Jensen, J K; Olsen, J H; Folkersen, E
In Denmark it is permitted to draw overhead lines across residential areas. In connection with a Danish case-control study we developed a method for estimating the historical values of magnetic fields at residences. The study included 1,707 cases with childhood cancer and 4,788 matched population controls. A total of 16,082 different addresses had been occupied by the families from the time of conception until the date of diagnosis. The values of the extreme, maximum, middle and minimum 50 Hz magnetic field strengths originating from a 50-400 kV high-voltage installation were estimated for each of the dwellings included in a potential exposure area. 30 children were exposed to an average level of magnetic fields of 0.1 microT or more. The evaluated Danish method of exposure assessment was compared with the method for residential wiring codes developed by Wertheimer and Leeper /1/. We concluded that the US wiring codes are inappropriate for use in connection with the Danish electricity transmission system.
Villumsen, Marie; Sørup, Signe; Jess, Tine; Ravn, Henrik; Relander, Thomas; Baker, Jennifer L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam
Vaccines may have non-specific effects as suggested mainly in mortality studies from low-income countries. The objective was to examine the effects of BCG and smallpox vaccinations on subsequent risk of lymphoma and leukaemia in a Danish population experiencing rapid out-phasing of these vaccines. In a background cohort (N=47,622) from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, cases of leukaemia (N=20) and lymphoma (N=51) were identified through the Danish Cancer Registry. The vaccination status of the cases was compared with the vaccination status of a 5% random sample (N=2073) of the background cohort and analysed in a case-cohort design. BCG vaccination reduced the risk of lymphomas (HR=0.49 (95% CI: 0.26-0.93)), whereas smallpox vaccination did not (HR=1.32 (0.56-3.08)). With the small number of leukaemia cases, the analysis of leukaemia had limited power (BCG vaccination HR=0.81 (0.31-2.16); smallpox vaccination HR=1.32 (0.49-3.53)). The present study with very reliable vaccine history information indicates a beneficial effect of BCG vaccination on the risk of lymphomas.
Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette
Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.
Ankjaer-Jensen, Anni; Rosling, Pernille; Bilde, Lone
This article aims to describe and assess the Danish case-mix system, the cost accounting applied in setting national tariffs and the introduction of variable, prospective payment in the Danish hospital sector. The tariffs are calculated as a national average from hospital data gathered in a national cost database. However, uncertainty, mainly resulting from the definition of cost centres at the individual hospital, implies that the cost weights may not fully reflect the hospital treatment cost. As variable prospective payment of hospitals currently only applies to 20% of a hospital's budget, the incentives and the effects on productivity, quality and equality are still limited.
Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus
Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…
Seals, Ryan M.; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Gredal, Ole; Hansen, Johnni; Weisskopf, Marc G.
Background Prior studies have suggested that military service may be associated with the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Denmark to assess whether occupation in the Danish military is associated with an increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Methods There were 3,650 incident cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry between 1982 and 2009. Each case was matched to 100 age- and sex-matched population controls alive and free of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on the date of the case diagnosis. Comprehensive occupational history was obtained from the Danish Pension Fund database, which began in 1964. Results 2.4% (n=8,922) of controls had a history of employment in the military prior to the index date. Military employees overall had an elevated rate of ALS (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6). A ten-year increase in years employed by the military was associated with an odds ratio of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0-1.4), and all quartiles of time employed were elevated. There was little suggestion of a pattern across calendar year of first employment, but there was some evidence that increasing age at first employment was associated with increased ALS rates. Rates were highest in the decade immediately following the end of employment (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.2). Conclusions In this large population-based case-control study, employment by the military is associated with increased rates of ALS. These findings are consistent with earlier findings that military service or employment may entail exposure to risk factors for ALS. PMID:26583610
Jensen, Annette Østergaard; Olesen, Anne Braae; Dethlefsen, Claus; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
The Danish Gerda Frentz Cohort (GFC) was created for registering all incident and new subsequent cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) among patients seen by Danish dermatologists in 1995. We have recently found, in this cohort, a lower 10-year mortality than in the general population in patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Differences in mortality between incident and new subsequent cases, incomplete registration or selection bias may be responsible for this finding. We aimed to quantify differences in mortality between incident and new subsequent cases of NMSC in the GFC and to compare mortality among incident cases recorded in the GFC and those recorded in the Danish Cancer Registry (DCR). We followed 10,830 skin cancer patients and 106,696 age-, gender- and residence-matched population controls through 2006 and computed their cumulative mortality and mortality rate ratio (MRR). One-, 5-, and 10-year cumulative mortality of incident and new subsequent cases of BCC and SCC in the GFC were similar. Likewise, MRR for incident BCC (MRR=0.91; 95% CI 0.84-0.98) and incident SCC (MRR=1.29; 95% CI 1.05-1.56) among patients registered in the GFC were similar to their counterparts in the DCR (MRR=0.96; 95% CI 0.91-1.00 and MRR=1.36; 95% CI 1.22-1.52). Mortality of incident and new subsequent cases of NMSC was similar and thus did not explain the reduced mortality of BCC patients.
Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Kupcinskas, Limas; Jacobsen, Bent A; Krarup, Henrik B; Vogel, Ulla; Jonaitis, Laimas; Denapiene, Goda; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre
Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs.Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively).No SNP reached genome
Kaerlev, L; Hansen, J; Hansen, H; Nielsen, P
Aims: Seafarers aboard oil and chemical tankers may be exposed to many chemicals, including substances like benzene that are known to be carcinogenic. Other seafarers are exposed to engine exhaust, different oil products, and chemicals used aboard and some years ago asbestos was also used extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. Methods: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986–1999 (33 340 men; 11 291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517 518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. Results: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among maintenance crew. Non-officers had a 1.5 times higher lung cancer risk than officers. No increased occurrence of all lymphatic and haematopoietic malignancies combined was found for employees on tankers, but the number of cases was limited to a total of 7. Conclusions: Danish seafarers, especially men, face an increased overall cancer risk, in particular a risk for lung cancer and other tobacco associated cancers. PMID:16234401
Colding, T. S.; Folner, M.; Krarup, S.; Kongsbak, J.
Good basic data for everyone is part of the common public-sector digitization strategy for 2011 to 2015. The vision is that basic data is to be the high-quality common foundation for public sector administration; efficiently updated at one place, and used by everyone - including the private sector. Open basic data will benefit public-sector efficiency as well as innovation and value creation by Danish society in general. With basic data as a new digital raw material, commercial products can be developed and public information and services can be improved, providing for greater insight and stronger democracy. On the first of January 2013 Denmark released this digital raw material. As a general rule, all basic data is to be made freely available to all public authorities, private businesses and individuals. This makes basic data a common digital resource, which can be exploited freely for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. A positive business case contributed in convincing Danish politicians to approve the basic data program. Once the initiatives have been fully implemented, the revenues for society are expected to be approx. DKK 800 million annually. Private-sector revenues will be up to DKK half a billion annually, and it is expected that e.g. the real estate, insurance, financial, and telecom sectors, as well as GPS (sat-nav) manufacturers, public companies and entrepreneurs will be among those to benefit hugely from the initiatives. The financial gain for the private sector of open geographical data alone is expected to be approx. 100 million DKK annually. As part of the Basic data program The Danish Geodata Agency (Ministry of the Environment) gave free access to all topographic data, cadastral maps and Digital Elevation Model on Jan. 1st, 2013. The Danish Geodata Agency has decided to measure the effect of the open geographic data in the public sector (efficiency) and in the private sector (growth). The effect will be measured by using reference
Background Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs. Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively
Vase, Maja Ølholm; Friis, Søren; Bautz, Andrea; Bendix, Knud; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; d'Amore, Francesco
A potential link between breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been suggested. We examined lymphoma occurrence in a nationwide cohort of 19,885 Danish women who underwent breast implant surgery during 1973-2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for ALCL and lymphoma overall associated with breast implantation were calculated. During 179,246 person-years of follow-up, we observed 31 cases of lymphoma among cohort members. No cases of ALCL were identified. SIRs for ALCL and lymphoma overall were zero (95% CI, 0-10.3) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.82-1.70), respectively. In our nationwide cohort study, we did not find an increased risk of lymphoma in general, or ALCL in particular, among Danish women who underwent breast implantation. However, our evaluation of ALCL risk was limited by the rarity of the disease. Our results do not support an association between breast implants and ALCL and are consistent with other studies on cancer risk and breast implants. ©2013 AACR.
Gottschau, Mathilde; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan; Munk, Christian; Mellemkjaer, Lene
To assess the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and cancer, especially of the endometrium, breast and ovary. The Danish National Patient Register was used to identify 12,070 in- and outpatients in whom PCOS was diagnosed when they were aged 9-49 years during 1977-2012. Using the Danish Cancer Registry, we followed the cohort through 2012 and compared the women's cancer incidence with that of the general Danish female population by means of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Cancer was diagnosed in 279 women with PCOS (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.06-1.34). We found an almost fourfold increased risk for endometrial cancer (numbers observed (N) = 16, SIR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.2-6.3), the large majority of cases being type 1 (N = 14, SIR = 4.7; 95% CI = 2.6-7.9). We found no association between PCOS and breast (N = 59, SIR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.8-1.4) or ovarian cancer (N = 10, SIR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.8-3.2); however, significantly increased risks were found for kidney, colon and brain cancers. The results of this large cohort study support those of case-control studies showing that women with PCOS are at increased risk for endometrial cancer, whereas their risks for breast and ovarian cancer are similar to those of women in the general population. Our finding that women with PCOS also are at increased risk for cancers of the kidney, colon and brain requires further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Olsen, Jørn
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child's sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother's PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children.
Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing today.
Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner
Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…
Egeberg, A; Khalid, U; Gislason, G H; Mallbris, L; Skov, L; Hansen, P R
Psoriasis and asthma are disorders driven by inflammation. Psoriasis may carry an increased risk of asthma, but the reverse relationship has not been investigated. To investigate the risk of psoriasis in subjects with childhood asthma in a nationwide Danish cohort. Data on all Danish individuals aged 6-14 years at study entry between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2011 (n = 1,478,110) were linked at an individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, concomitant medication and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. There were 21,725 cases of childhood asthma and 6586 incident cases of psoriasis. There were 5697 and 889 incident cases of mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. The incidence rates of overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 4.49, 3.88 and 0.61 for the reference population, and 5.95, 5.18 and 0.83 for subjects with childhood asthma, respectively. The IRRs for overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 3.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-7.17], 5.03 (95% CI 2.48-10.21) and 2.27 (95% CI 0.61-8.42) for patients with childhood asthma. Childhood asthma was associated with a significantly increased risk of psoriasis. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical significance and effects of therapeutic interventions on this association. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.
Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe; Vass, Mikkel; Waldorff, Frans Boch
As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used for the main analysis. Our study protocol has 3 phases including data collection, data analysis, and reporting. The first phase of register-based data collection of 853,228 individual's personal information was completed in August, 2016. The next phase is data analysis, which is expected to be finished before December 2016, and thereafter writing publications based on the findings. The study started in January 2016 and will end in December 2018. This study covers the entire elderly population of Denmark, and thereby will avoid selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic-related accidents may occur, which will limit estimation
Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe; Vass, Mikkel; Waldorff, Frans Boch
Background As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. Objective Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. Methods We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual’s personal data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used for the main analysis. Results Our study protocol has 3 phases including data collection, data analysis, and reporting. The first phase of register-based data collection of 853,228 individual’s personal information was completed in August, 2016. The next phase is data analysis, which is expected to be finished before December 2016, and thereafter writing publications based on the findings. The study started in January 2016 and will end in December 2018. Discussion This study covers the entire elderly population of Denmark, and thereby will avoid selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic
Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Overvad, Kim; Tetens, Inge; Tjønneland, Anne; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dahm, Christina Catherine
A direct way to evaluate food-based dietary guidelines is to assess if adherence is associated with development of non-communicable diseases. Thus, the objective was to develop an index to assess adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines and to investigate the association between adherence to the index and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Population-based cohort study with recruitment of participants in 1993-1997. Information on dietary intake was collected at baseline using an FFQ and an index ranging from 0 to 6 points was created to assess adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines. MI cases were identified by record linkage to the Danish National Patient Register and the Causes of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of MI. Greater areas of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark. Men and women aged 50-64 years (n 55 021) from the Diet, Cancer and Health study. A total of 3046 participants were diagnosed with first-time MI during a median follow-up of 16·9 years. A higher Danish Dietary Guidelines Index score was associated with a lower risk of MI. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard of MI was 13 % lower among men with a score of 3-<4 (HR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·78, 0·96) compared with men with a score of <3. The corresponding HR among women was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·93). Adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines was inversely associated with risk of MI.
Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben
We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…
Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin
The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Haris, A.; Nafian, M.; Riyanto, A.
Danish North Sea Fields consist of several formations (Ekofisk, Tor, and Cromer Knoll) that was started from the age of Paleocene to Miocene. In this study, the integration of seismic and well log data set is carried out to determine the chalk sand distribution in the Danish North Sea field. The integration of seismic and well log data set is performed by using the seismic inversion analysis and seismic multi-attribute. The seismic inversion algorithm, which is used to derive acoustic impedance (AI), is model-based technique. The derived AI is then used as external attributes for the input of multi-attribute analysis. Moreover, the multi-attribute analysis is used to generate the linear and non-linear transformation of among well log properties. In the case of the linear model, selected transformation is conducted by weighting step-wise linear regression (SWR), while for the non-linear model is performed by using probabilistic neural networks (PNN). The estimated porosity, which is resulted by PNN shows better suited to the well log data compared with the results of SWR. This result can be understood since PNN perform non-linear regression so that the relationship between the attribute data and predicted log data can be optimized. The distribution of chalk sand has been successfully identified and characterized by porosity value ranging from 23% up to 30%.
Rigas, Andreas S; Ejsing, Benedikte H; Sørensen, Erik; Pedersen, Ole B; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik
Studies confirm that calcium inhibits iron absorption. Danish tap water comes from groundwater, which contains varying amounts of calcium depending on the subsoil. We investigated the association of calcium in drinking water with iron levels in Danish blood donors. We used data on Danish blood donors including dietary and lifestyle habits, blood donation history, and physiologic characteristics including measures of ferritin levels along with information on area of residence from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Data on calcium levels in groundwater ("water hardness") were obtained through the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the effect of water hardness on ferritin levels and risk of having iron deficiency (defined as ferritin levels <15 ng/mL), stratified by sex. There was a significant negative association between water hardness and ferritin levels in both men and women. Risk of iron deficiency was correspondingly increased in both men (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.12) and women (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40) with increasing water hardness. In analyses restricted to individuals who received supplemental iron tablets no significant association between groundwater hardness and ferritin levels was observed. As measured by ferritin levels, residential drinking water calcium content is associated with blood donors- iron levels and risk of iron deficiency. However, effect sizes are small. © 2018 AABB.
Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. The majority of accidents happened to Danish and non-EU workers on non-passenger ships. The injury rate varied around 70 per 1000 among Danish seafarers, while the rate for non-Danish employees was about 30 per 1000. Crude and adjusted relative risk was found significantly lower for EU (0.33-0.46;0.26-0.39) and for non-EU (0.41-0.53; 0.54-0.65) workers compared to Danish seafarers. The difference decreased, but remained significant in most cases for serious injuries. Occupational injury rates show considerable nationality differences as reported from non-passenger ships registered under the Danish flag. The differences can only be partly explained by varying reporting practices. The findings confirm the results of previous studies and point out the need for effective interventions in the high-risk groups.
van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Møller, Simone Visbjerg; Hannerz, Harald; van der Beek, Allard J; Holtermann, Andreas
Prolonged sitting has been negatively associated with a range of non-communicably diseases. However, the role of occupational sitting is less clear, and little is known on the changes of occupational sitting in a working population over time. The present study aimed to determine 1) temporal changes in occupational sitting time between 1990 and 2010 in the Danish workforce; 2) the association and possible dose-response relationship between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. This study analysed data from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), which is a cohort study of the Danish working population conducted in five yearly intervals between 1990 and 2010. Occupational sitting time is self-reported in the DWECS. To determine the association with all-cause mortality, the DWECS was linked to the Danish Register of Causes of Death via the Central Person Register. Between 1990 and 2010 the proportion of the Danish workforce who sat for at least three quarters of their work time gradually increased from 33.1 to 39.1%. All-cause mortality analyses were performed with 149,773 person-years of observation and an average follow-up of 12.61 years, during which 533 deaths were registered. None of the presented analyses found a statistically significant association between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.79; 1.18) when ≥24 hr/wk occupational sitting time was compared to <24 hr/wk for the 1990-2005 waves. Occupational sitting time increased by 18% in the Danish workforce, which seemed to be limited to people with high socio-economic status. If this increase is accompanied by increases in total sitting time, this development has serious public health implications, given the detrimental associations between total sitting time and mortality. The current study was inconclusive on the specific role that occupational sitting might play in the increased all-cause mortality risk
Furnham, A; Babitzkow, M; Uguccioni, S
Two similar, but not identical, content analyses of the portrayals of men and women in French and Danish television advertisements are reported. By partially replicating and extending past investigations conducted in America, Australia, Britain, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, and New Zealand, it was predicted that there would be more gender stereotyping in French television advertisements and less gender stereotyping in Danish television advertisements. In the first study, 165 French television advertisements were analyzed by following established coding categories (A. Furnham & E. Skae, 1997; L. Z. McArthur & B. G. Resko, 1975). Contrary to prediction, the results showed that traditional gender role portrayal on French television was no different from that found in other countries. Separate statistical analyses were carried out for visually versus aurally classified central figures, yet this yielded relatively few significant differences. In the second study, a sample of 151 Danish advertisements was analyzed; results showed that Danish television was generally less gender stereotypic than French television in its portrayal of women. Exactly half (5) of the coding categories showed significant differences. Finally, an international statistical comparison between these two studies and similar research in Australia, Britain, and Italy was carried out. The methodological implications of these results are discussed as well as the theoretical issues arising from other studies of this sort.
Pottern, L M; Heineman, E F; Olsen, J H; Raffn, E; Blair, A
To investigate the role of employment history and workplace exposures as risk factors for multiple myeloma among women, a population-based case-control study using the Danish Cancer Registry data linkage system was conducted. All cases of myeloma diagnosed in Danish women between 1970 and 1984 (1,010 cases) and 4,040 age-matched women alive at the time of case-diagnosis were identified. Industrial histories from 1964 forward were obtained from the nationwide Pension Fund for 363 cases and 1,517 controls, and the most recent occupation on the tax record was available for 607 cases and 2,596 controls. Using industry/occupational-code combinations for the cases and controls who had industry employment, Danish industrial hygienists assessed the likelihood of exposure to 47 workplace substances. An increased myeloma risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.5) was seen for women not in the Pension Fund, but who had an occupational title coded as 'Mrs/homemaker.' Nonsignificantly elevated risks of 1.3 or greater were observed for employment in: production of agricultural products; orchards/nurseries; spinning/weaving; other textile and plastics manufacturing; hotel, entertainment, and social services industries. Elevated, but nonsignificant risks were observed for possible and probable exposure to exhaust fumes, formaldehyde, wood dust, animals or animal products, and pesticides. The strongest association with myeloma was employment in the agricultural industry (OR = 1.5, CI = 0.8-2.8), however, the number of women who worked on family farms was unknown and could not be included in this risk estimate.
Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Juhl, Mette
Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16. The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per week spent on exercise (p < 0.001). Compared to no exercise, swimming was associated with a decreased risk of pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58-0.91, p = 0.005). The findings suggest a possible protective effect of physical exercise on pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koch, Kristoffer; Søgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl
In a Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of community-acquired bacteremia, as well as the contribution of chronic diseases and substance abuse to differences in bacteremia risk. Analyses were based on 4,117 patients aged 30-65 years who were hospitalized with first-time community-acquired bacteremia during 2000-2008 and 41,170 population controls matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Individual-level information on SES (education and income), chronic diseases, and substance abuse was retrieved from public and medical registries. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios for bacteremia. Persons of low SES had a substantially higher risk of bacteremia than those of high SES (for short duration of education vs. long duration, odds ratio = 2.30 (95% confidence interval: 2.10, 2.52); for low income vs. high income, odds ratio = 2.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.54, 3.02)). A higher prevalence of chronic diseases and substance abuse in low-SES individuals versus high-SES individuals explained 43%-48% of the socioeconomic differences in bacteremia risk. In a country with a universal welfare system, differences in the burden of chronic diseases and substance abuse seem to have major importance in explaining inequalities in bacteremia risk.
Bang, Ulrich Christian; Benfield, Thomas; Hyldstrup, Lars; Bendtsen, Flemming; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik
We aimed to assess the risk of death, cancer, and comorbidities among patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP). We performed a nationwide retrospective cohort study, collecting data from Danish registries from 1995 through 2010. We evaluated the prevalences and incidences of death, cancers, and comorbidities among subjects with CP (cases) compared with age- and sex-matched individuals (controls). In total, 11,972 cases (71,814 person-years) and 119,720 controls (917,436 person-years) were included in the analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Forty-six percent of the cases died during the follow-up period, compared with 13.0% of controls (mean age, 63.7 vs 72.1 y; P < .0001), corresponding to a HR of 5.0 for CP (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8-5.2). Cancer was a frequent cause of death among cases (10.2%) and controls (3.3%). Cancer (particularly pancreatic cancer) was a frequent cause of death among cases; the HR was 6.9 (95% CI, 7.5-11.8). Alcoholic CP did not produce a higher risk for cancer or death than nonalcoholic CP. Cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), chronic pulmonary disease (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.1), ulcer disease (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 3.3-3.9), diabetes (HR, 5.2; 95% CI, 5.0-5.6), and chronic renal disease (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-1.9) occurred more frequently among patients with CP, but myocardial infarction did not (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8-1.0). Based on a Danish nationwide cohort study, individuals with CP are at higher risk for death from cancer (particularly pancreatic cancer) and have a higher incidence of comorbidities than people without CP. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Mie Vestergaard; Kristensen, Ida Hvass; Larsen, Malene Møller; Pedersen, Claus Hougaard; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Pape-Haugaard, Louise B
Achieving interoperability in health is a challenge and requires standardization. The newly developed HL7 standard: Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) promises both flexibility and interoperability. This study investigates the feasibility of expressing a Danish microbiology message model content in FHIR to explore whether complex in-use legacy models can be migrated and what challenges this may pose. The Danish microbiology message model (the DMM) is used as a case to illustrate challenges and opportunities accosted with applying the FHIR standard. Mapping of content from DMM to FHIR was done as close as possible to the DMM to minimize migration costs except when the structure of the content did not fit into FHIR. From the DMM a total of 183 elements were mapped to FHIR. 75 (40.9%) elements were modeled as existing FHIR elements and 96 (52.5%) elements were modeled as extensions and 12 (6.6%) elements were deemed unnecessary because of build-in FHIR characteristics. In this study, it was possible to represent the content of a Danish message model using HL7 FHIR.
Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart
Since the International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, such as those emanating from mobile and cordless phones, as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), two additional reports relevant to the topic have been published. Both articles were new updates of a Danish cohort on mobile phone subscribers and concern the possible association between assumed use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumors. The aim of the present review is to reexamine all four publications on this cohort. In brief, publications were scrutinized, and in particular, if the authors made explicit claims to have either proved or disproved their hypothesis, such claims were reviewed in light of applied methods and study design, and in principle, the stronger the claims, the more careful our review. The nationwide Danish cohort study on mobile phone subscribers and risk of brain tumors, including at best 420,095 persons (58% of the initial cohort), is the only one of its kind. In comparison with previous investigations, i.e., case-control studies, its strength lies in the possibility to eliminate non-response, selection, and recall bias. Although at least non-response and recall bias can be excluded, the study has serious limitations related to exposure assessment. In fact, these limitations cloud the findings of the four reports to such an extent that render them uninformative at best. At worst, they may be used in a seemingly solid argument against an increased risk--as reassuring results from a large nationwide cohort study, which rules out not only non-response and recall bias but also an increased risk as indicated by tight confidence intervals. Although two of the most comprehensive case-control studies on the matter both have methodological limitations that need to be carefully considered, type I errors are not the only threats to the validity of studies on this topic--the Danish cohort study is a textbook example of that.
Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Klausen, Siri; Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Gaist, David
The nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database both record data on melanoma for purposes of monitoring, quality assurance, and research. However, the data quality of the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database has not been formally evaluated. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of melanoma diagnosis for random samples of 200 patients from the Cancer Registry (n = 200) and the Melanoma Database (n = 200) during 2004-2014, using the Danish Pathology Registry as "gold standard" reference. We further validated tumor characteristics in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database. Additionally, we estimated the PPV of in situ melanoma diagnoses in the Melanoma Database, and the sensitivity of melanoma diagnoses in 2004-2014. The PPVs of melanoma in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database were 97% (95% CI = 94, 99) and 100%. The sensitivity was 90% in the Cancer Registry and 77% in the Melanoma Database. The PPV of in situ melanomas in the Melanoma Database was 97% and the sensitivity was 56%. In the Melanoma Database, we observed PPVs of ulceration of 75% and Breslow thickness of 96%. The PPV of histologic subtypes varied between 87% and 100% in the Cancer Registry and 93% and 100% in the Melanoma Database. The PPVs for anatomical localization were 83%-95% in the Cancer Registry and 93%-100% in the Melanoma Database. The data quality in both the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database is high, supporting their use in epidemiologic studies.
Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia
Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age.The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status.The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due to a longer production life. However, a
Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla
Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor–κB (NF-κB) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to investigate three polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and their possible interactions with diet and life style factors in relation to risk of CRC. Homozygous carriage of the variant allele of the TLR4/rs5030728 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of CRC (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–1.60; P = 0.02 (gene-dose model); IRR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.01–1.51; P = 0.04 (recessive model)). Del-carriers of the NFKB1/rs28362491 polymorphism had a 17% (95%CI: 1.03–1.34; P = 0.02) increased risk of CRC compared to homozygous carriers of the ins-allele. However, none of these risk estimates withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons. We found no strong gene-environment interactions between the examined polymorphism and diet and life style factors in relation to CRC risk. PMID:25705893
Baldur-Felskov, B; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V; Steding-Jessen, M; Kjaer, T; Johansen, C; Dalton, S O; Jensen, A
Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do? The results indicated that being unsuccessful in giving birth after an infertility evaluation could be an important risk factor for psychiatric disorders. Several studies have investigated the association between fertility treatment and psychological distress, but the results from these studies show substantial variation and lack of homogeneity that may be due to methodological limitations. A retrospective cohort study was designed using data from a cohort of 98 320 Danish women evaluated for fertility problems during 1973-2008 and linked to several Danish population-based registries. All women were followed from the date of first infertility evaluation until date of hospitalization for the psychiatric disorder in question, date of emigration, date of death or 31 December 2008, whichever occurred first. Owing to the precise linkage between the infertility cohort and the Danish population-based registries, using the unique Danish personal identification number, virtually no women were lost to follow-up. Information on reproductive status for all women in the infertility cohort was obtained by linkage to the Danish Medical Birth Registry. A total of 53 547 (54.5%) women gave birth after the initial infertility evaluation, whereas 44 773 (45.5%) women did not gave birth after the evaluation. To determine psychiatric disorders diagnosed in the women after enrolment in the infertility cohort, the cohort was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. A total of 4633 women were hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between parity status after the initial infertility evaluation and risk of hospitalization for various groups of psychiatric disorders, including
Dolin, Jens; Krogh, Lars Brian
This article reports a case study that described and analyzed the changes in the Danish school culture induced and encouraged by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results. The educational policy and reforms that were temporally connected with the publication of the PISA 2000 results are outlined and the related…
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Hoff, Andreas; Ross, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer
American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this study, we investigated whether the incidence of cancer in a large cohort of Danish Adventists and Baptists was different compared to the general Danish population. We followed 11,580 Danish Adventists and Baptists in the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry, which contains information on cases of cancer for 1943-2008. Cancer incidence in the cohort was compared with that in the general Danish population as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and within-cohort comparisons were made with a Cox model. Lower cancer incidences were observed for both Seventh-day Adventist men (SIR, 66; 95% CI, 60-72) and women (85; 80-91). The same result was observed for Baptists although not as low. The differences were most pronounced for smoking-related cancers such as those of the buccal cavity and lung (SIR, 20; 13-30 for Seventh-day Adventist men and 33; 22-49 for Seventh-day Adventist women). The incidences of other lifestyle-related cancers, such as of stomach, rectum, liver and cervix, were also decreased. In general, the SIRs were lower for men than for women, and Adventists had lower hazard rates than Baptists. Our findings point to the benefits of compliance with public health recommendations and indicate that lifestyle changes in the population might change the cancer risks of individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jørgensen, Simon Laumann
Teaching history in schools can be a significant policy instrument for shaping the identities of future citizens. The Danish curriculum for teaching history of 2009 aims at strengthening a sense of "Danishness" which calls for theoretical analysis. Focusing on this particular case, the paper develops a political theoretical frame for…
Norredam, Marie; Krasnik, Allan; Pipper, Christian; Keiding, Niels
The aim of the study is to compare differences in cancer stage at diagnosis between migrant women and native Danish women. The stage is used as a clinical indicator of access to healthcare until the point of diagnosis. Refugees and family reunited migrants who received residence permits in Denmark from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 1999 were included and matched 1 : 4 on age and sex with a Danish-born reference population. Our final female population included 24 734 migrants and 123 670 controls. Civil registration numbers of the cohort were linked to the Danish Cancer Registry whereby cases were identified in the period 1.1.1993-31.12.2002. Only women from Eastern Europe and the Middle East were included. This amounted to 269 migrants and 1608 native Danes. Data from the Danish Cancer Registry included diagnosis, time of diagnosis and disease stage at diagnosis. Our initial analyses of migrant subgroups showed that migrant women had decreased odds ratios of being diagnosed at the local stage and increased odds of having unknown stage, although these tendencies were mainly not statistically significant. A subsequent analysis of an overall migrant effect on all cancer sites emphasized these tendencies. This analysis reached borderline significance for local versus nonlocal stage and significance for unknown versus known stage. Our results indicate that migrant women may experience barriers in access to healthcare until cancer diagnosis compared with Danish women. More research is, however, needed to confirm our results and to find out if they indicate general problems concerning migrants' access to healthcare in Denmark.
Arentoft, Johanne L; Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Overvad, Kim; Tetens, Inge
Diet is recognised as one modifiable lifestyle factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aimed at investigating the associations between adherence to the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) indicated by a Dietary Quality Index (DQI) and selected cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional study with 219 Danish adult participants (59 %women; age 31-65years) with a minimum of one self-rated risk marker of IHD. Information regarding diet was obtained using web-based dietary assessment software and adherence to the Danish FBDG was expressed by a DQI calculated from 5 food and nutrient indicators (whole grain, fish, fruit and vegetables, energy from saturated fat and from added sugar). Background information, blood samples and anthropometrics were collected and blood pressure was measured. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between DQI and cardiometabolic risk factors. DQI was inversely associated with LDL:HDL ratio and TAG (-0·089 per unit; 95 % CI -0·177, -0·002 and -5 % per unit; 95 % CI -9, 0, respectively) and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0·047 mmol/l per unit; 95 % CI 0·007, 0·088). For men, DQI was inversely associated with BMI (-3 %per unit; 95 % CI -5, -1), trunk fat (-1 % per unit; 95 % CI -2, -1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-30 % per unit; 95 % CI -41, -16 %), HbA1c (-0·09 % per unit; 95 % CI -0·14, -0·04), insulin (-13 % per unit; 95 % CI -19, -7) and homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (-14 % per unit; 95 % CI -21, -7). In women, DQI was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (2·6 mmHg per unit; 95 % CI 0·6, 4·6). In conclusion, higher adherence to the current Danish FBDG was associated with a more beneficial cardiometabolic risk profile in a Danish adult population with a minimum of one self-rated risk factor for IHD.
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Gimsing, Louise NØrreslet; Bautz, Andrea; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Johansen, Christoffer
Limited knowledge of the influence of lifestyle risk factors and religious living on chronic neurological diseases exists. Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) do not consume tobacco, alcohol, or pork, and many adhere to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, and Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. We investigated whether the incidence of four common chronic neurological illnesses: dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy in a large cohort of Danish Adventists and Baptists was different compared to the general Danish population. Three of the illnesses are neurodegenerative, whereas epilepsy can occur at any age. We compared hospital admission rates for some major neurological diseases among members of the Danish Religious Societies Health Study comprising 6,532 SDA and 3,720 Baptists with the general Danish population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) stratified by sex, age, and calendar time were calculated. SIR of dementia or Alzheimer's disease was significantly decreased for members of both communities (SDA, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-#x2013;0.90 and Baptists, 0.59; 0.47-#x2013;0.73). The SIRs of Parkinson's disease and epilepsy were not significantly different compared to the general population. We observe reduced incidence for dementia or Alzheimer's disease in a large cohort of members of two religious communities characterized by lifestyle recommendations. More studies are needed to disentangle the interaction between such lifestyle and other components of the religious belief system.
Brink, Maria; Green, Anders; Bojesen, Anders Bo; Lamberti, J Steven; Conwell, Yeates; Andersen, Kjeld
In light of the excess early mortality in schizophrenia, mainly due to physical illnesses, we investigated medical comorbidity, use of medication, and healthcare utilization among individuals with schizophrenia who survived into older ages to uncover potential factors contributing to their longevity. A nationwide register-based case-control study comparing 70-year-olds with and without schizophrenia. Cases were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Age- and sex-matched controls were drawn from the general population via the Civil Registration System. All Danish inhabitants who were diagnosed and registered with early onset schizophrenia in 1970-1979 and still alive at age 70 years. Controls alive at age 70 years. Chronic medical comorbidity, medications, and inpatient and outpatient healthcare utilization extracted from Danish healthcare registers. Older adults with schizophrenia did not differ from controls with regard to registered chronic medical illnesses, but were significantly less likely to receive medication for cardiovascular diseases (OR: 0.65; 99.29% CI: 0.50, 0.83) and more likely to be treated with analgesics (OR: 1.46; 99.29% CI: 1.04, 2.05). Overall, hospital admissions and number of days hospitalized were equal to controls, but with significantly fewer general medical outpatient contacts (RR: 0.37; 98.75% CI: 0.24, 0.55). Because the literature suggests that excess mortality continues into old age, it is possible that medical diseases were under-registered and/or under-treated. Focus on adequate medical treatment, in particular for cardiovascular disease, is needed. Future integration of psychiatric and general medical healthcare, especially outpatient care, might further optimize health outcomes for older adults with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jørgensen, Anker Helms
This paper reports on the development of Nimbi, which is an early computer game implemented at the Danish Computer Company Regnecentralen in 1962-63. Nimbi is a variant of the ancient game Nim. The paper traces the primary origins of the development of Nimbi. These include a mathematical analysis from 1901 of Nim that “killed the game” as the outcome could be predicted quite easily; the desire of the Danish inventor Piet Hein to make a game that eluded such analyses; and the desire of Piet Hein to have computers play games against humans. The development of Nimbi was successful in spite of considerable technical obstacles. However, it seems that the game was not used for publicizing the capabilities of computers - at least not widely - as was the case with earlier Nim implementations, such as the British Nim-playing computer Nimrod in 1951.
Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh; Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Gradel, Kim Oren; Guldberg, Rikke
The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database completeness of patient registration and validity of data. The completeness of the number of patients registered in the database was evaluated in the study period from January 2009 through December 2014 by comparing cases reported to the DNOR with the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Pathology Registry. The data validity of important clinical variables was evaluated by a random sample of 100 patients from the DNOR using the medical records as reference. A total of 2241 patients were registered in the DNOR by December 2014 with an overall patient completeness of 92 %, which increased during the study period (from 78 % in 2009 to 96 % in 2014). Medical records were available for all patients in the validity analyses. Most variables showed a high agreement proportion (56-100 %), with a fair to good chance-corrected agreement (k = 0.43-1.0). The completeness of patient registration was very high (92 %) and the validity of the most important patient data was good. The DNOR is a newly established national database, which is a reliable source for future scientific studies and clinical quality assessments among patients with gliomas.
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Population based cohort study. Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241 subcohort members identified in the cohort during follow-up in 2006. Effect of four groups of fertility drugs (gonadotrophins, clomifene citrate, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and gonadotrophin releasing hormone) on overall risk of ovarian cancer after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.
Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina; Klemp, Kristian; Erngaard, Ditte; la Cour, Morten; Buch, Helena
To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause of amblyopia was anisometropia (45.5%, 25/55). Amblyopia was the most common cause of MVI. Following the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme, which has an approximate attendance rate of 95%, the prevalence of amblyopia decreased by fourfold. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mols, Niels Peter
Examines various aspects of the motives, perceptions, and expectations connected with the introduction of Internet banking in Danish retail banking. Responses from questionnaires and results from a factor analysis and a hierarchical cluster analysis indicate a belief that Internet banking will become more important in the future. (Author/LRW)
Hach, M; Aaberg, K B; Lempert, S M; Danielsen, B
Recent legislation in Denmark has made it possible for dentists to delegate their tasks to dental hygienists. Previous studies have shown that Danish dental hygienists primarily were performing assignments within their own work field. These assignments include prophylaxis or instructing patients in oral health care. However, studies have also shown that Danish dental hygienists performed dental nurse assignments such as chair-side assistance, unit cleaning and disinfection of instruments. The objectives of this study were to investigate (i) the range of work assignments performed by Danish dental hygienists, (ii) the types of dentist tasks performed by Danish dental hygienists and (iii) job satisfaction among Danish dental hygienists. Dental hygienists graduating in 2004-2007 were invited to participate in this study. Participants answered an email-distributed questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding job satisfaction, assignments performed, postgraduate course attendance, receiving assistance from a dental nurse and which work assignments Danish dental hygienists wish to perform in the future. The results of this study showed that 90% of Danish dental hygienists were satisfied with their job and 52% were performing dentists' tasks. Among dentists' tasks performed by Danish dental hygienists, invasive caries therapy was the most frequently performed task. The type of assignments performed by Danish dental hygienists today appears to be changing compared to previous studies. From initially performing prophylaxis and chair-side assistance for the dentist, Danish dental hygienists today are performing a wider range of tasks which includes dentists' tasks. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weischer, Maren; Heerfordt, Ida M; Bojesen, Stig E; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus; Röcken, Martin; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Schmidt, Henrik; Klyver, Helle; Bastholt, Lars; Nordestgaard, Børge G
It is possible that reduced function of DNA repair and cell-cycle control genes increases the individual susceptibility to malignant melanoma. As CHEK2 is a cell-cycle master controller, we tested the hypothesis that heterozygosity for the frameshift alteration CHEK2*1100delC is associated with increased risk of malignant melanoma. First, we performed case-control studies of 1,152 Danish and 752 German individuals with malignant melanoma compared with 9,142 Danish and 3,718 German controls. Second, we performed a meta-analysis of CHEK2*1100delC and malignant melanoma, involving 2,619 cases and 17,481 controls. Third, we examined the risk of malignant melanoma associated with CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity in an analysis stratified for sun exposure, as well as for subtype and location on the body. The odds ratios for malignant melanoma for CHEK2(*)1100del heterozygotes compared with those for noncarriers were 2.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-3.91) in Danes, 1.42 (95% CI, 0.46-4.31) in Germans, and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.02-3.17) in Danes and Germans combined. In a meta-analysis, the odds ratio of malignant melanoma for CHEK2*1100delC heterozygotes compared with that for noncarriers was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.07-3.05). Stratifications did not alter these results. CHEK2*1100delC heterozygotes have a twofold risk of malignant melanoma compared with noncarriers.
Burgdorf, K S; Felsted, N; Mikkelsen, S; Nielsen, M H; Thørner, L W; Pedersen, O B; Sørensen, E; Nielsen, K R; Bruun, M T; Werge, T; Erikstrup, C; Hansen, T; Ullum, H
The Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) is a prospective, population-based study and biobank. Since 2010, 100,000 Danish blood donors have been included in the study. Prior to July 2015 all participating donors had to complete a paper-based questionnaire. Here we describe the establishment of a digital tablet-based questionnaire platform implemented in blood bank sites across Denmark. The digital questionnaire was developed using the open source survey software tool LimeSurvey. The participants accesses the questionnaire online with a standard SSL encrypted HTTP connection using their personal civil registration numbers. The questionnaire is placed at a front-end web server and a collection server retrieves the completed questionnaires. Data from blood samples, register data, genetic data and verification of signed informed consent are then transferred to and merged with the questionnaire data in the DBDS database. The digital platform enables personalized questionnaires, presenting only questions relevant to the specific donor by hiding unneeded follow-up questions on screening question results. New versions of questionnaires are immediately available at all blood collection facilities when new projects are initiated. The digital platform is a faster, cost-effective and more flexible solution to collect valid data from participating donors compared to paper-based questionnaires. The overall system can be used around the world by the use of Internet connection, but the level of security depends on the sensitivity of the data to be collected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dahm, Christina Catherine
Specific dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with stroke prevention. Our aim was to investigate whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, including fish, apples and pears, cabbages, root vegetables, rye bread, and oatmeal, was associated with risk of stroke. Incident cases of stroke among 55 338 men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and verified by review of records. Cases of ischemic stroke were further subclassified based on etiology according to the TOAST classification system (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). Information on diet was collected at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios of total stroke and subtypes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 2283 cases of incident stroke were verified, including 1879 ischemic strokes. Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, as reflected by a higher Healthy Nordic Food Index score, was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The hazards ratio comparing an index score of 4 to 6 (high adherence) with an index score of 0 to 1 (low adherence) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98) for total stroke. Inverse associations were observed for ischemic stroke, including large-artery atherosclerosis. No trend was observed for hemorrhagic stroke; however, a statistically insignificant trend was observed for intracerebral hemorrhage. Our findings suggest that a healthy Nordic diet may be recommended for the prevention of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie
Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Methods: Among 83,389 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child’s sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother’s PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. Conclusions: In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children. Citation: Liew Z, Ritz B, von Ehrenstein OS, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Fei CY
Lühdorf, Pernille; Overvad, Kim; Schmidt, Erik B; Johnsen, Søren P; Bach, Flemming W
To determine the positive predictive values for stroke discharge diagnoses, including subarachnoidal haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral infarction in the Danish National Patient Register. Participants in the Danish cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health with a stroke discharge diagnosis in the National Patient Register between 1993 and 2009 were identified and their medical records were retrieved for validation of the diagnoses. A total of 3326 records of possible cases of stroke were reviewed. The overall positive predictive value for stroke was 69.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 67.8-70.9%). The predictive values differed according to hospital characteristics, with the highest predictive value of 87.8% (95% CI 85.5-90.1%) found in departments of neurology and the lowest predictive value of 43.0% (95% CI 37.6-48.5%) found in outpatient clinics. The overall stroke diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Register had a limited predictive value. We therefore recommend the critical use of non-validated register data for research on stroke. The possibility of optimising the predictive values based on more advanced algorithms should be considered.
Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G; Scholderer, Joachim; Hagemann, Kit Skov; Elgaard, Peter; Nielsen, Brian; Graverholt, Jens Peter
Growing consumer awareness of functional foods and understanding of their positive nutritional effects have led to the need of specific studies and have captured more attention than ever before. In Europe, Danish consumers have been found to be relatively negative towards the concept of functional foods. This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to explore Danish consumers' motives for choosing omega-3/fish oil enriched products. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied as a theoretical framework to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods. By conducting qualitative in-depth interviews the study mostly focused on the role of behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The results of the study suggest that consumers' understanding of healthy eating as such does not relate to the choice of omega-3/fish oil, whereas perception of omega-3 as an ingredient in selected foods does indeed influence consumers' choice of carrier-ingredient combinations.
Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter
International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environment at the shooting range. This was an environmental case study of 58 male and female shooters from two indoor shooting ranges with assumed different ventilation and cleaning conditions. Information was obtained on general conditions including age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, and shooting conditions: weapon type, number of shots fired, frequency of stays at the shooting range and hygiene habits. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine blood lead concentrations; 14 non-shooters were included as controls. Almost 60% of the shooters, hereof five out of 14 women, had a blood lead concentration above 0.48 micromol/l, a level causing long-term health concern. All controls had blood lead values below 0.17 micromol/l. Independent significant associations with blood lead concentrations above 0.48 micromol/l were found for shooting at a poorly ventilated range, use of heavy calibre weapons, number of shots and frequency of stays at the shooting range. A large proportion of Danish recreational indoor shooters had potentially harmful blood lead concentrations. Ventilation, amounts of shooting, use of heavy calibre weapons and stays at the shooting ranges were independently associated with increased blood lead. The technical check at the two ranges was performed by the Danish Technological Institute and costs were defrayed by the Danish Rifle Association. To pay for the analyses of blood lead, the study was supported by the The Else & Mogens Wedell-Wedellsborg Foundation. The Danish Regional Capital Scientific Ethics Committee approved the study, protocol number H-4-2010-130.
Jensen, Laura Schärfe; Overgaard, Charlotte; Bøggild, Henrik; Garne, Jens Peter; Lund, Thomas; Overvad, Kim; Fonager, Kirsten
A breast cancer diagnosis affects an individual's affiliation to labour market, but the long-term consequences of breast cancer on income in a Danish setting have not been examined. The present study investigated whether breast cancer affected future income among Danish women that participated in the work force. We also examined the roles of sociodemographic factors and prior psychiatric medical treatment. This registry-based cohort study was based on information retrieved from linked Danish nationwide registries. We compared the incomes of 13,101 women (aged 30-59 years) diagnosed with breast cancer (exposed) to those of 60,819 women without breast cancer (unexposed). Changes in income were examined during a 10-year follow-up; for each follow-up year, we calculated the mean annual income and the relative change compared to the income earned one year prior to diagnosis. Expected changes in Danish female income, according to calendar year and age, were estimated based on information from Statistics Denmark. For exposed and unexposed groups, the observed income changes were dichotomized to those above and those below the expected change in income in the Danish female population. We examined the impact of breast cancer on income each year of follow-up with logistic regression models. Analyses were stratified according to educational level, marital status, and prior psychiatric medical treatment. Breast cancer had a temporary negative effect on income. The effect was largest during the first three years after diagnosis; thereafter, the gap narrowed between exposed and unexposed cohorts. The odds ratio for an increase in income in the cancer cohort compared to the cancer-free cohort was 0.81 (95% CI 0.77-0.84) after three years. After seven years, no significant difference was observed between cohorts. Stratified analyses demonstrated that the negative effect of breast cancer on income lasted longest among women with high educational levels. Being single or having
Adám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara; Pedersen, Randi Nørgaard Fløe; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
The aim of the study was to examine occupational accidents reported from non-passenger merchant ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register in 2010-2012, with a focus on analysing nationality differences in the risk of getting injured in an accident. Data about notified occupational accidents were collected from notifications sent to the Danish Maritime Authority and from records of contact with Danish Radio Medical. Events were matched by personal identification and accident data to create a unified database. Stratified cumulative time spent on board by seafarers was used to calculate accident rates. Incidence rates of different nationalities were compared by Poisson regression. Western European seafarers had an overall accident rate of 17.5 per 100000 person-days, which proved to be significantly higher than that of Eastern European, South East Asian and Indian seaman (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.53, 0.51 and 0.74, respectively), although differences decreased over the investigated period. Smaller but in most cases still significant discrepancies were observed for serious injuries. The back injury rate of Western European employees was found especially high, while eye injuries seem to be more frequent among South East Asian workers. The study identified substantial differences between nationalities in the rate of various accidents reported from merchant ships sailing under the Danish flag. The differences may be attributed to various factors such as safety behaviour. Investigation of special injury types and characterisation of effective elements of safety culture can contribute to the improvement of workplace safety in the maritime sector.
von Plessen, Christian; Kodal, Anne Marie; Anhøj, Jacob
Objectives To describe experiences with the implementation of global trigger tool (GTT) reviews in five Danish hospitals and to suggest ways to improve the performance of GTT review teams. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting The measurement and monitoring of harms are crucial to campaigns to improve the safety of patients. Increasingly, teams use the GTT to review patient records and measure harms in English and non-English-speaking countries. Meanwhile, it is not clear as to how the method performs in such diverse settings. Participants Review teams from five Danish pilot hospitals of the national Danish Safer Hospital Programme. Primary and secondary outcome measures We collected harm rates, background and anecdotal information and reported patient safety incidents (PSIs) from five pilot hospitals currently participating in the Danish Safer Hospital Programme. Experienced reviewers categorised harms by type. We plotted harm rates as run-charts and applied rules for the detection of patterns of non-random variation. Results The hospitals differed in size but had similar patient populations and activity. PSIs varied between 3 and 12 per 1000 patient-days. The average harm rate for all hospitals was 60 per 1000 patient-days ranging from 34 to 84. The percentage of harmed patients was 25 and ranged from 18 to 33. Overall, 96% of harms were temporary. Infections, pressure ulcers procedure-related and gastrointestinal problems were common. Teams reported differences in training and review procedures such as the role of the secondary reviewer. Conclusions We found substantial variation in harm rates. Differences in training, review procedures and documentation in patient records probably contributed to these variations. Training reviewers as teams, specifying the roles of the different reviewers, training records and a database for findings of reviews may improve the application of the GTT. PMID:23065451
Dickerson, Aisha S; Hansen, Johnni; Gredal, Ole; Weisskopf, Marc G
Previous studies have suggested an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other motor neuron diseases for those in occupations commonly exposed to diesel exhaust (DE). In this study, we investigated the association between occupational exposures to DE and odds of ALS. ALS cases were identified from the Danish National Patient Registry 1982 to 2013 and individually matched to 100 controls per case based on birth year and sex. Using occupational history since 1964 from the Danish Pension Fund, Cumulative DE exposures were estimated using a job exposure matrix. Associations were evaluated using conditional logistic regression analyses and stratified by sex. DE exposure at 10-year lag periods was positively associated with ALS in men ever exposed (aOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.38). For men with > 50% probability of DE exposure, we observed a positive association with ALS and the highest quartile exposures during the 5-year lag period (aOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.78) and 10-year lag period (aOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.79). Our study suggests an association between consistently higher exposures to DE and ALS in men but not in women. These findings support those of previously reported associations between ALS and commonly DE exposed occupations.
