Science.gov

Sample records for danish draft-board study

  1. Premorbid intelligence and educational level in bipolar and unipolar disorders: a Danish draft board study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Sæbye, Ditte; Urfer-Parnas, Annick; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Parnas, Josef

    2012-02-01

    Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups. IQ and educational level were assessed at the draft board, and hospital diagnoses were followed up to the ages 43-54 years for 294 individuals hospitalized with bipolar disorder and 1434 with unipolar or depressive disorder. Controls comprised 20,531 individuals without psychiatric registration. Mean IQs of 98.32 and 96.71 were observed for patients with bipolar and depressive disorder respectively. For both patient groups a unimodal, slightly negatively skewed distribution was observed. The difference between the two patient samples was not statistically significant (p=0.10), but both obtained lower mean scores than the controls (p<0.0001 for unipolar and p=0.057 for bipolar patients). The means of the index of educational level were 5.22 and 4.82 for bipolar and unipolar patients (p=0.0006). The mean educational level was similar to the controls in bipolar disorder (p=0.15), while it was significantly lower compared to the controls in the unipolar group (p=0.0005). When possible prodromal patients were excluded, essentially the same results were observed. The study was based on clinical hospital admission diagnoses. Clinicians should be aware of the relatively high intelligence and educational level in patients with bipolar disorder compared with patients with unipolar disorder. However, we were unable to confirm distinct subgroups of bipolar disorder with high and low premorbid intelligence and educational level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Danish draft board's intelligence test, Børge Priens Prøve: psychometric properties and research applications through 50 years.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Thomas W

    2009-12-01

    For over 50 years the Danish draft board has used the same test, Børge Priens Prøve (BPP) for cognitive abilities, involving four paper-and-pencil subtests, to assess suitability for conscription. The potential availability of test scores has been an invaluable resource for research into factors relating to intelligence. In this article the circumstances of the original development of the test are briefly presented, followed by a description of the four subtests and the conditions of testing, scoring and result registration. Over forty studies are identified, including some unpublished, which have explored the psychometric properties of the BPP and have shown the relationships between intelligence as measured by the BPP and a wide range of biological, social and health-related factors.

  3. Salivary duct carcinoma: a Danish national study.

    PubMed

    Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler; Primdahl, Hanne; Kristensen, Claus A; Bjørndal, Kristine

    2016-10-01

    To present the first national series of salivary duct carcinoma patients, including survival rates and an analysis of prognostic factors. By merging three Danish nationwide registries that encompass an entire population, 34 patients diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma from 1990 to 2005 were identified. Histological slides were reviewed, and data concerning demographics, tumour site, clinical stage, treatment profiles and follow-up were retrieved. Survival estimates and prognostic factors were evaluated by comparing Kaplan-Meier plots using the Mantel-Haenszel log-rank test. Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall stage (III/IV) and vascular invasion have a negative impact on all survival measures. Involved resection margins correlated with a poorer overall survival and disease-specific survival, whereas adjuvant radiotherapy improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival. Salivary duct carcinoma incidence averages to two episodes per year in the entire Kingdom of Denmark. With half of patients in this study experiencing distant recurrences and only a third surviving at 5 years, prognosis is dismal. Advanced overall stage, vascular invasion and involved resection margins all seem to correlate with a poorer survival, while adjuvant radiotherapy significantly improved outcome. Extensive T-site surgery, neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy are therefore recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Danish Rural Eye Study: Epidemiology of Adult Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena; La Cour, Morten; Klemp, Kristian; Kvetny, Jan; Erngaard, Ditte; Moldow, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where indicated. Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA <20/40 in the better-seeing eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes. The frequency of diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol or self-reported diagnosis) was 5.9% (n = 227), including 1.3% (n = 51) newly diagnosed in the GESUS. Of participants determined to have VI due to exudative AMD, 50% had received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. We report a relatively low frequency of VI among Danish adults over 59 years of age compared with that observed 10-15 years ago, which is both consistent with other recent Scandinavian studies and reflective of our relatively healthy and mobile population sample.

  5. Digital questionnaire platform in the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, K S; Felsted, N; Mikkelsen, S; Nielsen, M H; Thørner, L W; Pedersen, O B; Sørensen, E; Nielsen, K R; Bruun, M T; Werge, T; Erikstrup, C; Hansen, T; Ullum, H

    2016-10-01

    The Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) is a prospective, population-based study and biobank. Since 2010, 100,000 Danish blood donors have been included in the study. Prior to July 2015 all participating donors had to complete a paper-based questionnaire. Here we describe the establishment of a digital tablet-based questionnaire platform implemented in blood bank sites across Denmark. The digital questionnaire was developed using the open source survey software tool LimeSurvey. The participants accesses the questionnaire online with a standard SSL encrypted HTTP connection using their personal civil registration numbers. The questionnaire is placed at a front-end web server and a collection server retrieves the completed questionnaires. Data from blood samples, register data, genetic data and verification of signed informed consent are then transferred to and merged with the questionnaire data in the DBDS database. The digital platform enables personalized questionnaires, presenting only questions relevant to the specific donor by hiding unneeded follow-up questions on screening question results. New versions of questionnaires are immediately available at all blood collection facilities when new projects are initiated. The digital platform is a faster, cost-effective and more flexible solution to collect valid data from participating donors compared to paper-based questionnaires. The overall system can be used around the world by the use of Internet connection, but the level of security depends on the sensitivity of the data to be collected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks. Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected from 1996 until 2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression, using time of first episode of sickness absence as the primary outcome. Multiparity 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.45), overweight 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.18), obesity 1.23 (95% CI 1.15-1.31), ART 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20), and TTP >12 months 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13) were associated with higher HR of sickness absence. Physical exercise of >120 minutes per week was associated with lower HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.95). Risk for sickness absence was higher among women who were multiparous, overweight, obese, received ART, and had prolonged TTP, and lower among women engaged in leisure-time physical exercise. Few studies have investigated these associations, and the results should be confirmed in other studies of pregnant women.

  7. Is Danish Difficult to Acquire? Evidence from Nordic Past-Tense Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…

  8. Melanoma of the skin in the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Klausen, Siri; Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Gaist, David

    2018-01-15

    The nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database both record data on melanoma for purposes of monitoring, quality assurance and research. However, the data quality of the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database has not been formally evaluated. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of melanoma diagnosis for random samples of 200 patients from the Cancer Registry (n=200) and the Melanoma Database (n=200) during 2004-2014, using the Danish Pathology Registry as 'gold-standard' reference. We further validated tumor characteristics in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database. Additionally, we estimated the PPV of in situ melanoma diagnoses in the Melanoma Database, and the sensitivity of melanoma diagnoses in 2004-2014. The PPVs of melanoma in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database were 97% (95% CI, 94-99) and 100%. The sensitivity was 90% in the Cancer Registry and 77% in the Melanoma Database. The PPV of in situ melanomas in the Melanoma Database was 97% and the sensitivity was 56%. In the Melanoma Database, we observed PPVs of ulceration of 75% and Breslow thickness of 96%. The PPV of histologic subtypes varied between 87%-100% in the Cancer Registry and 93%-100% in the Melanoma Database. The PPVs for anatomical localization were 83%-95.0% in the Cancer Registry and 93%-100% in the Melanoma Database. The data quality in both the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database are high, supporting their use in epidemiologic studies.

  9. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P

    2016-11-01

    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. The Danish National Youth Study 2014: Study design, population characteristics and non-response analysis.

    PubMed

    Pisinger, Veronica; Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Bendtsen, Pernille; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to give a description of the Danish National Youth Study 2014 in terms of study design, study population and questionnaire content. The differences between participants and non-participants regarding socioeconomic characteristics are also described. The Danish National Youth Study 2014 was a web-based survey with data collected through self-completion questionnaires administered in the classroom. There were two questionnaires: one for students, with >250 core questions; and one for school leaders on the school environment. Data collection took place at 119 high schools and 10 vocational schools. A total of 75,853 students participated (70,674 high school students and 5179 vocational school students). In the participating schools, 85% of high school students and 69% of vocational school students took part in the survey. A total of 166 school leaders responded. Among the high school students, 61% were girls, and among vocational school students, 24% were girls. The average age was 17.9 years for high school students and 20.9 years for vocational school students. Participants were more likely than non-participants to be of Danish origin and to have parents with higher educational levels and a higher disposable income. The Danish National Youth Study 2014 contributes to knowledge on adolescent health behaviour, health and well-being. It is unique in its size, diversity of questionnaire content, high participation rate and possibility of linkage to various national registers through the Danish Civil Registration System. The study offers great opportunities for health planning and a wide range of future research projects.

  11. Early Discontinuation of Montelukast Treatment; A Danish Nationwide Utilization Study.

    PubMed

    Farah, Rahmo Ibrahim; Damkier, Per; Christiansen, Anders; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard

    2018-02-13

    Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, was marketed in 1998 as an oral supplementary treatment to patients with mild to moderate asthma. The aim of this study was to describe the early discontinuation pattern among montelukast users in Denmark in the period of 1 March 1998 to 31 December 2016, and to identify demographic characteristics possibly associated with early discontinuation. This nationwide drug utilization study was based on data collected from three nationwide Danish registers. All montelukast users who redeemed at least one prescription in the study period were identified. Early discontinuation was defined as failing to fill a second prescription for montelukast within at least a year after the initial montelukast prescription. Among 135,271 included montelukast users, 47,480 (35%) discontinued the use of montelukast after a single redeemed prescription. The trend in early discontinuation increased throughout the years. The most predominant demographic risk factors for early discontinuation were prescription for only nasal topical anti-allergic treatment up to a year prior to montelukast initiation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.25;95% confidence interval [CI] 2.13-2.38), as well as suspected off-label use (adjusted OR 2.02;95%CI 1.97-2.08). Several risk factors were associated with a decreased risk of early discontinuation; most pronounced was a prescription of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) within a year up to montelukast initiation (adjusted OR 0.47 [95%CI 0.46-0.49]). Early discontinuation was more pronounced after patent expiry in 2012 (adjusted OR 1.42 [95%CI 1.38-1.45]). In conclusion, we found that early montelukast discontinuation increased during the last 19 years. Appropriateness of the treatment indication as estimated by concomitant prescription of adequate inhalation therapy was associated with a low risk of early discontinuation. A more pronounced early discontinuation was observed after patent expiry in 2012, which could reflect a

  12. Skiing injuries: a study from a Danish community.

    PubMed Central

    Møller-Madsen, B; Jakobsen, B W; Villadsen, I

    1990-01-01

    A Danish investigation of skiing injuries is presented from the casualty wards of two hospitals. The material consisted of 119 skiing injuries. Fifty-three per cent of the patients were women. Eighty-three injuries occurred abroad, mainly in Austria and Norway. Injury rate was not related to sex. The highest injury rate was found in the age group 20 to 29 years old. The most frequent injuries were sprains (knee 43, finger 14), fractures (39) and contusions (19). Injuries requiring hospitalization were common. None of these resulted in permanent major disability. PMID:2265312

  13. Information Literacy, Learning, and the Public Library: A Study of Danish High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Bo Gerner; Borlund, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on a study of 12 Danish high school students' perceptions of public libraries' role in learning, user education, information literacy, and librarians' information competencies. The study is undertaken by use of literature review and interviews with a purposive select sample of public library users in Denmark. The study…

  14. Early Signs of Autism in Toddlers: A Follow-Up Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemcke, Sanne; Juul, Svend; Parner, Erik T.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    To identify possible early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the Danish National Birth Cohort, we studied prospectively collected interviews from 76,441 mothers about their children's development and behaviour at 6 and 18 months. In Danish national registries, 720 children with ASD and 231 children with intellectual disability (ID)…

  15. Danish Rural Eye Study: the association of preschool vision screening with the prevalence of amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina; Klemp, Kristian; Erngaard, Ditte; la Cour, Morten; Buch, Helena

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause of amblyopia was anisometropia (45.5%, 25/55). Amblyopia was the most common cause of MVI. Following the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme, which has an approximate attendance rate of 95%, the prevalence of amblyopia decreased by fourfold. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Respiratory cancer in Danish bakers: a 10 year cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Tüchsen, F; Nordholm, L

    1986-01-01

    A national cohort based on the census at 9 November 1970 and the death registration files from 1970 to 1980 was analysed to see if skilled Danish bakers had an excess of respiratory cancer. The group of skilled bakers was divided into occupational subgroups to try to narrow down the possible causes of cancer. Significant excess mortality was found among skilled bakers in retail bakeries, skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants, and independent bakers. To adjust for confounding factors, the SMR was calculated with control groups of equal social status and smoking habits. With all skilled workers as the reference group, skilled bakers in retail bakeries still had an excess, but now insignificant, risk but skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants had a significant excess risk. Compared with all self employed people in urban occupations in which an average of six or fewer workers were employed as a referent group, independent bakers had an insignificant excess risk. Suspected carcinogens in bakeries include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), reaction products of PAH, free radicals, n-nitrosodimethylamine, aflatoxin, sterigmatocystin, and zeralenone. PMID:3730301

  17. Exercise treatment for drug abuse--a Danish pilot study.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2010-08-01

    The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined with the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) collected at initial admission and in follow-up interviews included information on drug use, body image, self-confidence and motivation to change behaviour. The completion rate of the participants during the training period was on average 52%, which is considered as a success in treatments with drug abusers, usually characterized by a low compliance and commitment. The results of the participants who completed the programme (n = 20) showed an increased oxygen uptake of an average of 10%, improved self-reported quality of life and a higher energy level for the majority of the participants. The addicts obtained a better body image, became more sensitive to physical pain and disorders and reduced their drug intake during the training period. The long-term effect showed that five of the 20 abusers interviewed reported that they still had not taken drugs, 10 had downgraded their intake, four experienced no change at all and one died through an overdose. The results show that physical exercise can provide important support in the treatment of drug abuse and that the main problem is maintaining change in behaviour and peer group influence to ensure long-term change.

  18. Temporal changes in occupational sitting time in the Danish workforce and associations with all-cause mortality: results from the Danish work environment cohort study.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Møller, Simone Visbjerg; Hannerz, Harald; van der Beek, Allard J; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-06-02

    Prolonged sitting has been negatively associated with a range of non-communicably diseases. However, the role of occupational sitting is less clear, and little is known on the changes of occupational sitting in a working population over time. The present study aimed to determine 1) temporal changes in occupational sitting time between 1990 and 2010 in the Danish workforce; 2) the association and possible dose-response relationship between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. This study analysed data from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), which is a cohort study of the Danish working population conducted in five yearly intervals between 1990 and 2010. Occupational sitting time is self-reported in the DWECS. To determine the association with all-cause mortality, the DWECS was linked to the Danish Register of Causes of Death via the Central Person Register. Between 1990 and 2010 the proportion of the Danish workforce who sat for at least three quarters of their work time gradually increased from 33.1 to 39.1%. All-cause mortality analyses were performed with 149,773 person-years of observation and an average follow-up of 12.61 years, during which 533 deaths were registered. None of the presented analyses found a statistically significant association between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.79; 1.18) when ≥24 hr/wk occupational sitting time was compared to <24 hr/wk for the 1990-2005 waves. Occupational sitting time increased by 18% in the Danish workforce, which seemed to be limited to people with high socio-economic status. If this increase is accompanied by increases in total sitting time, this development has serious public health implications, given the detrimental associations between total sitting time and mortality. The current study was inconclusive on the specific role that occupational sitting might play in the increased all-cause mortality risk

  19. Study design, participation and characteristics of the Danish General Suburban Population Study.

    PubMed

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Bathum, Lise; Kvetny, Jan; Rasmussen, Dorthe B; Moldow, Birgitte; Hoeg, Tracy; Jemec, Gregor B E; Berner-Nielsen, Helle; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the study design, participants and baseline characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) and to compare suburban participants with age- and gender-matched urban participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS). Data from questionnaire, health examination, biochemical measurements and public registers were collected. In GESUS the overall participation rate was 49.3% (response n = 10,621 of total n = 21,557). Among people aged 40-79 years, the participation rate was 53.9% (8,797/16,310). Participants were more frequently women, had a higher median age, a higher frequency of marriage/registered partnerships, but had a lower frequency of co-morbidities and death in the follow-up period (January 2010-May 2011 (diseases)/June 2011 (death) than the non-participants. GESUS has sufficient power to study effects of rare and common exposures or genetic variants on the occurrence of common multifactorial diseases. Compared with an age- and gender-matched urban population (n = 10,618, CGPS), participants in GESUS (n = 10,618) were less physically active, smoked less and ingested less alcohol, had higher anthropometric measures, less undiagnosed hypertension but more undiagnosed diabetes, had a lower frequency of elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein chol-esterol but higher frequency of decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated triglycerides. In GESUS, participants had a better health profile than non-participants, and participants in GESUS had a different cardiovascular risk profile than participants in the CGPS. The study received funding from the following: Johan and Lise Boserup Foundation; TrygFonden; Det Kommunale Momsfond; Johannes Fog's Foundation; Region Zealand; Region Zealand Foundation; Naestved Hospital; Naestved Hospital Foundation; The National Board of Health; Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. not relevant.

