future temperature distribution was analyzed. In this time, future temperature means distribution means the average temperature in August 2010~2100 from Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Secondly, Cells where temperature is over 33℃ are selected as the "high temperature region (HTR)". For identifying HTUR characteristics, we did regression analysis with terrain, land cover, distance from rivers and mountains variables. As a result, most of the HTR was distributed to the industrial and business districts, and appeared as far away from the rivers and mountains. These result can be used in the further urban heat island studies, especially identifying urban type which vulnerable to climate change. Also, it can be helpful in establishing strategies corresponding to the future climate.

  18. Temperature influence on structural changes of foundry bentonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzer, Mariusz; Bobrowski, Artur; Żymankowska-Kumon, Sylwia

    2011-10-01

    The results of investigations of three calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as binding material for moulding sands, subjected to the influence of high temperatures - are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method, the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method and the modern Cu(II)-TET complex method (used for the determination of the montmorillonite content in bentonite samples). The occurrence of the dehydration process and two-stage dehydroxylation process was confirmed only for bentonite no. 2. This probably indicates that cis- and trans-isomers are present in the octahedric bentonite structure. Tests were performed at temperatures: 500, 550, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 °C.

  19. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  20. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra, C.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S.S.; Loescher, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature vari-ability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  1. Seasonal Temperature Changes Do Not Affect Cardiac Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Schildt, Jukka; Loimaala, Antti; Hippeläinen, Eero; Nikkinen, Päivi; Ahonen, Aapo

    2015-01-01

    FDG-PET/CT is widely used to diagnose cardiac inflammation such as cardiac sarcoidosis. Physiological myocardial FDG uptake often creates a problem when assessing the possible pathological glucose metabolism of the heart. Several factors, such as fasting, blood glucose, and hormone levels, influence normal myocardial glucose metabolism. The effect of outdoor temperature on myocardial FDG uptake has not been reported before. We retrospectively reviewed 29 cancer patients who underwent PET scans in warm summer months and again in cold winter months. We obtained myocardial, liver, and mediastinal standardized uptake values (SUVs) as well as quantitative cardiac heterogeneity and the myocardial FDG uptake pattern. We also compared age and body mass index to other variables. The mean myocardial FDG uptake showed no significant difference between summer and winter months. Average outdoor temperature did not correlate significantly with myocardial SUVmax in either summer or winter. The heterogeneity of myocardial FDG uptake did not differ significantly between seasons. Outdoor temperature seems to have no significant effect on myocardial FDG uptake or heterogeneity. Therefore, warming the patients prior to attending cardiac PET studies in order to reduce physiological myocardial FDG uptake seems to be unnecessary. PMID:26858844

  2. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  3. [Dangerous sharks in tropical seas].

    PubMed

    Maslin, J; Menard, G; Drouin, C; Pollet, L

    2000-01-01

    Sightseeing travel in tropical zones is a growing industry. The risks incurred by travelers depend on the destination, duration of stay, individual behavior, and type of leisure activity. Water sports expose visitors to encounters with dangerous marine animals. Shark attacks are rare but always serious occurrences. Divers should handle any shark, regardless of size, with due precaution. Prevention of shark attack depends on avoiding encounters by not attracting the attention of the shark and knowing the proper attitude to adopt in case an encounter should occur. Active and passive protection can be used, but each method has advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation. Rescue operations are difficult due to the gravity of injuries and their occurrence in a marine environment. This along with the nature of the aggressor explain that many attacks are immediately fatal. Wounds are often deep with involvement of bone, blood vessels, and nerves. A possible source of complication in survivors is infection, which can involve uncommon microorganisms associated with bacteria in sharks mouth or marine environment.

  4. Intruder-induced change in condensation temperature of granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Ching; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hao

    2011-02-01

    The process from a gaseous state to a clustering state for a compartmentalized monodisperse granular gas is accompanied by a drop in the granular temperature to a condensation point. We show experimentally that adding an intruder generally results in a decrease in the condensation point, and a heavier intruder makes this decrease more pronounced. However, once the Brazil nut effect (the intruder on the top of clustering grains) occurs, the condensation point will rise. Through the balance of particle fluxes and the hydrodynamic balance of driving forces, we analytically calculated the condensation point for the monodisperse gases and the intruder-fluid mixtures. The analytical results match the experimental data.

  5. Climate change and future temperature-related mortality in 15 Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sara Lauretta; Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Avramescu, Mary-Luyza; Tremblay, Neil

    2012-07-01

    The environmental changes caused by climate change represent a significant challenge to human societies. One part of this challenge will be greater heat-related mortality. Populations in the northern hemisphere will experience temperature increases exceeding the global average, but whether this will increase or decrease total temperature-related mortality burdens is debated. Here, we use distributed lag modeling to characterize temperature-mortality relationships in 15 Canadian cities. Further, we examine historical trends in temperature variation across Canada. We then develop city-specific general linear models to estimate change in high- and low-temperature-related mortality using dynamically downscaled climate projections for four future periods centred on 2040, 2060 and 2080. We find that the minimum mortality temperature is frequently located at approximately the 75th percentile of the city's temperature distribution, and that Canadians currently experience greater and longer lasting risk from cold-related than heat-related mortality. Additionally, we find no evidence that temperature variation is increasing in Canada. However, the projected increased temperatures are sufficient to change the relative levels of heat- and cold-related mortality in some cities. While most temperature-related mortality will continue to be cold-related, our models predict that higher temperatures will increase the burden of annual temperature-related mortality in Hamilton, London, Montreal and Regina, but result in slight to moderate decreases in the burden of mortality in the other 11 cities investigated.

  6. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sky and solar radiance are of major importance in determining the ground temperature. Knowledge of their behavior is a fundamental part of surface temperature models. These 2 fluxes vary with elevation and this variation produces temperature changes. Therefore, when using thermal-property differences to discriminate geologic materials, these flux variations with elevation need to be considered. -from Author

  7. Using Spectral Methods to Quantify Changes in Temperature Variability across Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; McInerney, D.; Stein, M.; Leeds, W.; Poppick, A. N.; Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Moyer, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in future surface temperature variability are of great scientific and societal interest. Since the impact of variability on human society depends on not only the magnitude but also the frequency of variations, shifts in the marginal distribution of temperatures do not provide enough information for impacts assessment. Leeds et al (2014) proposed a method to quantify changes in variability of temperature at distinct temporal frequencies by estimating the ratio of the spectral densities of temperature between pre-industrial and equilibrated future climates. This spectral ratio functions well as a metric to quantify temperature variability shifts in climate model output. In this study, we apply the method of Leeds et al (2014) to explore the temperature variability changes under increased radiative forcing. We compare changes in variability in higher-CO2 climates across two different climate models (CCSM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and GISS-E2-R from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies), and changes driven by two different forcing agents (CO2 and solar radiation) within the same model (CCSM3). In all cases we use only the equilibrium stages of model runs extended several thousand years after an abrupt forcing change is imposed. We find a number of results. First, changes in temperature variability differ by frequency in most regions, confirming the need for spectral methods. Second, changes are similar regardless of forcing agents. In experiments with abruptly increased CO2 and solar forcing designed to produce the same change in global mean temperature, the distributions and magnitudes of spectral ratio changes are nearly identical. Finally, projections of variability changes differ across models. In CCSM3, temperature variability decreases in most regions and at most frequencies. Conversely, in GISS-E2-R, temperature variability tends to increase over land. The discrepancy between CCSM3 and the GISS-E-R highlights the need for

  8. Morphometry and average temperature affect lake stratification responses to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Benjamin M.; Anneville, Orlane; Chandra, Sudeep; Dix, Margaret; Kuusisto, Esko; Livingstone, David M.; Rimmer, Alon; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Silow, Eugene; Sitoki, Lewis M.; Tamatamah, Rashid; Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne; McIntyre, Peter B.

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is affecting lake stratification with consequences for water quality and the benefits that lakes provide to society. Here we use long-term temperature data (1970-2010) from 26 lakes around the world to show that climate change has altered lake stratification globally and that the magnitudes of lake stratification changes are primarily controlled by lake morphometry (mean depth, surface area, and volume) and mean lake temperature. Deep lakes and lakes with high average temperatures have experienced the largest changes in lake stratification even though their surface temperatures tend to be warming more slowly. These results confirm that the nonlinear relationship between water density and water temperature and the strong dependence of lake stratification on lake morphometry makes lake temperature trends relatively poor predictors of lake stratification trends.

  9. Climate change, global warming and coral reefs: modelling the effects of temperature.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M James C

    2008-10-01

    Climate change and global warming have severe consequences for the survival of scleractinian (reef-building) corals and their associated ecosystems. This review summarizes recent literature on the influence of temperature on coral growth, coral bleaching, and modelling the effects of high temperature on corals. Satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and coral bleaching information available on the internet is an important tool in monitoring and modelling coral responses to temperature. Within the narrow temperature range for coral growth, corals can respond to rate of temperature change as well as to temperature per se. We need to continue to develop models of how non-steady-state processes such as global warming and climate change will affect coral reefs.

  10. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J.; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S.; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stéphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E.; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.; Mortensen, Morten F.; Hoek, Wim Z.; Magyari, Enikö; Sobrino, Castor Muñoz; Seppä, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, André F.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized paleoclimate datasets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earth's recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based paleotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our paleotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe. PMID:25208610

  11. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe.

    PubMed

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stéphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H; Birks, H John B; Mortensen, Morten F; Hoek, Wim Z; Magyari, Enikö; Muñoz Sobrino, Castor; Seppä, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, André F

    2014-09-11

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized palaeoclimate data sets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earth's recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based palaeotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our palaeotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe.

  12. High pressure and high temperature XAFS study of germanate: Fourfold versus sixfold coordination changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrault, D.; Peryronneau, J.; Farges, F.; Itié, J. P.

    1995-02-01

    The Ge coordination changes in oxides have been investigated by XAFS at high pressure and high temperature using the energy dispersive configuration of the DCI storage ring of LURE (Orsay, France). Two different experimental set-up were used to investigate both tetrahedra-to-octahedra (high pressure and temperature) and octahedra-to-tetrahedra (high temperature) changes. The network compression and dilatation are found to be precursor of phase transformations occuring under these extreme conditions.

  13. Temperature change and its effect factors in the Yangtze Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jun; Tang, Xu; Cui, Linli; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2007-09-01

    Based on the meteorological data, land use date from TM images and social statistical data, the evidences of regional temperature change with the elements of mean annual temperature, mean annual maximum and minimum temperature, and extreme high and low temperature from 1959 to 2005, were detected, and the impact of human activities on temperature was analyzed in the Yangtze Delta region. The results indicated an increase in mean annual temperature, mean annual maximum and minimum temperature. Mean annual temperature in all cities in the region increased, and the increase rate in winter was greater than that in spring and autumn. The increase of mean annual maximum and minimum temperature was similar to that of mean annual temperature spatially. In 3 stations of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou, most hot days, least cold days and the highest mean temperature all appeared in the first 5 years in this century. Land use changed greatly, and a large amount of cropland was replaced with residential and constructional areas (R/C areas) from 1980 to 2000 in the Yangtze Delta region. The change of mean annual temperature was partly corresponding to the change of land use. Total registered population increased rapidly in 16 cities of the Yangtze Delta region, and a good linear correlation between the tendency ratio of total registered population and the mean annual temperature in 16 cities from 1978 to 2005. Total amount of energy consumption and GDP increased in 3 provinces of Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang where the Yangtze Delta located, both the final consumption of energy by industry and GDP had a relatively good linear relationship with the mean annual temperature in Shanghai from 1952 to 2005. This paper will help the understanding and attribution of climate change and simulation of the future response of weather-related disasters under various global change scenarios.

  14. Investigation of medium and high temperature phase change materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Kraehling, H.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the programs for acquisition and analysis of the test results is given. Basically it concerns three programs. The TEST program controls the recording of the test data. With the THELLI program it is possible to follow the temperature curve recorded for each individual thermoelement during the test. With the AUSW program the test data can be analyzed, to determine, for example, the melting point and the start of melting. The first results of the service life tests are discussed. From these it is attempted to draw inferences for the subsequent tests. An attempt is made to focus on the determination of the area-related mass loss, the reduction in thickness and the corrosion rate as well as optical and scanning electron microscope evaluation.

  15. Water temperature of streams in the Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, and implications of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyle, Rebecca E.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2001-10-02

    Water-temperature data from 32 sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, south-central Alaska, indicate various trends that depend on watershed characteristics. Basins with 25 percent or more of their area consisting of glaciers have the coldest water temperatures during the open-water season, mid-May to mid-October. Streams and rivers that drain lowlands have the warmest water temperatures. A model that uses air temperature as input to predict water temperature as output was utilized to simulate future trends in water temperature based on increased air temperatures due to climate warming. Based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, the model produced acceptable results for 27 sites. For basins with more than 25 percent glacial coverage, the model was not as accurate. Results indicate that 15 sites had a predicted water-temperature change of 3 degrees Celsius or more, a magnitude of change that is considered significant for the incidence of disease in fish populations.

  16. Impacts of Low-Flow and Stream-Temperature Changes on Endangered Atlantic Salmon - Current Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent climate studies in New England and the northeastern United States have shown evidence of physical changes over time, including trends toward earlier snowmelt runoff, decreasing river ice, and increasing spring water temperatures. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study funded by the National Global Warming and Wildlife Science Center will be investigating changes in summer low streamflows and stream temperatures and the potential effects of those changes on endangered Atlantic salmon populations. The study also will evaluate management options that would be most likely to mitigate the effects of any changes in streamflow and temperature.

  17. Effect of climate change on soil temperature in Swedish boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions.

  18. Effect of Climate Change on Soil Temperature in Swedish Boreal Forests

    PubMed Central

    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K.; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N.

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions. PMID:24747938

  19. Contrasting effects of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance and performance.

    PubMed

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Maiorano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    Climate change is determining a generalized phenological advancement, and amphibians are among the taxa showing the strongest phenological responsiveness to warming temperatures. Amphibians are strongly influenced by climate change, but we do not have a clear picture of how climate influences important parameters of amphibian populations, such as abundance, survival, breeding success and morphology. Furthermore, the relative impact of temperature and precipitation change remains underappreciated. We used Bayesian meta-analysis and meta-regression to quantify the impact of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance, individual features and performance. We obtained effect sizes from studies performed in five continents. Temperature increase was the major driver of phenological advancement, while the impact of precipitation on phenology was weak. Conversely, population dynamics was mostly determined by precipitation: negative trends were associated with drying regimes. The impact of precipitation on abundance was particularly strong in tropical areas, while the importance of temperature was feeble. Both temperature and precipitation influenced parameters representing breeding performance, morphology, developmental rate and survival, but the response was highly heterogeneous among species. For instance, warming temperature increased body size in some species, and decreased size in others. Similarly, rainy periods increased survival of some species and reduced the survival of others. Our study showed contrasting impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on amphibian populations. Both climatic parameters strongly influenced amphibian performance, but temperature was the major determinant of the phenological changes, while precipitation had the major role on population dynamics, with alarming declines associated with drying trends.

  20. Rhodamine 123 permeability through the catfish intestinal wall: Relationship to thermal acclimation and acute temperature change.

    PubMed

    Kleinow, Kevin M; Johnston, Brad D; Holmes, Earnestine P; McCarrol, Matthew E

    2006-11-01

    Temperature is known to influence xenobiotic retention in fish. The effect of acute and acclimatory temperature change upon Rhodamine 123 (Rho123) permeability through an in vitro catfish multi-segment (3) everted sac intestinal wall model was examined in a 9 cell matrix of acclimation and assay temperatures (10, 20 and 30 degrees C). Changes in Rho123 permeability were examined in context with membrane fluidity, xenobiotic solubility and intestinal morphology. When assayed at the acclimation temperature greater Rho123 permeability was noted at warmer acclimation temperatures for the proximal and middle intestinal segments, while the distal segment exhibited little change and apparent compensation across temperatures. Rho123 permeability was increased as assay temperatures were elevated above the acclimation temperature for most comparisons. Cold acclimation significantly increased total intestinal length (43.2%) and proximal intestine weights while total body weights did not differ. Brush border membranes (BBM) increased fluidity with increased assay temperatures, however, composite anisotropy lines were not significantly different between acclimation treatments. In an additive manner, the membrane probe DPH exhibited increased solubility in BBM with increases in acclimation and assay temperatures. Compositely, these results suggest that acclimation and acute temperature change may differentially influence xenobiotic permeability among intestinal segments with interacting mechanisms.

  1. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  2. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  3. Differential effects of temperature change and human impact on European Late Quaternary mammalian extinctions.

    PubMed

    Varela, Sara; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Storch, David

    2015-04-01

    Species that inhabited Europe during the Late Quaternary were impacted by temperature changes and early humans, resulting in the disappearance of half of the European large mammals. However, quantifying the relative importance that each factor had in the extinction risk of species has been challenging, mostly due to the spatio-temporal biases of fossil records, which complicate the calibration of realistic and accurate ecological niche modeling. Here, we overcome this problem by using ecotypes, and not real species, to run our models. We created 40 ecotypes with different temperature requirements (mean temperature from -20 °C to 25 °C and temperature range from 10 °C to 40 °C) and used them to quantify the effect of climate change and human impact. Our results show that cold-adapted ecotypes would have been highly affected by past temperature changes in Europe, whereas temperate and warm-adapted ecotypes would have been positively affected by temperature change. Human impact affected all ecotypes negatively, and temperate ecotypes suffered the greatest impacts. Based on these results, the extinction of cold-adapted species like Mammuthus primigenius may be related to temperature change, while the extinction of temperate species, like Crocuta crocuta, may be related to human impact. Our results suggest that temperature change and human impact affected different ecotypes in distinct ways, and that the interaction of both impacts may have shaped species extinctions in Europe.

  4. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  5. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypoglycemia) Dangerous? Page last updated: April 12, 2017 Business Partnerships AFFILIATE RESOURCES Media Relations Sitemap Privacy Terms of Use Webmaster © by Joslin Diabetes Center. All rights reserved. All materials contained on this site are ...

  6. Potentially Dangerous Items for Your Pet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Resources for ... our homes to keep young children safe, but what about “pet proofing” our homes too? Many edible and non-edible dangers for your pet may exist in or around ...

  7. Microbe- and danger-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Achille; Granucci, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The ability of the immune system to give rise to an effective response against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self-tissues has always been an object of keen interest for immunologist. Over the years, different theories have been proposed to explain if and how the immune system is able to discriminate between self and non-self, including the Infectious Non-self theory from Charles Janeway and Polly Matzinger's Danger theory. Nowadays we know Janeway's theory is largely true, however the immune system does respond to injured, stressed and necrotic cells releasing danger signals (DAMPs) with a potent inflammatory response. To avoid unwanted prolonged autoimmune reactions, though, danger-induced inflammation should be tightly regulated. In the present review we discuss how prototypic DAMPs are able to induce inflammation and the peculiarity of danger-induced inflammation, as opposed to a complete immune response to fight pathogen invasions.

  8. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  9. Opioids and Alcohol a Dangerous Cocktail

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163489.html Opioids and Alcohol a Dangerous Cocktail Drinking while taking the painkillers ... 2017 WEDNESDAY, Feb. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Drinking alcohol while taking powerful opioid painkillers can trigger a ...

  10. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  11. Rainfall and temperatures changes have confounding impacts on Phytophthora cinnamomi occurrence risk in the southwestern USA under climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sally E; Levin, Simon; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-04-01

    Global change will simultaneously impact many aspects of climate, with the potential to exacerbate the risks posed by plant pathogens to agriculture and the natural environment; yet, most studies that explore climate impacts on plant pathogen ranges consider individual climatic factors separately. In this study, we adopt a stochastic modeling approach to address multiple pathways by which climate can constrain the range of the generalist plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi (Pc): through changing winter soil temperatures affecting pathogen survival; spring soil temperatures and thus pathogen metabolic rates; and changing spring soil moisture conditions and thus pathogen growth rates through host root systems. We apply this model to the southwestern USA for contemporary and plausible future climate scenarios and evaluate the changes in the potential range of Pc. The results indicate that the plausible range of this pathogen in the southwestern USA extends over approximately 200,000 km(2) under contemporary conditions. While warming temperatures as projected by the IPCC A2 and B1 emissions scenarios greatly expand the range over which the pathogen can survive winter, projected reductions in spring rainfall reduce its feasible habitat, leading to spatially complex patterns of changing risk. The study demonstrates that temperature and rainfall changes associated with possible climate futures in the southwestern USA have confounding impacts on the range of Pc, suggesting that projections of future pathogen dynamics and ranges should account for multiple pathways of climate-pathogen interaction.

  12. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-03-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak.

  13. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak. PMID:26931350

  14. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-03-02

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak.

  15. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  16. Yawning and Stretching Predict Brain Temperature Changes in Rats: Support for the Thermoregulatory Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shoup-Knox, Melanie L.; Gallup, Andrew C.; Gallup, Gordon G.; McNay, Ewan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that yawning is an adaptive behavior that functions to promote brain thermoregulation among homeotherms. To explore the relationship between brain temperature and yawning we implanted thermocoupled probes in the frontal cortex of rats to measure brain temperature before, during and after yawning. Temperature recordings indicate that yawns and stretches occurred during increases in brain temperature, with brain temperatures being restored to baseline following the execution of each of these behaviors. The circulatory changes that accompany yawning and stretching may explain some of the thermal similarities surrounding these events. These results suggest that yawning and stretching may serve to maintain brain thermal homeostasis. PMID:21031034

  17. Quantifying stream temperature response to environmental change in a groundwater-dominated catchment, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R.; Byrne, J. M.; Boon, S.

    2012-12-01

    The ecological significance of steam temperature response to environmental change has been discussed in many recent studies across a range of disciplines. We couple a stream energy and mass balance model with a catchment-scale hydrometeorological model to quantify stream temperature response to environmental change in a groundwater-dominated catchment. Given the importance of surface-subsurface interactions in simulating stream temperature, we propose a baseflow separation technique to parameterize these interactions within the model. This method forms the basis of a catchment-scale modelling approach designed specifically for data sparse regions. Using this approach we applied a sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of forest disturbance (harvest with riparian buffer) and climate change (mean air temperature and precipitation change for the 2040-2069 period) on stream temperature. We find that stream temperature following forest disturbance and climate change is primarily affected by a predicted shift towards earlier snowmelt runoff timing, which advances subsurface recharge early in the spring and subsequently decreases subsurface discharge in the summer, fall and winter. Changes in seasonal stream temperature regime may have important ecological consequences, particularly during the spawning and rearing stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

  18. Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, K. B.; Ma, Y.; Tan, X. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Liu, G.; Li, Z. L.; Chen, J. M.; Xia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Global surface temperature change is one of the most important aspects in global climate change research. In this study, in order to overcome shortcomings of traditional observation methods in meteorology, a new method is proposed to calculate global mean surface temperature based on remote sensing data. We found that (1) the global mean surface temperature was close to 14.35 °C from 2001 to 2012, and the warmest and coldest surface temperatures of the global in the recent twelve years occurred in 2005 and 2008, respectively; (2) the warmest and coldest surface temperatures on the global land surface occurred in 2005 and 2001, respectively, and on the global ocean surface in 2010 and 2008, respectively; and (3) in recent twelve years, although most regions (especially the Southern Hemisphere) are warming, global warming is yet controversial because it is cooling in the central and eastern regions of Pacific Ocean, northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean, northern regions of China, Mongolia, southern regions of Russia, western regions of Canada and America, the eastern and northern regions of Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. The analysis of daily and seasonal temperature change indicates that the temperature change is mainly caused by the variation of orbit of celestial body. A big data model based on orbit position and gravitational-magmatic change of celestial body with the solar or the galactic system should be built and taken into account for climate and ecosystems change at a large spatial-temporal scale.

  19. Uncovering physical processes responsible for the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Piskala, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Day-to-day temperature changes, and especially those of minimum temperature in winter and maximum temperature in summer, are asymmetrical: in winter, large warmings occur more frequently than large coolings and small coolings occur more frequently than small warmings. In summer, the opposite is the case. We investigate causes of this asymmetry for Prague, Czech Republic. First, we relate strong temperature changes to passages of atmospheric fronts. More specifically, large warmings in winter are related with passages of warm fronts and large coolings in summer are related with passages of cold fronts. In particular, we test the hypothesis that the days with large temperature changes (changes exceeding 3°C or 5°C) are accompanied with passages of corresponding atmospheric fronts more frequently than other days. We prove statistical significance of such a relationship between front passages and large temperature changes by means of a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Second, we demonstrate that small temperature changes (by up to 2°C), namely, small warmings in summer and small coolings in winter, are tightly related to anticyclonic circulation conditions and, hence, occur due to radiative processes. This relationship is investigated by comparing frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types in selected classifications from the COST733 database between the days with small temperature changes and all other days. The relationship appears to be highly statistically significant. Although the findings may seem a bit trivial, we are not aware of any study that would examine and prove the relationships between front passages and anticyclonic circulation conditions on one side, and the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes on the other side.