Petersen, Kajsa Ugelvig; Pedersen, Julie Elbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Hansen, Johnni
Occupational exposure of firefighters involves a complex range of potential health threats from toxic chemicals, shift work, extreme heat, physical and emotional strain. The aim of this study is to examine overall and disease-specific mortality among Danish firefighters. Through systematic collection of personnel and membership records from employers and trade unions, past and present male Danish firefighters were identified (n = 11,775). Using the unique Danish personal identification number, information on additional employment, vital status and cause of death was linked to each member of the cohort from the Supplementary Pension Fund Register, the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for specific causes of death using rates for two reference groups, a random sample of the male working population (n = 262,168) and the military (n = 396,739), respectively. Overall mortality was significantly reduced among the firefighters compared to both the sample of the working population and the military (SMR 0.74, 95% CI 0.69-0.78 and SMR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.93). Further, the SMRs for endocrine diseases, mental disorders, non-traffic related accidents and other external causes were significantly lower against both reference groups. Death from stomach cancer was significantly increased among the full time firefighters, while part time/volunteer workers shared a significant increase in prostate cancer death compared to both references. Despite potential exposure to several occupational hazards, male Danish firefighters have a lower mortality than both the Danish working population in general and Danish military employees.
Tamayev, Robert; Matsuda, Shuji; Fà, Mauro; Arancio, Ottavio; D’Adamio, Luciano
According to the prevailing “amyloid cascade hypothesis,” genetic dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease and familial Danish dementia (FDD) are caused by amyloid deposits that trigger tauopathy, neurodegeneration, and behavioral/cognitive alterations. To efficiently reproduce amyloid lesions, murine models of human dementias invariably use transgenic expression systems. However, recent FDD transgenic models showed that Danish amyloidosis does not cause memory defects, suggesting that other mechanisms cause Danish dementia. We studied an animal knock-in model of FDD (FDDKI/+) genetically congruous with human cases. FDDKI/+ mice present reduced Bri2 levels, impaired synaptic plasticity and severe hippocampal memory deficits. These animals show no cerebral lesions that are reputed characteristics of human dementia, such as tangles or amyloid plaques. Bri2+/− mice exhibit synaptic and memory deficits similar to FDDKI/+ mice, and memory loss of FDDKI/+ mice is prevented by expression of WT BRI2, indicating that Danish dementia is caused by loss of BRI2 function. Together, the data suggest that clinical dementia in Danish patients occurs via a loss of function mechanism and not as a result of amyloidosis and tauopathy. PMID:21098268
Tamayev, Robert; Matsuda, Shuji; Fà, Mauro; Arancio, Ottavio; D'Adamio, Luciano
According to the prevailing "amyloid cascade hypothesis," genetic dementias such as Alzheimer's disease and familial Danish dementia (FDD) are caused by amyloid deposits that trigger tauopathy, neurodegeneration, and behavioral/cognitive alterations. To efficiently reproduce amyloid lesions, murine models of human dementias invariably use transgenic expression systems. However, recent FDD transgenic models showed that Danish amyloidosis does not cause memory defects, suggesting that other mechanisms cause Danish dementia. We studied an animal knock-in model of FDD (FDD(KI/+)) genetically congruous with human cases. FDD(KI/+) mice present reduced Bri2 levels, impaired synaptic plasticity and severe hippocampal memory deficits. These animals show no cerebral lesions that are reputed characteristics of human dementia, such as tangles or amyloid plaques. Bri2(+/-) mice exhibit synaptic and memory deficits similar to FDD(KI/+) mice, and memory loss of FDD(KI/+) mice is prevented by expression of WT BRI2, indicating that Danish dementia is caused by loss of BRI2 function. Together, the data suggest that clinical dementia in Danish patients occurs via a loss of function mechanism and not as a result of amyloidosis and tauopathy.
Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Jensen, Allan
Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. From 1995 through 1999, we included 267 women with ovarian cancer, 115 women with borderline ovarian tumors and 911 randomly selected control women. All women completed a beverage frequency questionnaire with detailed information on coffee and tea consumption. Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression models. Both coffee (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97 per cup/day) and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98 per 100 mg/day) decreased the risk of ovarian cancer. These associations were significant only for the serous and "other" subtypes of ovarian cancer. No relation between tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk was observed. The risk estimates for borderline ovarian tumors resembled those observed for ovarian cancer, but did not reach statistical significance. Our results indicate that coffee consumption and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined is associated with a modest decreased risk of ovarian cancer. However, more biological studies are needed to identify bioactive chemical compounds in coffee that potentially could affect ovarian cancer development.
Frei, Patrizia; Poulsen, Aslak H; Johansen, Christoffer; Olsen, Jørgen H; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Schüz, Joachim
To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers. Nationwide cohort study. Denmark. All Danes aged ≥ 30 and born in Denmark after 1925, subdivided into subscribers and non-subscribers of mobile phones before 1995. Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. Sex specific incidence rate ratios estimated with log linear Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, education, and disposable income. 358,403 subscription holders accrued 3.8 million person years. In the follow-up period 1990-2007, there were 10,729 cases of tumours of the central nervous system. The risk of such tumours was close to unity for both men and women. When restricted to individuals with the longest mobile phone use--that is, ≥ 13 years of subscription--the incidence rate ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27) in men and 0.91 (0.41 to 2.04) in women. Among those with subscriptions of ≥ 10 years, ratios were 1.04 (0.85 to 1.26) in men and 1.04 (0.56 to 1.95) in women for glioma and 0.90 (0.57 to 1.42) in men and 0.93 (0.46 to 1.87) in women for meningioma. There was no indication of dose-response relation either by years since first subscription for a mobile phone or by anatomical location of the tumour--that is, in regions of the brain closest to where the handset is usually held to the head. In this update of a large nationwide cohort study of mobile phone use, there were no increased risks of tumours of the central nervous system, providing little evidence for a causal association.
Poulsen, Aslak H; Johansen, Christoffer; Olsen, Jørgen H; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Schüz, Joachim
Objective To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers. Design Nationwide cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants All Danes aged ≥30 and born in Denmark after 1925, subdivided into subscribers and non-subscribers of mobile phones before 1995. Main outcome measures Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. Sex specific incidence rate ratios estimated with log linear Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, education, and disposable income. Results 358 403 subscription holders accrued 3.8 million person years. In the follow-up period 1990-2007, there were 10 729 cases of tumours of the central nervous system. The risk of such tumours was close to unity for both men and women. When restricted to individuals with the longest mobile phone use—that is, ≥13 years of subscription—the incidence rate ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27) in men and 0.91 (0.41 to 2.04) in women. Among those with subscriptions of ≥10 years, ratios were 1.04 (0.85 to 1.26) in men and 1.04 (0.56 to 1.95) in women for glioma and 0.90 (0.57 to 1.42) in men and 0.93 (0.46 to 1.87) in women for meningioma. There was no indication of dose-response relation either by years since first subscription for a mobile phone or by anatomical location of the tumour—that is, in regions of the brain closest to where the handset is usually held to the head. Conclusions In this update of a large nationwide cohort study of mobile phone use, there were no increased risks of tumours of the central nervous system, providing little evidence for a causal association. PMID:22016439
Andersen, Michael Asger; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Skov, Vibe; Kruse, Torben A; Thomassen, Mads; Skytthe, Axel; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Christensen, Kaare
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by clonal hyperproliferation of immature and mature cells of the myeloid lineage. Genetic differences have been proposed to play a role in the development of MPNs. Monozygotic twin pairs with MPNs have been reported in a few case reports, but the MPN concordance pattern in twins remains unknown. All twin pairs born in the period 1900-2010 were identified in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. Only pairs with both twins alive on January 1, 1977, and those born thereafter were included to allow identification in the Danish National Patient Registry. A total of 158 twin pairs were registered with an MPN diagnosis: 36 monozygotic, 104 dizygotic, and 18 pairs with unknown zygosity. MPNs were diagnosed in both twins in 4 pairs. The probandwise concordance rates for monozygotic twin pairs were higher than for dizygotic twin pairs (15 vs. 0%; p = 0.016). An estimated concordance rate of 15% (95% CI 0.059-0.31) is modest, but given the rarity of MPNs this finding is clinically relevant and provides further support for the role of genetic predisposition in the development of MPNs. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nielsen, Bo Gerner; Borlund, Pia
The paper reports on a study of 12 Danish high school students' perceptions of public libraries' role in learning, user education, information literacy, and librarians' information competencies. The study is undertaken by use of literature review and interviews with a purposive select sample of public library users in Denmark. The study…
Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because the disease in the majority of patients is diagnosed at an advanced stage as a result of nonspecific symptoms and lack of efficient screening methods. Because of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and the challenge of early detection of the disease, identification of protective factors is important. It has been suggested that some commonly used drugs may have a protective effect against cancer, including ovarian cancer; however, the literature on chemopreventive measures for ovarian cancer is sparse and the results are inconclusive. Most previous studies have substantial methodological constraints, including limited study size and self-reporting of drug use, which introduces potential recall bias and misclassification. This PhD thesis includes a nationwide case-control study to evaluate associations between use of drugs with potential chemopreventive properties and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The study is nested in the entire Danish female population using data from the following nationwide registries: the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Prescription Registry, the Danish National Patient Register, and registries in Statistics Denmark on fertility, education, and income. Information from the included registries is linked by use of the unique personal identification number assigned to all Danish citizens. The cases were all women in Denmark with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during 2000-2009 (Paper 1) and 2000-2011 (Papers 2 and 3), identified in the Cancer Registry. Age-matched female population controls were randomly selected from the Civil Registration System by risk-set sampling. We required that cases and controls have no history of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) and that controls not previously have undergone bilateral oophorectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy. The total study population comprised 3741 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 50,576 controls in
Sørensen, Holger J; Larsen, Janne T; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte
Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range of risk factors for ICD-10 DCR schizophrenia using a nationwide Danish sample of 2,772,144 residents born in 1955-1997. We compared one contact only (OCO) (the case definition of schizophrenia used in Danish register based studies) with two or more contacts (TMC) (a case definition of at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher risk estimates were found for the TMC definition. Choosing at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia (TMC) instead of the currently used case definition would result in almost similar risk estimates for many well-established risk factors. However, this would also introduce selection and include considerably fewer cases and reduce power of e.g. genetic studies based on register-diagnosed cases only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Norredam, Marie
Refugee children and their families constitute a vulnerable group regarding health and access to care. In a register-based cohort design, we examined differences in uptake of immunisations and child health examinations between refugee children and Danish-born children, including predictors of uptake among refugee children. Refugee children (n = 16,701) who, between January 1993 and December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark were included and matched in a 1:6 ratio on age and sex with Danish-born children (n = 100,206). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the National Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for immunisation and child health examinations. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of uptake. Refugee children had a lower uptake of all immunisations compared to Danish-born children. The lowest uptake was found for immunisation against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (HR = 0.50; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.51). Participation in child health examinations was also lower among refugee children with the lowest at the last child health examination at age 5 (HR = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.47-0.50). Adjusting the analysis for parental income increased the HRs by 10-20 %. This Danish register-based study using nationwide data revealed a lower uptake of routine immunisations and child health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children. •Uptake of immunisation and child health examination is associated with low household income, unemployment and low educational status among the parents. •Uptake may be even lower among refugee families as they constitute a vulnerable group regarding access to healthcare. What is New: •Refugee children had lower uptake of immunisations and child health examinations compared to Danish-born children. •Several predictors of uptake were identified including region of origin and duration of residence.
Mikkelsen, B E; Beck, A M; Lassen, A
Since 1995, significant efforts by authorities and researchers have been directed towards addressing the nutritional problems in Danish hospitals and nursing homes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the increased focus on nutritional problems in patients and nursing home residents has resulted in measurable progress. A questionnaire-based study was carried out among foodservice managers in Danish hospitals (n=96) and nursing homes (n=898) in 1995 and 2002/3 (n=90) and (n=682), respectively. The study used compliance with selected issues in the official Danish recommendations for institutional food service as an indicator for progress. The issues included: using nutrient calculated recipes/menus, offering menu choice options, using feedback routines on acceptability of menus, maintaining nutritional steering committees, employing food and nutrition contact persons, employing official recommendations and offering choice between three different menu energy levels. Hospitals had a higher compliance compared to nursing homes. In 1995, this was the case for all questions asked and differences were statistically significant. Also in 2002/3, hospitals had a higher compliance, except in the case of established feedback routines. Differences were statistically significant. The results indicate that nutritional care is higher on the agenda in hospital, than in nursing homes. However, very little progress can be seen in compliance when results are analysed over the 8-year period. The only progress for nursing homes was that more homes had implemented feedback routines on acceptability of food service in 2002/3 than in 1995. The difference was statistically significant. For hospitals, however, no progress was found between 1995 and 2002/3. The attempts to improve the nutritional status of hospital patients and nursing home residents seem to have failed. Still, the initiatives taken to improve the situation seem relevant. Especially the nursing homes might
Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin
This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…
Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert; Burr, Herman
A Danish cohort from 1987 consisting of 226 stainless steel welders and reference persons is part of the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health (ESCH). In ESCH increased cancer morbidity and mortality was significantly associated with high levels of chromosomal aberrations, measured in blood samples several years prior to cancer registration. The positive association was found in two cohorts from the Nordic countries and from Italy. ESCH followed all registered cancer cases and control persons by questionnaires and interviews to obtain information about exposures in the period from the time of blood sampling for chromosomal aberration analysis to the time of cancer diagnosis. In Denmark the total cohort was included in the inquiry and the ESCH questions were supplemented with questions from the Danish National Work Environment Cohort Study 1990-95. Responses from one hundred and forty-four persons showed that seventy-four were employed at the same workplace place as in 1987. Differences in occupational exposures, such as more noise, heat and insufficient lighting and no differences in the self-rated health were found in comparison with the Danish National Work Environment Cohort Study as such and with the sample of metal workers. Only very few of the study persons knew the threshold limit value of welding fumes but a majority found that the working environment had improved during the past ten years. This study confirms hazardous exposures in stainless steel welding. The threshold limit value, however, has been lowered since 1987 suggesting there is less cancer risk today from stainless steel welding.
Tilma, Jens; Nørgaard, Mette; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Johnsen, Søren Paaske
We aimed to determine the incidence rate and time trend of approved treatment injuries in Danish public hospitals from 2006 to 2012 and also to identify independent predictors of severe treatment injuries among patient and system factors and characterize the injuries. We performed a nationwide, historical observational study on data from the Danish Patient Compensation Association, which receives all compensation claims from Danish health care. All approved closed claims of treatment injuries occurring in public hospitals 2006-12 were included. Health care activity information was obtained through Statistics Denmark. Incidence rates were determined as treatment injuries per year by population and by public hospital contacts. By using a multivariable logistic regression model, we calculated mutually adjusted odds ratios to assess the association between potential predictors and severe injuries among approved claims. We identified 10,959 approved treatment injury claims in 2006-12. The total payout was USD 339 million. The mean incidence rate medians were 27.9 injuries/100,000 inhabitants/year and 0.21 injuries/1000 public hospital contacts/year. These did not increase overtime. Severe injuries and preventable cases comprised 11.0 and 41.0%, respectively. Predictors of severe injury included age 0 and above 40 years, male gender and higher level of comorbidity. The incidence rate of approved closed claims at Danish public hospitals appears stable. A high proportion of injuries are preventable and both patient- and system-related factors may predict severe injuries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst
This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1.73-2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42-1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way. Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces.
Background Vehicle engine exhaust includes ultrafine particles with a large surface area and containing absorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, transition metals and other substances. Ultrafine particles and soluble chemicals can be transported from the airways to other organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and brain. Our aim was to investigate whether air pollution from traffic is associated with risk for other cancers than lung cancer. Methods We followed up 54,304 participants in the Danish Diet Cancer and Health cohort for 20 selected cancers in the Danish Cancer Registry, from enrolment in 1993-1997 until 2006, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used modeled concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and amount of traffic at the residence as indicators of traffic-related air pollution and used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for potential confounders. Results NOx at the residence was significantly associated with risks for cervical cancer (IRR, 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01;5.93, per 100 μg/m3 NOx) and brain cancer (IRR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.25;4.19, per 100 μg/m3 NOx). Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study indicates that traffic-related air pollution might increase the risks for cervical and brain cancer, which should be tested in future studies. PMID:21771295
Sørensen, Nina N; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne; Lassen, Anne D
To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public kitchens before and after kitchen employees participated in conversion projects. Public kitchens participating in the nine organic food conversion projects under the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, initiated during autumn 2012 and spring 2013 and completed in summer 2015. A total of 622 public kitchens. The average (median) increase in organic food percentage from baseline to follow-up was 24 percentage points (P<0·001) during an overall median follow-up period of 1·5 years. When analysing data according to public kitchen type, the increase remained significant for seven out of eight kitchens. Furthermore, the proportion of public kitchens eligible for the Organic Cuisine Label in either silver (60-90 % organic food procurement) or gold (90-100 % organic food procurement) level doubled from 31 % to 62 %, respectively, during the conversion period. Conversion project curriculum mostly included elements of 'theory', 'menu planning', 'network' and 'Organic Cuisine Label method' to ensure successful implementation. The study reports significant increases in the level of organic food procurement among public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Recommendations for future organic conversion projects include adding key curriculum components to the project's educational content and measuring changes in organic food percentage to increase the chances of successful implementation.
Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D
From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.
Sloan, Chantel D.; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R.
Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population. PMID
Sloan, Chantel D; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R
Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population.
Holst, Gitte Juel; Paarup, Helene M; Baelum, Jesper
To investigate psychosocial work environment and stress in Danish symphony orchestra musicians. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of psychosocial work factors and stress symptoms among 441 musicians in six Danish symphony orchestras. The response rate was 78% (n = 342). The questions were from COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire). Mean values of 19 COPSOQ-scales were compared by gender and instrument group. The results for the musicians were compared with results for the general Danish work force (COPSOQ database). Female musicians reported higher work demands and higher stress symptoms than their male colleagues. Between instrument groups, 2nd violinists seemed to be of particular risk compared with the other instrumental groups in aspects of work pace, work organization, and content, whereas 1st violinists perceived higher emotional stress compared with 2nd violinists. The musicians' experience of increased work demands as well as deteriorated, work organization and job content, interpersonal relations and leadership, and work-individual interface was significantly associated with increasing stress symptoms. Compared to the general workforce independently of gender, Danish symphony orchestra musicians reported higher emotional demands, lower influence, lower social support, lower sense of community, and lower job satisfaction. However, the musicians reported a higher commitment to the workplace. The findings indicate a more demanding psychosocial work environment exposure among symphony orchestra musicians than among Danish workers in general. Critical results are the relatively high work demands, low influence, and low social support, females being of higher risk than males.
Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Østergaard, Mette; Jacobsen, Bent A; Tjønneland, Anne; Krarup, Henrik B; Vogel, Ulla
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to normal constituents of the intestinal flora in the genetically predisposed host. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/HMOX1) is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme, whereas the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta/IL1B) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10/IL10) are key modulators for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1 beta, IL-10, and HO-1 genes, together with smoking, were associated with risk of CD and UC. Allele frequencies of the IL-1 beta T-31C (rs1143627), and IL-10 rs3024505, G-1082A (rs1800896), C-819T (rs1800871), and C-592A (rs1800872) and HO-1 A-413T (rs2071746) SNPs were assessed using a case-control design in a Danish cohort of 336 CD and 498 UC patients and 779 healthy controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by logistic regression models. Carriers of rs3024505, a marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene, were at increased risk of CD (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06-1.85, P = 0.02) and UC (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12-1.82, P = 0.004) and, furthermore, with risk of a diagnosis of CD and UC at young age (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10-1.96) and OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.76), respectively). No association was found between the IL-1 beta, IL-10 G-1082A, C-819T, C-592A, and HO-1 gene polymorphisms and CD or UC. No consistent interactions between smoking status and CD or UC genotypes were demonstrated. The rs3024505 marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene was significantly associated with risk of UC and CD, whereas no association was found between IL-1 beta or HO-1 gene polymorphisms and risk of CD and UC in this Danish study, suggesting that IL-10, but not IL-1 beta or HO-1, has a role in IBD etiology in this population.
Background Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to normal constituents of the intestinal flora in the genetically predisposed host. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/HMOX1) is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme, whereas the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1β (IL-1β/IL1B) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10/IL10) are key modulators for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1β, IL-10, and HO-1 genes, together with smoking, were associated with risk of CD and UC. Methods Allele frequencies of the IL-1β T-31C (rs1143627), and IL-10 rs3024505, G-1082A (rs1800896), C-819T (rs1800871), and C-592A (rs1800872) and HO-1 A-413T (rs2071746) SNPs were assessed using a case-control design in a Danish cohort of 336 CD and 498 UC patients and 779 healthy controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by logistic regression models. Results Carriers of rs3024505, a marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene, were at increased risk of CD (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06-1.85, P = 0.02) and UC (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12-1.82, P = 0.004) and, furthermore, with risk of a diagnosis of CD and UC at young age (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10-1.96) and OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.76), respectively). No association was found between the IL-1β, IL-10 G-1082A, C-819T, C-592A, and HO-1 gene polymorphisms and CD or UC. No consistent interactions between smoking status and CD or UC genotypes were demonstrated. Conclusions The rs3024505 marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene was significantly associated with risk of UC and CD, whereas no association was found between IL-1β or HO-1 gene polymorphisms and risk of CD and UC in this Danish study, suggesting that IL-10, but not IL-1β or HO-1, has a role in IBD etiology in this population. PMID:20509889
Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Johansen, Martin Berg; Tjønneland, Anne; Chahal, Harpreet S.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Overvad, Kim
Objective To evaluate the association between chocolate intake and incident clinically apparent atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF).. Methods The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study. The present study is based on 55,502 participants (26,400 men and 29,102 women) aged 50–64 years who had provided information on chocolate intake at baseline. Incident cases of AF were ascertained by linkage with nationwide registries. Results During a median of 13.5 years, there were 3,346 cases of AF. Compared with chocolate intake less than once per month, the rate of AF was lower for people consuming 1–3 servings/month (Hazard Ratio [HR]= 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82–0.98), 1 serving/week (HR= 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.92), 2–6 servings/week (HR= 0.80, 95% CI 0.71–0.91) and 1 servings/day (HR= 0.84, 95 %CI 0.65–1.09; p-linear trend<0.0001), with similar results for men and women. Conclusions Accumulating evidence indicates that moderate chocolate intake may be inversely associated with AF risk, though residual confounding cannot be ruled out. PMID:28536115
Holst, Charlotte; Becker, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Marit E; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S
Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with diabetes, but little is known about the role of drinking patterns. We examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and diabetes risk in men and women from the general Danish population. This cohort study was based on data from the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Of the 76,484 survey participants, 28,704 men and 41,847 women were eligible for this study. Participants were followed for a median of 4.9 years. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain information on alcohol drinking patterns, i.e. frequency of alcohol drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and consumption of wine, beer and spirits, from which we calculated beverage-specific and overall average weekly alcohol intake. Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained from the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. During follow-up, 859 men and 887 women developed diabetes. The lowest risk of diabetes was observed at 14 drinks/week in men (HR 0.57 [95% CI 0.47, 0.70]) and at 9 drinks/week in women (HR 0.42 [95% CI 0.35, 0.51]), relative to no alcohol intake. Compared with current alcohol consumers consuming <1 day/week, consumption of alcohol on 3-4 days weekly was associated with significantly lower risk for diabetes in men (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.59, 0.94]) and women (HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.53, 0.88]) after adjusting for confounders and average weekly alcohol amount. Our findings suggest that alcohol drinking frequency is associated with risk of diabetes and that consumption of alcohol over 3-4 days per week is associated with the lowest risk of diabetes, even after taking average weekly alcohol consumption into account.
Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi
Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week. We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. Retrospective comparative study. The data from the US population was extracted from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education database for General Surgery residents from 2012 to 2013. For Danish residents, a questionnaire with case categories matching the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education categories were sent to all Danish surgeons graduating the national surgical residency program in 2012 or 2013, 54 in total. In all, 30 graduated residents (55%) responded to the Danish survey. We found no significant differences in mean total major procedures (1002.4 vs 976.9, p = 0.28) performed during residency training, but comparing average major procedures per year, the US residents achieve significantly more (132.3 vs 195.4, p <0.01). When factoring in differences in time spent in training, this amounts to a weekly average difference of 1.2 cases throughout training. In this study, we find no difference in overall surgical volumes between Danes and US residents during their surgical training. When time in training was accounted for, differences between weekly surgical volumes achieved were minor, indicating a lack of direct correlation between weekly work-hours and operative volumes achievable. Factors other than work-hours seem to effect on operative volumes achieved during training. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Hvidberg, Michael Falk; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Larsen, Finn Breinholt; Ortiz, Britta; Juel, Knud
In 2010 the five Danish regions and the National Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark conducted a national representative health survey among the adult population in Denmark. This paper describes the study design and the sample and study population as well as the content of the questionnaire. The survey was based on five regional stratified random samples and one national random sample. The samples were mutually exclusive. A total of 298,550 individuals (16 years or older) were invited to participate. Information was collected using a mixed mode approach (paper and web questionnaires). A questionnaire with a minimum of 52 core questions was used in all six subsamples. Calibrated weights were computed in order to take account of the complex survey design and reduce non-response bias. In all, 177,639 individuals completed the questionnaire (59.5%). The response rate varied from 52.3% in the Capital Region of Denmark sample to 65.5% in the North Denmark Region sample. The response rate was particularly low among young men, unmarried people and among individuals with a different ethnic background than Danish. The survey was a result of extensive national cooperation across sectors, which makes it unique in its field of application, e.g. health surveillance, planning and prioritizing public health initiatives and research. However, the low response rate in some subgroups of the study population can pose problems in generalizing data, and efforts to increase the response rate will be important in the forthcoming surveys.
Braüner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Attermann, Jørn
We investigated whether induced abortion is associated with breast cancer when lifestyle confounders, including smoking and alcohol consumption, are adjusted for. Design. Prospective cohort study. Danish women from the Diet, Cancer and Health study. A total of 25,576 women. We obtained exposure data from baseline questionnaires filled in by the women between 1993 and 1997. Information on breast cancer and emigration was retrieved from Danish national registries. The study power was approximately 85% when applying a minimum detection hazard ratio of 1.2. Long-term effects of induced abortion on the risk of breast cancer among women above 50 years of age. During a follow up of approximately 12 years, 1215 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. When comparing parous women who had an abortion with parous women who never had an abortion, there was no association between breast cancer risk and induced abortion (ever vs. never), with a hazard ratio 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.83-1.09), regardless of whether the abortion occurred before the first birth (hazard ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.14), or after the first birth (hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.13). Our study did not show evidence of an association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob
The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.
Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto
This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…
Lolle, Ida; Møller, Morten Hylander; Rosenstock, Steffen Jais
Mortality rates in complicated peptic ulcer disease are high. This study aimed to examine the prognostic importance of ulcer site in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). a nationwide cohort study with prospective and consecutive data collection. all patients treated for PUB and PPU at Danish hospitals between 2003 and 2014. demographic and clinical data reported to the Danish Clinical Registry of Emergency Surgery. 90- and 30-d mortality and re-intervention. the crude and adjusted association between ulcer site (gastric and duodenal) and the outcome measures of interest were assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. Some 20,059 patients with PUB and 4273 patients with PPU were included; 90-d mortality was 15.3% for PUB and 29.8% for PPU; 30-d mortality was 10.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Duodenal bleeding ulcer, as compared to gastric ulcer (GU), was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality within 90 and 30 d, and with re-intervention: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.67); p < 0.001, OR 1.60 (1.43-1.77); p < 0.001, and OR 1.86 (1.68-2.06); p < 0.001, respectively. There was no difference in outcomes between gastric and duodenal ulcers (DUs) in PPU patients: adjusted OR 0.99 (0.84-1.16); p = 0.698, OR 0.93 (0.78 to 1.10); p = 0.409, and OR 0.97 (0.80-1.19); p = 0.799, respectively. DU site is a significant predictor of death and re-intervention in patients with PUB, as compared to GU site. This does not seem to be the case for patients with PPU.
Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper; Siersted, Hans Christian; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Andersen, Morten
This population-based longitudinal study aimed to investigate trends in use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and determinants of ICS use in young Danish adults with asthma. 106 757 users, aged 18-44 years, of anti-asthmatic drugs were identified in the Danish Register of Medical Product Statistics during 1997-2006. One year prevalences of ICS use were calculated in categories of gender, age, and annual consumption of inhaled beta-2-agonists (IBA) in defined daily doses (DDD) per year. Determinants of ICS use were estimated by logistic regression models. The one year prevalence of ICS use was constant, approximately 64%, during 1997-2000. An annual increase was observed from 67% in 2001 to 77% in 2006. This trend also existed when stratifying on gender, age and IBA use. Using 1997 as baseline, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use in 2000 was 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-1.01) compared to 1.12 (95% CI 1.09-1.15) in 2001, and 1.81 (95% CI 1.75-1.87) in 2006. Other determinants of high ICS use were female gender, young age, and high annual IBA consumption. Among those using at least 400 DDD of IBA per year (corresponding to 4.4 powder inhalations daily), nearly 20% had no ICS prescriptions in 2006. Treatment with ICS among young Danish adult asthmatics has increased since 2001. This apparent improvement was associated with the introduction of fixed dose combination inhalers with ICS and inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists. However, there is still room for improvement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international
Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Pedersen, Lars; Christensen, Kaare; Jepsen, Peter
It is widely believed that autoimmune hepatitis accumulates in families, but the degree of familial clustering has not been clarified. We conducted a population-based study on the family occurrence of autoimmune hepatitis. Through Danish nationwide registries we identified 8,582 first-degree and 9,230 second-degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis in 1994-2015; and 64 co-twins of index patients diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis in 1977-2011. For first- and second-degree relatives we calculated the sex- and age-adjusted standardized incidence ratio of autoimmune hepatitis relative to the general population, and we calculated the cumulative risk, i.e. the cumulative incidence, of developing autoimmune hepatitis from the time of the index patient's diagnosis. For co-twins, we estimated the standardized incidence ratio and the concordance rate of autoimmune hepatitis. In first-degree relatives, there were six incident autoimmune hepatitis diagnoses during 64,020 years of follow-up: the standardized incidence ratio was 4.9 (95% CI 1.8-10.7), and the 10-year cumulative risk was 0.10% (95% CI 0.04-0.23). In the second-degree relatives, there were no incident autoimmune hepatitis diagnoses (expected number assuming incidence rate as in the Danish general population = 0.8). In the co-twins, there was one incident autoimmune hepatitis diagnosis during 1,112 years of follow-up, and the standardized incidence ratio was 53.9 (95% CI 1.4-300.4). The probandwise concordance rate, a measure of heritability, was higher in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins (8.7% [95% CI 1.1-28.0] vs. 0%). This nationwide study indicates that only first-degree relatives of index patients with autoimmune hepatitis are at increased risk of autoimmune hepatitis from the time of the index patient's diagnosis, but the absolute risk is very low. Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease caused by a dysfunctional immune system. It is widely believed that autoimmune
Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Berg Johansen, Martin; Tjønneland, Anne; Chahal, Harpreet S; Mittleman, Murray A; Overvad, Kim
To evaluate the association between chocolate intake and incident clinically apparent atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study. The present study is based on 55 502 participants (26 400 men and 29 102 women) aged 50-64 years who had provided information on chocolate intake at baseline. Incident cases of AF were ascertained by linkage with nationwide registries. During a median of 13.5 years there were 3346 cases of AF. Compared with chocolate intake less than once per month, the rate of AF was lower for people consuming 1-3 servings/month (hazard ratio (HR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.98), 1 serving/week (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92), 2-6 servings/week (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.91) and ≥1 servings/day (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.09; p-linear trend <0.0001), with similar results for men and women. Accumulating evidence indicates that moderate chocolate intake may be inversely associated with AF risk, although residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Krogh, Marianne T; Vaever, Mette S
The purpose of this study was to investigate cultural differences between Danish and American children at 2 and 3 years as measured with the developmental test Bayley-III, and to investigate the Bayley-III Language Scale validity. The Danish children (N = 43) were tested with the Bayley-III and their parents completed an additional language questionnaire (the MacArthur-Bates CDI). Results showed that scores from the Danish children did not differ significantly from the American norms on the Cognitive or Motor Scale, but the Danish sample scored significantly higher on the Language Scale. A comparison of the Bayley-III Language subtests with the CDI showed that the two measures correlated significantly, but the percentile score from the CDI was significantly higher than the percentile score from the Bayley-III Language subtests. This could be because the two instruments measure slightly different areas of language development, or because the Bayley-III overestimates language development in Danish children. However, due to the limitations of the current study, further research is needed to clarify this issue. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243
Østergaard, Lauge; Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Pedersen, Lars; Loldrup Fosbøl, Emil; Schmidt, Morten
The positive predictive value of an infective endocarditis diagnosis is approximately 80% in the Danish National Patient Registry. However, since infective endocarditis is a heterogeneous disease implying long-term intravenous treatment, we hypothesiszed that the positive predictive value varies by length of hospital stay. A total of 100 patients with first-time infective endocarditis in the Danish National Patient Registry were identified from January 2010 - December 2012 at the University hospital of Aarhus and regional hospitals of Herning and Randers. Medical records were reviewed. We calculated the positive predictive value according to admission length, and separately for patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device and a prosthetic heart valve using the Wilson score method. Among the 92 medical records available for review, the majority of the patients had admission length ⩾2 weeks. The positive predictive value increased with length of admission. In patients with admission length <2 weeks the positive predictive value was 65% while it was 90% for admission length ⩾2 weeks. The positive predictive value was 81% for patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device and 87% for patients with a prosthetic valve. The positive predictive value of the infective endocarditis diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry is high for patients with admission length ⩾2 weeks. Using this algorithm, the Danish National Patient Registry provides a valid source for identifying infective endocarditis for research.
The Swedish General Electric Co. (ASEA) has founded a windpower company in cooperation with the Danish state and a Danish company. They expect to build 250 windpower plants through 1984. If a Swedish market opens a similar partner company is planned in Sweden.
Nielsen, Nete M; Westergaard, Tine; Frisch, Morten; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Melbye, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS) contribute considerably to the burden of autoimmune diseases in young adults. Although HLA patterns of T1D and MS are considered mutually exclusive, individual and familial co-occurrence of the 2 diseases has been reported. To assess the co-occurrence of T1D and MS by estimating the risk for MS in patients with T1D and the risk for T1D in first-degree relatives of patients with MS. Two population-based disease registers, the Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register were used to identify patients with T1D, defined as patients in whom diabetes was diagnosed before age 20 years (N = 6078), and patients with MS (N = 11 862). First-degree relatives (N = 14,771) of patients with MS were identified from family information in the Danish Civil Registration System. Patients with T1D and first-degree relatives of patients with MS were followed up for occurrence of MS and T1D, respectively, and the relative risks were expressed as standardized incidence ratios, that is, ratios of observed to expected numbers of outcomes based on national age, sex, and period-specific MS and T1D incidence rates. Patients with T1D were at more than 3-fold increased risk for development of MS (relative risk, 3.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-5.88; n = 11). First-degree relatives of patients with MS were at 63% increased risk (relative risk, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.12; n = 56) for development of T1D. However, adjusting for familial relationship to patients with T1D reduced the excess risk to 44% (relative risk, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.88; n = 56). The present nationwide cohort study demonstrates an intraindividual and, to a lesser degree, an intrafamilial co-occurrence of MS and T1D.
Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Sommerlund, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne D
In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to isothiazolinones has reached epidemic levels. Few studies have presented data on occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones. To present demographics and examine risk factors for sensitization to methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with MI and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in Danish dermatitis patients. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from three Danish hospitals departments was conducted. All patients consecutively patch tested with MI, MCI/MI and BIT between 2009 and 2013 were included. MI contact allergy showed a significantly increased trend in prevalence from 1.8% in 2009 to 4.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Females with facial dermatitis mainly drove the increase in 2012. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that MI sensitization was significantly associated with occupational exposures, hand and facial dermatitis, age > 40 years, and the occupational groups of tile setters/terrazzo workers, machine operators, and painters. MCI/MI contact allergy was significantly associated with the following high-risk occupations: painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration of isothiazolinones, and especially MI, in both consumer products and industrial products is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pedersen, Palle L.; Larsen, Jacob
Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women. PMID:26351582
Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob; Toft Kristensen, Tina; Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan
The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.
Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare
Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n = 1812) and SS (n = 4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n = 13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06–.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33–.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45–.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25655669
Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare
Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harley, Naomi H; Robbins, Edith S
An epidemiologic study of childhood leukemia in Denmark (2,400 cases; 6,697 controls) from 1968 to 1994 suggested a weak, but statistically significant, association of residential radon exposure and acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The Danish study estimated a relative risk (RR) = 1.56 (95% CI, 1.05-2.30) for a cumulative exposure of 1,000 Bq m-3 y. For an exposure duration of 10 y their RR corresponds to a radon concentration of 100 Bq m-3. There are two dose pathways of interest where alpha particles could damage potential stem cells for ALL. One is the alpha dose to bone marrow, and two is the dose to bronchial mucosa where an abundance of circulating lymphocytes is found. Compared with an exposure of about 1 mSv y-1 from natural external background, radon and decay products contribute an additional 10 to 60% to the bone marrow equivalent dose. The other pathway for exposure of T (or B) lymphocytes is within the tracheobronchial epithelium (BE). Inhaled radon decay products deposit on the relatively small area of airway surfaces and deliver a significant dose to the nearby basal or mucous cells implicated in human lung cancer. Lymphocytes are co-located with basal cells and are half as abundant. Using a 10-y exposure to 100 Bq m-3, our dose estimates suggest that the equivalent dose to these lymphocytes could approach 1 Sv. The relatively high dose estimate to lymphocytes circulating through the BE, potential precursor cells for ALL, provides a dose pathway for an association.
Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind
The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, < 5, 5-14, and ≥ 15 years in the job, respectively. Data was analysed by a mixed random effect logistic regression model. The age-standardised COPD study prevalence was 5.0%. Of 372 DISCO-88 codes 72 were identified with relevant exposure to VGDF. 46% of the participants reported at least one occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.
Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Halasa, Tariq; Rattenborg, Erik; Boes, Jaap; Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Thamsborg, Stig Milan
The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group) during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011-2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Control of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark should target heifers and
Glümer, Charlotte; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbaek, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
To develop a simple self-administered questionnaire identifying individuals with undiagnosed diabetes with a sensitivity of 75% and minimizing the high-risk group needing subsequent testing. A population-based sample (Inter99 study) of 6,784 individuals aged 30-60 years completed a questionnaire on diabetes-related symptoms and risk factors. The participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. The risk score was derived from the first half and validated on the second half of the study population. External validation was performed based on the Danish Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) pilot study. The risk score was developed by stepwise backward multiple logistic regression. The final risk score included age, sex, BMI, known hypertension, physical activity at leisure time, and family history of diabetes, items independently and significantly (P<0.05) associated with the presence of previously undiagnosed diabetes. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.804 (95% CI 0.765-0.838) for the first half of the Inter99 population, 0.761 (0.720-0.803) for the second half of the Inter99 population, and 0.803 (0.721-0.876) for the ADDITION pilot study. The sensitivity, specificity, and percentage that needed subsequent testing were 76, 72, and 29%, respectively. The false-negative individuals in the risk score had a lower absolute risk of ischemic heart disease compared with the true-positive individuals (11.3 vs. 20.4%; P<0.0001). We developed a questionnaire to be used in a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes, decreasing the numbers of subsequent tests and thereby possibly minimizing the economical and personal costs of the screening strategy.
Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki
This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…
Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau
Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time. From May to September 2009, 330 physicians employed at six oncology centres and seven community based oncology departments were invited to participate in a survey based on the short version of the COPSOQ II questionnaire. The results were compared with data from a representative section of Danish employees and with data from the 2006 survey. Two hundred and twenty of the 330 invited physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 67%). Concerning the aspects quantitative demands, work pace, emotional demands, influence, burnout and stress, the oncologists reported worse work conditions than the average Danish employee. However, with regard to possibilities for development, meaning of work and commitment to workplace, the oncologists reported better work conditions. Between 2006 and 2009, substantial improvement was seen concerning several of the assessed work environment aspects within the group of young physicians at the oncology centres. Though substantial improvement of the work conditions has been achieved between 2006 and 2009, certain aspects of the psychosocial work environment at Danish oncology departments still require attention.
Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R
manufactured in Denmark in spite of the fact that they were labelled as such according to agreement with Landsforeningen Dansk Arbejde, i.e., The National Association Danish Work, which in 1925 allowed Pharmacia to use the labels of the association. The unemployment was high in the 1920'ies and increasing so when Pharmacia subsequently took legal action against the Association of Pharmacies and claimed that the statement was unjustified and might harm Pharmacia, it may indicate that the public of that time looked positively upon the manufacture and the use of Danish manufactured products. The Danish Association of Pharmacies lost the case as the claim according to the court was unjustified and thus unlawful. The suspicions of the association were not supported by facts, however, they were not either completely groundless. Following this The National Association Danish Work gave notice to terminate the contract with Pharmacia concerning the right to use the labels of the association. By expanding the cooperation and later on by merging with the Swedish Pharmacia AB the Danish A/S Pharmacia succeeded in continuing and developing a company where research, development and production of innovative medicinal products as well as of generics could take place in Denmark.
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.
Atladottir, Hjordis Osk; Schendel, Diana E.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Parner, Erik T.
The aim of this study was to study patterns of contact with hospital for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using Danish population based register data. We included all children born in Denmark from 1994 through 2002. We found that children diagnosed with ASD had an increased rate of contact with hospital, almost regardless of the cause…
Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg
Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association and temporal relationship between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity. Register-based nationwide cohort study. Data on hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity were obtained by record linkage of the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish National Prescription Registry. A total of 2631 hyperthyroid individuals were identified and matched 1:4 with non-hyperthyroid controls and followed for a mean duration of 6 years (range 0-13). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism respectively. BEFORE THE DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM, SUCH INDIVIDUALS HAD AN INCREASED RISK OF BEING HOSPITALIZED WITH PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSES (ODDS RATIO (OR): 1.33; 95% CI: 0.98-1.80) and an increased risk of being treated with antipsychotics (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.00-1.38), antidepressants (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01-1.27), or anxiolytics (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.16-1.42). After the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, there was a higher risk of being hospitalized with psychiatric diagnoses (hazard ratio (HR): 1.51; 95% CI: 1.11-2.05) and an increased risk of being treated with antipsychotics (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.20-1.79), antidepressants (HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.36-1.74), or anxiolytics (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.27-1.69). Hyperthyroid individuals have an increased risk of being hospitalized with psychiatric diagnoses and being treated with antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytics, both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Ross, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Previous studies suggest that religious practice can have a positive effect on mental health, but may also have potential for harm. In Denmark, unique possibilities are available for studying the influence of religious practice on mental health: Denmark is characterized as a secular society and it is possible to follow members of religious societies in nationwide registers. In this study, we follow a cohort of Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) and Baptists in a nationwide psychiatry register and compare the incidence in this cohort with the general population. We followed a cohort of 5,614 SDA and 3,663 Baptists in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contained information on psychiatric hospitalizations from 1970 to 2009. Psychiatric disease incidence in the cohort was compared with that in the general Danish population as standardized incidence ratios and within-cohort comparisons were made with a Cox model. The cohort had decreased incidence of abuse disorders compared to the general population. Furthermore, among Baptists, decreased incidence of unipolar disorders among men and decreased incidence of schizophrenia among women were observed. Surprisingly, we observed an increased incidence rate of unipolar disorder among women. In this nationwide cohort study with 40 years of follow-up, we observed increased incidence rates of unipolar disorders among women and decreased rates of alcohol- and drug-related psychiatric disorders compared to the general Danish population. We have no mechanistic explanation for the increased incidence of unipolar disorders among women, but discuss several hypotheses that could explain this observation.
Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke
In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.
Kondrup, S V; Anhøj, K P; Rødsgaard-Rosenbeck, C; Lund, T B; Nissen, M H; Sandøe, P
This study examined the extent to which Danish veterinary practices encounter financially limited clients and how different factors relating to the animal, the client and the veterinarian affect decisions to provide treatment for these clients. 300 small animal practices were invited to participate in an online survey. 195 participated, giving a response rate of 65 per cent. The results show that Danish small animal veterinary practices encounter clients with limited finances regularly: 33.8 per cent of them 3-4 times, 24.6 per cent 5-10 times and 19.5 per cent 1-2 times a month. Only around 9 per cent reported having a written practice policy on handling financially limited clients. Factors affecting decisions to treat include the severity and type of the animal's condition, the medical care needed and the client's expressed emotions. The propensity to treat is significantly higher in female veterinarians and in situations involving unborn animals. The overall conclusion is that small animal veterinary practices often provide treatment to clients who are not able to pay-far beyond what is legally required. This can be considered a major economic and psychological challenge for the practising veterinarians. British Veterinary Association.
Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul
There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. A complete extraction of Danish register data for every individual born in the period 1983-1989 was made. Of these 403,431 individuals, 3,465 had attempted suicide. In order to control for confounder effects from gender, age and calendar-time, a nested case-control study was designed. A total population of 72,765 individuals was used to analyze the risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department. The case-control data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. This study shows that a child/adolescent's risk of suicide attempt peaks immediately after discharge from last contact with a psychiatric department. The risk of suicide attempt is highest for children and adolescents suffering from personality disorders, depression and substance use disorders. Children and adolescents with previous contact with a psychiatric department and parental income in the lowest third have a significantly higher risk of suicide attempt. Suicide attempters were more likely to have been given several different diagnoses and several different psychopharmacological drugs prior to their attempted suicide. The findings in this study highlight the need for psychopathology assessment in every case of attempted suicide. This study also shows that well-known risk factors such as contact with a psychiatric department do not affect all individuals in the same way. Individuals from families with low SES had the highest risk. This suggests that the presence of factors influencing both vulnerability and resiliency, e.g., family level of SES, needs to be included in the assessment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental
de Coninck-Smith, Ning
Invoking a statement by the cultural geographer David Livingstone--that location is essential to knowing--this paper focuses on Danish school architecture during the 1950s and 1960s and the interplay between local geography and developments and discussions on the national and international scene. Through exhibitions and study tours and…
The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under…
Munch-Andersen, Thor; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels-Jacob; Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Helge, Jørn W.
Objective In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish and Inuit children. Methods In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years) had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005)] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI)] compared to both northern [2,076 (2,525–1,706)] (p<0.001) and southern (2,515 (3,137–2,016)) (p<0.001) living Inuit boys and higher in Danish girls [6,988 (8,353–5,847)] compared to southern living Inuit girls [4,910 (6,370–3,785)] (p=0.021) and tended to be higher compared to northern living Inuit girls [5,131 (6,444–4,085)] (p=0.052). Plasma adiponectin was higher for both Danish boys [22,359 (2,573–19,428)] [ng/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI)] and girls [26,609 (28,994–24,420)] compared to southern living Inuit boys [15,306 (18,406–12,728)] and girls [18,864 (22,640–15,717)] (both p<0.001), respectively. All differences remained after adjustment for body fat percentage (BF%), aerobic fitness, age and puberty. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively. These differences were eliminated after adjustment for BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. Conclusions In contrast to our hypothesis, plasma leptin was higher in Danish children despite a more healthy metabolic profile compared to Inuit children. As expected, plasma adiponectin was lowest in Inuit children with the most adverse metabolic profile. PMID:23940841
Munch-Andersen, Thor; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels-Jacob; Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Helge, Jørn W
In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish and Inuit children. In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7-17.1 years) had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741-3,005)] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI)] compared to both northern [2,076 (2,525-1,706)] (p < 0.001) and southern (2,515 (3,137-2,016)) (p < 0.001) living Inuit boys and higher in Danish girls [6,988 (8,353-5,847)] compared to southern living Inuit girls [4,910 (6,370-3,785)] (p = 0.021) and tended to be higher compared to northern living Inuit girls [5,131 (6,444-4,085)] (p = 0.052). Plasma adiponectin was higher for both Danish boys [22,359 (2,573-19,428)] [ng/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI)] and girls [26,609 (28,994-24,420)] compared to southern living Inuit boys [15,306 (18,406-12,728)] and girls [18,864 (22,640-15,717)] (both p < 0.001), respectively. All differences remained after adjustment for body fat percentage (BF%), aerobic fitness, age and puberty. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively. These differences were eliminated after adjustment for BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. In contrast to our hypothesis, plasma leptin was higher in Danish children despite a more healthy metabolic profile compared to Inuit children. As expected, plasma adiponectin was lowest in Inuit children with the most adverse metabolic profile.
Bork, Christian S; Venø, Stine K; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim
Intake of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. We have investigated the associations between dietary intake of ALA and the risk of ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes. This was a follow-up study. A total of 57,053 participants aged 50-64 y were enrolled into the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort between 1993 and 1997. Intake of ALA was assessed by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Potential incident cases of ischemic stroke were identified in the Danish National Patient Register, validated, and classified into subtypes based on assumed etiology. Statistical analyses were performed via Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for established ischemic stroke risk factors. A total of 1859 ischemic stroke cases were identified during a median of 13.5 y of follow-up. In multivariable analyses using restricted cubic splines adjusting for traditional risk factors for ischemic stroke, we observed no clear associations between dietary intake of ALA and the risk of total ischemic stroke or any of its subtypes including ischemic stroke due to large artery atherosclerosis, ischemic stroke due to small-vessel occlusion, and ischemic stroke due to cardio-embolism. Dietary intake of ALA was neither consistently nor appreciably associated with the risk of ischemic stroke or ischemic stroke subtypes among middle-aged Danish men and women. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03258983.
Friis-Andersen, Hans; Bisgaard, Thue
To monitor and improve nation-wide surgical outcome after groin hernia repair based on scientific evidence-based surgical strategies for the national and international surgical community. Patients ≥18 years operated for groin hernia. Type and size of hernia, primary or recurrent, type of surgical repair procedure, mesh and mesh fixation methods. According to the Danish National Health Act, surgeons are obliged to register all hernia repairs immediately after surgery (3 minute registration time). All institutions have continuous access to their own data stratified on individual surgeons. Registrations are based on a closed, protected Internet system requiring personal codes also identifying the operating institution. A national steering committee consisting of 13 voluntary and dedicated surgeons, 11 of whom are unpaid, handles the medical management of the database. The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database comprises intraoperative data from >130,000 repairs (May 2015). A total of 49 peer-reviewed national and international publications have been published from the database (June 2015). The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database is fully active monitoring surgical quality and contributes to the national and international surgical society to improve outcome after groin hernia repair.