  20. Dementia and Traffic Accidents: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe; Vass, Mikkel; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2016-01-01

    Background As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. Objective Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. Methods We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual’s personal data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used for the main analysis. Results Our study protocol has 3 phases including data collection, data analysis, and reporting. The first phase of register-based data collection of 853,228 individual’s personal information was completed in August, 2016. The next phase is data analysis, which is expected to be finished before December 2016, and thereafter writing publications based on the findings. The study started in January 2016 and will end in December 2018. Discussion This study covers the entire elderly population of Denmark, and thereby will avoid selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic

  1. Predictors of undiagnosed prevalent type 2 diabetes - The Danish General Suburban Population Study.

    PubMed

    Heltberg, Andreas; Andersen, John Sahl; Sandholdt, Håkon; Siersma, Volkert; Kragstrup, Jakob; Ellervik, Christina

    2018-02-01

    To investigate how self-reported risk factors (including socioeconomic status) predict undiagnosed, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To externally validate Leicester Risk Assessment Score (LRAS), Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and Danish Diabetes Risk Score (DDRS), and to investigate how these predict a European Heart SCORE≥5% in a Danish population study. We included 21,205 adults from the Danish General Suburban Population Study. We used relative importance calculations of self-reported variables in prediction of undiagnosed T2DM. We externally validated established prediction models reporting ROC-curves for undiagnosed T2DM, pre-diabetes and SCORE. More than 20% of people with T2DM were undiagnosed. The 7 most important self-rated predictors in sequential order were high BMI, antihypertensive-therapy, age, cardiovascular disease, waist-circumference, fitness compared to peers and family disposition for T2DM. The Area Under the Curve for prediction of undiagnosed T2DM was 77.1 for LRAS; 75.4 for DDRS and 67.9 for FINDRISC. AUCs for SCORE was 75.1 for LRAS; 62.3 for DDRS and 54.3 for FINDRISC. BMI and self-reported cardiovascular disease are important risk factors for undiagnosed T2DM. LRAS performed better than DDRS and FINDRISC in prediction of undiagnosed T2DM and SCORE≥5%. SCORE performed best in predicting pre-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies based on the Danish Adoption Register: schizophrenia, BMI, smoking, and mortality in perspective.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The genetic and familial environmental influences making up familial correlations in traits and familial aggregation of diseases may be disentangled by adoption studies. Thus, resemblance between the adoptee and the biological relatives indicates a contribution of the segregating gene they have in common, and resemblance between the adoptee and the rearing adoptive family members indicates influences of the shared family environment. The Danish Adoption Register includes information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark from 1924 to 1947. To illustrate the adoption study approach in research, we present results achieved in schizophrenia, body fatness, smoking, and mortality. Significantly higher prevalence of schizophrenia and related conditions were found in biological relatives to adoptees with schizophrenia than among biological relatives to adoptees without schizophrenia. Clear trends in body mass index of biological relatives and the weight of adoptees were found in several settings. A genetic influence on smoking habits were found within a generation. A moderate genetic influence on the mortality rate has been found. The Danish Adoption Register has contributed to the knowledge about environmental and genetic influence in various fields. Genetic influence on the risk of schizophrenia, body fatness, smoking habits, and on the mortality rate has been found.

  3. Compliance with accreditation and recommended hospital care-a Danish nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Falstie-Jensen, Anne Mette; Bogh, Søren Bie; Hollnagel, Erik; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2017-10-01

    To examine the association between compliance with accreditation and recommended hospital care. A Danish nationwide population-based follow-up study based on data from six national, clinical quality registries between November 2009 and December 2012. Public, non-psychiatric Danish hospitals. Patients with acute stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, hip fracture and bleeding/perforated ulcers. All hospitals were accredited by the first version of The Danish Healthcare Quality Programme. Compliance with accreditation was defined by level of accreditation awarded the hospital after an announced onsite survey; hence, hospitals were either fully (n = 11) or partially accredited (n = 20). Recommended hospital care included 48 process performance measures reflecting recommendations from clinical guidelines. We assessed recommended hospital care as fulfilment of the measures individually and as an all-or-none composite score. In total 449 248 processes of care were included corresponding to 68 780 patient pathways. Patients at fully accredited hospitals had a significantly higher probability of receiving care according to clinical guideline recommendations than patients at partially accredited hospitals across conditions (individual measure: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43, all-or-none: adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02-1.58). For five of the six included conditions there were an association; the pattern appeared particular strong among patients with acute stroke and hip fracture (all-or-none; acute stroke: adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.83, hip fracture: adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.00-2.49). High compliance with accreditation standards was associated with a higher level of evidence-based hospital care in Danish hospitals.

  4. Cushing's syndrome in children and adolescents: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Holst, Johanne Marie; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Rix, Mariane; Kristensen, Kurt; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Dekkers, Olaf M; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2017-05-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) affects all age groups, but epidemiologic data in young patients are very limited. We therefore examined the incidence, prevalence and hospital morbidity of CS in children and adolescents. In a nationwide cohort study, we included all Danish citizens aged 0-20 years from 1977 to 2012. Data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes and the Danish Civil Registration System. The diagnosis and treatment were validated by means of individual patient charts. Incidence rate of CS patients aged 0-20 years at diagnosis were computed (standardized to the age and sex distribution of the Danish population). The patients were followed for a maximum of 36 years. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of different hospital-recorded outcomes based on the ICD codes in patients with CS compared to the general population were assessed. We identified a total of 40 pediatric patients with CS, yielding an annual incidence of 0.89 cases/106 population (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-1.16). The median age at the time of diagnosis was 13.8 years (interquartile range: 10.5-18.2 years), 58% were female and 70% had adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. During follow-up, CS patients (excluding three malignant cases) were at increased risk of being diagnosed with infections (SIR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.05-7.54) and infertility (SIR: 4.56, 95% CI: 1.48-10.63). The three patients with an adrenocortical carcinoma died shortly after diagnosis, but mortality was not increased in the remaining patients. CS is rare in the pediatric population. The risk of morbidity related to infections and infertility is elevated and merits further attention. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy: results from a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1.73-2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42-1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way. Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces.

  6. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  7. Childhood Maltreatment and School Problems: A Danish National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Michelsen, Liv; Murphy, Siobhan

    2018-01-01

    The association between child maltreatment (CM) and educational outcomes have been well documented. However, there is a paucity of research that explores the association between different types of maltreatment and other school problems that may affect the educational outcomes of maltreated children. This study examined the association between…

  8. Danish health professionals' experiences of being coached: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from coaching-what coaching meant to them and how it influenced different aspects of their lives. The study was designed as a qualitative interview study including 5 health professionals working with quality improvement at the hospital. Depending on the individual's need, they participated in 2 to 4 coaching sessions. Afterwards, they were included in the study and interviewed. Data from the interviews was verbatim transcribed and analysed according to Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. The findings and their importance are discussed in relation to results from research in positive psychology. By picturing their job in a new perspective, the participants experienced a raised potential for mutual prioritising, actions, and job satisfaction. Two dominant themes were identified: "progressive insight leading to actions" and "expressing needs for leadership aiming for self-realization." The results indicate that coaching can be effective in enhancing not only self-insight and core performance, but also increased positive feelings. By looking at the experiences of coaching, we have elucidated why coaching in this instance could be a method used to strengthen the individual employee. The results indicate that coaching can improve the work attitude of the participants and pave the way for new and progressive insights. Copyright © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  9. The Mediterranean diet in relation to mortality and CVD: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Gianluca; Lissner, Lauren; Sæbye, Ditte; Walker, Karen Z; Heitmann, Berit L

    2014-01-14

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) is associated with reduced total mortality, cardiovascular incidence and mortality in a Danish population. Analyses were performed on 1849 men and women sampled during the 1982-83 Danish MONICA (MONItoring trends and determinants of Cardiovascular disease) population study, whose diet was assessed by means of a validated 7 d food record. The adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was calculated by three different scores: one based on a classification excluding ingredients from mixed dishes and recipes (score 1); another based on a classification including ingredients (score 2); the last one based on a variant of the latter including wine instead of alcohol intake (score 3). The association between these scores and, respectively, total mortality, cardiovascular incidence and mortality was tested by a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for several potential confounders of the association. Generally, all three scores were inversely associated with the endpoints, although associations with score 1 did not reach statistical significance. Score 2 was inversely associated with total mortality (hazard ratio 0·94; 95 % CI 0·88, 0·99). This association was confirmed for total cardiovascular as well as myocardial infarction (MI) incidence and mortality, but not for stroke. Score 3 was slightly more associated with the same outcomes. All associations were also resistant to adjustment for covariates related to potential CVD pathways, such as blood lipids, blood pressure and weight change after 11 years of follow-up. In a Danish cohort, the MDS was inversely associated with total mortality and with cardiovascular and MI incidence and mortality, but not with stroke incidence or mortality.

  10. Obesity and risk of infection: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Møller, Bjarne Kuno; Juul-Sørensen, Cecilie; Kotzé, Sebastian; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Sørensen, Erik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2015-07-01

    It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis with age as the underlying timescale was used as the statistical model. During 113,717 person-years of observation, 1,233 participants were treated for infection at a hospital. Similarly, during 58,411 person-years of observation, 15,856 participants filled at least one prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes), infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (men), and respiratory tract infections and cystitis (women). Similarly, obesity was associated with filled prescriptions of antimicrobials overall (women: HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14, 1.30; men: HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.33) and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin, macrolides, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin, and broad-spectrum penicillins. In a large cohort of healthy individuals, obesity was associated with risk of infection. This result warrants further studies of metabolism and the immune response.

  11. Differences in uptake of immunisations and health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Norredam, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Refugee children and their families constitute a vulnerable group regarding health and access to care. In a register-based cohort design, we examined differences in uptake of immunisations and child health examinations between refugee children and Danish-born children, including predictors of uptake among refugee children. Refugee children (n = 16,701) who, between January 1993 and December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark were included and matched in a 1:6 ratio on age and sex with Danish-born children (n = 100,206). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the National Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for immunisation and child health examinations. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of uptake. Refugee children had a lower uptake of all immunisations compared to Danish-born children. The lowest uptake was found for immunisation against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (HR = 0.50; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.51). Participation in child health examinations was also lower among refugee children with the lowest at the last child health examination at age 5 (HR = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.47-0.50). Adjusting the analysis for parental income increased the HRs by 10-20 %. This Danish register-based study using nationwide data revealed a lower uptake of routine immunisations and child health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children. •Uptake of immunisation and child health examination is associated with low household income, unemployment and low educational status among the parents. •Uptake may be even lower among refugee families as they constitute a vulnerable group regarding access to healthcare. What is New: •Refugee children had lower uptake of immunisations and child health examinations compared to Danish-born children. •Several predictors of uptake were identified including region of origin and duration of residence.

  12. Induced abortion and breast cancer among parous women: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Attermann, Jørn

    2013-06-01

    We investigated whether induced abortion is associated with breast cancer when lifestyle confounders, including smoking and alcohol consumption, are adjusted for. Design. Prospective cohort study. Danish women from the Diet, Cancer and Health study. A total of 25,576 women. We obtained exposure data from baseline questionnaires filled in by the women between 1993 and 1997. Information on breast cancer and emigration was retrieved from Danish national registries. The study power was approximately 85% when applying a minimum detection hazard ratio of 1.2. Long-term effects of induced abortion on the risk of breast cancer among women above 50 years of age. During a follow up of approximately 12 years, 1215 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. When comparing parous women who had an abortion with parous women who never had an abortion, there was no association between breast cancer risk and induced abortion (ever vs. never), with a hazard ratio 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.83-1.09), regardless of whether the abortion occurred before the first birth (hazard ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.14), or after the first birth (hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.13). Our study did not show evidence of an association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. ["Sense of coherence", social class and health in a Danish population study].

    PubMed

    Due, E P; Holstein, B E

    1998-12-14

    The objectives are a) to present Antonovsky's concept Sense of Coherence (SOC) and his 13-item SOC-scale, b) to describe the distribution of SOC in a random sample of five age groups in the Danish population, and c) to study the association of SOC to sex, age, social class, and health. The Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (DLHBS) collected self-administered questionnaire data from a random sample of the population born in 1975, 1965, 1940, 1930, and 1920. The baseline study took place in 1990, response rate 71%, n = 2,858. The article reports data from the first follow-up in 1994, response rate 86% of the survivors, n = 2,352. SOC shows no gender differences; it is significantly lower in the youngest age group and increases with age. SOC is highest in the highest social classes. Poor SOC is associated with poor self-rated health and high prevalence of symptoms. Poor SOC is associated with high prevalence of long-term illness among respondents older than 50 years of age.

  14. Poisoning mortality in Danish children and adolescents, 1970-2006 - a registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Peter; Juel, Knud

    2012-08-01

    To study poisoning mortality from birth to the end of teenage. Registry study within the Danish population including all deaths from poisoning in the 0-19-year age groups for the years 1970-2006. Poisoning mortality was age dependent with a modest peak in preschool children because of accidents and a very steep increase from 0.1/10(5) person years (p.y.) at 12 years to 6.1/10(5) p.y. at 19 years. Accidents, suicide and undetermined manner of death all contributed to the increase. A significant proportion of accidental and undetermined manner of death was caused by opioides and probably abuse related. During the study period, mortality decreased by more than 50% with all manners of death contributing significantly to the decline. Carbon monoxide poisoning was the overall dominating cause of death and contributed most to reduction in mortality. Poisoning death caused by opioides and unspecified drugs was unchanged over time. Poisoning mortality among the youngest Danish children was dominated by accidental poisonings. During teenage, the level and pattern of adults was approached with respect to suicidal and abuse related deaths. A fall in mortality since mid-eighties was explained by fewer deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Palle L.; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women. PMID:26351582

  16. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study.

    PubMed

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob; Toft Kristensen, Tina; Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  17. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Olsen, Jørn; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2011-08-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring. A follow-up study. Two major Danish municipalities, Aalborg and Odense. The study population included 347 singleton sons of mothers enrolled into the Healthy Habits for Two cohort when pregnant in 1984-87. Information on maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy was provided by self-administered questionnaire in the 36th week of gestation. Semen characteristics and serum concentrations of sex hormones. The distribution of semen characteristics among sons whose mothers took folic acid supplement during pregnancy (n = 88, 25%) did not differ from the distributions among those without (n = 75, 22%) or with unknown folic acid supplement intake (n = 84, 53%). On the contrary, serum levels of FSH and LH were significantly higher in the folic acid supplement group. The hypothesis that folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy will improve semen quality in male offspring was not corroborated by a follow-up study in young Danish men. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Friis, Søren; Bautz, Andrea; Bendix, Knud; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; d'Amore, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    A potential link between breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been suggested. We examined lymphoma occurrence in a nationwide cohort of 19,885 Danish women who underwent breast implant surgery during 1973-2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for ALCL and lymphoma overall associated with breast implantation were calculated. During 179,246 person-years of follow-up, we observed 31 cases of lymphoma among cohort members. No cases of ALCL were identified. SIRs for ALCL and lymphoma overall were zero (95% CI, 0-10.3) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.82-1.70), respectively. In our nationwide cohort study, we did not find an increased risk of lymphoma in general, or ALCL in particular, among Danish women who underwent breast implantation. However, our evaluation of ALCL risk was limited by the rarity of the disease. Our results do not support an association between breast implants and ALCL and are consistent with other studies on cancer risk and breast implants. ©2013 AACR.

  19. Occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones in Danish contact dermatitis patients: results from a Danish multicentre study (2009-2012).

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Sommerlund, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to isothiazolinones has reached epidemic levels. Few studies have presented data on occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones. To present demographics and examine risk factors for sensitization to methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with MI and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in Danish dermatitis patients. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from three Danish hospitals departments was conducted. All patients consecutively patch tested with MI, MCI/MI and BIT between 2009 and 2013 were included. MI contact allergy showed a significantly increased trend in prevalence from 1.8% in 2009 to 4.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Females with facial dermatitis mainly drove the increase in 2012. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that MI sensitization was significantly associated with occupational exposures, hand and facial dermatitis, age > 40 years, and the occupational groups of tile setters/terrazzo workers, machine operators, and painters. MCI/MI contact allergy was significantly associated with the following high-risk occupations: painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration of isothiazolinones, and especially MI, in both consumer products and industrial products is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National Birth Cohort. Information about lifestyle, occupational, medical and obstetric factors was obtained from a telephone interview and data on pregnancy outcomes came from the Danish population based registries. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (adjusted for potential confounders) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked compared to non-smoking parents (miscarriage: 1.18, 95 % CI 0.96-1.44; stillbirth: 1.32, 95 % CI 0.93-1.89). On the additive scale, we detected a small positive interaction for stillbirth between smoking and body mass index (overweight women). In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise.

  1. Stressful life-events in childhood and risk of multiple sclerosis: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo V; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Frisch, Morten

    2014-10-01

    Current knowledge concerning the association between exposure to stressful life-events (SFLEs) in childhood and later risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is sparse. We studied the associations between SFLEs in childhood and subsequent risk of MS in a nationwide cohort of 2.9 million Danes born from 1968 to 2011. A SFLE in childhood was defined as exposure before age 18 years to parental divorce, parental death, or death of a sibling, using information from the Danish Civil Registration System. MS cases in the cohort were identified in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. Associations of SFLE with MS risk were evaluated by incidence rate ratios (RR) of MS obtained in log-linear Poisson regression models. Persons exposed to any SFLE in childhood were at 11% elevated risk of MS (RR = 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.20), compared to non-exposed persons. Stratification by subtype of SFLE showed that parental death and death of a sibling were not associated with MS risk. However, persons exposed to parental divorce were at 13% increased risk of developing MS compared to non-exposed (RR = 1.13; 1.04-1.23). Associations of SFLEs in childhood with risk of MS are weak. However, parental divorce is somehow associated with modestly increased risk of MS. © The Author(s), 2014.

  2. Spitting for Science: Danish High School Students Commit to a Large-Scale Self-Reported Genetic Study.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Jørgensen, Frank G; Cheng, Jade Y; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Scientific outreach delivers science to the people. But it can also deliver people to the science. In this work, we report our experience from a large-scale public engagement project promoting genomic literacy among Danish high school students with the additional benefit of collecting data for studying the genetic makeup of the Danish population. Not only did we confirm that students have a great interest in their genetic past, but we were also gratified to see that, with the right motivation, adolescents can provide high-quality data for genetic studies.