  20. The relationships between temperature changes and reproductive investment in a Mediterranean goby: Insights for the assessment of climate change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, M.; Cipolato, G.; Pranovi, F.; Antonetti, P.; Torricelli, P.; Franzoi, P.; Malavasi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relationships between changes in water temperature and the timing and level of reproductive investment were investigated in an estuarine fish, inhabiting the Venice lagoon: the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. A time series of the mean monthly values of gonado-somatic index was coupled with thermal profiles of lagoon water temperatures over 14 years, from 1997 to 2010. Results showed that the reproductive investment was positively affected by water temperature changes, both in terms of monthly thermal anomalies and cumulative degree days. A predictive model was also developed to assess the temporal shift of reproductive peaks as a response to inter-annual thermal fluctuations. This model allowed the detection of deviations from the median level, indicating that during warmer years, the reproductive peak tended to occur earlier than during colder years. The model is therefore proposed as a tool to predict anticipated consequences of climate change on fish phenology in transitional waters, regarding recurrent biological phenomena, such as reproduction and recruitment.

  1. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-02

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports.

  2. The direction and range of ambient temperature change influences yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Miller, Michael L; Clark, Anne B

    2010-05-01

    Comparative research suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior in homeotherms. Our previous experiments revealed that yawning increased in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) as ambient temperature was raised toward body temperature (22-->34 degrees C). In this study, we identify the range of temperatures that triggers yawning to rule out the possible effect of changing temperature in any range. To corroborate its thermoregulatory function, we also related the incidence of yawning to other avian thermoregulatory behaviors in budgerigars (e.g., panting, wing venting). In a repeated measures design, 16 budgerigars were exposed to 4 separate 10-min periods of changing temperatures: (a) low-increasing (23-->27 degrees C), (b) high-increasing (27-->33 degrees C), (c) high-decreasing (34-->28 degrees C), and (d) low-decreasing (28-->24 degrees C). Birds yawned significantly more during the high-increasing temperature range, and yawning was positively correlated with ambient temperature across trials. Yawning was also positively correlated with other thermoregulatory behaviors. This research clarifies the previously demonstrated relationship between yawning rate and temperature by providing evidence that the physiological trigger for yawning is related to increasing body temperatures rather than the detection of changing external temperatures.

  3. Automated Non-invasive Video-Microscopy of Oyster Spat Heart Rate during Acute Temperature Change: Impact of Acclimation Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Domnik, Nicolle J.; Polymeropoulos, Elias T.; Elliott, Nicholas G.; Frappell, Peter B.; Fisher, John T.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1–1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C—Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices. PMID:27445833

  4. Automated Non-invasive Video-Microscopy of Oyster Spat Heart Rate during Acute Temperature Change: Impact of Acclimation Temperature.

    PubMed

    Domnik, Nicolle J; Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Elliott, Nicholas G; Frappell, Peter B; Fisher, John T

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1-1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C-Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices.

  5. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  6. Titanium defect structure change after gas-phase hydrogenation at different temperatures and cooling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, Andrey A.; Laptev, Roman S.; Kudiiarov, Viktor N.; Volokitina, Tatiana L.

    2016-11-01

    Influence of gas-phase hydrogenation temperature and cooling rate on defect structure of commercially pure titanium alloy was experimentally studied by means of positron annihilation spectroscopy. The change of temperature in the process of gas-phase hydrogenation was in the range of 500-700°C, while the change of cooling rate was in the range of 0.4-10.4°C/min. With increasing of gas-phase hydrogenation temperature, significant increase of hydrogen sorption rate was found. High temperature gas-phase hydrogenation of commercially pure titanium alloy lead to the formation of vacancy and hydrogen-vacancy complexes. For the same concentration of hydrogen, temperature variation or variation of cooling rate had no effect on the type of defect. However, this variation provides significant changes in defect concentration.

  7. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  8. Temperature dependence of SET switching characteristics in phase-change memory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Li, Zhen; Liu, Chang; Meng, Xiang-ru; Peng, Ju-hong; Lai, Zhi-bo; Miao, Xiang-shui

    2016-09-01

    The temperature dependence of crystallization kinetics of phase-change materials raises a series of reliability issues, while phase-change memory cells work at high temperature or thermal-disturbance condition. These issues hinder the development of ultrahigh-density storage devices. We investigate the evolution of SET switching characteristics of phase-change memory cells at high operating temperature. We show that the high temperature strongly impacts the SET state resistance. As a result, SET failure has been observed with elevated ambient temperature. Our SPICE simulations indicate that transient amorphization behavior during a complete SET pulse period is considered as the potential mechanism of SET failure. By modifying the SET pulse intensity and width linearly, we successfully reduce the SET failure in the experiments. The results illustrate that the demonstrated linear properties may optimize SET pulse performance.

  9. Phase change nanocomposites with tunable melting temperature and thermal energy storage density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minglu; Wang, Robert Y

    2013-08-21

    Size-dependent melting decouples melting temperature from chemical composition and provides a new design variable for phase change material applications. To demonstrate this potential, we create nanocomposites that exhibit stable and tunable melting temperatures through numerous melt-freeze cycles. These composites consist of a monodisperse ensemble of Bi nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a polyimide (PI) resin matrix. The Bi NPs operate as the phase change component whereas the PI resin matrix prevents nanoparticle coalescence during melt-freeze cycles. We tune melting temperature and enthalpy of fusion in these composites by varying the NP diameter. Adjusting the NP volume fraction also controls the composite's thermal energy storage density. Hence it is possible to leverage size effects to tune phase change temperature and energy density in phase change materials.

  10. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change scenarios in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Greb, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter temperature and flow regimes for streams in Wisconsin over the coming decades. Stream temperature will be influenced not only by the predicted increases in average air temperature, but also by changes in baseflow due to changes in precipitation patterns and amounts. In order to evaluate future stream temperature and flow regimes in Wisconsin, we have integrated two existing models in order to generate a water temperature time series at a regional scale for thousands of stream reaches where site-specific temperature observations do not exist. The approach uses the US Geological Survey (USGS) Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model, along with a recalibrated version of an existing artificial neural network (ANN) stream temperature model. The ANN model simulates stream temperatures on the basis of landscape variables such as land use and soil type, and also includes climate variables such as air temperature and precipitation amounts. The existing ANN model includes a landscape variable called DARCY designed to reflect the potential for groundwater recharge in the contributing area for a stream segment. SWB tracks soil-moisture and potential recharge at a daily time step, providing a way to link changing climate patterns and precipitation amounts over time to baseflow volumes, and presumably to stream temperatures. The recalibrated ANN incorporates SWB-derived estimates of potential recharge to supplement the static estimates of groundwater flow potential derived from a topographically based model (DARCY). SWB and the recalibrated ANN will be supplied with climate drivers from a suite of general circulation models and emissions scenarios, enabling resource managers to evaluate possible changes in stream temperature regimes for Wisconsin.

  11. Tracking changes in Isoëtes reproductive ecology responding to changes in lake water temperature and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čtvrtlíková, Martina; Znachor, Petr; Nedoma, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav; Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef

    2013-04-01

    Biological response of aquatic macrophytes to changes in water chemistry and temperature has been studied on a background of the long-term research of Bohemian Forest lakes recovery from acid stress. Isoëtes lacustris and I. echinospora are common aquatic macrophytes adapted for living in soft-water lakes widely distributed in European lake districts; however, in central Europe they are rare glacial relicts. In Černé and Plešné lakes, two populations survived a thirty-year period of severe acidification but failed to reproduce. In our experimental and field studies on Isoëtes reproduction we identified early ontogenetic stages to be most vulnerable to changes in lake water pH, temperature, and aluminium (Al) toxicity .We described specific symptoms on plantlets reflecting various lake water acidity and Al-toxicity and defined critical limits of the stressors for plant survival. Using a mathematical model we also described temperature-related changes in species reproductive phenology and revealed their narrow temperature tolerance. The knowledge of critical environmental factors and their limits for species survival allows us to infer changes in species reproduction in response to both historical and ongoing changes in climate and lake water chemistry. Due to species-specific ecological traits, we can now explain the recent population recovery of I. echinospora contrasting with the poor reproduction of I. lacustris that will be constrained by environmental stressors for at least during the next 20 years.

  12. Effects of Climate Change on Temperature and Salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate change (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric temperatures on water properties (temperature and salinity) in the Yaquina Estuar...

  13. Further studies of the atmospheric temperature change produced by the Mt. Agung volcanic eruption in 1963

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R. E.

    1980-03-26

    The eruption of Mt. Agung in March 1963 introduced an aerosol layer into the stratosphere that was associated with stratospheric temperature increases of several degrees Kelvin. The mechanics of this temperature change in the tropical troposphere are examined by observations of its distribution in altitutde and time. (ACR)

  14. Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction and standard science instruction and contribution of logical thinking ability on seventh grade students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Misconceptions related to heat and temperature concepts were determined by related literature on this subject.…

  15. Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

  16. [Effects of sudden air temperature and pressure changes on mortality in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Plavcová, E; Kyselý, J

    2009-04-01

    We have developed an algorithm for identifying sudden changes in air pressure and temperature over the Czech Republic. Such events were retrieved from the data covering in 1986-2005 and were matched with the daily numbers of all-cause deaths and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases from the national database, separately for the whole population and that aged 70 years and over. Excess daily mortality was determined by calculating deviations of the observed number of deaths from the expected number of deaths for each day in the respective groups. The relative deviation of the mortality the mean was calculated as the ratio of the excess mortality to the expected number of deaths. We used 3-hour air pressure data from 10 meteorological stations and hourly air temperature data from 9 stations representative of the Czech Republic. Pressure changes were evaluated on time scales of 3, 6 and 12 hours, separately for summer and winter time. Temperature changes were evaluated on a 24-hour time scale, separately for summer and winter season. Events characterized by pressure or temperature changes above the critical threshold and recorded within 24 hours at more than 50% of meteorological stations were retrieved. The critical thresholds were defined separately for each station using quantiles of distributions of air pressure and temperature changes. Relative mortality deviations for days D-2 (2 days before the change) to D+7 (7 days after the change) were averaged over the retrieved events. Statistical significance of the mean relative deviation was tested using the Monte Carlo method. Increased mortality followed large temperature increases and large pressure drops both in summer and winter months. Decreased mortality was observed after large pressure increases and large temperature drops in summer. Mortality variations are usually more pronounced in the population aged 70 years and over, and cardiovascular diseases account for most deaths after sudden temperature changes.

  17. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, Janka; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, Vlasta; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70 °C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160 °C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90 °C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80 °C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey - a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite.

  18. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite.

    PubMed

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, Janka; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, Vlasta; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-05

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70°C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160°C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90°C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80°C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey--a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite.

  19. CHANGES IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE TRIGGER YAWNING BUT NOT STRETCHING IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Miller, Ralph R.; Clark, Anne B.

    2010-01-01

    Yawning appears to be involved in arousal, state change, and activity across vertebrates. Recent research suggests that yawning may support effective changes in mental state or vigilance through cerebral cooling. To further investigate the relationship between yawning, state change, and thermoregulation, 12 Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to a total of two hours of ambient temperature manipulation over a period of 48 hours. Using a repeated measures design, each rat experienced a range of increasing (22→32°C), decreasing (32→22°C), and constant temperatures (22°C; 32°C). Yawning and locomotor activity occurred most frequently during initial changes in temperature, irrespective of direction, compared to more extended periods of temperature manipulation. The rate of yawning also diminished during constant high temperatures (32°C) compared to low temperatures (22°C). Unlike yawning, however, stretching was unaffected by ambient temperature variation. These findings are compared to recent work on budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), and the ecological selective pressures for yawning in challenging thermal environments are discussed. The results support previous comparative research connecting yawning with arousal and state change, and contribute to refining the predictions of the thermoregulatory hypothesis across vertebrates. PMID:21132114

  20. Influence of stem temperature changes on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.

    PubMed

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    While natural spatial temperature gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural changes in stem temperature impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem temperature on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods changes in stem temperatures of up to 0.002 °C s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem temperatures during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem temperatures led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a temperature correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural temperature change based on the measured temperatures before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities.

  1. Long-term sea surface temperature and climate change in the Australian-New Zealand region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Juggins, Steve; de Deckker, Patrick; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles

    2007-06-01

    We compile and compare data for the last 150,000 years from four deep-sea cores in the midlatitude zone of the Southern Hemisphere. We recalculate sea surface temperature estimates derived from foraminifera and compare these with estimates derived from alkenones and magnesium/calcium ratios in foraminiferal carbonate and with accompanying sedimentological and pollen records on a common absolute timescale. Using a stack of the highest-resolution records, we find that first-order climate change occurs in concert with changes in insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Glacier extent and inferred vegetation changes in Australia and New Zealand vary in tandem with sea surface temperatures, signifying close links between oceanic and terrestrial temperature. In the Southern Ocean, rapid temperature change of the order of 6°C occurs within a few centuries and appears to have played an important role in midlatitude climate change. Sea surface temperature changes over longer periods closely match proxy temperature records from Antarctic ice cores. Warm events correlate with Antarctic events A1-A4 and appear to occur just before Dansgaard-Oeschger events 8, 12, 14, and 17 in Greenland.

  2. Causes of twentieth-century temperature change near the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tett, Simon F. B.; Stott, Peter A.; Allen, Myles R.; Ingram, William J.; Mitchell, John F. B.

    1999-06-01

    Observations of the Earth's near-surface temperature show a global-mean temperature increase of approximately 0.6K since 1900 (ref. 1), occurring from 1910 to 1940 and from 1970 to the present. The temperature change over the past 30-50 years is unlikely to be entirely due to internal climate variability and has been attributed to changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols due to human activity. Attribution of the warming early in the century has proved more elusive. Here we present a quantification of the possible contributions throughout the century from the four components most likely to be responsible for the large-scale temperature changes, of which two vary naturally (solar irradiance and stratospheric volcanic aerosols) and two have changed decisively due to anthropogenic influence (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols). The patterns of time/space changes in near-surface temperature due to the separate forcing components are simulated with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, and a linear combination of these is fitted to observations. Thus our analysis is insensitive to errors in the simulated amplitude of these responses. We find that solar forcing may have contributed to the temperature changes early in the century, but anthropogenic causes combined with natural variability would also present a possible explanation. For the warming from 1946 to 1996 regardless of any possible amplification of solar or volcanic influence, we exclude purely natural forcing, and attribute it largely to the anthropogenic components.

  3. Do great tits (Parus major) suppress basal metabolic rate in response to increased perceived predation danger? A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Mathot, Kimberley J; Abbey-Lee, Robin N; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have shown that individuals with higher metabolic rates (MRs) feed at higher rates and are more willing to forage in the presence of predators. This increases the acquisition of resources, which in turn, may help to sustain a higher MR. Elevated predation danger may be expected to result in reduced MRs, either as a means of allowing for reduced feeding and risk-taking, or as a consequence of adaptively reducing intake rates via reduced feeding and/or risk-taking. We tested this prediction in free-living great tits (Parus major) using a playback experiment to manipulate perceived predation danger. There was evidence that changes in body mass and BMR differed as a function of treatment. In predator treatment plots, great tits tended to reduce their body mass, a commonly observed response in birds to increased predation danger. In contrast, birds from control treatment plots showed no overall changes in body mass. There was also evidence that great tits from control treatment plots increased their basal metabolic rate (BMR) over the course of the experiment, presumably due to decreasing ambient temperatures over the study period. However, there was no evidence for changes in BMR for birds from predator treatment plots. Although the directions of these results are consistent with the predicted directions of effects, the effects sizes and confidence intervals yield inconclusive support for the hypothesis that great tits would adaptively suppress BMR in response to increased perceived predation risk. The effect size observed in the present study was small (~1%) and would not be expected to result in substantive reductions in feeding rate and/or risk-taking. Whether or not ecological conditions that generate greater energetic stress (e.g. lower food availability, lower ambient temperatures) could produce an effect that produces biologically meaningful reductions in feeding activity and/or risk-taking remains an open question.

  4. An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced temperature changes in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Jouni

    2016-08-01

    An energy balance decomposition of temperature changes is conducted for idealized transient CO2-only simulations in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The multimodel global mean warming is dominated by enhanced clear-sky greenhouse effect due to increased CO2 and water vapour, but other components of the energy balance substantially modify the geographical and seasonal patterns of the change. Changes in the net surface energy flux are important over the oceans, being especially crucial for the muted warming over the northern North Atlantic and for the seasonal cycle of warming over the Arctic Ocean. Changes in atmospheric energy flux convergence tend to smooth the gradients of temperature change and reduce its land-sea contrast, but they also amplify the seasonal cycle of warming in northern North America and Eurasia. The three most important terms for intermodel differences in warming are the changes in the clear-sky greenhouse effect, clouds, and the net surface energy flux, making the largest contribution to the standard deviation of annual mean temperature change in 34, 29 and 20 % of the world, respectively. Changes in atmospheric energy flux convergence mostly damp intermodel variations of temperature change especially over the oceans. However, the opposite is true for example in Greenland and Antarctica, where the warming appears to be substantially controlled by heat transport from the surrounding sea areas.

  5. Response of microalgae to elevated CO2 and temperature: impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xu, Xiaoguang; Fujibayashi, Megumu; Niu, Qigui; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the combined effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on microalgae, three typical and worldwide freshwater species, the green alga Scenedesmus acuminatus, the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana, and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as mixes of these three species were continuously cultured in controlled environment chambers with CO2 at 390 and 1000 ppm and temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C. CO2 and temperature significantly affected the production of microalgae. The cell productivity increased under elevated CO2 and temperature. Although the green alga dominated in the mixed culture within all CO2 and temperature conditions, rising temperature and CO2 intensified the competition of the cyanobacterium with other microalgae. CO2 affected the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) characteristics of the green alga and the cyanobacterium. Elevated CO2 induced the generation of humic substances in the EPS fractions of the green alga, the cyanobacterium, and the mixed culture. The extracellular carbohydrates of the diatom and the extracellular proteins of the cyanobacterium increased with elevated CO2 and temperature, while the extracellular carbohydrates and proteins of the green alga and the mixes increased under elevated CO2 and temperature. There were synergistic effects of CO2 and temperature on the productivity and the EPS of microalgae. Climate change related CO2 and temperature increases will promote autochthonous organic carbon production in aquatic ecosystems and facilitate the proliferation of cyanobacteria, which potentially changes the carbon cycling and undermines the functioning of ecosystems.

  6. Long-Term Warm-Season Stream Temperature Variations and Changes Over Siberian Lena River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Yang, D.

    2003-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important environmental variable that has considerable significance in regional hydrology, climate, and ecology systems. Few investigations on long-term stream temperature variations in Arctic regions have been undertaken. This research examined and analyzed long-term (1950-1992) stream temperature data collected at dozens of stations in the Lena River basin during (open water) warm seasons. Preliminary results show that: (1) the stream temperature across the whole basin shows a significant positive trend during early warm season, which may indicate a response of early snowmelt due to climate warming in the winter and spring seasons; (2) over the Aldan tributary, stream temperatures collected at elevated locations are much lower than those at low valley stations; (3) in the Upper Lena river, stream temperatures have very strong negative trend in late July to early August, which imply certain climatic factors is affecting the stream temperature regime during this period; and, (4) in the Vilui subbasin, stream temperatures are strongly affected by reservoir regulations, for instance, extremely strong positive and negative trends appear at the station close to reservoir in early and middle warm season, respectively. The research has defined stream temperature regime and identified its long-term changes/variations over Lena river basin. Our future work will examine the impacts of climate change on river thermal condition. We will also study the effects of local environmental settings to stream temperatures and aquatic life.

  7. Relationships between facial temperature changes, end-exercise affect and during-exercise changes in affect: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Arfaoui, Ahlem

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed as an evaluation of the relationships between changes in facial temperature and self-reported pleasure-displeasure during an acute aerobic exercise bout. Ninety-two students performed a 10-minute long session of cycle ergometry at 80-85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. Using infrared thermography and a single-item measure of pleasure-displeasure (the Feeling Scale, FS), facial temperature and the FS score were sampled at the beginning (Min1:00) and at the end of the exercise session (Min9:00). Statistical analyses revealed that cheek (but not forehead) temperature was higher at the end of the exercise bout compared to Min1:00 (it increased by about 5%). Change in cheek temperature was negatively related to end-exercise affect (β = -0.28, P < 0.001) and to during-exercise affective changes (β = -0.35, P < 0.001). No significant relationship with forehead temperature was found. Some of the possible reasons for this differential effect as well as theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.

  8. Characteristics of wind velocity and temperature change near an escarpment-shaped road embankment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo; You, Jang-Youl

    2014-01-01

    Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to changes in the wind velocity and temperature around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological changes (wind velocity and temperature) due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify changes in wind velocity and temperature before and after the construction of embankments around roads. Changes in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In changes in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding temperatures. The degree of temperature change was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity changes were small.

  9. Do Changes in Tympanic Temperature Predict Changes in Affective Valence during High-Intensity Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Fabien D.; Joly, Philippe M.; Bertucci, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Increased core (brain or body) temperature that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate…

  10. First approach to the relationship between recent landscape changes and temperature trends in Spanish mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Escolano, Carlos; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Salinas-Solé, Celia; Pueyo Campos, Angel; Brunetti, Miquele; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The recent analyses of monthly and seasonal Spanish mainland temperatures (1951-2010) at high spatial resolution using the MOTEDAS dataset shown that the monthly mean temperature values of maximum (Tmax) have risen mostly in late winter/early spring and the summer months, while the monthly mean temperature of minimum (Tmin) values have increased in summer, spring and autumn in southern areas. Consequently, a north-south gradient in diurnal temperature range (DTR) has been detected in summer months, with positive trends in the north and negative trends in the south, and negative pattern was found in the southeast in spring and autumn. During the same period, the Spanish mainland has suffered dramatic changes in the landscape related to urban and industrial sprawl, transportation infrastructures development, or the extension of irrigated areas for intensive agriculture. Those changes would be consistent with factors that affect Tmin, which are conditioned by the nature of the surfaces. In this research, we present the first approach to the relationship of temperature trend and landscapes changes at high spatial resolution in the Spanish mainland. Thus, we have compared the spatial distribution of temperature trend with changes in accessibility index and population potential simultaneously, and its spatial redistribution as indicator of landscape changes. The significance of temperature trends was evaluated by Mann-Kendal test, and its intensity by Seńs estimator. A mix model of population potential and accessibility index weighted by route factor has been used to assess landscape changes. Crosstab analysis was applied to identify the association between temperature trends and accessibility changes.

  11. Dynamics of Weight Change and Temperature of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Wintering Building With Controlled Temperature.

    PubMed

    Stalidzans, E; Zacepins, A; Kviesis, A; Brusbardis, V; Meitalovs, J; Paura, L; Bulipopa, N; Liepniece, M

    2017-01-04

    Honey bee wintering in a wintering building (indoors) with controlled microclimate is used in some cold regions to minimize colony losses due to the hard weather conditions. The behavior and possible state of bee colonies in a dark room, isolated from natural environment during winter season, was studied by indirect temperature measurements to analyze the expression of their annual rhythm when it is not affected by ambient temperature, rain, snow, wind, and daylight. Thus, the observed behavior in the wintering building is initiated solely by bee colony internal processes. Experiments were carried out to determine the dynamics of temperature above the upper hive body and weight dynamics of indoors and outdoors wintered honey bee colonies and their brood-rearing performance in spring. We found significantly lower honey consumption-related weight loss of indoor wintered colonies compared with outdoor colonies, while no significant difference in the amount of open or sealed brood was found, suggesting that wintering building saves food and physiological resources without an impact on colony activity in spring. Indoor wintered colonies, with or without thermal insulation, did not have significant differences in food consumption and brood rearing in spring. The thermal behavior and weight dynamics of all experimental groups has changed in the middle of February possibly due to increased brood-rearing activity. Temperature measurement above the upper hive body is a convenient remote monitoring method of wintering process. Predictability of food consumption in a wintering building, with constant temperature, enables wintering without oversupply of wintering honey.

  12. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.

    2012-04-01

    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other

  13. PERMEABILITY CHANGES IN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS DUE TO TEMPERATURE: EFFECTS OF MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Byerlee, J.D.; ,

    1985-01-01

    The change in permeability with time of granite, quartzite, anorthosite and gabbro was measured while these rocks were subjected to a temperature gradient. Permeability reductions of up to two orders of magnitude were observed, with the greatest reactions occurring in the quartzite. These changes are thought to be caused by dissolution of minerals at high temperatures, and redeposition of the dissolved material at lower temperatures. Quartz appears to be an important mineral in this self-sealing process. If very low permeability is desired around a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rocks, then a quartz-rich rock may be the most appropriate host.

  14. Sensitivity of the equilibrium surface temperature of a GCM to systematic changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Saltzman, Barry

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium response of surface temperature to atmospheric CO2 concentration, for six values between 100 and 1000 ppm, is calculated from a series of GCM experiments. This response is nonlinear, showing greater sensitivity for lower values of CO2 than for the higher values. It is suggested that changes in CO2 concentration of a given magnitude (e.g., 100 ppm) played a larger role in the Pleistocene ice-age-type temperature variations than in causing global temperature changes due to anthropogenic increases.

  15. Short term changes of microbial processes in Icelandic soils to increasing temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicharnaud, R.; Arnalds, O.; Paton, G. I.