Andersen, Claus E; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Helle Primdal; Lind, Morten; Gravesen, Peter; Thomsen, Birthe L; Ulbak, Kaare
A linear regression model has been developed for the prediction of indoor (222)Rn in Danish houses. The model provides proxy radon concentrations for about 21,000 houses in a Danish case-control study on the possible association between residential radon and childhood cancer (primarily leukaemia). The model was calibrated against radon measurements in 3116 houses. An independent dataset with 788 house measurements was used for model performance assessment. The model includes nine explanatory variables, of which the most important ones are house type and geology. All explanatory variables are available from central databases. The model was fitted to log-transformed radon concentrations and it has an R(2) of 40%. The uncertainty associated with individual predictions of (untransformed) radon concentrations is about a factor of 2.0 (one standard deviation). The comparison with the independent test data shows that the model makes sound predictions and that errors of radon predictions are only weakly correlated with the estimates themselves (R(2) = 10%).
Vadmann, Henrik; Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Rodrigo-Domingo, Maria; Pehrson, Steen; Johannessen, Arne; Hansen, Peter Steen; Johansen, Jens Brock; Riahi, Sam
Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important but expensive procedure that is the subject of some debate. Physicians' attitudes toward catheter ablation may influence promotion and patient acceptance. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of Danish cardiologists toward catheter ablation for AF, using a nationwide survey. We developed a purpose-designed questionnaire to evaluate attitudes toward catheter ablation for AF that was sent to all Danish cardiologists (n = 401; response n = 272 (67.8%)). There was no association between attitudes toward ablation and the experience or age of the cardiologist with respect to patients with recurrent AF episodes with a duration of <48 hours or >7 days and/or need for cardioversion. The majority (69%) expected a recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in more than 30% of the cases. For patients with persistent longstanding AF with a duration of >1 year, the attitude toward ablation for longstanding AF was more likely to be positive with increasing age (P < 0.01) and years of experience of the cardiologist (P = 0.002). Danish cardiologists generally have a positive attitude toward catheter ablation for AF, maintain up-to-date knowledge of the procedure, and are aware what information on ablation treatment should be given to patients with AF. The cardiologists had a positive attitude toward ablation for AF in patients with AF episodes <48 hours and patients with episodes >7 days, or those who needed medical/electrical conversion, but a more negative attitude toward treating longstanding AF patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cronin-Fenton, D.P.; Heide-Jørgensen, U.; Ahern, T.P.; Lash, T.L.; Christiansen, P.M.; Ejlertsen, B.; Sjøgren, P.; Kehlet, H.; Sørensen, H.T.
Background Opioids may alter immune function and thereby potentially affect cancer recurrence. We investigated the association between post-diagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. Methods We identified incident early-stage breast cancer patients, diagnosed 1996-2008 in Denmark, registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of breast cancer primary surgery and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death, emigration, ten years, or 31 July 2013, whichever occurred first. We used Cox regression models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall, and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (>=6 months continuous exposure), and cumulative morphine-equivalent dose, adjusting for confounders. Results We identified 34,188 patients who together contributed 283,666 person-years of follow-up. There was no association between ever use of opioids and breast cancer recurrence (HRcrude=0.98, 95% CI=0.90 - 1.1, and HRadjusted=1.0, 95% CI=0.92 - 1.1), regardless of opioid type, strength, chronicity of use, and cumulative dose. Breast cancer recurrence rates were lower among users of strong but not weakly immunosuppressive opioids, possibly due to channeling bias among those with high competing risk as mortality was higher among users of this drug type. Conclusions This large prospective cohort study provided no clinically relevant evidence of an association between opioid prescriptions and breast cancer recurrence. Our findings are important to cancer survivorship, as opioids are frequently used to manage pain associated with comorbid conditions. PMID:26207518
Borch, Daniel F; Hansen, Henrik L; Burr, Hermann; Jepsen, Jørgen R
A previous study demonstrated a high death rate among seafarers signed on Danish ships during the years 1986-1993. This study aimed to examine and analyse the subsequent development until 2009. A total of 356 fatalities were identified from data supplied from the Danish Maritime Authority, an insurance company, and other sources. Maritime deaths among seafarers signed on Danish ships comprise deaths from 1) accidents, suicides and homicides; and 2) disease on board. Deaths due to 2) occurring ashore within 30 days after signing off were included. The overall and mode-specific death rates were calculated for three eight-year observation periods. The rates for work-related fatal accidents were compared with the rates for land-based trades. All categories of maritime deaths were significantly reduced from 1986 to 2009 - in particular during the last eight-year period (Accidents 1986-1993: 66.6 per 100,000 person years, 2002-2009: 27.0 per 100,000 person years, diseases 49.5-26.1, suicides 14.4-7.8). In spite of the remarkable improvement since 1986, seafarers remain in 2002-2009 more than six times more likely to die from occupational accidents (including shipwrecks) than do workers ashore. The favourable trend of maritime deaths in the Danish merchant fleet may be due to 1) preventive measures - e.g. interventions relating to vessel safety, work environment, and improved medical care on board - and to 2) technological and organizational changes - e.g. newer and larger vessels in the Danish merchant fleet, changed composition of the workforce, and reduced shore leaves. The persisting excess risk warrants further preventive actions.
Studied the functions of Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking teachers in the Danish "folkeskole" and their positions relative to other teachers in the system. Despite their Danish teaching qualifications, most still attend to the integration of Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking minority students and occupy a subordinate position to majority…
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Olsen, Jørgen H; Johansen, Christoffer
Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ≥11 years was not related to an increased vestibular schwannoma risk in men (relative risk estimate = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 1.46), and no vestibular schwannoma cases among long-term subscribers occurred in women versus 1.6 expected. Vestibular schwannomas did not occur more often on the right side of the head, although the majority of Danes reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma and possible diagnostic delay, further surveillance is indicated.
Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Villadsen, Ebbe
The aim of this study was to identify who is at risk for long-term sickness absence according to occupation, gender, education, age, business sector, agency size and ownership. The study is based on a sample of 5357 employees aged 18-69, interviewed in 2000. The cohort was followed up in a national register from January 1st 2001 to June 30th 2003, to identify cases with sickness absences that exceeded 8 weeks. During follow-up 486 persons (9.1%) experienced one or more periods of absence that exceeded 8 weeks. Higher risk of long-term sickness absence was associated with gender, age, educational level, and the municipal employment sector. Kindergarten teachers and people employed in day care, health care, janitorial work, food preparation, and unskilled workers were at greatest risk. Managers, computer professionals, technicians and designers, and professionals had lower risks. The health care and social service sectors were also in the high risk category, whereas the private administration sector had a lower risk. The study identifies specific occupational target populations and documents the need to perform job-specific research and tailor interventions if the intended policy of decreasing long-term sickness absence within the Danish labour market is to be realized.
Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Olsen, Lis R; Mortensen, Erik L; Bech, Per
To analyze the distribution of depressive, anxiety, and somatization symptoms across different occupational positions in a random sample of Danish residents. The study sample consisted of 591 Danish residents (50% women), aged 20-65, drawn from an age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Danish population. Participants filled out a survey that included the 92 item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-92). We categorized occupational position into seven groups: high- and low-grade non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, high- and low-grade self-employed, and unemployed. Compared to the reference group of high-grade non-manual workers, the depressive symptom score was statistically significantly elevated among unskilled manual workers (P = 0.043) and the unemployed (P < 0.001), after adjustment for age, gender, cohabitation, life events, and low household income. The anxiety symptom score was elevated only among the unemployed (P = 0.004). The somatization symptom score was elevated among unskilled manual workers (P = 0.002), the low-grade self-employed (P = 0.023), and the unemployed (P = 0.001). When we analyzed caseness of severe symptoms, we found that unskilled manual workers (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 1.06-10.04) and the unemployed (OR = 6.20, 95% CI = 1.98-19.42) had a higher prevalence of severe depressive symptoms, compared to the reference group of high-grade non-manual workers. The unemployed also had a higher prevalence of severe somatization symptoms (OR = 6.28, 95% CI = 1.39-28.46). Unskilled manual workers, the unemployed, and, to a lesser extent, the low-grade self-employed showed an increased level of mental distress. Activities to promote mental health in the Danish population should be directed toward these groups.
Background Thirty-five percent of Danish women experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. However, health care professionals are not in the practice of asking about intimate partner violence (IPV) in Denmark. It is currently unknown what hinders general practitioners from asking about partner violence and how Danish women would perceive such an inquiry. This aspect has not previously been explored in Denmark. An exploratory study was conducted to examine what hinders general practitioners (GPs) from asking and what Danish women’s views and attitudes are regarding being asked about IPV. Methods Data were collected through individual and group interviews with a sample of three GPs and a diverse sample of 13 women, including both survivors of partner violence and those without any history of partner violence. An interpretative analysis was performed with the data. Results This study provides important knowledge regarding the barriers and attitudes towards inquiry about IPV in primary care in Denmark. Results indicate that Denmark is facing the same challenges when responding to survivors of IPV as other similar countries, including Sweden, Norway, the UK, USA, and Australia. Danish women want general practitioners to ask about violence in a respectful and non-judgemental manner. However, general practitioners are resistant towards such an inquiry and would benefit from training regarding how to respond to women who have been exposed to IPV. Conclusions It is acceptable to inquire about IPV with women in Denmark in a non-judgemental and respectful way. Informing about IPV prevalence is important prior to the inquiry. However, general practitioners require more awareness and training before a favourable environment for this change in procedure can be created. Further large-scale research is needed to support the evidence generated by this small study. PMID:24893567
Mørk, Trine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Taket, Ann
Thirty-five percent of Danish women experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. However, health care professionals are not in the practice of asking about intimate partner violence (IPV) in Denmark. It is currently unknown what hinders general practitioners from asking about partner violence and how Danish women would perceive such an inquiry. This aspect has not previously been explored in Denmark. An exploratory study was conducted to examine what hinders general practitioners (GPs) from asking and what Danish women's views and attitudes are regarding being asked about IPV. Data were collected through individual and group interviews with a sample of three GPs and a diverse sample of 13 women, including both survivors of partner violence and those without any history of partner violence. An interpretative analysis was performed with the data. This study provides important knowledge regarding the barriers and attitudes towards inquiry about IPV in primary care in Denmark. Results indicate that Denmark is facing the same challenges when responding to survivors of IPV as other similar countries, including Sweden, Norway, the UK, USA, and Australia. Danish women want general practitioners to ask about violence in a respectful and non-judgemental manner. However, general practitioners are resistant towards such an inquiry and would benefit from training regarding how to respond to women who have been exposed to IPV. It is acceptable to inquire about IPV with women in Denmark in a non-judgemental and respectful way. Informing about IPV prevalence is important prior to the inquiry. However, general practitioners require more awareness and training before a favourable environment for this change in procedure can be created. Further large-scale research is needed to support the evidence generated by this small study.
Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup
Background Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Methods The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. Results We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0–62.9). For “Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1–62.0). Similarly, the PPV for “Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5–72.9). “Herpes viral encephalitis” (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5–89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. Conclusion The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus. PMID:27330328
Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup
Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0-62.9). For "Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus" (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1-62.0). Similarly, the PPV for "Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus" (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5-72.9). "Herpes viral encephalitis" (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5-89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus.
Su, G; Ma, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Wiggans, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S
Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such like Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing size of reference population in Danish Jersey. The first approach was to include North American Jersey bulls in Danish Jersey reference population. The second was to genotype cows and use them as reference animals. The validation of genomic prediction was carried out on bulls and cows, respectively. In validation on bulls, about 300 Danish bulls (depending on traits) born in 2005 and later were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1050 Danish bulls, (2) about 1050 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls. In validation on cows, about 3000 Danish cows from 87 young half-sib families were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1250 Danish bulls, (2) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls, (3) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 4800 cows, (4) about 1250 Danish bulls, 1150 US bulls and 4800 Danish cows. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction model was used to predict breeding values. De-regressed proofs were used as response variables. In the validation on bulls for eight traits, the joint DK-US bull reference population led to higher reliability of genomic prediction than the DK bull reference population for six traits, but not for fertility and longevity. Averaged over the eight traits, the gain was 3 percentage points. In the validation on cows for six traits (fertility and longevity were not available), the gain from inclusion of US bull in reference population was 6.6 percentage points in average over the six traits, and the gain from inclusion of cows was 8.2 percentage points. However, the gains from cows and US bulls were not accumulative. The total gain of including both US bulls and Danish cows was 10.5 percentage points. The results indicate that sharing reference
Alban, Lis; Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Dahl, Jan
In 2006, macrolides were withdrawn from the list of antibiotics recommended for veterinary treatment of diarrhoea in Danish pigs. The motive was to lower the antibiotic consumption in general and to mitigate the risk related to human infection with macrolide-resistant (Mres) Campylobacter. We subsequently conducted a risk assessment following international guidelines to address the risk for human health associated with usage of macrolides in Danish pigs. Data originated from surveillance programs, published papers, reports and statistics. Furthermore, an exposure model was built in @Risk. Mres Campylobacter is the hazard of interest. Data from different EU countries show that beef contains a very low prevalence (typically 0.1-1.1%) of Campylobacter; moreover, Mres is uncommon in Campylobacter isolates from cattle (between 0% and 6%). Beef was therefore left out of further analysis. For pork at retail, a high variation in the prevalence of Campylobacter has been reported within EU; but generally the prevalence is <10%, and the isolates are often Mres. EU data indicate that poultry meat harbor a high prevalence of Campylobacter (more more than 10%) with Mres at prevalence ranging from 0% to 8%. According to the exposure model - that included origin of meat as well as consumption patterns - most human cases of Mres campylobacteriosis (157 out of 186) was ascribed to imported meat. Only seven cases could be explained by veterinary usage of macrolides in Danish pigs. In general, human cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, and it is questionable whether there is any excess risk related to infection with Mres Campylobacter compared to sensitive Campylobacter. In conclusion, the risk associated with veterinary use of macrolides in Danish pigs for the human health of Danes seemed to be low.
Thorsen, Steffen U; Pipper, Christian B; Mortensen, Henrik B; Skogstrand, Kristin; Pociot, Flemming; Johannesen, Jesper; Svensson, Jannet
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with an increase in incidence worldwide including Denmark. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory responses and has been linked to autoimmunity, severe psychiatric disorders, sepsis, and cancer. Our primary hypothesis was that levels of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) differed between newly diagnosed children with T1D and their siblings without T1D. Since 1996, the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register has collected data on all patients who have developed T1D before the age of 18 years. Four hundred and eighty-one patients and 478 siblings with measurements of sTREM-1-blood samples were taken within 3 months after onset-were available for statistical analyses. Sample period was from 1997 through 2005. A robust log-normal regression model was used, which takes into account that measurements are left censored and accounts for correlation within siblings from the same family. In the multiple regression model (case status, gender, age, HLA-risk, season, and period of sampling), levels of sTREM-1 were found to be significantly higher in patients (relative change [95%CI], 1.5 [1.1; 2.2],P = 0.02), but after adjustment for multiple testing our result was no longer statistically significant (P adjust = 0.1). We observed a statistical significant temporal increase in levels of sTREM-1. Our results need to be replicated by independent studies, but our study suggests that the TREM-1 pathway may have a role in T1D pathogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hansen, Mille Charlotte; Aagaard, Tine; Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Hartvigsen, Jan
Little is known about the physical and psychosocial work environment of chiropractors and their work-related health complaints, and this has never been described for Danish chiropractors. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe work-related acute physical injuries, overuse complaints, and psychosocial stress in Danish chiropractic work settings. We developed a questionnaire specifically for this study and distributed it electronically in August 2016 using SurveyXact to all 575 members of the Danish Chiropractors' Association working in primary care clinics. Chiropractors were asked about their work-related acute physical injuries and overuse complaints as well as any psychosocial stress they experienced at work during the previous year. We described our sample and variables using means, medians, ranges, and confidence intervals where appropriate. Statistically significant differences between genders, types of complaints and injuries, and between clinic owners and associates were examined using Chi-square and Fischer's exact tests, where appropriate, or by examining confidence intervals for non-overlap. 355 (65.2%) chiropractors answered the survey. Of these, 216 (61%, 95% CI 56-66) had experienced a work-related acute physical injury and/or overuse complaint during the previous year. Work-related overuse complaints were most commonly reported in the low back, wrist, thumb, and shoulder, and were more common among women (63%, 95% CI 56-70) than men (51%, 95% CI 43-59). Chiropractors with more than five years in practice (59%, 95% CI 52-64) reported significantly fewer work-related acute injuries and overuse complaints during the previous year compared with chiropractors with less than five years in practice (83%, 95% CI 73-91). In general, these practicing Danish chiropractors reported having a good psychosocial work environment, and 90% of chiropractors "always" or "often" felt that they were motivated and committed to their work. This sample of Danish
Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Kotzé, Sebastian; Sørensen, Erik; Magnussen, Karin; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik
Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood. In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status. Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among menstruating women donating frequently. The risk of iron depletion was largely explained by sex, menopausal status, and donation frequency. Other factors, including dietary and supplemental iron intake, had a much weaker effect on the risk of iron depletion. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.
Mølbak, Kåre; Hansen, Niels Dalum; Valentiner-Branth, Palle
Since 2013 the number of suspected adverse reactions to the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine reported to the Danish Medicines Agency (DMA) has increased. Due to the resulting public concerns about vaccine safety, the coverage of HPV vaccinations in the childhood vaccination programme has declined. The aim of the present study was to determine health care-seeking prior to the first HPV vaccination among females who suspected adverse reactions to HPV vaccine. In this registry-based case-control study, we included as cases vaccinated females with reports to the DMA of suspected severe adverse reactions. We selected controls without reports of adverse reactions from the Danish vaccination registry and matched by year of vaccination, age of vaccination, and municipality, and obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and The National Health Insurance Service Register the history of health care usage two years prior to the first vaccine. We analysed the data by logistic regression while adjusting for the matching variables. The study included 316 cases who received first HPV vaccine between 2006 and 2014. Age range of cases was 11 to 52 years, with a peak at 12 years, corresponding to the recommended age at vaccination, and another peak at 19 to 28 years, corresponding to a catch-up programme targeting young women. Compared with 163,910 controls, cases had increased care-seeking in the two years before receiving the first HPV vaccine. A multivariable model showed higher use of telephone/email consultations (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-3.2), physiotherapy (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.6-2.8) and psychologist/psychiatrist (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.7). Cases were more likely to have a diagnosis in the ICD-10 chapters of diseases of the digestive system (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.4), of the musculoskeletal system (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.2), symptoms or signs not classified elsewhere (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5) as well as injuries (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.9). Before receiving the first HPV
Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf
Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p < 0.05), except for energy intake among women and intake of carbohydrates among men. For vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis
Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population, by the import of cattle and/or by immigrants working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2013 with date, number, and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish cattle database. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent to Danish cattle farmers. The gained inputs were fed into three stochastic scenario trees to assess the PIntro for the current and alternative test-and-manage strategies, such as testing of imported animals and/or testing immigrant workers with the tuberculin skin test. We considered the population of Danish farmers and practitioners free of tuberculosis, because in Denmark, the incidence of the disease in humans is low and primarily related to immigrants and socially disadvantaged people. The median annual probability of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population due to imported live cattle was 0.008% (90% P.I.: 0.0007%; 0.03%), while the probability due to immigrant workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.1%). The median combined probability (PIntro) due to imported cattle plus workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.6%). Hence, on average at least one introduction each 24 (90% P.I.: 8; 125) years could be expected. Imported live cattle appeared to play a marginal role on the overall annual PIntro, because they represented only approximately 0.2% of the median annual probability. By testing immigrant workers the overall annual PIntro could be reduced to 0.2% (90% P.I.: 0.04%; 0.7%). Thus, testing of immigrant workers could be considered as a risk mitigation strategy to markedly reduce
Winther, Kasper; Bleeg, René Christian
Prehospital resuscitation is often challenging. Giving uninterrupted and effective compressions is relatively impossible during transportation. In 2012, The Royal Danish Air Force received a donation of 8 mechanical chest compression devices (LUCAS(™)2; Physio-Control/Jolife AB, Lund, Sweden) to be used onboard the Danish search and rescue (SAR) helicopters. The scope of this investigation was to establish whether or not mechanical chest compression devices should be considered a necessity onboard the Danish SAR helicopters. Data were compiled from SAR medical journals. From the data collected, observations were made as to when LUCAS(™)2 was used and what diagnosis the SAR physician made. One thousand ninety missions were registered in the 24-month research period, and LUCAS(™)2 was used in 25 missions. Cardiac emergencies amounted for 25% of the missions. The Danish SAR helicopters retrieved 33 drowned/hypothermic patients during the research period, and the LUCAS(™)2 was used in 11 of the patients requiring resuscitation. The LUCAS(™)2 was frequently used during other emergencies like sudden cardiac arrest. Cardiac emergencies were the predominant type of mission. LUCAS(™)2 is now considered mandatory on Danish SAR helicopters. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge
Investigating the use of mental health services by combat veterans can help illuminate utilization and unmet needs of this population. The aims of this study were to estimate the use of mental health services and to examine how such use is associated with self-reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers before and after deployment to Afghanistan. Prospectively, 703 Danish soldiers who deployed from January 2009 to August 2009 were followed up with 6 assessments from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment in 2012. At assessments, the soldiers responded to a comprehensive questionnaire including a measure of PTSD symptoms (the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version). These self-reported data were combined with individual-level records of receiving psychotherapy from the Military Psychological Division at the Danish Defense and psychiatric treatment from the Danish registers. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms increased over time, and almost 10% of the sample reported high levels of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years postdeployment. Overall, 37% of the soldiers utilized mental health services; 6% utilized psychiatric services, and 12.4% redeemed a prescription for psychiatric medicine. Approximately one-third received psychotherapy at the Military Psychological Division. In those reporting high PTSD symptomatology, 83% utilized 1 or more types of mental health service. At predeployment and homecoming, high PTSD symptomatology was significantly (P < .01) associated with attending psychotherapy, but not with psychiatric treatment or redemption of psychiatric medicine. With time, more soldiers report high PTSD symptoms. Among Danish soldiers with high symptomatology, the utilization of mental health services was high. Most frequently, soldiers with high PTSD symptomatology received psychotherapy at the Military Psychological Division and less frequently received psychiatric treatment. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Individualism (vs. Collectivism). (74) Is the society’s emphasis on the group ( collectivist ) or on the individual ( individualist ). Low characteristics...and tools to draw lessons learned for the Danish Armed Forces and the Danish Army in particular. Subsequently, the thesis applies a cultural ... cultural applicability test to assess whether the identified lessons learned from the U.S. Army Leader Development Strategy are applicable in a Danish
The Studies of Readers' Responses to "The Snake,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip" in Spring 1981. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 13. Revised.
Dollerup, Cay; And Others
Summaries of the Danish internal reports of the essay studies, the introspection studies, and the literary analyses that are part of the larger interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project concerning the collective versus the individual nature of the response to literature are presented in this report. Various sections of the five papers…
Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Juel, Knud
This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes such as violent crimes. A cohort study was carried out, based on data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010, which were linked at the individual level with data from The Danish National Criminal Register. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between problem gambling and charges for different categories of crime. We found that problem gamblers had significantly higher odds of being charged than non-problem gamblers (adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95 % confidence interval 1.1-1.9). The odds ratio for economic crime charges was 2.6 (1.5-4.5), for violence charges 2.2 (1.1-4.5), and for drug charges 3.7 (1.7-8.0). For road traffic charges the odds ratio was 1.3 (1.0-1.8). Hence, there was a strong association between problem gambling and being charged except for road traffic charges; however the association was not stronger for economic charges than for violence and drug charges.
Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Finn Kenneth; Diderichsen, Finn
In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i) the prevalence of four chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders) among those out-of-work had changed, ii) the occurrence of new cases of those diseases were higher among those who were already out-of-work, or iii) if non-health-related benefits were disproportionately given to individuals recently diagnosed with a disease compared to those without disease. The study was register-based and comprised all Danish residents aged 20-60. During the study period, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders increased among both employed and non-employed people. The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4.83 (4.53-5.14) for the period 2007-2010. The estimates were similar for women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E
School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.
Virk, Jasveer; Obel, Carsten; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn
Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900). The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement) during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01). We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal life and cognitive development in the offspring.
Frost, Asger; Svendsen, Marie Louise; Rahbek, Jes; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lund, Thomas
To examine labour market participation and long-term sick leave following a diagnosis with myasthenia gravis (MG) compared with the general Danish population and for specific subgroups of MG patients. A nationwide matched cohort study from 1997 to 2011 using data from population-based medical and social registries. The study includes 330 MG patients aged 18 to 65 years old identified from hospital diagnoses and dispensed prescriptions, and twenty references from the Danish population matching each MG patient on age, gender, and profession. Main outcome measures are labour market participation (yes/no) and long-term sick leave ≥9 weeks (yes/no) with follow-up at 1- and 2 years after the time of MG diagnosis or match. Based on complete person-level information on all public transfer payments in Denmark, persons having no labour market participation are defined as individuals receiving social benefits for severely reduced workability, flexijob, and disability pension. MG is consistently associated with higher odds of having no labour market participation and long-term sick leave compared with the general Danish population (no labour market participation & ≥9 weeks sick leave at 2-year follow-up, adjusted OR (95% CI): 5.76 (4.13 to 8.04) & 8.60 (6.60 to 11.23)). Among MG patients, females and patients treated with both acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and immunosuppression have higher odds of lost labour market participation and long-term sick leave. This study suggests that MG patients have almost 6 times higher odds of no labour market participation and almost 9 times higher odds of long-term sick leave 2 years after diagnosis compared with the general Danish population. In particular female MG patients and patients treated with both acetylcholinesterase and immunosuppression have high odds of a negative labour market outcome. Future research should focus on predictors in workplace and labour market policy of labour market participation among MG patients.
Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such as the Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing the size of the reference population for Danish Jerseys. The first ap...
Ahrensberg, J M; Olesen, F; Hansen, R P; Schrøder, H; Vedsted, P
Background: Early diagnosis of childhood cancer provides hope for better prognoses. Shorter diagnostic intervals (DI) in primary care require better knowledge of the association between presenting symptoms, interpretation of symptoms and the wording of the referral letter. Methods: A Danish nationwide population-based study. Data on 550 children aged <15 years with an incident cancer diagnosis (January 2007–December 2010) were collected through questionnaires to parents (response rate=69%) and general practitioners (GPs) (response rate=87%). The DI from the first presentation in general practice until diagnosis was categorised as short or long based on quartiles. Associations between variables and long DIs were assessed using logistic regression. Results: The GPs interpreted symptoms as ‘vague' in 25.4%, ‘serious' in 50.0% and ‘alarm' in 19.0% of cases. Symptom interpretation varied by cancer type (P<0.001) and was associated with the DI (P<0.001). Vomiting was associated with a shorter DI for central nervous system (CNS) tumours, and pain with a longer DI for leukaemia. Referral letter wording was associated with DI (P<0.001); the shortest DIs were observed when cancer suspicion was raised in the letter. Conclusion: The GPs play an important role in recognising early signs of childhood cancer as their symptom interpretation and referral wording have a profound impact on the diagnostic process. PMID:23449354
Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Dixon, Jane; Moons, Philip; Konradsen, Hanne
Negative body perception has been reported in a number of patient populations. No instrument in Danish for measuring body image-related concerns has been available. Without such an instrument, understanding of the phenomenon in Danish-speaking populations is limited. The purpose of the study was thus to translate and validate a Danish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI), in order to obtain a valid instrument applicable for healthcare research. The study consisted of two phases: (i) instrument adaptation, including forward and back translation, expert committee comparisons and cognitive interviewing, and (ii) empirical testing of the Danish version (BIQLI-DA) with subsequent psychometric evaluation. Hypothesised correlations to other measures, including body mass index (BMI), Medical Outcome Short Form-8 (SF-8), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), General Anxiety Disorder-7 and Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R ® ) were tested. In addition, exploratory factor structure analysis (EFA) and internal consistency on item and scale level were performed. The adapted instrument was found to be semantically sound, yet concerns about face validity did arise through cognitive interviews. Danish college students (n = 189, 65 men, M age = 21.1 years) participated in the piloting of the BIQLI-DA. Convergent construct validity was demonstrated through associations to related constructs. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a potential subscale structure. Finally, results showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). Support for the validity of the BIQLI-DA might have been strengthened by repeating cognitive interviews after layout alterations, by piloting the instrument on a larger sample. This study demonstrated tentative support for the validity of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life (BIQLI-DA) and found the measure to be reliable in terms of internal consistency. Further exploration of response processes and construct
Hein, L; Sørensen, L P; Kargo, M; Buitenhuis, A J
The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability of the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of Danish Holstein (DH) and Danish Jersey (DJ) cattle populations. We estimated genetic parameters for 11 FA or groups of FA in milk samples from the Danish milk control system between May 2015 and October 2016. Concentrations of different FA and FA groups in milk samples were measured by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Data used for parameter estimation were from 132,732 first-parity DH cows and 21,966 first-parity DJ cows. We found the highest heritabilities for test day measurements in both populations for short-chain FA (DH = 0.16; DJ = 0.16) and C16:0 (DH = 0.14; DJ = 0.16). In DH, the highest heritabilities were also found for saturated FA and monounsaturated FA (both populations: 0.15). Genetic correlations between the fatty acid traits showed large differences between DH and DJ for especially short-chain FA with the other FA traits measured. Furthermore, genetic correlations of total fat with monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, short-chain FA, and C16:0 differed markedly between DH and DJ populations. In conclusion, we found genetic variation in the mid-infrared spectroscopy-predicted FA and FA groups of the DH and DJ cattle populations. This finding opens the possibility of using genetic selection to change the FA profiles of dairy cattle. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Rugulies, Reiner; Martin, Marie H T; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger; Albertsen, Karen
Exposure to deadlines at work is increasing in several countries and may affect health. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of difficult deadlines at work and sleep quality. Study participants were knowledge workers, drawn from a representative sample of Danish employees who responded to a baseline questionnaire in 2006 (n = 363) and a follow-up questionnaire in 2007 (n = 302). Frequency of difficult deadlines was measured by self-report and categorized into low, intermediate, and high. Sleep quality was measured with a Total Sleep Quality Score and two indexes (Awakening Index and Disturbed Sleep Index) derived from the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire. Analyses on the association between frequency of deadlines and sleep quality scores were conducted with multiple linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In addition, we used multiple logistic regression models to analyze whether frequency of deadlines at baseline predicted caseness of sleep problems at follow-up among participants free of sleep problems at baseline. Frequent deadlines were cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with poorer sleep quality on all three sleep quality measures. Associations in the longitudinal analyses were greatly attenuated when we adjusted for baseline sleep quality. The logistic regression analyses showed that frequent deadlines at baseline were associated with elevated odds ratios for caseness of sleep problems at follow-up, however, confidence intervals were wide in these analyses. Frequent deadlines at work were associated with poorer sleep quality among Danish knowledge workers. We recommend investigating the relation between deadlines and health endpoints in large-scale epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn
Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy in the child. Moreover, hypothyroidism diagnosed after birth of the child was associated with a significant increased risk of neonatal and febrile seizures. No significant association was seen for maternal diagnosis prior to birth of the child. We speculate if some degree of maternal thyroid dysfunction was already present during the pregnancy in mothers diagnosed after birth of the child and if this untreated condition may present a neurodevelopmental risk. PMID:23984072
Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn
Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy in the child. Moreover, hypothyroidism diagnosed after birth of the child was associated with a significant increased risk of neonatal and febrile seizures. No significant association was seen for maternal diagnosis prior to birth of the child. We speculate if some degree of maternal thyroid dysfunction was already present during the pregnancy in mothers diagnosed after birth of the child and if this untreated condition may present a neurodevelopmental risk.
Bjerre, Johannes; Kirkebjerg, Peer Gregersen; Larsen, Lars Binderup
Traffic accidents were the primary cause of death for Danes aged 15 to 24 years in 1999; per million inhabitants, that figure was 62% higher than in Great Britain. Reduction to the level in Great Britain would have reduced the number killed in traffic accidents in Denmark in 2002 from 465 to 289. The data used are from StatBank Denmark, the Danish Road Directorate and the Danish Transport Research Institute. The number of traffic deaths per billion kilometers driven was 57% higher in 1994 than in 2001. Those aged 65 and over had the largest decrease, with 67% fewer traffic deaths. Per billion kilometers driven, rural roads had around twice the number of traffic deaths as city streets and motorways. The geographic distribution showed few traffic deaths in the capital, Copenhagen, while the rest of the country had up to twice the number per 100,000 inhabitants from 1997 to 2002. Car drivers were well protected by seat belts, while people who were walking or on a motorcycle had high casualty rates per billion kilometers driven. 29% of the traffic deaths in Denmark in 2002 were registered as alcohol-related, while only 1% of drivers overall were influenced by alcohol. Men had twice the risk of traffic death compared with women per kilometer driven. Men were convicted in 93% of cases involving illegal blood alcohol level and 84% of cases involving other traffic offences. The greatest potential for reduction of traffic deaths seems to be traffic behaviour; females' behaviour, with rare drunk driving and few convictions for traffic offences, seems rational. If all drivers adhered to women's traffic behaviour, the number of road deaths in 1999 could have been reduced by 169, equivalent to 30%.
Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten B
Although increased risk for schizophrenia among immigrants is well established, knowledge of the broader spectrum of psychiatric disorders associated with a foreign migration background is lacking. To examine the full range of psychiatric disorders associated with any type of foreign migration background among persons residing in Denmark, including foreign-born adoptees, first- and second-generation immigrants, native Danes with a history of foreign residence, and persons born abroad to Danish expatriates. Danish population-based cohort study. Persons were followed up from their 10th birthday for the development of mental disorders based on outpatient and inpatient data. All persons born between January 1, 1971, and December 31, 2000 (N = 1 859 419) residing in Denmark by their 10th birthday with follow-up data to December 31, 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative incidences for psychiatric outcomes. All categories of foreign migration background, except persons born abroad to Danish expatriates, were associated with increased risk for at least 1 psychiatric disorder. Foreign-born adoptees had increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders and had the highest IRRs for these disorders compared with other foreign migration categories. First- and second-generation immigrants having 2 foreign-born parents had significantly increased IRRs for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and had similar risk magnitudes. Second-generation immigrants having 1 foreign-born parent had significantly increased IRRs for all psychiatric disorders. Native Danes with a history of foreign residence had increased IRRs for bipolar affective disorder, affective disorders, personality disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The extent to which a background of foreign migration confers an increased risk for the broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders varies according to parental origin, with greatest risks for foreign-born adoptees. The spectrum of psychiatric
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456,532 antibiotic prescriptions issued between July 2012 and June 2013. Pneumonia was the most common indication with 178,354 prescriptions (39%), followed by acute tonsillitis (21%) and acute otitis media (19%). In total, penicillin V accounted for 58% of all prescriptions, followed by macrolides (18%) and amoxicillin (15%). The use of second-line agents increased with age for all indications, and comprised more than 40% of the prescriptions in patients aged >75 years. Women were more often prescribed antibiotics regardless of clinical indication. This is the first Danish study to characterise antibiotic prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second-line agents like macrolides and amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid are overused. Strategies to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing especially for pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute rhinosinusitis are warranted. TRACKING THE OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS: Better adherence to guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for different respiratory tract infections are warranted in Danish general practice. The over-use of antibiotics, particularly so
Pedersen, Lars; Tarp, Maja; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Garne, Jens Peter; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.
Background Accumulating evidence suggests that statins affect diseases other than cardiovascular disease, including cancer, and that these effects may depend on the lipid solubility of specific statins. Though many studies have reported an association between statin use and breast cancer incidence, the relationship between statin use and breast cancer recurrence has not been well studied. Methods We conducted a nationwide, population-based prospective cohort study of all female residents in Denmark diagnosed with stage I–III invasive breast carcinoma who were reported to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group registry between 1996 and 2003 (n = 18 769). Women were followed for a median of 6.8 years after diagnosis. Prescriptions for lipophilic and hydrophilic statins were ascertained from the national electronic pharmacy database. Associations between statin prescriptions and breast cancer recurrence were estimated with generalized linear models and Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for age and menopausal status at diagnosis; histological grade; estrogen receptor status; receipt of adjuvant therapy; type of primary surgery received; pre-diagnosis hormone replacement therapy; and co-prescriptions of aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or anticoagulants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Most prescriptions for lipophilic statins in the study population were for simvastatin. Exclusive simvastatin users experienced approximately 10 fewer breast cancer recurrences per 100 women after 10 years of follow-up (adjusted 10-year risk difference = −0.10, 95% confidence interval = −0.11 to −0.08), compared with women who were not prescribed a statin. Exclusive hydrophilic statin users had approximately the same risk of breast cancer recurrence as women not prescribed a statin over follow-up (adjusted 10-year risk difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval = −0.01 to 0
Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Brännström, K Jonas
The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is used for quantification of the amount of background noise subjects accept when listening to speech. This study investigates Danish hearing-aid users' ANL performance using Danish and non-semantic speech signals, the repeatability of ANL, and the association between ANL and outcome of the international outcome inventory for hearing aids (IOI-HA). ANL was measured in three conditions in both ears at two test sessions. Subjects completed the IOI-HA and the ANL questionnaire. Sixty-three Danish hearing-aid users; fifty-seven subjects were full time users and 6 were part time/non users of hearing aids according to the ANL questionnaire. ANLs were similar to results with American English speech material. The coefficient of repeatability (CR) was 6.5-8.8 dB. IOI-HA scores were not associated to ANL. Danish and non-semantic ANL versions yield results similar to the American English version. The magnitude of the CR indicates that ANL with Danish and non-semantic speech materials is not suitable for prediction of individual patterns of future hearing-aid use or evaluation of individual benefit from hearing-aid features. The ANL with Danish and non-semantic speech materials is not related to IOI-HA outcome.
Sørensen, Nina N; Lassen, Anne D; Løje, Hanne; Tetens, Inge
With political support from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, organic public procurement in Denmark is expected to increase. In order to evaluate changes in organic food procurement in Danish public kitchens, reliable methods are needed. The present study aimed to compare organic food procurement measurements by two methods and to collect and discuss baseline organic food procurement measurements from public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Comparison study measuring organic food procurement by applying two different methods, one based on the use of procurement invoices (the Organic Cuisine Label method) and the other on self-reported procurement (the Dogme method). Baseline organic food procurement status was based on organic food procurement measurements and background information from public kitchens. Public kitchens participating in the six organic food conversion projects funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 during 2012 and 2013. Twenty-six public kitchens (comparison study) and 345 public kitchens (baseline organic food procurement status). A high significant correlation coefficient was found between the two organic food procurement measurement methods (r=0·83, P<0·001) with measurements relevant for the baseline status. Mean baseline organic food procurement was found to be 24 % when including measurements from both methods. The results indicate that organic food procurement measurements by both methods were valid for the baseline status report of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Baseline results in Danish public kitchens suggest there is room for more organic as well as sustainable public procurement in Denmark.
Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris
The objective was to describe the structure and content of patient diaries written for critically ill patients in Danish intensive care units (ICUs). Critical illness is associated with physical and psychological aftermath including cognitive impairment and post-traumatic stress. Patient diaries written in the intensive care unit are used to help ICU-survivors come to terms with their illness. The study had a qualitative, descriptive and explorative design, using a narrative approach of analysis. Data were analysed on several levels: extra-case level, case level, diary-entry level, and sub-entry level. The sample consisted of 25 patient diaries written by critical care nurses in 2007 for patients at a general ICU in Denmark. The base narrative describes three stages: crisis, turning point, and normalisation. Each case includes parallel plots of nurse, patient and family, which converge during normalisation. Each diary is structured by: summary, daily entries and end note. Each diary entry is structured by: greeting, narrator status, patient status, family status/contextual cues and sign-off note. Patient diaries acknowledge the patient experience and provide new insights into nursing performance. This study offers a framework for understanding ICU patient diaries, which may facilitate cross-unit comparisons and support future guideline development. The dual perspectives of patient diaries and the ambiguous ownership of the narratives may pave the way for insights to improve critical care nursing and ICU rehabilitation.
Livbjerg, Anna Emilie; Froekjaer, Sara; Simonsen, Ole; Rathleff, Michael S
The purpose was to investigate risk factors for postoperative stiffness and long-term outcome following manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA). In one of the five Danish regions, all patients in a 4-year period who received MUA following total knee arthroplasty (N=36) were included in two case-control studies. Data on potential risk factors were extracted from the Danish Knee arthroplasty Register and from a postal questionnaire including long-term outcome measures regarding pain, function and quality of life (Oxford Knee Score and EQ-5D). Previous knee surgery and a high preoperative Knee Society Function Score were significant risk factors, whereas attending a preoperative information meeting was associated with a significantly decreased risk of postoperative stiffness requiring MUA (P<0.001). The long-term results following MUA (1-5 years) were equivalent to patients without postoperative stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Webb, Roger T.; Antonsen, Sussie; Mok, Pearl L. H.; Agerbo, Esben; Pedersen, Carsten B.
Background Immigrant populations in western societies have grown in their size and diversity yet evidence is incomplete for their risks of suicidality and criminal violence. We examined these correlated harmful behaviours in a national cohort. Aims (i) Compare absolute risk between first and second generation immigrants, foreign-born adoptees and native Danes by plotting cumulative incidence curves to onset of early middle age; (ii) estimate sex-specific relative risks for these immigrant type subgroups vs. native Danes; (iii) examine effect modification by higher vs. lower socio-economic status. Methods In a cohort of over two million persons, attempted suicides and violent crimes were investigated using data from multiple interlinked registers. We plotted sex-specific cumulative incidence curves and estimated incidence rate ratios. Results In the whole study cohort, 1414 people died by suicide, 46,943 attempted suicide, and 51,344 were convicted of committing a violent crime. Among all immigrant subgroups combined, compared with native Danes, relative risk of attempted suicide was greater in female immigrants (incidence rate ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval: CI 1.54-1.64) than in male immigrants (1.26; CI 1.20-1.32), and vice versa for relative risk of violent offending in male immigrants (2.36; CI 2.31-2.42) than in female immigrants (1.74; CI 1.62-1.87). Risk for both adverse outcomes was significantly elevated in virtually every gender-specific immigrant type subgroup examined. Violent crime risk was markedly raised in first generation immigrant males and in the Danish born male children of two immigrant parents. However, male immigrants of lower social status had lower risk of attempted suicide than their native Danish peers. Conclusion Young immigrants of both first and second generation status face serious challenges and vulnerabilities that western societies need to urgently address. Relative risk patterns for these adverse outcomes vary greatly
Webb, Roger T; Antonsen, Sussie; Mok, Pearl L H; Agerbo, Esben; Pedersen, Carsten B
Immigrant populations in western societies have grown in their size and diversity yet evidence is incomplete for their risks of suicidality and criminal violence. We examined these correlated harmful behaviours in a national cohort. (i) Compare absolute risk between first and second generation immigrants, foreign-born adoptees and native Danes by plotting cumulative incidence curves to onset of early middle age; (ii) estimate sex-specific relative risks for these immigrant type subgroups vs. native Danes; (iii) examine effect modification by higher vs. lower socio-economic status. In a cohort of over two million persons, attempted suicides and violent crimes were investigated using data from multiple interlinked registers. We plotted sex-specific cumulative incidence curves and estimated incidence rate ratios. In the whole study cohort, 1414 people died by suicide, 46,943 attempted suicide, and 51,344 were convicted of committing a violent crime. Among all immigrant subgroups combined, compared with native Danes, relative risk of attempted suicide was greater in female immigrants (incidence rate ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval: CI 1.54-1.64) than in male immigrants (1.26; CI 1.20-1.32), and vice versa for relative risk of violent offending in male immigrants (2.36; CI 2.31-2.42) than in female immigrants (1.74; CI 1.62-1.87). Risk for both adverse outcomes was significantly elevated in virtually every gender-specific immigrant type subgroup examined. Violent crime risk was markedly raised in first generation immigrant males and in the Danish born male children of two immigrant parents. However, male immigrants of lower social status had lower risk of attempted suicide than their native Danish peers. Young immigrants of both first and second generation status face serious challenges and vulnerabilities that western societies need to urgently address. Relative risk patterns for these adverse outcomes vary greatly between the genders and also by socioeconomic
Prinds, Christina; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Skytthe, Axel; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Mothers' existential dimensions in the transition to motherhood have not been described thoroughly. They might experience disruption and new perspectives in existential ways and this may especially be the case in preterm birth. The aim of this study was twofold. First we investigated the existential dimension of motherhood transition in a secularized context, through practices of prayer and meditation. Second we described the relationship between time of birth (term/preterm) and the prayer/meditation practices of the mothers. Data were gathered from a nationwide questionnaire survey among first time mothers conducted during the summer 2011. All Danish women who gave birth before the 32(nd) pregnancy week (n = 255), and double the number of mothers who gave birth at full term (n = 658) in 2010 were included (total n = 913). The questionnaire consisted of 46 overall items categorized in seven sections, which independently cover important aspects of existential meaning-making related to becoming a mother. The respondent rate was 57% (n = 517). Moments of praying or meditation 6-18 months post partum were reported by 65%, and mothers who responded affirmatively, practiced prayer (n = 286) more than meditation (n = 89), p < 0,001. We did not observe differences in affirmative responses to prayer or meditation between mothers of full term or preterm born children, not even after controlling for perinatal or post partum loss, mode of birth, age, status of cohabiting or education. In this explorative study we found specific practices of existential meaning-making through prayer and/or meditation among first time mothers, living in a very secularized context. Yet we know only little about character or importance of these practices among mothers, and hardly anything about existential meaning-making among new fathers. Hence the implications of meaning-making practices related to other dimensions of health are difficult to address in a qualified way
Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben; Nedergaard, Niels Jørgen
The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n=86) and Asperger's syndrome (n=114) the percentages were 8.1% and 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (p= .0009).
Li, X; Buitenhuis, A J; Lund, M S; Li, C; Sun, D; Zhang, Q; Poulsen, N A; Su, G
The identification of causal genes or genomic regions associated with fatty acids (FA) will enhance our understanding of the pathways underlying FA synthesis and provide opportunities for changing milk fat composition through a genetic approach. The linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 486,464 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Bonferroni corrections were applied to adjust the significance thresholds for multiple testing at the genome- and chromosome-wide levels. According to the analysis of either the Chinese or Danish data individually, the total numbers of overlapping SNP that were significant at the chromosome level were 94 for C14:1, 208 for the C14 index, and 1 for C18:0. Joint analysis using the combined data of the 2 populations detected greater numbers of significant SNP compared with either of the individual populations alone for 7 and 10 traits at the genome- and chromosome-wide significance levels, respectively. Greater numbers of significant SNP were detected for C18:0 and the C18 index in the Chinese population compared with the joint analysis. Sixty-five significant SNP across all traits had significantly different effects in the 2 populations. Ten FA were influenced by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) region including DGAT1. Both C14:1 and the C14 index were influenced by a QTL region including SCD1 in the combined population. Other QTL regions also showed significant associations with the studied FA. A large region (14.9-24.9 Mbp) in BTA26 significantly influenced C14:1 and the C14 index in both populations, mostly likely due to the SNP in SCD1. A QTL region (69.97-73.69 Mbp
Grossi, Anette B; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Páll S; Bendixen, Christian; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Fredholm, Merete
Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible hereditary disposition to PNSTs in dairy cattle by statistical analysis performed on data from 567 cattle with PNSTs. Furthermore, a preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on DNA isolated from 28 affected and 28 non-affected Holstein cows to identify loci in the bovine genome involved in the development of PNSTs. PNSTs were significantly more common in the Danish Holstein breed than in other breeds with 0.49% of Danish Holsteins slaughtered during an eight-year-period having PNSTs. PNSTs also occurred significantly more frequently in the offspring of some specific Holstein sires. Examination of three generation pedigrees showed that these sires were genetically related through a widely used US Holstein sire. The PNSTs included in GWAS were histologically classified as neurofibroma-schwannoma (43%), schwannoma (36%) and neurofibroma (21%) and derived from Holstein cows with multiple PNSTs. A single SNP on chromosome 27 reached genome-wide significance. Gross and histological characteristics of bovine PNSTs are comparable to PNSTs in humans (schwannomatosis). Danish Holsteins are genetically disposed to develop PNSTs but the examined materials are insufficient to allow determination of the mode of inheritance.
Pornak, S C; Raspe, H
In the last years, the Danish debate about priority setting in medicine has gained new strength. This paper shows the main focuses of the current discussion based on a research of Danish primary literature. For the first time since the 1990s the Danish Council of Ethics has been involved with priority setting in medicine in a project running from 2011 to 2013. The Council emphasises the importance of legitimate processes and calls for visible values and criteria. A focus of the debate is how to deal with new expensive drugs. Politicians, physicians, health economists and the Council of Ethics have called for a national institution for priority setting in medicine. They have mainly looked to the Norwegian National Council for Priority Setting in Health Care and the British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for inspiration. The Danish Government considered establishing a national institute for priority setting, but the plans were not put into practice. In the year 2012 a new national project was launched to create clinical guidelines. Danish doctors welcome the guidelines as a good basis for priority setting. Just like in earlier Danish priority setting debates, a coordinating institution is lacking to bundle the discussion and keep it going. The debate seems to have come to an end once again. The fact that it was seriously considered to establish an institute for priority setting is a new development. It can be expected that the discussion will be resumed in the near future, possibly the idea of an institute for priority setting will be readopted. The general conditions for priority setting in health care have improved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Hjalgrim, Henrik
Circumstantial evidence from genome-wide association and family studies of various Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases suggests a substantial genetic component in infectious mononucleosis (IM) etiology. However, familial aggregation of IM has scarcely been studied. We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study rate ratios of IM in a cohort of 2 823 583 Danish children born between 1971 and 2011. Specifically, we investigated the risk of IM in twins and in first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of patients with IM. In the analyses, IM was defined as a diagnosis of IM in a hospital contact. Effects of contagion between family members were dealt with by excluding follow-up time the first year after the occurrence of IM in a relative. A total of 16 870 cases of IM were observed during 40.4 million person-years of follow-up from 1977 to 2011. The rate ratios and the associated 95% confidence intervals were 9.3 (3.0-29) in same-sex twins, 3.0 (2.6-3.5) in siblings, 1.9 (1.6-2.2) in children, 1.4 (1.3-1.6) in second-degree relatives, and 1.0 (0.9-1.2) in third-degree relatives of IM patients. The rate ratios were very similar for IM in children (aged 0-6 years) and older children/adolescents (aged 7-19 years). We found evidence of familial aggregation of IM that warrants genome-wide association studies on IM disease etiology, especially to examine commonalities with causal pathways in other Epstein-Barr virus-related diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nissen, Nanna Bang; Jespersen, Sanne; Vinner, Lasse; Fomsgaard, Anders; Laursen, Alex
We report the first case of Sandfly virus meningitis in a Danish traveller returning from Tuscany. A 52 year-old man was admitted with headache, fever and photophobia. Spinal fluid showed evidence of aseptic meningitis. Indirect immuno-fluorescence assays showed presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG antibodies reactive against Toscana virus, and Phlebovirus RNA was detected in blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The patient recovered spontaneously. Since Sandfly virus is a very common cause of meningitis in the Mediterranean countries, it is important to be aware of this disease in travellers returning from these areas.