  3. Patterns of Contact with Hospital for Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Danish Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atladottir, Hjordis Osk; Schendel, Diana E.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Parner, Erik T.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study patterns of contact with hospital for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using Danish population based register data. We included all children born in Denmark from 1994 through 2002. We found that children diagnosed with ASD had an increased rate of contact with hospital, almost regardless of the cause…

  4. Amniotic fluid chemokines and autism spectrum disorders: an exploratory study utilizing a Danish Historic Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Morsi W; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Thorsen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik L; Hougaard, David M

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls. A Danish Historic Birth Cohort (HBC) kept at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen was utilized. Using data from Danish nation-wide health registers, a case-control study design of 414 cases and 820 controls was adopted. Levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α and RANTES were analyzed using Luminex xMAP technology. Case-control differences were assessed as dichotomized at below the 10th percentile or above the 90th percentile cut-off points derived from the control biomarker distributions (logistic regression) or continuous measures (tobit regression). AF volume for 331 cases and 698 controls was sufficient for Luminex analysis. Including all individuals in the cohort yielded no significant differences in chemokine levels in cases versus controls. Logistic regression analyses, performed on individuals diagnosed using ICD-10 only, showed increased risk for ASD with elevated MCP-1 (elevated 90th percentile adjusted OR: 2.32 [95% CI: 1.17-4.61]) compared to controls. An increased risk for infantile autism with elevated MCP-1 was also found (adjusted OR: 2.28 [95% CI: 1.16-4.48]). Elevated levels of MCP-1 may decipher an etiologic immunologic dysfunction or play rather an indirect role in the pathophysiology of ASD. Further studies to confirm its role and to identify the potential pathways through which MCP-1 may contribute to the development of ASD are necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic: A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Katrine Fiil; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown that sexuality is an important aspect of life. Nevertheless, sexual matters are only rarely discussed between patients and doctors. Other studies have suggested that women undergoing fertility treatment compose a group of patients with low satisfaction in their sexual life. To investigate how women at a fertility clinic desire and experience communication about sexual matters with doctors and to investigate the sexual function of these women. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of women attending a Danish fertility clinic over 4 months was performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented as frequencies. Communication about sexual matters with doctors included the women's comfort, preferred and actual frequency of discussion, and initiation of the conversation. Sexual function included participants' sexuality during the past year including certain sexual difficulties. Of the 201 participating women in the survey, most felt comfortable discussing sexual matters with doctors and preferred gynecologists for such discussions. There was a greater desire for communication than what was actually experienced by the women, and most wanted to initiate the conversation themselves. The women were less satisfied with their sexual life compared with a national control group, and they experienced sexual difficulties more often. There is an unmet desire of women in fertility treatment for discussing sexual matters, and greater communication on this subject needs to be clinically implemented. Eldridge KE, Giraldi A. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic. A Descriptive Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e196-e202. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epilepsy in Individuals with a History of Asperger's Syndrome: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…

  7. Association between ulcer site and outcome in complicated peptic ulcer disease: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lolle, Ida; Møller, Morten Hylander; Rosenstock, Steffen Jais

    2016-10-01

    Mortality rates in complicated peptic ulcer disease are high. This study aimed to examine the prognostic importance of ulcer site in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). a nationwide cohort study with prospective and consecutive data collection. all patients treated for PUB and PPU at Danish hospitals between 2003 and 2014. demographic and clinical data reported to the Danish Clinical Registry of Emergency Surgery. 90- and 30-d mortality and re-intervention. the crude and adjusted association between ulcer site (gastric and duodenal) and the outcome measures of interest were assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. Some 20,059 patients with PUB and 4273 patients with PPU were included; 90-d mortality was 15.3% for PUB and 29.8% for PPU; 30-d mortality was 10.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Duodenal bleeding ulcer, as compared to gastric ulcer (GU), was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality within 90 and 30 d, and with re-intervention: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.67); p < 0.001, OR 1.60 (1.43-1.77); p < 0.001, and OR 1.86 (1.68-2.06); p < 0.001, respectively. There was no difference in outcomes between gastric and duodenal ulcers (DUs) in PPU patients: adjusted OR 0.99 (0.84-1.16); p = 0.698, OR 0.93 (0.78 to 1.10); p = 0.409, and OR 0.97 (0.80-1.19); p = 0.799, respectively. DU site is a significant predictor of death and re-intervention in patients with PUB, as compared to GU site. This does not seem to be the case for patients with PPU.

  8. Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Aslak H; Johansen, Christoffer; Olsen, Jørgen H; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Schüz, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers. Design Nationwide cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants All Danes aged ≥30 and born in Denmark after 1925, subdivided into subscribers and non-subscribers of mobile phones before 1995. Main outcome measures Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. Sex specific incidence rate ratios estimated with log linear Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, education, and disposable income. Results 358 403 subscription holders accrued 3.8 million person years. In the follow-up period 1990-2007, there were 10 729 cases of tumours of the central nervous system. The risk of such tumours was close to unity for both men and women. When restricted to individuals with the longest mobile phone use—that is, ≥13 years of subscription—the incidence rate ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27) in men and 0.91 (0.41 to 2.04) in women. Among those with subscriptions of ≥10 years, ratios were 1.04 (0.85 to 1.26) in men and 1.04 (0.56 to 1.95) in women for glioma and 0.90 (0.57 to 1.42) in men and 0.93 (0.46 to 1.87) in women for meningioma. There was no indication of dose-response relation either by years since first subscription for a mobile phone or by anatomical location of the tumour—that is, in regions of the brain closest to where the handset is usually held to the head. Conclusions In this update of a large nationwide cohort study of mobile phone use, there were no increased risks of tumours of the central nervous system, providing little evidence for a causal association. PMID:22016439

  9. Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Frei, Patrizia; Poulsen, Aslak H; Johansen, Christoffer; Olsen, Jørgen H; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Schüz, Joachim

    2011-10-19

    To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers. Nationwide cohort study. Denmark. All Danes aged ≥ 30 and born in Denmark after 1925, subdivided into subscribers and non-subscribers of mobile phones before 1995. Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. Sex specific incidence rate ratios estimated with log linear Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, education, and disposable income. 358,403 subscription holders accrued 3.8 million person years. In the follow-up period 1990-2007, there were 10,729 cases of tumours of the central nervous system. The risk of such tumours was close to unity for both men and women. When restricted to individuals with the longest mobile phone use--that is, ≥ 13 years of subscription--the incidence rate ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27) in men and 0.91 (0.41 to 2.04) in women. Among those with subscriptions of ≥ 10 years, ratios were 1.04 (0.85 to 1.26) in men and 1.04 (0.56 to 1.95) in women for glioma and 0.90 (0.57 to 1.42) in men and 0.93 (0.46 to 1.87) in women for meningioma. There was no indication of dose-response relation either by years since first subscription for a mobile phone or by anatomical location of the tumour--that is, in regions of the brain closest to where the handset is usually held to the head. In this update of a large nationwide cohort study of mobile phone use, there were no increased risks of tumours of the central nervous system, providing little evidence for a causal association.

  10. Occupational Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, < 5, 5-14, and ≥ 15 years in the job, respectively. Data was analysed by a mixed random effect logistic regression model. The age-standardised COPD study prevalence was 5.0%. Of 372 DISCO-88 codes 72 were identified with relevant exposure to VGDF. 46% of the participants reported at least one occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.

  11. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study.

    PubMed

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations. An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots in terms of environmental and health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. Analyzing consumer life styles in terms of consumption patterns in order to identify hotspots is hence the focus of this study. This is achieved by taking into account the entire value chain of the commodities consumed in the context of environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model for all the 1281 persons was set-up in Gabi 6. The assessment results obtained applying the model on all 1281 personal consumption scenarios yielded the 1281 Personal Impact Profiles (PIPs). Consumption of food and energy (electricity and thermal energy) proved to be the primary impact sources of PM, followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study will help the Danish and other comparable populations to identify and prioritize the steps towards reducing their environmental, human health, and resource consumption

  12. Coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and risk of primary infertility in women: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Í Soylu, Lív; Jensen, Allan; Juul, Kirsten Egebjerg; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hargreave, Marie

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine affects the risk of primary infertility in women. We selected nulliparous Danish women aged 20-29 years from a prospective cohort and retrieved information on coffee and tea consumption from a questionnaire and an interview at enrollment. We assessed the women's fertility by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort and retrieved information on children and vital status from the Civil Registration System. All 7574 women included for analysis were followed for primary infertility from the date of enrollment (1991-1993) until 31 December 2010. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models. During follow-up, primary infertility was diagnosed in 822 women. Compared to never consumers, the risk of primary infertility among women who drank coffee or tea was not affected. The risk of primary infertility was neither associated with an increasing number of daily servings of coffee (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.03) or tea (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.03) in consumers only. Concerning total caffeine consumption (from coffee and tea), the risk of infertility was similar among consumers compared to never consumers. Finally, each additional daily 100 mg of caffeine did not affect the risk among consumers only (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02). In this population-based cohort study, not restricted to women seeking pregnancy, we found no association between coffee, tea or total caffeine consumption and the risk of primary infertility in women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Compliance with hospital accreditation and patient mortality: a Danish nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Falstie-Jensen, Anne Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Hollnagel, Erik; Nørgaard, Mette; Svendsen, Marie Louise Overgaard; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between compliance with hospital accreditation and 30-day mortality. A nationwide population-based, follow-up study with data from national, public registries. Public, non-psychiatric Danish hospitals. In-patients diagnosed with one of the 80 primary diagnoses. Accreditation by the first version of The Danish Healthcare Quality Programme for hospitals from 2010 to 2012. Compliance were assessed by surveyors on an on-site survey and awarded the hospital as a whole; fully (n = 11) or partially accredited (n = 20). A follow-up activity was requested for partially accredited hospitals; submitting additional documentation (n = 11) or by having a return-visit (n = 9). All-cause mortality within 30-days after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) for 30-day mortality adjusted for six confounding factors and for cluster effect at hospital level. A total of 276 980 in-patients were identified. Thirty-day mortality risk for in-patients at fully (n = 76 518) and partially accredited hospitals (n = 200 462) was 4.14% (95% confidence interval (CI):4.00-4.28) and 4.28% (95% CI: 4.20-4.37), respectively. In-patients at fully accredited hospitals had a lower risk of dying within 30-days after admission than in-patients at partially accredited hospitals (adjusted OR of 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96). A lower risk of 30-day mortality was observed among in-patients at partially accredited hospitals required to submit additional documentation compared with in-patients at partially accredited hospitals requiring a return-visit (adjusted OR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67-1.02). Admissions at fully accredited hospitals were associated with a lower 30-day mortality risk than admissions at partially accredited hospitals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  14. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease: cost utility evaluation alongside the Danish Alzheimer's Intervention Study (DAISY).

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B; Eckermann, Ane; Buss, Dorte V; Phung, Kieu T T; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-01-15

    To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. Primary care and memory clinics in five Danish districts. 330 community-dwelling patients and their primary caregivers. Psychosocial counselling and support lasting 8-12 months after diagnosis and follow-up at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months in the intervention group or follow-up only in the control group. The primary outcome measure was the cost of additional quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs were measured from a societal perspective, including the costs of healthcare, social care, informal care and production loss. QALYs were estimated separately for the patient and the caregiver before aggregation for the main analysis. None of the observed cost and QALY measures were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although a tendency was noted for psychosocial care leading to cost increases with informal care that was not outweighed by the tendency for cost savings with formal care. The probability of psychosocial intervention being cost-effective did not exceed 36% for any threshold value. The alternative scenario analysis showed that the probability of cost-effectiveness increased over the range of threshold values used if the cost perspective was restricted to formal healthcare. A multifaceted, psychosocial intervention programme was found unlikely to be cost-effective from a societal perspective. The recommendation for practice in settings that are similar to the Danish setting is to provide follow-up with referral to available local support programmes when needed, and to restrict large multifaceted intervention programmes to patients and caregivers with special needs until further evidence for cost-effectiveness emerges. The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Database as ISRCTN74848736.

  15. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease: cost utility evaluation alongside the Danish Alzheimer's Intervention Study (DAISY)

    PubMed Central

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B; Eckermann, Ane; Buss, Dorte V; Phung, Kieu T T; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. Design Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. Setting Primary care and memory clinics in five Danish districts. Participants 330 community-dwelling patients and their primary caregivers. Intervention Psychosocial counselling and support lasting 8–12 months after diagnosis and follow-up at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months in the intervention group or follow-up only in the control group. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the cost of additional quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs were measured from a societal perspective, including the costs of healthcare, social care, informal care and production loss. QALYs were estimated separately for the patient and the caregiver before aggregation for the main analysis. Results None of the observed cost and QALY measures were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although a tendency was noted for psychosocial care leading to cost increases with informal care that was not outweighed by the tendency for cost savings with formal care. The probability of psychosocial intervention being cost-effective did not exceed 36% for any threshold value. The alternative scenario analysis showed that the probability of cost-effectiveness increased over the range of threshold values used if the cost perspective was restricted to formal healthcare. Conclusions A multifaceted, psychosocial intervention programme was found unlikely to be cost-effective from a societal perspective. The recommendation for practice in settings that are similar to the Danish setting is to provide follow-up with referral to available local support programmes when needed, and to restrict large multifaceted intervention programmes to patients and caregivers with special needs until further evidence for cost

  16. Adherence to the Danish food-based dietary guidelines and risk of myocardial infarction: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Overvad, Kim; Tetens, Inge; Tjønneland, Anne; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dahm, Christina Catherine

    2018-01-14

    A direct way to evaluate food-based dietary guidelines is to assess if adherence is associated with development of non-communicable diseases. Thus, the objective was to develop an index to assess adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines and to investigate the association between adherence to the index and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Population-based cohort study with recruitment of participants in 1993-1997. Information on dietary intake was collected at baseline using an FFQ and an index ranging from 0 to 6 points was created to assess adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines. MI cases were identified by record linkage to the Danish National Patient Register and the Causes of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of MI. Greater areas of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark. Men and women aged 50-64 years (n 55 021) from the Diet, Cancer and Health study. A total of 3046 participants were diagnosed with first-time MI during a median follow-up of 16·9 years. A higher Danish Dietary Guidelines Index score was associated with a lower risk of MI. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard of MI was 13 % lower among men with a score of 3-<4 (HR=0·87; 95 % CI 0·78, 0·96) compared with men with a score of <3. The corresponding HR among women was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·93). Adherence to the 2013 Danish food-based dietary guidelines was inversely associated with risk of MI.

  17. Exploring the Association Between Rosacea and Parkinson Disease: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter Riis; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-05-01

    The pathogenesis of rosacea is unclear, but increased matrix metalloproteinase target tissue activity appears to play an important role. Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative disorders also display increased matrix metalloproteinase activity that contribute to neuronal loss. To investigate the risk of incident (new-onset) Parkinson disease in patients with rosacea. A nationwide cohort study of the Danish population was conducted using individual-level linkage of administrative registers. All Danish citizens 18 years or older from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2011 (N = 5 472 745), were included. Data analysis was conducted from June 26 to July 27, 2015. The main outcome was a diagnosis of Parkinson disease. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. A total of 5 404 692 individuals were included in the reference population; of these, 22 387 individuals (9812 [43.8%] women; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 75.9 [10.2] years) received a diagnosis of Parkinson disease during the study period and 68 053 individuals (45 712 [67.2%] women; mean age, 42.2 [16.5] years) were registered as having rosacea. The IRs of Parkinson disease per 10 000 person-years were 3.54 (95% CI, 3.49-3.59) in the reference population and 7.62 (95% CI, 6.78-8.57) in patients with rosacea. The adjusted IRR of Parkinson disease was 1.71 (95%, CI 1.52-1.92) in patients with rosacea compared with the reference population. There was a 2-fold increased risk of Parkinson disease in patients classified as having ocular rosacea (adjusted IRR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.67-2.48]), and tetracycline therapy appeared to reduce the risk of Parkinson disease (adjusted IRR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.97-0.99]). Rosacea constitutes an independent risk factor for Parkinson disease. This association could be due to shared

  18. Association of Rosacea With Risk for Glioma in a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-05-01

    Rosacea, a common facial skin disorder, has a poorly understood pathogenesis in which increased matrix metalloproteinase activity might play an important role. Glioma accounts for 80% of all primary malignant tumors in the central nervous system, and these tumors also show upregulation of certain matrix metalloproteinases. To investigate the association between rosacea and the risk for glioma. Nationwide cohort study of the Danish population from individual-level linkage of administrative registers. All Danish citizens 18 years or older from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2011, were eligible for inclusion. A total of 5 484 910 individuals were eligible for analysis; of these, 68 372 had rosacea and 5 416 538 constituted the reference population. Data were analyzed from July 14 to August 10, 2015. The outcome of interest was a diagnosis of glioma. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status were estimated by Poisson regression distribution models. Of the 5 484 910 individuals in the study population, 21 118 individuals developed glioma during the study period, including 20 934 of the 5 416 538 individuals in the reference population (50.4% women; mean [SD] age, 40.8 [19.7] years) and 184 of the 68 372 patients with rosacea (67.3% women; mean [SD] age, 42.2 [16.5] years). The incidence rate (95% CI) of glioma was 3.34 (3.30-3.39) in the reference population and 4.99 (4.32-5.76) in patients with rosacea. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (95% CI) of glioma in patients with rosacea was 1.36 (1.18-1.58) in our primary analysis. When analyses were limited to patients with a primary diagnosis of rosacea by a hospital dermatologist (n = 5964), the adjusted incidence rate ratio was 1.82 (1.16-2.86). Rosacea was associated with a significantly increased risk for glioma in a nationwide cohort. This association may be mediated, in part, by mechanisms dependent on matrix

  19. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care: a 1-yearpopulation-based study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete; Vedsted, Peter; Huibers, Linda

    2016-12-01

    General practitioners are the first point of contact in Danish out-of-hours (OOH) primary care. The large number of contacts implies that prescribing behaviour may have considerable impact on health-care expenditures and quality of care. The aim of this study was to examine the prevailing practices for medication prescription in Danish OOH with a particular focus on patient characteristics and contact type. A one-year population-based retrospective observational study was performed of all contacts to OOH primary care in the Central Denmark Region using registry data. Prescriptions were categorised according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) codes and stratified for patient age, gender and contact type (telephone consultation, clinic consultation or home visit). Prescription rates were calculated as number of prescriptions per 100 contacts. Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3.9%), adrenergic inhalants (3.0%) and antihistamines (2.3%). About 25% of all OOH contacts involved one or more medication prescriptions. The highest prescription rate was found for clinic consultations, but more than half of all prescriptions were made by telephone. KEY POINTS As the out-of-hours (OOH) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important. General practitioners (GPs) are responsible for more than 80% of all drug prescriptions in Denmark. Of

  20. Death by Suicide in Graves' Disease and Graves' Orbitopathy: A Nationwide Danish Register Study.

    PubMed

    Ferløv-Schwensen, Charlotte; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-12-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is associated with excess morbidity and mortality, but little is known about unnatural manners of death and the potential relation with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). This study investigated the risk of unnatural death in Graves' patients with and without orbitopathy compared to matched control populations. This was a cohort study covering all adult Danes (≥18 years) diagnosed with GD or GO during 1995-2012. Median follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 0-17.5 years). Utilizing the Danish Register of Causes of Death and the Danish National Patient Registry, 28,461 subjects with GD and 3965 with GO were identified and matched for age and sex with four subjects from the background population. The manner of death was identified, and hazard ratios (HR) for mortality due to unnatural deaths (accident, suicide, violence/homicide, and unknown) were calculated using Cox regression analyses, adjusted for pre-existing somatic and psychiatric morbidity. In Graves' disease overall (GD + GO), there was an increased risk of death from unknown unnatural manners (HR = 2.01 [confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.45], p = 0.012) and of suicide, although the latter difference was not with certainty statistically significant (HR = 1.43 [CI 1.00-2.04], p = 0.053). There was no significant difference in risk of death from suicide in GD subjects compared to their controls (HR = 1.27 [CI 0.85-1.89], p = 0.253). However, GO patients had a significantly higher risk of death from suicide (HR = 2.71 [CI 1.16-6.32], p = 0.022). Mortality by suicide was increased in Graves' disease overall, most significantly in patients with GO, also after adjustment for pre-existing somatic and psychiatric disease. These findings indicate that GD and GO may have a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior. Beyond independent confirmation, reasons for this need to be explored in order to introduce preventive measures.