    2010-02-01

    Temperature change is acknowledged to have a significant effect on soil biological processes and the corresponding sequestration of carbon and cycling of nutrients. Soils at high latitudes are likely to be particularly impacted by increases in temperature. Icelandic soils experience unusually frequent freeze and thaw cycles compare to other Arctic regions, which are increasing due to a warming climate. As a consequence these soils are frequently affected by short term temperature fluctuations. In this study, the short term response of a range of soil microbial parameters (respiration, nutrient availability, microbial biomass carbon, arylphosphatase and dehydrogenase activity) to temperature changes was measured in sub-arctic soils collected from across Iceland. Sample sites reflected two soil temperature regimes (cryic and frigid) and two land uses (pasture and arable). The soils were sampled from the field frozen, equilibrated at -20 °C and then incubated for two weeks at -10 °C, -2 °C, +2 °C and +10 °. Respiration and enzymatic activity were temperature dependent. The soil temperature regime affected the soil microbial biomass carbon sensitivity to temperatures. When soils where sampled from the cryic temperature regime a decreasing soil microbial biomass was detected when temperatures rose above the freezing point. Frigid soils, sampled from milder climatic conditions, where unaffected by difference in temperatures. Nitrogen mineralisation did not change with temperature. At -10 °C, dissolved organic carbon accounted for 88% of the fraction of labile carbon which was significantly greater than that recorded at +10 °C when dissolved organic carbon accounted for as low as 42% of the labile carbon fraction.

  16. Time relationship between ambient temperature change and antigen stimulation on immune responses of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, O.; Kikuchi, M.

    1989-03-01

    We investigated the time relationship between ambient temperature change and antigen stimulation on immune responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in mice. In the case of a shift from comfortable (25°C) to cold (8°C) temperatures, suppression in the number of splenic plaque-forming cells (PFC) took place mainly when the shift was done between 1 day before and 2 to 4 days after immunization. The suppression of the PVP response lasted for up to a maximum of 6 days when mice were transferred 1 day before immunization. In the case of a temperature shift from 25° to 36.5°C, the suppressive effect was found when the temperature shift was done between 4 days before and 2 days after immunization. The effect lasted longer than that of the temperature shift to cold, i.e., at least 9 days after the temperature shift. Blood corticosterone levels after the temperature shifts corresponded to changes in the immune responses: elevation of the blood corticosterone levels was observed for only the first 3 days after a temperature shift to 8°C but for 10 days after a temperature shift to 36.5°C during the period time of the experiment. These result suggested that blood corticosterone level contributes to the duration of the effects of temperature shifts on immune responses of mice. Furthermore, it appeared that the early stage of the immune response is more susceptible to temperature shifts than the later stage. To explain these results, the terms “effective period” in the course of physiological adaptation to changed ambient temperature and “susceptible period” in the course of the immune response, were proposed.

  17. My Year of Living Dangerously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahar, Emily

    1991-01-01

    A White reporter describes how she changed careers to teach poor Black and Hispanic New York City public intermediate students, focusing on her top math class. After one difficult year, she left teaching but hopes to return some day because she felt she made a difference for a few students. (SM)

  18. A dynamic model for plant growth: validation study under changing temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wann, M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model to describe vegetative growth of plants, for which some functions and parameter values have been estimated previously by optimization search techniques and numerical experimentation based on data from constant temperature experiments, is validated under conditions of changing temperatures. To test the predictive capacity of the model, dry matter accumulation in the leaves, stems, and roots of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was measured at 2- or 3-day intervals during a 5-week period when temperatures in controlled-environment rooms were programmed for changes at weekly and daily intervals and in ascending or descending sequences within a range of 14 to 34 degrees C. Simulations of dry matter accumulation and distribution were carried out using the programmed changes for experimental temperatures and compared with the measured values. The agreement between measured and predicted values was close and indicates that the temperature-dependent functional forms derived from constant-temperature experiments are adequate for modelling plant growth responses to conditions of changing temperatures with switching intervals as short as 1 day.

  19. Temperature change and hardness with different resin composites and photo-activation methods.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Luis Felipe Jochims; Consani, Simonides; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Sobrinho, Lourenço Correr; Milan, Fábio Machado

    2005-01-01

    This study verifies whether there is any temperature change during photoactivation of two resin composites (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow) with three different light curing methods (conventional halogen light curing unit, light emitting diodes curing unit and xenon plasma arc curing unit) and the relationship of temperature change with resin composite hardness. A type-K thermocouple registered the temperature rise peak in an elastomer mold during photoactivation. After photoactivation, the specimens were submitted to Knoop hardness test performed by an indenter (HMV-2000) under a load of 50g for 15 seconds. Both the temperature change data and results of the Knoop hardness test were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test at the 5% significance level. No statistical differences in temperature rise were recorded for the different composites following processing by light curing unit (p>0.05). The conventional halogen source produced statistically higher temperatures (p<0.05) than the other units. The plasma arc source promoted statistically lower (p<0.05) Knoop hardness values and temperature changes than the other light curing units.

  20. Potential for temperature change during application of ultrasonic vibration to intra-radicular posts.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Julian D; Stokes, Alastair N; Frankel, Nicholas T N

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for heat production when intra-radicular posts were subjected to ultrasonic vibration. Thirty zirconium ceramic posts and thirty stainless steel posts were luted into canine roots. Ultrasonic vibration was applied to the top of each post for thirty minutes and temperature change on the root surface was measured. The mean peak temperature rise from baseline was 18.7 degrees C. Post type had no influence on peak temperature. Temperature increase on the external root surfaces increased as the thickness of dentine between post and root surface reduced.

  1. Changes in virgin olive oil quality during low-temperature fruit storage.

    PubMed

    Kalua, Curtis M; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D

    2008-04-09

    'Frantoio' olive fruits were stored at low temperature (4 +/- 2 degrees C) for 3 weeks to investigate the effect of postharvest fruit storage on virgin olive oil quality. Volatile compounds and phenolic compounds explained the changes in sensory quality that could not be explained with quality indices (FFA, PV, K232, and K270). Increases in concentrations of ( E)-2-hexenal and hexanal corresponded to positive sensory quality, whereas increases in ( E)-2-hexenol and (+)-acetoxypinoresinol were associated with negative sensory quality. Volatile and phenolic compounds were also indicative of the period of low-temperature fruit storage. Oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives in olive oil decreased with respect to storage time, and their significant ( p < 0.05) change corresponded to changes in bitterness and pungency. ( Z)-2-Penten-1-ol increased during low-temperature fruit storage, whereas 2-pentylfuran decreased. Changes in volatile compounds, phenolic compounds, quality indices, and sensory notes indicated that virgin olive oil quality was lost within the first week of low-temperature fruit storage and regained at 2 weeks. This research suggests that low-temperature olive fruit storage may be beneficial, with a possibility of increasing oil yield and moderating the sensory quality of virgin olive oils. This study demonstrates that deeper insights into virgin olive oil quality changes during low-temperature fruit storage may be gained by studying volatile and phenolic compounds in addition to quality indices and physical appearance of the fruit.

  2. Photoluminescence changes of C70 nano/submicro-crystals induced by high pressure and high temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dedi; Liu, Bingbing; Sundqvist, Bertil; Dong, Dapeng; Li, Zhenghua; Liu, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Hollow C70 nano/submicro-crystals with a fcc lattice structure were treated under various high pressure and high temperature conditions. The energy band structure was visibly changed by the high pressure and high temperature treatment, and the luminescence of the treated C70 nano/submicro-crystals were tuned from the visible to the near infrared range. In-situ high pressure experiments at room temperature indicate that pressure plays a key role in the tuning of the band gap and PL properties in C70 nanocrystals, and temperature plays an important role in the formation of stable intermolecular bonds and thus to define the final red-shift of the PL peaks. The polymeric phases of C70 nanocrystals treated at high pressure and high temperature were identified from their Raman spectra, which showed a change from monomers to a dimer-rich phase and finally to a phase containing larger, disordered C70 oligomers. PMID:27922133

  3. Synchronous change of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during the last deglacial warming.

    PubMed

    Parrenin, F; Masson-Delmotte, V; Köhler, P; Raynaud, D; Paillard, D; Schwander, J; Barbante, C; Landais, A; Wegner, A; Jouzel, J

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies.

  4. Photoluminescence changes of C70 nano/submicro-crystals induced by high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dedi; Liu, Bingbing; Sundqvist, Bertil; Dong, Dapeng; Li, Zhenghua; Liu, Dongping

    2016-12-01

    Hollow C70 nano/submicro-crystals with a fcc lattice structure were treated under various high pressure and high temperature conditions. The energy band structure was visibly changed by the high pressure and high temperature treatment, and the luminescence of the treated C70 nano/submicro-crystals were tuned from the visible to the near infrared range. In-situ high pressure experiments at room temperature indicate that pressure plays a key role in the tuning of the band gap and PL properties in C70 nanocrystals, and temperature plays an important role in the formation of stable intermolecular bonds and thus to define the final red-shift of the PL peaks. The polymeric phases of C70 nanocrystals treated at high pressure and high temperature were identified from their Raman spectra, which showed a change from monomers to a dimer-rich phase and finally to a phase containing larger, disordered C70 oligomers.

  5. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature. [evoked neuron response in thermoregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    A possible role for the hippocampus in alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature was examined. Following local warming or cooling of the ears of unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits, theta waves (4-7 Hz EEG waves) were recorded from electrodes straddling the hippocampus. The onset of the hippocampal theta rhythm was correlated with changes in cutaneous temperature, an observation consistent with studies indicating that the theta rhythm is a nonspecific response evoked by stimulation of several sensory modalities. Additional data from cats and rabbits were correlated with specific neurons within the hippocampus, namely pyramidal cells. Post stimulus time histograms obtained by excitation of the dorsal fornix were interpreted in terms of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to pyramidal cells. Thus, the theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hippocampal neuron which is in turn connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  6. Skin temperature changes in wild chimpanzees upon hearing vocalizations of conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbühler, Klaus; Davila-Ross, Marina; Dahl, Christoph D.

    2017-01-01

    A growing trend of research using infrared thermography (IRT) has shown that changes in skin temperature, associated with activity of the autonomic nervous system, can be reliably detected in human and non-human animals. A contact-free method, IRT provides the opportunity to uncover emotional states in free-ranging animals during social interactions. Here, we measured nose and ear temperatures of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, when exposed to naturally occurring vocalizations of conspecifics. We found a significant temperature decrease over the nose after exposure to conspecifics' vocalizations, whereas we found a corresponding increase for ear temperature. Our study suggests that IRT can be used in wild animals to quantify changes in emotional states in response to the diversity of vocalizations, their functional significance and acoustical characteristics. We hope that it will contribute to more research on physiological changes associated with social interactions in wild animals. PMID:28280584

  7. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at 2030 using spatially varying ozone-temperature

    EPA Science Inventory

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quali...

  8. Climate change and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Impacts of temperature and carbon dioxide on life history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is relevant to life around the globe. A rise in ambient temperature and CO2 may have various impacts on arthropods such as altered life cycles, modified reproductive patterns, and changes in distribution. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a global agricultural...

  9. Changes in Extreme Warm and Cold Temperatures Associated with 20th Century Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2015-12-01

    Has 20thcentury global warming resulted in increases of extreme warm temperatures and decreases of extreme cold temperatures around the globe? One would certainly expect this to be so if the changes in the extreme temperature probabilities were determined only by the mean shift and not by changes in the width and/or shape of the temperature distribution. In reality, however, the latter two effects could also be important. Even ignoring changes of shape, it is easily shown that a 25% reduction of standard deviation, for example, can completely offset the effect of a mean positive shift of 0.5 standardized units on the probabilities of extreme positive values. A 25% increase of standard deviation can similarly offset the effect of the mean shift on the probabilities of extreme negative values. It is possible for such changes of standard deviation to occur in regions of large circulation and storminess changes associated with global warming. With this caveat in mind, we have investigated the change in probability of extreme weekly-averaged near-surface air temperatures, in both winter and summer, from the first half-century (1901-1950) to the last half-century (1960-2009) of the 1901 to 2009 period. We have done this using two newly available global atmospheric datasets (ERA-20C and 20CR-v2c) and large ensembles of global coupled climate model simulations of this period, plus very large ensembles of uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of our own. The results are revealing. In the tropics, the changes in the extreme warm and cold temperature probabilities are indeed generally consistent with those expected from the mean shift of the distribution. Outside the tropics, however, they are generally significantly inconsistent with the mean temperature shift, with many regions showing little or no change in the positive temperature extremes and in some instances even a decrease. In such regions, it is clear that the change in the temperature standard deviation is

  10. Classification of land-sea shifts in tropical precipitation using temperature and moisture change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Hugo; Ferraro, Angus; Chadwick, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Changes in tropical precipitation under climate change are dominated by shifts in precipitating features. Previous work has shown that meridional change is driven primiarily by the hemispheric contrast of surface temperature change and radiative forcing. What drives zonal changes is less clear, but important to understand because large shifts of precipitation onto and away from land have the potential to cause large changes in water availability. We present a simple compositing scheme based on earlier mean field theory that places climatological precipitation amounts into bins determined by surface temperature and humidity. When temperature and humidity change under climate change, shifts in precipitation are predicted as the location of the warmest and moistest regions changes. The prediction is successful in representing changes in the CMIP5 model mean and large aspects of changes in most of the individual CMIP5 models. Once the shifts are accounted for, we can more easily see how the result of well-known "thermodynamic" and "dynamic" changes in the atmosphere lead to the "rich-get-richer" paradigm wherein the most heavily precipitating bins increase their precipitation the most in a warmer climate. We emphasise that our method is a classification and not a prognostic theory: it shows us the extent to which temperature, moisture and precipitation change are linked. However, it is important not only because it demonstrates that these variables may represent a coupled problem, but also intriguingly, because there is a small group of models for which the method has no skill at all. This suggests that very different processes dominate shifts in precipitation there, giving a focus for future research.

  11. Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048

  12. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sorci, Guglielmo; Giovannini, Gloria; Riuzzi, Francesca; Bonifazi, Pierluigi; Zelante, Teresa; Zagarella, Silvia; Bistoni, Francesco; Donato, Rosario; Romani, Luigina

    2011-03-01

    Humans inhale hundreds of Aspergillus conidia without adverse consequences. Powerful protective mechanisms may ensure prompt control of the pathogen and inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. Upon forming complexes with TLR2 ligands, S100B inhibited TLR2 via RAGE, through a paracrine epithelial cells/neutrophil circuit that restrained pathogen-induced inflammation. However, upon binding to nucleic acids, S100B activated intracellular TLRs eventually resolve danger-induced inflammation via transcriptional inhibition of S100B. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of TLRs and RAGE by S100B provides evidence for an evolving braking circuit in infection whereby an endogenous danger protects against pathogen-induced inflammation and a pathogen-sensing mechanism resolves danger-induced inflammation.

  13. To what extent did changes in July temperature influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.

    2014-12-01

    What was the impact of July temperature changes on vegetation patterns during the Lateglacial period in north-west Europe? Chironomid-inferred mean July air temperature estimates (C-Tjul) are proxy temperature records independent of terrestrial vegetation. The relationships between Lateglacial vegetation inferred from pollen percentages and these temperature estimates are explored using data synthesised geographically from 15 sites where both pollen percentages and C-Tjul are published to assess the influence of temperature and of temperature changes on regional vegetation. Direct impacts of temperature on a species involve passing the range limits or realised niche of that species. The Bølling warming allowed vegetation to develop. The Younger Dryas cooling had direct impacts on species and vegetation types that were at a critical ecotone and thus sensitive to change. Precipitation is extremely important and its interaction with temperature controlled most of the vegetation patterns inferred from these NW European pollen data. High precipitation was important in W Norway, whereas aridity in the YD was a controlling factor in N Norway, the Netherlands, and NE Germany. Under constant climate, ecological processes occurred such as immigration, succession, and soil development that resulted in vegetation changes. Biotic interactions were also important, such as the impact of grazing by mega-herbivores during Allerød time in Ireland that may have restricted the development of birch woodland. At the coarse scale of this synthesis, July temperature alone is seen not to be a good predictor of the patterns of pollen percentages and hence of vegetation through the Lateglacial. Rather, it is the interactions of temperature and precipitation, combined with ecological processes that appear to be the major factors influencing Lateglacial palynological and vegetation patterns in NW Europe.

  14. Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate temperatures for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a temperature control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream temperature control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in temperatures due to climate change may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream temperatures under extreme climates and climate change by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream temperature, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a temperature threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream temperature targets, performed best overall in meeting temperature targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet temperature targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air temperatures due to climate change, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate change.

  15. People as sensors: mass media and local temperature influence climate change discussion on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether people living under significant temperature anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate change and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate change" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate change and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum temperatures were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year temperature mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized temperature anomaly, absolute standardized temperature anomaly, and extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme temperature conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate change was regressed on the time variables, number of climate change publications in the mass media, and temperature. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and temperature variables were significant at the p<0.001 level. Additionally, we did not find convincing evidence that the media acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate change discourse intensity

  16. Quantifying Temperature-Dependent T1 Changes in Cortical Bone Using Ultrashort Echo-Time MRI

    PubMed Central

    Han, Misung; Rieke, Viola; Scott, Serena J; Ozhinsky, Eugene; Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Jones, Peter D; Larson, Peder E Z; Diederich, Chris J; Krug, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrashort echo-time (UTE) MRI to quantify T1 changes in cortical bone due to heating. Methods Variable flip-angle T1 mapping combined with 3D UTE imaging was used to measure T1 in cortical bone. A calibration experiment was performed to detect T1 changes with temperature in ex vivo cortical bone samples from a bovine femur. Ultrasound heating experiments were performed using an interstitial applicator in ex vivo bovine femur specimens, and heat-induced T1 changes were quantified. Results The calibration experiment demonstrated that T1 increases with temperature in cortical bone. We observed a linear relationship between temperature and T1 with a linear coefficient of 0.67–0.84 ms/°C over a range of 25–70°C. The ultrasound heating experiments showed increased T1 changes in the heated regions, and the relationship between the temperature changes and T1 changes was similar to that of the calibration. Conclusion We demonstrated a temperature dependence of T1 in ex vivo cortical bone using a variable flip-angle UTE T1 mapping method. PMID:26390357