Iversen, J V; Bartels, E M; Jørgensen, J E; Nielsen, T G; Ginnerup, C; Lind, M C; Langberg, H
The VISA-A questionnaire has proven to be a valid and reliable tool for assessing severity of Achilles tendinopathy (AT). The aim was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the VISA-A questionnaire for a Danish-speaking AT population, and subsequently perform validity and reliability tests. Translation and following cross-cultural adaptation was performed as translation, synthesis, reverse translation, expert review, and pretesting. The final Danish version (VISA-A-DK) was tested for reliability on healthy controls (n = 75) and patients (n = 36). Tests for internal consistency, validity, and structure were performed on 71 patients. VISA-A-DK showed good reliability for patients (r = 0.80 ICC = 0.79) and healthy individuals (r = 0.98 ICC = 0.97). Internal consistency was 0.73 (Cronbach's alpha). The mean VISA-A-DK score in AT patients was 51 [47-55]. This was significantly lower than healthy controls with a score of 93 (90-95). Criterion validity was considered good when comparing the scores of the Danish version with the original version in both healthy individuals and patients. VISA-A-DK is a valid and reliable instrument and has shown compatible to the original version in assessment of AT patients. VISA-A-DK is a useful tool in the assessment of AT, both in research and in a clinical setting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Siersma, Volkert; Bjerrum, Lars
To assess the availability and applicability of clinical indications from electronic prescriptions on antibiotic use in Danish general practice. Retrospective cohort register-based study including the Danish National Prescription Register. Population-based study of routine electronic antibiotic prescriptions from Danish general practice. All 975,626 patients who redeemed an antibiotic prescription at outpatient pharmacies during the 1-year study period (July 2012 to June 2013). Number of prescriptions per clinical indication. Number of antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants by age and gender. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between patient and provider factors and missing clinical indications on antibiotic prescriptions. A total of 2.381.083 systemic antibiotic prescriptions were issued by Danish general practitioners in the study period. We identified three main clinical entities: urinary tract infections (n = 506.634), respiratory tract infections (n = 456.354) and unspecified infections (n = 416.354). Women were more exposed to antibiotics than men. Antibiotic use was high in children under 5 years and even higher in elderly people. In 32% of the issued prescriptions, the clinical indication was missing. This was mainly associated with antibiotic types. We found that a prescription for a urinary tract agent without a specific clinical indication was uncommon. Clinical indications from electronic prescriptions are accessible and available to provide an overview of drug use, in casu antibiotic prescriptions, in Danish general practice. These clinical indications may be further explored in detail to assess rational drug use and congruence with guidelines, but validation and optimisation of the system is preferable.
Matsuda, Shuji; Tamayev, Robert; D'Adamio, Luciano
An autosomal dominant mutation in the BRI2/ITM2B gene causes Familial Danish Dementia (FDD). We have generated a mouse model of FDD, called FDDKI, genetically congruous to the human disease. These mice carry one mutant and one wild type Bri2/Itm2b allele, like FDD patients. Analysis of FDDKI mice and samples from human patients has shown that the Danish mutation causes loss of Bri2 protein. FDDKI mice show synaptic plasticity and memory impairments. BRI2 is a physiological interactor of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), a gene associated with Alzheimer's disease, which inhibits processing of AβPP. AβPP/Bri2 complexes are reduced in synaptic membranes of FDDKI mice. Consequently, AβPP metabolites derived from processing of AβPP by β-, α-, and γ-secretases are increased in Danish dementia mice. AβPP haplodeficiency prevents memory and synaptic dysfunctions, consistent with a role for AβPP-metabolites in the pathogenesis of memory and synaptic deficits. This genetic suppression provides compelling evidence that AβPP and BRI2 functionally interact. Here, we have investigated whether AβPP processing is altered in FDD patients' brain samples. We find that the levels of several AβPP metabolites, including Aβ, are significantly increased in the brain sample derived from an FDD patient. Our data are consistent with the findings in FDDKI mice, and support the hypothesis that the neurological effects of the Danish form of BRI2 are caused by toxic AβPP metabolites, suggesting that Familial Danish and Alzheimer's dementias share common pathogenic mechanisms.
Hansen, Steen Møller; Riahi, Sam; Hjortshøj, Søren; Mortensen, Rikke; Køber, Lars; Søgaard, Peter; Torp-Pedersen, Christian
Objective Exposure to electric shock has been associated with an increased risk of developing delayed cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac diseases. We examined whether electric shock patients have an increased risk of developing cardiac disease, cardiac arrhythmias or death compared with the general Danish population. Design Matched cohort study. Setting A nationwide study in Denmark from 1994 to 2011. Participants We identified 11 462 Danish patients who visited an emergency ward or were admitted to a hospital due to electric shock from 1994 to 2011. Each patient was matched for age and sex with five random controls from the Danish population. Main outcome measures Mortality, cardiac procedures and cardiac diseases following electric shock. Results A total of 7390 electric shock patients were seen at an emergency ward and 4072 electric shock patients were admitted to a hospital. The median patient age was 28.6 years (Q1–Q3, 21.3–37.7) for the emergency ward patients and 26.4 years (Q1–Q3, 18.3–37.4) for admitted patients. In both groups, most patients were male (74.0% and 76.8%). Few of the electric shock patients had a record of cardiovascular disease at baseline (364/11 462, 3.2%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of death was 0.47% (95% CI 0.29% to 0.65%) for emergency ward patients and 1.04% (95% CI 0.71% to 1.37%) for admitted patients. No difference in 5-year survival was observed compared with matched controls (emergency ward, p=0.10; admitted patients, p=0.80). Fewer than four patients received a pacemaker within 30 days. Conclusions This nationwide study did not demonstrate an increase in mortality among patients seen at hospitals after accidental electric shock compared with a background population. Cardiac procedures and diseases following electric shock were very rare. We suggest that nearly all patients can be discharged safely from the emergency room after electric shock without further observation. PMID:28851780
Aagaard, Sissel Kramer; Larsen, Agnete; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lesnikova, Iana; Telving, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Louise; Tørring, Niels; Uldbjerg, Niels; Bor, Pinar
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xenobiotic substances, such as caffeine, nicotine and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis and cocaine), in blood samples from first-trimester Danish pregnant women unaware of the screening. A cross - sectional study examined 436 anonymised residual blood samples obtained during 2014 as part of the nationwide prenatal first-trimester screening programme. The samples were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An antenatal clinic in a Danish city with 62 000 inhabitants, where >95% of pregnant women joined the screening programme. The prevalence and patterns of caffeine, nicotine, medication and illicit drug intake during the first trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of prescription and over-the-counter drug detection was 17.9%, including acetaminophen (8.9%) and antidepressants (3.0%), of which citalopram (0.9%) was the most frequent. The prevalence of illegal drugs, indicators of smoking (nicotine/cotinine) and caffeine was 0.9%, 9.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. Only 17.4% of women had no substance identified in their sample. This study emphasises the need for further translational studies investigating lifestyle habits during pregnancy, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms through which xenobiotic substances may affect placental function and fetal development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Background Anthrax had become extremely rare in Europe, but in 2010 an outbreak of anthrax among heroin users in Scotland increased awareness of contaminated heroin as a source of anthrax. We present the first two Danish cases of injectional anthrax and discuss the clinical presentations, which included both typical and more unusual manifestations. Case presentations The first patient, a 55-year old man with HIV and hepatitis C virus co-infection, presented with severe pain in the right thigh and lower abdomen after injecting heroin into the right groin. Computed tomography and ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and right thigh showed oedematous thickened peritoneum, distended oedematous mesentery and subcutaneous oedema of the right thigh. At admission the patient was afebrile but within 24 hours he progressed to severe septic shock and abdominal compartment syndrome. Cultures of blood and intraperitoneal fluid grew Bacillus anthracis. The patient was treated with meropenem, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Despite maximum supportive care including mechanical ventilation, vasopressor treatment and continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration the patient died on day four. The second patient, a 39-year old man with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, presented with fever and a swollen right arm after injecting heroin into his right arm. The arm was swollen from the axilla to the wrist with tense and discoloured skin. He was initially septic with low blood pressure but responded to crystalloids. During the first week, swelling progressed and the patient developed massive generalised oedema with a weight gain of 40 kg. When blood cultures grew Bacillus anthracis antibiotic treatment was changed to meropenem, moxifloxacin and metronidazole, and on day 7 hydroxycloroquin was added. The patient responded to treatment and was discharged after 29 days. Conclusions These two heroin-associated anthrax cases from Denmark corroborate that heroin contaminated
Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Virk, Jasveer; Olsen, Jørn
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used pain and fever medication during pregnancy. Previously, a positive ecological correlation between acetaminophen use and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported but evidence from larger studies based on prospective data is lacking. We followed 64,322 children and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1996-2002) for average 12.7 years to investigate whether acetaminophen use in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of ASD in the offspring. Information on acetaminophen use was collected prospectively from three computer-assisted telephone interviews. We used records from the Danish hospital and psychiatric registries to identify diagnoses of ASD. At the end of follow up, 1,027 (1.6%) children were diagnosed with ASD, 345 (0.5%) with infantile autism. We found that 31% of ASD (26% of infantile autism) have also been diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorders. More than 50% women reported ever using acetaminophen in pregnancy. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confident interval (CI). Prenatal use of acetaminophen was associated with an increased risk of ASD accompanied by hyperkinetic symptoms (HR = 1.51 95% CI 1.19-1.92), but not with other ASD cases (HR = 1.06 95% CI 0.92-1.24). Longer duration of use (i.e., use for >20 weeks in gestation) increased the risk of ASD or infantile autism with hyperkinetic symptoms almost twofold. Maternal use of acetaminophen in pregnancy was associated with ASD with hyperkinetic symptoms only, suggesting acetaminophen exposure early in fetal life may specifically impact this hyperactive behavioral phenotype. Autism Res 2016, 9: 951-958. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hodge, Rebecca; Hellmann, Sophie Sell; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
In the Copenhagen mammography screening program from 1991 to 2001, mammographic density was classified either as fatty or mixed/dense. This dichotomous mammographic density classification system is unique internationally, and has not been validated before. To compare the Danish dichotomous mammographic density classification system from 1991 to 2001 with the density BI-RADS classifications, in an attempt to validate the Danish classification system. The study sample consisted of 120 mammograms taken in Copenhagen in 1991-2001, which tested false positive, and which were in 2012 re-assessed and classified according to the BI-RADS classification system. We calculated inter-rater agreement between the Danish dichotomous mammographic classification as fatty or mixed/dense and the four-level BI-RADS classification by the linear weighted Kappa statistic. Of the 120 women, 32 (26.7%) were classified as having fatty and 88 (73.3%) as mixed/dense mammographic density, according to Danish dichotomous classification. According to BI-RADS density classification, 12 (10.0%) women were classified as having predominantly fatty (BI-RADS code 1), 46 (38.3%) as having scattered fibroglandular (BI-RADS code 2), 57 (47.5%) as having heterogeneously dense (BI-RADS 3), and five (4.2%) as having extremely dense (BI-RADS code 4) mammographic density. The inter-rater variability assessed by weighted kappa statistic showed a substantial agreement (0.75). The dichotomous mammographic density classification system utilized in early years of Copenhagen's mammographic screening program (1991-2001) agreed well with the BI-RADS density classification system.
Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burr, Hermann
The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility.
Kuhn, K Gaardbo; Falkenhorst, G; Emborg, H-D; Ceper, T; Torpdahl, M; Krogfelt, K A; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K
Following an unusually heavy rainfall in June 2009, a community-wide outbreak of Campylobacter gastroenteritis occurred in a small Danish town. The outbreak investigation consisted of (1) a cohort study using an e-questionnaire of disease determinants, (2) microbiological study of stool samples, (3) serological study of blood samples from cases and asymptomatic members of case households, and (4) environmental analyses of the water distribution system. The questionnaire study identified 163 cases (respondent attack rate 16%). Results showed a significant dose-response relationship between consumption of tap water and risk of gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni belonging to two related flaA types were isolated from stool samples. Serum antibody levels against Campylobacter were significantly higher in cases than in asymptomatic persons. Water samples were positive for coliform bacteria, and the likely mode of contamination was found to be surface water leaking into the drinking-water system. This geographically constrained outbreak presented an ideal opportunity to study the serological response in persons involved in a Campylobacter outbreak. The serology indicated that asymptomatic persons from the same household may have been exposed, during the outbreak period, to Campylobacter at doses that did not elicit symptoms or alternatively had been exposed to Campylobacter at a time prior to the outbreak, resulting in residual immunity and thus absence of clinical signs.
Blichert-Toft, Mogens; Christiansen, Peer; Mouridsen, Henning T
DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers, and data secretaries making current analyses of outcome results feasible. DBCG is run by the Executive Committee consisting of expert members appointed by their respective society. From 1978 the DBCG project gained widely accession from participating units, and since then nearly all newly diagnosed breast cancer incident cases are reported and registered in the national data base. Today, the data base includes approximately 80 000 incidents of primary breast cancer. Annually, the Secretariat receives roughly 1.5 million parameters to be entered into the data base. Over time DBCG has generated seven treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis or randomized trials in national or international protocolized settings. Yearly, about 4 000 new incident cases of primary invasive breast cancer and about 200 in situ lesions enter the national programmes. Further, about 600 women with hereditary disposition of breast cancer are registered and evaluated on a risk scale. The main achievements resulted in a reduction of relative risk of death amounting up to 20% and increased 5-year overall survival ascending from 60% to roughly 80%. This article
Matsuda, Shuji; Tamayev, Robert; D’Adamio, Luciano
An autosomal dominant mutation in the BRI2/ITM2B gene causes Familial Danish Dementia (FDD). We have generated a mouse model of FDD, called FDDKI, genetically congruous to the human disease. These mice carry one mutant and one wild type Bri2/Itm2b allele, like FDD patients. Analysis of FDDKI mice and samples from human patients has shown that the Danish mutation causes loss of Bri2 protein. FDDKI mice show synaptic plasticity and memory impairments. BRI2 is a physiological interactor of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), a gene associated with Alzheimer’s disease, which inhibits processing of AβPP. AβPP/Bri2 complexes are reduced in synaptic membranes of FDDKI mice. Consequently, AβPP metabolites derived from processing of AβPP by β-, α-, and γ-secretases are increased in Danish dementia mice. AβPP haplodeficiency prevents memory and synaptic dysfunctions, consistent with a role for AβPP-metabolites in the pathogenesis of memory and synaptic deficits. This genetic suppression provides compelling evidence that AβPP and BRI2 functionally interact. Here, we have investigated whether AβPP processing is altered in FDD patients’ brain samples. We find that the levels of several AβPP metabolites, including Aβ, are significantly increased in the brain sample derived from an FDD patient. Our data are consistent with the findings in FDDKI mice, and support the hypothesis that the neurological effects of the Danish form of BRI2 are caused by toxic AβPP metabolites, suggesting that Familial Danish and Alzheimer’s dementias share common pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:21841249
Lundh, Andreas; Christensen, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Anders W
Case reports are often regarded as second-class research, but are an important part of medical science as they often present first evidence of new discoveries. We here describe the type of case reports published in a Danish general medical journal. We included all case reports published in Ugeskrift for Laeger in 2009. For each report, two authors extracted information on study characteristics and classified the relevance and the role of the report. We included 139 case reports written in Danish. Thirty-nine (28%) were of general relevance and 100 (72%) of speciality relevance. The median number of authors was three (range: 1-7). The first author was a non-specialist physician in 119 (86%) of the reports and the last author a specialist in 103 (78%). A total of 124 (89%) reports had an educational role, six (4%) dealt with new diseases, two (1%) with new side effects, three (2%) with new mechanisms and four (3%) were curiosities. A total of 59 (42%) reports were surgical, 64 (46%) non-surgical and 16 (12%) paraclinical. We found that most case reports published in Ugeskrift for Laeger were of speciality relevance and had an educational perspective. The journal may consider focusing on cases of more general educational relevance and should also consider whether the current form and language suit the aim and role of the various types of case reports.
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Siersma, Volkert; Bjerrum, Lars
Objective To assess the availability and applicability of clinical indications from electronic prescriptions on antibiotic use in Danish general practice. Design Retrospective cohort register-based study including the Danish National Prescription Register. Setting Population-based study of routine electronic antibiotic prescriptions from Danish general practice. Subjects All 975,626 patients who redeemed an antibiotic prescription at outpatient pharmacies during the 1-year study period (July 2012 to June 2013). Main outcome measures Number of prescriptions per clinical indication. Number of antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants by age and gender. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between patient and provider factors and missing clinical indications on antibiotic prescriptions. Results A total of 2.381.083 systemic antibiotic prescriptions were issued by Danish general practitioners in the study period. We identified three main clinical entities: urinary tract infections (n = 506.634), respiratory tract infections (n = 456.354) and unspecified infections (n = 416.354). Women were more exposed to antibiotics than men. Antibiotic use was high in children under 5 years and even higher in elderly people. In 32% of the issued prescriptions, the clinical indication was missing. This was mainly associated with antibiotic types. We found that a prescription for a urinary tract agent without a specific clinical indication was uncommon. Conclusion Clinical indications from electronic prescriptions are accessible and available to provide an overview of drug use, in casu antibiotic prescriptions, in Danish general practice. These clinical indications may be further explored in detail to assess rational drug use and congruence with guidelines, but validation and optimisation of the system is preferable. PMID:28585886
Moeller, Anders Damgaard; Rasmussen, Kurt; Nielsen, Kent Jacob
The perceived usefulness of incident reporting systems is an important motivational factor for reporting. The usefulness may be facilitated by well-established feedback mechanisms and by learning processes. The aim of this study was to investigate how feedback mechanisms and learning processes were implemented at four Danish hospital units all located in one of the five Danish regions. Based on the concepts of feedback and learning from incident processes, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to 335 patient safety representatives from 200 departments at four Danish hospital units in one of the five Danish regions. The study showed that external reporters were rarely contacted for dialogue, grouped front-line staff were sparsely involved in the learning process, few evaluated the effectiveness of implemented interventions and personal factors were frequently perceived as a primary contributory factor to these incidents. In contrast, the patient safety representatives perceived their competencies as sufficient for the job, internal reporters were often contacted for dialogue, evaluation was widely used and management supported the work with incident reports. The results of the study identified several shortcomings in the implementation of learning processes and feedback mechanisms. The apparent existence of a person-focused approach stands out as an element of notice. The insufficient implementation we observed indicates that there is room for improvement in the efforts made to maximise learning from incidents in the investigated population. not relevant. not relevant.
Lemcke, Sanne; Parner, Erik T; Bjerrum, Merete; Thomsen, Per H; Lauritsen, Marlene B
Studies have shown that children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in their first years of life might show symptoms in main developmental areas and that these signs might be sensed by the parents. The present study investigated in a large birth cohort if children later diagnosed with ASD had deviations at 6 and 18 months in areas such as the ability to self-regulate emotions, feeding, and sleeping. The study was based on prospective information collected from 76,322 mothers who participated in the Danish National Birth Cohort. When the children reached an average age of 11 years, 973 children with ASD and a control group of 300 children with intellectual disability (IDnoASD) were identified via Danish health registries. Associations were found between short periods of breast-feeding and the children later diagnosed with ASD and IDnoASD as well as associations at 18 months to deviations in regulation of emotions and activity. The similarities in these associations emphasize how difficult it is to distinguish between diagnoses early in life. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Jørgensen, H L; Praetorius, L; Ingwersen, P
The paper analyses the development of the total number of journal articles indexed in the Medline database published by authors affiliated to Denmark 1989-1998 in medicine compared to the development in the European Union during the same period. The publication analysis is then compared to the citation impact of articles published in the central journals indexed in Science Citation Index (ISI) 1987-1996 through use of the National Science Indicators (NIS, ISI) database. The total number of Danish journal articles has remained relatively constant compared to a 50% increase in the EU as a whole. The number of Danish articles published in central journals, however, has increased by 20% (compared to 27% for the EU) and the number of citations obtained by these articles by 58% (compared to 66% for the EU) in the 1987-1996 period. By population, Denmark ranked third in total number of articles in 1998. In conclusion, Denmark is very active in medical research but neither the quantity nor the quality of Danish medical research has increased at the same rate as the EU average.
In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian…
Pedersen, Julie Elbæk; Ugelvig Petersen, Kajsa; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni
Firefighters are exposed to multiple cardiovascular hazards, but few epidemiological studies have addressed their cardiovascular morbidity. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Danish firefighters. We used individual historical employment records on 11.691 male Danish firefighters supplied by trade unions and fire agencies. The Supplementary Pension Fund Register was used to establish two occupational reference groups (a random sample from the male employed population and military employees). Information on CVD incidence was retrieved from the nationwide Danish National Patient Registry. SIRs and Poisson regression analyses (incidence rate ratio) were used for estimation of risks, including 95% CIs. In comparison with the population sample, the age-adjusted and calendar time-adjusted SIR for all CVDs combined was increased in firefighters (SIR=1.10, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.15). The risk was also elevated for the most frequent outcomes, including angina pectoris (SIR=1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24), acute myocardial infarction (SIR=1.16, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.26), chronic ischaemic heart disease (SIR=1.15, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24) and atrial fibrillation/flutter (SIR=1.25, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.36). This analysis showed the most elevated SIRs for CVD in full-time firefighters compared with part-time/volunteer firefighters. Both types of firefighters employed <15 years had an increased risk of CVD. Similar risk patterns appeared in comparisons with the military. Internal analysis supported external findings. The risk of overall CVD, including the most frequent subtypes was modestly increased in Danish firefighters and was most elevated in full-time firefighters compared with other male employees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Mørcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit
The medical profession and hospital practice have changed over the last decades without a concomitant change in Danish clerkships. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze learning and supervision in clerkships and to discuss how traditional clerkship learning matches a modern effective hospital environment. A qualitative field study based on 38 days of observations ( asymptotically equal to 135 hours) with 6 students in 8th Semester in 2 internal medical and 3 surgical wards at 2 teaching hospitals in Aarhus County during 2003. The 6 students were interviewed prior to and following clerkship. Data were coded using Ethnograph and analyzed qualitatively. The students typically participated in 6 learning activities: morning reports, ward rounds, out-patient clinics, on call, clerking, and operating theatres. A common feature for the first 3 activities was the students' observational role in contrast to their more active role in the latter 3 activities. Supervision was primarily indirect as the doctors worked and thereby served as tacit role models. When direct, the supervision was didactic and characterized by information transfer. A clerkship offers important learning opportunities for students. They are exposed to many patients and faced with various clinical problems. However, the benefit of students learning in authentic environments is not fully utilized, and the didactic supervision used by doctors hardly matches the learning conditions in a busy hospital. Consequently, we need to reassess the students' roles and doctors' supervisory methods.
Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald
In this study, we investigate the processing of morphologically complex words in Danish using auditory lexical decision. We document a second critical point in auditory comprehension in addition to the Uniqueness Point (UP), namely the point at which competing morphological continuation forms of the base cease to be compatible with the input,…
Heidemann, C H; Lous, J; Berg, J; Christensen, J J; Håkonsen, S J; Jakobsen, M; Johansen, C J; Nielsen, L H; Hansen, M P; Poulsen, A; Schousboe, L P; Skrubbeltrang, C; Vind, A B; Homøe, P
Otitis media is one of the most common diseases in small children. This underlines the importance of optimizing diagnostics and treatment of the condition. Recent literature points toward a stricter approach to diagnosing acute otitis media (AOM). Moreover, ventilating tube treatment for recurrent AOM (RAOM) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) has become the most frequently performed surgical procedure in pre-school children. Therefore, the Danish Health and Medicines Authority and the Danish Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery deemed it necessary to update the Danish guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media and surgical treatment of RAOM and COME. The GRADE system (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was used in order to comply with current standards of evidence assessment in formulation of recommendations. An extensive literature search was conducted between July and December 2014. The quality of the existing literature was assessed using AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation), AMSTAR (assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews), QUADAS-2 (Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies), Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for randomized trials and ACROBAT-NRSI (A Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies). The working group consisted of otolaryngologists, general practitioners, pediatricians, microbiologists and epidemiologists. Recommendations for AOM diagnosis, surgical management for RAOM and COME, including the role of adenoidectomy and treatment of ventilating tube otorrhea, are proposed in the guideline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mottelson, Ida Nygaard; Sodemann, Morten; Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne
Immigrants, refugees, and their descendants comprise 12% of Denmark's population. Some of these people do not speak or understand Danish well enough to communicate with the staff in a healthcare setting and therefore need interpreter services. Interpretation through video conferencing equipment (video interpretation) is frequently used and creates a forum where the interpreter is not physically present in the medical consultation. The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes to and experiences with video interpretation among charge nurses in a Danish university hospital. An electronic questionnaire was sent to 99 charge nurses. The questionnaire comprised both closed and open-ended questions. The answers were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic text condensation. Of the 99 charge nurses, 78 (79%) completed the questionnaire. Most charge nurses, 21 (91%) of the daily/monthly users, and 21 (72%) of the monthly/yearly users, said that video interpretation increased the quality of their conversations with patients. A total of 19 (24%) departments had not used video interpretation within the last 12 months. The more the charge nurses used video interpretation, the more satisfied they were. Most of the charge nurses using video interpretation expressed satisfaction with the technology and found it easy to use. Some charge nurses are still content to allow family or friends to interpret. To reach its full potential, video interpretation technology has to be reliable and easily accessible for any consultation, including at the bedside.
Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun; Laursen, Anders Christian; Bermark, Susan; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian
Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers.
Jeune, Bernard; Hess, Søren; Skytthe, Axel; Stræde, Therkel
On February 20, 1945, during the German occupation of Denmark, members of a notorious Nazi terror organization named the Petergroup murdered four young medical doctors at the city and regional hospital of Odense. On the 70th anniversary of the crime, a symposium was organized at the Odense University Hospital, and a monument revealed close to the site of the murders in commemoration of the four victims of the crime. The young physicians were not known to be connected with the Danish resistance, and they were shot without their murderers even knowing their identities in an attempt to revenge the growing resistance in Denmark's central, third largest city, and as a reprisal for several cases where the hospital had treated wounded resistance fighters, and prevented their being handed over to the German police. The article describes the terror action of February 20, 1945 and its perpetrators, as well as other Nazi attacks on members of the Danish medical profession. It lines out the strong protest voiced by the Danish central administration against the Odense hospital killings which were on the very same day seconded by further killings and a German campaign of blowing up important Odense buildings including two newspaper printing houses. Conclusively, the authors - by way of obituaries and material from relatives of the murdered - portray the four victims of the atrocity Christian Fabricius Møller, Jørgen Hvalkof, Henning Magnus Adelsteen Dalsgaard, and Henning Ørsberg.
Maternal caregiving and fussing/crying in Danish infants at 3, 6, and 12 weeks were examined using self-report scales and 24-hour behavior diaries. Mothers reported practices commonly associated with responsive caregiving: frequent feeding, prompt response to infant cries, and considerable time holding the infant. Fuss/cry durations peaked in the first 2 months, were highest in evenings, and decreased approximately 50% by 12 weeks. Fussing was the majority behavior, and 9.2% of the infants fussed and cried more than 3 hours per day. In contrast with other Western studies, 24-hour fuss/cry durations were lower, and fussing accounted for up to 80% of total distress. Danish caregiving practices may partially explain the lower durations of infant distress and the lower ratio of cry to fuss. However, some infants fuss/cry a great deal despite sensitive care, which may reflect individual differences in infant maturation of behavior regulation.
Kier, Maria G; Hansen, Merete K; Lauritsen, Jakob; Mortensen, Mette S; Bandak, Mikkel; Agerbaek, Mads; Holm, Niels V; Dalton, Susanne O; Andersen, Klaus K; Johansen, Christoffer; Daugaard, Gedske
Patients given systemic treatment for testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) are at increased risk for a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Previous studies on SMN and causes of death lacked information on the exact treatment applied or were based on patients receiving former treatment options. To evaluate the treatment-specific risks for SMN and death in a nationwide population-based cohort of patients with GCC treated with current standard regimens. This study examined a Danish nationwide cohort of 5190 men with GCC who entered the Danish Testicular Cancer database between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2007. Treatment results were compared with a randomly sampled, age-stratified, population-based control group. Cases of gonadal and extragonadal primary were included in the nationwide cohort. The treatments were surveillance only; retroperitoneal radiotherapy (RT); bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP); or more than 1 line of treatment (MTOL). Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for SMN and death calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model were compared with those of age-matched controls. The study population comprised 2804 patients with seminoma and 2386 with nonseminoma. The median follow-up was 14.4 years (interquartile range, 8.6-20.5 years). The 20-year cumulative incidence of SMN with death as a competing risk was 7.8% (surveillance), 7.6% (BEP), 13.5% (RT), 9.2% (MTOL), and 7.0% (controls). We found no increased risk for SMN after surveillance, while the HRs were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.0), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3), and 3.7 (95% CI, 2.5-5.5), respectively, after BEP, RT, and MTOL. Mortality owing to non-GCC causes was decreased after surveillance, but increased by 1.3 times after BEP and RT and by 2.6 times after MTOL. Excess mortality due to SMN was found after BEP (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2), RT (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-2.9), and MTOL (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.6-9.6). We found no increased risk for SMN or death among patients undergoing surveillance only
Broberg, Lotte; Ersbøll, Anne S; Backhausen, Mette G; Damm, Peter; Tabor, Ann; Hegaard, Hanne K
Exercise during pregnancy is associated with health benefits for both the mother and the fetus, and is therefore recommended in several national guidelines. Only few studies investigate whether these guideline recommendations are met. The aims of this study were 1. To assess the prevalence of pregnant women meeting the Danish recommendations for exercise during early pregnancy, 2. To identify pre-pregnancy factors associated with a lower probability for meeting the recommendations, and 3. To describe which types of exercise pregnant women prefer before and during pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire during the first trimester among 7,915 women participating in the prospective Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort. Associations were estimated by multivariate regression analyses. In early pregnancy, 38 % of the study population met the recommendation for exercise from the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (≥3.5 hours a week). Multiparity, previous miscarriage use of assisted reproductive technology, no engagement in exercise before pregnancy, smoking, pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology, overweight, not understanding Danish language and a low educational level were all factors associated a lower probability for meeting the recommendations. The preferred types of exercise before and during pregnancy were bicycling, brisk walking, running and strength training. The proportion of women engaged in any type of exercise decreased in early pregnancy with the exception of swimming and aquatic exercise. In this cohort, more than one-third met the Danish recommendation for exercise during early pregnancy. Exercise in pregnancy is still an issue to address because the most vulnerable groups of pregnant women do not exercise. This is a cause of concern because it may reflect social inequalities in health and highlights the need for a structural and systematic approach to preconception care and early antenatal counselling.
Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa
External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.
The organization and financing of the Danish health care system was evaluated within a framework of a SWOT analysis (analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) by a panel of five members with a background in health economics. The present paper describes the methods and materials used for the evaluation: selection of panel members, structure of the evaluation task according to the health care triangle model, selection of background material consisting of documents and literature on the Danish health care system, and a 1-week study visit.
Background Head and neck cancers (HNC) are relatively common and often very serious diseases in both dogs and humans. Neoplasms originating in the head and neck region are a heterogeneous group. HNC often has an unfavourable prognosis and the proximity of the tissue structures renders extirpation of tumours with sufficient margins almost incompatible with preservation of functionality. In humans oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is extremely rare, but represents a particular challenge since it is highly aggressive as is the canine counterpart, which thus may be of interest as a spontaneous animal model. Methods Canine cases entered in the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry (DVCR) from May 15th 2005 through February 29th 2008 were included in this study. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of HNC in dogs and humans as well as proportions of surgically treated cases of OMM and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Also the proportions of benign and malignant neoplasms of different locations in dogs were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results A total of 1768 cases of neoplasias (679 malignant, 826 benign, 263 unknown) were submitted. Of all neoplasias HNC accounted for 7.2% (n = 128). Of these, 64 (50%) were malignant and 44 (34%) benign. The most common types of malignant neoplasia were SCC (18; 28% of malignant), OMM (13; 20% of malignant), soft tissue sarcoma (11; 17% of malignant) and adenocarcinoma (5; 11% of malignant). The most common types of benign neoplasms were adenoma (7; 16% of benign), polyps (6; 14% of benign) and fibroma (5; 11% of benign). Conclusions In the current study, the proportion of neoplasia in the head and neck region in dogs in Denmark was similar to other canine studies and significantly more common than in humans with a large proportion of malignancies. Spontaneous HNC in dogs thus, may serve as a model for HNC in humans. Canine OMM is a spontaneous cancer in an outbred, immune-competent large mammal population and could be a
Hansen, Steen Møller; Riahi, Sam; Hjortshøj, Søren; Mortensen, Rikke; Køber, Lars; Søgaard, Peter; Torp-Pedersen, Christian
Exposure to electric shock has been associated with an increased risk of developing delayed cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac diseases. We examined whether electric shock patients have an increased risk of developing cardiac disease, cardiac arrhythmias or death compared with the general Danish population. Matched cohort study. A nationwide study in Denmark from 1994 to 2011. We identified 11 462 Danish patients who visited an emergency ward or were admitted to a hospital due to electric shock from 1994 to 2011. Each patient was matched for age and sex with five random controls from the Danish population. Mortality, cardiac procedures and cardiac diseases following electric shock. A total of 7390 electric shock patients were seen at an emergency ward and 4072 electric shock patients were admitted to a hospital. The median patient age was 28.6 years (Q1-Q3, 21.3-37.7) for the emergency ward patients and 26.4 years (Q1-Q3, 18.3-37.4) for admitted patients. In both groups, most patients were male (74.0% and 76.8%). Few of the electric shock patients had a record of cardiovascular disease at baseline (364/11 462, 3.2%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of death was 0.47% (95% CI 0.29% to 0.65%) for emergency ward patients and 1.04% (95% CI 0.71% to 1.37%) for admitted patients. No difference in 5-year survival was observed compared with matched controls (emergency ward, p=0.10; admitted patients, p=0.80). Fewer than four patients received a pacemaker within 30 days. This nationwide study did not demonstrate an increase in mortality among patients seen at hospitals after accidental electric shock compared with a background population. Cardiac procedures and diseases following electric shock were very rare. We suggest that nearly all patients can be discharged safely from the emergency room after electric shock without further observation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial
Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter Riis; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P
The pathogenesis of rosacea is unclear, but increased matrix metalloproteinase target tissue activity appears to play an important role. Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative disorders also display increased matrix metalloproteinase activity that contribute to neuronal loss. To investigate the risk of incident (new-onset) Parkinson disease in patients with rosacea. A nationwide cohort study of the Danish population was conducted using individual-level linkage of administrative registers. All Danish citizens 18 years or older from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2011 (N = 5 472 745), were included. Data analysis was conducted from June 26 to July 27, 2015. The main outcome was a diagnosis of Parkinson disease. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. A total of 5 404 692 individuals were included in the reference population; of these, 22 387 individuals (9812 [43.8%] women; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 75.9 [10.2] years) received a diagnosis of Parkinson disease during the study period and 68 053 individuals (45 712 [67.2%] women; mean age, 42.2 [16.5] years) were registered as having rosacea. The IRs of Parkinson disease per 10 000 person-years were 3.54 (95% CI, 3.49-3.59) in the reference population and 7.62 (95% CI, 6.78-8.57) in patients with rosacea. The adjusted IRR of Parkinson disease was 1.71 (95%, CI 1.52-1.92) in patients with rosacea compared with the reference population. There was a 2-fold increased risk of Parkinson disease in patients classified as having ocular rosacea (adjusted IRR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.67-2.48]), and tetracycline therapy appeared to reduce the risk of Parkinson disease (adjusted IRR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.97-0.99]). Rosacea constitutes an independent risk factor for Parkinson disease. This association could be due to shared
Karstad, Kristina; Jørgensen, Anette F B; Greiner, Birgit A; Burdorf, Alex; Søgaard, Karen; Rugulies, Reiner; Holtermann, Andreas
Purpose Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sickness absence and premature retirement are highly prevalent among eldercare workers. We conducted a prospective observational workplace study with the main purpose to investigate longitudinal associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions and occurrence of MSD and its consequences (pain-related interference with daily work activities and sickness absence) among Danish eldercare workers. Participants At 20 Danish nursing homes, a total of 941 eldercare workers employed in day and evening shifts were invited to the study. Of those, 553 participated in the baseline measurements, and 441 completed the total period of 12 months follow-up. Findings to date Data were collected from September 2013 to January 2016. Physical and psychosocial working conditions were assessed with multiple methods (observations, accelerometer measurements and work schedules), and multiple levels of information (nursing home, ward, resident and eldercare worker) were incorporated in the data collection. MSD and the consequences hereof were assessed monthly during a 1-year follow-up. Study participants and non-participants were comparable on most of the 27 sociodemographic, health and working condition characteristics at baseline. The exceptions were higher neck–shoulder pain intensity, less sickness absence, more exposure to negative behaviour from residents and a higher percentage of working day shifts and fewer evening shifts among participants compared with non-participants. Future plans The first publications will report on the associations of physical and psychosocial working conditions with occurrence of MSD and its consequences. In addition, the cohort gives the opportunity to investigate the importance of organisational, management and team factors for distribution of physical work demands and development of MSD among the workers. This will provide important knowledge for future workplace interventions to reduce MSD and
Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sokolowski, Ineta; Vedsted, Peter
The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a measure that assesses patient knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. This study validates the Danish translation of the 13-item Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) in a Danish population with dysglycaemia. 358 people with screen-detected dysglycaemia participating in a primary care health education study responded to PAM13. The PAM13 was translated into Danish by a standardised forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation) and item-rest correlations. Scale properties were assessed by Rasch Rating Scale models. The item response was high with a small number of missing values (0.8-4.2%). Floor effect was small (range 0.6-3.6%), but the ceiling effect was above 15% for all items (range 18.6-62.7%). The alpha-coefficient was 0.89 and the average inter-item correlation 0.38. The Danish version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 43.2% of the variance. We did however, find a different item sequence compared to the original scale. A Danish version of PAM13 with acceptable validity and reliability is now available. Further development should focus on single items, response categories in relation to ceiling effects and further validation of reproducibility and responsiveness.
Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Munch, Troels; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Schmidt, Morten
Objective Danish medical registries are widely used for cardiovascular research, but little is known about the data quality of cardiac interventions. We computed positive predictive values (PPVs) of codes for cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries registered in the Danish National Patient Registry during 2010–2012. Design Population-based validation study. Setting We randomly sampled patients from 1 university hospital and 2 regional hospitals in the Central Denmark Region. Participants 1239 patients undergoing different cardiac interventions. Main outcome measure PPVs with medical record review as reference standard. Results A total of 1233 medical records (99% of the total sample) were available for review. PPVs ranged from 83% to 100%. For examinations, the PPV was overall 98%, reflecting PPVs of 97% for echocardiography, 97% for right heart catheterisation and 100% for coronary angiogram. For procedures, the PPV was 98% overall, with PPVs of 98% for thrombolysis, 92% for cardioversion, 100% for radiofrequency ablation, 98% for percutaneous coronary intervention, and 100% for both cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators. For cardiac surgery, the overall PPVs was 99%, encompassing PPVs of 100% for mitral valve surgery, 99% for aortic valve surgery, 98% for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 100% for heart transplantation. The accuracy of coding was consistent within age, sex, and calendar year categories, and the agreement between independent reviewers was high (99%). Conclusions Cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries have high PPVs in the Danish National Patient Registry. PMID:27940630
Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Vitus, Kathrine; Ditlevsen, Kia; TØrslev, Mette Kirstine; Kristiansen, Maria
This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational settings as sites for recruitment. Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion of experiences among the researchers involved. Success in recruitment seemed to depend partly on recruitment site. Using healthcare facilities as the recruitment site and healthcare professionals as gatekeepers was less efficient than using schools and employees from educational institutions. Successful study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite their interest in high-quality health research into all population groups, fail to facilitate research access to some of the most disadvantaged groups, who need to be included in order to understand the mechanisms behind health disparities. This happens despite the genuine wish of many healthcare professionals to help facilitate such research. In this way, the findings indirectly emphasize the specific challenge of accessing more vulnerable and sick groups in research studies.
Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Printz, Trine; Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Groentved, Aagot Moeller; Godballe, Christian
We aimed to assess psychometric properties, including internal consistency, reliability, and clinical validity of the Danish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). A cross-sectional survey study was carried out. For validation, the existing nonvalidated Danish version of the VHI was used. Data from 208 patients with voice disorders of different etiology (neurogenic, functional, and structural) and a control group of 85 vocally healthy individuals were included. A test-retest reliability analysis of 42 patients and 45 control persons was performed. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and clinical validity of the questionnaire were assessed. Internal consistency was high with a Cronbach α >0.90 for both the patient and control group. Test-retest reliability measured as intraclass correlation coefficient was good with 0.93 (95% confidence interval [95% confidence interval]: 0.87-0.96) for patients and 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.87) for the control group which indicates sufficient reliability of the questionnaire. The Danish VHI has good clinical validity as it has a strong correlation between patient's perception of the severity of their voice disorder and the VHI score from the Spearman correlation of 0.69. The existing Danish version of the VHI has been thoroughly validated and found to be in line with the original VHI from Jacobsen et al. It showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and clinical validity. It is suitable for use in daily practice and in research projects as it is able to assess patients' perception of their voice disorder severity. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Kofoed, Kristian; Wu, Jashin J; Dreyer, Lene; Gislason, Gunnar; Ahlehoff, Ole
Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18 and ≤ 100 years was conducted, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular disease endpoint. A total of 697 patients with localized scleroderma and 1,962 patients with systemic sclerosis were identified and compared with 5,428,380 people in the reference population. In systemic sclerosis, the adjusted HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.99-2.48). No association was seen between patients with localized scleroderma and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis is a significant cardiovascular disease risk factor, while patients with localized scleroderma are not at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Hansen, Anne B; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Johnni; Andersen, Zorana J
Night shift work has been associated with poor sleep, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, which are recognised risk factor for diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the effect of shift work on diabetes risk. Here, we study the association between shift work and incidence of diabetes in Danish nurses. We used the Danish Nurse Cohort with 28,731 participating female nurses recruited in 1993 (19,898) or 1999 (8833), when self-reported baseline information on diabetes prevalence, lifestyle and working time were collected, and followed them in the Danish Diabetes Register for incidence of diabetes until 2013. Nurses reported whether they worked night, evening, rotating or day shifts. We analysed the association between working time and diabetes incidence using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for diabetes risk factors, separately with and without adjustment for body mass index (BMI) which might be an intermediate variable. Of 19,873 nurses who worked and were diabetes-free at recruitment, 837 (4.4%) developed diabetes during 15 years of follow-up. The majority of nurses (62.4%) worked day shifts, 21.8% rotating shift, 10.1% evening and 5.5% night shifts. Compared with nurses who worked day shifts, we found statistically significantly increased risk of diabetes in nurses who worked night (1.58; 1.25 to 1.99) or evening shifts (1.29; 1.04 to 1.59) in the fully adjusted models including BMI. Danish nurses working night and evening shifts have increased risk for diabetes, with the highest risk associated with current night shift work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Pugdahl, K; Beniczky, S; Wanscher, B; Johnsen, B; Qerama, E; Ballegaard, M; Benedek, K; Juhl, A; Ööpik, M; Selmar, P; Sønderborg, J; Terney, D; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A
This study validates consensus criteria for localisation of ulnar neuropathy at elbow (UNE) developed by a taskforce of the Danish Society of Clinical Neurophysiology and compares them to the existing criteria from the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM). The Danish criteria are based on combinations of conduction slowing in the segments of the elbow and forearm expressed in Z-scores, and difference between the segments in m/s. Examining fibres to several muscles and sensory fibres can increase the certainty of the localisation. Diagnostic accuracy for UNE was evaluated on 181 neurophysiological studies of the ulnar nerve from 171 peer-reviewed patients from a mixed patient-group. The diagnostic reference standard was the consensus diagnosis based on all available clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic information reached by a group of experienced Danish neurophysiologists. The Danish criteria had high specificity (98.4%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (95.2%) and fair sensitivity (76.9%). Compared to the AANEM criteria, the Danish criteria had higher specificity (p<0.001) and lower sensitivity (p=0.02). The Danish consensus criteria for UNE are very specific and have high PPV. The Danish criteria for UNE are reliable and well suited for use in different centres as they are based on Z-scores. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan; Skovbjerg, Sine; Madsen, Anja Lykke; Mehlsen, Jesper; Brinth, Louise; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Carstensen, Tina Wisbech; Schroder, Andreas; Fink, Per Klausen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jørgensen, Torben
The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD) cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors, delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18–76 years from the general population examined from 2011 to 2015. The survey comprises screening questionnaires for five types of FSS, ie, fibromyalgia, whiplash-associated disorder, multiple chemical sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and for the unifying diagnostic category of bodily distress syndrome. Additional data included a telephone-based diagnostic interview assessment for FSS, questionnaires on physical and mental health, personality traits, lifestyle, use of health care services and social factors, and a physical examination with measures of cardiorespiratory and morphological fitness, metabolic fitness, neck mobility, heart rate variability, and pain sensitivity. A biobank including serum, plasma, urine, DNA, and microbiome has been established, and central registry data from both responders and nonresponders are similarly available on morbidity, mortality, reimbursement of medicine, heath care use, and social factors. A complete 5-year follow-up is scheduled to take place from year 2017 to 2020, and further reexaminations will be
Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R
of Health was, however, at that time of the opinion that there were no serious problems with organotherapeutics from those companies marketing such products. It requires studies in the unprinted journals of the Ministry of Health and the National Board of Health to find the background for and the causes of the request from the Ministry at this point concerning the control of the organotherapeutic products of the pharmaceutical industry. Neither were GEA's barbiturates innovative products. The "Gad Andresen Case" is interesting for two reasons. Firstly, it illustrates that the development of generics at this stage could not always take place exclusively in a pharmaceutical-chemical laboratory, but also required a certain minimum of clinical trials including human beings. Secondly, it shows that the industrial products had now slowly, but surely gained market shares and displaced the pharmacy-produced medicinal products to such an extent that it did not only worry the pharmacy owners and their trade orga- nization. Now this concern had also resulted in a counteract so that the pharmacies in the manufacture of their products had to copy the industrial products, however, in certain cases with a dubious result. Gealgica tablets and especially their content of fenacetine is not only a model example of how the opinion of the positive and negative properties of a medicinal product changes over time. It also shows how long time could pass before the health authorities took measures against a substance with problematic side effects in spite of the fact that less damaging substances had been available for a long time, in this case paracetamol. Medicinal products containing fenacetine were on the market for almost 100 years. On the contrary meprobamat is a model example of a drug substance where the opinion of its positive and negative properties changed essentially over a relatively short period. In spite of this it remained on the market for a little less than 40 years
Køster, Brian; Thorgaard, Camilla; Philip, Anja; Clemmensen, Inge H
In Denmark, the incidence of melanoma has been increasing since the 1960s. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation and a history of sunburn and sunbed use are known risk factors. We describe the association between use of protective measures, sun-related behaviour and experience of sunburn in the Danish population three months after the start of the campaign. A population-based sample of 3,499 persons aged 15-59 years completed a questionnaire that included items on exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We examined the relations between sunburn and sun-related behaviour by logistic regression analysis. Within the previous 12 months, 35% of the study population had experienced sunburn. Sunburn became less frequent with age (odds ratio (OR) 4.44; 15-19 vs. 50-59) and skin type (OR 2.57; I vs. III). Sunburn was negatively associated with shade and clothing and positively with use of sunscreens. We found no significant difference in sunscreen use between intentional tanners who experienced sunburn and those who did not. A larger fraction of unintentional tanners with sunburn than those who were not sunburnt had used sunscreen. Sunscreen was used to prolong the time spent in the sun by 66% of sunburnt people; however, we found no association between duration of sun exposure and sunscreen use. Future campaigns to reduce the prevalence of sunburn in the Danish population must especially target young persons and intentional tanning, and they should emphasize that sunscreen cannot be used to extend the time spent in the sun and that shade and clothing provide the best protection against sunburn.
Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K
The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.
Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Skytthe, Axel; Hjelmborg, Jacob v.B.; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare
Purpose To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life. Methods We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression. Results Among 1933 deaths, we found significantly higher mortality for twin boys than for twin girls. For both sexes, OS twins had lower mortality than SS twins; the difference persisted for the first year of life for boys and for the first week of life for girls. Conclusions Although the mortality risk for OS boys was in the expected direction according to the TTT hypothesis, the results for OS girls pointed in the opposite direction, providing no clear evidence for the TTT hypothesis. PMID:28024904
Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Skytthe, Axel; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare
To investigate the twin testosterone transfer (TTT) hypothesis by comparing early-life mortality risks of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins during the first 15 years of life. We performed a population-based cohort study to compare mortality in OS and SS twins. We included 68,629 live-born Danish twins from 1973 to 2009 identified through the Danish Twin Registry and performed piecewise stratified Cox regression and log-binomial regression. Among 1933 deaths, we found significantly higher mortality for twin boys than for twin girls. For both sexes, OS twins had lower mortality than SS twins; the difference persisted for the first year of life for boys and for the first week of life for girls. Although the mortality risk for OS boys was in the expected direction according to the TTT hypothesis, the results for OS girls pointed in the opposite direction, providing no clear evidence for the TTT hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milana, Marcella; Sorensen, Tore Bernt
The article presents selected findings from in-depth case studies of two non-formal learning activities organized by the Danish Folk High Schools and Day High Schools, respectively. The purpose of the empirical study was to investigate how longstanding, non-formal, adult education institutions have worked to foster the acquisition of civic…
Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Riegels, Mette; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Schiøtz, Michaela; Curtis, Tine; Grønbaek, Morten
The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods used in the Danish Youth Cohort and to give a description of the study participants with special attention to a comparison between participants and non-participants regarding sociodemographic characteristics. A total of 1,945 schools were invited, out of which 506 participated. The participating 7th grades comprised a total of 12,498 responding adolescents. The response rate for the Danish Youth Cohort established in 2005 was 63%. The sample of 12,498 adolescents represents 18.2% of all pupils (n = 68,764) in the 7th grade (mean age: 13.4 years) in Danish schools in 2005. The cohort was followed up in spring 2006 and spring 2007, where the adolescents were in the 8th (mean age: 14.4 years) and 9th (mean age: 15.3 years) grades, respectively. We found that compared with non-participants the participants were significantly more likely to be girls, to be of Danish ethnicity, and to live in one-family houses. Furthermore, participants more often came from families with two or three children, were more likely to have parents with a high occupational status, parents who were married and parents with a higher total income. Loss to follow-up was only associated with adolescents' higher probability of drinking and use of tobacco, and none of the other factors were associated with attrition. The participants in the Danish Youth Cohort represent a great variety of different groups of socio-demographic factors, although they differ from non-participants as regards a range of socio-demographic factors. This should be taken into account in future analyses.
Birkeland, Søren; Depont Christensen, Rene; Damsbo, Niels; Kragstrup, Jakob
The risk of being disciplined in connection with a complaint case causes distress to most general practitioners. The present study examined the characteristics of complaint cases resulting in disciplinary action. The Danish Patients' Complaints Board's decisions concerning general practice in 2007 were examined. Information on the motives for complaining, as well as patient and general practitioner characteristics, was extracted and the association with case outcome (disciplinary or no disciplinary action) was analysed. Variables included complaint motives, patient gender and age, urgency of illness, cancer diagnosis, healthcare settings (daytime or out-of-hours services), and general practitioner gender and professional seniority. Cases where the complaint motives involved a wish for placement of responsibility (OR = 2.35, p = 0.01) or a wish for a review of the general practitioner's competence (OR = 1.95, p = 0.02) were associated with increased odds of the general practitioner being disciplined. The odds of discipline decreased when the complaint was motivated by a feeling of being devalued (OR = 0.39, p = 0.02) or a request for an explanation (OR = 0.46, p = 0.01). With regard to patient and general practitioner characteristics, higher general practitioner professional seniority was associated with increased odds of discipline (OR = 1.97 per 20 additional years of professional seniority, p = 0.01). None of the other characteristics was statistically significantly associated with discipline in the multiple logistic regression model. Complaint motives and professional seniority were associated with decision outcomes. Further research is needed on the impact of professional seniority on performance.
Abstract Objective The risk of being disciplined in connection with a complaint case causes distress to most general practitioners. The present study examined the characteristics of complaint cases resulting in disciplinary action. Material and methods The Danish Patients’ Complaints Board's decisions concerning general practice in 2007 were examined. Information on the motives for complaining, as well as patient and general practitioner characteristics, was extracted and the association with case outcome (disciplinary or no disciplinary action) was analysed. Variables included complaint motives, patient gender and age, urgency of illness, cancer diagnosis, healthcare settings (daytime or out-of-hours services), and general practitioner gender and professional seniority. Results Cases where the complaint motives involved a wish for placement of responsibility (OR = 2.35, p = 0.01) or a wish for a review of the general practitioner's competence (OR = 1.95, p = 0.02) were associated with increased odds of the general practitioner being disciplined. The odds of discipline decreased when the complaint was motivated by a feeling of being devalued (OR = 0.39, p = 0.02) or a request for an explanation (OR = 0.46, p = 0.01). With regard to patient and general practitioner characteristics, higher general practitioner professional seniority was associated with increased odds of discipline (OR = 1.97 per 20 additional years of professional seniority, p = 0.01). None of the other characteristics was statistically significantly associated with discipline in the multiple logistic regression model. Conclusion Complaint motives and professional seniority were associated with decision outcomes. Further research is needed on the impact of professional seniority on performance. PMID:23906082
In the 1980s, Norwegian researchers pioneered efforts towards developing school support for bereaved children. Eighteen years later, a Danish approach was created based on these foundations. This article explores the Danish school bereavement response plans (b-plans) and investigates their ability to support both teachers and bereaved children.…
The focus of this article is to draw attention to the presence and importance of travelling ideas, knowledge, and practices in Danish history of educational testing. The article introduces and employs a spatial methodological approach in relation to the connections between the international testing community and the emerging Danish practice of…
Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn
The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National Birth Cohort. Information about lifestyle, occupational, medical and obstetric factors was obtained from a telephone interview and data on pregnancy outcomes came from the Danish population based registries. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (adjusted for potential confounders) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked compared to non-smoking parents (miscarriage: 1.18, 95 % CI 0.96-1.44; stillbirth: 1.32, 95 % CI 0.93-1.89). On the additive scale, we detected a small positive interaction for stillbirth between smoking and body mass index (overweight women). In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise.
Latza, Ute; Rossnagel, Karin; Hannerz, Harald; Burr, Hermann; Jankowiak, Sylvia; Backé, Eva-Maria
To determine the effect of job insecurity based on repeated measurements on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and on antihypertensive medication. The study population consists of 12,559 employees aged 18-59 years of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study. With an open cohort design, data from up to four representative waves were linked to four registers. Poisson regression with time-dependent covariates was used to estimate the rate ratio (RR) with confidence interval (CI) of perceived job insecurity associated with first-time IHD hospitalization or mortality 1991-2010 (n = 561 cases) and incident dispensing of prescribed antihypertensive medications 1996-2010 (n = 2,402 cases). Participants with perceived job insecurity filled more antihypertensive prescriptions (age-, gender-, and calendar year-adjusted RR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.12-1.33) and had a borderline significant higher IHD incidence (RR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.98-1.55). In a subanalysis, the risk of antihypertensive medication dispensed was only significant among employees with worries about both unemployment and poor reemployment opportunities. After explorative stratifications by age, gender, and occupational status, perceived job insecurity was associated with more dispensing of antihypertensive medications to participants less than 50 years of age. In a country with high social security and active labor market policy, employees with the feeling of an insecure job have a modestly increased risk to fill an antihypertensive prescription. Further studies on health risks of job insecurity should consider improved exposure assessment, earlier outcomes such as medication in order to increase statistical power, and identification of vulnerable population groups.
Introspection and Essay Studies Conducted in Turkey. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 12. Revised.
Doltas, Dilek; Sevgen, Cevza
As part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, both an introspection and an essay study were conducted with Turkish university prep-school students and junior college students to determine their responses to three fairytales: "The Snake, the Fox, and the Man,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip."…
Ferløv-Schwensen, Charlotte; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo
Graves' disease (GD) is associated with excess morbidity and mortality, but little is known about unnatural manners of death and the potential relation with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). This study investigated the risk of unnatural death in Graves' patients with and without orbitopathy compared to matched control populations. This was a cohort study covering all adult Danes (≥18 years) diagnosed with GD or GO during 1995-2012. Median follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 0-17.5 years). Utilizing the Danish Register of Causes of Death and the Danish National Patient Registry, 28,461 subjects with GD and 3965 with GO were identified and matched for age and sex with four subjects from the background population. The manner of death was identified, and hazard ratios (HR) for mortality due to unnatural deaths (accident, suicide, violence/homicide, and unknown) were calculated using Cox regression analyses, adjusted for pre-existing somatic and psychiatric morbidity. In Graves' disease overall (GD + GO), there was an increased risk of death from unknown unnatural manners (HR = 2.01 [confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.45], p = 0.012) and of suicide, although the latter difference was not with certainty statistically significant (HR = 1.43 [CI 1.00-2.04], p = 0.053). There was no significant difference in risk of death from suicide in GD subjects compared to their controls (HR = 1.27 [CI 0.85-1.89], p = 0.253). However, GO patients had a significantly higher risk of death from suicide (HR = 2.71 [CI 1.16-6.32], p = 0.022). Mortality by suicide was increased in Graves' disease overall, most significantly in patients with GO, also after adjustment for pre-existing somatic and psychiatric disease. These findings indicate that GD and GO may have a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior. Beyond independent confirmation, reasons for this need to be explored in order to introduce preventive measures.
Í Soylu, Lív; Jensen, Allan; Juul, Kirsten E; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hargreave, Marie
The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine affects the risk of primary infertility in women. We selected nulliparous Danish women aged 20-29 years from a prospective cohort and retrieved information on coffee and tea consumption from a questionnaire and an interview at enrollment. We assessed the women's fertility by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort and retrieved information on children and vital status from the Civil Registration System. All 7574 women included for analysis were followed for primary infertility from the date of enrollment (1991-1993) until 31 December 2010. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models. During follow up, primary infertility was diagnosed in 822 women. Compared with never consumers, the risk of primary infertility among women who drank coffee or tea was not affected. The risk of primary infertility was neither associated with an increasing number of daily servings of coffee (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.03) or tea (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.03) in consumers only. Concerning total caffeine consumption (from coffee and tea), the risk of infertility was similar among consumers compared with never consumers. Finally, none of the additional daily 100 mg of caffeine affected the risk among consumers only (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0.98-1.02). In this population-based cohort study, not restricted to women seeking pregnancy, we found no association between coffee, tea or total caffeine consumption and the risk of primary infertility in women. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Klose, Marianne; Stochholm, Kirstine; Janukonyté, Jurgita; Christensen, Louise Lehman; Cohen, Arieh S; Wagner, Aase; Laurberg, Peter; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Andersen, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla
Posttraumatic pituitary hormone deficiency is often suggested. The impact of these predominantly mild and often irreproducible deficiencies on outcome is less clear. The aim of the present study was to describe patient reported outcome in a national a priori unselected cohort of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to deficiencies identified upon pituitary assessment. We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were Danish patients with a head trauma diagnosis recorded in the Danish Board of Health diagnostic code registry; 439 patients (and 124 healthy controls) underwent assessment of anterior pituitary function 2.5 years (median) after TBI. Questionnaires on health-related quality of life (QoL) (SF36, EuroQoL-5D, QoL assessment of GH deficiency in adults) and fatigue (MFI-20) were completed in parallel to pituitary assessment. Patients with TBI had significant detriments in QoL. Impairment (mainly physical scales) related to pituitary deficiency, although only partially confirmed after adjustment for demographic differences. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism related to several QoL scores. Increasing impairments were observed with declining total testosterone concentrations (men), but not free testosterone concentrations or any other hormone concentrations. Total testosterone was not independently related to impaired QoL and fatigue, after adjustment for demographics, and treatment with antidiabetics, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Only a very limited relationship between pituitary hormone deficiencies and QoL/fatigue was demonstrated. Due to the dominating influence of concurrent comorbidities, pituitary deficiencies were not independently related to QoL/fatigue. Causality is still to be shown, and whether substitution therapy could be of additional relevance in selected patients needs to be proven. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
Aagaard, Kaare; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl
This article presents an analysis of the mergers in the Danish Higher Education (HE)-sector with a particular emphasis on the 2007 mergers involving universities and Government Research Institutes (GRIs). Furthermore, it follows the post-merger processes up to 2014/2015 at two Danish universities and examines the consequences of the changes seen…
The organization and financing of the Danish health care system was evaluated within the framework of a SWOT analysis (analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) by a panel of five members with a background in health economics. The evaluation was based on reading an extensive amount of selected documents and literature on the Danish health care system and a 1-week visit to health care authorities, providers and key persons. The present paper includes the main findings by one of the panel members. Primary care is much more accessible in Denmark than the USA. A mixed capitation-fee-for-service method of paying generalist physicians in Denmark ensures that everyone has a primary care physician and generalist physicians are responsive to providing services quickly, typically same-day appointments. An organized off-hours service ensures accessible care 24 h a day, 7 days a week. Denmark has the highest public satisfaction with health care, reflecting the value placed on accessibility of primary care. Inpatient hospital care consumes a disproportionate share of Danish health expenditures. Global hospital budgets provide little incentive for hospital or surgical productivity. Long waits for hospitalization, especially surgical procedures and cancellation of scheduled surgery, are a source of patient dissatisfaction. Women's health, patient health risk counseling and coordination of preventive and primary care are major weaknesses of the Danish health system. Patients have a choice of primary care physician within a given geographic area and may go to a hospital of their choice. However, patient surveys and feedback are underdeveloped and very little effort has been made to make services responsive to patients' preferences. While innovations in electronic prescribing are noteworthy, further development of health information technology is needed.
Lyhne, Ivar, E-mail: email@example.com; Laerhoven, Frank van; Cashmore, Matthew
Considerable attention has been given to the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the 1970s. Relatively few research studies, however, have approached EIA as an instrument of environmental governance, and have explored the mechanisms through which EIA influences the behaviour of actors involved in planning processes. Consequently, theory in this area is underspecified. In this paper we contribute to theory-building by analysing the effectiveness of a unique EIA system: the Danish system. In this system the competent authority, instead of the project proponent, undertakes EIA reporting. Additionally, the public, rather than experts, play a central role in quality controlmore » and the Danish EIA community is relatively small which influences community dynamics in particular ways. A nation-wide survey and expert interviews were undertaken in order to examine the views of actors involved in EIA on the effectiveness of this anomalous system. The empirical data are compared with similar studies on governance mechanisms in other countries, especially the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, as well as with earlier evaluations of EIA effectiveness in Denmark. The results indicate that the more extensive role attributed to the competent authority may lead to higher EIA effectiveness when this aligns with their interests; the influence of the public is amplified by a powerful complaints system; and, the size of the EIA community appears to have no substantial influence on EIA effectiveness. We discuss how the research findings might enhance our theoretical understanding of the operation and effectiveness of governance mechanisms in EIA. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of the unique Danish EIA system is explored. • Results are compared with similar studies in the Netherlands and the UK. • Findings lead to hypotheses that contribute to theorising EIA effectiveness.« less
Hansen, Rikke D; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Wallin, Håkan; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Vogel, Ulla
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent type of genetic variation in the human genome, and are of interest for the study of susceptibility to and protection from diseases. The haplotype at chromosome 19q13.2-3 encompassing the three SNPs ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn have been associated with risk of breast cancer and lung cancer. Haplotype carriers are defined as the homozygous carriers of RAI IVS1 A4364GA, ERCC1 Asn118AsnT and ASE-1 G-21AG. We aimed to evaluate whether the three polymorphisms and the haplotype are associated to risk of colorectal cancer, and investigated gene-environment associations between the polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking status at enrolment, smoking duration, average smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. Associations between the three individual polymorphisms, the haplotype and risk of colorectal cancer were examined, as well as gene-environment interaction, in a Danish case-cohort study including 405 cases and a comparison group of 810 persons. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) were estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model stratified according to gender, and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-values were calculated based on robust estimates of the variance-covariance matrix and Wald's test of the Cox regression parameter. No consistent associations between the three individual polymorphisms, the haplotype and risk of colorectal cancer were found. No statistically significant interactions between the genotypes and the lifestyle exposures smoking or alcohol consumption were observed. Our results suggest that the ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn polymorphisms and the previously identified haplotype are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We found no evidence of gene-environment interaction between the three polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking intensity and alcohol consumption
Hansen, H L
OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyse the types and circumstances of all natural and non-natural deaths among seamen on board Danish merchant ships. METHODS: Data on 147 cases were obtained from maritime authorities, an insurance company, shipping companies, hospitals, death registers, and death certificates in the period from 1986-93. RESULTS: The 53 natural deaths were dominated by cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. Insufficient treatment on board was identified as a contributing factor for death in some cases. Medical advice was not always sought and the advice given was in some cases insufficient. 73 fatal accidents were identified. The incidence of accidents of 5.29/10,000 person-years was 11.5 times higher than the incidence of 0.46/10,000 for the Danish male workforce ashore. 23 accidents (31%) were due to maritime casualties and 26 (36%) were occupational accidents. The remaining 24 (33%) were accidents during off duty hours including six self intoxications. Rough weather, inadequate awareness of safety, lack of use of personal protection devices, and inexperience were associated with many of the fatal injuries directly related to work. Alcohol played a major part in 12 out of 18 fatal injuries occurring during off duty hours. CONCLUSIONS: The maritime workplace was identified as a high risk workplace and in many aspects differs from the conditions ashore. Acute diseases and serious injuries pose special risks to seamen because of a lack of direct access to professional medical care at sea. Primary prevention of certain diseases is needed and possible. Improved training, improved systems of work, improved safety awareness, and greater use of personal protection devices are needed to prevent fatal injuries. Medical training of ships' officers providing medical care on board and specific training of doctors giving medical advise to ships should be improved to meet the needs. PMID:8664966
Russell, Lene; Pedersen, Michael; Jensen, Andreas V; Søes, Lillian Marie; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg
Anthrax had become extremely rare in Europe, but in 2010 an outbreak of anthrax among heroin users in Scotland increased awareness of contaminated heroin as a source of anthrax. We present the first two Danish cases of injectional anthrax and discuss the clinical presentations, which included both typical and more unusual manifestations. The first patient, a 55-year old man with HIV and hepatitis C virus co-infection, presented with severe pain in the right thigh and lower abdomen after injecting heroin into the right groin. Computed tomography and ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and right thigh showed oedematous thickened peritoneum, distended oedematous mesentery and subcutaneous oedema of the right thigh. At admission the patient was afebrile but within 24 hours he progressed to severe septic shock and abdominal compartment syndrome. Cultures of blood and intraperitoneal fluid grew Bacillus anthracis. The patient was treated with meropenem, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Despite maximum supportive care including mechanical ventilation, vasopressor treatment and continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration the patient died on day four.The second patient, a 39-year old man with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, presented with fever and a swollen right arm after injecting heroin into his right arm. The arm was swollen from the axilla to the wrist with tense and discoloured skin. He was initially septic with low blood pressure but responded to crystalloids. During the first week, swelling progressed and the patient developed massive generalised oedema with a weight gain of 40 kg. When blood cultures grew Bacillus anthracis antibiotic treatment was changed to meropenem, moxifloxacin and metronidazole, and on day 7 hydroxycloroquin was added. The patient responded to treatment and was discharged after 29 days. These two heroin-associated anthrax cases from Denmark corroborate that heroin contaminated with anthrax spores may be a continuous
Waldorff, Frans Boch; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Nielsen, Bente; Rubak, Jens; Bro, Flemming
Background We were unable to identify studies that have considered the diffusion of an e-learning programme among a large population of general practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of an e-learning programme introduced to General Practitioners as part of a nation-wide disseminated dementia guideline. Methods A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE) was used to identify predictors for use of the e-learning programme. Results In the study period, a total of 192 different GPs (5.3%) were identified as users, and 17% (32) had at least one re-logon. Among responders at first login most have learnt about the e-learning programme from written material (41%) or from the internet (44%). A total of 94% of the users described their ability of conducting a diagnostic evaluation as good or excellent. Most of the respondents used the e-learning programme due to general interest (90%). Predictors for using the e-learning programme were Males (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.0) and members of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1), whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. Conclusion Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish College of General Practice. Based on this study we conclude, that an active implementation is needed, also when considering electronic formats of CME like e-learning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392483. PMID:18439279
Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul
Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…
Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S
The aim of the present study was to provide a broad picture of the morbidity among employees in the Danish hotel and restaurant industry. Cohorts of all 20-59-year-old employees in the Danish hotel and restaurant industry in the years 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1994 were formed to calculate age-standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) and time trends (1981-1997) for many different diagnoses. Both for women and men, significantly higher SHRs were found for infectious and parasitic diseases, neoplasms, diseases in the nervous system and sense organs, diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of the respiratory system, diseases of the digestive system and diseases of the musculoskeletal system among employees in hotels and restaurants than in the digestive system and diseases of the musculoskeletal system among employees in hotels and restaurants than in the working population at large. Furthermore, among women a significantly elevated risk was found for injuries in the lower extremities, injuries in the upper extremities and head injuries, and among men a high risk was found for head injuries and a low risk for ruptures in ligaments and muscles. The trend assessments did not detect any significant changes in SHRs over time. Employment in the Danish hotel and restaurant industry is associated with an elevated hospitalization risk due to many diseases, which may be related to occupation and lifestyle. In line with the official policy of reducing inequality in health, focus should be placed on the health problems in this group.
Borchersen, S; Peacock, M
The objective of this study was to compare conception rates, non-return rates and sex ratios of sexed and conventional semen from the same sires in commercial dairy herds in Denmark. The semen was produced from three bulls from each of the three major dairy breeds in Denmark: Holstein, Jersey and Danish Red Dairy Breed (nine bulls total), in order to answer questions on breeds differences in field results. AI was performed by trained technicians using a minimum of 150 doses of sorted sperm and 50 control doses from each bull. During the trial, a total of 2087 doses were used in 63 herds. The trial showed that the conception rate using sorted semen was 5% points lower than with conventional doses for Danish Reds, 7% points for Jerseys, and 12% points for Holsteins. Translating this into non-return rate revealed differences of 10-20% points among bulls. These differences are thought to be a good indicator of what to expect from commercial use of sexed semen. The sex ratios varied from 89% to 93% female calves among breeds, which on average is consistent with the theoretical average sex ratio of 93% females considering the low number of inseminations.
Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; Tan, Qihua; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben; Dalgård, Christine
Objective The rate of change in metabolic phenotypes can be highly indicative of metabolic disorders and disorder-related modifications. We analyzed data from longitudinal twin studies on multiple metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins representing two populations of distinct ethnic, cultural, social-economic backgrounds and geographical environments. Materials and Methods The study covered a relatively large sample of 502 pairs of Danish adult twins followed up for a long period of 12 years with a mean age at intake of 38 years (range: 18–65) and a total of 181 Chinese adult twin pairs traced for about 7 years with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years (range: 23–64). The classical twin models were fitted to the longitudinal change in each phenotype (Δphenotype) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to the variation in Δphenotype. Results Moderate to high contributions by the unique environment were estimated for all phenotypes in both Danish (from 0.51 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol up to 0.72 for triglycerides) and Chinese (from 0.41 for triglycerides up to 0.73 for diastolic blood pressure) twins; low to moderate genetic components were estimated for long-term change in most of the phenotypes in Danish twins except for triglycerides and hip circumference. Compared with Danish twins, the Chinese twins tended to have higher genetic control over the longitudinal changes in lipids (except high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and glucose, higher unique environmental contribution to blood pressure but no genetic contribution to longitudinal change in body mass traits. Conclusion Our results emphasize the major contribution of unique environment to the observed intra-individual variation in all metabolic phenotypes in both samples, and meanwhile reveal differential patterns of genetic and common environmental regulation on changes over time in metabolic phenotypes across the two samples. PMID:26862898
Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H
The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to <2% since 2013. The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an
Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona; Sjøgren, Per; Hansen, Ole Bo
The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Barriers Questionnaire-II (DBQ-II). The validated Norwegian version of the DBQ-II was translated into Danish. Cancer patients for the study were recruited from specialized pain management facilities. Thirty-three patients responded to the DBQ-II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scale. A factor analysis of the DBQ-II resulted in six scales. Scale one, Fatalism, consisted of three items addressing fatalistic beliefs regarding cancer pain management. Scale two, Immune System, consisted of three items addressing the belief that pain medications harm the immune system. Scale three, Monitor, consisted of three items addressing the fear that pain medicine masks changes in one's body. Scale four, Communication, consisted of five items addressing the concern that reports of pain distract the physician from treating the cancer, and the belief that "good" patients do not complain. Scale five, Addiction, consisted of two items addressing the fear of becoming addicted to pain medication. Finally, scale six, Tolerance, consisted of three items addressing the fear of getting tolerant to analgesic effect of pain medicine. Items related to medication side effects were analyzed as separate units. The DBQ-II total had an internal consistency of 0.87. The DBQ-II total score was related to measures of pain relief and anxiety. The DBQ-II seems to be a reliable and valid measure of the barriers to pain management among Danish cancer patients.
Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P
Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.
Kessel, Line; Hougaard, Jesper Leth; Mortensen, Claus; Jørgensen, Torben; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Larsen, Michael
The present study was performed as part of an epidemiological study, the Inter99 Eye Study. The aim of the study was to describe refractive errors and visual acuity (VA) in a suburban Danish population. The Inter99 Eye Study comprised 970 subjects aged 30-60 years and included a random control group as well as groups at high risk for ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. The present study presents VAs and refractive data from the control group (n = 502). All subjects completed a detailed questionnaire and underwent a standardized general physical and ophthalmic examination including determination of best corrected VA and subjective refractioning. Visual acuity = 0.05 was found in one eye of one subject and VA = 0.3 in 11 eyes of 11 subjects. The main cause of reduced visual function was strabismic amblyopia. Myopia (= - 0.5 D, spherical equivalent refraction) was present in 33.1% of right eyes of the total population but in 56.8% of subjects with a university degree. Strabismic amblyopia was a significant cause of unilateral visual impairment. Myopia was approximately twice as frequent in subjects with a university degree as in the remaining study population.
Herreid, Clyde Freeman
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.
Suadicani, P; Ishøy, T; Guldager, B; Appleyard, M; Gyntelberg, F
Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War Veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms. Independent associations are found for concentration or memory problems, repeated fits of headache, balance disturbances or fits of dizziness, abnormal fatigue not caused by physical activity, and problems sleeping all night. We investigated whether psychosocial, physical, chemical or biological exposures were associated with these symptoms. This study is a prevalence study using retrospective data on exposure. Some 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2 1990 until December 31 1997 were included; the control group comprised 257 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, and were interviewed by a physician based on a completed questionnaire. A clustering of three to five of the above symptoms were found in 21.4% of Gulf War Veterans vs. 6.2% in controls, p < 0.001. Psychosocial and physico-chemical factors were strongly associated with neuropsychological symptoms, and a significant interaction of the two was found, p < 0.001. Although the results of this study are based on self-report the factors identified seem plausible. It may be impossible even in peace-keeping missions to avoid hostile events. However, the results also suggest that psychosocial work conditions known to be important in civilian life, and also environmental factors, should be improved to minimize the risk of long-term neuropsychological symptoms.
Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the DANish randomized, controlled, multicenter study to assess the efficacy of Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with non-ischemic Systolic Heart failure on mortality (DANISH).
Thune, Jens Jakob; Pehrson, Steen; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Haarbo, Jens; Videbæk, Lars; Korup, Eva; Jensen, Gunnar; Hildebrandt, Per; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Bruun, Niels Eske; Eiskjær, Hans; Brandes, Axel; Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Egstrup, Kenneth; Hastrup-Svendsen, Jesper; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars
The effect of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure (HF) caused by coronary artery disease is well documented. However, the effect of primary prophylactic ICDs in patients with systolic HF not due to coronary artery disease is much weaker. In addition, HF management has improved, since the landmark ICD trials and a large proportion of patients now receive cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) where the effect of ICD treatment is unknown. In the DANISH study, 1,116 patients with symptomatic systolic HF not caused by coronary artery disease have been randomized to receive an ICD or not, in addition to contemporary standard therapy. The primary outcome of the trial is time to all-cause death. Follow-up will continue until June 2016 with a median follow-up period of 5 years. Baseline characteristics show that enrolled patients are treated according to current guidelines. At baseline, 97% of patients received an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, 92% received a β-blocker, 58% a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, and 58% were scheduled to receive CRT. Median age was 63 years (range, 21-84 years) at baseline, and 28% were women. DANISH will provide pertinent information about the effect on all-cause mortality of a primary prophylactic ICD in patients with symptomatic systolic HF not caused by coronary artery disease on contemporary standard therapy including CRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brand, Eske; Fridberg, Marie; Knudsen, Ulrik Kragegaard; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner
The objective of the study was to examine the educational exposure during residency in Danish orthopedic departments. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Data were gathered from January 1, 2014 to April 30, 2014 through a nationwide web-based questionnaire containing 15 questions within the areas of workload, surgical procedures, outpatient clinic, and research activities. The residents targeted worked at small-to-large hospitals and in tertiary care centers. Every resident in Denmark (n = 163) with at least 3 active months at a department was included. Questionnaires with less than 80% completion were excluded. In total, 152 entries were registered. Among those, 27 did not meet the inclusion criteria and 29 were excluded, leaving 96 participants, representing 22 of 26 departments, for further analysis. The average number of operative procedures as primary surgeon was 16 (range: 8-35) per month. In all, 18 of 22 (81%) departments offered the possibility to participate in research facilitated by the department and 38 of 96 (40%) worked for free (an average of 10h a month [range: 3-60]) to increase the amount of surgical procedures. A large variation in the educational exposure was found among the Danish orthopedic departments. Numbers indicate that Danish residents, compared with their US counterparts, operate considerably less during residency. Most residents work overtime and many of them work for free to participate in more surgical procedures. Copyright Â© 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
The aim was to examine the effects of fertility drugs on malignant melanoma risk using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date. A cohort of 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of malignant melanoma associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for parity status. 112 malignant melanomas were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene, gonadotrophins, hCG or GnRH did not affect risk of malignant melanoma significantly. When stratifying for parity, however, use of gonadotrophins (RR = 2.29; CI: 1.16-4.52) or GnRH (RR = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.50-7.09) among parous women was associated with a significant increased risk. For all groups of fertility drugs, we found no association with number of cycles of use or years since first use (latency). Our findings showed no strong association between malignant melanoma risk and use of fertility drugs, although the results indicated that use of gonadotrophins or GnRH might increase risk in parous women. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm our findings.
Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne K
Some epidemiologic studies have indicated that uterine cancer risk may be increased after use of fertility drugs. To further assess this association, the authors used data from a large cohort of 54,362 women diagnosed with infertility who were referred to Danish fertility clinics between 1965 and 1998. In a case-cohort study, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effects of 4 groups of fertility drugs on overall risk of uterine cancer after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Through mid-2006, 83 uterine cancers were identified. Ever use of any fertility drug was not associated with uterine cancer risk (rate ratio (RR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.76). However, ever use of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropin) increased uterine cancer risk (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.50); the risk was primarily observed after 10 years of follow-up. Furthermore, uterine cancer risk increased with number of cycles of use for clomiphene (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.72) and human chorionic gonadotropin (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.08) but not for other gonadotropins. Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs was not associated with risk. Gonadotropins, and possibly clomiphene and human chorionic gonadotropin, may increase the risk of uterine cancer, with higher doses and longer follow-up leading to greater risk.
The organization and financing of the Danish health care system was evaluated within a framework of a SWOT analysis (analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) by a panel of five members with a background in health economics. The evaluation was based on the reading of an extensive range of documents and literature on the Danish health care system, and a 1-week visit to health care authorities, providers and key persons. The present paper describes the main findings of one of the panel members. A quality assessment approach is combined with the principles of a SWOT analysis to assess the main features of the Danish health care system. In addition, a public health perspective has been used in judging the coherence of the subsystems of the health systems. It is concluded that the macro-efficiency of the health care system could be increased by improving the cooperation between the subsystems. The relatively high mortality rates suggest that greater input into health education programs could significantly improve the health status of the Danish population. Finally, it is suggested that the steering power of the public board be strengthened by transferring ownership of health care institutions to other hands (privatization).
Gheorghe, Alexandra; Banner, Jytte; Hansen, Steen Holger; Stolborg, Uffe; Lynnerup, Niels
Concealment of pregnancy and newborn infant abandonment are closely associated with neonaticide, the killing of an infant within the first 24 h of life or less than 28-30 days depending on the jurisdiction. Abandonment of newborn infants occurs throughout the world and often the outcome for the infant is death. Together with neonaticide it is felt to be one of the least preventable crimes. In this retrospective study we present all forensically known Danish cases of abandoned newborn infant corpses, covering the period from 1997 to 2008. Eleven newborn infant corpses were found; we registered characteristics of the newborn infants and the circumstances of the cases based on autopsy reports. One further newborn infant was included, dating back to 1992, as it was found to be connected with one of the later cases. The mean age of the women who abandoned their newborn infants was 22 years, and five of the autopsied newborn infants were probably alive when abandoned. In two cases the newborn infants were half siblings and abandoned by the same mother. The time span from abandonment to when the newborn infant was found ranged from hours to 7 years. Two-thirds of the newborn infants were girls (66.6%). The most common means of disposal was in a plastic bag (~60%); only one newborn infant was wearing clothes when found. Causes of death were usually given as asphyxia, brain injury or simply undetermined. Two-thirds of the newborn infants showed signs of violence. None of the newborn infants had congenital malformations.
Aldersson, Russell R.; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa J.
This article reports on a comparison of lexical items in the vocabulary of Icelandic and Danish sign languages prompted by anecdotal reports of similarity and historical records detailing close contact between the two communities. Drawing on previous studies, including Bickford (2005), McKee and Kennedy (1998, 2000a, 2000b) and Parkhurst and…
Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Lous, Jørgen; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Homøe, Preben
Otitis media is the primary cause of antibiotic prescription in children. Two-thirds of all children experience at least one episode of otitis media before the age of 7 years. The aim of this study was to characterise the attributable effect of several modifiable risk exposures on the risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at age 18 months and 7 years within a large prospective national birth cohort. The study used the Danish National Birth Cohort comprising information about otitis media and risk exposures from more than 50,000 mother-child pairs from the period 1996-2002. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors and to calculate the population attributable fraction. Short time with breastfeeding, early introduction to daycare, cesarean section, and low compliance to the national vaccination program were all associated with an increased risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months of age and at 7 years of age. The fraction of children with otitis media attributed from breastfeeding lasting for less than 6 months was 10%. Introduction to daycare before the age of 12 months attributed with 20% of the cases of >3 episodes of otitis media. Short duration of breastfeeding, early introduction into daycare, cesarean section, and low compliance with the national vaccination program increased the risk of experiencing >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months, and at 7 years of age. These are factors that all can be modulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pornak, S; Meyer, T; Raspe, H
Priority setting in medicine helps to achieve a fair and transparent distribution of health-care resources. The German discussion about priority setting is still in its infancy and may benefit from other countries' experiences. This paper aims to analyse the Danish priority setting debate in order to stimulate the German discussion. The methods used are a literature analysis and a document analysis as well as expert interviews. The Danish debate about priority setting in medicine began in the 1970s, when a government committee was constituted to evaluate health-care priorities at the national level. In the 1980s a broader debate arose in politics, ethics, medicine and health economy. The discussions reached a climax in the 1990s, when many local activities - always involving the public - were initiated. Some Danish counties tried to implement priority setting in the daily routine of health care. The Council of Ethics was a major player in the debate of the 1990s and published a detailed statement on priority setting in 1996. With the new century the debate about priority setting seemed to have come to an end, but in 2006 the Technology Council and the Danish Regions resumed the discussion. In 2009 the Medical Association called for a broad debate in order to achieve equity among all patients. The long lasting Danish debate on priority setting has entailed only very little practical consequences on health care. The main problems seem to have been the missing effort to bundle the various local initiatives on a national level and the lack of powerful players to put results of the discussion into practice. Nevertheless, today the attitude towards priority setting is predominantly positive and even politicians talk freely about it. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cueto, Heidi T; Riis, Anders H; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wise, Lauren A; Rothman, Kenneth J; Mikkelsen, Ellen M
Purpose Compliance with the Danish preconceptional folic acid (FA) recommendation – a daily supplement of 400 μg – is reported to be poor. Uncertainty remains, however, about the prevalence of compliers and health-related predictors of compliance in the preconceptional period. Methods We used self-reported baseline data from 5383 women, aged 18–40 years, enrolled in an Internet-based prospective cohort study of Danish pregnancy planners during 2007–2011. We estimated the prevalence proportions of FA or multivitamin (MV) use in relation to selected sociodemographic, lifestyle, reproductive, and medical characteristics. Multivariate binomial regression was used to obtain prevalence proportion differences with 95% confidence intervals for each level of study predictors, adjusted for all other predictors. Results Overall, 7.7% of women used FA supplements, 20.4% used MV supplements, 34.0% used both, 1.5% used other single vitamins or minerals, and 36.4% did not use any dietary supplements. The prevalence of FA or MV supplement use was higher among older women, women with higher education and income, and women with healthy lifestyle factors such as being a nonsmoker, nondrinker, physically active, maintaining a normal body mass index and having regular pap smears. Greater intercourse frequency and a history of spontaneous abortion were also positively associated with FA or MV supplement use. We found no clear association between use of FA or MV supplements and a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, or chlamydia. Conclusion A large proportion of pregnancy planners do not use FA or MV supplements. Pregnancy planners with generally risky lifestyle behaviors are less likely to comply with the FA recommendation. PMID:23071405
Hajdú, Sara Fredslund; Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Wessel, Irene
The objectives were to translate and culturally adapt the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) into Danish and subsequently test the reliability of the Danish version. The MDADI was translated into Danish and cross culturally adapted through cognitive interviews. The final version was test-retest evaluated in a group of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients who responded to the questionnaire twice with a mean of eight days apart. Interclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha, floor and ceiling effects, standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were investigated. Fourteen patients were interviewed on the comprehensibility of the Danish MDADI, and all found the questionnaire meaningful, easy to understand, non-offensive and to include relevant aspects of dysphagia related to HNC. Sixty-four patients were included in the test-retest study. Especially, one item in the emotional scale (E7) appeared to be often misinterpreted, and ceiling effects were found in all four subdomains (global, emotional, functional and physical). The four subdomains and the composite score showed acceptable test-retest reliability and internal consistency in a Danish population of HNC patients. The Danish MDADI is reliable in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reproducibility and can be used in assessing the health-related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients with dysphagia.
Vind-Kezunovic, Dina; Torring, Pernille M
The rare hereditary disorder "dominant deafness and onychodystrophy (DDOD) syndrome" (OMIM 124480) has been described in a few case reports. No putative DDOD gene or locus has been mapped and the cause of the disorder remains unknown. We present here three male family members in three generations with sensori-neural deafness, onychodystrophy and brachydactyly inherited via autosomal dominant transmission. The family members presented with absent fingernails on the first and fifth digits. As to the feet, there were absent nails on second to fifth toes in two family members, whereas the third family member only had absent nails on the fifth toe. The proband had late dentition and his father a history of late dentition, but otherwise the teeth appeared normal. Comparative genomic hybridization array analysis (Agilent 400k oligoarray) of the proband did not detect any copy number variation. This Danish family fits within the spectrum of dominant deafness and onychodystrophy syndrome and further characterises this rare disorder.
Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete; Vedsted, Peter; Huibers, Linda
Objective General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. Design and setting A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry data. Main outcome measures Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number of prescriptions per 100 contacts. Results Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3.9%), adrenergic inhalants (3.0%) and antihistamines (2.3%). Conclusion About 25% of all OOH contacts involved one or more medication prescriptions. The highest prescription rate was found for clinic consultations, but more than half of all prescriptions were made by telephone. KEY POINTSAs the out-of-hours (OOH) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important.General practitioners (GPs) are
Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete; Vedsted, Peter; Huibers, Linda
General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry data. Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number of prescriptions per 100 contacts. Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3.9%), adrenergic inhalants (3.0%) and antihistamines (2.3%). About 25% of all OOH contacts involved one or more medication prescriptions. The highest prescription rate was found for clinic consultations, but more than half of all prescriptions were made by telephone. KEY POINTS As the out-of-hours (OOH) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important. General practitioners (GPs) are responsible for more than 80% of all drug prescriptions in Denmark. Of
Pertoldi, C; Kristensen, T N; Loeschcke, V; Berg, P; Praebel, A; Stronen, A V; Proschowsky, H F; Fredholm, M
This investigation presents results from a genetic characterization of 5 Danish dog breeds genotyped on the CanineHD BeadChip microarray with 170,000 SNP. The breeds investigated were 1) Danish Spitz (DS; n=8), 2) Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (DSF; n=18), 3) Broholmer (BR; n=22), 4) Old Danish Pointing Dog (ODP; n=24), and 5) Greenland Dog (GD; n=23). The aims of the investigation were to characterize the genetic profile of the abovementioned dog breeds by quantifying the genetic differentiation among them and the degree of genetic homogeneity within breeds. The genetic profile was determined by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and through a Bayesian clustering method. Both the PCA and the Bayesian clustering method revealed a clear genetic separation of the 5 breeds. The level of genetic variation within the breeds varied. The expected heterozygosity (HE) as well as the degree of polymorphism (P%) ranked the dog breeds in the order DS>DSF>BR>ODP>GD. Interestingly, the breed with a tenfold higher census population size compared to the other breeds, the Greenland Dog, had the lowest within-breed genetic variation, emphasizing that census size is a poor predictor of genetic variation. The observed differences in variation among and within dog breeds may be related to factors such as genetic drift, founder effects, genetic admixture, and population bottlenecks. We further examined whether the observed genetic patterns in the 5 dog breeds can be used to design breeding strategies for the preservation of the genetic pool of these dog breeds.
Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R
The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness.
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr
Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…
Gasse, Christiane; Petersen, Liselotte; Chollet, Julien; Saragoussi, Delphine
Depression is associated with work absenteeism, reduced productivity, and significant personal and societal economic burden. We describe patterns and determinants of sick leave among working Danish antidepressant users. Persons starting antidepressant treatment (January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2005) were identified from a representative 25% sample of the Danish population by linking Danish national registries. Inclusion criteria were age 18-64 years, being in the workforce the week prior to the first antidepressant prescription (index prescription, IP), and no antidepressant prescription in the year prior to the IP. Only sick leaves >2 weeks are centrally registered in Denmark and could be assessed. Cox regression analyses identified predictors of sick leave during the year following the IP, based on previous history of sick leave and clinical and socio-demographic baseline characteristics. In the cohort of 25,908 (59.7% women), sick leave prevalence increased from 37.5% (year prior to IP) to 45.3% (year after the IP); 30.7% were on sick leave for >8 weeks. Incidence peaked (35.5% of individuals) the week after the IP. Of persons with sick leave in the year before the IP, 62.7% were on sick leave the first week after the IP, vs 5.7% of those without previous sick leave. Predictors associated with increased risk of sick leave among those without previous sick leave were unemployment, female gender, age 25-54 years, couples with children, and vocational and higher intermediate education (including e.g. teachers and nurses). Reasons for sick leave, sick leaves of less than 14 days and the indications for antidepressant treatment were unknown. Sick leave was prevalent in persons starting new antidepressant use, often lasting >8 weeks. Previous sick leave was the strongest predictor of subsequent sick leave. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bonde, J P
A recent report indicates that welding work is associated with increased risk of reduced semen quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between welding exposure and male subfertility. A cross-sectional population of 673 metal workers and electricians employed at six major Danish work places in the same geographic area constituted the study population. Data on reproductive and occupational experience was obtained by means of a self-administered postal questionnaire. The response rate was 79 percent among welders and 83 percent among the other workers. A significantly increased rate of delayed conception in relation to welding work at the time of this event was observed when self-reported welding exposure among cases of delayed conception was compared to welding exposure both among age-matched referents and among referents with a child born without delay in conception. However, in the first approach the risk dropped to insignificant levels when adjustments were made for potential confounding factors. This preliminary study has methodological drawbacks, and the association between welding exposure and male fertility should be investigated further.
Tamayev, Robert; Matsuda, Shuji; Giliberto, Luca; Arancio, Ottavio; D'Adamio, Luciano
An autosomal dominant mutation in the BRI2/ITM2B gene causes familial Danish dementia (FDD). Analysis of FDD(KI) mice, a mouse model of FDD genetically congruous to the human disease since they carry one mutant and one wild-type Bri2/Itm2b allele, has shown that the Danish mutation causes loss of Bri2 protein, synaptic plasticity and memory impairments. BRI2 is a physiological interactor of Aβ-precursor protein (APP), a gene associated with Alzheimer disease, which inhibits processing of APP. Here, we show that APP/Bri2 complexes are reduced in synaptic membranes of FDD(KI) mice. Consequently, APP metabolites derived from processing of APP by β-, α- and γ-secretases are increased in Danish dementia mice. APP haplodeficiency prevents memory and synaptic dysfunctions, consistent with a role for APP metabolites in the pathogenesis of memory and synaptic deficits. This genetic suppression provides compelling evidence that APP and BRI2 functionally interact, and that the neurological effects of the Danish form of BRI2 only occur when sufficient levels of APP are supplied by two alleles. This evidence establishes a pathogenic sameness between familial Danish and Alzheimer's dementias.
Tamayev, Robert; Matsuda, Shuji; Giliberto, Luca; Arancio, Ottavio; D'Adamio, Luciano
An autosomal dominant mutation in the BRI2/ITM2B gene causes familial Danish dementia (FDD). Analysis of FDDKI mice, a mouse model of FDD genetically congruous to the human disease since they carry one mutant and one wild-type Bri2/Itm2b allele, has shown that the Danish mutation causes loss of Bri2 protein, synaptic plasticity and memory impairments. BRI2 is a physiological interactor of Aβ-precursor protein (APP), a gene associated with Alzheimer disease, which inhibits processing of APP. Here, we show that APP/Bri2 complexes are reduced in synaptic membranes of FDDKI mice. Consequently, APP metabolites derived from processing of APP by β-, α- and γ-secretases are increased in Danish dementia mice. APP haplodeficiency prevents memory and synaptic dysfunctions, consistent with a role for APP metabolites in the pathogenesis of memory and synaptic deficits. This genetic suppression provides compelling evidence that APP and BRI2 functionally interact, and that the neurological effects of the Danish form of BRI2 only occur when sufficient levels of APP are supplied by two alleles. This evidence establishes a pathogenic sameness between familial Danish and Alzheimer's dementias. PMID:21587206
Andersen, N S; Jensen, M K; de Nully Brown, P; Geisler, C H
This study presents the first large clinical analysis of 105 unselected mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients diagnosed from 1992 to 2000 in a well-defined Danish population. The annual incidences were 0.7/100000 for men and 0.2/100000 for women, with no significant change during the study period. Of 97 evaluable cases, 43% achieved a complete response (CR) after initial therapy. The median disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 15 and 30 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, splenomegaly (P=0.002), anaemia (P=0.0001) and age (P=0.002), but not the international prognostic index (IPI) and the Ann Arbor staging system, had an independent impact on survival. Moreover, in a sub-analysis of 45 younger MCL patients (<65 years), a trend towards an OS plateau of 58% was observed in cases without splenomegaly and anaemia (n=29). Thus, in contrast to previously suggested prognostic factors, these variables may prove useful for clinical decisions in a significant subset of MCL patients.
Munch-Andersen, T; Sorensen, K; Andersen, L B; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Aksglaede, L; Juul, A; Helge, J W
During recent decades, the prevalence of metabolic morbidity has increased rapidly in adult Greenlandic Inuit. To what extent this is also reflected in the juvenile Inuit population is unknown. The objective was, therefore, in the comparison with Danish children, to evaluate metabolic profiles in Greenlandic Inuit children from the capital in the southern and from the northern most villages 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children were examined with anthropometrics, pubertal staging, fasting blood samples, and a maximal aerobic test. Both Inuit children living in Nuuk and the northern villages had significantly higher glucose, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 levels, and diastolic blood pressure compared with Danish children after adjustment for differences in adiposity and aerobic fitness levels. The Inuit children living in Nuuk had significantly higher BMI, body fat %, HbA1 c, and significantly lower aerobic fitness and ApoA1 levels than northern living Inuit children. Greenlandic Inuit children had adverse metabolic health profile compared to the Danish children, the differences where more pronounced in Inuit children living in Nuuk. The tendencies toward higher prevalence of diabetes and metabolic morbidity in the adult Greenlandic Inuit population may also be present in the Inuit children population. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Kjaer, Trille; Albieri, Vanna; Jensen, Allan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne O
Couples with fertility problems may experience marital or sexual distress which could potentially result in dissolved relationships. We investigated the likelihood of ending a relationship among women who did not have a child after a fertility evaluation. Longitudinal cohort study. Danish women ever referred for primary or secondary fertility problems to a public Danish hospital or private fertility clinic between 1990 and 2006. A total of 47,515 women. The data were linked to Danish administrative population-based registries containing demographic and socioeconomic information. Discrete-time survival models were used with person-period data. Each woman was followed from the year of her initial fertility evaluation through to 2007. Effects of parity after a fertility evaluation on the likelihood of ending a marital or cohabitation relationship. After up to 12 years of follow up, nearly 27% of the women were no longer living with the person with whom they had lived at the time of the fertility evaluation. Women who did not have a child after the evaluation had significantly higher odds ratios for ending a relationship up to 12 years after the evaluation (with odds ratios up to 3.13, 95% CI 2.88-3.41) than women who had a child, regardless of their parity before the evaluation. Parity after a fertility evaluation may be an important component in the longitudinal relationships of couples with fertility problems. Studies with detailed information on marital quality and relational well-being of couples with fertility problems are needed. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Frederiksen, Nynne Johanne Sahl; Bakke, Sunniva Leonore; Dalum, Peter
Danish youth has for years had the highest alcohol consumption in Europe, however recent surveys show that consumption levels have diminished slightly and that the age of first intoxication has been raised. To explore young moderate drinkers' attitudes, values, and behaviour in relation to alcohol consumption. Data consists of 10 individual semi-structured interviews with 16-17-year-old moderate drinkers attending high school in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study shows that the respondents perceive drinking as a necessity for feeling included at parties, but also that they do not feel a need to drink large amounts of alcohol in order to feel this social inclusion. The study finds that respondents employ a number of different behavioural and cognitive strategies aimed at controlling their own and close friends' drinking behaviour, and that short-term negative social implications are of much greater concern than long-term health consequences. In addition, the study shows that parents have a limited direct influence in this group. The study identifies a group of young people who have clearly defined restrictions as to what they consider positive drinking behaviour. As parents and long-term health consequences only have an limited influence on the respondents' drinking behaviour, these elements should not have primary focus in future interventions. In stead, interventions should take into account the social dynamics involved in drinking and recognise that the social qualities surrounding alcohol weighs higher among this group of young people than the quantity of alcohol consumed.