  1. Determinants of long-term neuropsychological symptoms. The Danish Gulf War Study.

    PubMed

    Suadicani, P; Ishøy, T; Guldager, B; Appleyard, M; Gyntelberg, F

    1999-11-01

    Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War Veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms. Independent associations are found for concentration or memory problems, repeated fits of headache, balance disturbances or fits of dizziness, abnormal fatigue not caused by physical activity, and problems sleeping all night. We investigated whether psychosocial, physical, chemical or biological exposures were associated with these symptoms. This study is a prevalence study using retrospective data on exposure. Some 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2 1990 until December 31 1997 were included; the control group comprised 257 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, and were interviewed by a physician based on a completed questionnaire. A clustering of three to five of the above symptoms were found in 21.4% of Gulf War Veterans vs. 6.2% in controls, p < 0.001. Psychosocial and physico-chemical factors were strongly associated with neuropsychological symptoms, and a significant interaction of the two was found, p < 0.001. Although the results of this study are based on self-report the factors identified seem plausible. It may be impossible even in peace-keeping missions to avoid hostile events. However, the results also suggest that psychosocial work conditions known to be important in civilian life, and also environmental factors, should be improved to minimize the risk of long-term neuropsychological symptoms.

  2. National Cohort Study of Suicidality and Violent Criminality among Danish Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Roger T.; Antonsen, Sussie; Mok, Pearl L. H.; Agerbo, Esben; Pedersen, Carsten B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immigrant populations in western societies have grown in their size and diversity yet evidence is incomplete for their risks of suicidality and criminal violence. We examined these correlated harmful behaviours in a national cohort. Aims (i) Compare absolute risk between first and second generation immigrants, foreign-born adoptees and native Danes by plotting cumulative incidence curves to onset of early middle age; (ii) estimate sex-specific relative risks for these immigrant type subgroups vs. native Danes; (iii) examine effect modification by higher vs. lower socio-economic status. Methods In a cohort of over two million persons, attempted suicides and violent crimes were investigated using data from multiple interlinked registers. We plotted sex-specific cumulative incidence curves and estimated incidence rate ratios. Results In the whole study cohort, 1414 people died by suicide, 46,943 attempted suicide, and 51,344 were convicted of committing a violent crime. Among all immigrant subgroups combined, compared with native Danes, relative risk of attempted suicide was greater in female immigrants (incidence rate ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval: CI 1.54-1.64) than in male immigrants (1.26; CI 1.20-1.32), and vice versa for relative risk of violent offending in male immigrants (2.36; CI 2.31-2.42) than in female immigrants (1.74; CI 1.62-1.87). Risk for both adverse outcomes was significantly elevated in virtually every gender-specific immigrant type subgroup examined. Violent crime risk was markedly raised in first generation immigrant males and in the Danish born male children of two immigrant parents. However, male immigrants of lower social status had lower risk of attempted suicide than their native Danish peers. Conclusion Young immigrants of both first and second generation status face serious challenges and vulnerabilities that western societies need to urgently address. Relative risk patterns for these adverse outcomes vary greatly

  3. Patients with Rosacea Have Increased Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorders: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter Riis; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that affects self-esteem and quality of life. However, data on depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between rosacea and new-onset depression and anxiety disorders. Data on all Danish citizens aged ≥18 years between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, were linked at individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were calculated, and crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. The study comprised a total of 4,632,341 individuals, including 30,725 and 24,712 patients with mild and moderate-to-severe rosacea, respectively. Mild and moderate-to-severe rosacea increased the risk of both depression [IRR 1.89 (95% CI 1.82-1.96) and IRR 2.04 (95% CI 1.96-2.12)] and anxiety disorders [IRR 1.80 (95% CI 1.75-1.86) and IRR 1.98 (95% CI 1.91-2.05)]. Rosacea was associated with a disease severity-dependent, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The findings may call for increased awareness of psychiatric morbidity in patients with rosacea. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Psychosocial job strain and risk of congenital malformations in offspring--a Danish National cohort study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P; Obel, C; Hougaard, K S

    2014-06-01

    To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. Population-based cohort study. The Danish National Birth Cohort. A cohort of 60,386 singleton children with full information on mother's occupational status, exposure to psychosocial job strain and all covariates during pregnancy. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds of congenital malformations as a function of job strain with adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, alcohol use, manual versus nonmanual work, maternal serious disease and gestational age at interview. Circulatory malformation, musculoskeletal malformation or any malformation. Logistic regression analyses, both crude and adjusted, indicated no associations between working under high strain and giving birth to a child with circulatory malformation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.75-1.44), musculoskeletal malformation (aOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.71-1.10) or any malformation (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85-1.15). Supplementary analyses including restriction to first-borns and a stratified analysis with respect to manual and nonmanual work did not change the results. Association between exposure to high job strain during pregnancy and elevated risk of circulatory, muscle and any malformations is not supported by this study. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Are cancer survivors at an increased risk for divorce? A Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Diderichsen, Finn; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for divorce among cancer survivors. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study of 46,303 persons aged 30-60 years in whom selected cancers were diagnosed in 1981-2000 and 221,028 randomly sampled, cancer-free controls. Information on socioeconomic status, demographics and comorbidity was obtained from Danish administrative registries. We analysed the risk for divorce, adjusted for known risk factors, during follow-up and whether the socioeconomic and health status at the time of diagnosis had an impact on the risk for divorce. Except for survivors of cervix cancer, who had an increased risk for divorce, we found that cancer survivors were not at greater risk for divorce than the general population (rate ratios (RR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0;1.1 and RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.9;1.0 for women and men, respectively). This finding shows that cancer survivors need not have unnecessary fears for their marriage.

  6. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten; Vangsted, Annette J; Østergaard, Brian; Gregersen, Henrik; Frølund, Ulf Christian; Andersen, Niels F; Helleberg, Carsten; Andersen, Kristian T; Pedersen, Robert S; Pedersen, Per; Abildgaard, Niels; Gimsing, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have been proposed; however, all have been developed using single-center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to multiple myeloma (MM) for SMM, we analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort of 321 patients with newly diagnosed SMM registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis significantly influenced TTP (HR 2.7, 95%CI (1.5;4.7), P = 0.001, and HR 3.3, 95%CI (1.4;7.8), P = 0.002, respectively). High free light chain (FLC) ratio did not significantly influence TTP in our cohort. Therefore, our data do not support recent IMWG proposal of identifying patients with FLC ratio above 100 as having ultra high-risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥30 g/L, we created a scoring system to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SMM. This first population-based study of patients with SMM confirms that an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression to MM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Being publicly diagnosed: A grounded theory study of Danish patients with tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Konradsen, Hanne; Lillebaek, Troels; Wilcke, Torgny; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which affects people worldwide, but there is knowledge lacking about patients’ experiences in low-prevalence and high-income countries. Aim To provide a theoretical framework for the process of being diagnosed with tuberculosis in a Danish setting. Method A grounded theory design with field studies and qualitative interviews, following the recommendations from Glaser and Strauss. Result A process of being publicly diagnosed was identified, which developed during the patient's trajectory from being on the way to becoming a patient, becoming a patient with TB, and finally being in medical treatment. Before being diagnosed with TB, patients were weighing between biding their time and deciding to undergo an examination. Social pressure and feelings of social responsibility tended to affect the decision. Having undergone the examination(s), the patients were publicly diagnosed. Being publicly diagnosed meant changing social interactions and fighting to regain control. Conclusion Findings offer new insight and an empirically derived basis for developing interventions aimed at reducing the burden of being diagnosed with tuberculosis and increasing the wellbeing of the patients. PMID:24766675

  8. Being publicly diagnosed: a grounded theory study of Danish patients with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Hanne; Lillebaek, Troels; Wilcke, Torgny; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which affects people worldwide, but there is knowledge lacking about patients' experiences in low-prevalence and high-income countries. To provide a theoretical framework for the process of being diagnosed with tuberculosis in a Danish setting. A grounded theory design with field studies and qualitative interviews, following the recommendations from Glaser and Strauss. A process of being publicly diagnosed was identified, which developed during the patient's trajectory from being on the way to becoming a patient, becoming a patient with TB, and finally being in medical treatment. Before being diagnosed with TB, patients were weighing between biding their time and deciding to undergo an examination. Social pressure and feelings of social responsibility tended to affect the decision. Having undergone the examination(s), the patients were publicly diagnosed. Being publicly diagnosed meant changing social interactions and fighting to regain control. Findings offer new insight and an empirically derived basis for developing interventions aimed at reducing the burden of being diagnosed with tuberculosis and increasing the wellbeing of the patients.

  9. Danish patients are positive towards fees for non-attendance in public hospitals. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lou, Stina; Frumer, Michal; Olesen, Steen; Nielsen, Agnete Hedemann; Væggemose, Ulla

    2016-07-01

    Patients' non-attendance is a significant problem in modern healthcare. Non-attendance delays treatment, reduces efficiency and increases healthcare costs. For several years, the introduction of financial incentives such as a non-attendance fee has been discussed in Denmark. Set in the context of a tax-financed, free-for-all healthcare system, the political hesitance to introduce fees relates to concerns that additional fees may be badly received by tax-paying citizens and may undermine the political priority of patient equity. The aim of this qualitative sub-study was to investigate patients' attitudes towards a fee for non-attendance. Six semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 44 patients who had been informed about being charged a fee for non-attendance. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Overall, patients' attitudes towards the non-attendance fee were positive. Non-attendance was viewed as evidence of disregard for the common free-for-all healthcare, and a fee was expected to motivate non-attendees to show up. However, most patients argued that certain groups (e.g. the mentally disabled) should be exempted from the fee. Furthermore, an implementation of fees should be easy to manage administratively and should not increase bureaucracy. In general, patients' attitudes towards implementing non-attendance fees are positive. Danish Regions, Ministry of Health and Central Denmark Region. not relevant.

  10. Risk for schizophrenia in intercountry adoptees: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-11-01

    Increasing numbers of intercountry adoptees are reaching adulthood, the age of onset for most serious mental disorders. Little is known about the development of schizophrenia in intercountry adoptees, a group with potentially increased vulnerability. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of developing schizophrenia in adoptees and in non-adoptees. Utilising data from the Danish Civil Registration System, we established a population-based cohort of 1.06 million persons resident in Denmark before the age of 15, whose legal mother lived in Denmark at the child's birth. Intercountry adoptees were identified as children born abroad. Record linkage provided information on psychiatric admissions. Intercountry adoptees had an increased relative risk (RR) (RR = 2.90, 95% CI 2.41-3.50) of developing schizophrenia compared to native Danes. The increased risk was independent of age at onset and age at, or region of, adoption, and was not attributable to mental illness in a foster parent, the foster parent's age, or to urbanisation. The foster mother's own biological offspring had also an increased risk of developing schizophrenia (1.92, 95% CI 1.23-3.02). Young adult intercountry adoptees are at increased risk for schizophrenia. Although the underlying cause is unknown, a complex interplay of factors presumably may be involved, including heredity, adversity prior to adoption, and post-adoption adjustment difficulties during upbringing.

  11. Placental Weight and Male Genital Anomalies: A Nationwide Danish Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Wilcox, Allen J.; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    The most consistently reported risk indicators for the male genital anomalies cryptorchidism and hypospadias are prematurity and low birth weight. Placental dysfunction has been hypothesized as a possible underlying cause, and an association between placental weight at birth and hypospadias has been indicated. In a population-based cohort of 388,422 Danish singleton boys born alive (1997–2008), we studied the association between placental weight and cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Missing data were handled with multiple imputation, and we estimated hazard ratios by means of Cox regression models. During follow-up, 1,713 boys were diagnosed with hypospadias and 6,878 with cryptorchidism (3,624 underwent corrective surgery). We observed an association between low placental weight and risk of both genital anomalies. Boys with a placental weight in the lowest decile (<10%) had higher risks of both cryptorchidism (hazard ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 1.76) and hypospadias (hazard ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.45) than boys in the reference decile (50.0–59.9%). In conclusion, we found higher risks of both genital malformations in boys born with a low placental weight. The relationship seemed stronger for hypospadias than for cryptorchidism. Taken together, our data support a role for placental dysfunction in the etiology of these anomalies. PMID:27257113

  12. A numerical study of the water exchange through the Danish Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayin, E.; Krauss, W.

    1996-03-01

    The free surface version of the GFDL model is used to study inflow and outflow through the Danish Straits, which connect the Baltic with the North Sea. Three problems are addressed: (i) the piling up of inflowing water in the Arkona basin; (ii) the transport ratios between Belt and Sound; (iii) the dominance of hydraulic or geostrophic control. Model results show that a cyclonic eddy (dome) is formed by the inflowing saline water that prevents this water from passing rapidly into the Bornholm basin. This eddy is enforced with increasing inflow due to a sea level difference between Kattegat and western Baltic. If density gradients along the straits are weak and the flow is dominantly driven by sea level differences between Kattegat and Baltic, the well-known ratio of 70%: 30% for the transports through Belt and Sound are confirmed. Strong density gradients can change this ratio considerably, especially in the outflow case, when the light water of the Baltic flows against the heavier water of the Kattegat. Under variable wind conditions, no fixed ratio is found. The flow in the Straits is geostrophically controlled; however, the strong baroclinic density field does not allow us to derive the transport simply from sea level inclination.

  13. Testing the validity of the Danish urban myth that alcohol can be absorbed through feet: open labelled self experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Færch, Louise Holmsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol. Design Open labelled, self experimental study, with no control group. Setting Office of a Danish hospital. Participants Three adults, median age 32 (range 31-35), free of chronic skin and liver disease and non-dependent on alcohol and psychoactive drugs. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the concentration of plasma ethanol (detection limit 2.2 mmol/L (10 mg/100 mL)), measured every 30 minutes for three hours while feet were submerged in a washing-up bowl containing the contents of three 700 mL bottles of vodka. The secondary outcome was self assessment of intoxication related symptoms (self confidence, urge to speak, and number of spontaneous hugs), scored on a scale of 0 to 10. Results Plasma ethanol concentrations were below the detection limit of 2.2 mmol/L (10 mg/100 mL) throughout the experiment. No significant changes were observed in the intoxication related symptoms, although self confidence and urge to speak increased slightly at the start of the study, probably due to the setup. Conclusion Our results suggest that feet are impenetrable to the alcohol component of vodka. We therefore conclude that the Danish urban myth of being able to get drunk by submerging feet in alcoholic beverages is just that; a myth. The implications of the study are many though. PMID:21156749

  14. The epidemiology of microscopic colitis: a 10-year pathology-based nationwide Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bonderup, Ole K; Wigh, Tatjana; Nielsen, Gunnar L; Pedersen, Lars; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2015-04-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) includes two main types: collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). Previous studies have indicated an increasing incidence, but these have mainly been based on regional databases. We found it important to study the epidemiology based on a comprehensive nationwide cohort. We studied the epidemiological data of MC in Denmark from 2002 to 2011. The cohort consisted of all patients with a recorded diagnosis of either CC or LC in the Danish Pathology Register during the study period. Data on all patients with a registered colon biopsy were also included. A total of 7777 patients, 4749 (61%) with CC and 3028 (39%) with LC, were identified. Over the study period, the annual incidence of diagnosed cases of CC increased from 2.9/10(5) to 14.9/10(5) and of LC from 1.7/10(5) to 9.8/10(5). In 2011, the incidence of MC was 24.7/10(5) inhabitants. The age-specific incidence showed that the risk of both CC and LC increased with age. The female/male ratio, distribution of the type of colitis and mean age at diagnosis were relatively stable during the study period. The annual number of registered colon biopsies in the pathology register increased from 21.583 in 2002 to 39.733 in 2011, indicating an increased diagnostic activity. In a nationwide cohort study, the incidence of CC and LC continued to increase from 2002 to 2011. An increased diagnostic activity could in part explain the increase in the number of diagnosed cases.

  15. Danish pain specialists' rationales behind the choice of fentanyl transdermal patches and oral transmucosal systems--a delphi study.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the rationale behind the choice of fentanyl administration forms among Danish pain specialists. Sixty Danish physicians specializing in pain management were contacted via an Internet survey system to perform a two-phase Delphi survey. Response rates were 45% in the brainstorming and 88% in the rating phases, respectively. Statistical analysis with SPSS for Windows 15.00 included descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The most important rationale to choose fentanyl patches was that patients' clinical condition did not allow them to take analgesia orally, while the main explanations for not choosing a fentanyl patch was a specific chronic pain condition such as nonmalignant or neuropathic pain origin, and price. The foremost rationale behind the choice of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) were cancer patients' need for the alternative to oral, intravenous or subcutaneous rescue medication, followed by patients' wish and ability to administer pain medication independently. The main reasons for not choosing OTFC were price and the argument that OTFC administration requires much energy and healthy patients' mouth and therefore is inapplicable for terminal pain patients. The study had shown that the rationales behind the choice of administration form with fentanyl reported by a panel of Danish pain specialists partly differed from those overviewed in the literature and those thought to be important while developing fentanyl patches and OTFC.

  16. Prevention of hand eczema among Danish hairdressing apprentices: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Søsted, Heidi

    2012-05-01

    To investigate whether an evidence-based intervention could reduce the incidence of hand eczema in a cohort of Danish hairdressing apprentices during their training, as hairdressing apprentices are known to have a high risk of developing hand eczema. This study was a clinically controlled, prospective intervention study. Within 2 weeks of starting their training, 502 hairdressing apprentices were enrolled in the study on occupational hand eczema. Approximately half of the apprentices were assigned to an intervention group and received an evidence-based training program developed for this study and delivered by teachers specially trained in the prevention of hand eczema; the other half received normal training and served as a control group. All apprentices completed self-administered questionnaires including questions regarding hand eczema, use of gloves and degree of wet work, and were all clinically examined for hand eczema three times during the 18-month study period. The three examinations were scheduled as school visits and consisted of a baseline examination and two follow-up examinations approximately 8 and 18 months later. More apprentices from the intervention group used gloves during wet work procedures and significantly fewer developed hand eczema compared with apprentices from the control group (p=0.04). A logistic regression model showed that atopic dermatitis had a significant influence on the development of hand eczema in the cohort irrespective of the intervention. We were able to increase the use of gloves and reduce the incidence of hand eczema in hairdressing apprentices by implementing a training program in hairdressing schools.