  17. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of daily extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like <span class="hlt">changes</span> in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether <span class="hlt">changing</span> land use has led to detectable <span class="hlt">changes</span> in daily extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> to <span class="hlt">changing</span> land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25963275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25963275"><span>Spectrophotometric analysis of color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in teeth incinerated at increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rubio, Leticia; Sioli, Jose Manuel; Suarez, Juan; Gaitan, Maria Jesus; Martin-de-las-Heras, Stella</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Color <span class="hlt">changes</span> produced by histological alterations in burned teeth can provide conclusive forensic information on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of exposure. The objective was to correlate heat-induced color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in incinerated teeth with increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (to 1200°C). Spectrophotometry was used to measure lightness, chromaticity (a* and b*), whiteness, and yellowness in 80 teeth heated at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, or 1200°C for 60 min. Chromaticity a* was reduced at 100°C and lightness at 200 and 400°C, while chromaticity b* and yellowness were reduced at 400 and 600°C. Higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (800, 1000, and 1200°C) produced progressive increases in lightness and whiteness but reductions in chromaticity b* and yellowness. The accuracy of color values to determine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of exposure was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis. High accuracy was shown by lightness, chromaticity b* and yellowness values for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 800° and 1200°C, by whiteness for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 1000° and 1200°C, and by lightness for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 200° and 400°C, with sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 90% to 100%. According to these results, colorimetric analysis of incinerated teeth can be used to estimate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of exposure with high accuracy, with lightness being the most useful variable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5384247','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5384247"><span>Identification of the driving forces of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> using the longest instrumental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Geli; Yang, Peicai; Zhou, Xiuji</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The identification of causal effects is a fundamental problem in climate <span class="hlt">change</span> research. Here, a new perspective on climate <span class="hlt">change</span> causality is presented using the central England <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (CET) dataset, the longest instrumental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record, and a combination of slow feature analysis and wavelet analysis. The driving forces of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> were investigated and the results showed two independent degrees of freedom —a 3.36-year cycle and a 22.6-year cycle, which seem to be connected to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation cycle and the Hale sunspot cycle, respectively. Moreover, these driving forces were modulated in amplitude by signals with millennial timescales. PMID:28387247</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26215791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26215791"><span>The <span class="hlt">danger</span> model: questioning an unconvincing theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Józefowski, Szczepan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Janeway's pattern recognition theory holds that the immune system detects infection through a limited number of the so-called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors bind specific chemical compounds expressed by entire groups of related pathogens, but not by host cells (pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In contrast, Matzinger's <span class="hlt">danger</span> hypothesis postulates that products released from stressed or damaged cells have a more important role in the activation of immune system than the recognition of nonself. These products, named by analogy to PAMPs as <span class="hlt">danger</span>-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are proposed to act through the same receptors (PRRs) as PAMPs and, consequently, to stimulate largely similar responses. Herein, I review direct and indirect evidence that contradict the widely accepted <span class="hlt">danger</span> theory, and suggest that it may be false.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21P..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21P..05M"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of recharge water in a temporate climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murdock, E. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Groundwater outflows into headwater streams play an important role in controlling local stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and maintaining habitat for cool and cold water fisheries. Because of the ecological and economic importance of these fisheries, there is significant concern about the impacts of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on these habitats. Many studies of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> under climate <span class="hlt">change</span> assume that groundwater outflows will vary with long-term mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, perhaps with a temporal lag to account for the relatively slow rate of heat diffusion through soils. This assumption, however, ignores the fact that climate <span class="hlt">change</span> will also impact the temporal patterns of recharge in some regions. In Southern Wisconsin, much of the annual recharge comes from the spring snowmelt event, as a large amount of meltwater is released onto saturated soils with little to no active transpiration. Using the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model populated with climate date from the North American Regional Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Assessment Program (NARCCAP), we show that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water passing below the rooting zone in a simulated corn planting in Southern Wisconsin will <span class="hlt">change</span> significantly less than the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by midcentury. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the variability of heat flow mechanisms in the subsurface while assessing climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on surface water resources. In landscapes such as Wisconsin's driftless area, where deep aquifers feed numerous localized headwater streams, meltwater-driven recharge may provide a buffer against rising air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for some time into the future. Fully understanding this dynamic will allow for targeted conservation efforts in those streams that are likely to show higher than average resilience to rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but which remain vulnerable to development, stormwater runoff, agricultural pollution and other ecological threats. In a world with dwindling coldwater resources, identifying and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat..45.1309M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat..45.1309M"><span>Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, for most TEG applications, the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient <span class="hlt">changes</span>, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729"><span>Millennial-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Velocity in the Continental Northern Neotropics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614"><span>Millennial-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity in the continental northern Neotropics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23175281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23175281"><span>Mitochondria: master regulators of <span class="hlt">danger</span> signalling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Throughout more than 1.5 billion years of obligate endosymbiotic co-evolution, mitochondria have developed not only the capacity to control distinct molecular cascades leading to cell death but also the ability to sense (and react to) multiple situations of cellular stress, including viral infection. In addition, mitochondria can emit <span class="hlt">danger</span> signals that alert the cell or the whole organism of perturbations in homeostasis, hence promoting the induction of cell-intrinsic or systemic adaptive responses, respectively. As such, mitochondria can be considered as master regulators of <span class="hlt">danger</span> signalling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2087S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2087S"><span>Assessment of a Forest-fire <span class="hlt">Danger</span> Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire <span class="hlt">danger</span>. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire <span class="hlt">danger</span>, such as surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, dew-point <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S"><span>Sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sierra, Carlos; Trumbore, Susan; Davidson, Eric; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soil organic matter decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>. For this reason it is important to study the overall sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. Here we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors <span class="hlt">change</span> simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: 1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; 2) to different mathematical functions used to represent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different datasets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: 3) observations of soil respiration at the ecosystem level; 4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; and 5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water content simultaneously. The combined theoretical and empirical evidence reviewed suggests: first, large uncertainties still remain regarding the combined controls of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on decomposition rates, particularly at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the extremes of the soil moisture range; second, the highest sensitivities of decomposition rates are likely in systems where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture are high such as tropical peatlands, and at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near the freezing point</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686262','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686262"><span><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in skin surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at an acupuncture point with moxibustion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Li-Mei; Wang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee; Tsai, Nu-Man; Peng, Tai-Chu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective This study evaluates the thermographic <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with moxa burner moxibustion at the SP6 acupuncture point to establish an appropriate, safe distance of efficacy for moxibustion. Methods Baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> using a moxa burner were obtained for a paper substrate at various distances and times, and the tested with volunteers in a pilot study. A single-group trial was then conducted with 36 healthy women to monitor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the body surface at the acupuncture point (SP6). Results Based on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> seen for the paper substrate and in the pilot study, a distance of 3 cm was chosen as the intervention distance. Moxibustion significantly increased the SP6 point skin surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with a peak increase of 11°C at 4 min (p <0.001). This study also found that during moxibustion the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the moxa burner's rubber layer and moxa cautery were 56.9±0.9°C and 65.8±1.2°C, as compared to baseline values of 35.1°C and 43.8°C (p<0.001). Conclusions We determined 3 cm was a safe distance between the moxa burner and acupuncture point. Moxibustion can increase the skin surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the SP6 point. This data will aid traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners in gauging safer treatment distances when using moxibustion treatments. PMID:23598824</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2425W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2425W"><span>Regional <span class="hlt">change</span> in snow water equivalent-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship over Eurasia during boreal spring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Present study investigates local relationship between surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and snow water equivalent (SWE) <span class="hlt">change</span> over mid- and high-latitudes of Eurasia during boreal spring. Positive correlation is generally observed around the periphery of snow covered region, indicative of an effect of snow on surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In contrast, negative correlation is usually found over large snow amount area, implying a response of snow <span class="hlt">change</span> to wind-induced surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. With the seasonal retreat of snow covered region, region of positive correlation between SWE and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts northeastward from March to May. A diagnosis of surface heat flux anomalies in April suggests that the snow impact on surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is dominant in east Europe and west Siberia through modulating surface shortwave radiation. In contrast, atmospheric effect on SWE is important in Siberia and Russia Far East through wind-induced surface sensible heat flux <span class="hlt">change</span>. Further analysis reveals that atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with snowmelt over east Siberia may be partly attributed to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in the North Atlantic and the atmospheric circulation anomaly pattern associated with snowmelt over Russia Far East has a close association with the Arctic Oscillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679977"><span>Fitness costs associated with different frequencies and magnitudes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franke, Kristin; Heitmann, Nadja; Tobner, Anne; Fischer, Klaus</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Plastic responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in environmental conditions are ubiquitous and typically highly effective, but are predicted to incur costs. We here investigate the effects of different frequencies and magnitudes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, considering developmental (Experiment 1) and adult stage plasticity (Experiment 2). We predicted negative effects of more frequent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on development, immune function and/or reproduction. Results from Experiment 1 showed that repeated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during development, if involving large amplitudes, negatively affect larval time, larval growth rate and pupal mass, while adult traits remained unaffected. However, results from treatment groups with smaller <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitudes yielded no clear patterns. In Experiment 2 prolonged but not repeated exposure to 39°C increased heat tolerance, potentially reflecting costs of repeatedly activating emergency responses. At the same time fecundity was more strongly reduced in the group with prolonged heat stress, suggesting a trade-off between heat tolerance and reproduction. Clear effects were restricted to conditions involving large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitudes or high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> of pulp chamber during in vitro laser welding of orthodontic attachments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Işman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3±1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9140211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9140211"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">change</span> in skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to evaporative cooling on sweating response during exercise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kondo, N; Nakadome, M; Zhang, K; Shiojiri, T; Shibasaki, M; Hirata, K; Iwata, A</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are any effects of skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on sweating response in the first few minutes of mild exercise. Six healthy males performed a bicycle exercise at 100 W (50 rpm) for 30 min under an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 23 degrees C (40% RH). Esophageal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tes), mean skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tsk), local skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the lower left scapula (Tsl), local sweating rate (Msw) and cutaneous blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were measured continuously. Although Tsl decreased markedly just after the onset of sweating, Tsk did not <span class="hlt">change</span>. Msw did not increase constantly in the early stages of exercise, and there was a temporary interruption in the increase of Msw. This interruption in sweating was affected by the rate of <span class="hlt">change</span> in Tsl rather than by the absolute value of Tsl, since there was a positive and significant correlation between the time of the interruption in the increase of Msw and the rate of decrease in Tsl (y = 6.47 x +0.04; r = 0.86, P < 0.05). The results suggest that sweating response in the early stages of exercise may be influenced by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in local skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to evaporative cooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722"><span>Seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> in the western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kueppers, L.M.; Snyder, M.A.; Sloan, L.C.; Cayan, D.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Kanamitsu, M.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, Mary; Du, H.; Weare, B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the western United States, more than 79 000??km2 has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> have the potential to alter surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by modifying the energy budget at the land-atmosphere interface. This study reports the seasonally varying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) - RSM, RegCM3, MM5-CLM3, and DRCM - to conversion of potential natural vegetation to modern land-cover and land-use over a 1-year period. Three of the RCMs supplemented soil moisture, producing large decreases in the August mean (- 1.4 to - 3.1????C) and maximum (- 2.9 to - 6.1????C) 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9% to 36% absolute <span class="hlt">change</span>). Modeled <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the August minimum 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were not as pronounced or consistent across the models. Converting natural vegetation to urban land-cover produced less pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effect dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type and urban parameterizations. Overall, the RCM results indicate that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts of land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface soil moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336117','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336117"><span>Alternative Splicing Mediates Responses of the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock to <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span>[W</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>James, Allan B.; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Bordage, Simon; Marshall, Jacqueline; Nimmo, Gillian A.; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Herzyk, Pawel; Brown, John W.S.; Nimmo, Hugh G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Alternative splicing plays crucial roles by influencing the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome and regulating protein structure/function and gene expression. It is widespread in plants, and alteration of the levels of splicing factors leads to a wide variety of growth and developmental phenotypes. The circadian clock is a complex piece of cellular machinery that can regulate physiology and behavior to anticipate predictable environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> on a revolving planet. We have performed a system-wide analysis of alternative splicing in clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to different steady state <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> or undergoing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions. This revealed extensive alternative splicing in clock genes and dynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in alternatively spliced transcripts. Several of these <span class="hlt">changes</span>, notably those affecting the circadian clock genes LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR7, are <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent and contribute markedly to functionally important <span class="hlt">changes</span> in clock gene expression in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions by producing nonfunctional transcripts and/or inducing nonsense-mediated decay. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effects on alternative splicing contribute to a decline in LHY transcript abundance on cooling, but LHY promoter strength is not affected. We propose that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-associated alternative splicing is an additional mechanism involved in the operation and regulation of the plant circadian clock. PMID:22408072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15878019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15878019"><span>Strategies for <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions in anaerobic CSTR reactors treating sewage sludge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bousková, A; Dohányos, M; Schmidt, J E; Angelidaki, I</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Thermophilic anaerobic digestion presents an advantageous way for stabilization of sludge from wastewater treatment plants. Two different strategies for <span class="hlt">changing</span> operational process <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from mesophilic (37 degrees C) to thermophilic (55 degrees C) were tested using two continuous flow stirred tank reactors operated at constant organic loading rate of 1.38 g VS/l reactor/day and hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In reactor A, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was increased step-wise: 37 degrees C-->42 degrees C-->47 degrees C-->51 degrees C-->55 degrees C. While in reactor B, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was <span class="hlt">changed</span> in one-step, from 37 degrees C to the desired <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 55 degrees C, The results showed that the overall adaptation of the process for the step-wise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increment took 70 days in total and a new <span class="hlt">change</span> was applied when the process was stabilized as indicated by stable methane production and low volatile fatty acids concentrations. Although the one-step <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase caused a severe disturbance in all the process parameters, the system reached a new stable operation after only 30 days indicating that this strategy is the best in <span class="hlt">changing</span> from mesophilic to thermophilic operation in anaerobic digestion plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.150...15B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.150...15B"><span>The predictable influence of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and barometric pressure <span class="hlt">changes</span> on vapor intrusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, David L.; McRae, Mary F.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Intrusion of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase has impacted many buildings in many different locations. Various building and environmental factors such as buoyancy of heated air and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in barometric pressure can influence indoor air concentrations due to vapor intrusion in these buildings resulting in seasonal and daily variability. One environmental factor that previous research has not adequately addressed is soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study we present two northern region study sites where the seasonal trends in indoor air VOC concentrations positively correlate with soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and short-term (days) variations are associated with barometric pressure <span class="hlt">changes</span>. We present simple and multivariate linear relationships of indoor air concentrations as a function of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and barometric pressure. Results from this study show that small <span class="hlt">changes</span> in soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can result in relatively large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in indoor air VOC concentrations where the gas phase VOCs are sourced from non-aqueous phase liquids contained in the soil. We use the results from this study to show that a five degree Celsius increase in soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a variation in soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that is possible in many climatic regions, results in a two-fold increase in indoor air VOC concentrations. Additionally, analysis provides insight into how building ventilation, diffusion, and the relative rate of soil-gas flow across the slab both from the subsurface into the building and from the building into the subsurface impact short term variations in concentrations. With these results we are able to provide monitoring recommendations for practitioners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17935869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17935869"><span>A simulation model for ultrasonic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> imaging using <span class="hlt">change</span> in backscattered energy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trobaugh, Jason W; Arthur, R Martin; Straube, William L; Moros, Eduardo G</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Ultrasound backscattered from tissue has previously been shown theoretically and experimentally to <span class="hlt">change</span> predictably with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the hyperthermia range, i.e., 37 degrees C to 45 degrees C, motivating use of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in backscattered ultrasonic energy (CBE) for ultrasonic thermometry. Our earlier theoretical model predicts that CBE from an individual scatterer will be monotonic with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with, e.g., positive <span class="hlt">change</span> for lipid-based scatterers and negative for aqueous-based scatterers. Experimental results have previously confirmed the presence of these positive and negative <span class="hlt">changes</span> in one-dimensional ultrasonic signals and in two-dimensional images acquired from in vitro bovine, porcine and turkey tissues. In order to investigate CBE for populations of scatterers, we have developed an ultrasonic image simulation model, including <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence for individual scatterers based on predictions from our theoretical model. CBE computed from images simulated for populations of randomly distributed scatterers behaves similarly to experimental results, with monotonic variation for individual pixel measurements and for image regions. Effects on CBE of scatterer type and distribution, size of the image region and signal-to-noise ratio have been examined. This model also provides the basis for future work regarding significant issues relevant to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> imaging based on ultrasonic CBE such as effects of motion on CBE, limitations of motion-compensation techniques and accuracy of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation, including tradeoffs between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accuracy and available spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40...99K"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">change</span> in skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to evaporative cooling on sweating response during exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondo, N.; Nakadome, Manabu; Zhang, Keren; Shiojiri, Tomoyuki; Shibasaki, Manabu; Hirata, Kozo; Iwata, Atsushi</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are any effects of skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on sweating response in the first few minutes of mild exercise. Six healthy males performed a bicycle exercise at 100 W (50 rpm) for 30 min under an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 23° C (40% RH). Esophageal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tes), mean skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T-sk), local skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the lower left scapula (Tsl), local sweating rate (M.sw), and cutaneous blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were measured continuously. Although Tsl decreased markedly just after the onset of sweating, T-sk did not <span class="hlt">change</span>. M.sw did not increase constantly in the early stages of exercise, and there was a temporary interruption in the increase of M.sw. This interruption in sweating was affected by the rate of <span class="hlt">change</span> in Tsl rather than by the absolute value of Tsl, since there was a positive and significant correlation between the time of the interruption in the increase of M.sw and the rate of decrease in Tsl (y=6.47x+0.04; r=0.86, P<0.05). The results suggest that sweating response in the early stages of exercise may be influenced by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in local skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to evaporative cooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>İşman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3 ± 1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357"><span>A century of climate and ecosystem <span class="hlt">change</span> in Western Montana: What do <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends portend?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> to hemispheric and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4780576','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4780576"><span><span class="hlt">Changing</span> patterns of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-mortality association by time and location in the US, and implications for climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nordio, Francesco; Zanobetti, Antonella; Colicino, Elena; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The shape of the non-linear relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality varies among cities with different climatic conditions. There has been little examination of how these curves <span class="hlt">change</span> over space and time. We evaluated the short-term effects of hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on daily mortality over six 7-years periods in 211 US cities, comprising over 42 million deaths. Cluster analysis was used to group the cities according to similar <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and relative humidity. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-mortality functions were calculated using B-splines to model the heat effect (lag 0) and the cold effect on mortality (moving average lag 1-5). The functions were then combined through meta-smoothing and subsequently analyzed by meta-regression. We identified eight clusters. At lag 0, Cluster 5 (West Coast) had a RR of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.11,1.17) for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 27°C vs 15.6 °C, and Cluster 6 (Gulf Coast) has a RR of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.03,1.05), suggesting that people are acclimated to their respective climates. Controlling for cluster effect in the multivariate-meta regression we found that across the US, the excess mortality from a 24-hr <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 27°C decreased over time from 10.6% to 0.9%. We found that the overall risk due to the heat effect is significantly affected by summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and air condition usage, which could be a potential predictor in building climate-<span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios. PMID:25965185</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773656"><span>Adjustments of serine proteases of Daphnia pulex in response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dölling, Ramona; Becker, Dörthe; Hawat, Susan; Koch, Marita; Schwarzenberger, Anke; Zeis, Bettina</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> considerably challenge aquatic invertebrates, and enhanced energy metabolism and protein turnover require adjustments of digestion. In Daphnia, the serine proteases chymotrypsin and trypsin represent the major proteolytic enzymes. Daphnia pulex acclimated to different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions or subjected to acute heat stress showed increased expression level of serine proteases with rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Transcripts of trypsin isoforms were always present in higher amounts than observed for chymotrypsin. Additionally, trypsin isoform transcripts were induced by elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to a larger extent. Correspondingly, trypsin activity dominated in cold-acclimated animals. However, the enzymatic activity of chymotrypsin increased at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, whereas trypsin activity slightly decreased, resulting in a shift to dominating chymotrypsin activity in warm-acclimated animals. Zymograms revealed eight bands with proteolytic activity in the range of 20 to 86 kDa. The single bands were assigned to trypsin or chymotrypsin activity applying specific inhibitors or from casein cleavage products identified by mass spectrometric analysis. The total amount of proteolytic activity was elevated with acclimation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase and showed a transient decrease under acute heat stress. The contribution of the different isoforms to protein digestion indicated induction of chymotrypsin with increasing acclimation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For trypsin, the share of one isoform decreased with elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while another isoform was enhanced. Thus differential expression of serine proteases was observed in response to chronic and acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The observed phenotypic plasticity adjusts the set of active proteases to the altered needs of protein metabolism optimizing protein digestion for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions experienced in the habitat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5336241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5336241"><span>Splicing-related genes are alternatively spliced upon <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bucher, Johan; Lammers, Michiel; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Bonnema, Guusje; Rodenburg, Nicole; Proveniers, Marcel C. G.; Angenent, Gerco C.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Plants adjust their development and architecture to small variations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In a time in which <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are rising world-wide, the mechanism by which plants are able to sense <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations and adapt to it, is becoming of special interest. By performing RNA-sequencing on two Arabidopsis accession and one Brassica species exposed to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alterations, we showed that alternative splicing is an important mechanism in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing and adaptation. We found that amongst the differentially alternatively spliced genes, splicing related genes are enriched, suggesting that the splicing machinery itself is targeted for alternative splicing when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Moreover, we showed that many different components of the splicing machinery are targeted for ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulated alternative splicing. Mutant analysis of a splicing related gene that was differentially spliced in two of the genotypes showed an altered flowering time response to different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We propose a two-step mechanism where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> directly influences alternative splicing of the splicing machinery genes, followed by a second step where the altered splicing machinery affects splicing of downstream genes involved in the adaptation to altered <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. PMID:28257507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4000386','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4000386"><span>Exploring potential mechanisms responsible for observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> of ultrasonic backscattered energy with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Xin; Ghoshal, Goutam; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Oelze, Michael L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Previous studies have provided the observation that the ultrasonic backscattered energy from a tissue region will <span class="hlt">change</span> due to a <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The mechanism responsible for the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in backscattered energy (CBE) with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been hypothesized to be from the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in scattering properties of local aqueous and lipid scatterers. An alternative mechanism is hypothesized here to be capable of producing similar CBE curves, i.e., <span class="hlt">changes</span> in speckle resulting from <span class="hlt">changes</span> in summation of scattered wavelets. Methods: Both simulations and experiments were conducted with a 5.5 MHz, 128-element linear array and synthetic and physical phantoms containing randomly spaced scatterers. The speckle pattern resulting from summation of scattered wavelets was <span class="hlt">changed</span> in simulations and experiments by directly increasing the background sound speed from 1520 to 1540 m/s, and <span class="hlt">changing</span> the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 37 °C to 48 °C, respectively. Shifts in the backscattered signal were compensated using 2D cross-correlation techniques. Results: Excellent agreement between simulations and experiments was observed, with each pixel in the CBE images on average undergoing either a monotonic increase (up to 3.2 dB) or a monotonic decrease (down to −1.9 dB) with increasing sound speed or <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Similar CBE curves were also produced by shifting the image plane in the elevational and axial directions even after correcting for apparent motion. Conclusions: CBE curves were produced by <span class="hlt">changing</span> the sound speed or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in tissue mimicking phantoms or by shifting the image plane in the elevational and axial directions and the production of these CBE curves did not require the presence of lipid and aqueous scatterers. PMID:24784401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048621','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048621"><span>The effects of elevated water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on native juvenile mussels: implications for climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Native freshwater mussels are a diverse but imperiled fauna and may be especially sensitive to increasing water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> because many species already may be living near their upper thermal limits. We tested the hypothesis that elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) adversely affected the survival and physiology of 2-mo-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis siliquoidea, and Megalonaias nervosa) in 28-d laboratory experiments. The 28-d LT50s (lethal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affecting 50% of the population) ranged from 25.3 to 30.3°C across species, and were lowest for L. abrupta and L. siliquoidea. Heart rate of L. siliquoidea was not affected by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but heart rate declined at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in L. abrupta and M. nervosa. However, for both of these species, heart rate also declined steadily during the experiment and a strong <span class="hlt">temperature</span> × time interaction was detected. Juvenile growth was low for all species in all treatments and did not respond directly to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but growth of some species responded to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> × time interaction. Responses to thermal stress differed among species, but potential laboratory artifacts may limit applicability of these results to real-world situations. Environmentally relevant estimates of upper thermal tolerances in native mussels are urgently needed to assess the extent of assemblage <span class="hlt">changes</span> that can be expected in response to global climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40..839P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40..839P"><span>Probabilistic estimates of future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in California <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using statistical and dynamical downscaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pierce, David W.; Das, Tapash; Cayan, Daniel R.; Maurer, Edwin P.; Miller, Norman L.; Bao, Yan; Kanamitsu, M.; Yoshimura, Kei; Snyder, Mark A.; Sloan, Lisa C.; Franco, Guido; Tyree, Mary</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Sixteen global general circulation models were used to develop probabilistic projections of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) and precipitation (P) <span class="hlt">changes</span> over California by the 2060s. The global models were downscaled with two statistical techniques and three nested dynamical regional climate models, although not all global models were downscaled with all techniques. Both monthly and daily timescale <span class="hlt">changes</span> in T and P are addressed, the latter being important for a range of applications in energy use, water management, and agriculture. The T <span class="hlt">changes</span> tend to agree more across downscaling techniques than the P <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Year-to-year natural internal climate variability is roughly of similar magnitude to the projected T <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In the monthly average, July <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> shift enough that that the hottest July found in any simulation over the historical period becomes a modestly cool July in the future period. Januarys as cold as any found in the historical period are still found in the 2060s, but the median and maximum monthly average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase notably. Annual and seasonal P <span class="hlt">changes</span> are small compared to interannual or intermodel variability. However, the annual <span class="hlt">change</span> is composed of seasonally varying <span class="hlt">changes</span> that are themselves much larger, but tend to cancel in the annual mean. Winters show modestly wetter conditions in the North of the state, while spring and autumn show less precipitation. The dynamical downscaling techniques project increasing precipitation in the Southeastern part of the state, which is influenced by the North American monsoon, a feature that is not captured by the statistical downscaling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212403P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212403P"><span>Effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its consequences for drinking water production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peñailillo Burgos, Reinaldo; Boderie, Pascal; Rijk, Sacha; Loos, Sibren</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The average water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Rhine at Lobith has increased in the past hundred years by 3C, as a result of thermal discharges and climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Also, a growing trend in the number of days per year that the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reaches values above 25°C is observed, exceeding the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> standard for drinking water production as imposed by the European Drinking Water Directive. During the heat wave of 2006, the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Lobith increased above 25°C during almost the entire month of July. Besides the risks for the production of drinking water, this limits the potential for the cooling capacities of the water for the industrial and energy sectors. The main objective of this study is providing insight into the <span class="hlt">change</span> of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Dutch main rivers caused by climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and the consequences for the drinking water production at selected intake sites. Two KNMI'06 climate scenarios (W and W+) based on a global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise of 2C, were applied to the Dutch <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (DTM) to simulate the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> around 2050 relative to the current situation (1970-2000). The DTM is a SOBEK River application and appropriate for calculating the regional effects of the natural warming and the warming due to cooling water discharges on the daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Dutch rivers. According to the analysis of model results, more days with a higher water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected for both scenarios around 2050 in comparison with the current situation. In the most extreme scenario (W+) the inter-annual variation of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will be higher. In the Rhine and in the Meuse, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in winter will be about 2.1°C and will reach values above 2.5°C in the summer months at the selected locations. At all intake sites for the water supply the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> standard is exceeded in the current situation in less than 0.5% of the time (2 days). For the W and W+ scenarios the predicted duration of exceeding the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16525463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16525463"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davidson, Eric A; Janssens, Ivan A</p> <p>2006-03-09</p> <p>Significantly more carbon is stored in the world's soils--including peatlands, wetlands and permafrost--than is present in the atmosphere. Disagreement exists, however, regarding the effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on global soil carbon stocks. If carbon stored belowground is transferred to the atmosphere by a warming-induced acceleration of its decomposition, a positive feedback to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> would occur. Conversely, if increases of plant-derived carbon inputs to soils exceed increases in decomposition, the feedback would be negative. Despite much research, a consensus has not yet emerged on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition. Unravelling the feedback effect is particularly difficult, because the diverse soil organic compounds exhibit a wide range of kinetic properties, which determine the intrinsic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of their decomposition. Moreover, several environmental constraints obscure the intrinsic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of substrate decomposition, causing lower observed 'apparent' <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity, and these constraints may, themselves, be sensitive to climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0958M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0958M"><span><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Snowmelt Runoff Timing: Potential Implications for Stream <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Native Salmonid Habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacDonald, R.