Langberg, Kamma; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou
The Danish higher education system was until recent years characterized by local diversity. It comprised, in relation to the population size, a large number of rather small institutions and a large number of universities and other research institutions. Since 1990, the Danish higher education system has changed dramatically: The number of…
Thomsen, Marianne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Bach, Hanne; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie; Rastogi, Suresch; Fauser, Patrik; Krongaard, Teddy; Sorensen, Peter Borgen
The aim of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring (HBM) program. The EU and national science-policy interface, that is fundamental for a realization of the national and European environment and human health strategies, is discussed, including the need for a structured and integrated environmental and human health surveillance program at national level. In Denmark, the initiative to implement such activities has been taken. The proposed framework of the Danish monitoring program constitutes four scientific expert groups, i.e. i. Prioritization of the strategy for the monitoring program, ii. Collection of human samples, iii. Analysis and data management and iv. Dissemination of results produced within the program. This paper presents the overall framework for data requirements and information flow in the integrated environment and health surveillance program. The added value of an HBM program, and in this respect the objectives of national and European HBM programs supporting environmental health integrated policy-decisions and human health targeted policies, are discussed. In Denmark environmental monitoring has been prioritized by extensive surveillance systems of pollution in oceans, lakes and soil as well as ground and drinking water. Human biomonitoring has only taken place in research programs and few incidences of e.g. lead contamination. However an arctic program for HBM has been in force for decades and from the preparations of the EU-pilot project on HBM increasing political interest in a Danish program has developed. PMID:18541069
Davies, G N; Downer, M C; Holloway, P J
The Danish children's oral health care service has been so successful in achieving its objectives that it will need to change and adapt in order to survive. It is suggested that the service should gradually become community-based rather than child-based. This process can be commenced by introducing treatment for the elderly, the handicapped and the indigent, converting the school clinics to municipal oral health units. Although it is important that private practice is maintained, private dentists should be encouraged to work in the system part-time, leading teams of supporting auxiliary personnel trained within an integrated system. Eventually, the facilities could form the basis of primary health care centres. The lessons to be learnt from the Danish experience have a wider application to other countries. In developing countries it is obvious that they should first place limited dental resources into public health prevention and only invest in expensive treatment clinics as funds become more available. Manpower planning should ensure that personnel are not overtrained for the needs of the community. In developed countries, increasingly more resources will need to be channelled into adult dental care, and dental education must lead the profession into this new era. Difficult though these changes will be, the stable relationships that have developed between the various arms of the service under the guidance of the Danish Dental Association, will ensure that the profession will survive and flourish for the benefit of the Danish people.
Powell, Shelagh; Koch, Susanne V; Crowley, James J; Matthiesen, Manuel; Grice, Dorothy E; Thomsen, Per H; Parner, E
Objectives Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). Design Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. Method One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent psychiatrists assessed each journal to determine the presence/absence of OCD diagnostic criteria. The detailed assessments were reviewed by two senior child and adolescent psychiatrists to determine if diagnostic criteria were met. Primary outcome measurements Positive predictive value (PPV) was used as the primary outcome measurement. Results A total of 3462 children/adolescents received an OCD diagnosis as the main diagnosis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015. The average age at diagnosis was 13.21±2.89 years. The most frequent registered OCD subcode was the combined diagnosis DF42.2. Of the 100 cases we examined, 35 had at least one registered comorbidity. For OCD, the PPV was good (PPV 0.85). Excluding journals with insufficient information, the PPV was 0.96. For the subcode F42.2 the PPV was 0.77. The inter-rater reliability was 0.94. The presence of the CYBOCS in the journal significantly increased the PPV for the OCD diagnosis altogether and for the subcode DF42.2. Conclusion The validity and reliability of International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes for OCD in the DPCR is generally high. The subcodes for predominant obsessions/predominant compulsions are less certain and should be used with caution. The results apply for both children and adolescents and for both older and more recent cases. Altogether, the study suggests that there is a high validity of
Niclasen, Janni; Keilow, Maria; Obel, Carsten
Well-being is considered a prerequisite for learning. The Danish Ministry of Education initiated the development of a new 40-item student well-being questionnaire in 2014 to monitor well-being among all Danish public school students on a yearly basis. The aim of this study was to investigate the basic psychometric properties of this questionnaire. We used the data from the 2015 Danish student well-being survey for 268,357 students in grades 4-9 (about 85% of the study population). Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analyses and Cronbach's α reliability measures were used in the analyses. The factor analyses did not unambiguously support one particular factor structure. However, based on the basic descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, the semantics of the individual items and Cronbach's α, we propose a four-factor structure including 27 of the 40 items originally proposed. The four scales measure school connectedness, learning self-efficacy, learning environment and classroom management. Two bullying items and two psychosomatic items should be considered separately, leaving 31 items in the questionnaire. The proposed four-factor structure addresses central aspects of well-being, which, if used constructively, may support public schools' work to increase levels of student well-being.
Gustavsen, S; Søndergaard, H B; Oturai, D B; Laursen, B; Laursen, J H; Magyari, M; Ullum, H; Larsen, M H; Sellebjerg, F; Oturai, A B
Epidemiological studies suggest an important role for environmental factors in developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore several studies have indicated that the effect of environmental factors may be especially pronounced in adolescents. Recently only one study investigated and found that shift work at young age is associated with an increased risk of developing MS. In this study we focused on the effect of shift work in the vulnerable period between 15-19 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between shift work at young age and the risk of developing MS. We performed a large case-control study including 1723 patients diagnosed with MS and 4067 controls. MS patients were recruited from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Biobank and controls from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Information on working patterns and lifestyle factors was obtained using a comprehensive lifestyle-environmental factor questionnaire with participants enrolled between 2009 and 2014. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between shift work at age 15-19 years and the subsequent risk of MS and were controlled for effects due to established MS risk factors. We found a statistically significant association when total numbers of night shifts were compared with non-shift workers. For every additional 100 night shifts the odds ratio (OR) for MS was 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.34, p=0.001). Increasing intensity of shift work also increased MS risk. For every additional night per month the OR was 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.06, p=0.002). Duration of shift work in years was not associated with risk of MS. This study supports a statistically significant association between shift work at age 15-19 years and MS risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg
The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. The DAD was founded in 2004 as a part of Danish Clinical Registries (Regionernes Kliniske Kvalitetsudviklings Program [RKKP]). Patients undergoing general anesthesia, regional anesthesia with or without combined general anesthesia as well as patients under sedation are registered. Data are retrieved from public and private anesthesia clinics, single-centers as well as multihospital corporations across Denmark. In 2014 a total of 278,679 unique entries representing a national coverage of ~70% were recorded, data completeness is steadily increasing. Records are aggregated for determining 13 defined quality indicators and eleven defined complications all covering the anesthetic process from the preoperative assessment through anesthesia and surgery until the end of the postoperative recovery period. Registered variables include patients' individual social security number (assigned to all Danes) and both direct patient-related lifestyle factors enabling a quantification of patients' comorbidity as well as variables that are strictly related to the type, duration, and safety of the anesthesia. Data and specific data combinations can be extracted within each department in order to monitor patient treatment. In addition, an annual DAD report is a benchmark for departments nationwide. The DAD is covering the anesthetic process for the majority of patients undergoing anesthesia in Denmark. Data in the DAD are increasingly used for both quality and research projects.
This article investigates the strengths and weaknesses of the Danish Bereavement response plans. These are used by teachers to support grieving students and have been implemented in 96% of all Danish schools. The study is based on an Internet survey conducted with 967 teachers. Issues investigated are: "generalisation of grief",…
Bache, Iben; Nielsen, Nete M; Rostgaard, Klaus; Tommerup, Niels; Frisch, Morten
Constitutional structural chromosomal rearrangements (CSCRs) have facilitated the identification of genes associated with early-onset monogenic disorders and, more recently, genes associated with common and late-onset disorders. In an attempt to find genetic clues to their etiologies, we studied the risk of autoimmune diseases in a Danish cohort of CSCR carriers. We followed up 4,866 CSCR carriers over 71,230 person-years (1980 through 2004) for autoimmune diseases recorded in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) served as measures of the relative risk. To identify possible candidate loci for autoimmune diseases, the reported chromosomal breakpoints and deletions in CSCR carriers who developed autoimmune diseases were compared with previously suggested loci for these diseases. The overall risk of any autoimmune disease among CSCR carriers was inconspicuous (SIR 1.2 [95% CI 0.95-1.5]; n = 74 cases observed versus 61.3 expected), but carriers of rearrangements involving chromosomes 2, 19, and 21 were at significantly increased risk. For the specific autoimmune diseases studied, cohort members were at significantly increased risk of Dupuytren's contracture, pernicious anemia, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Sixteen carriers who developed an autoimmune disease had a chromosomal breakpoint or deletion coinciding with a previously suggested locus, including deletions 18p11, 18q22, and 22q11 associated with JRA. CSCR carriers do not have a generalized predisposition to autoimmune diseases. However, we confirmed a number of reported susceptibility loci for JRA, and we suggest new susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5 and 11 for Dupuytren's contracture, and 19p13 as a possible shared susceptibility locus for a range of autoimmune diseases.
Laursen, Lise H; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf C
The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering/capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures.
This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.
Paul, Suman; Agger, Jens F; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Markussen, Bo
Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii have been found in the Danish dairy cattle population with high levels of herd and within herd seroprevalences. However, the prevalence of antibodies to C. burnetii in Danish beef cattle remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence and (2) identify risk factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity in Danish beef and dairy cattle based on sampling at slaughter. Eight hundred blood samples from slaughtered cattle were collected from six Danish slaughter houses from August to October 2012 following a random sampling procedure. Blood samples were tested by a commercially available C. burnetii antibody ELISA kit. A sample was defined positive if the sample-to-positive ratio was greater than or equal to 40. Animal and herd information were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. Apparent (AP) and true prevalences (TPs) specific for breed, breed groups, gender and herd type; and breed-specific true prevalences with a random effect of breed was estimated in a Bayesian framework. A Bayesian logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of C. burnetii seropositivity. Test sensitivity and specificity estimates from a previous study involving Danish dairy cattle were used to generate prior information. The prevalence was significantly higher in dairy breeds (AP=9.11%; TP=9.45%) than in beef breeds (AP=4.32%; TP=3.54%), in females (AP=9.10%; TP=9.40%) than in males (AP=3.62%; TP=2.61%) and in dairy herds (AP=15.10%; TP=16.67%) compared to beef herds (AP=4.54%; TP=3.66%). The Bayesian logistic regression model identified breed group along with age, and number of movements as contributors for C. burnetii seropositivity. The risk of seropositivity increased with age and increasing number of movements between herds. Results indicate that seroprevalence of C. burnetii is lower in cattle sent for slaughter than in Danish dairy cows in production units. A greater proportion of this prevalence
Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50-65 years. Cohort-based cross-sectional study. Danish general practice. Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (50-65 years). The sum of cohort members' face-to-face consultations with general practitioner (GP) at the cohort baseline year (1993-1997). We obtained data on GP visits from the Danish National Health Service Register at the cohort baseline (1993-1997), when information on lifestyle (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, physical activity), medical conditions (somatic and mental), employment, education, gravidity, and hormone therapy (HT) use was collected by questionnaire. Women had on average 4.1 and men 2.8 consultations per year. In a crude model, women had 47% higher rate of GP visits than men (incidence rate ratio: 1.47; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.45-1.50), which remained unchanged after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demographic and medical factors, but attenuated to 18% (1.18; 1.13-1.24) after adjustment for female factors (gravidity and post-menopausal HT. In a fully adjusted model, subjects with hypertension (1.63; 1.59-1.67), mental illness (1.63; 1.61-1.66), diabetes (1.56; 1.47-1.65), angina pectoris (1.28; 1.21-1.34), and unemployed persons (1.19; 1.18-1.21) had highest rates of GP visits. Gravidity and HT use explain a large proportion, but not all of the gender difference in GP utilization. Medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment are the main determinants of GP utilization in men and women, while lifestyle has minor effect. Key points Female gender remained a dominant determinant of GP utilization, after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demography, medical and gender specific factors, with females consulting their GP 18% more often than males. Female reproductive factors (use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and gravidity) explained a large proportion of
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kragh Andersen, Per; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Hawton, Keith
Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions. The rate of attempted suicide in full siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide before age 60 years was higher than in full siblings of adoptees who had not attempted suicide (incidence rate ratios (IRR)=3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.94-12.7). After adjustment for history of psychiatric admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6). Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation. Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Petersen, Sesilje B.; Rasmussen, Morten A.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Strøm, Marin
Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year) (n = 53,922). In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23) of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06). The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research. PMID:25849947
Arnett, Jeffrey; Balle-Jensen, Lene
Risk behavior was investigated among 1,053 Danish adolescents aged 12-20. Behaviors included those related to driving, sex, and marijuana and other drug use. Found driving a car while intoxicated was rare even among oldest adolescents, though the majority reported riding a bicycle while intoxicated. Participation in risk behavior was analyzed in…
Sørensen, Nina N; Løje, Hanne; Tetens, Inge; Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Lassen, Anne D
In 2011, the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries launched the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 intending to double the organic agricultural area in Denmark. This study aims to measure experienced physical and psychological wellbeing at work along with beliefs and attitudes among kitchen workers before and after participating in educational training programmes in organic food conversion. This longitudinal study applied an online self-administered questionnaire among kitchen workers before and after the implementation of an organic food conversion programme with 1-year follow-up. The study targeted all staff members in the participating public kitchens taking part in the organic food conversion process funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Of the 448 eligible kitchen workers, 235 completed the questionnaire at baseline (52%) and 149 at follow-up (63% of those surveyed at baseline). No substantive differences between baseline and follow-up measurements of organic food conversion were detected on physical or psychological wellbeing at work. Kitchen workers reported a significant improvement in the perceived food quality, motivation to work and application of nutritional guidelines. Reported organic food percentages for the kitchens also increased significantly (P< 0.001) and a shift from using ready-made food products to producing more food from base was indicated. Within 1 year, a significant increase in motivation to work among kitchen staff was observed with no substantive changes in physical or psychological wellbeing at work identified. The results support the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 and initiatives of similar kind. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Kotzé, S R; Pedersen, O B; Petersen, M S; Sørensen, E; Thørner, L W; Sørensen, C J; Rigas, A S; Hjalgrim, H; Rostgaard, K; Ullum, H; Erikstrup, C
Chronic inflammation can lead to anaemia of chronic disease due to the sequestration of iron caused by inflammatory cytokines and the protein hepcidin. However, the effect of low-grade inflammation (LGI) on haemoglobin among healthy individuals is not known. This study examines the effect of LGI on haemoglobin among Danish blood donors. We performed multivariable linear regression to assess the effect of LGI (i.e. high-sensitivity C-reactive protein above 3 mg/l but below 10 mg/l) on haemoglobin in 17 322 Danish blood donors. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effect of LGI on the risk of having low haemoglobin (below the 10th percentile among men and women, respectively). We adjusted for donation activity, age, sex, low ferritin, oral contraceptives and menopause. All analyses were stratified by current smoking status. LGI was associated with lower haemoglobin (0·08 mm lower [0·12 g/dl], 95% confidence interval (CI): -0·11-0·05) and increased risk of low haemoglobin (OR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·05-1·43) in non-smokers. Conversely, LGI was associated with higher haemoglobin in smokers (0·12 mm [0·19 g/dl], 95% CI: 0·06-0·18). In this first study of LGI and haemoglobin in healthy individuals, there was a negative association between LGI and haemoglobin in non-smokers. The association was positive in smokers, probably because smoking leads to both increased inflammation and increased haemoglobin through CO exposure. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Karlsen, Sashia; Stayner, Leslie; Andersen, Johnni; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
Objectives Evidence of an effect of shift work on all-cause and cause-specific mortality is inconsistent. This study aims to examine whether shift work is associated with increased all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods We linked 28 731 female nurses (age ≥44 years), recruited in 1993 or 1999 from the Danish nurse cohort where they reported information on shift work (night, evening, rotating, or day), to the Danish Register of Causes of Death to identify deaths up to 2013. We used Cox regression models with age as the underlying scale to examine the associations between night, evening, and rotating shift work (compared to day shift work) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in models adjusted for potentially confounding variables. Results Of 18 015 nurses included in this study, 1616 died during the study time period from the following causes: cardiovascular disease (N=217), cancer (N= 945), diabetes (N=20), Alzheimer's disease or dementia (N=33), and psychiatric diseases (N=67). We found that working night [hazard ratio (HR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval 95% CI) 1.05-1.51] or evening (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49) shifts was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality when compared to working day shift. We found a significant association of night shift work with cardiovascular disease (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.09-2.69) and diabetes (HR 12.0, 95% CI 3.17-45.2, based on 8 cases) and none with overall cancer mortality (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.81-1.35) or mortality from psychiatric diseases (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.47-2.92). Finally, we found strong association between evening (HR 4.28, 95% CI 1.62-11.3) and rotating (HR 5.39, 95% CI 2.35-12.3) shift work and mortality from Alzheimer's disease and dementia (based on 8 and 14 deaths among evening and rotating shift workers, respectively). Conclusions Women working night and evening shifts have increased all-cause, cardiovascular, diabetes, and Alzheimer's and dementia mortality.
Erlendsson, Andrés M; Egekvist, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik F; Philipsen, Peter A; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Stender, Ida M; Haedersdal, Merete
The incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing, and several treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and treatment patterns in patients with AK treated by Danish dermatologists. A multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study was conducted. Three dermatology hospital departments and seven private dermatology clinics enrolled eligible AK patients consecutively during one week. A total of 312 patients were included. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was previously reported in 51.0% of patients and currently suspected in 9.4% of AK-affected anatomical regions. Lesions of AK were located primarily on the face (38.6%), scalp (12.8%), and hands (11.2%). Actinic keratosis commonly presented with multiple AK lesions (38.6%) and field cancerization (38.5%). The treatments used most frequently were cryotherapy (57.7%) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (17.1%) and imiquimod (11.2%). The likelihood of receiving cryotherapy was higher for men (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.47) and increased with age (2.2% per year, 0.4-4.0%). PDT represented the most frequently applied treatment for severe actinic damage and was more likely to be prescribed to women (OR 4.08, 95% CI 2.22-7.47) and young patients (OR 0.97 per year, 95% CI 0.95-0.99). The prevalence of severe actinic damage (17.3% versus 9.6%) and intake of immunosuppressive medication (29.0 versus 2.0) were higher among hospital patients compared with those treated in private practices (P < 0.0001). The majority of AK patients in Danish dermatology clinics have a history of skin cancer, and NMSC is suspected in almost 10% of AK-affected regions. Cryotherapy is the most frequently used treatment overall, except in instances of severe actinic damage, in which PDT is the first-choice treatment. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.
Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Grøn, Randi; Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Lynge, Elsebeth
No scientific consensus has been reached on whether active tobacco smoking causes breast cancer. We examine the association between active smoking and breast cancer risk in Denmark, which has some of the highest smoking and breast cancer rates in women worldwide. We used the data from a nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort on 21,867 female nurses (age > 44 years) who at recruitment in 1993 or 1999 reported information on smoking status, onset, duration, and intensity, as well as breast cancer risk factors. We obtained data on incidence of breast cancer from Danish Cancer Registry until 2013, and used Cox regression models to analyze the association between smoking and breast cancer. Of 21,831 women (mean age 53.2 years) 1162 developed breast cancer during 15.7 years of follow-up. 33.7% of nurses were current and 30.0% former smokers at cohort baseline. Compared to never smokers, we found increased risk of breast cancer of 18% in ever (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.18; 1.04-1.34) and 27% in current (1.27; 1.11-1.46) smokers. We detected a dose-response relationship with smoking intensity with the highest breast cancer risk in women smoking >15 g/day (1.31; 1.11-1.56) or >20 pack-years (1.32; 1.12-1.55). Parous women who smoked heavily (>10 pack-years) before first childbirth had the highest risk of breast cancer (1.58; 1.20-2.10). Association between smoking and breast cancer was not modified by menopausal status, obesity, alcohol or hormone therapy use, and seemed to be limited to the estrogen receptor positive breast cancer subtype. Active smoking increases risk of breast cancer, with smoking before first birth being the most relevant exposure window.
Shamali, Mahdi; Konradsen, Hanne; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Østergaard, Birte
Family functioning plays a pivotal role in the adaptation to illness of both individuals and families, especially among elderly patients. The Brief Family Assessment Measure Third Edition (Brief FAM-III) is among the most frequently used self-report instruments that measures family functioning. However, no Danish translation or measure of its psychometric properties in a Danish population is available. The purpose of this study was to translate the Brief FAM-III into Danish and then evaluate its psychometric properties in elderly patients. The Brief FAM-III was translated into Danish using the forward-backward translation procedure and examined its psychometric properties in 60 elderly patients (aged over 65) consecutively admitted to an acute medical ward. Internal consistency reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the Brief FAM-III. Evaluation of the Danish version of the Brief FAM-III confirmed the three-factor structure (General Scale, Self-Rating Scale and Dyadic Relationships Scale) identified in the original instrument. However, goodness-of-fit indicators showed a relatively poor model fit. Cronbach's alpha for the total scales of Brief FAM-III was 0.94 suggesting good internal consistency. The Danish version of the Brief FAM-III demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability to assess family functioning among acutely admitted elderly Danish patients. We suggest that it may also be useful for monitoring family functioning over time or determining the effects of therapeutic interventions in elderly medical patients; however, further testing is recommended. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Pultz, Kirsten; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda A
To explore experiences with engaging community pharmacists in educational programmes on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities for the disabled. A secondary analysis of data from two Danish intervention studies where community pharmacists were engaged in educational programmes. Data included 10 semi-structured interviews with staff, five semi-structured interviews and three open-ended questionnaires with residential facility managers, and five open-ended questionnaires to community pharmacists. Data were thematically coded to identify key points pertaining to the themes 'pharmacists as educators' and 'perceived effects of engaging pharmacists in competence development'. As educators, pharmacists were successful as medicines experts. Some pharmacists experienced pedagogical challenges. Previous teaching experience and obtained knowledge of the local residential facility before teaching often provided sufficient pedagogical skills and tailored teaching to local needs. Effects of engaging community pharmacists included in most instances improved cooperation between residential facilities and community pharmacies through a trustful relationship and improved dialogue about the residents' medication. Other effects included a perception of improved patient safety, teaching skills and branding of the pharmacy. Community pharmacists provide a resource to engage in educational programmes on medication handling in residential facilities, which may facilitate improved cooperation between community pharmacies and residential facilities. However, development of pedagogical competences and understandings of local settings are prerequisites for facilities and pharmacists to experience the programmes as successful. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Perkins, F M; Werner, M U; Persson, F; Holte, K; Jensen, T S; Kehlet, H
A new pain questionnaire should be simple, be documented to have discriminative function, and be related to previously used questionnaires. Word meaning was validated by using bilingual Danish medical students and asking them to translate words taken from the Danish version of the McGill pain questionnaire into English. Evaluative word value was estimated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Discriminative function was assessed by having patients with one of six painful conditions (postherpetic neuralgia, phantom limb pain, rheumatoid arthritis, ankle fracture, appendicitis, or labor pain) complete the questionnaire. We were not able to find Danish words that were reliably back-translated to the English words 'splitting' or 'gnawing'. A simple three-word set of evaluative terms had good separation when rated on a VAS scale ('let' 17.5+/-6.5 mm; 'moderat' 42.7+/-8.6 mm; and 'staerk' 74.9+/-9.7 mm). The questionnaire was able to discriminate among the six painful conditions with 77% accuracy by just using the descriptive words. The accuracy of the questionnaire increased to 96% with the addition of evaluative terms (for pain at rest and with activity), chronicity (acute vs. chronic), and location of the pain. A Danish pain questionnaire that subjects and patients can self-administer has been developed and validated relative to the words used in the English McGill Pain questionnaire. The discriminative ability of the questionnaire among some common painful conditions has been tested and documented. The questionnaire may be of use in patient care and research.
policy. This socialist wing mirrors a general reluctance in the population against engaging in a centralized federal European union. This reluctance...minister Andrei Kozyrev in 1993 that an effective presence in Kaliningrad is essential, and he characterized the area as the cornerstone of Russian...government and was able to heavily influence Denmark’s NATO policy. The socialist wing mirrors a general reluctance of the Danish populace to
The present paper aims at giving a short overview of the organization and financing of the Danish health care system as of 1997-1998 when the SWOT panel evaluated the system. The overview follows the triangular model of a health care system. The Danish system is characterized by being decentralized and single-funded. The hospital sector is public, and hospitals are financed and run by the counties (with only a very small private hospital sector alongside). General practitioners are private entrepreneurs but work under contract for the counties. Hospitals are financed by global budgets, while general practitioners are paid by a mixed remuneration system of capitation fees and fee-for-service. During the past 20 years, the government has repeatedly imposed budget ceilings on the counties which has limited growth in the health care sector.
Kronvang, Brian; Jeppesen, Erik; Conley, Daniel J.; Søndergaard, Martin; Larsen, Søren E.; Ovesen, Niels B.; Carstensen, Jacob
The Danish National Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (NOVA) was launched in 1988 following the adoption of the first Danish Action Plan on the Aquatic Environment in 1987 with the aim to reduce by 50% the nitrogen (N) loading and by 80% the phosphorus (P) loading to the aquatic environment. The 14 years of experience gathered from NOVA have shown that discharges of total N (TN) and P (TP) from point sources to the Danish Aquatic Environment have been reduced by 69% (N) and 82% (P) during the period 1989 2002. Consequently, the P concentration has decreased markedly in most Danish lakes and estuaries. Considerable changes in agricultural practice have resulted in a reduction of the net N-surplus from 136 to 88 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (41%) and the net P-surplus from 19 to 11 kg P ha-1 yr-1 (42%) during the period 1985 2002. Despite these efforts Danish agriculture is today the major source of both N (>80%) and P (>50%) in Danish streams, lakes and coastal waters. A non-parametric statistical trend analysis of TN concentrations in streams draining dominantly agricultural catchments has shown a significant (p<0.05) downward trend in 48 streams with the downward trend being stronger in loamy compared to sandy catchments, and more pronounced with increasing dominance of agricultural exploitation in the catchments. In contrast, a statistical trend analysis of TP concentrations in streams draining agricultural catchments did not reveal any significant trends. The large reduction in nutrient loading from point and non-point sources has in general improved the ecological conditions of Danish lakes in the form of increased summer Secchi depth, decreased chlorophyll a and reduced phytoplankton biomass. Major changes have also occurred in the fish communities in lakes, with positive cascading effects on water quality. In Danish estuaries and coastal waters only a few significant improvements in the ecological quality have been observed, although it is expected that the
Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo
An interrelationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, due to a shared autoimmune background or based on deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork in the eye, has been suggested but is at present unsubstantiated. Therefore, our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide and population-based level, whether there is such an association. Observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. 121,799 individuals diagnosed with a first episode of hypothyroidism were identified and were matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls according to age and sex. Prevalence of glaucoma was recorded and cases and controls were followed over a mean of 7.1 years (range 0-17). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of glaucoma before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Overall, we found a higher prevalence of glaucoma in subjects with hypothyroidism as compared to controls (4.6% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001). Prior to the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the odds ratio (OR) was significantly increased for glaucoma [1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.13]. Based on the Cox regression model, there was no increased risk of glaucoma after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism [hazard ratio (HR) 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06], and the HR decreased further after adjusting for pre-existing co-morbidity (0.88; 95% CI: 0.84-0.93). There was an increased risk of glaucoma before but not after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, suggesting that screening for glaucoma in hypothyroid individuals is unwarranted.
Jacobsen, R; Møldrup, C; Christrup, L; Sjøgren, P; Hansen, O B
The modified version of the patients' Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (M-PICS) is a tool designed to assess cancer patients' perceptions of patient-health care provider pain communication process. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the shortened Danish version of the M-PICS (SDM-PICS). The validated English version of the M-PICS was translated into Danish following the repeated back-translation procedure. Cancer patients were recruited for the study from specialized pain management facilities. Thirty-three patients responded to the SDM-PICS, Danish Barriers Questionnaire II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Pain Inventory Pain Severity Scale. A factor analysis of the SDM-PICS resulted in two factors: Factor one, patient information, consisted of four items assessing the extent to which the patient shared information with his/her health care provider, and Factor two, health care provider information, consisted of four items measuring the degree to which a health care provider was perceived as the one who shares information. Two separate items addressed the perceived level of information exchange between the patient and the health care provider. The SDM-PICS total had an internal consistency of 0.88. The SDM-PICS scores were positively related to pain relief and inversely related to the measures of cognitive pain management barriers, anxiety, and reported pain levels. The SDM-PICS seems to be a reliable and valid measure of perceived patient-health care provider communication in the context of cancer pain.
Gustavsson, F; Buitenhuis, A J; Johansson, M; Bertelsen, H P; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Stålhammar, H; Larsen, L B; Bendixen, C; Paulsson, M; Andrén, A
In selecting cows for higher milk yields and milk quality, it is important to understand how these traits are affected by the bovine genome. The major milk proteins exhibit genetic polymorphism and these genetic variants can serve as markers for milk composition, milk production traits, and technological properties of milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between casein (CN) genetic variants and detailed protein composition in Swedish and Danish dairy milk. Milk and DNA samples were collected from approximately 400 individual cows each of 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds: Swedish Red (SR), Danish Holstein (DH), and Danish Jersey (DJ). The protein profile with relative concentrations of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and α(S1)-, α(S2)-, κ-, and β-CN was determined for each milk sample using capillary zone electrophoresis. The genetic variants of the α(S1)- (CSN1S1), β- (CSN2), and κ-CN (CSN3) genes for each cow were determined using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Univariate statistical models were used to evaluate the effects of composite genetic variants, α(S1)-β-κ-CN, on the protein profile. The 3 studied Scandinavian breeds differed from each other regarding CN genotypes, with DH and SR having similar genotype frequencies, whereas the genotype frequencies in DJ differed from the other 2 breeds. The similarities in genotype frequencies of SR and DH and differences compared with DJ were also seen in milk production traits, gross milk composition, and protein profile. Frequencies of the most common composite α(S1)-β-κ-CN genotype BB/A(2)A(2)/AA were 30% in DH and 15% in SR, and cows that had this genotype gave milk with lower relative concentrations of κ- and β-CN and higher relative concentrations of αS-CN, than the majority of the other composite genotypes in SR and DH. The effect of composite genotypes on relative concentrations of the milk proteins was not as pronounced in DJ. The
... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims in cases of double taxation. 521.117...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.117 Claims in cases of double taxation. Under Article XX...
... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Claims in cases of double taxation. 521.117...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who Are Residents of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.117 Claims in cases of double taxation. Under Article XX...
Moeller, Stine Bjerrum; Novaco, Raymond W; Heinola-Nielsen, Vivian; Hougaard, Helle
Anger has high prevalence in clinical and forensic settings, and it is associated with aggressive behavior and ward atmosphere on psychiatric units. Dysregulated anger is a clinical problem in Danish mental health care systems, but no anger assessment instruments have been validated in Danish. Because the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI) has been extensively validated with different clinical populations and lends itself to clinical case formulation, it was selected for translation and evaluation in the present multistudy project. Psychometric properties of the NAS-PI were investigated with samples of 477 nonclinical, 250 clinical, 167 male prisoner, and 64 male forensic participants. Anger prevalence and its relationship with other anger measures, anxiety/depression, and aggression were examined. NAS-PI was found to have high reliability, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity, and its scores discriminated the samples. High scores in the offender group demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining self-report assessments of anger with this population. Retrospective and prospective validity of the NAS were tested with the forensic patient sample regarding physically aggressive behavior in hospital. Regression analyses showed that higher scores on NAS increase the risk of having acted aggressively in the past and of acting aggressively in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Otete, Harmony; Deleuran, Thomas; Fleming, Kate M; Card, Tim; Aithal, Guru P; Jepsen, Peter; West, Joe
Cirrhosis, the prevalence of which is increasing, is a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. However, little is known of the actual risk of hip fractures in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Using linked primary and secondary care data from the English and Danish nationwide registries, we quantified the hip fracture risk in two national cohorts of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. We followed 3,706 English and 17,779 Danish patients with a diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis, and we identified matched controls from the general populations. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of hip fracture for patients vs. controls, adjusted for age, sex and comorbidity. The five-year hip fracture risk was raised both in England (2.9% vs. 0.8% for controls) and Denmark (4.6% vs. 0.9% for controls). With confounder adjustment, patients with cirrhosis had fivefold (adjusted HR 5.5; 95% CI 4.3-6.9), and 8.5-fold (adjusted HR 8.5; 95% CI 7.8-9.3) increased rates of hip fracture, in England and Denmark, respectively. This association between alcoholic cirrhosis and risk of hip fracture showed significant interaction with age (p <0.001), being stronger in younger age groups (under 45 years, HR 17.9 and 16.6 for English and Danish patients, respectively) than in patients over 75 years (HR 2.1 and 2.9, respectively). In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, 30-day mortality following a hip fracture was 11.1% in England and 10.0% in Denmark, giving age-adjusted post-fracture mortality rate ratios of 2.8(95% CI 1.9-3.9) and 2.0(95% CI 1.5-2.7), respectively. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have a markedly increased risk of hip fracture and post-hip fracture mortality compared with the general population. These findings support the need for more effort towards fracture prevention in this population, to benefit individuals and reduce the societal burden. Alcoholic cirrhosis creates a large public health burden and is a risk factor for bone fractures. Based on data from England and
Danish Society of Insurance Medicine was formed in 1902 as an association between the Danish Society of Accident Insurance and the Danish Society of Life Insurance Medicine, both founded a year before. The purpose of the society is to apply and to further the scientific basis of insurance medicine. The meetings also play a role as a forum for discussions. The members of the society are all working part-time in an insurance company in Denmark (in contrast to many other countries where it is a full-time job). The members are mainly specialists in medicine and surgery. During the first half life of the society nearly all members were high-qualified doctors, i.e. professors and consultants at a university hospital in Copenhagen usually with a doctoral degree. These prominent doctors had a significant influence on insurance medicine in Denmark. The managing directors of the Insurance Companies were invited to the meetings. Many scientific works and textbooks were written on the subject. The society arranges two meetings yearly - one concerning with life insurance and one with accident-insurance medicine. Previously, the question put to the medical adviser was always "Which impairments can still be insured?", but today the question is the opposite "Which impairments are not insurable?" The members have increased to currently 112, still only men, but today the members are younger, comprise fewer professors and fewer with a doctoral degree. During the last 6 years, all interested members in the insurance companies have been invited to the meetings, providing a broader input for the discussions. The topic of the meeting is of current interest: new laws or a new treatment of a disease (medication, surgery) which has been introduced. One to three speakers open the meeting, followed by a discussion. The meetings are always concluded with a light meal and a glass of wine, in earlier days also with cigars and Danish schnaps. 190 meetings have been held during the last 100 years
Rasmussen, Thomas Bøjer; Ulrichsen, Sinna Pilgaard; Nørgaard, Mette
Monitoring hospital outcomes and clinical processes as a measure of clinical performance is an integral part of modern health care. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart is a frequently used sequential analysis technique that can be implemented to monitor a wide range of different types of outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe how risk-adjusted CUSUM charts based on population-based nationwide medical registers were used to monitor 30-day mortality in Danish hospitals and to give an example on how alarms of increased hospital mortality from the charts can guide further in-depth analyses. We used routinely collected administrative data from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Civil Registration System to create risk-adjusted CUSUM charts. We monitored 30-day mortality after hospital admission with one of 77 selected diagnoses in 24 hospital units in Denmark in 2015. The charts were set to detect a 50% increase in 30-day mortality, and control limits were determined by simulations. Among 1,085,576 hospital admissions, 441,352 admissions had one of the 77 selected diagnoses as their primary diagnosis and were included in the risk-adjusted CUSUM charts. The charts yielded a total of eight alarms of increased mortality. The median of the hospitals' estimated average time to detect a 50% increase in 30-day mortality was 50 days (interquartile interval, 43;54). In the selected example of an alarm, descriptive analyses indicated performance problems with 30-day mortality following hip fracture surgery and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The presented implementation of risk-adjusted CUSUM charts can detect significant increases in 30-day mortality within 2 months, on average, in most Danish hospitals. Together with descriptive analyses, it was possible to use an alarm from a risk-adjusted CUSUM chart to identify potential performance problems.
Tolstrup, Lærke K; Pappot, Helle; Zangger, Graziella; Bastholt, Lars; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Dieperink, Karin B
No suitable Danish questionnaire exists to evaluate patient satisfaction with various patient reported outcome measures. Thus, the aim of this research project was to conduct a study on the translation and cultural adaption of an American patient reported experience measures questionnaire, "Patient Feedback Form", among Danish patients, and to examine selected psychometric properties within reliability. In the first phase of the study, the Patient Feedback Form was forward and backward translated following the methodology of existing guidelines. Subsequently, cognitive interviewing was performed with seven cancer patients and seven healthy persons (19-86 years old/6 men and 8 women) to ensure that questions were easy to understand and made sense to Danish interviewees. In the second phase, phone interviews were carried out with 95 prostate cancer patients after they had responded to the same Patient Feedback Form. Missing data was imputed using the Expectation-Maximization technique. To examine the structure of the questionnaire, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to investigate internal consistency. There were only minor disagreements in the translation process, and the reconciliation went smoothly (phase 1). With regard to one item, however, it was difficult to reach a consensus. Through the qualitative validation process, the right solution was found. The results from the psychometric testing (phase 2) showed that four factors had an Eigen value > 1, but only one factor was extracted as the Scree plot had a clear "elbow", showing a one factor structure that explained 46.1% of the variance. The internal consistency was high as Cronbach's alpha was 0.89. The translated, culturally adapted, and validated version of the Patient Feedback Form seems to be suitable for measuring satisfaction with patient reported outcome measures in a Danish setting. While the results should be treated with caution due to the small sample
Buitenhuis, Bart; Poulsen, Nina A; Larsen, Lotte B; Sehested, Jakob
Bovine milk provides important minerals, essential for human nutrition and dairy product quality. For changing the mineral composition of the milk to improve dietary needs in human nutrition and technological properties of milk, a thorough understanding of the genetics underlying milk mineral contents is important. Therefore the aim of this study was to 1) estimate the genetic parameters for individual minerals in Danish Holstein (DH) (n=371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n=321) milk, and 2) detect genomic regions associated with mineral content in the milk using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. For DH, high heritabilities were found for Ca (0.72), Zn (0.49), and P (0.46), while for DJ, high heritabilities were found for Ca (0.63), Zn (0.57), and Mg (0.57). Furthermore, intermediate heritabilities were found for Cu in DH, and for K, Na, P and Se in the DJ. The GWAS revealed a total of 649 significant SNP markers detected for Ca (24), Cu (90), Fe (111), Mn (3), Na (1), P (4), Se (12) and Zn (404) in DH, while for DJ, a total of 787 significant SNP markers were detected for Ca (44), Fe (43), K (498), Na (4), Mg (1), P (94) and Zn (3). Comparing the list of significant markers between DH and DJ revealed that the SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-4939 was common in both breeds for Zn. This SNP marker is closely linked to the DGAT1 gene. Even though we found significant SNP markers on BTA14 in both DH and DJ for Ca, and Fe these significant SNPs did not overlap. The results show that Ca, Zn, P and Mg show high heritabilities. In combination with the GWAS results this opens up possibilities to select for specific minerals in bovine milk.
Haka, Miia; Borch, Daniel F; Jensen, Chris; Leppin, Anja
Other studies have shed light on specific types of seafarers' job stressors and job satisfaction. However, so far there have not been any systematic attempts to capture the motivational profile of seafarers when it comes to both work demands and work resources. The purpose of this study is to explore the motivational profiles of seafarers in the Danish merchant fleet by identifying factors which motivate or demotivate seafarers to stay in their specific profession. Furthermore, we examine if there is a difference in work motivators and demotivators between Danish seafaring officers and non-officers. Material and methods. A questionnaire was sent out to 560 Danish-speaking seafarers with a Danish postal address; 346 seafarers returned the questionnaire, equalling a 61% response rate. The work motivators which were identified were: duration of home leave, level of responsibility, and level of challenge. The main demotivating factors that were identified were: being away from home, shipping company´s HRM, and regulatory requirements. The results contribute to a deeper understanding of how seafarers perceive their occupation, and help to identify areas and aspects which might need change if employers want to retain their workforce in the long run. Overall, the results show that most of the job demands and job resources that seafarers perceive are psychosocial. When it comes to the best aspects of seafaring, over 70% of the answers were related to psychosocial factors rather than organizational or structural factors. In relation to the perceived worst aspects in seafaring, about 85% of the responses fell into psychosocial categories. The differences in the motivational profiles of officers and non-officers showed the importance of not only looking at the seafaring profession as a whole but also considering the different characteristics of various jobs onboard.
Søndergaard, Susanne F; Lorentzen, Vibeke; Sørensen, Erik E; Frederiksen, Kirsten
Researchers have described the documentation practices of perioperative nurses as flawed and characterized by subjectivity and poor quality, which is often related to both the documentation tool and the nurses' level of commitment. Studies suggest that documentation of nursing care in the OR places special demands on electronic health records (EHRs). The purpose of this study was to explore how the use of an EHR tailored to perioperative practice affects Danish perioperative nurses' documentation practices. This study was a follow-up to a baseline study from 2014. For three months in the winter of 2015 to 2016, six participants tested an EHR containing a Danish edition of a selected section of the Perioperative Nursing Data Set. This study relied on realistic evaluation and participant observations to generate data. We found that nursing leadership was essential for improving perioperative nurses' documentation practices and that a tailored EHR may improve documentation practices. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mikkelsen, Be; Bruselius-Jensen, M; Andersen, Js; Lassen, A
The present study aimed to investigate whether organic conversion in catering has positive effects on the nutritional quality of menus offered. The methodology was based on a self-administered questionnaire. The self-declared priority given to the use of organic foods was measured as the basis for assigning catering managers to one of two groups: 'green' or 'non-green' caterers. These groups were then compared with regard to the relative nutritional quality of the menu options offered to customers. The study was carried out among randomly selected Danish worksite catering outlets. The subjects participating in the study comprised 526 Danish worksite catering managers. The results showed a strong correlation between caterers' 'green-ness' and the nutritional quality of the menu options offered. Green caters had more healthy options in their menus than non-green caters, which is likely to result in improved nutritional quality of the diets of end consumers. The reason for this may partly be the increased service training efforts that green caterers practise in order to be able to implement organic foods successfully. It may also be associated with the fact that the price premiums and availability of the organic products forces caterers to serve menus with higher amounts of root and non-green leafy vegetables, pulses and seasonal vegetables. The present findings suggest that organic conversion of public canteens may be a good opportunity to promote healthier eating in public catering.
Katić, Ivan; Kristiansen, Johannes
owners of the telephone in a town or village, which can still be seen in their valid phone numbers (ending with 01, 02, etc.). Some veterinarians travelled also by train, during the war in particular. When there was much snow, some used skis. Some Danish veterinarians had to accompany exotic animals on their journey from Africa or Thailand, where planes were the main means of transport. In the 19th and 20th century, veterinarians used to accompany animals during their transport at sea, for example from South America to Danish colonies in West India (Tranquebar). After World War II, several veterinarians accompanied animals transported by ships to some of the Baltic harbours in the former USSR. In Denmark, there are many islands with numerous farms, therefore, if required, veterinarians from the continent have to be ready to go to the islands any time, day or night. In such cases boats are the primary means of transport, but planes and helicopters are also used in modern times. In Greenland, veterinary services are provided by veterinarians travelling by ships or boats, helicopters, and sometimes even dog-sledges.
Background A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks. Methods This was a register-based follow-up study of all 1-1-2 calls in a 6-month period that were triaged according to the Danish Index – the new criteria-based dispatch protocol. Danish Index data were linked with hospital and vital status data from national registries. Confidence intervals (95%) for proportions with binomial data were computed using exact methods. To test for trend the Wald test was used. Results Information on level of emergency according to the Danish Index rating was available for 67,135 patients who received ambulance service. Emergency level A (urgent cases) accounted for 51.4% (n = 34,489) of patients, emergency level B for 46.3% (n = 31,116), emergency level C for 2.1% (n = 1,391) and emergency level D for 0.2% (n = 139). For emergency level A, the median time from call receipt to ambulance dispatch was 2 min 1 s, and the median time to arrival was 6 min 11 s. Data concerning admission and case fatality was available for 55,270 patients. The hospital admission risk for emergency level A patients was 64.4% (95% CI = 63.8-64.9). There was a significant trend (p < 0.001) towards lower admission risks for patients with lower levels of emergency. The case fatality risk for emergency level A patients on the same day as the 1-1-2 call was 4.4% (95% CI = 4.1-4.6). The relative case-fatality risk among emergency level A patients compared to emergency level B–D patients was 14.3 (95% CI: 11.5-18.0). Conclusion The majority of patients were assessed as Danish Index emergency level A or B. Case fatality and hospital admission risks were substantially higher for emergency level A patients than for emergency level B–D patients. Thus
Nielsen, Klaus; Dalgaard, Susanne; Madsen, Sarah
In recent years, therapeutic techniques have played an increasingly significant role in Danish educational thinking. One way in which this therapeutic thinking discloses itself is in the ever-growing use of educational-therapeutic games as part of the educational practice. Inspired by Foucault, we argue that educational-therapeutic games can be…
Händel, Mina Nicole; Frederiksen, Peder; Cohen, Arieh; Cooper, Cyrus; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Abrahamsen, Bo
Background: Whether antenatal and neonatal vitamin D status have clinical relevance in fracture prevention has not been examined extensively, although observational studies indicate that fetal life may be a sensitive period in relation to bone growth and mineralization during childhood. Objective: We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 [25(OH)D 3 ] concentrations in stored neonatal dried blood spot (DBS) samples are associated with pediatric fracture risk. We hypothesized that in particular, low neonatal vitamin D status may be a risk factor for fracture incidence among children. Design: In a register-based case-cohort study design, the case group was composed of 1039 individuals who were randomly selected from a total of 82,154 individuals who were born during 1989-1999 and admitted to a Danish hospital with a fracture of the forearm, wrist, scaphoid bone, clavicle, or ankle at age 6-13 y. The subcohort was composed of 1600 individuals randomly selected from all Danish children born during 1989-1999. The neonatal 25(OH)D 3 concentrations in DBS samples were assessed by using highly sensitive chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The mean ± SD 25(OH)D 3 concentration for all subjects was 27.7 ± 18.9 nmol/L [median (IQR): 23.5 nmol/L (13.3, 37.3 nmol/L)] and showed significant monthly variation ( P < 0.0001) with the highest values in July and August. Individuals in the middle quintile of neonatal 25(OH)D 3 had lower odds of sustaining a fracture than did those in the lowest quintile (adjusted OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.96), but a global test did not show any significant overall association (adjusted P = 0.13). Conclusions: This study suggested that neonatal vitamin D status does not influence subsequent fracture risk in childhood. This is in accordance with studies that report no association between antenatal maternal vitamin D status and childhood fractures. Further studies are needed to examine fracture risk in relation to prenatal vitamin D
Juul, Maja Bech; Jensen, Pernille Hammershoej; Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Dessau-Arp, Andriette; Haziri, Donika; Kristensen, Helene Bjoerg; Baech, Joachim; Schurmann, Lene; Clausen, Michael Roost; Valentin, Rebecca; Knudsen, Lene Meldgaard; Munksgaard, Lars; El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Frederiksen, Henrik; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer
Optimal treatment strategy for the oldest patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains controversial, as this group often is precluded from clinical trials, and population-based studies are limited. All Danish DLBCL-patients ≥75 years diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 were identified, using the Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO). Information regarding baseline characteristics, treatment, comorbidities and outcomes was retrieved from LYFO, the Danish National health registries and medical records. Patients were stratified by age (75-79; 80-84 and 85 + years), comorbidity score and treatment modality (standard treatment [R-CHOP/CHOP-like], less intensive regimens or palliative treatment). A total of 1011 patients were included. Standard treatment was initiated in 64%, ranging from 83% among patients aged 75-79 years to 32% among patient aged 85 + years. With standard treatment, median overall survival (OS) estimates were 4·6, 2·6, and 1·9 years for the age groups 75-79, 80-84 and 85+ years. Among patient aged 75-79 and 80-84 years, OS was superior with standard treatment, although high comorbidity scores attenuated this association. Among patients aged 85+ years, survival was not influenced by treatment intensity. Patients ≥80 years had similar OS regardless of intended (R-)CHOP dosing, whereas patients of 75-79 years scheduled for full dose had higher OS. Standard treatment was not associated with increased hospitalisation. Standard treatment is feasible with good outcomes in a large proportion of elderly DLBCL-patients. Planned dose reduction in patients aged ≥80 years had no negative impact on OS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kvorning, Thue; Hansen, Mikkel R B; Jensen, Kurt
Kvorning, T, Hansen, MRB, and Jensen, K. Strength and conditioning training by the Danish national handball team before an Olympic tournament. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1759-1765, 2017-The physical demands imposed on national team handball teams during the Olympics imply significant physical preparation to improve performance and reduce incidence of injuries. The purpose of this case report was to describe and analyze the strength and conditioning (S&C) training performed by the Danish national handball team before the Beijing Olympic Games. Eight weeks of S&C was divided into 5 weeks emphasizing muscle hypertrophy and long-interval running followed by 3 weeks emphasizing strength, power, and short-interval running. Body mass increased by 1.6% (p < 0.05), whereas body fat decreased by 1.0% (p < 0.05). No differences were seen in countermovement jump or jump-and-reach height (p > 0.05). Agility performance was evaluated by a T-test and improved by 2.5% (p < 0.05). Changes by 6% and 22% were seen in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM back squat, respectively. However, only the 1RM bench press increased significantly (p < 0.05). Running performance was tested by the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, level 2, and improved by 25% (p < 0.05). In conclusion, during 8 weeks of S&C training before the Beijing Olympics, body composition changed toward more muscle mass, better upper-body strength, better interval running, and agility performance, whereas no changes were seen in jumping or lower-body muscle strength. This case report may be used as a handy script for handball teams preparing for competition. Detailed and periodized S&C training programs for 8 weeks are provided and can be used by teams ranging from moderately to highly trained.