  17. Activity of daily living performance amongst Danish asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Christensen, Robin; Amris, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability impairment in newly arrived Danish asylum seekers. It was hypothesized that exposure to trauma and torture would negatively influence ADL performance and that measures of ADL ability would be lower in individuals exposed to torture as compared to the non-tortured. Forty-three newly arrived asylum seekers aged 20-50 years, from Iran, Afghanistan and Syria, were consecutively included in the study. ADL ability was assessed with the observation-based test Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Interviews were based on questionnaires about torture exposure, WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Major Depression Inventory and Pain Detect Questionnaire. All participants were interviewed and tested using a linguistic interpreter. Thirty three (77%) participants reported exposure to torture. The tortured did not differ significantly from the nontortured on measures of ADL ability (two-sample t-tests: Motor, p= 0.36; Process, p= 0.82). ADL performance impairment was observed in the overall study sample. Twelve had motor and 15 process ability measures below age norms and 2 below both AMPS motor and process cut-offs for effortless and efficient ADL performance. There were statistically significant - weak to moderate - correlations between self-reported psychological distress, VAS average pain, pain distribution and the AMPS measures. The study results supported significant ADL ability impairment in tortured as well as non-tortured newly arrived asylum seekers. Implementation of performance-based evaluation of ADL ability as part of the initial medical screening of this particular population should be considered.

  18. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories: a Danish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-04-11

    A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups, and for 66% of the study population we also conducted analyses adjusted for individual reproductive factors and area-level socioeconomic indicators. In the crude analyses a cluster in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen was consistently found throughout the study period (1971-2003) with both control groups. When analyses were adjusted for individual reproductive factors and area-level socioeconomic indicators, the cluster area became smaller and less evident. The breast cancer cluster area that persisted after adjustment might be explained by factors that were not accounted for such as alcohol consumption and use of hormone replacement therapy. However, we cannot exclude environmental pollutants as a contributing cause, but no pollutants specific to this area seem obvious.

  19. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories: A Danish case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups, and for 66% of the study population we also conducted analyses adjusted for individual reproductive factors and area-level socioeconomic indicators. Results In the crude analyses a cluster in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen was consistently found throughout the study period (1971–2003) with both control groups. When analyses were adjusted for individual reproductive factors and area-level socioeconomic indicators, the cluster area became smaller and less evident. Conclusions The breast cancer cluster area that persisted after adjustment might be explained by factors that were not accounted for such as alcohol consumption and use of hormone replacement therapy. However, we cannot exclude environmental pollutants as a contributing cause, but no pollutants specific to this area seem obvious. PMID:24725434

  20. Maternal endometriosis and genital malformations in boys: a Danish register-based study.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Forman, Axel; Olsen, Jørn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between maternal endometriosis and occurrence of the genital anomalies cryptorchidism and hypospadias in sons. Population-based cohort study. Not applicable. All live-born singleton boys born from 1978 to 2012. None. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in boys based on information from the Danish National Patient Register. The study included 1,073,026 live-born singleton boys. A total of 6,443 boys were sons of women diagnosed with endometriosis before pregnancy. Altogether, 27,342 boys were diagnosed with cryptorchidism, of whom 16,446 had corrective surgery. Hypospadias was diagnosed in 4,853 boys. As compared with unexposed boys, a tendency towards a slightly higher occurrence of cryptorchidism was observed among boys of women with endometriosis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97, 1.44). When stratified by medically assisted reproduction (MAR) technologies, the association was slightly stronger among boys born to women with endometriosis who had conceived via MAR, yet it remained moderate and statistically insignificant (aHR 1.27; 95% CI, 0.97, 1.70). When women who conceived with MAR were excluded, the association between endometriosis and cryptorchidism disappeared. For hypospadias, we observed no association, either in the main analysis or the stratified analysis. The findings from this register-based study do not provide strong evidence for a higher occurrence of the studied genital anomalies among boys of women with endometriosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chocolate intake and risk of clinically apparent atrial fibrillation: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Berg Johansen, Martin; Tjønneland, Anne; Chahal, Harpreet S; Mittleman, Murray A; Overvad, Kim

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the association between chocolate intake and incident clinically apparent atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study. The present study is based on 55 502 participants (26 400 men and 29 102 women) aged 50-64 years who had provided information on chocolate intake at baseline. Incident cases of AF were ascertained by linkage with nationwide registries. During a median of 13.5 years there were 3346 cases of AF. Compared with chocolate intake less than once per month, the rate of AF was lower for people consuming 1-3 servings/month (hazard ratio (HR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.98), 1 serving/week (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92), 2-6 servings/week (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.91) and ≥1 servings/day (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.09; p-linear trend <0.0001), with similar results for men and women. Accumulating evidence indicates that moderate chocolate intake may be inversely associated with AF risk, although residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Paediatric medical emergency calls to a Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre: a retrospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kasper; Mikkelsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Gitte; Zwisler, Stine Thorhauge

    2018-01-05

    Little is known regarding paediatric medical emergency calls to Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centres (EMDC). This study aimed to investigate these calls, specifically the medical issues leading to them and the pre-hospital units dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. We performed a retrospective, observational study on paediatric medical emergency calls managed by the EMDC in the Region of Southern Denmark in February 2016. We reviewed audio recordings of emergency calls and ambulance records to identify calls concerning patients ≤ 15 years. We examined EMDC dispatch records to establish how the medical issues leading to these calls were classified and which pre-hospital units were dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. We analysed the data using descriptive statistics. Of a total of 7052 emergency calls in February 2016, 485 (6.9%) concerned patients ≤ 15 years. We excluded 19 and analysed the remaining 466. The reported medical issues were commonly classified as: "seizures" (22.1%), "sick child" (18.9%) and "unclear problem" (12.9%). The overall most common pre-hospital response was immediate dispatch of an ambulance with sirens and lights with a supporting physician-manned mobile emergency care unit (56.4%). The classification of medical issues and the dispatched pre-hospital units varied with patient age. We believe our results might help focus the paediatric training received by emergency medical dispatch staff on commonly encountered medical issues, such as the symptoms and conditions pertaining to the symptom categories "seizures" and "sick child". Furthermore, the results could prove useful in hypothesis generation for future studies examining paediatric medical emergency calls. Almost 7% of all calls concerned patients ≤ 15 years. Medical issues pertaining to the symptom categories "seizures", "sick child" and "unclear problem" were common and the calls commonly resulted in urgent pre-hospital responses.

  3. Prevalence of polyhydramnios at a Danish hospital--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, Anne; Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Rode, Line; Lebech, Morten; Tabor, Ann

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of polyhydramnios, the related maternal and perinatal morbidity, and to estimate the association between perinatal outcome and the degree of polyhydramnios in a Danish population. The study population consisted of 168 women with singleton pregnancies and polyhydramnios diagnosed by ultrasound as a largest two-diameter pocket of > 50 cm2. Mild polyhydramnios defined as > 50 and < 100 cm2, and severe polyhydramnios defined as > or = 100 cm2. The background population consisted of 8,347 pregnant women from the same hospital. Outcome measures were compared using chi2 test or Fisher's exact test. The incidence of polyhydramnios was 2%, with 66.7% of cases mild, and 33.3% were severe polyhydramnios. The study population had an increased risk of emergency (19 versus 10.5%, p<0.001) and elective (11.3 versus 5.0%, p<0.001) caesarean section, as well as perinatal death (1.2 versus 0.3%, p<0.05) compared to the background population. In cases of severe polyhydramnios, there was an increased risk of caesarean section (44.6 versus 23.1%, p<0.005), birth weight > 4,000 g (28.6 versus 14.3%, p<0.05), and need for neonatal care (8.9 versus 0.9%, p<0.01) compared to mild cases. Apgar score < 7, perinatal death and structural malformations only occurred in women with severe polyhydramnios. It is reasonable to distinguish between mild and severe polyhydramnios regarding special attention and follow-up, as caesarean section and perinatal morbidity and mortality are related to the degree of polyhydramnios. A two-diameter pocket > or = 100 cm2 could be used to separate mild from severe cases.

  4. Quality and Predictors of Diabetes Care Among Patients With Schizophrenia: A Danish Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Carinci, Fabrizio; Thomsen, Reimar W; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2018-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a high prevalence of diabetes, but data on diabetes care quality for these patients are limited. This nationwide study compared the quality of diabetes care among individuals with and without schizophrenia and identified predictors of care quality. In a population-based cohort study, 83,813 individuals with diabetes seen at hospital outpatient clinics between 2005 and 2013, including 669 with comorbid schizophrenia, were identified from Danish registries. High-quality diabetes care was defined as having received ≥80% of guideline-recommended process performance measures. Variables assessed as predictors of diabetes care included patient-specific (sex, age, smoking, substance abuse, Global Assessment of Functioning score, and duration of schizophrenia), provider-specific (quality of schizophrenia care), and system-specific (annual patient contact volume of the diabetes clinic) factors. Compared with individuals with diabetes only, those with diabetes and schizophrenia were less likely to receive high-quality diabetes care (relative risk [RR]=.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.88-.95) and less likely to receive several individual process performance measures of diabetes care, including blood pressure monitoring (RR=.98, CI=.96-.99), treatment with antihypertensive drugs (RR=.83, CI=.70-.97) and angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II receptor inhibitors (RR=.72, CI=.55-.93), screening for albuminuria (RR=.96, CI=.93-.99), eye examination at least once every second year (RR=.97, CI=.94-.99), and foot examination (RR=.96, CI=.93-.99). Predictors of poor diabetes care among individuals with schizophrenia included documented drug abuse and low contact volume of the diabetes clinic. Individuals with schizophrenia received lower-quality diabetes care compared with those without schizophrenia. However, absolute differences in care were modest.

  5. 20-year follow-up study of Danish HHT patients-survival and causes of death.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Anette; Aagaard, Katrine Saldern; Tørring, Pernille Mathiesen; Möller, Sören; Green, Anders

    2016-11-22

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inheritable disorder, with a wide variety of clinical manifestations due to presence of multiple arteriovenous manifestations. The most common mutations are found in HHT1 (ENG) and HHT2 (ACVRL1) patients, causing alterations in the TGF-β pathway which is responsible for angiogenesis. Modulations of angiogenesis may influence cancer rates. The objective of the study was to evaluate 20-year survival according to HHT subtype, as well as to evaluate differences in causes of death comparing HHT patients and controls. We also wanted to investigate whether cancer morbidity among HHT patients differs from that among controls. We included all HHT patients in the County of Fyn, Denmark, prevalent as of January 1st 1995 in total 73 HHT patients. In addition three age- and sex- matched controls per HHT patient were evaluated, in total 218 controls (one was lost due to registration failure). The controls were defined at start of follow-up in 1995. Information on lifestyle factors was not available. A total of 32 (44%) HHT patients and 97 (44%) controls passed away during follow-up. The survival curves were evenly distributed showing similar survival rates in the two groups. Cancer diagnoses had been registered in the follow-up period in 4 (5%) HHT patients and in 38 (17%) controls. The mortality was not increased among Danish HHT patients compared to controls. This study is based on a clinical unselected series of HHT patients with the whole spectrum of severity, independent of need for medical care. Our data also suggest that HHT patients to a lesser degree than the background population are affected by cancer.

  6. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J F; Cederkvist, L; Andersen, K K; Dalton, S O; Appel, C W; Rechnitzer, C; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C

    2015-03-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. Overall, childhood cancer survivors were at increased risk of having antidepressants prescribed (HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-1.5). The excess absolute risk of antidepressant use was 2.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.7-3.3), equivalent to an excess of 2.5 survivors for every 100 survivors followed for 10years. Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk was most pronounced for children treated in the most recent calendar periods (test for interaction between cancer and calendar periods: P<0.001), especially for survivors of haematological cancers (P=0.007). Interaction analysis of the effect of parental socioeconomic position and psychiatric disease on the association between childhood cancer and antidepressant use indicated no modifying effect. Childhood cancer survivors should be followed-up for depression. Our results indicate an increasing need for follow-up especially in survivors treated by more recent, intensive anticancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer risk among workers at Danish companies using trichloroethylene: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Johnni; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Kolstad, Henrik; Christensen, Jytte M; Tarone, Robert E; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2003-12-15

    Trichloroethylene is an animal carcinogen with limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Cancer incidence between 1968 and 1997 was evaluated in a cohort of 40,049 blue-collar workers in 347 Danish companies with documented trichloroethylene use. Standardized incidence ratios for total cancer were 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.12) in men and 1.2 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.33) in women. For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma, the overall standardized incidence ratios were 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.5) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9, 1.5), respectively; standardized incidence ratios increased with duration of employment, and elevated standardized incidence ratios were limited to workers first employed before 1980 for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and before 1970 for renal cell carcinoma. The standardized incidence ratio for esophageal adenocarcinoma was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.7); the standardized incidence ratio was higher in companies with the highest probability of trichloroethylene exposure. In a subcohort of 14,360 presumably highly exposed workers, the standardized incidence ratios for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma were 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.0), 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.8), and 1.7 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.9), respectively. The present results and those of previous studies suggest that occupational exposure to trichloroethylene at past higher levels may be associated with elevated risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Associations between trichloroethylene exposure and other cancers are less consistent.

  8. Placental Weight and Male Genital Anomalies: A Nationwide Danish Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Wilcox, Allen J; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard

    2016-06-15

    The most consistently reported risk indicators for the male genital anomalies cryptorchidism and hypospadias are prematurity and low birth weight. Placental dysfunction has been hypothesized as a possible underlying cause, and an association between placental weight at birth and hypospadias has been indicated. In a population-based cohort of 388,422 Danish singleton boys born alive (1997-2008), we studied the association between placental weight and cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Missing data were handled with multiple imputation, and we estimated hazard ratios by means of Cox regression models. During follow-up, 1,713 boys were diagnosed with hypospadias and 6,878 with cryptorchidism (3,624 underwent corrective surgery). We observed an association between low placental weight and risk of both genital anomalies. Boys with a placental weight in the lowest decile (<10%) had higher risks of both cryptorchidism (hazard ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 1.76) and hypospadias (hazard ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.45) than boys in the reference decile (50.0-59.9%). In conclusion, we found higher risks of both genital malformations in boys born with a low placental weight. The relationship seemed stronger for hypospadias than for cryptorchidism. Taken together, our data support a role for placental dysfunction in the etiology of these anomalies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prenatal Use of Acetaminophen and Child IQ: A Danish Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Virk, Jasveer; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-11-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used pain and fever medication during pregnancy, and recently has been linked to hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children. We examine whether prenatal use of acetaminophen affects children's intelligence quotient (IQ). We studied 1,491 mothers and children enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1996-2002). Acetaminophen use in pregnancy was prospectively recorded in three telephone interviews. Child IQ was assessed at age 5 with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) administered by trained psychologists. We employed linear regression analysis, adjusting for maternal IQ and other confounding factors, and assessed interactions between acetaminophen and indications for use. Both maternal fever in pregnancy and acetaminophen use were associated with child IQ. Children born to mothers using acetaminophen without reporting fever scored on average 3.4 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30 to 6.6 points) on performance IQ compared with offspring of mothers who neither experienced fever nor took acetaminophen. Estimated effects for acetaminophen were stronger for first or second trimester use. Children born to mothers reporting fever without using acetaminophen also scored lower on verbal (2.7 points, 95% CI: -0.19, 5.6) and performance IQ (4.3 points, 95% CI: 0.30, 8.3); IQ scores were not affected if mothers with fever used acetaminophen. Maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy was associated with lower performance IQ in 5-year olds. However, acetaminophen treatment of maternal fever in pregnancy showed an apparent compensatory association with child IQ scores. (See video abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B87.).

  10. Characterisation of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infections in Danish general practice: a retrospective registry based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars

    2017-05-19

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456,532 antibiotic prescriptions issued between July 2012 and June 2013. Pneumonia was the most common indication with 178,354 prescriptions (39%), followed by acute tonsillitis (21%) and acute otitis media (19%). In total, penicillin V accounted for 58% of all prescriptions, followed by macrolides (18%) and amoxicillin (15%). The use of second-line agents increased with age for all indications, and comprised more than 40% of the prescriptions in patients aged >75 years. Women were more often prescribed antibiotics regardless of clinical indication. This is the first Danish study to characterise antibiotic prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second-line agents like macrolides and amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid are overused. Strategies to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing especially for pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute rhinosinusitis are warranted. TRACKING THE OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS: Better adherence to guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for different respiratory tract infections are warranted in Danish general practice. The over-use of antibiotics, particularly so

  11. Review of four publications on the Danish cohort study on mobile phone subscribers and risk of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Fredrik; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Since the International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, such as those emanating from mobile and cordless phones, as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), two additional reports relevant to the topic have been published. Both articles were new updates of a Danish cohort on mobile phone subscribers and concern the possible association between assumed use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumors. The aim of the present review is to reexamine all four publications on this cohort. In brief, publications were scrutinized, and in particular, if the authors made explicit claims to have either proved or disproved their hypothesis, such claims were reviewed in light of applied methods and study design, and in principle, the stronger the claims, the more careful our review. The nationwide Danish cohort study on mobile phone subscribers and risk of brain tumors, including at best 420,095 persons (58% of the initial cohort), is the only one of its kind. In comparison with previous investigations, i.e., case-control studies, its strength lies in the possibility to eliminate non-response, selection, and recall bias. Although at least non-response and recall bias can be excluded, the study has serious limitations related to exposure assessment. In fact, these limitations cloud the findings of the four reports to such an extent that render them uninformative at best. At worst, they may be used in a seemingly solid argument against an increased risk--as reassuring results from a large nationwide cohort study, which rules out not only non-response and recall bias but also an increased risk as indicated by tight confidence intervals. Although two of the most comprehensive case-control studies on the matter both have methodological limitations that need to be carefully considered, type I errors are not the only threats to the validity of studies on this topic--the Danish cohort study is a textbook example of that.