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Silins, U.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric warming is expected to maintain the trend towards an earlier onset of spring snowmelt across western North America in the future. An advanced spring streamflow peak has important implications for aquatic ecosystems, particularly cold-water salmonids that are sensitive to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stream hydrological and thermal regimes. We tested stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity to atmospheric warming scenarios in a headwater catchment on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains by applying a process-based hydrometeorological and stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model. We used a field study in three thermally and hydrologically distinct catchments to provide context for modelling. Results indicate that stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity to atmospheric warming is variable and corresponds with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in streamflow. Predictions of lower spring, higher summer and fall, and lower winter stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are consistent with field study results. This analysis suggests the thermal habitat of native salmonids could become less suitable under future climatic conditions, favouring non-native species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847512"><span>Keep away from <span class="hlt">danger</span>: <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects in dynamic and static situations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anelli, Filomena; Nicoletti, Roberto; Bolzani, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Behavioral and neuroscience studies have shown that objects observation evokes specific affordances (i.e., action possibilities) and motor responses. Recent findings provide evidence that even <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects can modulate the motor system evoking aversive affordances. This sounds intriguing since so far the majority of behavioral, brain imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies with painful and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> stimuli strictly concerned the domain of pain, with the exception of evidence suggesting sensitivity to objects' affordances when neutral objects are located in participants' peripersonal space. This study investigates whether the observation of a neutral or <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> object in a static or dynamic situation differently influences motor responses, and the time-course of the <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects' processing. In three experiments we manipulated: object <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> (neutral vs. <span class="hlt">dangerous</span>); object category (artifact vs. natural); manual response typology (press vs. release a key); object presentation (Experiment 1: dynamic, Experiments 2 and 3: static); object movement direction (Experiment 1: away vs. toward the participant) or size (Experiments 2 and 3: big vs. normal vs. small). The task required participants to decide whether the object was an artifact or a natural object, by pressing or releasing one key. Results showed a facilitation for neutral over <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects in the static situation, probably due to an affordance effect. Instead, in the dynamic condition responses were modulated by the object movement direction, with a dynamic affordance effect elicited by neutral objects and an escape-avoidance effect provoked by <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects (neutral objects were processed faster when they moved toward-approached the participant, whereas <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects were processed faster when they moved away from the participant). Moreover, static stimuli influenced the manual response typology. These data indicate the emergence of dynamic affordance and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13B1424J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13B1424J"><span>Decoupling of Northern North Atlantic Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Deep Circulation during Abrupt Glacial Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jonkers, L.; Barker, S.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Abrupt climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is a prominent feature of the ice ages. The prevailing view is that these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are related to fluctuations in ocean circulation, possibly triggered by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in freshwater forcing as a result of ice-rafting events in the North Atlantic. Here we investigate this view by presenting results from a sediment core in the Northern North Atlantic (ODP 983 60.4°N, 23.6°W, 1984m depth, ~12-35 kyr), which is ideally positioned to monitor <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the flow speed of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Waters. The mean size of silt (10-63 μm) has been proposed as a useful flow speed indicator, but can be influenced the presence of ice-rafted detritus (IRD). We present grain size data obtained using a Coulter counter as well as a laser diffraction particle sizer, which we compare to the proportion of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (proxy for sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and manually counted coarse IRD. Grain size results are comparable for the two techniques and the influence of IRD is clearly visible in the mean size data. We use end-member modelling to derive an IRD-free estimate of flow speed variability and find clear reductions in the flow speed associated with IRD input. Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> however, appears to vary independently from IRD input and hence deep circulation. In particular, IRD appears and current speed decreases after the onset of cooling and additional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability is observed that is not associated with IRD events or <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the deep circulation. These results question the classical view of freshwater forcing as the driver of abrupt climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. We suggest that North Atlantic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability may be related to shifts in position of the polar front and that, while IRD events may be coeval with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the deep circulation, these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are not required to explain the abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in the Northern North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27697550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27697550"><span>The cold driver: Cold stress while driving results in <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morris, Drew M; Pilcher, June J</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Cool vehicle cabin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can induce short-term non-hypothermic cold stress. The current study created a cold condition to examine the impact of cold stress on driving behavior. Forty-four participants drove a high-fidelity driving simulator during a thermal neutral or local torso cooled condition. Participants performed additional tasks to assess attention, psychomotor vigilance, and manual dexterity. Skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was significantly lower in the cold condition while internal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was unaffected. Participants who had higher subjective ratings of cold followed lead vehicles closer and started to brake later. Participants in the cold condition followed the lead car 22% (0.82s) closer and started braking 20% (2.35s) later when approaching a stop sign during the car-following task. No <span class="hlt">change</span> in attention, psychomotor vigilance, or dexterity was observed. The current results suggest that cold environmental conditions can contribute to <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> driving behaviors. Measures of cold perception were also shown to predict <span class="hlt">changes</span> in driving behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..725J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..725J"><span>Historical and potential <span class="hlt">changes</span> of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta subjected to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impact: 1900-2100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Rengui; Gan, Thian Yew; Xie, Jiancang; Wang, Ni; Kuo, Chun-Chao</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We investigated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta for historical and future periods. First, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to test for historical trends and trend magnitudes from the climate data of Alberta, respectively. Second, the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (A1B, A2, and B1) of CMIP3 (Phase 3 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), projected by seven general circulation models (GCM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC) for three 30 years periods (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), were used to evaluate the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta. Third, trends of projected precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were investigated, and differences between historical versus projected trends were estimated. Using the 50-km resolution dataset from CANGRD (Canadian Grid Climate Data), we found that Alberta had become warmer and somewhat drier for the past 112 years (1900-2011), especially in central and southern Alberta. For observed precipitation, upward trends mainly occurred in northern Alberta and at the leeward side of Canadian Rocky Mountains. However, only about 13 to 22 % of observed precipitation showed statistically significant increasing trends at 5 % significant level. Most observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed significant increasing trends, up to 0.05 °C/year in DJF (December, January, and February) in northern Alberta. GCMs' SRES projections indicated that seasonal precipitation of Alberta could <span class="hlt">change</span> from -25 to 36 %, while the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> would increase from 2020s to 2080s, with the largest increase (6.8 °C) in DJF. In all 21 GCM-SRES cases considered, precipitation in both DJF and MAM (March, April, and May) is projected to increase, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is consistently projected to increase in all seasons, which generally agree with the trends of historical precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The SRES A1B scenario of CCSM3 might project more realistic future climate for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333J"><span>Historical and potential <span class="hlt">changes</span> of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta subjected to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impact: 1900-2100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Rengui; Gan, Thian Yew; Xie, Jiancang; Wang, Ni; Kuo, Chun-Chao</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We investigated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta for historical and future periods. First, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to test for historical trends and trend magnitudes from the climate data of Alberta, respectively. Second, the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (A1B, A2, and B1) of CMIP3 (Phase 3 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), projected by seven general circulation models (GCM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC) for three 30 years periods (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), were used to evaluate the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta. Third, trends of projected precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were investigated, and differences between historical versus projected trends were estimated. Using the 50-km resolution dataset from CANGRD (Canadian Grid Climate Data), we found that Alberta had become warmer and somewhat drier for the past 112 years (1900-2011), especially in central and southern Alberta. For observed precipitation, upward trends mainly occurred in northern Alberta and at the leeward side of Canadian Rocky Mountains. However, only about 13 to 22 % of observed precipitation showed statistically significant increasing trends at 5 % significant level. Most observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed significant increasing trends, up to 0.05 °C/year in DJF (December, January, and February) in northern Alberta. GCMs' SRES projections indicated that seasonal precipitation of Alberta could <span class="hlt">change</span> from -25 to 36 %, while the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> would increase from 2020s to 2080s, with the largest increase (6.8 °C) in DJF. In all 21 GCM-SRES cases considered, precipitation in both DJF and MAM (March, April, and May) is projected to increase, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is consistently projected to increase in all seasons, which generally agree with the trends of historical precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The SRES A1B scenario of CCSM3 might project more realistic future climate for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10400433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10400433"><span>Relation between command hallucinations and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rudnick, A</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This article presents an updated review of studies on the relation between command hallucinations and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behavior. The author reviewed all studies published between 1966 and 1997 according to MEDLINE and between 1974 and 1997 according to PSYCLIT. Forty-one studies were found, of which 82.9 percent dealt with the relation between command hallucinations and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behavior. Of these studies, 32.3 percent were controlled, and they were grouped into three partially overlapping classes: those concerned with violent behavior, those concerned with suicidal behavior, and those concerned with mediating variables. Most of these studies agreed on the non-existence of an immediate relation between command hallucinations and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> (violent or suicidal) behavior. Even though the studies were divided about the existence of a relation between severity/<span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> of command content and compliance with the commands, there was agreement about the existence of a direct relation between compliance with commands and both benevolence and familiarity of commanding voice. It seems that the research and knowledge available to date on this subject is both scant and methodologically weak. Future study should probably concentrate on mediating factors, such as appraisal and coping attitudes and behaviors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062275"><span>Ebola: a very <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> viral haemorrhagic fever.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scully, Crispian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ebola is a highly <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> infectious disease seen mainly in West Africa or travellers from there. All healthcare workers should check the recent travel history of their patients and follow formal guidance issued. Clinical Relevance: This article discusses the relevance of the Ebola virus in dentistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23461125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23461125"><span>[Test for <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> limits of capacitor energy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yuming; Wang, Renjun</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> limits of capacitor energy, according to national standards of medical device regulations' test requirement, we analysis it and list its test methods and requirement. According to capacitor energy's formation and characteristics, we put forward a simple method for its test and calculation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14711433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14711433"><span>Immune activation: death, <span class="hlt">danger</span> and dendritic cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pulendran, Bali</p> <p>2004-01-06</p> <p>Dendritic cells are critical for host immunity, and sense microbes with pathogen recognition receptors. New evidence indicates that these cells also sense uric acid crystals in dead cells, suggesting that the immune system is conscious not only of pathogens, but also of death and <span class="hlt">danger</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crime+AND+costs&pg=5&id=EJ966955','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crime+AND+costs&pg=5&id=EJ966955"><span><span class="hlt">Danger</span> and the Decision to Offend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that <span class="hlt">danger</span>--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED011739.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED011739.pdf"><span>SOME PEDAGOGICAL <span class="hlt">DANGERS</span> IN RECENT LINGUISTIC TRENDS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>BARRUTIA, RICHARD</p> <p></p> <p>THE OVERLY STRINGENT APPLICATION OF THEORIES OF RULE-GOVERNED GRAMMAR TO LANGUAGE TEACHING CAN CAUSE PROBLEMS FOR THE LEARNER. ELABORATION OF A RULE OF GRAMMAR IN ADVANCE OF DRILL HOLDS THREE <span class="hlt">DANGERS</span>--(1) THE FALSE SECURITY WHICH RESULTS WHEN THE STUDENT FEELS THAT HE HAS LEARNED SOME ELEMENT OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION BECAUSE HE CAN STATE THE RULE,…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kant%2c+AND+Immanuel&pg=3&id=EJ250383','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kant%2c+AND+Immanuel&pg=3&id=EJ250383"><span>The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Aestheticism in Schooling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meager, Ruby</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Prompted by Immanuel Kant's analysis of the nature and operations of the imagination in his "Critique of the Aesthetical Judgment," this article points out the <span class="hlt">danger</span> of encouraging imagination-borne aesthetical judgments and explanatory hypotheses. Concludes that understanding requires submission to more stringent standards of objectivity and to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018765','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018765"><span>Large arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at the Wisconsin-Holocene glacial transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cuffey, Kurt M.; Clow, G.D.; Alley, R.B.; Stuiver, M.; Waddington, E.D.; Saltus, R.W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Greenland Ice Sheet Project II ice-core isotopic composition reveals that the warming from average glacial conditions to the Holocene in central Greenland was large, approximately 15??C. This is at least three times the coincident <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropics and mid-latitudes. The coldest periods of the last glacial were probably 21??C colder than at present over the Greenland ice sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183569"><span>Large arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at the Wisconsin-Holocene glacial transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cuffey, K.M.; Clow, G.D.; Alley, R.B.</p> <p>1995-10-20</p> <p>Analysis of borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Greenland Ice Sheet Project II ice-core isotopic composition reveals that the warming from average glacial conditions to the Holocene in central Greenland was large, approximately 15{degrees}C. This is at least three times the coincident <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropics and mid-latitudes. The coldest periods of the last glacial were probably 21{degrees}C colder than at present over the Greenland ice sheet. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.5115T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.5115T"><span>Reassessing <span class="hlt">changes</span> in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range: A new data set and characterization of data biases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorne, P. W.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C. N.; Rennie, J. J.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Vose, R. S.; Peterson, T. C.; Durre, I.; Davy, R.; Esau, I.; Klein-Tank, A. M. G.; Merlone, A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>It has been a decade since <span class="hlt">changes</span> in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) globally have been assessed in a stand-alone data analysis. The present study takes advantage of substantively improved basic data holdings arising from the International Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Initiative's databank effort and applies the National Centers for Environmental Information's automated pairwise homogeneity assessment algorithm to reassess DTR records. It is found that breakpoints are more prevalent in DTR than other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elements and that the resulting adjustments have a broader distribution. This strongly implies that there is an overarching tendency, across the global meteorological networks, for nonclimatic artifacts to impart either random or anticorrelated rather than correlated biases in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series. Future homogenization efforts would likely benefit from simultaneous consideration of DTR and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, in addition to average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Estimates of <span class="hlt">change</span> in DTR are relatively insensitive to whether adjustments are calculated directly or inferred from adjustments returned for the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series. The homogenized series exhibit a reduction in DTR since the midtwentieth century globally (-0.044 K/decade). Adjustments serve to approximately halve the long-term global reduction in DTR in the basic "raw" data. Most of the estimated DTR reduction occurred over 1960-1980. In several regions DTR has apparently increased over 1979-2012, while globally it has exhibited very little <span class="hlt">change</span> (-0.016 K/decade). Estimated <span class="hlt">changes</span> in DTR are an order of magnitude smaller than in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which have both been increasing rapidly on multidecadal timescales (0.186 K/decade and 0.236 K/decade, respectively, since the midtwentieth century).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..211S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..211S"><span>Precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in eastern India by multiple trend detection methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Pradhan, Rudra P.; Singh, Amanpreet; Kawamura, Akira</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The present study deals with spatial and temporal trend analysis of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1970-2004) in eastern India. Long-term trend direction and magnitude of <span class="hlt">change</span> over time (annual and seasonal) were detected and analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimator, Least square linear regression, Spearman rank correlation and Sequential Mann-Kendall test. In addition to it, correlation analysis was also performed. Trend analysis of annual rainfall by different methods indicated similar annual trends in eastern India. North-eastern, south-eastern and western parts of eastern India indicated increasing trend, whereas the north-western, central and southern parts showed decreasing trend. A similar trend was observed by different methods in case of seasonal rainfall. During winter season, decreasing trend was observed in the central part, whereas similar results were obtained for pre-and post-monsoon in the western part. The trend during monsoon season was found similar to annual rainfall trend. Abrupt <span class="hlt">change</span> in trend of rainfall with time was lacking in eastern India. Maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis indicated increasing trend in the western part for all the seasons (except in monsoon) and decreasing trend in the eastern part. On the contrary, increasing trend was observed in the eastern part and decreasing trend in the western half of the study area for all the seasons in case of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> were observed during monsoon season as compared to other seasons. A decreasing trend in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was observed in the central, southern and north western parts, whereas it was found to be increasing in the north-eastern, western and south-eastern parts. In majority of the eastern India region, any abrupt <span class="hlt">change</span> of trend in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with time was not clearly observed. Negative correlation between rainfall and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was observed in the entire eastern India. Similar results were observed in case of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....4811530W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....4811530W"><span>Projected climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the hydrology and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Pacific Northwest rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Huan; Kimball, John S.; Elsner, Marketa M.; Mantua, Nate; Adler, Robert F.; Stanford, Jack</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>A dominant river-tracing-based streamflow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DRTT) model was developed by coupling stream thermal dynamics with a source-sink routing model. The DRTT model was applied using 1/16 degree (˜6 km) resolution gridded daily surface meteorology inputs over a ˜988,000 km2 Pacific Northwest (PNW) domain to produce regional daily streamflow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulations from 1996 to 2005. The DRTT results showed favorable performance for simulation of daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (mean R2= 0.72 and root-mean-square error = 2.35°C) and discharge (mean R2 = 0.52 and annual relative error = 14%) against observations from 12 PNW streams. The DRTT was then applied with a macroscale hydrologic model to predict streamflow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> under historical (1980s) and future (2020s, 2040s, and 2080s) climate <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios (IPCC AR4) as they may affect current and future patterns of freshwater salmon habitat and associated productivity of PNW streams. The model projected a 3.5% decrease in mean annual streamflow for the 2020s and 0.6% and 5.5% increases for the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with projected increase in mean annual stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 0.55°C (2020s) to 1.68°C (2080s). However, summer streamflow decreased from 19.3% (2020s) to 30.3% (2080s), while mean summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> warmed from 0.92°C to 2.10°C. The simulations indicate that projected climate <span class="hlt">change</span> will have greater impacts on snow dominant streams, with lower summer streamflows and warmer summer stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> relative to transient and rain dominant regimes. Lower summer flows combined with warmer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> suggest a future with widespread increased summertime thermal stress for coldwater fish in the PNW region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6713211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6713211"><span>An instrument using a multiple layer Peltier device to <span class="hlt">change</span> skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rapidly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilcox, G L; Giesler, G J</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A thermal stimulator that uses multiple layer Peltier devices produces rapid heating or cooling of the skin of experimental animals. Rate of <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be controlled from 1 degree C/sec to 5 degrees/sec (cooling) or to 10 degrees/sec (heating). Rapid thermal transients are not accompanied by thermal overshoot. Maintenance of and return to a preset <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are within +/- 0.05 degrees.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054283&hterms=hawaii+climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhawaii%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054283&hterms=hawaii+climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhawaii%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span>Estimation of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sky and solar flux with elevation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hummer-Miller, S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The magnitude of elevation effects due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in solar and sky fluxes, on interpretation of single thermal images and composite products such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference and thermal inertia, are examined. Simple expressions are derived for the diurnal behavior of the two parameters, by fitting field observations in one tropic (Hawaii) and two semi-arid climates (Wyoming and Colorado) (Hummer-Miller, 1981). It is shown that flux variations with elevation can cause <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the mean diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient from -4 to -14 degrees C/km, evaluated at 2000 m. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-difference gradient of 1 to 2 degrees C/km are also produced which is equivalent to an effective thermal-inertia gradient of 100 W s(exp 1/2)/sq m-K-km. An example is presented showing an elevation effect of 12 degrees C on the day and night thermal scenes of a test site in Arizona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0144P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0144P"><span>Response of Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> to Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the CMIP5 Earth System Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, C. L.; Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Predictions of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> are as critical to policy development and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation as predictions of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but have received comparatively little attention. Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determines seed germination and growth of wild and agricultural plants, and impacts climate through both geophysical and carbon-cycle feedbacks. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> 5th Assessment Report does not report soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictions, but focuses instead on surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, despite the fact that mean annual soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are often different from each other. Here we aim to fill this important knowledge gap by reporting soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture predictions for 15 earth system models (ESMs) that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 Project (CMIP5). Under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios, soil warming is predicted to almost keep pace with soil air warming, with about 10% less warming in soil than air, globally. The slower warming of soil compared to air is likely related to predictions of soil drying, with drier soils having reduced soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Mollisol soils, which are typically regarded as the most productive soil order for cultivating cereal crops, are anticipated to see warming in North America of 3.5 to 5.5 °C at the end of the 21st century (2080-2100) compared to 1986-2005. One impact of soil warming is likely to be an acceleration of germination timing, with the 3°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold for wheat germination anticipated to advance by several weeks in Mollisol regions. Furthermore, soil warming at 1 m depth is predicted to be almost equivalent to warming at 1 cm depth in frost-free regions, indicating vulnerability of deep soil carbon pools to destabilization. To assess model performance we compare the models' predictions with observations of damping depth, and offsets between mean annual soil and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9104692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9104692"><span>Stress-induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in circadian rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity in rats are not caused by pacemaker <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meerlo, P; van den Hoofdakker, R H; Koolhaas, J M; Daan, S</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>Previous work has shown that social stress in rats (i.e., defeat by an aggressive male conspecific) causes a variety of behavioral and physiological <span class="hlt">changes</span> including alterations in the daily rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity. To study the role of the circadian pacemaker in these stress-induced <span class="hlt">changes</span>, three experiments were performed, successively addressing pacemaker period, phase, and sensitivity to light. In all experiments, rats were subjected to social stress by placing them in the home cage of a dominant conspecific for 1 h. This was done on 2 consecutive days, between the second and fifth hours of the activity phase. Experimental animals were attacked by the resident and lost the fight as indicated by submissive behavior. Control animals were placed in an unfamiliar but clean and empty cage for 1 h. In Experiment 1, the effects of social stress on the period of the free-running activity rhythm were studied. Rats were individually housed under constant dim red light. Activity was measured with infrared detectors. Social defeat caused a reduction of activity for a number of days, but the period of the free-running rhythm was not affected. In Experiment 2, the authors studied whether social defeat induced acute phase shifts. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity were measured by means of radiotelemetry with intraperitoneally implanted transmitters. After the social interactions, experimental animals were kept under constant dim red light. Social stress caused a profound reduction in the amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity rhythm, but no significant phase shifts occurred. In Experiment 3, the authors studied whether social defeat affected the circadian pacemaker's sensitivity to light given that the size of light-induced phase shifts is thought to reflect pacemaker amplitude. Again, body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and activity were measured by means of telemetry. After double social defeat, animals were kept under continuous dim red light. One day after the second</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815805M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815805M"><span>Reconstructions of global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> since the mid 19th century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morice, Colin; Rayner, Nick; Kennedy, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Incomplete and non-uniform global observational coverage is a prominent source of uncertainty in instrumental records of global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this study statistical methods are applied to the HadCRUT4 near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set to obtain improved estimates of global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> since the mid 19th century. Methods applied include those that interpolate according to local correlation structure (kriging) and reduced space methods that learn large-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns. The performance of each statistical reconstruction method has been benchmarked in application to a subset of CMIP5 simulations. Model fields are sub-sampled and simulated observational errors added to emulate observational data, permitting assessment of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field reconstruction algorithms in controlled tests in which globally complete <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields are known. In application to HadCRUT4 data the statistical reconstructions show relatively increased warming in the global average over the 21st century owing to reconstruction of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in high northern latitudes, supporting the findings of Cowtan & Way (2014) and Karl et al. (2015). There is broad agreement between estimates of global and hemispheric <span class="hlt">changes</span> throughout much of the 20th and 21st century. Agreement is reduced in data sparse periods and regions, notably in the 19th century and in the southern hemisphere. This finding is supported by the results of the climate model based benchmarks and highlights the importance of continued data rescue activities, such as those of the International Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Initiative and ACRE. The results of this study will form an addition to the HadCRUT4 global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1011S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1011S"><span>Pressure effect on the low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> remanences of multidomain magnetite: <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Verwey transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sato, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nishioka, T.; Kodama, K.; Mochizuki, N.; Tsunakawa, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Verwey transition of magnetite is the basic issues for the rock magnetism, since main magnetic mineral of terrestrial rocks is magnetite and its associates. One of the most important issues concerning the Verwey transition is the <span class="hlt">change</span> in transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tv) due to pressure, which is thought to improve our understanding of its electric and magnetic nature in relation to the phase diagram. Recently, the opposite pressure effects of the transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were reported applying the different experimental method. Measuring the electrical resistivity of single crystalline samples, Môri et al. [2002] reported that Tv becomes lower with increasing pressure by 9 GPa. In contrast, Pasternak et al. [2003] reported from Mössbauer experiment that transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> becomes higher with increasing pressure by 30 GPa. Thus the <span class="hlt">change</span> in transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with pressure has been controversial, and nature of the Verwey transition is still unclear. The magnetic property measurements using low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle are a powerful tool for identifying the state of magnetic minerals. Carporzen and Gilder [2010] conducted the thermal demagnetization experiment of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> remanences of magnetite, and observed an increase in Tv with increasing pretreated pressure. From this result, they suggested that the Verwey transition of magnetite have the potential of a geobarometer. Modern techniques of high-pressure experiments enable us to measure sample magnetizations under pressure [Gilder et al., 2002; Kodama and Nishioka, 2005; Sadykov et al., 2008]. In the present study, systematic experiments of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> remanences have been conducted for powder samples of stoichiometric magnetite under pressure up to 0.7 GPa using the high-pressure cell specially designed for MPMS, which was made of CuBe and ZrO2 [Kodama and Nishioka, 2005]. Natural magnetite of large single crystals were crushed by hand and sieved in an ultrasonic bath to be ~50 μm in size. For</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.tmp...69C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.tmp...69C"><span>Attribution of precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> on ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offset: Granger causality analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cermak, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This work examines the causal relationship between the value of the ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offset and the precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> for monitored 5-min data series together with their hourly and daily averages obtained at the Sporilov Geophysical Observatory (Prague). Shallow subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were monitored under four different land cover types (bare soil, sand, short-cut grass and asphalt). The ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GST) and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) offset, ΔT(GST-SAT), is defined as the difference between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured at the depth of 2 cm below the surface and the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured at 5 cm above the surface. The results of the Granger causality test did not reveal any evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offsets on the daily scale of aggregation except for the asphalt pavement. On the contrary, a strong evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to the ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offsets was found on the hourly scale of aggregation for all land cover types except for the sand surface cover. All results are sensitive to the lag choice of the autoregressive model. On the whole, obtained results contain valuable information on the delay time of ΔT(GST-SAT) caused by the rainfall events and confirmed the importance of using autoregressive models to understand the ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23F0386M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23F0386M"><span>Can human local activities worsen the rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mateos, E.; Santana, J.; Deeb, A.; Grünwaldt, A.; Prieto, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Several studies have shown a global scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise which in consequence, have brought up the need to propose various impact scenarios for this <span class="hlt">change</span> on the planet and its life forms. Climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> have a direct effect on human activities. Particularly these alterations have a negative impact on economy which in turn affects the most vulnerable and marginal population on developing nations. In a recent study based on 30 years climatological observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in ten Mexican watersheds, from the period between 1970 and 1999, positive trend on maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were found in all watersheds. At each watershed at least 10 climatological stations from the net operated by the National Meteorological Service (Servicio Meterologico Nacional), whose data are maintained in the CLICOM database (Computerized Climate database), were selected. The climatological stations have at least 70% valid data per decade. In eight watersheds a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend oscillates between +0.5 to +1 oC every 30 years with a 95% confidence level. Nonetheless, in Rio Bravo and Rio Verde watersheds the tendencies are +1.75 and +2.75 oC over 30 years. The result in these two last watersheds evinces that: 1) there are fragile systems; 2) the human activities have a strong impact in those places, and 3) a principal anthropogenic influence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise is the <span class="hlt">change</span> in land use. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rised on Jalostitlan within Rio Verde watershed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25516446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25516446"><span>Electrophysiological <span class="hlt">changes</span> correlated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Ziqi; Kumon, Ronald E; Laughner, Jacob I; Efimov, Igor R; Deng, Cheri X</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>To gain better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, we investigated how the cellular electrophysiological (EP) <span class="hlt">changes</span> were correlated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and thermal dose (cumulative equivalent minutes [CEM43]) during HIFU application using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Employing voltage-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we measured the EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during HIFU using simultaneous optical mapping and infrared imaging. Both action potential amplitude (APA) and action potential duration at 50% repolarization (APD50) decreased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, and APD50 was more thermally sensitive than APA. EP and tissue <span class="hlt">changes</span> were irreversible when HIFU-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased above 52.3 ± 1.4°C and log10(CEM43) above 2.16 ± 0.51 (n = 5), but were reversible when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was below 50.1 ± 0.8°C and log10(CEM43) below -0.9 ± 0.3 (n = 9). EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/thermal dose <span class="hlt">changes</span> were spatially correlated with HIFU-induced tissue necrosis surrounded by a transition zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828407"><span>Simulating the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Selbig, William R</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The potential for increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2°C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740032N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740032N"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in structure and thermodynamic of spruce budworm antifreeze protein under subfreezing <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Hung; Le, Ly</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this theoretical work is to investigate of the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in structure and thermodynamics of spruce budworm antifreeze protein (sbAFP) at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by using molecular dynamics simulation. The aqueous solution will form ice crystal network under the vaguely hexagonal shape at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fully represented the characteristics of hydrophobic interaction. Like ice crystal network, the cyclohexane region (including cyclohexane molecules) have enough of the characteristics of hydrophobic interaction. Therefore, in this research the cyclohexane region will be used as a representation of ice crystal network to investigate the interactions of sbAFP and ice crystal network at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The activity of sbAFP in subfreezing environment, therefore, can be clearly observed via the <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the hydrophobic (cyclohexane region) and hydrophilic (water region) interactions. The obtained results from total energies, hydrogen bond lifetime correlation C(t), radial distribution function, mean square deviation and snapshots of sbAFP complexes indicated that sbAFP has some special <span class="hlt">changes</span> in structure and interaction with water and cyclohexane regions at 278 K, as being transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> point of water molecules in sbAFP complex at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which is more structured and support the experimental observation that the sbAFP complex becomes more rigid as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is lowered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297512','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297512"><span>Electrophysiological <span class="hlt">Changes</span> Correlated with <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Increases Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Z.; Kumon, R. E.; Laughner, J. I.; Efimov, I. R.; Deng, C. X.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To gain better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, we investigated how the cellular electrophysiological (EP) <span class="hlt">changes</span> were correlated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and thermal dose (cumulative equivalent minutes [CEM43]) during HIFU application using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Employing voltage-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we measured the EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during HIFU using simultaneous optical mapping and infrared imaging. Both action potential amplitude (APA) and AP duration at 50% repolarization (APD50) decreased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, and APD50 was more thermally sensitive than APA. EP and tissue <span class="hlt">changes</span> were irreversible when HIFU-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased above 52.3 ± 1.4 °C and log10(CEM43) above 2.16 ± 0.51 (n = 5), but were reversible when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was below 50.1 ± 0.8 °C and log10(CEM43) below −0.9 ± 0.3 (n = 9). EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/thermal dose <span class="hlt">changes</span> were spatially correlated with HIFU induced tissue necrosis surrounded by a transition zone. PMID:25516446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70144678','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70144678"><span>Simulating the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Selbig, William R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The potential for increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2 °C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5247755','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5247755"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in structure and thermodynamic of spruce budworm antifreeze protein under subfreezing <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Hung; Le, Ly</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this theoretical work is to investigate of the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in structure and thermodynamics of spruce budworm antifreeze protein (sbAFP) at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by using molecular dynamics simulation. The aqueous solution will form ice crystal network under the vaguely hexagonal shape at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fully represented the characteristics of hydrophobic interaction. Like ice crystal network, the cyclohexane region (including cyclohexane molecules) have enough of the characteristics of hydrophobic interaction. Therefore, in this research the cyclohexane region will be used as a representation of ice crystal network to investigate the interactions of sbAFP and ice crystal network at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The activity of sbAFP in subfreezing environment, therefore, can be clearly observed via the <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the hydrophobic (cyclohexane region) and hydrophilic (water region) interactions. The obtained results from total energies, hydrogen bond lifetime correlation C(t), radial distribution function, mean square deviation and snapshots of sbAFP complexes indicated that sbAFP has some special <span class="hlt">changes</span> in structure and interaction with water and cyclohexane regions at 278 K, as being transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> point of water molecules in sbAFP complex at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which is more structured and support the experimental observation that the sbAFP complex becomes more rigid as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is lowered. PMID:28106056</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024059','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024059"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Phase <span class="hlt">Change</span> Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase <span class="hlt">change</span> materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4650153','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4650153"><span>Geographical variation in species' population responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Ockendon, Nancy; Baker, David J.; Carr, Jamie; White, Elizabeth C.; Almond, Rosamunde E. A.; Amano, Tatsuya; Bertram, Esther; Bradbury, Richard B.; Bradley, Cassie; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Doswald, Nathalie; Foden, Wendy; Gill, David J. C.; Green, Rhys E.; Sutherland, William J.; Tanner, Edmund V. J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite increasing concerns about the vulnerability of species' populations to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, there has been little overall synthesis of how individual population responses to variation in climate differ between taxa, with trophic level or geographically. To address this, we extracted data from 132 long-term (greater than or equal to 20 years) studies of population responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation covering 236 animal and plant species across terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Our results identify likely geographical differences in the effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on populations and communities in line with macroecological theory. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> tended to have a greater overall impact on populations than precipitation, although the effects of increased precipitation varied strongly with latitude, being most positive at low latitudes. Population responses to increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were generally positive, but did not vary significantly with latitude. Studies reporting significant climatic trends through time tended to show more negative effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and more positive effects of precipitation upon populations than other studies, indicating climate <span class="hlt">change</span> has already impacted many populations. Most studies of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on biodiversity have focused on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and are from middle to high northern latitudes. Our results suggest their findings may be less applicable to low latitudes. PMID:26511054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511054"><span>Geographical variation in species' population responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearce-Higgins, James W; Ockendon, Nancy; Baker, David J; Carr, Jamie; White, Elizabeth C; Almond, Rosamunde E A; Amano, Tatsuya; Bertram, Esther; Bradbury, Richard B; Bradley, Cassie; Butchart, Stuart H M; Doswald, Nathalie; Foden, Wendy; Gill, David J C; Green, Rhys E; Sutherland, William J; Tanner, Edmund V J</p> <p>2015-11-07</p> <p>Despite increasing concerns about the vulnerability of species' populations to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, there has been little overall synthesis of how individual population responses to variation in climate differ between taxa, with trophic level or geographically. To address this, we extracted data from 132 long-term (greater than or equal to 20 years) studies of population responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation covering 236 animal and plant species across terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Our results identify likely geographical differences in the effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on populations and communities in line with macroecological theory. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> tended to have a greater overall impact on populations than precipitation, although the effects of increased precipitation varied strongly with latitude, being most positive at low latitudes. Population responses to increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were generally positive, but did not vary significantly with latitude. Studies reporting significant climatic trends through time tended to show more negative effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and more positive effects of precipitation upon populations than other studies, indicating climate <span class="hlt">change</span> has already impacted many populations. Most studies of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on biodiversity have focused on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and are from middle to high northern latitudes. Our results suggest their findings may be less applicable to low latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015933"><span><span class="hlt">Change</span> in heat capacity for enzyme catalysis determines <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of enzyme catalyzed rates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hobbs, Joanne K; Jiao, Wanting; Easter, Ashley D; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A; Arcus, Vickery L</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>The increase in enzymatic rates with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> up to an optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Topt) is widely attributed to classical Arrhenius behavior, with the decrease in enzymatic rates above Topt ascribed to protein denaturation and/or aggregation. This account persists despite many investigators noting that denaturation is insufficient to explain the decline in enzymatic rates above Topt. Here we show that it is the <span class="hlt">change</span> in heat capacity associated with enzyme catalysis (ΔC(‡)p) and its effect on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of ΔG(‡) that determines the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of enzyme activity. Through mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the Topt of an enzyme is correlated with ΔC(‡)p and that <span class="hlt">changes</span> to ΔC(‡)p are sufficient to <span class="hlt">change</span> Topt without affecting the catalytic rate. Furthermore, using X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations we reveal the molecular details underpinning these <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ΔC(‡)p. The influence of ΔC(‡)p on enzymatic rates has implications for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of biological rates from enzymes to ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=239058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=239058"><span>Thermal Tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis: <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Induced <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Membrane Composition †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benschoter, A. S.; Ingram, L. O.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The membrane composition of Zymomonas mobilis <span class="hlt">changed</span> dramatically in response to growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. With increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the proportion of vaccenic acid declined with an increase in myristic acid, the proportion of phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin increased with decreases in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and the phospholipid/protein ratio of the membrane declined. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> in membrane composition were correlated with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal tolerance and with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in membrane fluidity. Cells grown at 20°C were more sensitive to inactivation at 45°C than were cells grown at 30°C, as expected. However, cells grown at 41°C (near the maximal growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for Z. mobilis) were hypersensitive to thermal inactivation, suggesting that cells may be damaged during growth at this <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. When cells were held at 45°C, soluble proteins from cells grown at 41°C were rapidly lost into the surrounding buffer in contrast to cells grown at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The synthesis of phospholipid-deficient membranes during growth at 41°C was proposed as being responsible for this increased thermal sensitivity. PMID:16347087</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span>Inference of Global Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trend and Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> from MSU and AMSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, Cuddapah; Iacovazzi, R. A., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced MSU (AMSU) radiometers flown on the NOAA operational satellite series are potentially valuable as global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring devices. Spencer and Christy pioneered the analysis of mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, given by MSU Channel 2 (Ch 2) at 53.74 GHz, to derive the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend. Also, in addition to monitoring global <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these microwave radiometers have the potential to reveal interannual climate signals in tropics. We have analyzed the data of MSU Ch 2 and AMSU Ch 5 (53.6 GHz) from the NOAA operational satellites for the period 1980 to 2000, utilizing the NOAA calibration procedure. The data are corrected for the satellite orbital drift based on the temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the on-board warm blackbody <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. From our analysis, we find that the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 Kdecade(sup -1) during 1980 to 2000. From an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the MSU global data, we find that the mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in middle and high latitudes responds to the ENSO forcing during the Northern Hemisphere Winter in a distinct manner. This mid-latitude response is opposite in phase to that in the tropics. This result is in accord with simulations performed with an ECMWF global spectral model. This study shows a potential use of the satellite observations for climatic <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4261957','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4261957"><span>Quantitative Neuropeptidomics Study of the Effects of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Crab Cancer borealis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> influence the reaction rates of all biological processes, which can pose dramatic challenges to cold-blooded organisms, and the capability to adapt to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations is crucial for the survival of these animals. In order to understand the roles that neuropeptides play in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress response, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach to investigate the neuropeptide <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elevation in three neural tissues from the Jonah crab Cancer borealis. At high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, members from two neuropeptide families, including RFamide and RYamide, were observed to be significantly reduced in one of the neuroendocrine structures, the pericardial organ, while several orcokinin peptides were detected to be decreased in another major neuroendocrine organ, the sinus gland. These results implicate that the observed neuropeptides may be involved with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbation response via hormonal regulation. Furthermore, a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress marker peptide with the primary sequence of SFRRMGGKAQ (m/z 1137.7) was detected and de novo sequenced in the circulating fluid (hemolymph) from animals under thermal perturbation. PMID:25214466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8553E..21Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8553E..21Z"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>To examine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671541"><span>Phase maintenance in a rhythmic motor pattern during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soofi, Wafa; Goeritz, Marie L; Kispersky, Tilman J; Prinz, Astrid A; Marder, Eve; Stein, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>Central-pattern-generating neural circuits function reliably throughout an animal's life, despite constant molecular turnover and environmental perturbations. Fluctuations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pose a problem to the nervous systems of poikilotherms because their body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> follows the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, thus affecting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent dynamics of various subcellular components that constitute neuronal circuits. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, the pyloric circuit produces a triphasic rhythm comprising the output of the pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric, and pyloric constrictor neurons. In vitro, the phase relationships of these neurons are maintained over a fourfold <span class="hlt">change</span> in pyloric frequency as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 7°C to 23°C. To determine whether these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects are also found in intact crabs, in the presence of sensory feedback and neuromodulator-rich environments, we measured the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the pyloric frequency and phases in vivo by implanting extracellular electrodes into Cancer borealis and Cancer pagurus and shifting tank water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 11°C to 26°C. Pyloric frequency in the intact crab increased significantly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Q10 = 2-2.5), while pyloric phases were generally conserved. For a subset of the C. borealis experiments, animals were subsequently dissected and the stomatogastric ganglion subjected to a similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp in vitro. We found that the maximal frequency attained at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in vivo is lower than it is under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that, over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, the phases of the pyloric rhythm in vivo are generally preserved, but that the frequency range is more restricted than it is in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044431','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044431"><span>Phase maintenance in a rhythmic motor pattern during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soofi, Wafa; Goeritz, Marie L.; Kispersky, Tilman J.; Prinz, Astrid A.; Marder, Eve</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Central-pattern-generating neural circuits function reliably throughout an animal's life, despite constant molecular turnover and environmental perturbations. Fluctuations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pose a problem to the nervous systems of poikilotherms because their body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> follows the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, thus affecting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent dynamics of various subcellular components that constitute neuronal circuits. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, the pyloric circuit produces a triphasic rhythm comprising the output of the pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric, and pyloric constrictor neurons. In vitro, the phase relationships of these neurons are maintained over a fourfold <span class="hlt">change</span> in pyloric frequency as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 7°C to 23°C. To determine whether these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects are also found in intact crabs, in the presence of sensory feedback and neuromodulator-rich environments, we measured the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the pyloric frequency and phases in vivo by implanting extracellular electrodes into Cancer borealis and Cancer pagurus and shifting tank water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 11°C to 26°C. Pyloric frequency in the intact crab increased significantly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Q10 = 2–2.5), while pyloric phases were generally conserved. For a subset of the C. borealis experiments, animals were subsequently dissected and the stomatogastric ganglion subjected to a similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp in vitro. We found that the maximal frequency attained at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in vivo is lower than it is under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that, over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, the phases of the pyloric rhythm in vivo are generally preserved, but that the frequency range is more restricted than it is in vitro. PMID:24671541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27233918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27233918"><span>Basal and maximal metabolic rates differ in their response to rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> among avian species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dubois, Karine; Hallot, Fanny; Vézina, François</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In birds, acclimation and acclimatization to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are associated with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in basal (BMR), summit (Msum) and maximal (MMR) metabolic rates but little is known about the rate at which species adjust their phenotype to short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. Our aims were (1) to determine the pattern of metabolic adjustments following a rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, (2) to determine whether performance varies at similar rates during exposure to warm or cold environments, and (3) to determine if BMR, Msum and MMR <span class="hlt">change</span> at comparable rates during thermal acclimation. We measured these parameters in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis), black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), and snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) after acclimation to 10 °C (day 0) and on the 4th and 8th days of acclimation to either -5 or 28 °C. Birds <span class="hlt">changed</span> their metabolic phenotype within 8 days with patterns differing among species. Sparrows expressed the expected metabolic increases in the cold and decreases at thermoneutrality while performance in chickadees and buntings was not influenced by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but <span class="hlt">changed</span> over time with inverse patterns. Our results suggest that BMR varies at comparable rates in warm and cold environments but <span class="hlt">changes</span> faster than Msum and MMR, likely due to limitations in the rate of <span class="hlt">change</span> in organ size and function. They also suggest that maximal metabolic capacity is lost faster in a warm environment than it is gained in a cold environment. With the expected increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stochasticity at northern latitudes, a loss of thermogenic capacity during warm winter days could, therefore, be detrimental if birds are slow to readjust their phenotype with the return of cold days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25179407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25179407"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hiddink, Jan G; Burrows, Michael T; García Molinos, Jorge</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is a major threat to biodiversity and distributions shifts are one of the most significant threats to global warming, but the extent to which these shifts keep pace with a <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate is yet uncertain. Understanding the factors governing range shifts is crucial for conservation management to anticipate patterns of biodiversity distribution under future anthropogenic climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Soft-sediment invertebrates are a key faunal group because of their role in marine biogeochemistry and as a food source for commercial fish species. However, little information exists on their response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Here, we evaluate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the distribution of 65 North Sea benthic invertebrate species between 1986 and 2000 by examining their geographic, bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and test whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined by minimum, mean or maximum sea bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> increased in the whole North Sea with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range shifts (leading/trailing edges as well as distribution centroids) and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species (3.8-7.3 km yr(-1) interquantile range) lagged behind shifts in both SBT and SST (mean 8.1 km yr(-1)), resulting in many species experiencing increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The velocity of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the direction and magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts. No good predictor of expansions of the leading edge was found. Our results show that invertebrates need to shift at different rates and directions to track the climate velocities of different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, and are therefore lagging behind most <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures. If these species cannot withstand a <span class="hlt">change</span> in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130"><span>Daily <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, not the circadian clock, regulate growth rate in Brachypodium distachyon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A; Cole, Benjamin J; Whitney, Ian P; MacKinnon, Kirk J-M; Kay, Steve A; Hazen, Samuel P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no <span class="hlt">change</span> in growth rate under conditions of constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not <span class="hlt">change</span> in response to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522975G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522975G"><span>Role of radiatively forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>As the climate <span class="hlt">change</span> occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DIT) and radiatively forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (RFT) <span class="hlt">changes</span> in raw surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT <span class="hlt">changes</span> dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT <span class="hlt">changes</span> made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31B1047K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31B1047K"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the last 1,000 years inferred from borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitaoka, K.; Arimoto, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Takeuchi, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are an archive of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> occurred at the ground surface in the recent past (Lachenbruch and Marshall, 1986; Pollack, 1993). In order to investigate the local surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories in Osaka Plane, Japan, we observed subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in existing boreholes, using a thermometer logger. Many <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles within 200 m depth from the ground surface have been obtained, but they show considerable variability. The geological formations in the area consist of horizontally stratified sedimentary layers of about 1,000 m in thickness overlaid on bedrock of granite. There exists a vertical disordered structure in the formations, which may be relating to an active fault (Uemachi fault) in the bedrock (Takemura, et al, 2013). It is considered that groundwater in the horizontal layers cannot move vertically, but can move vertically along the vertical disordered zone. Various <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles might be related to occurrence of vertical groundwater flow in the zone. Analytical models of subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which include heat conduction and convection due to vertical groundwater flow in the zone have been constructed under the boundary conditions of prescribing time dependent surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and uniform geothermal flux from greater depths. To solve as one-dimensional problem, heat transfer between the vertical zone and the surrounding medium of no groundwater flow is assumed. Prescribing surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were given as exponential and periodic functions of the time. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can be considered to comprise both natural and artificial <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Artificial <span class="hlt">change</span>, which occurs by the increasing combustion of fossil fuels, is considered roughly to be an exponential increase of the ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last 150 years. Natural <span class="hlt">change</span>, which can correlate to solar activity (Lassen and Friis-Christensen, 1995), is assumed roughly to be periodic with the period of about 1200 y at the minimum time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3863578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3863578"><span><span class="hlt">Dangers</span> and opportunities for social media in medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Health professionals have begun using social media to benefit patients, enhance professional networks, and advance understanding of individual and contextual factors influencing public health. However, discussion of the <span class="hlt">dangers</span> of these technologies in medicine has overwhelmed consideration of positive applications. This article summarizes the hazards of social media in medicine and explores how <span class="hlt">changes</span> in functionality on sites like Facebook may make these technologies less perilous for health professionals. Finally, it describes the most promising avenues through which professionals can use social media in medicine – improving patient communication, enhancing professional development, and contributing to public health research and service. PMID:23903375</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S"><span>Deglacial Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate <span class="hlt">change</span> through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; <span class="hlt">Chang</span> et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity variability show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting <span class="hlt">changing</span> vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC variability (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and δ18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> characterized by abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831180"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srygley, Robert B</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos. We found that reproduction was optimal when ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reached 30°C and the insects were beneath broad-spectrum lights such that maternal body and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reached 35°C. Fewer eggs that developed fully were laid when maternal body and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reached 30°C or 37-39°C. We also varied initial soil moisture from 0% to 100% saturated and found that more eggs reached embryonic diapause when initial soil moisture was 25% or 50% of saturated volume. However more of the developed eggs hatched when treated in summer soils with 0-25% of saturated moisture. We conclude that small <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had large effects on reproduction, whereas large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in moisture had very small effects on reproduction. This is the first report of Mormon crickets mating in a laboratory setting and laying eggs that hatched, facilitating further research on the role of maternal and embryonic environments in <span class="hlt">changes</span> in population size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176177"><span>Hanford facility <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bowman, R.C.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.438...37G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.438...37G"><span>Quantitative estimates of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in lowland Central America during the last 42 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grauel, Anna-Lena; Hodell, David A.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Determining the magnitude of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> during the last glacial period is a fundamental problem in paleoclimate research. Large discrepancies exist in estimates of tropical cooling inferred from marine and terrestrial archives. Here we present a reconstruction of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the last 42 ka from a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, located at 17°N in lowland Central America. We compared three independent methods of glacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction: pollen-based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates, tandem measurements of δ18O in biogenic carbonate and gypsum hydration water, and clumped isotope thermometry. Pollen provides a near-continuous record of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> for most of the glacial period but the occurrence of a no-analog pollen assemblage during cold, dry stadials renders <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates unreliable for these intervals. In contrast, the gypsum hydration and clumped isotope methods are limited mainly to the stadial periods when gypsum and biogenic carbonate co-occur. The combination of palynological and geochemical methods leads to a continuous record of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in lowland Central America over the last 42 ka. Furthermore, the gypsum hydration water method and clumped isotope thermometry provide independent estimates of not only <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also the δ18O of lake water that is dependent on the hydrologic balance between evaporation and precipitation over the lake surface and its catchment. The results show that average glacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was cooler in lowland Central America by 5-10 °C relative to the Holocene. The coldest and driest times occurred during North Atlantic stadial events, particularly Heinrich stadials (HSs), when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased by up to 6 to 10 °C relative to today. This magnitude of cooling is much greater than estimates derived from Caribbean marine records and model simulations. The extreme dry and cold conditions during HSs in the lowland Central America were associated</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC23C0943Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC23C0943Y"><span>Climatological sensitivity analysis of crop yield to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using particle filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yokozawa, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The climatological sensitivities of crop yields to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation during a period of the growing season were statistically examined. The sensitivity is defined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> of yield in response to the <span class="hlt">change</span> of climatic condition in the growth period from sowing to harvesting. The objective crops are maize and soybean, which are being cultivated in United States, Brazil and China as the world major production countries. We collected the yield data of maize and soybean on county level of United States from USDA during a period of 1980-2006, on Município level of Brazil during a period of 1990-2006 and on Xiàn level of China during a period of 1980-2005. While the data on only four provinces in China are used (Heilongjiang, Henan, Liaoning, and Shandong), total production of the four provinces reaches about 40% (maize) and 51% (soybean) to the country total (USDA 1997). We used JRA-25 reanalysis climate data distributed from the Japanese Meteorological Agency during a period of 1980 through 2006 with a resolution of 1.125° in latitude and longitude. To coincide in resolution, the crop yield data were reallocated into the same grids as climate. To eliminate economical and technical effects on yield, we detrended the time series data of yield and climate. We applied a local regression model to conduct the detrend (cubic weighting and M estimator of Tukey's bi-weight function). The time series data on the deviation from the trend were examined with the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for each grid using the particle filter. The particle filter used here is based on self-organizing state-space model. As a result, in the northern hemisphere, positive sensitivity, i.e. increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts the crop yield positively, is generally found especially in higher latitude, while negative sensitivity is found in the lower latitude. The neutral sensitivity is found in the regions where the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during growing season</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5186/pdf/sir2014-5186.