Johansen, Thomas; Lund, Thomas; Jensen, Chris; Momsen, Anne-Mette Hedeager; Eftedal, Monica; Øyeflaten, Irene; Braathen, Tore N; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Amick, Ben; Labriola, Merete
A healthy and productive working life has attracted attention owing to future employment and demographic challenges. The aim was to translate and adapt the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire (WRFQ) 2.0 to Norwegian and Danish. The WRFQ is a self-administered tool developed to identify health-related work limitations. Standardised cross-cultural adaptation procedures were followed in both countries' translation processes. Direct translation, synthesis, back translation and consolidation were carried out successfully. A pre-test among 78 employees who had returned to work after sickness absence found idiomatic issues requiring reformulation in the instructions, four items in the Norwegian version, and three items in the Danish version, respectively. In the final versions, seven items were adjusted in each country. Psychometric properties were analysed for the Norwegian sample (n = 40) and preliminary Cronbach's alpha coefficients were satisfactory. A final consensus process was performed to achieve similar titles and introductions. The WRFQ 2.0 cross-cultural adaptation to Norwegian and Danish was performed and consensus was obtained. Future validation studies will examine validity, reliability, responsiveness and differential item response. The WRFQ can be used to elucidate both individual and work environmental factors leading to a more holistic approach in work rehabilitation.
Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted; Andresen, Lars; Chrièl, Mariann; Hagberg, Emma; Jensen, Mette Kragh; Hansen, Mette Sif; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Struve, Tina
During 8 months from July 2012 to February 2013, a major outbreak of canine distemper involving 64 mink farms occurred on the Danish peninsula of Jutland. The canine distemper outbreak was associated with exposure of farmed mink to infected wild carnivores and could represent a deficit in biosecurity on the mink farms. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. The study was carried out in an epidemiological case-control design. The case group consisted of the 61 farms, which had a confirmed outbreak of canine distemper from July 2012 to February 2013. The control group included 54 farms without an outbreak of canine distemper in 2012 or 2013, selected as the closest geographical neighbour to a case farm. The results showed that significantly more control than case farms had vaccinated their mink against canine distemper virus. Mortality was only assessed on the case farms, and there was a non-significantly lower mortality on vaccinated farms than on the non-vaccinated farms. Furthermore, the proportion of farms with observations of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inside the farm enclosures were larger for case farms, indicating that the control farms had a better biosecurity or were not equally exposed to canine distemper virus. Generally, all farms had very few specific precautions at the gate entrance in respect to human visitors as well as animals. The use of biosecurity measures was very variable in both case and control farms. Not using plastic boot covers, presence of dogs and cats, presence of demarcated area for changing clothes when entering and leaving the farm area and presence of hand washing facilities significantly lowered the odds of the farm having a canine distemper virus outbreak. The results of the study indicate that consistent use of correct vaccination strategies, implementation of biosecurity measures and limiting human and animal access to the mink farm can be
Kristensen, Lene J.; Birkebaek, Niels H.; Mose, Anne H.; Hohwü, Lena; Thastum, Mikael
Objective To assess the prevalence of psychological difficulties in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes using both child/adolescent and caregiver reports, and to investigate associations between these symptoms and metabolic control, adherence, and quality of life. Research Design and Method: A total of 786 children and adolescents (8–17 years) recruited through the Danish Registry of Childhood Diabetes completed subscales of the Beck's Youth Inventories (BYI-Y), while 910 caregivers completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The participants also completed questionnaires assessing adherence and quality of life. BYI-Y and SDQ responses were compared with results from normative samples. Results Children with diabetes generally reported a lower level of symptoms of depression and anxiety, while older adolescents in most cases were comparable to the normative samples. However, the numbers of patients with elevated scores were similar to normative groups, especially regarding the proportion of participants with ‘Extremely elevated’ scores. Caregivers of children and adolescents with diabetes generally reported the prevalence of elevated scores on the SDQ to exceed the prevalence observed in the norm sample – particularly with regard to older boys. Both BYI-Y and SDQ responses were significantly correlated with HbA1c, adherence, and quality of life. Conclusions This study finds Danish children and adolescents with diabetes to report lower or comparable levels of emotional difficulties compared to norms, while caregiver reports are less positive. The results therefore support the value of a multi-informant approach to the assessment of symptoms of psychological difficulty in girls and boys with diabetes. PMID:24842772
Background Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. Methods We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8 years of age. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien validated group intelligence test (Danish Børge Prien Prøve, BPP). We adjusted for potential confounders with and without stratification by hearing impairment. Furthermore, we examined the association between hospitalisation with OM and the prevalence of having achieved a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), stratified by quartiles of BPP scores. Results Of the 18 412 eligible conscripts aged 18–25 years, 1000 (5.5%) had been hospitalised with OM before age 8. Compared with conscripts without such a record, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for a BPP score in the bottom quartile was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–1.33). There was no major difference in the proportion of men with a GCSE and those without among those hospitalised with OM in early childhood. For men in the bottom and upper quartiles of BPP scores, the PRs for early childhood hospitalisation with OM were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59–1.33) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88–1.05), respectively. Among men with severe hearing impairment, the proportion with a BPP score in the bottom quartile did not differ between those with and without an OM hospitalisation [PR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.78–1.34)]. Conclusions Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early
Tyskland--et grat land med et grimt sprog. Oder: die Haltung Danischer gymnasiasten zu Deutsch, Deutschland, und den Deutschen (Germany--a Grey Country with an Ugly Language. Or: The Attitudes of Danish Students to German, Germany, and the Germans). ROLIG Working Paper 43.
Two studies are reported that investigated the views of Danish secondary school students studying German. The first, an observational study, revealed that the vast majority of questions Danish students posed during German lessons concerned grammar and vocabulary. The second study was a questionnaire that revealed that the Danish students were…
Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
Low fat dairy products are part of dietary guidelines to prevent stroke. However, epidemiological evidence is inconclusive with regard to the association between dairy products and stroke. We therefore investigated associations for substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes. We included 55,211 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years without previous stroke. Baseline diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Cases were identified through a national register and subsequently verified. The associations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, we identified 2272 strokes, of which 1870 were ischemic (318 large artery atherosclerotic, 839 lacunar, 102 cardioembolic, 98 other determined types, 513 of unknown type), 389 were hemorrhages (273 intracerebral, 116 subarachnoid) and 13 of unknown etiology. Substitution of semi-skimmed fermented milk or cheese for whole-fat fermented milk was associated with a higher rate of ischemic stroke [semi-skimmed fermented milk: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.45), cheese: HR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.98-1.31) per serving/day substituted] and substitutions of whole-fat fermented milk for low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate [low-fat milk: HR = 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), whole-fat milk: HR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98) and buttermilk: HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.99)]. We observed no associations for substitutions between dairy products and hemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that intake of whole-fat fermented milk as a substitution for semi-skimmed fermented milk, cheese, buttermilk or milk, regardless of fat content, is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.
Viby-Mogensen, J; Hanel, H K
During the last 4 years, 225 patients have been referred to the Danish Cholinesterase Research Unit following an episode of prolonged apnoea after suxamethonium. Fourteen patients (6.2%) were found to have a low serum cholinesterase activity due to an acquired deficiency (for instance, liver disease, chronic debilitating disease or carcinoma). One hundred and forty-eight patients (65.8%) had an inherited abnormal serum cholinesterase, and 105 of these patients (46.7%) were homozygous for the atypical enzyme (E1 Ea1). The mean period of apnoea in this latter group was 92 min (range: 25--240). Seventeen patients (7.6%) were heterozygous for the normal and the atypical enzyme (Eu1 Ea1), with a mean apnoea period of 25 min (range: 7--60 min). Twelve patients were found to be heterozygous for the atypical and the silent gene (E(a)1 E(s)1). The mean period of apnoea was 126 min (range: 45--210 min). Fourteen patients had other rare genotypes. The longest mean period of apnoea (170 min, range: 70--330) was found in patients homozygous for the silent gene (Es1 Es1). The silent gene and the fluoride-resistant gene were found in 8.9% and 2.7% of the patients, respectively. In 63 patients (28.1%) both the type and quantity of serum cholinesterase were normal. In 34 of these patients (15.2%), the prolonged apnoea was due to other causes; for example, suxamethonium overdose, hyperventilation and central as well as peripheral respiratory depression. However, in the other 29 patients (12.9%), the reason for the prolonged apnoea could not be established. The possibility therefore exists that these cases represent unknown genotypes.
Adsersen, Mathilde; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Sjøgren, Per; Groenvold, Mogens
Specialised palliative care (SPC) takes place in specialised services for patients with complex symptoms and problems. Little is known about what determines the admission of patients to SPC and whether there are differences in relation to institution type. The aims of the study were to investigate whether cancer patients' admittance to SPC in Denmark varied in relation to sex, age and diagnosis, and whether the patterns differed by type of institution (hospital-based palliative care team/unit, hospice, or both). This was a register-based study of adult patients living in Denmark who died from cancer in 2010-2012. Data sources were the Danish Palliative Care Database, Danish Register of Causes of Death and Danish Cancer Registry. The associations between the explanatory variables (sex, age, diagnosis) and admittance to SPC were investigated using logistic regression. In the study population (N = 44,548) the overall admittance proportion to SPC was 37%. Higher odds of overall admittance to SPC were found for women (OR = 1.23; 1.17-1.28), younger patients (<40 compared with 80+ years old) (OR = 6.44; 5.19-7.99) and patients with sarcoma, pancreatic and stomach cancers, whereas the lowest were for patients with haematological malignancies. The higher admission found for women was most pronounced for hospices compared to hospital-based palliative care teams/units, whereas higher admission of younger patients was more pronounced for hospital-based palliative care teams/units. Patients with brain cancer were more often admitted to hospices, whereas patients with prostate cancer were more often admitted to hospital-based palliative care teams/units. It is unlikely that the variations in relation to sex, age and cancer diagnoses can be fully explained by differences in need. Future research should investigate whether the groups having the lowest admittance to SPC receive sufficient palliative care elsewhere.
Dalgaard, T; Olesen, J E; Petersen, S O; Petersen, B M; Jørgensen, U; Kristensen, T; Hutchings, N J; Gyldenkærne, S; Hermansen, J E
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brandt, Frans; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Brix, Thomas Heiberg
Context: Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased mortality and, if so, whether the association is influenced by comorbidity and/or genetic confounding. Methods: This was an observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. We identified 4850 singletons and 926 twins from same-sex pairs diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Each case was matched with four controls for age and gender. The Charlson score was calculated from discharge diagnoses on an individual level to measure comorbidity. Cases and controls were followed up for a mean of 10 yr (range 0–31 yr), and the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Results: In singletons there was a significantly higher mortality in individuals diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than in controls [HR 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–1.46]. This persisted after adjustment for preexisting comorbidity (HR 1,28; 95% CI 1.21–1.36). In twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism (625 pairs), the twin with hyperthyroidism had an increased mortality compared with the corresponding cotwin (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.09–1.88). However, this was found only in dizygotic pairs (HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.27–2.55) but not in monozygotic pairs (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.60–1.50). Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased mortality independent of preexisting comorbidity. The study of twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism suggests that genetic confounding influences the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality. PMID:22930783
Background An interrelationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, due to a shared autoimmune background or based on deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork in the eye, has been suggested but is at present unsubstantiated. Therefore, our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide and population-based level, whether there is such an association. Subjects and methods Observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. 121,799 individuals diagnosed with a first episode of hypothyroidism were identified and were matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls according to age and sex. Prevalence of glaucoma was recorded and cases and controls were followed over a mean of 7.1 years (range 0–17). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of glaucoma before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Results Overall, we found a higher prevalence of glaucoma in subjects with hypothyroidism as compared to controls (4.6% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001). Prior to the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the odds ratio (OR) was significantly increased for glaucoma [1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.13]. Based on the Cox regression model, there was no increased risk of glaucoma after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism [hazard ratio (HR) 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96–1.06], and the HR decreased further after adjusting for pre-existing co-morbidity (0.88; 95% CI: 0.84–0.93). Conclusions There was an increased risk of glaucoma before but not after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, suggesting that screening for glaucoma in hypothyroid individuals is unwarranted. PMID:29444121
Andrés-Jensen, Liv; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Thorup, Jorgen; Flachs, Julie; Madsen, Jan Lysgaard; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Nørgaard, Pernille; Vinicoff, Pablo Gustavo; Olsen, Beth Härstedt; Cortes, Dina
Antenatal ultrasound diagnosed anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (AUDAKUT) are reported in 0.3%-5% on prenatal ultrasound (US) and 0.3%-4.5% on postnatal US. The anterior-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis (APD) is an essential measurement. Series with low threshold values of APD prenatally and postnatally will include healthy infants. It is important to avoid follow-up of such infants. In 2006, new Danish guidelines for AUDAKUT were introduced. Investigations of incidences and type of AUDAKUT based on Danish guidelines, including long-term follow-up. Cohort study. Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre and Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Consecutive cases with AUDAKUT in the second and third trimesters, which were either terminated before 22 completed weeks of gestation or born in the 8-year period January 2006-December 2013. Patients were followed until June 2014. 50 193 live born children and 24 terminated fetuses (0.05%) were included. The prevalence of AUDAKUT was only 0.39% prenatally, 0.29% at first postnatal US and 0.22% at the end of follow-up, including terminated cases. The greater the prenatal and postnatal APD, the higher risk of febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) and surgical intervention, and lower probability of resolution. 25% of the identified patients had fUTI and/or surgery. We recommend threshold values of APD at least 10 mm in the third trimester and in general at least 12 mm at first postnatal US for intensive follow-up. In this largest to date unselected birth cohort of AUDAKUT, the incidences of clinically significant AUDAKUT were in the lowest range of those previously published. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...
Varma, Anshu; Marott, Jacob Louis; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev Gabriel; Wieclaw, Joanna; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde
The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship. A nationwide prospective cohort study of 2790 Danish senior medical consultants was conducted (61.7% response rate). With the consent of Danish Data Protection Agency, data from a questionnaire survey was linked with data from a Medical Products Agency Register. Long work hours were defined based on a self-reported average of weekly work hours >40, while redemption of anti-depressive (AD) drug prescriptions defined depression. Proportional hazards Cox regression analyses were conducted adjusting for gender, age, marital status, medical specialty, decision authority at work, work social support, quantitative work demands, and AD drugs prescribed before baseline. Long weekly work hours did not increase the risk of redeeming AD drug prescriptions at all times during follow-up compared to the reference of 37-40 work hours [41-44 hours: hazard ratio (HR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.5-1.8; 45-49 hours: HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.4-1.8; 50-54 hours: HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.3-2.1; 55-59 hours: HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.2-2.9; ≥ 60 hours: HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.1-3.7]. The same result emerged when work hours was applied in a continuous form (from 25-36 hours to 37-40 hours to 41-44 hours and so on) (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.76-1.13) and when robust analyses were conducted (data not shown). This study does not support the anticipation that long work hours increase the risk of depression. If anything, long work hours vaguely appear to decrease the risk of redeeming AD drug prescriptions.
Jespersen, Christina G; Nørgaard, Mette; Friis, Søren; Skriver, Charlotte; Borre, Michael
Conflicting evidence has suggested that statins possess chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, we examined the association between statin use and risk of PCa in a Denmark-based case-control study. We identified 42,480 patients diagnosed with incident PCa during 1997-2010 from a national cancer registry. Five age-matched population controls (n=212,400) were selected for each case using risk-set sampling. Statin use from 1996 to the index date was obtained from the National Prescription Registry. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, comorbidity, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and educational level for PCa associated with statin use, were computed using conditional logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by duration of statin use (0-1, 2-4, 5-9, or ≥10 years), stage of PCa (localized or advanced), and type of statin used (lipophilic or hydrophilic). In total, 7915 patients (19%) and 39,384 controls (19%) redeemed statin prescriptions prior to the index date. Overall, statin users had a 6% lower risk of PCa compared with non-users [adjusted OR (ORa), 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-0.97]. Risk estimates did not differ substantially by duration or type of statin used. Slightly larger statin use-associated risk reductions were observed for advanced PCa (ORa, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96) and with statin use ≥10 years (ORa, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.95). Statin use was associated with a risk reduction overall (6%) and, specifically with advanced PCa (10%). Differences in diagnostic measures and residual confounding by socioeconomic parameters may have influenced our results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry
The present study explored whether the phonological bias favoring consonants found in French-learning infants and children when learning new words (Havy & Nazzi, 2009; Nazzi, 2005) is language-general, as proposed by Nespor, Peña and Mehler (2003), or varies across languages, perhaps as a function of the phonological or lexical properties of the language in acquisition. To do so, we used the interactive word-learning task set up by Havy and Nazzi (2009), teaching Danish-learning 20-month-olds pairs of phonetically similar words that contrasted either on one of their consonants or one of their vowels, by either one or two phonological features. Danish was chosen because it has more vowels than consonants, and is characterized by extensive consonant lenition. Both phenomena could disfavor a consonant bias. Evidence of word-learning was found only for vocalic information, irrespective of whether one or two phonological features were changed. The implication of these findings is that the phonological biases found in early lexical processing are not language-general but develop during language acquisition, depending on the phonological or lexical properties of the native language. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The humanities, the natural and social sciences all represent advanced and systematic knowledge production-and they all receive public funding for doing so. However, although the field of public understanding of science has been well established for decades, similar research attention has not been directed at the humanities. The purpose of this study is to argue the case for further research of public understanding of the humanities and to take a first step in that direction by presenting a study of the framing of the humanities in Danish print news media. Different framings of the humanities are analyzed. Despite the differences in the issue-specific frames, the generic framing of the humanities shared by most articles is as follows: 75% explicitly frame the humanities as deficit, while the remaining 25% are more neutral. Consequently, if newspapers constitute the only source of information concerning the humanities, newsreaders may not be much wiser in understanding what the humanities might be-but they will know that whatever the humanities is, it is broken and useless.
Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte
This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stahlhut, Michelle; Gard, Gunvor; Aadahl, Mette; Christensen, Jette
The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) assesses functional status in children with disabilities aged 0.5-7.5 years. The purpose of this study was to examine if the Danish version of the PEDI was able to discriminate between nondisabled children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).…
Storebjerg, Tine M; Høyer, Søren; Kirkegaard, Pia; Bro, Flemming; Ørntoft, Torben F; Borre, Michael; Sørensen, Karina D
To determine the prevalence of the HOXB13 G84E mutation (rs138213197) in Danish men with or without prostate cancer (PCa) and to investigate possible correlations between HOXB13 mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics associated with tumour aggressiveness. We conducted a case-control study including 995 men with PCa (cases) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1997 and 2011 at the Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. As controls, we used 1622 healthy men with a normal prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. The HOXB13 G84E mutation was identified in 0.49% of controls and in 2.51% of PCa cases. The mutation was associated with a 5.12-fold increased relative risk (RR) of PCa (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.26-13.38; P = 13 × 10(-6) ). Furthermore, carriers of the risk allele were significantly more likely to have a higher PSA level at diagnosis (mean PSA 19.9 vs 13.6 ng/mL; P = 0.032), a pathological Gleason score ≥7 (83.3 vs 60.9%; P = 0.032), and positive surgical margins (56.0 vs 28.5%; P = 0.006) than non-carriers. Risk allele carriers were also more likely to have aggressive disease (54.2 vs 28.6%; P = 0.011), as defined by a preoperative PSA ≥20 ng/mL, pathological Gleason score ≥ (4+3) and/or presence of regional/distant disease. At a mean follow-up of 7 months, we found no significant association between HOXB13 mutation status and biochemical recurrence in this cohort of men who underwent RP. This is the first study to investigate the HOXB13 G84E mutation in Danish men. The mutation was detected in 0.49% of controls and in 2.51% of cases, and was associated with 5.12-fold increased RR of being diagnosed with PCa. In our RP cohort, HOXB13 mutation carriers were more likely to develop aggressive PCa. Further studies are needed to assess the potential of HOXB13 for future targeted screening approaches. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Matthiessen, Jeppe; Stockmarr, Anders; Fagt, Sisse; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja
Little is known about whether the socio-economic status of parents is linked to their children becoming overweight. This study examined the association between parents' educational level and overweight Danish children in a nationally representative sample. Body mass index was calculated for a random sample of 512 children aged from four to 14 from the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. Their parents provided weight and height data during an interview, together with details of their own educational level. Children were classified as overweight/obese in accordance with the International Obesity Task Force. Frequency estimates of prevalence and logistic regression models were used to correlate childhood overweight/obesity with the mothers' and fathers' educational levels as the main outcome measures. Danish mothers tended to be more highly educated than fathers and their educational level was inversely associated with their child being overweight, especially if it was a boy. However, the highest educational level of the parents was the only significant educational variable, suggesting that education was associated with overweight children irrespective of the gender of the parent. Public health initiatives should target parents with low educational levels to prevent, and reduce, social inequality in overweight children. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Poulsen, Lotte; Rose, Michael; Klassen, Anne; Roessler, Kirsten K; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are increasingly being included in research and clinical practice to assess the patient point of view. Bariatric and body contouring surgery has the potential to improve or restore a patient's body image and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). A new PRO instrument, called the BODY-Q, has recently been developed specifically for this patient group. The aim of the current study was to translate and perform a linguistic validation of the BODY-Q for use in Danish bariatric and body contouring patients. The translation was performed in accordance with the International Society For Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Main steps taken included forward and backward translations, an expert panel meeting, and cognitive patient interviews. All translators aimed to conduct a conceptual translation rather than a literal translation and used a simple and clear formulation to create a translation understandable for all patients. The linguistic translation process led to a conceptually equivalent Danish version of the BODY-Q. The comparison between the back translation of the first Danish version and the original English version of the BODY-Q identified 18 items or instructions requiring re-translation. The expert panel helped to identify and resolve inadequate expressions and concepts of the translation. The panel identified 31 items or instructions that needed to be changed, while the cognitive interviews led to seven major revisions. The impact of weight loss methods such as bariatric surgery and body contouring surgery on patients' HR-QOL would benefit from input from the patient perspective. A thorough translation and linguistic validation must be considered an essential step when implementing a PRO instrument to another language and/or culture. A combination of the ISPOR and WHO guidelines contributed to a straightforward and thorough translation methodology
Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben
We compared the prevalence and types of fractures in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time was 30.3 years (range 27.3-30.4…
Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B; Bertelsen, Mette; Madsen, Trine
In the years following military deployment, soldiers may experience problems integrating into the community. However, little is known about the nature and prevalence of these problems and if they relate to posttraumatic symptomatology. In a prospective, longitudinal study of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (N = 743), we assessed community reintegration difficulties 2.5 years after home coming (study sample: N = 454). Furthermore, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed before, during, and after deployment. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms from a previously published latent growth mixture modeling analysis were used to address whether community reintegration difficulties differ as a result of course and level of PTSD symptoms. Between 3.6 and 18.0% reported to have some, a lot, or extreme difficulties in reintegration domains such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties. Reintegration difficulties after deployment are present in less than 20% of Danish soldiers who return from Afghanistan. Difficulties are greater in individuals who follow symptomatic PTSD trajectories in the first years following deployment than in those who follow a low-stable trajectory with no or few symptoms.
Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug
Research suggests that addressing dying patients' existential concerns can improve their quality of life. We aimed to illuminate dying patients' existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semistructured interviews with 17 patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the imminent death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Some patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. They wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life. We argue that the patients' existential concerns could not be fully captured by Yalom's existential psychology or by Kübler-Ross's theory about death stages. Patients' complex concerns could be more fully explained taking an outset in Heidegger's phenomenological thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.
Burr, Hermann; Bjorner, Jakob B; Kristensen, Tage S; Tüchsen, Finn; Bach, Elsa
The aims of this study were (i) to describe the trends in the work environment in 1990-2000 among employees in Denmark and (ii) to establish whether these trends were attributable to labor-force changes. The split-panel design of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study includes interviews with three cross-sections of 6067, 5454, and 5404 employees aged 18-59 years, each representative of the total Danish labor force in 1990, 1995 and 2000. In the cross-sections, the participation rate decreased over the period (90% in 1990, 80% in 1995, 76% in 2000). The relative differences in participation due to gender, age, and region did not change noticeably. Jobs with decreasing prevalence were clerks, cleaners, textile workers, and military personnel. Jobs with increasing prevalence were academics, computer professionals, and managers. Intense computer use, long workhours, and noise exposure increased. Job insecurity, part-time work, kneeling work posture, low job control, and skin contact with cleaning agents decreased. Labor-force changes fully explained the decline in low job control and skin contact to cleaning agents and half of the increase in long workhours, but not the other work environment changes. The work environment of Danish employees improved from 1990 to 2000, except for increases in long workhours and noise exposure. From a specific work environment intervention point of view, the development has been less encouraging because declines in low job control, as well as skin contact to cleaning agents, were explained by labor-force changes.
Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nielsen, Marit N; Thotakura, Gangadaar; Lee, Chris W; Nykjær, Anders; Mors, Ole; Glerup, Simon
The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls. In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186). We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938). The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed. Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.
Does physical activity moderate the relationship between depression symptomatology and low back pain? Cohort and co-twin control analyses nested in the longitudinal study of aging Danish twins (LSADT).
Hübscher, Markus; Hartvigsen, Jan; Fernandez, Matthew; Christensen, Kaare; Ferreira, Paulo
To investigate whether depression symptomatology is associated with low back pain (LBP) in twins aged 70+ and whether this effect depends on a person's physical activity (PA) status. This prospective cohort and nested case-control study used a nationally representative sample of twins. Data on depression symptomatology (modified Cambridge Mental Disorders Examination) and self-reported PA were obtained from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins using twins without LBP at baseline. Associations between depression symptomatology (highest quartile) at baseline and LBP two years later were investigated using logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex. To examine the moderating effect of PA, we tested its interaction with depression. Associations were analysed using the complete sample of 2446 twins and a matched case-control analysis of 97 twin pairs discordant for LBP at follow-up. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Using the whole sample, high depression scores were associated with an increased probability of LBP (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22-1.99, P ≤ 0.01). There was no statistically significant interaction of light PA and depression symptomatology (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.46-1.35, P = 0.39) and strenuous PA and depression symptomatology (0.84, 95% CI 0.50-1.41, P = 0.51). The case-control analysis showed similar ORs, although statistically insignificant. High depression symptomatology predicted incident LBP. This effect is supposedly not attributable to genetic or shared environmental factors. Physical activity did not moderate the effect of depression symptomatology on LBP.
The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…
The Three Tales Chosen, the Establishment of the Texts and the Charting of Deviations, with a Collation of the "Original Tales," the Check Translations, and the Danish and Turkish Texts. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 11. Revised.
Dollerup, Cay; And Others
Part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, this paper provides information about the three fairy tales chosen for study: "The Snake, the Fox, and the Man,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip." Various sections of the paper contain descriptions of the following: (1) the selection procedures, (2)…
Wiberg, Karin R; Wiberg, Jesper M M
The aim of this study was to investigate if the outcome of excessively crying infants treated with chiropractic manipulation (1) was associated with age and/or (2), at least partially, can be explained by age according to the natural decline in crying. This was a retrospective evaluation of clinical records of 749 infants from a private Danish chiropractic practice. All of the infants were healthy, thriving infants born to term within the age of 0 to 3 months who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for excessively crying infants (infantile colic), whose parents sought chiropractic treatment. The infants were treated using chiropractic management as decided by the treating doctor of chiropractic, and changes in crying based upon the parents' report were noted as improved, uncertain, or nonrecovered. Age predictor groups were cross-tabulated against the outcome variables, and difference between classification groups was tested with χ(2) tables and confidence intervals. Slightly older age was found to be linked to excessively crying infants who experienced clinical improvement. However, no apparent link between the clinical effect of chiropractic treatment and a natural decline in crying was found for this group of infants. The findings of this study do not support the assumption that effect of chiropractic treatment of infantile colic is a reflection of the normal cessation of this disorder. Copyright © 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hammer, T; Lophaven, S N; Nielsen, K R; von Euler-Chelpin, M; Weihe, P; Munkholm, P; Burisch, J; Lynge, E
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is record high in the Faroe Islands, and many Faroese emigrate to Denmark, where the IBD incidence is considerably lower. To study the IBD incidence in first-, second- and third-generation immigrants from the Faroe Islands to Denmark to assess the extent to which the immigrants adopt the lower IBD incidence of their new home country. Data on Faroese-born Danish residents and their children were retrieved from the Danish Central Population Register for 1980-2014. Incident IBD cases were identified from the Danish National Patient Register. Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were used to compare the IBD risk in immigrants with that of Danes. 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the square-root transform. First-generation Faroese immigrants had a higher IBD incidence than Danes, SIR 1.25 (95% CI, 0.97-1.59) for men and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.05-1.53) for women. This excess risk derived from ulcerative colitis (UC), SIR 1.44 (95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for men and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.09-1.68) for women. No excess risk was found for Crohn's disease (CD). The UC risk was nearly doubled during the immigrants' first 10 years in Denmark; SIR 2.13 (95% CI, 1.52-2.92) for men and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.19-2.18) for women. Although some impact of genetic dilution cannot be excluded, our findings indicate importance of gene-environment interplay in UC, as the excess UC risk in Faroese immigrants to Denmark disappeared over time and over one generation in men and over two generations in women. © 2017 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Tjonneland, Anne; Andersen, Vibeke
Meat and dietary fiber are associated with increased and decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate the intestinal immune response in a complex interplay between the mucosal epithelium and the microbiota and may therefore be important modulators of diet-induced CRC together with other inflammatory mediators. Our aim was to investigate the association between functional TLR polymorphisms and risk of CRC and the interaction with dietary factors. Additionally, interactions with previously studied polymorphisms in IL10, IL1B, PTGS2, and NFKB1 were assessed in order to examine possible biological pathways in meat-induced CRC. A nested case-cohort study of 897 CRC cases and 1689 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using Cox proportional hazard models and the likelihood ratio test. We found associations between polymorphisms in TLR2 (P = 0.018) and TLR4 (P = 0.044) and risk of CRC per se, interactions between intake of red and processed meat (10 g/d) and polymorphisms in TLR1 (P-interaction = 0.032) and TLR10 (P-interaction = 0.026 and 0.036), and intake of cereals (50 g/d) and TLR4 (P-interaction = 0.044) in relation to risk of CRC. Intake of red and processed meat also interacted with combinations of polymorphisms in TLR1 and TLR10 and polymorphisms in NFKB1, IL10, IL1B, and PTGS2 (P-interaction; TLR1/rs4833095 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.021, TLR10/rs11096955 × IL10/rs3024505 = 0.047, TLR10/rs11096955 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.017, TLR10/rs4129009 × NFKB1/rs28362491 = 0.027, TLR10/rs4129009 × IL1B/rs4848306 = 0.020, TLR10/rs4129009 × IL1B/rs1143623 = 0.021, TLR10/rs4129009 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.027), whereas intake of dietary fiber (10 g/d) interacted with combinations of polymorphisms in TLR4, IL10, and PTGS2 (P-interaction; TLR4/rs1554973 × IL10/rs3024505 = 0.0012, TLR4/rs1554973 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.0041, TLR4/rs1554973 × PTGS
Simonsen, Rikke; Hald, Gert Martin; Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids
Introduction Male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) individuals with transsexualism (International Classification of Diseases-10) may differ in core clinical and sociodemographic variables such as age, sexual orientation, marriage and parenthood, school, educational level, and employment. Assessing and understanding the implication of such differences may be a key to developing appropriate and effective treatment and intervention strategies for this group. However, research in the area remains sparse and is often on small populations, making the generalization of results from current studies on individuals diagnosed with transsexualism difficult. Aims (i) To describe and assess key sociodemographic and treatment-related differences between MtF and FtM individuals in a Danish population of individuals diagnosed with transsexualism; (ii) to assess possible implications of such difference, if any, for clinical treatment initiatives for individuals diagnosed with transsexualism. Methods Follow-up of 108 individuals who had permission to undergo sex reassignment surgery (SRS, meaning castration and genital plastic surgery) over a 30-year period from 1978 to 2008 through the Gender Identity Unit in Copenhagen, Denmark. The individuals were identified through Social Security numbers. Clinical and sociodemographic data from medical records were collected. Results The sex ratio was 1.16:1 (MtF : FtM). Mean age at first referral was 26.9 (standard deviation [SD] 8.8) years for FtM and 30.2 (SD 9.7) for MtF individuals. Compared with MtF, FtM had a significantly lower onset age (before 12 years of age) and lower age when permission for SRS was granted. Further, FtM individuals were significantly more often gynephilic (sexually attracted to females) during research period and less likely to start self-initiated hormonal sex reassignment (SR) (treatment with cross-sex hormones). The MtF and FtM groups did not differ in years of school, educational level, employment
Simonsen, Rikke; Hald, Gert Martin; Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids
Male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) individuals with transsexualism (International Classification of Diseases-10) may differ in core clinical and sociodemographic variables such as age, sexual orientation, marriage and parenthood, school, educational level, and employment. Assessing and understanding the implication of such differences may be a key to developing appropriate and effective treatment and intervention strategies for this group. However, research in the area remains sparse and is often on small populations, making the generalization of results from current studies on individuals diagnosed with transsexualism difficult. (i) To describe and assess key sociodemographic and treatment-related differences between MtF and FtM individuals in a Danish population of individuals diagnosed with transsexualism; (ii) to assess possible implications of such difference, if any, for clinical treatment initiatives for individuals diagnosed with transsexualism. Follow-up of 108 individuals who had permission to undergo sex reassignment surgery (SRS, meaning castration and genital plastic surgery) over a 30-year period from 1978 to 2008 through the Gender Identity Unit in Copenhagen, Denmark. The individuals were identified through Social Security numbers. Clinical and sociodemographic data from medical records were collected. The sex ratio was 1.16:1 (MtF : FtM). Mean age at first referral was 26.9 (standard deviation [SD] 8.8) years for FtM and 30.2 (SD 9.7) for MtF individuals. Compared with MtF, FtM had a significantly lower onset age (before 12 years of age) and lower age when permission for SRS was granted. Further, FtM individuals were significantly more often gynephilic (sexually attracted to females) during research period and less likely to start self-initiated hormonal sex reassignment (SR) (treatment with cross-sex hormones). The MtF and FtM groups did not differ in years of school, educational level, employment, or engagement in marriage and
Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang; Aust, Birgit; Borg, Vilhelm; Bjorner, Jakob B
Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.
Møller, Cleide O de A; Nauta, Maarten J; Schaffner, Donald W; Dalgaard, Paw; Christensen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Tina B
A modular process risk model approach was used to assess health risks associated with Salmonella spp. after consumption of the Danish meatball product (frikadeller) produced with fresh pork in a catering unit. Meatball production and consumption were described as a series of processes (modules), starting from 1.3kg meat pieces through conversion to 70g meatballs, followed by a dose response model to assess the risk of illness from consumption of these meatballs. Changes in bacterial prevalence, concentration, and unit size were modelled within each module. The risk assessment was built using observational data and models that were specific for Salmonella spp. in meatballs produced in the catering sector. Danish meatballs are often pan-fried followed by baking in an oven before consumption, in order to reach the core temperature of 75°C recommended by the Danish Food Safety Authority. However, in practice this terminal heat treatment in the oven may be accidentally omitted. Eleven production scenarios were evaluated with the model, to test the impact of heat treatments and cooling rates at different room temperatures. The risk estimates revealed that a process comprising heat treatment of meatballs to core temperatures higher than 70°C, and subsequent holding at room temperatures lower than 20°C, for no longer than 3.5h, were very effective in Salmonella control. The current Danish Food Safety Authority recommendation of cooking to an internal temperature of 75°C is conservative, at least with respect to Salmonella risk. Survival and growth of Salmonella during cooling of meatballs not heat treated in oven had a significant impact on the risk estimates, and therefore, cooling should be considered a critical step during meatball processing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Garringer, Holly J; Murrell, Jill; D'Adamio, Luciano; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben
Familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD) are two autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases caused by mutations in the BRI ( 2 ) gene. FBD and FDD are characterized by widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), parenchymal amyloid deposition, and neurofibrillary tangles. Transgenic mice expressing wild-type and mutant forms of the BRI(2) protein, Bri ( 2 ) knock-in mutant mice, and Bri ( 2 ) gene knock-out mice have been developed. Transgenic mice expressing a human FDD-mutated form of the BRI ( 2 ) gene have partially reproduced the neuropathological lesions observed in FDD. These mice develop extensive CAA, parenchymal amyloid deposition, and neuroinflammation in the central nervous system. These animal models allow the study of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the neuronal dysfunction in these diseases and allow the development of potential therapeutic approaches for these and related neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, a comprehensive account of the advances in the development of animal models for FBD and FDD and of their relevance to the study of Alzheimer disease is presented.
This paper sheds light on how competence assessment takes place in the Danish Vocational and Educational Training System. It discusses how intentions formulated by the government have unintentional effects when implemented in practice. The qualitative methods used in this study consist of participant observations from my field study of dropouts in…
Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje
Objectives Validation of a Danish patient safety incident classification adapted from the World Health Organizaton's International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS-WHO). Design Thirty-three hospital safety management experts classified 58 safety incident cases selected to represent all types and subtypes of the Danish adaptation of the ICPS (ICPS-DK). Outcome Measures Two measures of inter-rater agreement: kappa and intra-class correlation (ICC). Results An average number of incident types used per case per rater was 2.5. The mean ICC was 0.521 (range: 0.199–0.809) and the mean kappa was 0.513 (range: 0.193–0.804). Kappa and ICC showed high correlation (r = 0.99). An inverse correlation was found between the prevalence of type and inter-rater reliability. Results are discussed according to four factors known to determine the inter-rater agreement: skill and motivation of raters; clarity of case descriptions; clarity of the operational definitions of the types and the instructions guiding the coding process; adequacy of the underlying classification scheme. Conclusions The incident types of the ICPS-DK are adequate, exhaustive and well suited for classifying and structuring incident reports. With a mean kappa a little above 0.5 the inter-rater agreement of the classification system is considered ‘fair’ to ‘good’. The wide variation in the inter-rater reliability and low reliability and poor discrimination among the highly prevalent incident types suggest that for these types, precisely defined incident sub-types may be preferred. This evaluation of the reliability and usability of WHO's ICPS should be useful for healthcare administrations that consider or are in the process of adapting the ICPS. PMID:23287641
Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Tjørnehøj, Gitte
Quality assurance technology is a formal control mechanism aiming at increasing the quality of the product exchanged between vendors and customers. Studies of the adoption of this technology in the field of system development rarely focus on the role of the relationship between the customer and vendor in the process. We have studied how the process of adopting quality assurance technology by a small Danish IT vendor developing pharmacy software for a customer in the public sector was influenced by the relationship with the customer. The case study showed that the adoption process was shaped to a high degree by the relationship and vice versa. The prior high level of trust and mutual knowledge helped the parties negotiate mutually feasible solutions throughout the adoption process. We thus advise enhancing trust-building processes to strengthen the relationships and to balance formal control and social control to increase the likelihood of a successful outcome of the adoption of quality assurance technology in a customer-vendor relationship.
Sorensen, Janne; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Norredam, Marie; Kristiansen, Maria; Krasnik, Allan
The cultural competence training of healthcare professionals is a key element in ensuring the quality of both the access and delivery of healthcare to increasingly ethnically diverse populations. The aim of this study is to investigate Danish medical teachers' opinions about cultural competence, their willingness to receive training and preparedness to teach cultural competence topics. The survey was sent to medical teachers, clinical teachers and external lecturers who teach in the medical programme at the University of Copenhagen. A total of 1400 medical teachers received the survey, and 199 responded. The response rate is 14%. Data were analysed through descriptive calculations, and answers to open-ended questions were coded using content analysis. Results showed that 82.4% of the informants agreed or strongly agreed that the medical education programme should include training on cultural issues, and 60.3% agreed or strongly agreed that students should be assessed on their cultural competence skills. Regarding preparedness to teach a diverse classroom, 88.4% felt somewhat or very prepared to engage and motivate all students. About 70% were interested in receiving training on cultural competence. Generally, there is interest in and acknowledgement of the importance of cultural competence in Danish medical education among teachers at the University of Copenhagen. This creates an opportunity to implement cultural competence in the medical curriculum, training of teachers and strengthening the diversity sensitivity of the organisation. However, support for this programme by management and the allocation of an appropriate level of resources is a prerequisite to the success of the programme.
Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Pedersen, Jacob; Petersen, Jindong Ding; Hansen, Åse Marie
The aim was to describe the organization of working hours in the Danish regions according to sex, age and calendar year. Based on the Danish Working Hour Database (DWHD), individuals were classified according to schedules: Permanent day (57.8%), evening (1.7%), or night (1.2%); day/evening (22.0%); day/night (6.6%); evening/night (0.6%); and day/evening/night (10.2%). More men (9.1%) than women (5.9%) worked day/night, whereas more women (10.9%) than men (7.4%) worked day/evening/night. More young than older employees worked day/evening/night, and fewer worked permanent day or night. From 2008 to 2015 we observed a trend towards more employees working permanent day and fewer employees working other schedules. Altogether DWHD provides a strong tool in research on working hours.
Low Birth Weight in Children Born to Mothers with Hyperthyroidism and High Birth Weight in Hypothyroidism, whereas Preterm Birth Is Common in Both Conditions: A Danish National Hospital Register Study
Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter
Objectives Maternal hyper- and hypothyroidism have been associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but studies have led to inconsistent results. We aimed to identify children born to mothers with a hospital-recorded diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in Denmark and to study the association with gestational age at delivery and birth weight of the child. Study Design Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All singleton live births in Denmark between January 1, 1978 and December 31, 2006 were identified and stratified by maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism registered in the Danish National Hospital Register before January 1, 2007. Results Maternal first-time diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before, during or after pregnancy was registered in 32,809 (2.0%) of the singleton live births (n = 1,638,338). Maternal diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (adjusted OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.30) and hypothyroidism (adjusted OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27) were associated with increased risk of preterm birth. Moreover, birth weight in children born to mothers with a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was lower (adjusted difference −51 g, 95% CI −58 to −43 g) and higher in relation to maternal hypothyroidism (adjusted difference 20 g, 95% CI 10-30 g). Hyperthyroidism was associated with small-for-gestational-age (adjusted OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) and hypothyroidism with large-for-gestational-age children (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17-1.31). Conclusions Based on Danish nationwide registers, both maternal hyper- and hypothyroidism were associated with increased risk of preterm birth. Actual birth weight of the child and birth weight for gestational age were low if the mother had a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and high if the diagnosis was hypothyroidism. PMID:24783052
Zhu, Jin Liang; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Olsen, Jørn
The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) was used to examine pregnancy outcomes among female hairdressers and neurodevelopment in their offspring. A population-based cohort study was conducted of 550 hairdressers and 3216 shop assistants (reference group) by using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2003. Information on job characteristics was reported by the women in the first interview (around 17 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the national registers. Developmental milestones were reported by the mother at the fourth interview, when the child was approximately 19 months old. Cox regression was applied to analyze fetal loss and congenital malformation. Logistic regression was used to analyze other pregnancy outcomes and developmental milestones. We found no significant differences in fetal loss, multiple births, gender ratio, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, congenital malformations, or achievement of developmental milestones among the children of hairdressers and shop assistants. The results do not indicate that children of hairdressers in Denmark currently have a high risk of fetal impairment or delayed psychomotor development.
Fogtmann-Schulz, A.; Østbø, S. M.; Nielsen, S. G. B.; Olsen, J.; Karoff, C.; Knudsen, M. F.
We present measurements of radiocarbon in annual tree rings from the time period 980-1006 Common Era (C.E.), hereby covering the cosmic ray event in 994 C.E. The new radiocarbon record from Danish oak is based on both earlywood and latewood fractions of the tree rings, which makes it possible to study seasonal variations in 14C production. The measurements show a rapid increase of ˜10‰ from 993 to 994 C.E. in latewood, followed by a modest decline and relatively high values over the ensuing ˜10 years. This rapid increase occurs from 994 to 995 C.E. in earlywood, suggesting that the cosmic ray event most likely occurred during the period between April and June 994 C.E. Our new record from Danish oak shows strong agreement with existing Δ14C records from Japan, thus supporting the hypothesis that the 994 C.E. cosmic ray event was uniform throughout the Northern Hemisphere and therefore can be used as an astrochronological tie point to anchor floating chronologies of ancient history.
Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Struve, Tina; Jensen, Henrik Elvang
Pre-weaning diarrhea in mink, also known as "sticky kits", is a syndrome and outbreaks occur every year on commercial mink farms in all mink producing countries. Morbidity and mortality can be considerable on a farm with huge economic consequences for the farmer as well as compromised welfare for the mink kits. Although efforts have been taken to identify etiologic agents involved in outbreaks, the syndrome is still regarded as multifactorial and recurring problems on the same farms draw attention to management and environmental risk factors. In the pre-weaning period from May to June 2015, a case control study was carried out on 30 Danish mink farms. Data concerning management, biosecurity, hygiene, feed consumption, antibacterial prescription and production efficiency were analyzed. The proportion of 1-year old females, farm size (total number of females), energy supply per female in the late gestation period, and dogs accessing the farm area were significantly associated with being a case farm. Case farms were prescribed almost twice the amount of antibacterials per gestational unit (female and litter) as in control farms. Farmers on case farms spent significantly more time nursing and treating the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color types nor in management regarding litter equalization. Results from this study showed an association between the occurrence of pre-weaning diarrhea on mink farms and parity profile, farm size and feeding intensity in the gestational period. The access of dogs to the farm area was a significant risk factor, but needs further clarification.
Pouwels, Sander; Lalmohamed, Arief; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Souverein, Patrick; Leufkens, Hubertus G.; Rejnmark, Lars; de Boer, Anthonius; Vestergaard, Peter; de Vries, Frank
Context: Use of organic nitrates has been associated with increased bone mineral density. Moreover, a large Danish case-control study reported a decreased fracture risk. However, the association with duration of nitrate use, dose frequency, and impact of discontinuation has not been extensively studied. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the association between organic nitrates and hip fracture risk. Methods: A case-control study was conducted using the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System (1991–2002, n = 6,763 hip fracture cases and 26,341 controls). Cases had their first admission for hip fracture, whereas controls had not sustained any fracture after enrollment. Current users of organic nitrates were patients who had received a prescription within 90 d before the index date. The analyses were adjusted for disease and drug history. Results: Current use of nitrates was not associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83–1.04]. Those who used as-needed medication only had a lower risk of hip fracture (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.63–1.08) compared with users of maintenance medication only (adjusted OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.97–1.40). No association was found between duration of nitrate use and fracture risk. Conclusions: Our overall analyses showed that risk of a hip fracture was significantly lower among users of as-needed organic nitrates, when compared with users of maintenance medication. Our analyses of hip fracture risks with duration of use did not further support a beneficial effect of organic nitrates on hip fracture, although residual confounding may have masked beneficial effects. PMID:20130070
Pouwels, Sander; Lalmohamed, Arief; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Souverein, Patrick; Leufkens, Hubertus G; Rejnmark, Lars; de Boer, Anthonius; Vestergaard, Peter; de Vries, Frank
Use of organic nitrates has been associated with increased bone mineral density. Moreover, a large Danish case-control study reported a decreased fracture risk. However, the association with duration of nitrate use, dose frequency, and impact of discontinuation has not been extensively studied. Our objective was to evaluate the association between organic nitrates and hip fracture risk. A case-control study was conducted using the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System (1991-2002, n = 6,763 hip fracture cases and 26,341 controls). Cases had their first admission for hip fracture, whereas controls had not sustained any fracture after enrollment. Current users of organic nitrates were patients who had received a prescription within 90 d before the index date. The analyses were adjusted for disease and drug history. Current use of nitrates was not associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.04]. Those who used as-needed medication only had a lower risk of hip fracture (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.63-1.08) compared with users of maintenance medication only (adjusted OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.97-1.40). No association was found between duration of nitrate use and fracture risk. Our overall analyses showed that risk of a hip fracture was significantly lower among users of as-needed organic nitrates, when compared with users of maintenance medication. Our analyses of hip fracture risks with duration of use did not further support a beneficial effect of organic nitrates on hip fracture, although residual confounding may have masked beneficial effects.
Knudsen, Vibeke K; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Cueto, Heidi; Tucker, Katherine L; Wise, Lauren; Christensen, Tue; Mikkelsen, Ellen M
To assess the relative validity of a semi-quantitative, web-based FFQ completed by female pregnancy planners in the Danish 'Snart Forældre' study. We validated a web-based FFQ based on the FFQ used in the Danish National Birth Cohort against a 4 d food diary (FD) and assessed the relative validity of intakes of foods and nutrients. We compared means and medians of intakes, and calculated Pearson correlation coefficients and de-attenuated coefficients to assess agreement between the two methods. We also calculated the proportion correctly classified based on the same or adjacent quintile of intake and the proportion of grossly misclassified (extreme quintiles). Participants (n 128) in the 'Snart Forældre' study who had completed the web-based FFQ were invited to participate in the validation study. Participants in the 'Snart Forældre' study, in total ninety-seven women aged 20-42 years. Reported intakes of dairy products, vegetables and potatoes were higher in the FFQ compared with the FD, whereas reported intakes of fruit, meat, sugar and beverages were lower in the FFQ than in the FD. Overall the de-attenuated correlation coefficients were acceptable, ranging from 0·33 for energy to 0·93 for vitamin D. The majority of the women were classified in the same or adjacent quintile and few women were misclassified (extreme quintiles). The web-based FFQ performs well for ranking women of reproductive age according to high or low intake of foods and nutrients and, thus, provides a solid basis for investigating associations between diet and fertility.