  12. Inequalities in Access to Treatment and Care for Patients with Dementia and Immigrant Background: A Danish Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Stevnsborg, Lea; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Nielsen, Thomas R; Gasse, Christiane; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-09-06

    Previous studies demonstrated lower quality diagnostic assessment of dementia in immigrant populations, but knowledge about the quality of treatment and care for dementia is still lacking. To conduct a nationwide registry-based study to determine whether inequality exists regarding access to anti-dementia treatment and care between immigrant and Danish-born patients with dementia. A cross-sectional register-based study was conducted in the entire elderly (60≥years) population with dementia in Denmark in 2012 (n = 34,877). The use of anti-dementia drugs and residency in a nursing home were compared among Danish-born and Western and non-Western immigrants with dementia. Logistic regression analysis was done with adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, marital status, basis of inclusion, and time since dementia diagnosis. Immigrant background was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of receiving anti-dementia drug therapy (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]): non-Western = 0.70 [0.56-0.87]; Western = 0.74 [0.63-0.87]). No significant differences were found in type or amount of anti-dementia medication dispensed between the population groups (proxy measure for adherence). Non-Western immigrants were significantly less likely to live in a nursing home (0.52 [0.41-0.65]). This nationwide registry-based study indicated a worrisome difference in access to anti-dementia treatment and care for dementia patients with an immigrant background, but similar levels of adherence compared with the Danish-born population. Further research is necessary to pinpoint barriers to access to suitable healthcare among elderly immigrants with dementia but also to identify and develop culturally sensitive methods for their treatment and care.

  13. Prayer and meditation among Danish first time mothers-a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Skytthe, Axel; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-19

    Mothers' existential dimensions in the transition to motherhood have not been described thoroughly. They might experience disruption and new perspectives in existential ways and this may especially be the case in preterm birth. The aim of this study was twofold. First we investigated the existential dimension of motherhood transition in a secularized context, through practices of prayer and meditation. Second we described the relationship between time of birth (term/preterm) and the prayer/meditation practices of the mothers. Data were gathered from a nationwide questionnaire survey among first time mothers conducted during the summer 2011. All Danish women who gave birth before the 32(nd) pregnancy week (n = 255), and double the number of mothers who gave birth at full term (n = 658) in 2010 were included (total n = 913). The questionnaire consisted of 46 overall items categorized in seven sections, which independently cover important aspects of existential meaning-making related to becoming a mother. The respondent rate was 57% (n = 517). Moments of praying or meditation 6-18 months post partum were reported by 65%, and mothers who responded affirmatively, practiced prayer (n = 286) more than meditation (n = 89), p < 0,001. We did not observe differences in affirmative responses to prayer or meditation between mothers of full term or preterm born children, not even after controlling for perinatal or post partum loss, mode of birth, age, status of cohabiting or education. In this explorative study we found specific practices of existential meaning-making through prayer and/or meditation among first time mothers, living in a very secularized context. Yet we know only little about character or importance of these practices among mothers, and hardly anything about existential meaning-making among new fathers. Hence the implications of meaning-making practices related to other dimensions of health are difficult to address in a qualified way

  14. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a Danish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th) century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method.

  15. Academic performance of opposite-sex and same-sex twins in adolescence: A Danish national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n = 1812) and SS (n = 4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n = 13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06–.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33–.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45–.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25655669

  16. Infertility among women working in horticulture. A follow-up study in the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burr, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility.

  17. Hypothyroidism and pregnancy loss: comparison with hyperthyroidism and diabetes in a Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease. The frequency of pregnancy loss in women with known hypothyroidism as opposed to women with a later diagnosis of hypothyroidism has not been evaluated and compared with other common endocrine diseases. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All pregnancies in Denmark, 1997-2008, resulting in live birth (n = 732 533), spontaneous abortion (n = 112 487) or stillbirth (n = 2937) were identified together with information on maternal hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and diabetes. Cox model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, reference: no hypo- or hyperthyroidism or diabetes (n = 824 310). We identified 4951 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed before the pregnancy (group 1) and 2464 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (group 2). In group 1, 825 pregnancies (16·7%) resulted in spontaneous abortion which was more frequent than in nonexposed (13·2%), (aHR 1·19 (95%CI 1·12-1·27)), and of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (17·2%, P = 0·5) and diabetes (17·5%, P = 0·2) diagnosed before the pregnancy. In group 2, the frequency was 12·2% (aHR 0·92 (0·84-1·02)). In group 2, 16 pregnancies (0·65%) resulted in stillbirth which was more frequent than in nonexposed (0·36%), (aHR 1·81 (1·11-2·97)), of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (0·82%, P = 0·5) and less frequent than in diabetes (2·9%, P < 0·001) diagnosed after the pregnancy. In group 1, the frequency was 0·40% (aHR 1·11 (0·68-1·82)). Hypothyroidism increased the risk of both early and late pregnancy loss as did hyperthyroidism and in particular diabetes. We hypothesize that undetected or insufficiently treated maternal disease in the pregnancy may be of causal importance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Physical Health, Medication, and Healthcare Utilization among 70-Year-Old People with Schizophrenia: A Nationwide Danish Register Study.

    PubMed

    Brink, Maria; Green, Anders; Bojesen, Anders Bo; Lamberti, J Steven; Conwell, Yeates; Andersen, Kjeld

    2017-05-01

    In light of the excess early mortality in schizophrenia, mainly due to physical illnesses, we investigated medical comorbidity, use of medication, and healthcare utilization among individuals with schizophrenia who survived into older ages to uncover potential factors contributing to their longevity. A nationwide register-based case-control study comparing 70-year-olds with and without schizophrenia. Cases were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Age- and sex-matched controls were drawn from the general population via the Civil Registration System. All Danish inhabitants who were diagnosed and registered with early onset schizophrenia in 1970-1979 and still alive at age 70 years. Controls alive at age 70 years. Chronic medical comorbidity, medications, and inpatient and outpatient healthcare utilization extracted from Danish healthcare registers. Older adults with schizophrenia did not differ from controls with regard to registered chronic medical illnesses, but were significantly less likely to receive medication for cardiovascular diseases (OR: 0.65; 99.29% CI: 0.50, 0.83) and more likely to be treated with analgesics (OR: 1.46; 99.29% CI: 1.04, 2.05). Overall, hospital admissions and number of days hospitalized were equal to controls, but with significantly fewer general medical outpatient contacts (RR: 0.37; 98.75% CI: 0.24, 0.55). Because the literature suggests that excess mortality continues into old age, it is possible that medical diseases were under-registered and/or under-treated. Focus on adequate medical treatment, in particular for cardiovascular disease, is needed. Future integration of psychiatric and general medical healthcare, especially outpatient care, might further optimize health outcomes for older adults with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of care and clinical outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with schizophrenia. A Danish nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Lange, Peter; Paaske Johnsen, Søren

    2018-02-08

    To examine the association between schizophrenia and the quality of care and clinical outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A Danish nationwide population-based cohort study using comprehensive information from Danish registries between 2008 and 2013. Public Danish hospitals. 72 692 COPD patients with hospital contacts including 621 with schizophrenia. COPD care. The quality of COPD care was defined as meeting guideline-recommended process performance measures of care. Potential predictors of COPD care among patients with schizophrenia included patient- (sex, age, alcohol or drug abuse, Global Assessment of Functioning score, duration of schizophrenia), provider- (quality of schizophrenia care), and system-related factors (contact-volume defined as hospital department and clinics' annual average contact volume of COPD patients). Clinical outcomes included 30-day all-cause readmission and 30-day all-cause mortality risk following an admission for exacerbation of COPD. Compared to COPD patients without schizophrenia, COPD patients with schizophrenia had a lower chance of receiving treatment with long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) or long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) (Relative risk (RR) 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87-0.98). Female sex was associated with a higher chance of receiving LAMA/LABA treatment among COPD patients with schizophrenia. COPD patients with schizophrenia had a higher risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) but not a higher risk of readmission compared with COPD patients without schizophrenia. COPD patients with schizophrenia had a slightly lower chance of receiving LAMA/LABA treatment, but a substantially increased risk of death following admission for an exacerbation compared with patients without schizophrenia.

  20. In-utero exposure to bereavement and offspring IQ: a Danish national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Virk, Jasveer; Obel, Carsten; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900). The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement) during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01). We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal life and cognitive development in the offspring.

  1. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  2. Who and What Does Involvement Involve? A Multi-Sited Field Study of Involvement of Relatives in Danish Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Oute, Jeppe; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric system-a family site, a clinical site and a policy site-the first author (J.O.) investigated how, and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis elucidates how a psycho-ideological discourse positions the mentally ill person as weak, incapable, and ineffective. By contrast, the supporting relative is positioned as a strong, capable, and effective co-therapist. Furthermore, the analysis considers how this dominant discourse of involvement is constituted by a broader discourse of neoliberalism and market orientation, which justifies involvement as a subtle institutionalization of social control. The article highlights that the role of the relative as a co-therapist may be contested by the families' discourse, which emphasizes issues concerning the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family.

  3. Problem Gambling Associated with Violent and Criminal Behaviour: A Danish Population-Based Survey and Register Study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Juel, Knud

    2016-03-01

    This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes such as violent crimes. A cohort study was carried out, based on data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010, which were linked at the individual level with data from The Danish National Criminal Register. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between problem gambling and charges for different categories of crime. We found that problem gamblers had significantly higher odds of being charged than non-problem gamblers (adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95 % confidence interval 1.1-1.9). The odds ratio for economic crime charges was 2.6 (1.5-4.5), for violence charges 2.2 (1.1-4.5), and for drug charges 3.7 (1.7-8.0). For road traffic charges the odds ratio was 1.3 (1.0-1.8). Hence, there was a strong association between problem gambling and being charged except for road traffic charges; however the association was not stronger for economic charges than for violence and drug charges.

  4. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures: prospective study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Rasmussen, Morten A; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Strøm, Marin

    2015-04-02

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996-2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (< 16 year) (n = 53,922). In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01-1.23) of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06). The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.

  5. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sesilje B.; Rasmussen, Morten A.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Strøm, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year) (n = 53,922). In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23) of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06). The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research. PMID:25849947

  6. Major femoral vascular access complications after coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures: A Danish register study.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Ditte; Pedersen, Frants; Engstrøm, Thomas; Køber, Lars; Højberg, Søren; Nielsen, Michael B; Schroeder, Torben V; Lönn, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Vascular access complications after coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are known to increase morbidity, prolong hospitalization and raise hospital costs. Therefore, risk factor identification and improvement of safety strategies for vascular management are important. We aimed to assess the incidence of major vascular complications related to femoral access, and to identify potential risk factors. Over a period of six years, 23,870 index procedures (CAG) were performed in two centres, prospectively entered in the database and retrospectively analysed. Data was obtained from the Eastern Danish Heart Registry and cross-matched with data from the Danish Vascular Registry. Index procedures were defined as the first trans-femoral procedure. Demographic, procedural and mortality data, as well as information on access complications requiring surgery within 30 days were collected. Mortality data were collected for minimum 12 months. We identified 130 (0.54%) access complications requiring surgery; 65 pseudoaneurysms (0.28%), 46 arterial occlusions (0.19%), 15 hematomas (nine groin and six retroperitoneal hematomas) (0.06%), and 4 arterial dissections (0.02%). Risk factors for complications were left sided femoral access (OR 4.11 [2.29-7.37] p<0.001), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (OR 2.42 [1.48-3.94] p<0.0001) and female sex (OR 2.22 [1.51-3.24] p<0.0001). Vascular complications related to femoral access in coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures are low (0.54%). Risk factors were left sided access, PAD, and female sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Diet and Risk of Stroke: A Danish Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dahm, Christina Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Specific dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with stroke prevention. Our aim was to investigate whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, including fish, apples and pears, cabbages, root vegetables, rye bread, and oatmeal, was associated with risk of stroke. Incident cases of stroke among 55 338 men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and verified by review of records. Cases of ischemic stroke were further subclassified based on etiology according to the TOAST classification system (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). Information on diet was collected at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios of total stroke and subtypes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 2283 cases of incident stroke were verified, including 1879 ischemic strokes. Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, as reflected by a higher Healthy Nordic Food Index score, was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The hazards ratio comparing an index score of 4 to 6 (high adherence) with an index score of 0 to 1 (low adherence) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98) for total stroke. Inverse associations were observed for ischemic stroke, including large-artery atherosclerosis. No trend was observed for hemorrhagic stroke; however, a statistically insignificant trend was observed for intracerebral hemorrhage. Our findings suggest that a healthy Nordic diet may be recommended for the prevention of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María M; Toft, Gunnar V; Jensen, Morten S; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane-Marie; Llopis-González, Agustín; Olsen, Jørn; Bonde, Jens P

    2011-01-14

    Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce. We analyse occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal and paternal occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. We conducted a follow-up study of 45,341 male singleton deliveries in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1997-2009. Information on work during pregnancy was obtained by telephone interviews around gestational week 16. Parents' job titles were classified according to DISCO-88. A job exposure matrix for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was implemented to assess occupational exposures. The Medical Birth and National Hospital Register provided data on congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth or during follow-up, which ended in 2009. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were obtained from Cox regression models. Among all pregnancies, 6.3% were classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs. The most prevalent occupations conferring possible exposure were cleaners, laboratory technicians, hairdressers and agricultural workers (58% of all potentially exposed). The final cumulative incidence of cryptorchidism in boys was 2.2% (1002 cases), and of hypospadias 0.6% (262 cases). The occurrence of hypospadias increased when mothers were probably [HRa = 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-2.6)] or possibly exposed to one or more EDCs [HRa = 2.6 (95% CI 1.8-3.4). Possible paternal exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of hypospadias [HRa 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-3.4)] and cryptorchidism [HRa 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7)]. None of the exposure groups reached statistical significance. The study provides some but limited evidence that occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy increases the risk of hypospadias.

  9. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: A study in the danish national birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce. Objectives We analyse occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal and paternal occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of 45,341 male singleton deliveries in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1997-2009. Information on work during pregnancy was obtained by telephone interviews around gestational week 16. Parents' job titles were classified according to DISCO-88. A job exposure matrix for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was implemented to assess occupational exposures. The Medical Birth and National Hospital Register provided data on congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth or during follow-up, which ended in 2009. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were obtained from Cox regression models. Results Among all pregnancies, 6.3% were classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs. The most prevalent occupations conferring possible exposure were cleaners, laboratory technicians, hairdressers and agricultural workers (58% of all potentially exposed). The final cumulative incidence of cryptorchidism in boys was 2.2% (1002 cases), and of hypospadias 0.6% (262 cases). The occurrence of hypospadias increased when mothers were probably [HRa = 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-2.6)] or possibly exposed to one or more EDCs [HRa = 2.6 (95% CI 1.8-3.4). Possible paternal exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of hypospadias [HRa 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-3.4)] and cryptorchidism [HRa 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7)]. None of the exposure groups reached statistical significance. Conclusion The study provides some but limited evidence that occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy increases the risk of hypospadias. PMID

  10. Initiation and persistence with dual antiplatelet therapy after acute myocardial infarction: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Anders; Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Diness, Thomas Goldin; Emneus, Martha; Hasvold, Pål; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study investigated dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) patterns over time and patient characteristics associated with the various treatments in a myocardial infarction (MI) population. Design A registry-based observational cohort study was performed using antecedent data. Setting This study linked morbidity, mortality and medication data from Danish national registries. Participants All 28 449 patients admitted to a Danish hospital with a first-time MI and alive at discharge from 2009 through 2012 were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was initiation of DAPT and secondary outcomes comprised persistence in DAPT treatment and switches between DAPT treatments. Results The overall proportion of patients prescribed DAPT increased from 68% (CL 95% 67–69%) to 73% (CL 95% 72–74%) from 2009 to 2012. For treatment of patients with and without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the corresponding numbers were from 87% (CL 95% 86–88%) to 91% (CL 95% 90–92%) and from 49% (CL 95% 47–50%) to 52% (CL 95% 51–54%), respectively. Non-PCI patients had a higher cardiovascular risk compared with PCI patients. Among PCI patients, age>75 years, atrial fibrillation, diabetes and peripheral arterial disease were associated with a higher risk of treatment breaks for DAPT. Among patients without PCI, ticagrelor treatment was associated with an increased risk of treatment breaks during the first 12 months compared with clopidogrel treatment. Conclusions From 2009 to 2012, there was an increase in the proportion of patients with MI receiving DAPT, and a longer duration of DAPT. Still, a large proportion of patients without PCI are discharged either without DAPT or with a short DAPT duration. These findings may indicate the need for more careful attention to DAPT for patients with MI not undergoing PCI in Denmark. PMID:27173812

  11. Initiation and persistence with dual antiplatelet therapy after acute myocardial infarction: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Diness, Thomas Goldin; Emneus, Martha; Hasvold, Pål; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-05-12

    The study investigated dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) patterns over time and patient characteristics associated with the various treatments in a myocardial infarction (MI) population. A registry-based observational cohort study was performed using antecedent data. This study linked morbidity, mortality and medication data from Danish national registries. All 28 449 patients admitted to a Danish hospital with a first-time MI and alive at discharge from 2009 through 2012 were included. Primary outcome was initiation of DAPT and secondary outcomes comprised persistence in DAPT treatment and switches between DAPT treatments. The overall proportion of patients prescribed DAPT increased from 68% (CL 95% 67-69%) to 73% (CL 95% 72-74%) from 2009 to 2012. For treatment of patients with and without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the corresponding numbers were from 87% (CL 95% 86-88%) to 91% (CL 95% 90-92%) and from 49% (CL 95% 47-50%) to 52% (CL 95% 51-54%), respectively. Non-PCI patients had a higher cardiovascular risk compared with PCI patients. Among PCI patients, age>75 years, atrial fibrillation, diabetes and peripheral arterial disease were associated with a higher risk of treatment breaks for DAPT. Among patients without PCI, ticagrelor treatment was associated with an increased risk of treatment breaks during the first 12 months compared with clopidogrel treatment. From 2009 to 2012, there was an increase in the proportion of patients with MI receiving DAPT, and a longer duration of DAPT. Still, a large proportion of patients without PCI are discharged either without DAPT or with a short DAPT duration. These findings may indicate the need for more careful attention to DAPT for patients with MI not undergoing PCI in Denmark. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Drug exposure and risk of microscopic colitis: a nationwide Danish case-control study with 5751 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonderup, Ole K; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Wigh, Tatjana; Pedersen, Lars; Nielsen, Gunnar L

    2014-10-01

    Previous small studies have indicated that commonly prescribed drugs may be associated with microscopic colitis (MC). With an increasing incidence of MC, it is important to explore the association between exposure to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and MC in a larger setting. Case-control study based on nationwide Danish registries. The study included all patients with MC diagnosis during the period 2005 to 2011. One hundred sex- and age-matched controls per case were randomly selected among the Danish population. Prescriptions were recorded in a Prescription Register in the year before the first recorded MC diagnosis. Effect measure is the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC) according to prescriptions of PPIs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Within the control group, we identified a subgroup with MC-free colonic biopsies. We identified 3474 patients with CC and 2277 with LC and found a positive association between redemption of prescriptions for PPIs and both CC (OR = 7.04; 95% confidence interval, 6.55-7.56) and LC (OR = 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 3.08-3.69). Among patients with MC-free colon biopsies in the control group, the association between PPIs and CC was strongly positive (OR = 3.47; 95% confidence interval, 3.08-3.89). Adding this parameter to the model attenuated all of the associations, but they remained positive for PPIs versus CC and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus LC. We found positive associations between exposure to all 4 medication classes and MC. Variations in endoscopic frequency by drug category indicate a potential impact of bias.