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5186/pdf/sir2014-5186.pdf"><span>A model for evaluating stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stewart, Jana S.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Kammel, Leah E.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Integrating the SWB Model with the ANN Model provided a mechanism by which downscaled global or regional climate model results could be used to estimate the potential effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on future stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a daily time step. To address future climate scenarios, statistically downscaled air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation projections from 10 GCMs and 2 time periods were used with the SWB-ANNv1 Model to project future stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Projections of future stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at mid- (2046–65) and late- (2081–2100) 21st century showed the July mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increasing for all stream segments with about 80 percent of stream kilometers increasing by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius (°C) by mid-century and about 99 percent increasing by 1 to 3 °C by late-century. Projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also affected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal classes with a loss in the total amount of cold-water, cold-transition, and warm-transition thermal habitat and a gain in warm-water and very warm thermal habitat for both mid- and late-21st century time periods. The greatest losses occurred for cold-water streams and the greatest gains for warm-water streams, with a contraction of cold-water streams in the Driftless Area of western and southern Wisconsin and an expansion of warm-water streams across northern Wisconsin. Results of this study suggest that such <span class="hlt">changes</span> will affect the composition of fish assemblages, with a loss of suitable habitat for cold-water fishes and gain in suitable habitat for warm-water fishes. In the end, these projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal habitat attributable to climate may result in a net loss of fisheries, because many warm-water species may be unable to colonize habitats formerly occupied by cold-water species because of other habitat limitations (e.g., stream size, gradient). Although projected stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may vary greatly, depending on the emissions scenario and models used, the results presented in this report represent one</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A33D0938N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A33D0938N"><span>Arctic Weather <span class="hlt">Change</span>: Linking Indigenous (Inuit) Observations With the Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noonan, G. J.; Weatherhead, E. C.; Gearheard, S.; Barry, R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Inuit observations in the Artic describe increasing unpredictability in the weather. In an effort to link their reports with scientific data, we analyzed time series of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from two stations; Baker Lake and Clyde River, located in Nunavut, Canada. 52 year records (1953-2004) of hourly WMO weather station <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were utilized for a statistical assessment at the two locations. Large positive trends in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were observed at both sites. Hourly and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences were then calculated noting that a positive tendency in results may be indicative of recent variability. This was not seen. Further examination focused on a possible increase or decrease in frontal activity; these results displayed little <span class="hlt">change</span> in the magnitude of frontal activity in both locations. Very small <span class="hlt">changes</span> were observed in the variance, with a tendency toward higher values. It is difficult to understand how these small <span class="hlt">changes</span> in variance could be easily observable by the Inuit, although the ramification of a small <span class="hlt">change</span> in variance may be more easily observed. Finally, day-to-day autocorrelation was calculated as a way to quantify the persistence of weather. A strong <span class="hlt">change</span> was noted in June at Baker Lake. At the beginning of the time series (1953 - 1990) autocorrelation values were typically in the 0.8 +- 0.1 range, in the 1990's they were often around 0.4. These results show a marked <span class="hlt">change</span> in the persistence of weather for this month. We will need to explore further if such an outcome can be used to estimate the predictability of weather and estimate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in weather patterns. These initial results, however, are promising and point to a distinct <span class="hlt">change</span> in the nature and predictability of weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4061W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4061W"><span>Monitoring of WUT grand hall roof in conditions of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wozniak, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The geodetic control measurements of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in object's geometry should satisfy high accuracy and reliability. New tacheometers equipped with Automatic Target Recognition automatically moves the telescope to the center of the prism and supports control points measurements. The accuracy of using ATR system and stability of instrument in precise measurements were controlled in laboratory and field conditions. This paper will present the results of monitoring measurements using Leica TDA 5005 during investigations of roof geometry in conditions of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3174G"><span>Kamchatkan Volcanoes Explosive Eruptions in 2014 and <span class="hlt">Danger</span> to Aviation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014, three of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of small particles of ash below the operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2014: on January 08 and 12, May 12, September 24, October 02 and 28, November 16, 22 and 26, and December 05, 17, 26 and 29: ash plumes rose up to 9-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the eastern and western directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on January 12, June 11, and November 16). Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to international and local aviation. Karymsky volcano has been in a state of explosive eruption since 1996. The moderate ash explosions of this volcano were noting during 2014: from March 24 till April 02; and from September 03 till December 10. Ash plumes rose up to 5 km a.s.l. and extended more 300 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to local aviation. Explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky volcano began on June 06, 2014 and continues in January 2015 too. Ash explosions rose up to 8-10 km a.s.l. on June 19, September 05 and 07, October 11</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620574"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dependent mortality and behavioral <span class="hlt">changes</span> in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis to dimethoate exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Shobha; Das, Vijai Krishna</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is a crucial determinant of biogeography, directly affecting the behavioral responses of the organisms. An acute static bioassay was conducted to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on dimethoate toxicity in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis. The mussel, were exposed for 96 hr at different concentrations of dimethoate (155.00, 160.00, 165.00, 170.00, 175.00, 180.00, 185.00, 190.00, 195.00, and 200.00 mgl(-1)) in the month of January when water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 14.9 +/- 1.2 degrees C and at concentration 35.00, 37.00, 39.00, 41.00, 43.00, 45.00, 47.00, and 49.00 mgl(-1) in the month of August when the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 28.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The LC50 values were calculated from the mortality data obtained (using EPA-Probit analysis version 1.5, statistical software). The 96 hr LC50 value recorded at higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 36.34 mgl(-1) and at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 163.59 mgl(-1). The mussel exposed at higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed more sensitive behavioral responses like huge mucus secretion, sudden closure of shell valves, quick post-mortem <span class="hlt">changes</span> and increased oxygen consumption in comparison to exposure at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the increasing threat of global warming increases the risk of pesticide toxicity in the exposed organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC12C..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC12C..04M"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in major cropping systems and their relation to agricultural land use <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; Siebert, S.; Holbrook, N. M.; Huybers, P. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by altering the surface energy budget. Here we investigate growing season climate trends in major cropping systems and their relationship with agricultural land use <span class="hlt">change</span>. In the US Midwest, 100-year trends exhibit a transition towards more favorable conditions, with cooler summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes and increased precipitation. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an important influence on historical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that cooling is primarily associated with agricultural intensification increasing the potential for evapotranspiration, consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> percentiles, and that increased evapotranspiration generally leads to greater precipitation. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> revert to historically high extremes. Preliminary results indicate these relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes, irrigation, and intensification are also observed in other major summer cropping systems, including northeast China, Argentina, and the Canadian Prairies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19132875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19132875"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-induced microstructural <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ionic liquid-based microemulsions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Yanan; Li, Na; Hilfert, Liane; Zhang, Shaohua; Zheng, Liqiang; Yu, Li</p> <p>2009-02-03</p> <p>In the present contribution, results concerning the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 based 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4)-in-cyclohexane and bmimBF4-in-toluene ionic liquid (IL) reverse microemulsions are reported. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) along with freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) measurements revealed that the sizes of single microemulsion droplets increased with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, a decreased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> led to the appearance of droplet clusters, which have also been observed previously when the single microemulsion droplets were swollen by added bmimBF4 to a certain extent (Gao, Y. A.; Vogit, A.; Hilfert, L.; Sundmacher, K. ChemPhysChem, 2008, 9, 1603-1609). Compared to traditional aqueous microemulsions, IL microemulsions revealed relatively high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independence. The droplet-shaped microstructure was always kept in a large range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independence is ascribed to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-insensitive electrostatic attraction between the solubilized bmimBF4 and Triton X-100, which was considered to be the driving force for solubilizing bmimBF4 into the cores of Triton X-100 aggregates. Two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments (ROESY) further confirmed the microstructural <span class="hlt">change</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMGC44A..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMGC44A..06B"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> inferred from borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: minimal "snow effect" from North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartlett, M. G.; Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles contain information about surface ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories over time scales of several centuries and in particular prior to the widespread availability of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records [Huang et al, Nature, 2000; Harris and Chapman, GRL, 2001]. Borehole-based reconstructions on the regional and hemispheric scale yield significantly different magnitudes of warming in the past 500 years when compared to proxy-based reconstructions. Borehole reconstructions suggest that the Northern Hemisphere warming has been about 1.1 ° C while proxy methods indicate warming closer to 0.7 ° C [Mann et al, Nature, 1999]. One suggested reconciliation of borehole and proxy reconstructions is that long-term variations in seasonal snow cover may bias the borehole record. A spurious long-term warming signal relative to SAT trends could be introduced by alteration of the duration or onset of seasonal snow cover over the course of decades or longer. We have developed a "snow effect" model that predicts transient warming or cooling of the surface ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the onset, duration, and depth of snow events [Bartlett et al, in review]. We use our model to compute the response of ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the regional scale to seasonal snow cover of the past century in North America. Snow and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data used in the model come from the United States Historical Climatology Network (NOAA-NCDC NDP-070) and the Canadian Daily Climatic Dataset (CDCD). Results indicate that variations in snow onset and duration have had the greatest influence in Central North America, leading to ground warming on the order of 0.1-0.2 ° C / 100 yrs in this region relative to SAT trends. Other regions within North America have experienced negligible effects over the past century. We conclude that the magnitude of the snow effect in North America is insufficient to reconcile completely regional borehole and proxy reconstructions of climate <span class="hlt">change</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6986B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6986B"><span>Mean ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> over the last glacial transition based on atmospheric <span class="hlt">changes</span> in heavy noble mixing ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bereiter, Bernhard; Severinghaus, Jeff; Shackleton, Sarah; Baggenstos, Daniel; Kawamura, Kenji</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>On paleo-climatic timescales heavy noble gases (Krypton and Xenon) are passively cycled through the atmosphere-ocean system without seeing any significant sink or source. Since the solubility in water of each gas species is characterized by a specific <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependency, mixing ratios in the atmosphere <span class="hlt">change</span> with <span class="hlt">changing</span> ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In this study, we use this fact to reconstruct mean global ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (MOT) over the course of the last glacial transition based on measurements of trapped air in the WAIS Divide ice core. We analyzed 70 ice samples with a recently developed method which determines the isotopic ratios of N2, Ar, Kr (and in some cases also of Xe, though with less precision) and the elemental ratios of Kr/N2, Xe/N2 and Xe/Kr. We use the isotope ratios to correct the elemental ratios for gravitational enrichment in the firn column. The corrected elemental ratios are then used in a simple box model to reconstruct MOT. The three elemental ratio pairs are first interpreted as independent measures of MOT and then combined to a single "best-estimate" MOT record with an average uncertainty of 0.27°C. We find a clear link to Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a LGM-Holocene <span class="hlt">change</span> in MOT of 2.4°C. This value is in good agreement with results from marine sediment cores (which, however, have an uncertainty of 1°C). Our record provides an unprecedented constrain on ocean heat uptake over the last glacial transition and therefore gives new insights in the mechanisms underlying long term ocean heat fluxes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that MOT has been reconstructed in such great detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..339H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..339H"><span>Microbial community responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase the potential for soil carbon losses under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartley, Iain; Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc; Hopkins, David; Prosser, Jim; Singh, Brajesh; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip; Ågren, Göran</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>There are concerns that global warming may stimulate decomposition rates in soils, with the extra CO2 released representing a positive feedback to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, there is growing recognition that adaptation of soil microbial communities to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> may alter the potential rate of carbon release. Critically, recent studies have produced conflicting results in terms of whether the medium-term soil microbial community response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reduces (compensatory thermal adaptation) or enhances (enhancing thermal adaptation) the instantaneous direct positive effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on microbial activity. This lack of understanding adds considerably to uncertainty in predictions of the magnitude and direction of carbon-cycle feedbacks to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this talk, I present results from one of the most extensive investigations ever undertaken into the role that microbial adaptation plays in controlling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of decomposition. Soils were collected from a range of ecosystem types, representing a thermal gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon. Our novel soil-cooling approach minimises issues associated with substrate depletion in warming studies, but still tests whether adaptation enhances or reduces the direct impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on microbial activity. We also investigated the mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microbial respiration by quantifying <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microbial community composition, microbial biomass, mass-specific activity, carbon-use efficiency, and enzyme activities. Our results indicate that enhancing responses are much more common than compensatory thermal acclimation, with the latter being observed in less than 10% of cases. However, identifying the mechanisms underlying enhancing and compensatory adaptation remained elusive. No consistent <span class="hlt">changes</span> were observed in terms of mass-specific activity, biomass or enzyme activity, indicating that current theory is inadequate in explaining observed patterns</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817661H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817661H"><span>The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> over China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after tropical volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport,therefore winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V51F3109S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V51F3109S"><span>The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> over China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, D.; Hao, Z.; Zheng, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after equatorial volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport therefore winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115514"><span>Regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> under high-end (≥4°C) global warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanderson, M G; Hemming, D L; Betts, R A</p> <p>2011-01-13</p> <p>Climate models vary widely in their projections of both global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise and regional climate <span class="hlt">changes</span>, but are there any systematic differences in regional <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with different levels of global climate sensitivity? This paper examines model projections of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> over the twenty-first century from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Fourth Assessment Report which used the A2 scenario from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, assessing whether different regional responses can be seen in models categorized as 'high-end' (those projecting 4°C or more by the end of the twenty-first century relative to the preindustrial). It also identifies regions where the largest climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> are projected under high-end warming. The mean spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">change</span>, normalized against the global rate of warming, are generally similar in high-end and 'non-high-end' simulations. The exception is the higher latitudes, where land areas warm relatively faster in boreal summer in high-end models, but sea ice areas show varying differences in boreal winter. Many continental interiors warm approximately twice as fast as the global average, with this being particularly accentuated in boreal summer, and the winter-time Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise more than three times faster than the global average. Large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and precipitation decreases are projected in some of the regions that currently experience water resource pressures, including Mediterranean fringe regions, indicating enhanced pressure on water resources in these areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51C0063D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51C0063D"><span>Climate Dynamics and Global <span class="hlt">Change</span>: <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Precipitation, and Circulation in GFDL Aqua-Planet Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dinh, T.; Fueglistaler, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Numerical experiments are carried out using the GFDL General Circulation Model to assess climate sensitivity associated with CO2 increase and surface warming. This work is motivated by the calculation by Cess and Potter (1988, JGR), who proposed that surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbations may be used as a surrogate for climate <span class="hlt">change</span> induced by CO2 increase.We compare climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> due to CO2 increase in slab-ocean simulations with <span class="hlt">changes</span> forced by surface warming in prescribed-surface-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulations with fixed CO2 (Cess-type experiments). We found that slab-ocean and Cess-type experiments give the same rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> per degree surface warming for the global atmosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and circulation strength. However, the global precipitation increases almost twice as slowly in slab-ocean runs (1.5%/K) when compared to Cess-type runs (2.8%/K). Therefore, we caution that Cess-type experiments may not be suitable for studying global precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19380730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19380730"><span>Spatial and seasonal patterns in climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and precipitation across the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Portmann, Robert W; Solomon, Susan; Hegerl, Gabriele C</p> <p>2009-05-05</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in climate during the 20th century differ from region to region across the United States. We provide strong evidence that spatial variations in US <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are linked to the hydrologic cycle, and we also present unique information on the seasonal and latitudinal structure of the linkage. We show that there is a statistically significant inverse relationship between trends in daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and average daily precipitation across regions. This linkage is most pronounced in the southern United States (30-40 degrees N) during the May-June time period and, to a lesser extent, in the northern United States (40-50 degrees N) during the July-August time period. It is strongest in trends in maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T(max)) and 90th percentile exceedance trends (90PET), and less pronounced in the T(max) 10PET and the corresponding T(min) statistics, and it is robust to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in analysis period. Although previous studies suggest that areas of increased precipitation may have reduced trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compared with drier regions, a <span class="hlt">change</span> in sign from positive to negative trends suggests some additional cause. We show that trends in precipitation may account for some, but not likely all, of the cause point to evidence that shows that dynamical patterns (El Niño/Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, etc.) cannot account for the observed effects during May-June. We speculate that <span class="hlt">changing</span> aerosols, perhaps related to vegetation <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and increased strength of the aerosol direct and indirect effect may play a role in the observed linkages between these indices of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and the hydrologic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16846383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16846383"><span>Impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on parasitoids in a climate <span class="hlt">change</span> perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hance, Thierry; van Baaren, Joan; Vernon, Philippe; Boivin, Guy</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Parasitoids depend on a series of adaptations to the ecology and physiology of their hosts and host plants for survival and are thus likely highly susceptible to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in environmental conditions. We analyze the effects of global warming and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the life-history traits of parasitoids and interactions with their hosts. Adaptations of parasitoids to low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are similar to those of most ectotherms, but these adaptations are constrained by the responses of their hosts. Life-history traits are affected by cold exposure, and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can reduce endosymbiont populations inside a parasitoid, eventually eliminating populations of endosymbionts that are susceptible to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In several cases, divergences between the thermal preferences of the host and those of the parasitoid lead to a disruption of the temporal or geographical synchronization, increasing the risk of host outbreaks. A careful analysis on how host-parasitoid systems react to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is needed so that researchers may predict and manage the consequences of global <span class="hlt">change</span> at the ecosystem level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0764C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0764C"><span>An Observationally-Centred Method to Quantify the <span class="hlt">Changing</span> Shape of Local <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, S. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Watkins, N. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>For climate sensitive decisions and adaptation planning, guidance on how local climate is <span class="hlt">changing</span> is needed at the specific thresholds relevant to particular impacts or policy endeavours. This requires the quantification of how the distributions of variables, such as daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, are <span class="hlt">changing</span> at specific quantiles. These <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions are non-normal and vary both geographically and in time. We present a method[1,2] for analysing local climatic time series data to assess which quantiles of the local climatic distribution show the greatest and most robust <span class="hlt">changes</span>. We have demonstrated this approach using the E-OBS gridded dataset[3] which consists of time series of local daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across Europe over the last 60 years. Our method extracts the <span class="hlt">changing</span> cumulative distribution function over time and uses a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. The <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be tracked at a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold, at a likelihood, or at a given return time, independently for each geographical location. Geographical correlations are thus an output of our method and reflect both climatic properties (local and synoptic), and spatial correlations inherent in the observation methodology. We find as an output many regionally consistent patterns of response of potential value in adaptation planning. For instance, in a band from Northern France to Denmark the hottest days in the summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution have seen <span class="hlt">changes</span> of at least 2°C over a 43 year period; over four times the global mean <span class="hlt">change</span> over the same period. We discuss methods to quantify the robustness of these observed sensitivities and their statistical likelihood. This approach also quantifies the level of detail at which one might wish to see agreement between climate models and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557745"><span>Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fatty acid composition in response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> often involves <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1863C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1863C"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches and seasonal effect modification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Desheng; Xie, Mingyu; Yang, Huihui; Wen, Liying; Li, Kesheng; Su, Hong</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Ambulance dispatch is a proxy of acute health outcomes, and growing epidemiological evidence documented its relation to extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Research, however, on short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and ambulance dispatches is scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches and potential modification by season. Daily data on ambulance dispatch and weather factors were collected in Huainan, a Chinese inland city from December 2011 through December 2013. A Poison generalized linear regression model combined with distributed lag nonlinear model was constructed to examine the association of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> between neighboring days (TCN) with ambulance dispatches. The effect modification by season was also examined. There were 48,700 ambulance attendances during the study period. A statistically significant association of TCN with ambulance dispatches was observed. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) was associated with elevated adverse risk of ambulance dispatches, and the effects appeared to be acute (lag0, on the current day) and could last for at least a week, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect. For a 1 °C increase of TCN at lag0 and lag06 (on the 7-day moving average), the risk of ambulance dispatches increased by 2 % (95 % CI 1-3 %) and 7 (95 % CI 1-13 %), respectively. Extreme TCN increase (95th percentile, 3.3 °C vs. 0 °C) at lag0 and lag05 was accompanied by 6 (95 % CI 3-8 %) and 27 % (95 % CI 12-44 %) increase in ambulance dispatches. Ambulance dispatches were more vulnerable to extremely great <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in summer and autumn. TCN was adopted for the first time to quantify the impact of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect on ambulance dispatches, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) could acutely trigger the increase in</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10070804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10070804"><span>Comparison of four magnetic resonance methods for mapping small <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wlodarczyk, W; Hentschel, M; Wust, P; Noeske, R; Hosten, N; Rinneberg, H; Felix, R</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>Non-invasive detection of small <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> (< 1 degree C) is pivotal to the further advance of regional hyperthermia as a treatment modality for deep-seated tumours. Magnetic resonance (MR) thermography methods are considered to be a promising approach. Four methods exploiting <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent parameters were evaluated in phantom experiments. The investigated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicators were spin-lattice relaxation time T1, diffusion coefficient D, shift of water proton resonance frequency (water PRF) and resonance frequency shift of the methoxy group of the praseodymium complex (Pr probe). The respective pulse sequences employed to detect <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent signal <span class="hlt">changes</span> were the multiple readout single inversion recovery (T One by Multiple Read Out Pulses; TOMROP), the pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE), the fast low-angle shot (FLASH) with phase difference reconstruction, and the classical chemical shift imaging (CSI). Applying these sequences, experiments were performed in two separate and consecutive steps. In the first step, calibration curves were recorded for all four methods. In the second step, applying these calibration data, maps of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were generated and verified. With the equal total acquisition time of approximately 4 min for all four methods, the uncertainties of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> derived from the calibration curves were less than 1 degree C (Pr probe 0.11 degrees C, water PRF 0.22 degrees C, D 0.48 degrees C and T1 0.93 degrees C). The corresponding maps of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> exhibited slightly higher errors but still in the range or less than 1 degree C (0.97 degrees C, 0.41 degrees C, 0.70 degrees C, 1.06 degrees C respectively). The calibration results indicate the Pr probe method to be most sensitive and accurate. However, this advantage could only be partially transferred to the thermographic maps because of the coarse 16 x 16 matrix of the classical CSI sequence. Therefore, at present the water PRF method appears</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=236373&keyword=Mouth&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85802518&CFTOKEN=59830476','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=236373&keyword=Mouth&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85802518&CFTOKEN=59830476"><span>Effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on water properties in estuaries along the Pacific coast of the Unit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJCli..22.1757V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJCli..22.1757V"><span>The influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the timing of pollen release in the Netherlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Overeem, Aart; de Groot, Rudolf S.; Jacobs, Adrie F. G.; Spieksma, Frits T. M.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>In the last decade it has become clear that the timing of many phenological processes, like the start of flowering and leaf unfolding in spring, have <span class="hlt">changed</span>. The increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is believed to be the main cause. The earlier start of flowering will have consequences for the start of the pollen season, and thus for the start of the hay fever season. Millions of people world-wide will therefore experience the impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in their daily lives during spring and summer. In this paper we analyse the relation between climate parameters, especially <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the start of the pollen season in the western part of the Netherlands based on daily pollen counts of the Leiden University Medical Centre and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements from 1969 till 2000 by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute in De Bilt. The results indicate that there is a strong correlation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and start of the pollen season. An advance of the start of the pollen season of 3 to 22 days has been observed. The potential future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the start of the pollen season under climate <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27245575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27245575"><span>Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> using an isothermal approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Both air-sea heat exchanges and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via <span class="hlt">changes</span> in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887871','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887871"><span>Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> using an isothermal approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both air-sea heat exchanges and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via <span class="hlt">changes</span> in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived. PMID:27245575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMPC..16..389S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMPC..16..389S"><span>Simulation and Experiment of Extinction or Adaptation of Biological Species after <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stauffer, D.; Arndt, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Can unicellular organisms survive a drastic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, and adapt to it after many generations? In simulations of the Penna model of biological aging, both extinction and adaptation were found for asexual and sexual reproduction as well as for parasex. These model investigations are the basis for the design of evolution experiments with heterotrophic flagellates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=3&id=EJ1068332','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=3&id=EJ1068332"><span>The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to <span class="hlt">Change</span> Students' Conceptions of Heat and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or <span class="hlt">change</span> and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...71R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...71R"><span>Understanding the joint behavior of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impact studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Qin, Yueyue</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The multiple downscaled scenario products allow us to assess the uncertainty of the variations of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and future periods. Probabilistic assessments of both climatic variables help better understand the interdependence of the two and thus, in turn, help in assessing the future with confidence. In the present study, we use ensemble of statistically downscaled precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from various models. The dataset used is multi-model ensemble of 10 global climate models (GCMs) downscaled product from CMIP5 daily dataset using the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, generated at Portland State University. The multi-model ensemble of both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is evaluated for dry and wet periods for 10 sub-basins across Columbia River Basin (CRB). Thereafter, copula is applied to establish the joint distribution of two variables on multi-model ensemble data. The joint distribution is then used to estimate the <span class="hlt">change</span> in trends of said variables in future, along with estimation of the probabilities of the given <span class="hlt">change</span>. The joint distribution trends vary, but certainly positive, for dry and wet periods in sub-basins of CRB. Dry season, generally, is indicating a higher positive <span class="hlt">change</span> in precipitation than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (as compared to historical) across sub-basins with wet season inferring otherwise. Probabilities of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in future, as estimated from the joint distribution, indicate varied degrees and forms during dry season whereas the wet season is rather constant across all the sub-basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASS...31..141J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASS...31..141J"><span>Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> During Day and Night</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Jongil; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007) have analyzed the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007). Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...626926W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...626926W"><span>Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> using an isothermal approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Both air-sea heat exchanges and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via <span class="hlt">changes</span> in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24996362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24996362"><span><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries stored at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Chunlei; Cheng, Shunchang; Wei, Baodong; Liu, Xiuying; Ji, Shujuan</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> storage and transport of blueberries is widely practiced in commercial blueberry production. In this research, the storage life of blueberries was extended at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but fruit stored for 30 d at 0°C pitted after 2d at room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Fruit cellular structure and physiological parameters accompanying pitting in blueberries were <span class="hlt">changed</span>. The objective of this research was to characterise properties of energy metabolism accompanying pitting in blueberries during storage, including adenosine phosphates and mitochondrial enzymes involved in stress responses. Physiological and metabolic disorders, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cell ultrastructure, energy content and ATPase enzyme activity were observed in pitting blueberries. Energy shortages and increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were observed in fruit kept at shelf life. The results suggested that sufficient available energy status and a stable enzymatic system in blueberries collectively contribute to improve chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating pitting and maintaining quality of blueberry fruit in long-term cold storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...tmp...47A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...tmp...47A"><span>Modeling the impact of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the climate of West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adeniyi, Mojisola O.