Kulas Søborg, Marie-Louise; Leganger, Julie; Quitzau Mortensen, Laura; Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob
The aim of this study was to investigate national prevalence, general demographic characteristics and survival of Danish patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). A population-based cohort study was conducted using a database consisting of the entire Danish population alive at any given time between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, based upon longitudinal Danish national registers. All patients with EDS were identified, and the cohort was described by disease prevalence, basic demographic characteristics, mean age at death and mortality for the observational period of 13 years. The cohort held 1427 unique persons with EDS, giving a national prevalence of 0.02%. The EDS population had a mean ( s . d .) age of 34.9 (18.6) years and comprised 73.9% females and 26.1% males. Of the cohort, 95.9% originated from Denmark and 57% were unmarried. We found that 31.6% of the cohort received state-granted subsidies, of which 77% were in the form of early retirement pension. Regarding educational status, 28.1% of the EDS cohort had completed primary education (⩽10th grade) as their highest educational level, while 71.9% had completed a higher level. During the observation period, 42 patients died, with a mean ( s . d .) age at death of 53.6 (21.7) years. This study confirmed a small national prevalence of patients diagnosed with EDS and showed that the majority of patients diagnosed are female. The EDS cohort had a lower educational level, mean age and life expectancy compared with the background population and showed a predisposition for receiving state-granted subsidies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Virk, Jasveer; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Olsen, Jørn
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used pain and fever medication during pregnancy, and recently has been linked to hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children. We examine whether prenatal use of acetaminophen affects children's intelligence quotient (IQ). We studied 1,491 mothers and children enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1996-2002). Acetaminophen use in pregnancy was prospectively recorded in three telephone interviews. Child IQ was assessed at age 5 with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) administered by trained psychologists. We employed linear regression analysis, adjusting for maternal IQ and other confounding factors, and assessed interactions between acetaminophen and indications for use. Both maternal fever in pregnancy and acetaminophen use were associated with child IQ. Children born to mothers using acetaminophen without reporting fever scored on average 3.4 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30 to 6.6 points) on performance IQ compared with offspring of mothers who neither experienced fever nor took acetaminophen. Estimated effects for acetaminophen were stronger for first or second trimester use. Children born to mothers reporting fever without using acetaminophen also scored lower on verbal (2.7 points, 95% CI: -0.19, 5.6) and performance IQ (4.3 points, 95% CI: 0.30, 8.3); IQ scores were not affected if mothers with fever used acetaminophen. Maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy was associated with lower performance IQ in 5-year olds. However, acetaminophen treatment of maternal fever in pregnancy showed an apparent compensatory association with child IQ scores. (See video abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B87.).
Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben; Nedergaard, Niels Jorgen
This register study compared the rates and types of autoimmune disease in the parents of 111 patients (82 males, 29 females; mean age at diagnosis 5y 5mo [SD 2y 6mo]) with infantile autism (IA) with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All parents were screened through the nationwide Danish National…
Christiansen, E; Stenager, E
A range of studies have found an association between some somatic diseases and increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide. These studies are mostly analyses of adult populations and illnesses related to adulthood. To study the risk of attempted suicide in children and youths with a somatic diagnosis, and to assess a possible association from a somatic perspective. From a cohort of 403 431 individuals (born 1983-89), 3465 children and youths who had attempted suicide were identified. Each case was matched with 20 population controls. 72 765 children and youths constituted the case-control population. All data were obtained from national population registers and analysed in a nested case-control design. Contact of children and youths with a somatic hospital is correlated with increased risk of attempted suicide; the risk peaks in the time immediately after contact. Risk factors were treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma and malformation for males; and spontaneous and medical abortions, treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and malformation for females. Not all the mentioned diagnoses were significant in the adjusted model. Based on the results of the study a strategy to minimise the risk of attempted suicide among children and youths must be implemented. The strategy should mainly focus on children at high risk-that is, children from families with low socioeconomic status, and children with a psychiatric history, a history of previous suicide attempts and with an unstable somatic disease subsequently causing many admissions.
Denmark has had a long history of placing a high priority on education and public schooling. It is a declared goal of the Danish welfare system to provide comprehensive schooling, where children from different socioeconomic backgrounds can go to school together and have the same opportunities through education. It is also a declared goal for…
Thelin, Camilla; Mikkelsen, Benjamin; Laier, Gunnar; Turgut, Louise; Henriksen, Bente; Olsen, Lis Raabaek; Larsen, Jens Knud; Arnfred, Sidse
Psychological distress is a trans-diagnostic feature of mental suffering closely associated with mental disorders. Kessler's 10-item Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a scale with sound psychometric properties, is widely used in epidemiological studies. To translate and investigate whether K10 is a reliable and valid rating scale for the measurement of psychological distress in a Danish population. The translation was carried out according to official WHO translation guidelines. A sample of 100 subjects was included, 54 patients from the regional Mental Health Service (MHS) and 46 subjects with no psychiatric history. All participants were assessed with a psychiatric diagnostic interview (MINI) and handed out K10. Concurrent validity was assessed by WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5). Correlation matrix analysis was conducted for the full sample and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for discriminating mental health service affiliation. Mean K10 scores differed, with decreasing levels, between inpatients and outpatient in MHS and the subjects with no psychiatric history. Factor analysis confirmed a unidimensional structure, and Cronbach's alpha and Omega showed excellent internal reliability. AUC for the K10 ROC curves showed excellent sensitivity (0.947 [0.900-0.995]), accurately differentiating mental health from non-mental health patients. The Danish K10 has the same strong internal reliability as the original English version, and scores differ between psychiatric patients in outpatient and emergency ward settings. The Danish K10 translation is authorized and freely available for download at https://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/k6_scales.php . The utility as an instrument for clinical screening in a mental healthcare setting is supported.
The pricing of follow-on drugs, that offer only limited health benefits over existing therapeutic alternatives, is a recurring health policy debate. This study investigates whether follow-on therapeutic substitutes create price competition between branded hospital medicines. New follow-on drugs and their incumbent therapeutic competitors were identified from Danish sales and product registration data on hospital pharmaceuticals using medically relevant criteria. We examined whether follow-on drugs adopt lower prices than their incumbent competitors, and whether incumbent competitors react to entry of follow-ons through price adjustments using a random intercept panel model. We found no evidence that follow-on drugs adopt lower prices than their incumbent competitors. Furthermore, potentially due to low sample size, we found no evidence that prices for incumbent pioneer products were significantly reduced as a reaction to competition from follow-on drugs. Competition between patented therapeutic substitutes did not seem to increase price competition and containment of pharmaceutical expenditures in the Danish hospital market. Strengthening hospitals' incentives to consider the price of alternative treatment options paired with a more active formulary management may increase price competition between therapeutic substitutes in the Danish hospital sector in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kjellberg, J; Jorgensen, A D; Vestergaard, P; Ibsen, R; Gerstoft, F; Modi, A
We estimated the rate of compliance with oral bisphosphonates among Danish women and examined its association with health care resource use and cost. Approximately 30 % of Danish females aged >55 who take bisphosphonates are noncompliant, and noncompliance is significantly associated with increased health care resource use and cost. Two objectives of this study were to estimate the rate of oral bisphosphonate compliance among Danish women and to examine the association of noncompliance with health care resource use and cost. Women ≥55 with an index prescription claim for an oral bisphosphonate were identified from Danish national health registries between 2003 and 2008. Compliance was measured as the medication possession ratio (MPR) during the first 12 months post-index. Cost and health care resource use were collected for the following 12 months. Among the 38,234 women meeting the study inclusion criteria, 29.9 % were noncompliant (MPR <70 %). Younger age was associated with higher odds of compliance (OR [95 % CI] 1.22 [1.15-1.29] for ages 55-64 and 1.18 [1.12-1.24] for ages 65-74; reference age group ≥75 years). Rates of all-cause health care resource use were significantly higher in noncompliant subjects: 28.9 versus 23.0 % had inpatient admissions, 16.5 versus 13.0 % had emergency room visits, and 48.7 versus 43.3 % used outpatient services (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). The total mean (SD) all-cause cost per patient (excluding office visits) was €626 (2344) and €4178 (7854), respectively. The mean (SD) osteoporosis-related cost per patient (excluding office visits) was €572 (2085) and €754 (2857) for compliant and non-compliant subjects, respectively. The compliant subjects accrued significantly lower all-cause and OP-related cost than noncompliant subjects, regardless of whether the total cost or medical cost only was considered. Approximately 30 % of Danish females aged 55 or older who take bisphosphonates are noncompliant
Hald, Marianne; Arendrup, Maiken C; Svejgaard, Else L; Lindskov, Rune; Foged, Erik K; Saunte, Ditte Marie L
Internationally approved guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Malassezia-related skin diseases are lacking. Therefore, a panel of experts consisting of dermatologists and a microbiologist under the auspices of the Danish Society of Dermatology undertook a data review and compiled guidelines for the diagnostic procedures and management of pityriasis versicolor, seborrhoeic dermatitis and Malassezia folliculitis. Main recommendations in most cases of pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis include topical treatment which has been shown to be sufficient. As first choice, treatment should be based on topical antifungal medication. A short course of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors has an anti-inflammatory effect in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Systemic antifungal therapy may be indicated for widespread lesions or lesions refractory to topical treatment. Maintenance therapy is often necessary to prevent relapses. In the treatment of Malassezia folliculitis systemic antifungal treatment is probably more effective than topical treatment but a combination may be favourable.
Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R
production of packaging material with Danish text were supplied by Lundbeck to the respective manufacturers. However, it is not unlikely either that the currency restrictions which were made after 1932 encouraged Lundbeck, where possible, first of all to import raw materials and bulk products and then manufacture the finished products in Valby. This was the case with Anusol, which Lundbeck certainly emphazised in the advertisement. It has to be pointed out that at that time there were no legal requirements regarding dating, neither of the user instructions nor of advertisements. Thus it is not due to mistakes or omissions made by Lundbeck that these materials are undated. The user instructions which Lundbeck had inserted in the packages were made and distributed at a time where no legal restrictions were in force neither regarding form nor content of such. The user instructions for products marketed after 1932 had probably been presented to the Pharmacopoeia Commission as this was statutory. It is, however, uncertain whether the Commission has dealt with the contents and the look of the user instructions. The most important task of the Commission was besides of the work with maintaining the Pharmacopoeia to look after the economic interests of the pharmacies so that only new drug substances could be marketed by the pharmaceutical industry, cf. below. In order to find out whether, and if so to which extent, the Pharmacopoeia Commission has been occupied in evaluating the informative and promoting printed matters of the industry, would require studies of the unprinted files of the Commission, and that is outside the scope of this article. At that time it was not against the law to inform in a user instruction that in case of a longer period of treatment, it would be more economical for the patient to buy a larger package. If you look at these patient information leaflets with today's eyes in the light of the present detailed, comprehensive and rigid regulations which the EU
Hoppe, Camilla; Gøbel, Rikke; Kristensen, Mette; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Christensen, Tue; Trolle, Ellen; Fagt, Sisse; Madsen, Mia Linda; Husby, Steffen
Celiac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. We determined intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oat in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2005-2008. The study population comprised a random cross-sectional sample of 1494 adults 20-75 years, selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Protein content in wheat, rye, barley and oat was determined from the National Danish Food Composition Table and multiplied with the amount of cereal used in recipes. Amount of gluten was calculated as amount of cereal protein ×0.80 for wheat and oat, ×0.65 for rye and ×0.50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily during seven consecutive days in pre-coded food diaries with open-answer possibilities. Mean total gluten intake was 10.4 ± 4.4 g/day (10th-90th percentiles; 5.4-16.2 g/day), in men 12.0 ± 4.6 g/day and 9.0 ± 3.4 g/day in women. It was higher among men than among women in all age groups (20-75 years; P < 0.0001); however, this difference was eliminated when adjusting for energy intake. Intake of different gluten sources tended to be higher in men than in women with the exception of gluten from barley. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age (P < 0.0001) as did gluten intake from wheat (P < 0.0001), whereas intake of gluten from rye (P < 0.0001) and barley (P = 0.001) increased with increasing age, also when adjusted for energy intake or body weight. This study presents representative population-based data on gluten intake in Danish adults. Total gluten intake decreased with increasing age.
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Juhl, Mette; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Bonde, Jens Peter; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
Pelvic pain during pregnancy is a common ailment, and the disease is a major cause of sickness absence during pregnancy. It is plausible that occupational lifting may be a risk factor of pelvic pain during pregnancy, but no previous studies have examined this specific exposure. The aim of this study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy. The study comprised 50 143 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in the period from 1996-2002. During pregnancy, the women provided information on occupational lifting (weight load and daily frequency), and six months post partum on pelvic pain. Adjusted odds ratios for pelvic pain during pregnancy according to occupational lifting were calculated by logistic regression. Any self-reported occupational lifting (>1 time/day and loads weighing >10 kg) was associated with an increased risk of pelvic pain during pregnancy as compared to no such lifting. A confounder-adjusted exposure-response relation was observed between self-reported total loads lifted and pelvic pain during pregnancy. Daily lifting of both medium (11-20 kg) and heavy loads (>20 kg) were associated with increased risk, and the highest risk was observed among women who lifted heavy loads independent of exposure to medium loads. Occupational lifting may increase the risk of pelvic pain during pregnancy.
Kaerlev, Linda; Jensen, Anker; Hannerz, Harald
Objectives: A systematic overview of time trends in hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen by job title and analyses on skin and infectious diseases. Methods: Occupational cohorts with hospital contacts 1994–1998 and 1999–2003. Standardized hospital contact ratios (SHCR) were estimated using national rates and ranked by SHCR size. Results: For non-officers in 1994–1998, infectious diseases had the highest SHCR, followed by neoplastic and endocrinal diseases; in 1999–2003 skin diseases were followed by endocrinal and gastrointestinal diseases. For fishermen in 1994–1998, nervous system, gastrointestinal, and skin diseases had the highest SHCRs; in 1999–2003 it was nervous system, skin, and lymphohematopoietic diseases. As for skin diseases, male fishermen and non-officer seamen generally had increased SHCRs, but engine room personnel specifically had a low SHCR for eczema (eight cases). Fishermen had high SHCRs for tuberculosis in both time periods (six and nine cases, respectively). Non-officer seamen on cargo ships had increased SHCRs for HIV in both time periods and for hepatitis in 1994–1999. Extending the follow-up until 2000 or 2005 showed similar results. Conclusions: Surveillance of seamen’s health gives useful information. The elevated SHCR for HIV infection among non-officers has not declined despite preventive information campaigns. Tuberculosis among fishermen may be due to infection on shore. Skin diseases had very high SHCRs, not due to cutaneous oil exposure. PMID:25411726
Jepsen, J; Laursen, L
The article recounts changes in Danish Drug Law and Enforcement since the beginning of the 1990s and relates them to general trends in Danish criminal policy during the period. In addition to the implementation of EU directives, e.g. on money laundering and growth hormones, legislation has been passed to curb conspicuous dealing of drugs in the streets of Copenhagen. This part of the legislation is seen as a reaction to public fears and reactions to visible aliens dealing in drugs in a conspicuous way, albeit in minor quantities. The legal changes imply a considerable rise in penalties for repeated dealings in minor quantities and easier access to deportation of aliens. The latter has been criticized as potential violation of the human rights of aliens. This and other recent changes in criminal law and related legislation is seen as an indication of politicians' concerns with voters' anxieties, possibly at the edge of moral panics.
Gubbels, S; Krause, T G; Bragstad, K; Perner, A; Mølbak, K; Glismann, S
Influenza surveillance in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) was performed during the 2009/10 and 2010/11 influenza seasons to monitor the burden on ICUs. All 44 Danish ICUs reported aggregate data for incidence and point prevalence, and case-based demographical and clinical parameters. Additional data on microbiological testing, vaccination and death were obtained from national registers. Ninety-six patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were recorded in 2009/10; 106 with influenza A and 42 with influenza B in 2010/11. The mean age of influenza A patients was higher in 2010/11 than in 2009/10, 53 vs. 44 years (P = 0·004). No differences in other demographic and clinical parameters were detected between influenza A and B patients. In conclusion, the number of patients with severe influenza was higher in Denmark during the 2010/11 than the 2009/10 season with a shift towards older age groups in influenza A patients. Influenza B caused severe illness and needs consideration in clinical and public health policy.
Academic values and norms have as a consequence of the wave of European higher education reforms been put under pressure by the increasing expectations and demands of flexibility, entrepreneurialism and accountability. This article examines how these changes affect identity construction processes at department head level in the case of Danish…
Stock, Christiane; Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Rasmussen, Birthe Marie
It is currently unknown if school-based social norms interventions are effective in preventing harmful alcohol consumption and other drug use among adolescents in Denmark. This paper describes the social norms-based programme The GOOD life and the design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test its effectiveness. The intervention The GOOD life is composed of three social norms components representing three different communication channels, namely face-to-face communication (normative feedback session), print communication (posters) and interactive media (web application). The intervention period of 8 weeks is preceded and followed by data collection, with the follow-up taking place 3 months after baseline. Public schools in the Region of Southern Denmark with grades 8 and 9 are invited to participate in the study and participating schools are randomly allocated to either intervention or control schools. The aim is to recruit a total of 39 schools and a sample of 1.400 pupils for the trial. An online questionnaire is conducted to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana as well as the perceived frequency of use among peers of their own grade, which is measured before and after the intervention. Baseline data is used to develop social norms messages which are included in the three intervention components. Primary outcomes are binge drinking (more than 5 units at one occasion) and perceived frequency of binge drinking among peers, while smoking, marijuana use and alcohol-related harm will be assessed as secondary outcomes. The GOOD life study will provide necessary insights on descriptive and injunctive norms regarding alcohol and other drug use among Danish adolescents. In addition, it will provide new knowledge and insight on the feasibility, implementation context and effectiveness of a newly developed social norms intervention in the Danish school context. Date of registration: 17 February 2016 (retrospectively registered) at Current Controlled
The organisation and financing of the Danish health care system was evaluated within a framework of analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (a SWOT analysis) by a panel of five members with a background in health economics. The evaluation was based on reading an extensive amount of selected documents and literature on the Danish health care system, and a 1 week-visit to health care authorities, providers and key persons. This paper includes the main findings by one of the panel members. The international competition 'wave' passed by Denmark, and the Danish might rightly say 'thank goodness'. Funding is very largely public and there is a single dominant authority, i.e. the county, which makes planning easier. Low levels of patient payments and the smaller size of the private sector reflect Danish 'solidarity' and promote equity. Planning is good. Exceptions to this are the over-concern with hospital waiting lists and the flirting with DRG based funding. Greater investment in planning approaches would make the system yet better. The GP blended remuneration system with capitation and fee for service is a major strength. The fact that the system has such potential for technical and allocative efficiency and also equity but is not fully exploited suggests the need for more investment in health services research. While there is scope for improving the health care system in Denmark, the rest of the world has as much to learn from the Danes as the Danes have from the rest of the world.
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterised by varying degrees of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. We hypothesised that IPF and unclassifiable ILD were common in a Danish ILD cohort and that prognostic factors based on disease characteristics and comorbidities could be identified The aims of the PhD study were to describe the demographics of ILD in Central Denmark, to characterise the distribution of ILD diagnoses, and to assess prognostic factors in IPF and unclassifiable ILD. The study is based on a cohort of 431 ILD patients referred to our department during a 6-year period. All ILD diagnoses were re-evaluated according to current diagnostic criteria. Patients were followed from the time of first visit on suspicion of an ILD to the last visit to the centre, death, transplantation, or discharge from follow-up. The incidence of ILD was 4.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the incidence of IPF was 1.3 per 100,000 inhabitants in Central Den-mark. The most frequently occurring ILDs were IPF (28%), unclassifiable ILDs (extensive fibrotic disease and other unclassifiable ILDs) (24%), connective tissue disease-related ILD (14%), hyper-sensitivity pneumonitis (7%) and NSIP (7%). Cardiovascular dis-ease was present in 21% of the patients. The presence of cardio-vascular disease at the time of IPF diagnosis did not lead to increased mortality, whereas cardiovascular disease diagnosed during the course of IPF was a statistically significant predictor of mortality. Our study also showed that diabetes and concomitant anticoagulant therapy were associated with worse outcome in IPF, and that a simple HRCT scoring system could be used in the prediction of outcome in fibrotic ILDs. The study of unclassifiable ILD revealed two disease categories: one group characterised by extensive fibrotic disease and one characterised by more inflammatory features. The latter group was characterised by younger age and significantly better
Ydesen, Christian; Andreasen, Karen E.
This paper focuses on primary education accountability as a concept and as an organizational practice in the history of Danish public education. Contemporary studies of education policy often address questions of accountability, but the manifestations of school accountability differ significantly between different national settings. Furthermore,…
Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Allan; Andersen, Claus Erik; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Tjønneland, Anne; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Conclusion and Impact Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and non-existent amongst those living in single detached homes. PMID:26274607
Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Væth, Michael
The purpose of the present study was to describe early feeding patterns in Danish infants. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 7113 mothers of newborns in the western part of Denmark approximately 6 months postpartum. A total of 5127 mothers (72%) returned the questionnaire and 4526 (88%) of the responding mothers provided valid answers to questions on infant nutrition. Breastfeeding was initiated after birth by 97%. At the ages of 2, 4 and 6 months, 68%, 55% and 7% of the infants, respectively, were fully breastfed, i.e. they received mother's milk only. Full breastfeeding at 4 months was for infants significantly associated with higher birth weight, longer gestational age and singleton birth; for mothers it was associated with older ages, higher educational level, lower BMI and multiparity. During the first weeks, 14% of the infants were introduced to formula and this proportion increased to 32%, 43% and 74% at 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively. Only 20% of the infants never received formula during the first 6 months of life. Time for introduction of solid food was associated with breastfeeding status. At 4 months, 3% of the previously fully breastfed infants were introduced to solid food, 12% of the partially breastfed and 17% of the non-breastfed. At 6 months, 87% of the infants had been introduced to solid food. The majority of Danish mothers introduced infants to solid food between 4 and six months, and did not exclusively breastfeed until 6 months, as recommended by WHO. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Rohr Thomsen, Christine; Uldbjerg, Niels; Hvidman, Lone; Atladóttir, Hjördís Ósk; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Milidou, Ioanna
Background Dystocia is one of the most frequent causes of cesarean delivery in nulliparous women. Despite this, its causes are largely unknown. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been found in the myometrium. Thus, it is possible that vitamin D affects the contractility of the myometrium and may be involved in the pathogenesis of dystocia. Seasonal variation of dystocia in areas with distinct seasonal variation in sunlight exposure, like Denmark, could imply that vitamin D may play a role. This study examined whether there was seasonal variation in the incidence of dystocia in a Danish population. Method We used information from a cohort of 34,261 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, spontaneous onset of labor between 37 and 42 completed gestational weeks, and vertex fetal presentation. All women gave birth between 1992 and 2010 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby. Logistic regression combined with cubic spline was used to estimate the seasonal variation for each outcome after adjusting for calendar time. Results No evidence for seasonal variation was found for any of the outcomes: acute cesarean delivery due to dystocia (p = 0.44); instrumental vaginal delivery due to dystocia (p = 0.69); oxytocin augmentation due to dystocia (p = 0.46); and overall dystocia (p = 0.91). Conclusion No seasonal variation in the incidence of dystocia was observed in a large cohort of Danish women. This may reflect no association between vitamin D and dystocia, or alternatively that other factors with seasonal variation and influence on the occurrence of dystocia attenuate such an association. PMID:24736600
Rohr Thomsen, Christine; Uldbjerg, Niels; Hvidman, Lone; Atladóttir, Hjördís Ósk; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Milidou, Ioanna
Dystocia is one of the most frequent causes of cesarean delivery in nulliparous women. Despite this, its causes are largely unknown. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been found in the myometrium. Thus, it is possible that vitamin D affects the contractility of the myometrium and may be involved in the pathogenesis of dystocia. Seasonal variation of dystocia in areas with distinct seasonal variation in sunlight exposure, like Denmark, could imply that vitamin D may play a role. This study examined whether there was seasonal variation in the incidence of dystocia in a Danish population. We used information from a cohort of 34,261 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies, spontaneous onset of labor between 37 and 42 completed gestational weeks, and vertex fetal presentation. All women gave birth between 1992 and 2010 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby. Logistic regression combined with cubic spline was used to estimate the seasonal variation for each outcome after adjusting for calendar time. No evidence for seasonal variation was found for any of the outcomes: acute cesarean delivery due to dystocia (p = 0.44); instrumental vaginal delivery due to dystocia (p = 0.69); oxytocin augmentation due to dystocia (p = 0.46); and overall dystocia (p = 0.91). No seasonal variation in the incidence of dystocia was observed in a large cohort of Danish women. This may reflect no association between vitamin D and dystocia, or alternatively that other factors with seasonal variation and influence on the occurrence of dystocia attenuate such an association.
Frankel, H; Byberg, S; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M; Martins, C L; Aaby, P; Benn, C S; Fisker, A B
Different Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains may have different non-specific effects. We assessed the effect of two BCG strains (Danish and Russian) on childhood morbidity and BCG scarification in Guinea-Bissau. During 2011-2013, infants in the Bandim Health Project's urban study area received the Danish or Russian BCG in a natural experiment. Health center consultations were registered at point of care and scar status and size at age 4½ months. We assessed the effect of strain on consultation rates between vaccination and age 45days in Cox proportional hazards models. Scar prevalence and size were compared using binomial regression and ranksum tests. Among 1206 children, 18% received Danish BCG (n=215) and 82% Russian BCG (n=991). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for consultations was 0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.46) for Danish BCG compared with Russian BCG. Girls vaccinated with Danish BCG tended to have lower consultation rates compared with girls vaccinated with Russian BCG (aHR 0.56 (0.25-1.24)), whereas the effect was opposite for boys (aHR 1.24 (0.74-2.11)), p=0.09. Children vaccinated with Danish BCG were more likely to develop a scar (97%) than children vaccinated with Russian BCG (87%), the relative risk (RR) being 1.11 (1.06-1.16). The effect was stronger in girls, and BCG scar size was larger among infants vaccinated with the Danish strain. BCG strain influences scar prevalence and scar size, and may have sex differential effects on morbidity. BCG strains are currently used interchangeably, but BCG scarring has been linked to subsequent survival. Hence, more research into the health effects of different BCG strains is warranted. Small adjustments of BCG production could potentially lower childhood morbidity and mortality at low cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adamsen, Lis; Larsen, Kristian; Bjerregaard, Lene; Madsen, Jan K
The aim of this study was to examine whether there was a difference between clinical nurses who were research-active, and clinical nurses who were nonresearch-active in utilization of research. A further aim was to identify the most significant barriers faced by a group of Danish clinical nurses in their use of research. Discrepancy between the improved quality of research results and the lack of implementing them was the starting point for a series of studies which showed the types of barriers clinical nurses found especially cumbersome when applying the research results of other researchers. This study investigates whether the clinical nurses' own engagement in research had any impact on their perception of research utilization. The study had an exploratory and descriptive design. Seventy-nine Danish clinical nurses participated and semi-structured interviewing was used as the research method. There was a statistically significant difference between the research-active and nonresearch-active nurses on various variables. The study showed that, to a larger extent, research-active nurses used evidence-based knowledge and were generally more internationally orientated. Furthermore, two important barriers for research utilization were identified by all 79 clinical nurses included in the study, i.e. 90% of the nurses explained that the quantity of research results was overwhelming, and 75% of them found that they were unable to evaluate the quality of the research. Clinical nurses, who were research-active themselves, experienced more success in overcoming some of the barriers, which existed in applying research to practice. The research potential found amongst clinical nurses in Denmark needed to be further supported through training and guidance in research methodology, establishing introductory stipends and part-time research positions. By doing so, some of the barriers affecting research utilization and the so-called theory-practice gap might be reduced. Further
Kristensen, Solvejg; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan; Christensen, Karl Bang
Purpose Measuring and developing a safe culture in health care is a focus point in creating highly reliable organizations being successful in avoiding patient safety incidents where these could normally be expected. Questionnaires can be used to capture a snapshot of an employee’s perceptions of patient safety culture. A commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The purpose of this study was to adapt the SAQ for use in Danish hospitals, assess its construct validity and reliability, and present benchmark data. Materials and methods The SAQ was translated and adapted for the Danish setting (SAQ-DK). The SAQ-DK was distributed to 1,263 staff members from 31 in- and outpatient units (clinical areas) across five somatic and one psychiatric hospitals through meeting administration, hand delivery, and mailing. Construct validity and reliability were tested in a cross-sectional study. Goodness-of-fit indices from confirmatory factor analysis were reported along with inter-item correlations, Cronbach’s alpha (α), and item and subscale scores. Results Participation was 73.2% (N=925) of invited health care workers. Goodness-of-fit indices from the confirmatory factor analysis showed: c2=1496.76, P<0.001, CFI 0.901, RMSEA (90% CI) 0.053 (0.050–0056), Probability RMSEA (p close)=0.057. Inter-scale correlations between the factors showed moderate-to-high correlations. The scale stress recognition had significant negative correlations with each of the other scales. Questionnaire reliability was high, (α=0.89), and scale reliability ranged from α=0.70 to α=0.86 for the six scales. Proportions of participants with a positive attitude to each of the six SAQ scales did not differ between the somatic and psychiatric health care staff. Substantial variability at the unit level in all six scale mean scores was found within the somatic and the psychiatric samples. Conclusion SAQ-DK showed good construct validity and
Karlsson, Leena Eklund; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Winblad, Malin; Aro, Arja R.
Collaboration between research and policy is an essential element for knowledge-based public health. However, only half of the Danish municipalities have experience with collaborating with researchers or other stakeholders. Through content analysis of interviews and policy documents the study explores the involvement of external stakeholders in…
Lund Hansen, Marianne Taulo; Nielsen, Signe Smith
Communication between health professional and patient is central for treatment and patient safety in the health-care system. This systematic review examines the last ten years of specialist literature concerning interpretation in the Danish health-care system. Structural search in two databases, screening of references and recommended literature from two scientists led to identification of seven relevant articles. The review showed that professional interpreters were not used consistently when needed. Family members were also used as interpreters. These results were supported by international investigations.
Rasmussen, Mette; Krølner, Rikke; Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
Background Intermittent monitoring of fruit and vegetable intake at the population level is essential for the evaluation and planning of national dietary interventions. Yet, only a limited number of studies on time trends in fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents have been published internationally. In Denmark, national comprehensive campaigns to enhance fruit and vegetable consumption were initiated in 2001. This paper describes secular trends in fruit intake among Danish adolescents by six comparable school surveys from 1988 to 2006. The paper demonstrates and discusses the consequences of measurement changes introduced in long-term trend analyses. Methods We used Danish data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from students aged 11, 13 and 15 total (n = 23,871) from a random sample of schools. Data on fruit intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire. Due to changes in number of response categories beween surveys, different cut-points were analysed. Results The prevalence of students eating fruit at least once daily ranged from 78.3% among 13-year-old girls in 1988 to 17.3% among 15-year-old boys in 2002. Based on the six data collections, analyses of trends showed a significant decrease in prevalence of students eating fruit at least once daily from 1988 to 2002 (all p-values < 0.0001). In all age and gender groups, a significant increase in intake occurred between 2002 and 2006 (all p-values < 0.0065). Analyses of alternative cut-points revealed similar results. Conclusion Fruit consumption among Danish schoolchildren decreased from 1988 to 2002 with an increase since 2002. We suggest that the increase may be attributable to a nation-wide initiative conducted in Denmark since 2001 to increase the intake of fruit and vegetables in the population. Still, the results imply that a
von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Lindberg, Ellinor; Jensen, Lise; Hedman, Lea; Li, Xuemeng; Väisänen, Elina; Hedman, Klaus; Norja, Päivi
The recently discovered human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is found most frequently in injection drug users, HIV-positive patients, and in haemophiliacs. Studies from Ghana report the finding of PARV4 in plasma from 2 to 12% of children without acute infection, and in nasal secretions and faecal samples. Studies of PARV4 in children from industrialized countries are few. We aimed to describe the occurrence of PARV4 in a population-based birth cohort of 228 Danish mothers and their healthy children who previously participated in a study of respiratory tract infections in infancy. Children were included over a whole calendar year and were monitored through monthly home visits through the first year of life. Plasma samples for the present study were available from 228 mothers, 176 newborns, and 202 12-months-old children. All samples were analysed for the presence of PARV4 antibodies by enzyme immunoassay, and samples with detectable antibodies were in addition studied by real-time PCR. One (0.4%) of 228 mothers had PARV4 IgG exceeding the cut-off absorbance level and another had borderline IgG reactivity. No mother among these two had an acute infection, as they were IgM and PARV4 DNA negative. All blood samples from newborns and one-year-old children had IgG and IgM reactivity below cut-off. PARV4 is rare in Danish mothers and infants. Further studies are needed, in both rural and urban settings, to investigate the epidemiology and clinical significance of this novel human parvovirus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Martinsen, Bente; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard
Nursing was established in Denmark as a scholarly tradition in the late nineteen eighties, and ethnography was a preferred method. No critical review has yet summarised accomplishments and gaps and pointing at directions for the future methodological development and research herein. This review critically examines the current state of the use of ethnographic methodology in the body of knowledge from Danish nursing scholars. We performed a systematic literature search in relevant databases from 2003 to 2016. The studies included were critically appraised by all authors for methodological robustness using the ten-item instrument QARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. Two hundred and eight studies met our inclusion criteria and 45 papers were included; the critical appraisal gave evidence of studies with certain robustness, except for the first question concerning the congruity between the papers philosophical perspective and methodology and the seventh question concerning reflections about the influence of the researcher on the study and vice versa. In most studies (n = 34), study aims and arguments for selecting ethnographic research are presented. Additionally, method sections in many studies illustrated that ethnographical methodology is nurtured by references such as Hammersley and Atkinson or Spradley. Evidence exists that Danish nursing scholars' body of knowledge nurtures the ethnographic methodology mainly by the same few authors; however, whether this is an expression of a deliberate strategy or malnutrition in the form of lack of knowledge of other methodological options appears yet unanswered. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter
The biochemical methane potential (BMP) is an essential parameter when using first order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate methane (CH4) generation from landfills. Different categories of waste (mixed, shredder and sludge waste) with a low-organic content and temporarily stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55°C for more than 60 days, with continuous monitoring of the cumulative CH4 generation. Results showed that samples of mixed waste and shredder waste had similar BMP results, which was in the range of 5.4-9.1 kg CH4/ton waste (wet weight) on average. As a calculated consequence, their degradable organic carbon content (DOCC) was in the range of 0.44-0.70% of total weight (wet waste). Numeric values of both parameters were much lower than values of traditional municipal solid waste (MSW), as well as default numeric values in current FOD models. The sludge waste and temporarily stored combustible waste showed BMP values of 51.8-69.6 and 106.6-117.3 kg CH4/ton waste on average, respectively, and DOCC values of 3.84-5.12% and 7.96-8.74% of total weight. The same category of waste from different Danish landfills did not show significant variation. This research studied the BMP of Danish low-organic waste for the first time, which is important and valuable for using current FOD LFG generation models to estimate realistic CH4 emissions from modern landfills receiving low-organic waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B
Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history
Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Andersen, Berit; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Christensen, Jette; Johansen, Tonje; Hariri, Jalil; Christiansen, Sanne; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth
The first birth cohorts of women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination as girls are now entering cervical screening. However, there is no international consensus on how to screen HPV vaccinated women. These women are better protected against cervical cancer and could therefore be offered less intensive screening. Primary HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology, allowing for a longer screening interval. The aim of Trial23 is to investigate if primary HPV testing with cytology triage of HPV positive samples is a reasonable screening scheme for women offered HPV vaccination as girls. Trial23 is a method study embedded in the existing cervical screening programme in four out of five Danish regions. Without affecting the screening programme, women born in 1994 are randomised to present screening with liquid-based cytology every third year (present programme arm) or present screening plus an HPV test (HPV arm). The study started 1 February 2017 and will run over three screening rounds corresponding to 7-8 years. The primary endpoint is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or above. The trial is undertaken as a non-inferiority study including intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. The potential effect of primary HPV screening with a 6-year interval will be calculated from the observed data. The study protocol has been submitted to the ethical committee and deemed a method study. All women are screened according to routine guidelines. The study will contribute new evidence on the future screening of HPV vaccinated birth cohorts of women. All results will be published in open-access journal. NCT03049553; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Frølich, Anne
Introduction: Despite many initiatives to improve coordination of patient pathways and intersectoral cooperation, Danish health care is still fragmented, lacking intra- and interorganisational integration. This study explores barriers to and facilitators of interorganisational integration as perceived by healthcare professionals caring for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease within the Danish healthcare system. Methods: Seven focus groups were conducted in January through July 2014 with 21 informants from general practice, local healthcare centres and a pulmonary department at a university hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. Results and discussion: Our results can be grouped into five influencing areas for interorganisational integration: communication/information transfer, committed leadership, patient engagement, the role and competencies of the general practitioner and organisational culture. Proposed solutions to barriers in each area hold the potential to improve care integration as experienced by individuals responsible for supporting and facilitating it. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care relate to clinical, professional, functional and normative integration. Especially, clinical, functional and normative integration seems fundamental to developing integrated care in practice from the perspective of healthcare professionals. PMID:27616948
Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae
The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance.
Berendt, Louise; Håkansson, Cecilia; Bach, Karin Friis; Dalhoff, Kim; Andreasen, Per Buch; Petersen, Lene Grejs; Andersen, Elin; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen
To determine the impact of the European Union's Clinical Trials Directive on the number of academic drug trials carried out in Denmark. Retrospective review of applications for drug trials to the Danish Medicines Agency, 1993-2006. Applications for drug trials for alternate years were classified as academic or commercial trials. A random subset of academic trials was reviewed for number of participants in and intended monitoring of the trials. Academic and commercial drug trials showed an identical steady decline from 1993 to 2006 and no noticeable change after 2004 when good clinical practice became mandatory for academic trials. The Clinical Trials Directive introduced in May 2004 to ensure good clinical practice for academic drug trials was not associated with a decline in research activity in Denmark; presumably because good clinical practice units had already been in place in Danish universities since 1999. With such an infrastructure academic researchers can do drug trials under the same regulations as drug companies.
Specht, Ina Olmer; Huybrechts, Inge; Frederiksen, Peder; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Chajes, Veronique; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Little is known about the causes of childhood cancer, partly as not many children develop cancer, although childhood cancer is a leading cause of death by disease in the young. The young age of the children suggests that risk factors for childhood cancer may be present during pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that exposure to trans-fat, a type of unsaturated fat common in industrially produced foods (iTFA), has adverse health effects in adults, including the risk of developing cancer. Haematopoietic neoplasms are the most common cancer types among European children under the age of 15 years. This study will bring new knowledge as to whether trans-fat and other fatty acids may also increase the risk of developing haematopoietic neoplasms during childhood. We will investigate if the Danish iTFA legislation ban, which radically reduced the use of iTFA in foodstuffs, influenced the risk of childhood haematopoietic neoplasms in children born either before or after the change in legislation, adjusting for relevant secular trends. Further, in a case-control study, we will examine if levels of fatty acids in dried blood spots from newborns can predict the risk of developing childhood haematopoietic neoplasms. Permission from the Danish Data Protection Agency and the Ethical Committee has been granted. The results from this study will provide important information about fatty acids in the mother's diet as a contributor to development of haematopoietic neoplasms during childhood, which may result in relevant preventive action. Not relevant.
Olesen, Charlotte; de Vries, Corinne S; Thrane, Nana; MacDonald, Tom M; Larsen, Helle; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
Aims The diabetogenic effect of diuretics, as well as the indication for prescribing them, may impact on fetal growth. We analysed whether the purchase of prescription drugs for diuretics during pregnancy was associated with measures of fetal growth. Methods During 1991–98 all women who purchased prescription drugs for diuretics during pregnancy were identified in the Northern Jutland Prescription Database (NJDP), Denmark, and in the Medicines Monitoring Unit's Database (MEMO), Scotland. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from the Danish Birth Registry, the Danish Hospital Discharge Registry and the Scottish Tayside Neonatal Database. Information on diabetes, hypertension and prepregnancy weight were obtained by hospital record review in a sample of women in the Danish cohort. Women who did not purchase prescription diuretics during pregnancy were used as a reference group in both cohorts. Results Danish women who purchased prescription loop diuretics during pregnancy gave birth to infants with higher birth weights than women who did not use diuretics; mean difference 104.7 g (95% CI; 2.6, 206.9). However, the high prevalence of diabetes (10.3%) among Danish women who purchased prescription loop diuretics during pregnancy might explain this result. Both the Danish and the Scottish women who purchased prescription diuretics during their pregnancy were at increased risk of preterm delivery (< 37 completed weeks); ORs: 1.8 (CI; 1.2, 2.7)NJDP, 1.9 (CI; 0.9, 4.3)MEMO. The proportion of hypertension among women who purchased prescription thiazides was 15.8%, and the risk of having an infant with a birth weight (BW) < 2500 g was increased; ORs: 2.6 (CI; 1.4, 5.0)NJDP, 2.4 (CI; 0.8, 7.8)MEMO. Conclusions Prescribing diuretics during pregnancy was associated with differences in birth weight and incidence of preterm delivery. Confounding by indication may explain the findings. PMID:11259987
This study explored how Danish students experienced returning to school following parental bereavement. Eighteen focus group interviews were conducted with 39 participants aged 9 to 17. All participants had experienced the loss of a primary caregiver. Data collection was divided into two phases. In Phase I, 22 participants from four grief groups were interviewed 4 times over the course of a year. During Phase II, confirmatory focus groups were undertaken with the 17 participants. This article explores the findings related to ideas and suggestions made by the students about how the Danish school response could be improved to better meet their needs. The presentation of data is divided into seven themes, which are: Desired school response; Desired support from teachers; Desired boundaries between students and teachers; Desired collaboration; Desired support from peers; Desired rules and structure, and; Desires related to gifts and rituals. Study findings indicate that most students want to be included and have a say when the school plans how to respond to their loss. Students further highlight a need for teacher support when having to reconnect with the class; a need for set rules in relation to leaving the class when feeling sad, and; a need for schools to see the loss as a life-changing event, and grief as something that does not simply disappear after a few months. The article concludes by discussing the ways in which the recommendations provided by the participants can be incorporated into a modern revision of Danish school bereavement response plans.
Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter
Methane (CH₄) generated from low-organic waste degradation at four Danish landfills was estimated by three first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models (LandGEM, IPCC, and Afvalzorg). Actual waste data from Danish landfills were applied to fit model (IPCC and Afvalzorg) required categories. In general, the single-phase model, LandGEM, significantly overestimated CH₄generation, because it applied too high default values for key parameters to handle low-organic waste scenarios. The key parameters were biochemical CH₄potential (BMP) and CH₄generation rate constant (k-value). In comparison to the IPCC model, the Afvalzorg model was more suitable for estimating CH₄generation at Danish landfills, because it defined more proper waste categories rather than traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions. Moreover, the Afvalzorg model could better show the influence of not only the total disposed waste amount, but also various waste categories. By using laboratory-determined BMPs and k-values for shredder, sludge, mixed bulky waste, and street-cleaning waste, the Afvalzorg model was revised. The revised model estimated smaller cumulative CH₄generation results at the four Danish landfills (from the start of disposal until 2020 and until 2100). Through a CH₄mass balance approach, fugitive CH₄emissions from whole sites and a specific cell for shredder waste were aggregated based on the revised Afvalzorg model outcomes. Aggregated results were in good agreement with field measurements, indicating that the revised Afvalzorg model could provide practical and accurate estimation for Danish LFG emissions. This study is valuable for both researchers and engineers aiming to predict, control, and mitigate fugitive CH₄emissions from landfills receiving low-organic waste. Landfill operators use the first-order decay (FOD) models to estimate methane (CH₄) generation. A single-phase model (LandGEM) and a traditional model (IPCC) could result in
The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements
Mørck, Thit A.; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.
Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlationsmore » between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to
Schüz, Joachim; Waldemar, Gunhild; Olsen, Jørgen H; Johansen, Christoffer
The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between cellular telephone use and risks for various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We conducted a large nationwide cohort study of 420 095 persons whose first cellular telephone subscription was between 1982 and 1995, who were followed through 2003 for hospital contacts for a diagnosis of a CNS disorder. Standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) were derived by dividing the number of hospital contacts in the cohort by the number expected in the Danish population. The SHRs were increased by 10-20% for migraine and vertigo. No associations were seen for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis or epilepsy in women. SHRs decreased by 30-40% were observed for dementia (Alzheimer disease, vascular and other dementia), Parkinson disease and epilepsy among men. In analyses restricted to subscribers of 10 years or more, the SHRs remained similarly increased for migraine and vertigo and similarly decreased for Alzheimer disease and other dementia and epilepsy (in men); the other SHRs were close to unity. In conclusion, the excesses of migraine and vertigo observed in this first study on cellular telephones and CNS disease deserve further attention. An interplay of a healthy cohort effect and reversed causation bias due to prodromal symptoms impedes detection of a possible association with dementia and Parkinson disease. Identification of the factors that result in a healthy cohort might be of interest for elucidation of the etiology of these diseases.
Christensen, Mette Skovgaard; Hansen, Johnni; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Toft, Gunnar; Kolstad, Henrik
Occupational exposure to styrene is widespread and has been suggested to be carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to styrene increases the risk of cancer, in particular lymphohematopoietic cancers. We established a study population of 72,292 workers employed in 443 small and medium-sized companies producing reinforced plastics 1964-2007 by utilizing several national registries, expert assessment, and worker survey data. We identified incident cancer cases from 1968 to 2012 in the national Danish cancer registry and computed standardized incidence rate ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) based on national rates. Increasing SIRs of Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and cancer of nasal cavities and sinuses were inconsistently associated with increasing duration of employment, early year of first employment, or styrene exposure probability. No such trends were observed for cancer of the esophagus, pancreas, lung, kidney, or urinary bladder, which have previously been associated with styrene exposure. Lung cancer showed an overall increased risk that decreased by duration of employment. Occupational styrene exposure may be associated with Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and cancer of nasal cavities and sinuses. Further studies are needed to evaluate if the observed associations are likely to be causal.
Herreid, Clyde Freeman
This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)
Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…
Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea; Korshøj, Lene; Voldsgaard, Inge; Nordentoft, Merete
Aim of database To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care in psychiatric hospitals or outpatient clinics. During the first year after the diagnosis, patients are classified as incident patients, and after this period as prevalent patients. Main variables The registry currently contains 21 clinical quality measures in relation to the following domains: diagnostic evaluation, antipsychotic treatment including adverse reactions, cardiovascular risk factors including laboratory values, family intervention, psychoeducation, postdischarge mental health care, assessment of suicide risk in relation to discharge, and assessment of global functioning. Descriptive data The recorded data are available electronically for the reporting clinicians and responsible administrative personnel, and they are updated monthly. The registry publishes the national and regional results of all included quality measures in the annual audit reports. External researchers may obtain access to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time devoted is necessary to maintain the integrity of the registry and the validity of the data. PMID:27843348
Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M
The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.
Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Andersen, Berit; Laurberg, Søren; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter
To investigate the diagnostic activity in general practice and the cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in individuals invited to the Danish national screening programme for CRC. A historical population-based cohort study. The Danish CRC screening programme and general practice. The 376,198 individuals invited to the Danish CRC screening programme from 1 March to 31 December 2014. The diagnostic activity (consultations and haemoglobin measures) in general practice in the year preceding the screening invitation and the cumulated incidence of CRC in the year following the screening invitation. Screening participants had significantly higher diagnostic activity than non-participants. Individuals with a positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT) had higher diagnostic activity compared to individuals with a negative FIT, and a small increase in the months leading up to the invitation. Individuals with a screen-detected CRC had lower diagnostic activity than individuals with no CRC. In total, 308 (25.3%) of CRCs diagnosed in the invited population were diagnosed outside the screening programme. Non-participants with CRC more often had low socio-economic status, high comorbidity and stage IV CRC than participants with CRC. There was a tendency that participants and those with a positive FIT had a higher diagnostic activity the year before the screening. This was not seen for those with CRC detected through screening. CRC must still be diagnosed in general practice in the invited population and non-participants are of special interest as they have higher risk of late stage CRC. Key Points Current awareness:Individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) in screening may be symptomatic and CRC may still occur outside screening in the invited population. Most important points:The majority of individuals with CRC in screening cannot be expected to be diagnosed on symptomatic presentation in general practice GPs have to be aware that CRC still occurs outside screening in
Poulsen, N A; Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Paulsson, M; Larsen, L B; Larsen, M K
The composition of milk fat from dairy cows is related to both genetic and environmental factors. Here, the effect of feed and herd was examined in 3 Scandinavian breeds, namely Danish Holstein-Friesian (DH), Danish Jersey (DJ), and Swedish Red (SR). In total, milk samples from 1,298 cows kept in indoor housing systems were collected from 61 conventional dairy herds in Denmark and Sweden. The fatty acid (FA) composition of milk was determined by gas chromatography and the content of α-tocopherol by HPLC. Based on the 17 individual FA determined, distinct FA profiles were observed for all breeds using univariate and multivariate statistics. The DJ cows were characterized by higher levels of saturated short-chain FA; in contrast, DH cows had higher content of unsaturated C18 FA, whereas higher levels of primarily C14:0, C14:1, C18:1 cis-9, and C18:3n-3 were evident in SR cows. This variation in milk fat composition across breeds was further reflected in different desaturase indices, which were generally higher in SR cows. In addition, α-tocopherol differed significantly among breeds, with DJ cows having the highest content. Herd-specific feeding plans were collected, and different feed items were separated into 4 broad feed categories, including grass products, maize silage, grain, and concentrate. The pronounced differences in overall feed composition among breeds were, to a large extent, due to regional differences between countries, with SR receiving higher levels of grain and grass silage compared with the Danish breeds. Within breeds, differences in feeding regimens among herds were furthermore higher in SR. Significant correlations between feed category and individual FA were observed in all breeds. Furthermore, variance components were estimated and used to determine the proportion of phenotypic variation that could be explained by herd. The herd effect for individual FA was generally lower for DH compared with the 2 other breeds. In addition, very low herd
Kildebro, Niels; Fergo, Charlotte; Rosenberg, Jacob
The IT solutions of the Danish health-care system have been under criticism. Especially the time spent on login. We examined if the daily recommended pelvic floor muscle training could be achieved during login. Login time was measured on five laptops used in daily care in a hospital. Time to conduct pelvic floor training was measured in six volunteers. Median login time/day was 77 minutes and four seconds, and median time to complete exercises was 35 minutes and 14 seconds. The hypothesis was verified, and further studies to optimize time spent on login are recommended. not relevant. not relevant.