  13. Societal Costs of First-Incident Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation-A Danish Nationwide Registry Study.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marie; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Fredslund, Eskild K; Poulsen, Peter B; Dybro, Lars; Johnsen, Søren P

    2016-06-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, more data on the costs of stroke in patients with AF are needed to assess how this therapy affects societal costs. The aim of the study was to estimate the average 3-year societal costs of first-incident ischemic stroke in Danish patients with AF, including costs of health care, social care services, and productivity loss. The study was designed as an incidence-based cost-of-illness study covering the entire Danish population. All patients with a hospital diagnosis of AF were identified, and propensity score-matched analyses were used to estimate costs attributable to first-incident stroke among patients with AF in the period 2002 to 2012. All data were obtained from nationwide registries. A total of 21,673 patients with AF were identified with a first-incident stroke. The average 3-year costs attributable to stroke were US $30,925 per patient (present value) corresponding to US $19,989 in the incidence year and US $7,683 and US $5,176 1 and 2 years after the stroke, respectively. Health care accounted for 66% of the 3-year costs, with hospitalizations in the incidence year as the main cost driver. After the incidence year, costs of social care services exceeded health care costs. Sensitivity analyses showed that the cost estimates were relatively robust. The societal costs of first-incident stroke in patients with AF are substantial. This new evidence can be valuable as an input for decision making regarding the treatment of AF and prevention of future strokes. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The GOOD life: Study protocol for a social norms intervention to reduce alcohol and other drug use among Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stock, Christiane; Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Rasmussen, Birthe Marie

    2016-08-03

    It is currently unknown if school-based social norms interventions are effective in preventing harmful alcohol consumption and other drug use among adolescents in Denmark. This paper describes the social norms-based programme The GOOD life and the design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test its effectiveness. The intervention The GOOD life is composed of three social norms components representing three different communication channels, namely face-to-face communication (normative feedback session), print communication (posters) and interactive media (web application). The intervention period of 8 weeks is preceded and followed by data collection, with the follow-up taking place 3 months after baseline. Public schools in the Region of Southern Denmark with grades 8 and 9 are invited to participate in the study and participating schools are randomly allocated to either intervention or control schools. The aim is to recruit a total of 39 schools and a sample of 1.400 pupils for the trial. An online questionnaire is conducted to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana as well as the perceived frequency of use among peers of their own grade, which is measured before and after the intervention. Baseline data is used to develop social norms messages which are included in the three intervention components. Primary outcomes are binge drinking (more than 5 units at one occasion) and perceived frequency of binge drinking among peers, while smoking, marijuana use and alcohol-related harm will be assessed as secondary outcomes. The GOOD life study will provide necessary insights on descriptive and injunctive norms regarding alcohol and other drug use among Danish adolescents. In addition, it will provide new knowledge and insight on the feasibility, implementation context and effectiveness of a newly developed social norms intervention in the Danish school context. Date of registration: 17 February 2016 (retrospectively registered) at Current Controlled

  15. Dietary Cadmium Intake and Risk of Breast, Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer in Danish Postmenopausal Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Mette; Meliker, Jaymie R.; McElroy, Jane A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cadmium is a human lung carcinogen and possesses estrogen-like activity. This combination of carcinogenic and estrogenic activity makes cadmium a contaminant of high concern for hormone-related cancers. Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary cadmium intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer in Danish postmenopausal woman. Methods We estimated dietary cadmium intake in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort at enrolment 1993-97. The estimates were based on food frequency questionnaires and cadmium contents in all foods. Among 23,815 postmenopausal women we identified 1390 breast, 192 endometrial, and 146 ovarian cancer cases from enrolment through December 31, 2010 using the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox regression was used to analyse the association between dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk. Results Mean dietary cadmium intake was 14 µg/day. Cadmium was not associated with breast cancer, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87–1.13 per 10 µg higher dietary cadmium intake/day; endometrial cancer, IRR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.76–1.53; or ovarian cancer, IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.78–1.70. We found a positive association between cadmium and endometrial cancer for the women with BMI<25 (IRR = 1.50, 95% CI: 0.94–2.39), whereas an inverse association was seen for the women with BMI≥25 (IRR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.42–1.12); p value for interaction  = 0.02. Conclusions Our study does not indicate that our estimated dietary cadmium intake is associated with hormone-related cancers in women. PMID:24963789

  16. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of stillbirth: results from a nationwide Danish register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bjørnholt, Sarah M; Leite, Mimmi; Albieri, Vanna; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan

    2016-11-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. Only a few studies have been conducted to determine whether smoking affects the risk of antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth differently or whether smoking cessation in early pregnancy reduces the risk. Previous results are inconclusive. We addressed these questions in a large Danish population-based cohort study. From the Danish Medical Birth Register, we identified 841 228 singleton births in Denmark between 1997 and 2010 and gathered detailed information on maternal smoking during pregnancy and the vital status of the infant. Associations (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals) between maternal smoking and risk of stillbirth overall and separately for antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth were analyzed using logistic regression models (generalized estimating equations), adjusting for potential confounders. Any smoking during pregnancy increased the risk of stillbirth, both overall (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.55) and for antepartum (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.53) and intrapartum (odds ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96) stillbirths. Women who quit smoking at the beginning of the second trimester at the latest had no increased risk of stillbirth overall (odds ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.32). Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of stillbirth, both overall and for antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth separately. Women who quit smoking in the beginning of their pregnancy reduce their risk compared with that of non-smokers. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Prevalence of sunburn and sun-related behaviour in the Danish population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Køster, Brian; Thorgaard, Camilla; Philip, Anja; Clemmensen, Inge H

    2010-07-01

    In Denmark, the incidence of melanoma has been increasing since the 1960s. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation and a history of sunburn and sunbed use are known risk factors. We describe the association between use of protective measures, sun-related behaviour and experience of sunburn in the Danish population three months after the start of the campaign. A population-based sample of 3,499 persons aged 15-59 years completed a questionnaire that included items on exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We examined the relations between sunburn and sun-related behaviour by logistic regression analysis. Within the previous 12 months, 35% of the study population had experienced sunburn. Sunburn became less frequent with age (odds ratio (OR) 4.44; 15-19 vs. 50-59) and skin type (OR 2.57; I vs. III). Sunburn was negatively associated with shade and clothing and positively with use of sunscreens. We found no significant difference in sunscreen use between intentional tanners who experienced sunburn and those who did not. A larger fraction of unintentional tanners with sunburn than those who were not sunburnt had used sunscreen. Sunscreen was used to prolong the time spent in the sun by 66% of sunburnt people; however, we found no association between duration of sun exposure and sunscreen use. Future campaigns to reduce the prevalence of sunburn in the Danish population must especially target young persons and intentional tanning, and they should emphasize that sunscreen cannot be used to extend the time spent in the sun and that shade and clothing provide the best protection against sunburn.

  18. Is compliance with hospital accreditation associated with length of stay and acute readmission? A Danish nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Falstie-Jensen, Anne Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hollnagel, Erik; Larsson, Heidi; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between compliance with hospital accreditation and length of stay (LOS) and acute readmission (AR). A nationwide population-based follow-up study from November 2009 to December 2012. Public, non-psychiatric Danish hospitals. In-patients admitted with one of 80 diagnoses. Accreditation by the first version of The Danish Healthcare Quality Programme. Using an on-site survey, surveyors assessed the level of compliance with the standards. The hospital was awarded either fully (n = 11) or partially accredited (n = 20). LOS including transfers between hospitals and all-cause AR within 30 days after discharge. The Cox Proportional Hazard regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for potential confounding factors and cluster effect at hospital level. For analyses of LOS, 275 589 in-patients were included of whom 266 532 were discharged alive and included in the AR analyses. The mean LOS was 4.51 days (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.46-4.57) at fully and 4.54 days (95% CI: 4.50-4.57) at partially accredited hospitals, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the adjusted HR for time to discharge was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01-1.14). AR within 30 days after discharge was 13.70% (95% CI: 13.45-13.95) at fully and 12.72% (95% CI: 12.57-12.86) at partially accredited hospitals, respectively, corresponding to an adjusted HR of 1.01 (95% CI: 0.92-1.10). Admissions at fully accredited hospitals were associated with a shorter LOS compared with admissions at partially accredited hospitals, although the difference was modest. No difference was observed in AR within 30 days after discharge. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  19. The Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) study: implementation of a nationwide patient enrollment system

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Thomsen, Reimar W; Steffensen, Charlotte; Christiansen, Jens S

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the patient enrollment system and implementation strategy for the new nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. The paper will also describe the design, current content, and pilot testing of the DD2 registration form. The challenge of the DD2 project was to construct a registration system functioning in the entire Danish health care system, where new type 2 diabetes patients are initially met, and with the capacity to enroll 200 newly diagnosed diabetes patients per week nationwide. This requires a fast and simple registration that is part of everyday clinical practice in hospital outpatient clinics and general practitioner (GP) clinics. The enrollment system is thus built on a tested, rational design where patients need only one visit and only specific limited data about physical activity, anthropometric measures, and family history of diabetes are collected during a brief patient interview. Later, supplemental data will be extracted by computerized linkage with existing databases. The feasibility of this strategy was verified in a pilot study. For maximum flexibility, three different ways to fill in the DD2 registration form were provided and an interactive webpage was constructed. The DD2 project also involves collection of blood and urine samples from each diabetes patient, to be stored in a biobank. Clinicians may obtain the samples themselves or refer patients to the nearest clinical biochemical department. GPs have the additional option of referring patients to the nearest hospital outpatient diabetes clinic to obtain interview data, clinical data, and samples. At present, the enrollment system is in use at 17 hospital outpatient diabetes clinics and 45 GP clinics nationwide, together enrolling 40 new type 2 diabetes patients per week in the DD2 project. A total of 990 patients have now been enrolled and the DD2 is ready to expand nationwide. PMID:23071409

  20. Time trend in hospitalised chronic lower respiratory diseases among Danish building and construction workers, 1981–2009: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tüchsen, Finn; Hannerz, Harald; Mølgaard, Ellen Fisher; Brauer, Charlotte; Kirkeskov, Lilli

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To show trends in age-standardised hospital admission ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases, estimated for Danish construction workers over three time periods (1981–1990, 1991–2000, 2001–2009). Design Within consecutive cohorts of all male building and construction workers in Denmark, selected occupations: bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, painters, plumbers and ‘other construction workers’ were followed up for hospitalisation due to chronic lower respiratory diseases. SHR was calculated for each occupation and time period. Time trend was calculated for construction workers at large using Poisson regression. Setting Denmark. Participants All gainfully employed male building and construction workers aged 20 or more. Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-standardised and gender-standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR). Results The number of hospitalised construction workers at large was reduced from 1134 in the first 10-year period to 699 in the last 9-year period. Among all Danish males, it was, however, even more reduced as reflected in the expected number that was down from 1172 to 617. Hence, SHR increased from 97 during 1981–1990, 100 during 1991–2000 to 113 during 2001–2009. It means that SHR increased with an average rate of 0.76% per year (95% CI 0.28 to 1.24) during the study period. A low SHR=72 (95% CI 60 to 87) was found among carpenters in 1981–1990. From 2001 to 2009, high SHRs were found among painters (SHR=147; 95% CI 111 to 192) and plumbers (SHR=132; 95% CI 101 to 171). In general, the selected groups of construction workers had, however, a low or average SHR due to chronic lower respiratory diseases. Conclusions The number of hospitalised workers, suffering from chronic lower respiratory diseases, was reduced over time for construction workers, but for all economically active men, it was reduced even more. Therefore, SHR due to chronic lower respiratory diseases increased over time in the

  1. Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer: a study using the Danish national registers.

    PubMed

    Momen, Natalie C; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

    2016-03-01

    The relation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood cancer in the offspring remains uncertain. This paper uses Danish national registers, which have collected data prospectively on smoking and cancer, to investigate the association. Smoking during pregnancy was ascertained from maternal self-reported data in the Danish National Patient Register. Index children were followed up from birth until the first of the following events: cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, day before 15th birthday, or end of follow-up. Smoking during pregnancy was considered as a binary variable (no smoking in pregnancy and smoking in pregnancy) and by amounts smoked (no smoking, cessation during pregnancy, ≤5, 6-10, or ≥11 cigarettes/day). Of the 801,867 children included in the study, 20 % were exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Overall, the hazard ratio (HR) for childhood cancer for the exposed compared to the non-exposed was 0.91 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.78, 1.07]. Stratification by number of cigarettes also gave statistically nonsignificant inverse associations. There was a statistically significant increased risk of childhood cancer among children whose mothers reported smoking cessation in pregnancy (HR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.01, 2.10). Regarding specific cancer sites, maternal smoking in pregnancy was positively associated with the risk of eye cancers in childhood. Our results do not provide evidence for an association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and childhood cancer overall. An increased risk of childhood cancer was seen for children whose mothers reported smoking cessation in pregnancy. Future research could employ biomarkers, such as cotinine, to validate maternal smoking status recorded in registers as, even if collected prospectively, this self-reported variable may be subject to reporting bias.

  2. Cultural competence in medical education: A questionnaire study of Danish medical teachers' perceptions of and preparedness to teach cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Janne; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Norredam, Marie; Kristiansen, Maria; Krasnik, Allan

    2017-03-01

    The cultural competence training of healthcare professionals is a key element in ensuring the quality of both the access and delivery of healthcare to increasingly ethnically diverse populations. The aim of this study is to investigate Danish medical teachers' opinions about cultural competence, their willingness to receive training and preparedness to teach cultural competence topics. The survey was sent to medical teachers, clinical teachers and external lecturers who teach in the medical programme at the University of Copenhagen. A total of 1400 medical teachers received the survey, and 199 responded. The response rate is 14%. Data were analysed through descriptive calculations, and answers to open-ended questions were coded using content analysis. Results showed that 82.4% of the informants agreed or strongly agreed that the medical education programme should include training on cultural issues, and 60.3% agreed or strongly agreed that students should be assessed on their cultural competence skills. Regarding preparedness to teach a diverse classroom, 88.4% felt somewhat or very prepared to engage and motivate all students. About 70% were interested in receiving training on cultural competence. Generally, there is interest in and acknowledgement of the importance of cultural competence in Danish medical education among teachers at the University of Copenhagen. This creates an opportunity to implement cultural competence in the medical curriculum, training of teachers and strengthening the diversity sensitivity of the organisation. However, support for this programme by management and the allocation of an appropriate level of resources is a prerequisite to the success of the programme.

  3. Time trend in hospitalised chronic lower respiratory diseases among Danish building and construction workers, 1981-2009: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tüchsen, Finn; Hannerz, Harald; Mølgaard, Ellen Fisher; Brauer, Charlotte; Kirkeskov, Lilli

    2012-01-01

    To show trends in age-standardised hospital admission ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases, estimated for Danish construction workers over three time periods (1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2009). Within consecutive cohorts of all male building and construction workers in Denmark, selected occupations: bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, painters, plumbers and 'other construction workers' were followed up for hospitalisation due to chronic lower respiratory diseases. SHR was calculated for each occupation and time period. Time trend was calculated for construction workers at large using Poisson regression. Denmark. All gainfully employed male building and construction workers aged 20 or more. Age-standardised and gender-standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR). The number of hospitalised construction workers at large was reduced from 1134 in the first 10-year period to 699 in the last 9-year period. Among all Danish males, it was, however, even more reduced as reflected in the expected number that was down from 1172 to 617. Hence, SHR increased from 97 during 1981-1990, 100 during 1991-2000 to 113 during 2001-2009. It means that SHR increased with an average rate of 0.76% per year (95% CI 0.28 to 1.24) during the study period. A low SHR=72 (95% CI 60 to 87) was found among carpenters in 1981-1990. From 2001 to 2009, high SHRs were found among painters (SHR=147; 95% CI 111 to 192) and plumbers (SHR=132; 95% CI 101 to 171). In general, the selected groups of construction workers had, however, a low or average SHR due to chronic lower respiratory diseases. The number of hospitalised workers, suffering from chronic lower respiratory diseases, was reduced over time for construction workers, but for all economically active men, it was reduced even more. Therefore, SHR due to chronic lower respiratory diseases increased over time in the construction industry at large.