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This study assesses the impacts of warming/cooling of the Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) on the climate of West Africa using Version 4.4 of Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The 1-2 K cooling and warming of the Atlantic SST both result in tripole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> structure, having a northwest-southeast orientation over West Africa. Findings reveal that the responses of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the Atlantic SST cooling are opposite to those for the Atlantic SST warming and these responses intensify with increased warming/cooling of the Atlantic SST. The structure of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in climate is attributed to the response of atmospheric/soil moisture gradient and orientation of orography in West Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559666"><span>Prediction of color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in acetaminophen solution using the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> superposition principle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mochizuki, Koji; Takayama, Kozo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A prediction method for color <span class="hlt">changes</span> based on the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> superposition principle (TTSP) was developed for acetaminophen solution. Color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution are caused by the degradation of acetaminophen, such as hydrolysis and oxidation. In principle, the TTSP can be applied to only thermal aging. Therefore, the impact of oxidation on the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution was verified. The results of our experiment suggested that the oxidation products enhanced the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in acetaminophen solution. Next, the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution samples of the same head space volume after accelerated aging at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were investigated using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) LAB color space (a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab), following which the TTSP was adopted to kinetic analysis of the color <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The apparent activation energies using the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift factor of a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab were calculated as 72.4, 69.2, 72.3 and 70.9 (kJ/mol), respectively, which are similar to the values for acetaminophen hydrolysis reported in the literature. The predicted values of a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab at 40 °C were obtained by calculation using Arrhenius plots. A comparison between the experimental and predicted values for each color parameter revealed sufficiently high R(2) values (>0.98), suggesting the high reliability of the prediction. The kinetic analysis using TTSP was successfully applied to predicting the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> under the controlled oxygen amount at any <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and for any length of time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907851"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> uncertainty for daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: a model inter-comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobell, D; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P</p> <p>2006-11-09</p> <p>Several impacts of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may depend more on <span class="hlt">changes</span> in mean daily minimum (T{sub min}) or maximum (T{sub max}) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than daily averages. To evaluate uncertainties in these variables, we compared projections of T{sub min} and T{sub max} <span class="hlt">changes</span> by 2046-2065 for 12 climate models under an A2 emission scenario. Average modeled <span class="hlt">changes</span> in T{sub max} were slightly lower in most locations than T{sub min}, consistent with historical trends exhibiting a reduction in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges. However, while average <span class="hlt">changes</span> in T{sub min} and T{sub max} were similar, the inter-model variability of T{sub min} and T{sub max} projections exhibited substantial differences. For example, inter-model standard deviations of June-August T{sub max} <span class="hlt">changes</span> were more than 50% greater than for T{sub min} throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia. Model differences in cloud <span class="hlt">changes</span>, which exert relatively greater influence on T{sub max} during summer and T{sub min} during winter, were identified as the main source of uncertainty disparities. These results highlight the importance of considering separately projections for T{sub max} and T{sub min} when assessing climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts, even in cases where average projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> are similar. In addition, impacts that are most sensitive to summertime T{sub min} or wintertime T{sub max} may be more predictable than suggested by analyses using only projections of daily average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27067101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27067101"><span>Antipredator behaviours of a spider mite in response to cues of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> and harmless predators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span>, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (<span class="hlt">changes</span> in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predators than with cues of harmless predators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159714','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159714"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnitude of groundwater discharge from shallow, unconfined aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kurylyk, Barret L.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T.B; Voss, Clifford I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Cold groundwater discharge to streams and rivers can provide critical thermal refuge for threatened salmonids and other aquatic species during warm summer periods. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may influence groundwater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and flow rates, which may in turn impact riverine ecosystems. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the timing, magnitude, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of groundwater discharge from small, unconfined aquifers that undergo seasonal freezing and thawing. Seven downscaled climate scenarios for 2046–2065 were utilized to drive surficial water and energy balance models (HELP3 and ForHyM2) to obtain future projections for daily ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and groundwater recharge. These future surface conditions were then applied as boundary conditions to drive subsurface simulations of variably saturated groundwater flow and energy transport. The subsurface simulations were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey finite element model SUTRA that was recently modified to include the dynamic freeze-thaw process. The SUTRA simulations indicate a potential rise in the magnitude (up to 34%) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (up to 3.6°C) of groundwater discharge to the adjacent river during the summer months due to projected increases in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. The thermal response of groundwater to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is shown to be strongly dependent on the aquifer dimensions. Thus, the simulations demonstrate that the thermal sensitivity of aquifers and baseflow-dominated streams to decadal climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may be more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, the results indicate that the probability of exceeding critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds within groundwater-sourced thermal refugia may significantly increase under the most extreme climate scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20g8001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20g8001M"><span>Analysis of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during excimer laser ablation in porcine eyes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mosquera, Samuel Arba; Verma, Shwetabh</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The objective is to characterize the impact of different ablation parameters on the thermal load during corneal refractive surgery by means of excimer laser ablation on porcine eyes. One hundred eleven ablations were performed in 105 porcine eyes. Each ablation was recorded using infrared thermography and analyzed mainly based on the two tested local frequencies (40 Hz, clinical local frequency; 1000 Hz, no local frequency). The <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was analyzed with respect to varying ablation parameters [local frequency, system repetition rate, pulse energy, optical zone (OZ) size, and refractive correction]. Transepithelial ablations were also compared to intrastromal ablations. The average of the baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across all eyes was 20.5°C±1.1 (17.7°C to 22.2°C). Average of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for all clinical local frequency ablations was 5.8°C±0.8 (p=3.3E-53 to baseline), whereas the average was 9.0°C±1.5 for all no local frequency ablations (p=1.8E-35 to baseline, 1.6E-16 to clinical local frequency ablations). A logarithmic relationship was observed between the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with increasing local frequency. For clinical local frequency, <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was comparatively flat (r2=0.68 with a range of 1.5°C) with increasing system repetition rate and increased linearly with increasing OZ size (r2=0.95 with a range of 2.4°C). Local frequency controls help maintain safe corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase during excimer laser ablations. Transepithelial ablations induce higher thermal load compared to intrastromal ablations, indicating a need for stronger thermal controls in transepithelial refractive procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.3253K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.3253K"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnitude of groundwater discharge from shallow, unconfined aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurylyk, Barret L.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Cold groundwater discharge to streams and rivers can provide critical thermal refuge for threatened salmonids and other aquatic species during warm summer periods. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may influence groundwater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and flow rates, which may in turn impact riverine ecosystems. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the timing, magnitude, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of groundwater discharge from small, unconfined aquifers that undergo seasonal freezing and thawing. Seven downscaled climate scenarios for 2046-2065 were utilized to drive surficial water and energy balance models (HELP3 and ForHyM2) to obtain future projections for daily ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and groundwater recharge. These future surface conditions were then applied as boundary conditions to drive subsurface simulations of variably saturated groundwater flow and energy transport. The subsurface simulations were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey finite element model SUTRA that was recently modified to include the dynamic freeze-thaw process. The SUTRA simulations indicate a potential rise in the magnitude (up to 34%) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (up to 3.6°C) of groundwater discharge to the adjacent river during the summer months due to projected increases in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. The thermal response of groundwater to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is shown to be strongly dependent on the aquifer dimensions. Thus, the simulations demonstrate that the thermal sensitivity of aquifers and baseflow-dominated streams to decadal climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may be more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, the results indicate that the probability of exceeding critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds within groundwater-sourced thermal refugia may significantly increase under the most extreme climate scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26140460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26140460"><span>Analysis of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during excimer laser ablation in porcine eyes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Verma, Shwetabh</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The objective is to characterize the impact of different ablation parameters on the thermal load during corneal refractive surgery by means of excimer laser ablation on porcine eyes. One hundred eleven ablations were performed in 105 porcine eyes. Each ablation was recorded using infrared thermography and analyzed mainly based on the two tested local frequencies (40 Hz, clinical local frequency; 1000 Hz, no local frequency). The <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was analyzed with respect to varying ablation parameters [local frequency, system repetition rate, pulse energy, optical zone (OZ) size, and refractive correction]. Transepithelial ablations were also compared to intrastromal ablations. The average of the baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across all eyes was 20.5°C±1.1 (17.7°C to 22.2°C). Average of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for all clinical local frequency ablations was 5.8°C±0.8 (p=3.3E-53 to baseline), whereas the average was 9.0°C±1.5 for all no local frequency ablations (p=1.8E-35 to baseline, 1.6E-16 to clinical local frequency ablations). A logarithmic relationship was observed between the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with increasing local frequency. For clinical local frequency, <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was comparatively flat (r 2 =0.68 with a range of 1.5°C) with increasing system repetition rate and increased linearly with increasing OZ size (r 2 =0.95 with a range of 2.4°C). Local frequency controls help maintain safe corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase during excimer laser ablations. Transepithelial ablations induce higher thermal load compared to intrastromal ablations, indicating a need for stronger thermal controls in transepithelial refractive procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16376359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16376359"><span>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the heat capacity <span class="hlt">change</span> for micellization of nonionic surfactants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kresheck, Gordon C</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>The thermodynamic parameters that govern micelle formation by four different nonionic surfactants were investigated by ITC and DSC. These included n-dodecyldimethylphosphine oxide (APO12), Triton X-100 (TX-100), n-octyltetraoxyethylene (C8E4), and N,N-dimethyloctylamine-N-oxide (DAO8). All of these surfactants had been previously investigated by solution calorimetry over smaller <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges with conflicting conclusions as to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the heat capacity <span class="hlt">change</span>, DeltaCp, for the process. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient of the heat capacity <span class="hlt">change</span>, B (cal/mol K2), was derived from the enthalpy data that were obtained at small intervals over a broad <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The values obtained for each of the surfactants at 298.2 K for DeltaCp and B were -155+/-2 and 0.50+/-0.36 (APO12), -97+/-3 and -0.24+/-0.18 (TX-100), -105+/-2 and 1.0+/-0.3 (C8E4), and -82+/-1 and 0.36+/-0.04 (DAO8), cal/mol K and cal/mol K2, respectively. The resulting B-values did not correlate with the cmc, aggregation number, or structure of the monomer in an obvious way, but they were found to reflect the relative <span class="hlt">changes</span> in hydration of the polar and nonpolar portions of the surfactant molecule as the micelles are formed. An analysis of the data obtained from DSC scans was used to describe the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the critical micelle concentration, cmc. An abrupt increase in heat capacity was observed for TX-100 and C8E4 solutions of 36.5+/-0.5 and 21+/-5 cal/mol K, respectively, as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the scan passed through the cloud point. This <span class="hlt">change</span> in heat capacity may reflect the increased monomer concentration of the solutions that accompanies phase separation, although other interpretations of this jump are possible.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1318915','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1318915"><span>Ankle and Thigh Skin Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> With Repeated Ice Pack Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Palmer, Janice E.; Knight, Kenneth L.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Most of the research on cold applications has been performed on nonexercising supine subjects during a single cold pack application. Most athletic injuries occur during exercise, which increases skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Exercise before ice application will also increase ankle skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the rewarming phase. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of activity on subsequent ice pack applications and rewarming using standard immediate care procedures. Design and Setting: Three experimental conditions (20-, 30-, and 40-minute ice pack applications) were applied to 12 subjects in a repeated measures design. Subjects rode a bicycle ergometer for 15 minutes before ice application to the ankle and opposite thigh, and were active (walking with crutches, simulated showering and dressing) for 20 minutes following application. Subjects rested with the limb elevated for an additional 40 minutes. Ice packs were then reapplied for the appropriate time (20, 30, or 40 minutes) followed by 60 minutes of rest with the limb elevated. Subjects: Twelve (8 males, 4 females) college-aged volunteers. Only subjects with good-to-high fitness levels were accepted for this study. Measurements: Ankle skin, thigh skin, and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured every minute using an Isothermex (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH). Results: Thigh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the first ice application were greater during the 30- and 40-minute conditions than the 20-minute condition. Ankle and thigh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the first ice application and rewarming, and for the entire trial were greater during the 40-minute condition than the 20-or 30-minute conditions. Throughout the first ice application and rewarming, and the entire trial, thigh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were greater during the 30-minute condition than the 20-minute condition. Conclusions: During immediate care procedures following injury, ice packs should be reapplied immediately following showering</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8938E..0RS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8938E..0RS"><span>Quantifying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in tissue-mimicking fluid phantoms using optical coherence tomography and envelope statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seevaratnam, Subaagari; Bains, Amitpal; Farid, Mashal; Farhat, Golnaz; Kolios, Michael; Standish, Beau A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Several therapies make use of a hypo or hyperthermia tissue environment to induce cell death in both benign and malignant tumors. Current progression in optical technologies, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) sensors, could potentially provide viable information to explore the response of tissue when these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> induced treatments are implemented. Studies were conducted with tissue-mimicking phantoms fabricated with polystyrene microspheres and glycerin to observe any relationship between the pixel intensities of the OCT images and their concurring envelope statistics. OCT images of the monitored region of interest were taken at 5°C intervals from 25°C to 60°C. Four probability distribution functions (PDF), Rician, Rayleigh, Normal and Generalized Gamma were used to investigate OCT envelope statistics as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was altered. Using the Kolmogrov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, it was determined that the Generalized Gamma was the best fit. The scaling and shape parameters associated with the Generalized Gamma PDF were used to quantify the OCT envelope data to identify <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> within the tissue mimicking media. The Generalized Gamma PDF was verified as the best fit based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test correlation factor being less than 0.05 (p = 0.0158). In addition to the PDFs, the OCT speckle decorrelation at varying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were also measured and quantified to detect the microspheres response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Initial results are very promising with future research focused on extending this methodology to monitor relative <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in tissue during therapy. Clinical utility can be achieved if these optical techniques are used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-derived biological response of tissue and provide a feedback mechanism to improve procedural efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H32A..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H32A..04M"><span>Modeling Electricity Sector Vulnerabilities and Costs Associated with Water <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Under Scenarios of Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Newmark, R. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The reliability of the power sector is highly vulnerable to variability in the availability and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water resources, including those that might result from potential climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> or from competition from other users. In the past decade, power plants throughout the United States have had to shut down or curtail generation due to a lack of available water or from elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These disruptions in power plant performance can have negative impacts on energy security and can be costly to address. Analysis of water-related vulnerabilities requires modeling capabilities with high spatial and temporal resolution. This research provides an innovative approach to energy-water modeling by evaluating the costs and reliability of a power sector region under policy and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios that affect water resource availability and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This work utilizes results from a spatially distributed river water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model coupled with a thermoelectric power plant model to provide inputs into an electricity production cost model that operates on a high spatial and temporal resolution. The regional transmission organization ISO-New England, which includes six New England states and over 32 Gigawatts of power capacity, is utilized as a case study. Hydrological data and power plant operations are analyzed over an eleven year period from 2000-2010 under four scenarios that include climate impacts on water resources and air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as well as strict interpretations of regulations that can affect power plant operations due to elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Results of these model linkages show how the power sector's reliability and economic performance can be affected by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and water availability. The effective reliability and capacity value of thermal electric generators are quantified and discussed in the context of current as well as potential future water resource characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.123...22C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.123...22C"><span>Bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a potential method for monitoring <span class="hlt">change</span> in crustal stress: Theory, in situ measurement, and a case history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Shunyun; Liu, Peixun; Liu, Liqiang; Ma, Jin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Experimental studies have confirmed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is notably affected by rock deformation; therefore, <span class="hlt">change</span> in crustal stress should be indicated by measurable <span class="hlt">changes</span> in bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this work, we investigated the possibility that the bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> might be used to explore the state of crustal stress. In situ measurement of bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at three stations from 2011 to 2013 was used as the basis for the theoretical analysis of this approach. We began with theoretical analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to <span class="hlt">change</span> in crustal stress, and of the effect of heat conduction. This allowed distinction between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> produced by crustal stress (stress <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> caused by conduction from the land surface (conduction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>). Stress <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has two properties (synchronous response and a high-frequency feature) that allow it to be distinguished from conduction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The in situ measurements confirmed that apparently synchronous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the stress <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the bedrock occur and that there exist obvious short-term components of the in situ bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which agrees with theory. On 20 April 2013, an earthquake occurred 95 km away from the stations, fortuitously providing a case study by which to verify our method for obtaining the state of crustal stress using <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results indicated that the level of local or regional seismic activity, representing the level of stress adjustment, largely accords with the stress <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This means that the bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a tool that might be applied to understand the state of stress during seismogenic tectonics. Therefore, it is possible to record <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the state of crustal stress in a typical tectonic position by long-term observation of bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Hereby, the measurement of bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has become a new tool for gaining insight into <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the status of shallow crustal stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10001E..0YB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10001E..0YB"><span>Web-GIS platform for forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> prediction in Ukraine: prospects of RS technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranovskiy, N. V.; Zharikova, M. V.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>There are many different statistical and empirical methods of forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> use at present time. All systems have not physical basis. Last decade deterministic-probabilistic method is rapidly developed in Tomsk Polytechnic University. Forest sites classification is one way to estimate forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span>. We used this method in present work. Forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> estimation depends on forest vegetation condition, forest fire retrospective, precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In fact, we use modified Nesterov Criterion. Lightning activity is under consideration as a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> source in present work. We use Web-GIS platform for program realization of this method. The program realization of the fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> assessment system is the Web-oriented geoinformation system developed by the Django platform in the programming language Python. The GeoDjango framework was used for realization of cartographic functions. We suggest using of Terra/Aqua MODIS products for hot spot monitoring. Typical territory for forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> estimation is Proletarskoe forestry of Kherson region (Ukraine).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JHyd..235..183J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JHyd..235..183J"><span>Simulated effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> in several forest ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, D. W.; Susfalk, R. B.; Gholz, H. L.; Hanson, P. J.</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>The Nutrient Cycling Model (NuCM) was used to investigate the effects of increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (+4°C) and <span class="hlt">changing</span> precipitation (increased and decreased) on biogeochemical cycling at six forest sites in the United States: a Picea rubens forest at Nolan Divide in the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina; mixed deciduous forests at Walker Branch, Tennessee and Coweeta, North Carolina; a Pinus taeda forest at Duke, North Carolina; a P. eliottii forest at Bradford, Florida; and a P. contorta/P. jeffreyii forest at Little Valley, Nevada. Simulations of increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicated increased evapotranspiration and reduced water flux. Simulations of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation indicated disproportionately large variations in soil water flux because of the relative stability of evapotranspiration with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation. Increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> caused N release from forest floors at all sites. At the N-saturated Nolan Divide site, this resulted in no <span class="hlt">change</span> in N uptake or growth but increased soil solution Al and NO 3- and increased N leaching losses. At the N-limited sites, the release of N from the forest floor caused increased growth, and, in some cases, increased NO 3- leaching as well, indicating that N released from the forest floor was not efficiently taken up by the vegetation. Increased precipitation caused increased growth, and decreased precipitation caused reduced growth in the N-limited sites because of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in wet N deposition. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in precipitation had no effect on growth in the N-saturated Nolan Divide site, but did cause large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in soil solution mineral acid anion and Al concentrations. Increased precipitation caused long-term decreases in soil exchangeable base cations in most cases because of the disproportionately large effects on soil water flux; however, increased precipitation caused decreases in exchangeable base cations in cases where atmospheric deposition was a major source of base cations for the system. The simulation results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B306086D0-22F9-4602-A7B7-00E5C1B52F09%7D','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B306086D0-22F9-4602-A7B7-00E5C1B52F09%7D"><span><span class="hlt">Change</span> in Unusually Hot and Cold <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in the Contiguous 48 States, 1948-2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This map shows trends in unusually hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at individual weather stations that have operated consistently since 1948. In this case, the term ??unusually hot?? refers to a daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that is hotter than the 95th percentile <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the 1948??2015 period. Thus, the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a particular day at a particular station would be considered ??unusually hot?? if it falls within the warmest 5 percent of measurements at that station during the 1948??2015 period. The map shows <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the total number of days per year that were hotter than the 95th percentile. Red upward-pointing symbols show where these unusually hot days are becoming more common. Blue downward-pointing symbols show where unusually hot days are becoming less common. For more information: www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PalOc..15..443H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PalOc..15..443H"><span>Climatic responses to tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on a ``greenhouse'' Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huber, Matthew; Sloan, L. Cirbus</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>The uncertainty associated with tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) during past "greenhouse" climates may have important and unaccounted for effects. We explore early Paleogene climatic sensitivity to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in tropical-subtropical SSTs with a general circulation model. We demonstrate that tropical SST <span class="hlt">changes</span> have local and far-field climatic effects, underscoring their importance in understanding greenhouse climates. The responses of winds, upwelling, and surface water balance to tropical SST <span class="hlt">changes</span> are substantial. Our results indicate that current tropical SST reconstructions may have a significant cool bias despite corrections and that the existence of hot (>30°C) tropical SSTs may be realistic for greenhouse climate intervals, including the Eocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315296"><span>Potential <span class="hlt">dangers</span> of accelerant use in arson.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heath, Karen; Kobus, Hilton; Byard, Roger W</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Accelerant-enhanced combustion often characterizes a fire that has been deliberately set to disguise a murder scene or to destroy property for insurance purposes. The intensity and rapidity of spread of fires where accelerants have been used are often underestimated by perpetrators who may sustain heat-related injuries. The case of a 49-year-old male who was using gasoline (petrol) as an accelerant is reported to demonstrate another <span class="hlt">danger</span> of this type of activity. After ignition, an explosion occurred that destroyed the building and caused the death of the victim who was crushed beneath a rear wall of the commercial premises. Gasoline vapour/air mixtures are extremely volatile and may cause significant explosions if exposed to flame. Given the potential <span class="hlt">danger</span> of explosion, arsonists using accelerants do so at significant risk to themselves and to others in the vicinity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189404"><span>Mapping the Cultural Learnability Landscape of <span class="hlt">Danger</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark Barrett, H; Peterson, Christopher D; Frankenhuis, Willem E</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Cultural transmission is often viewed as a domain-general process. However, a growing literature suggests that learnability is influenced by content and context. The idea of a learnability landscape is introduced as a way of representing the effects of interacting factors on how easily information is acquired. Extending prior work (Barrett & Broesch, ), learnability of <span class="hlt">danger</span> and other properties is compared for animals, artifacts, and foods in the urban American children (ages 4-5) and in the Shuar children in Ecuador (ages 4-9). There is an advantage for acquiring <span class="hlt">danger</span> information that is strongest for animals and weakest for artifacts in both populations, with culture-specific variations. The potential of learnability landscapes for assessing biological and cultural influences on cultural transmission is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17079722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17079722"><span>Identifying and quantifying prey consumption using stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in pinnipeds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuhn, Carey E; Costa, Daniel P</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>For many marine predators knowledge of foraging behavior is limited to inferences based on <span class="hlt">changes</span> in diving or movement patterns at sea. This results in an incomplete and potentially inaccurate view of the foraging ecology of a species. This study examined the use of stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> telemetry to identify and quantify prey consumed in both a phocid (northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris) and an otariid (California sea lion Zalophus californianus) species. In addition, we used opportunistic water consumption by northern elephant seals to test a method to distinguish between prey and water ingestion. Over 96% of feedings could be identified based on a decline in stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, even when meals were separated by as little as 70 min. Water consumption was distinguishable from prey consumption, as the rate of recovery in stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was significantly faster for water (F(1,142) = 79.2, P < 0.01). However, using this method, the overlap in recovery rates between prey and water resulted in 30.6% of water ingestion events being misclassified as prey ingestion. For both species, the integral calculated from the decline in stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over time (area above the curve) could be used to estimate mass consumed, when adjusted for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference between the prey and core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For California sea lions, there was a significant effect of individual on the ability to quantify prey consumed, which was not related to their mass or sex. Although many factors may influence the ability to use stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> to identify and quantify prey consumed, this study has shown measures of stomach <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can accurately identify prey consumption and provide an estimate of meal mass, allowing for a greater understanding of the feeding behavior of marine mammals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15932607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15932607"><span><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in cutaneous and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during and after conditioned fear to context in the rat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vianna, Daniel M L; Carrive, Pascal</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Infrared thermography was used to image <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during a conditioned fear response to context. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in heart rate, arterial pressure, activity and body (i.p.) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were recorded at the same time by radio-telemetry, in addition to freezing immobility. A marked drop in tail and paws <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (-5.3 and -7.5 degrees C, respectively, down to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), which lasted for the entire duration of the response (30 min), was observed in fear-conditioned rats. In sham-conditioned rats, the drop was on average half the magnitude and duration. In contrast, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the eye, head and back increased (between + 0.8 and + 1.5 degrees C), with no difference between the two groups of rats. There was a similar increase in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> although it was slightly higher and delayed in the fear-conditioned animals. Finally, ending of the fear response was associated with a gradual decrease in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and a rebound increase in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the tail (+ 3.3 degrees C above baseline). This study shows that fear, and to some extent arousal, evokes a strong cutaneous vasoconstriction that is restricted to the tail and paws. This regionally specific reduction in blood flow may be part of a preparatory response to a possible fight and flight to reduce blood loss in the most exposed parts of the rat's body in case of injury. The data also show that the tail is the main part of the body used for dissipating internal heat accumulated during fear once the animal has returned to a safe environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856"><span>Contribution of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horton, Daniel E; Johnson, Nathaniel C; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some extreme weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of extreme events. However, observed evidence of long-term <span class="hlt">change</span> in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot extremes over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold extremes over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed <span class="hlt">change</span> in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span>, the risk of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over some regions has also been altered by recent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.522..465H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.522..465H"><span>Contribution of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horton, Daniel E.; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L.; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some extreme weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of extreme events. However, observed evidence of long-term <span class="hlt">change</span> in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot extremes over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold extremes over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed <span class="hlt">change</span> in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span>, the risk of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over some regions has also been altered by recent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arsenic&pg=3&id=EJ313025','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arsenic&pg=3&id=EJ313025"><span>Help Protect Children from <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> in the Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Pamela</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Children may be exposed to environmental hazards such as lead, arsenic, and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> pesticides more often than parents may realize. <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of more commonly used chemicals found in the environment are listed. (DF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec172-548.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec172-548.pdf"><span>49 CFR 172.548 - <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... § 172.519, the background color on the <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard. (a) Except for size and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec172-548.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec172-548.pdf"><span>49 CFR 172.548 - <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... § 172.519, the background color on the <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard. (a) Except for size and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec172-423.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec172-423.pdf"><span>49 CFR 172.423 - <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET label.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... background color on the <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET label must be blue. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.423 <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET label. (a) Except for size and color, the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec172-548.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec172-548.pdf"><span>49 CFR 172.548 - <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... § 172.519, the background color on the <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard. (a) Except for size and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec172-548.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec172-548.pdf"><span>49 CFR 172.548 - <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... § 172.519, the background color on the <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 <span class