  4. Maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders in childhood: A Danish national birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Virk, Jasveer; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used pain and fever medication during pregnancy. Previously, a positive ecological correlation between acetaminophen use and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported but evidence from larger studies based on prospective data is lacking. We followed 64,322 children and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1996-2002) for average 12.7 years to investigate whether acetaminophen use in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of ASD in the offspring. Information on acetaminophen use was collected prospectively from three computer-assisted telephone interviews. We used records from the Danish hospital and psychiatric registries to identify diagnoses of ASD. At the end of follow up, 1,027 (1.6%) children were diagnosed with ASD, 345 (0.5%) with infantile autism. We found that 31% of ASD (26% of infantile autism) have also been diagnosed with hyperkinetic disorders. More than 50% women reported ever using acetaminophen in pregnancy. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confident interval (CI). Prenatal use of acetaminophen was associated with an increased risk of ASD accompanied by hyperkinetic symptoms (HR = 1.51 95% CI 1.19-1.92), but not with other ASD cases (HR = 1.06 95% CI 0.92-1.24). Longer duration of use (i.e., use for >20 weeks in gestation) increased the risk of ASD or infantile autism with hyperkinetic symptoms almost twofold. Maternal use of acetaminophen in pregnancy was associated with ASD with hyperkinetic symptoms only, suggesting acetaminophen exposure early in fetal life may specifically impact this hyperactive behavioral phenotype. Autism Res 2016, 9: 951-958. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Malignant melanoma risk after exposure to fertility drugs: results from a large Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger

    2008-09-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of fertility drugs on malignant melanoma risk using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date. A cohort of 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of malignant melanoma associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for parity status. 112 malignant melanomas were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene, gonadotrophins, hCG or GnRH did not affect risk of malignant melanoma significantly. When stratifying for parity, however, use of gonadotrophins (RR = 2.29; CI: 1.16-4.52) or GnRH (RR = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.50-7.09) among parous women was associated with a significant increased risk. For all groups of fertility drugs, we found no association with number of cycles of use or years since first use (latency). Our findings showed no strong association between malignant melanoma risk and use of fertility drugs, although the results indicated that use of gonadotrophins or GnRH might increase risk in parous women. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Johnni; Loft, Steffen; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-05

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Mean levels of NO₂ at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.51, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate < 200 g of fruit and vegetables per day, the MRR was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.13-1.87) for mortality from cardiovascular disease and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.11-1.42) for mortality from all causes. Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  7. Aspirin use and ovarian cancer mortality in a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Verdoodt, Freija; Kjaer, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian; Friis, Søren

    2018-01-09

    Increasing data suggest that aspirin use may improve cancer survival; however, the evidence is sparse for ovarian cancer. We examined the association between postdiagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and mortality in a nationwide cohort of women with epithelial ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2012. Information on filled prescriptions of low-dose aspirin, dates and causes of death, and potential confounding factors was obtained from nationwide Danish registries. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ovarian cancer-specific or other-cause mortality associated with low-dose aspirin use. Among 4117 patients, postdiagnosis use of low-dose aspirin was associated with HRs of 1.02 (95% CI: 0.87-1.20) for ovarian cancer mortality and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.77-1.47) for other-cause mortality. Hazard ratios remained neutral according to patterns of low-dose aspirin use, including prediagnosis use or established mortality predictors. Low-dose aspirin use did not reduce mortality among ovarian cancer patients.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 9 January 2018; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.449 www.bjcancer.com.

  8. Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders and the Risk of Subsequent Anorexia Nervosa: A Danish Population Register Study.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the treatment of breast ductal carcinoma in situ: A Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Holm-Rasmussen, Emil Villiam; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva; Kroman, Niels; Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg

    2017-12-01

    The risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with only ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is low. Thus, axillary staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) should only be used according to the current guidelines to avoid over-treatment and unnecessary morbidity. In the present study, the use of SLNB in patients with DCIS was evaluated nationally and compared across Danish departments. A register-based study was conducted using the Danish Breast Cancer Group database. The use of SLNB in DCIS patients according to year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, size of lesion, Van Nuys classification, palpability, location and department of surgery was evaluated. The chi-squared test was used to test differences between the groups. Data from 2618 Danish female patients diagnosed with DCIS between 2004 and 2015 were included; 54.3% of patients underwent SLNB. The use of SLNB increased from 26.6% in 2004 to 65.1% in 2015. A total of 1877 (71.7%) patients underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and 577 (22.0%) underwent mastectomy, of which 43.9% and 86.0% respectively had a concomitant SLNB. The SLNB was performed in 23.8% of 454 patients not included by the guidelines. The use of SLNB in combination with BCS differed significantly between departments ranging from 19.7% to 63.8%. A significant difference in the use of SLNB with BCS and mastectomy according to department capacity (high-volume departments versus low-volume departments) was observed. The use of SLNB in patients with DCIS and adherence to the Danish national guidelines varies among Danish breast surgery departments. To optimise the axillary treatment of patients with DCIS, an improved compliance to the national DCIS guidelines is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preconception maternal bereavement and infant and childhood mortality: A Danish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Class, Quetzal A.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Dalman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Khashan, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, though these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Methods Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979–2009 (N=1,865,454), we predicted neonatal (0–28 days), post-neonatal infant (29–364 days), and early childhood (1–5 years) mortality following maternal bereavement in the preconception (6–0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regression that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. Results We identified 6,541 (0.004%) neonates, 3,538 (0.002%) post-neonates, and 2,132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 to 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with an increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.53–2.30) and post-neonatal infant mortality (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02). Associations were timing-specific (6 months prior to pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality, however this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Conclusions Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately prior to pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality. PMID:26374948

  11. Identification and reproducibility of dietary patterns in a Danish cohort: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cathrine; Glümer, Charlotte; Toft, Ulla; Tetens, Inge; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2008-05-01

    We aimed to identify dietary patterns in a Danish adult population and assess the reproducibility of the dietary patterns identified. Baseline data of 3,372 women and 3,191 men (30-60 years old) from the population-based survey Inter99 was used. Food intake, assessed by a FFQ, was aggregated into thirty-four separate food groups. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and Bland Altman plots were used to assess the reproducibility of the dietary patterns identified. The Bland Altman plots were used as an alternative and new method. Two factors were retained for both women and men, which accounted for 15.1-17.4 % of the total variation. The 'Traditional' pattern was characterised by high loadings ( > or = 0.40) on paté or high-fat meat for sandwiches, mayonnaise salads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, low-fat meat for sandwiches, and sauces. The 'Modern' pattern was characterised by high loadings on vegetables, fruit, mixed vegetable dishes, vegetable oil and vinegar dressing, poultry, and pasta, rice and wheat kernels. Small differences were observed between patterns identified for women and men. The root mean square error approximation from the confirmatory factor analysis was 0.08. The variation observed from the Bland Altman plots of factors from explorative v. confirmative analyses and explorative analyses from two sub-samples was between 18.8 and 47.7 %. Pearson's correlation was >0.89 (P < 0.0001). The reproducibility was better for women than for men. We conclude that the 'Traditional' and 'Modern' dietary patterns identified were reproducible.

  12. No Increased Risk for Primary Osteoarthritis in Liver Cirrhosis – A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vilstrup, Hendrik; Overgaard, Søren; Jepsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic synovial inflammation causes primary osteoarthritis, but it is unknown whether chronic systemic inflammation does, too. Patients with cirrhosis have chronic systemic inflammation and therefore we examined the association between cirrhosis and primary osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Methods In Danish healthcare databases we identified all residents over 60 years diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1994–2011, and for each of them we sampled five age- and gender-matched reference persons from the general population. We excluded everyone with risk factors for secondary osteoarthritis and computed incidence rates of primary osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. We used stratified Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios of primary osteoarthritis for cirrhosis patients vs. reference persons in strata defined by gender, age, cirrhosis etiology, and ascites vs. no ascites. We also computed separate HRs for primary osteoarthritis of the hips or knees. Results We identified 10,049 cirrhosis patients. Their median age was 67 years, and 65% were men. Among the cirrhosis patients the crude incidence rate of primary osteoarthritis was 8.40 (95% CI: 7.30–9.63) per 1000 person-years. The rate was similar in the reference persons: 8.76 (95% CI: 8.43–9.12) per 1000 person-years. Accordingly, the hazard ratio for primary osteoarthritis for cirrhosis patients vs. reference persons was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85–1.16), and we found the same null association in all patient strata and in both joints. Conclusion Cirrhosis, and thus chronic systemic inflammation, is not a risk factor for primary osteoarthritis. PMID:27898694

  13. No Increased Risk for Primary Osteoarthritis in Liver Cirrhosis - A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Deleuran, Thomas; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Overgaard, Søren; Jepsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Chronic synovial inflammation causes primary osteoarthritis, but it is unknown whether chronic systemic inflammation does, too. Patients with cirrhosis have chronic systemic inflammation and therefore we examined the association between cirrhosis and primary osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. In Danish healthcare databases we identified all residents over 60 years diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1994-2011, and for each of them we sampled five age- and gender-matched reference persons from the general population. We excluded everyone with risk factors for secondary osteoarthritis and computed incidence rates of primary osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. We used stratified Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios of primary osteoarthritis for cirrhosis patients vs. reference persons in strata defined by gender, age, cirrhosis etiology, and ascites vs. no ascites. We also computed separate HRs for primary osteoarthritis of the hips or knees. We identified 10,049 cirrhosis patients. Their median age was 67 years, and 65% were men. Among the cirrhosis patients the crude incidence rate of primary osteoarthritis was 8.40 (95% CI: 7.30-9.63) per 1000 person-years. The rate was similar in the reference persons: 8.76 (95% CI: 8.43-9.12) per 1000 person-years. Accordingly, the hazard ratio for primary osteoarthritis for cirrhosis patients vs. reference persons was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85-1.16), and we found the same null association in all patient strata and in both joints. Cirrhosis, and thus chronic systemic inflammation, is not a risk factor for primary osteoarthritis.

  14. Substitutions of dairy product intake and risk of stroke: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2017-06-12

    Low fat dairy products are part of dietary guidelines to prevent stroke. However, epidemiological evidence is inconclusive with regard to the association between dairy products and stroke. We therefore investigated associations for substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes. We included 55,211 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years without previous stroke. Baseline diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Cases were identified through a national register and subsequently verified. The associations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, we identified 2272 strokes, of which 1870 were ischemic (318 large artery atherosclerotic, 839 lacunar, 102 cardioembolic, 98 other determined types, 513 of unknown type), 389 were hemorrhages (273 intracerebral, 116 subarachnoid) and 13 of unknown etiology. Substitution of semi-skimmed fermented milk or cheese for whole-fat fermented milk was associated with a higher rate of ischemic stroke [semi-skimmed fermented milk: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.45), cheese: HR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.98-1.31) per serving/day substituted] and substitutions of whole-fat fermented milk for low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate [low-fat milk: HR = 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), whole-fat milk: HR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98) and buttermilk: HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.99)]. We observed no associations for substitutions between dairy products and hemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that intake of whole-fat fermented milk as a substitution for semi-skimmed fermented milk, cheese, buttermilk or milk, regardless of fat content, is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.

  15. Site of metastasis and breast cancer mortality: a Danish nationwide registry-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Nørgaard, Mette; Acquavella, John; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-01-01

    Survival among patients with metastatic breast cancer may vary according to the site of metastasis and receptor status. We used Danish nationwide medical registries to establish a cohort of patients with metastatic breast cancer (870 with de novo metastatic disease and 3518 with recurrent disease with distant metastasis) diagnosed during 1997-2011. We examined 1-year and >1 to 5-year mortality associated with first site of metastasis and receptor expression status of the primary tumor. Cox proportional regression was used to compute confounder-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) associated with site of metastasis, stratified by receptor status. Overall 1-year and >1 to 5-year mortality risks were 36 and 69 %, respectively. Risk of death within 1 year was highest for brain-only (62 %) and liver-only (43 %) involvement and nearly the same for patients with lung-only (32 %), bone-only (32 %) involvement, and other/combination of sites (34 %). Using bone-only metastasis as reference, women with brain-only metastasis had more than two-fold increased risk of dying. The adjusted MRR for women with liver-only metastasis also was increased, though less pronounced. Patients with lung-only [adjusted MRR 0.9 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8, 1.1)] or other metastases [adjusted MRR 1.0 (95 % CI 0.9, 1.2)] had similar mortality as patients with bone-only metastasis. Positive hormonal receptor status was a favorable prognostic factor. Metastatic breast cancer has a serious prognosis. Patients with brain-only metastasis had the highest mortality. Positive hormonal receptor status on the primary tumor was a favorable prognostic factor for all metastatic sites.

  16. Preconception Maternal Bereavement and Infant and Childhood Mortality: A Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Class, Quetzal A; Mortensen, Preben B; Henriksen, Tine B; Dalman, Christina; DʼOnofrio, Brian M; Khashan, Ali S

    2015-10-01

    Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, although these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979 to 2009 (N = 1,865,454), we analyzed neonatal (0-28 days), postneonatal infant (29-364 days), and early childhood (1-5 years) mortality after maternal bereavement in the preconception (6-0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first-degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regressions that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. We identified 6541 (0.004%) neonates, 3538 (0.002%) postneonates, and 2132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 and 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87, 95% confidence interval = 1.53-2.30) and postneonatal infant mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-2.02). Associations were timing specific (6 months before pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality; however, this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately before pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality.

  17. Syncope and Its Impact on Occupational Accidents and Employment: A Danish Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Kragholm, Kristian; Carlson, Nicolas; Kristensen, Søren L; Bøggild, Henrik; Hlatky, Mark A; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-04-01

    First-time syncopal episodes usually occur in adults of working age, but their impact on occupational safety and employment remains unknown. We examined the associations of syncope with occupational accidents and termination of employment. Through linkage of Danish population-based registers, we included all residents 18 to 64 years from 2008 to 2012. Among 3 410 148 eligible individuals, 21 729 with a first-time diagnosis of syncope were identified, with a median age 48.4 years (first to third quartiles, 33.0-59.5), and 10 757 (49.5%) employed at time of the syncope event. Over a median follow-up of 3.2 years (first to third quartiles, 2.0-4.5), 622 people with syncope had an occupational accident requiring hospitalization (2.1/100 person-years). In multiple Poisson regression analysis, the incidence rate ratio in the employed syncope population was higher than in the employed general population (1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-1.55) and more pronounced in people with recurrences (2.02; 95% CI, 1.47-2.78). The 2-year risk of termination of employment was 31.3% (95% CI, 30.4%-32.3%), which was twice the risk of the reference population (15.2%; 95% CI, 14.7%-15.7%), using the Aalen-Johansen estimator. Factors associated with termination of employment were age <40 years (incidence rate ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.37-1.59), cardiovascular disease (1.20; 95% CI, 1.06-1.36), depression (1.72; 95% CI, 1.55-1.90), and low educational level (2.61; 95% CI, 2.34-2.91). In this nationwide cohort, syncope was associated with a 1.4-fold higher risk of occupational accidents and a 2-fold higher risk of termination of employment compared with the employed general population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Prenatal exposure to bereavement and type-2 diabetes: a Danish longitudinal population based study.

    PubMed

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring. We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1(st) 1979 through December 31(st) 2008 (N = 1,878,246), and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child's birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents' history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy. We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01-1.69). These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94-2.44). Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15-3.76). Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in childhood and young adulthood.

  19. Return to the workforce following coronary artery bypass grafting: A Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Butt, Jawad H; Rørth, Rasmus; Kragholm, Kristian; Kristensen, Søren L; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2018-01-15

    Returning to the workforce after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) holds important socioeconomic consequences not only for patients, but the society as well. Yet data on this issue are limited. We examined return to the workforce and associated factors in patients of working age undergoing CABG. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we identified 6031 patients of working age (18-60years) undergoing isolated CABG (1998-2011) who were part of the workforce 30days prior to admission and alive at discharge. One year after discharge for CABG, 4827 (80.0%) patients had returned to the workforce, 614 (10.2%) were on paid sick leave, 267 (4.4%) received disability pension, 250 (4.1%) were on early retirement, 57 (0.9%) had died, and 16 (0.3%) had emigrated. Factors associated with return to the workforce were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Younger age (18-45 versus 56-60years; odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.42), male sex (1.51, 1.24-1.84), and higher level of education (higher educational level versus basic school; 1.53, 1.05-2.23) and income (highest quartile versus lowest; 3.01, 2.42-3.75) were associated with return to the workforce. Urgency of surgery (emergency versus elective; 0.65, 0.49-0.88), cardiovascular comorbidity, a history of chronic kidney disease (0.49, 0.29-0.84) and liver disease (0.47, 0.28-0.80), as well as additional hospital admissions within the first year post-discharge (>2 versus none; 0.25, 0.19-0.32) were associated with a lower likelihood of returning to the workforce. One year after discharge for CABG, four out of five patients were part of the workforce and mortality was low. Younger age, male sex, higher socioeconomic status, and absence of major comorbidities were associated with return to the workforce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Descriptive characteristics of colon and rectal cancer recurrence in a Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ashley C; Riis, Anders H; Erichsen, Rune; Fedirko, Veronika; Ostenfeld, Eva Bjerre; Vyberg, Mogens; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Lash, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Recurrence is a common outcome among patients that have undergone an intended curative resection for colorectal cancer. However, data on factors that influence colorectal cancer recurrence are sparse. We report descriptive characteristics of both colon and rectal cancer recurrence in an unselected population. We identified 21,152 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between May 2001 and December 2011 and registered with the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group. Recurrences were identified in 3198 colon and 1838 rectal cancer patients during follow-up. We calculated the frequency, proportion, and incidence rates of colon and rectal cancer recurrence within descriptive categories, and the cumulative five- and ten-year incidences of recurrence, treating death as a competing risk. We used a Cox proportional hazard model to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Recurrence risk was highest in the first three years of follow-up. Patients <55 years old at initial diagnosis (incidence rate for colon: 7.2 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 6.5-7.9; rectum: 8.1 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 7.2-9.0) and patients diagnosed with stage III cancer (colon HR: 5.70; 95% CI: 4.61-7.06; rectal HR: 7.02; 95% CI: 5.58-8.82) had increased risk of recurrence. Patients diagnosed with stage III cancer from 2009 to 2011 had a lower incidence of recurrence than those diagnosed with stage III cancer in the years before. Cumulative incidences of colon and rectal cancer recurrence were similar for both cancer types among each descriptive category. In this population, increases in colorectal cancer recurrence risk were associated with younger age and increasing stage at diagnosis. Cumulative incidence of recurrence did not differ by cancer type. Descriptive characteristics of colon and rectal cancer recurrence may help to inform patient-physician decision-making, and could be used to determine adjuvant therapies or tailor surveillance strategies so that recurrence may be

  1. Second Malignant Neoplasms and Cause of Death in Patients With Germ Cell Cancer: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kier, Maria G; Hansen, Merete K; Lauritsen, Jakob; Mortensen, Mette S; Bandak, Mikkel; Agerbaek, Mads; Holm, Niels V; Dalton, Susanne O; Andersen, Klaus K; Johansen, Christoffer; Daugaard, Gedske

    2016-12-01

    Patients given systemic treatment for testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) are at increased risk for a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Previous studies on SMN and causes of death lacked information on the exact treatment applied or were based on patients receiving former treatment options. To evaluate the treatment-specific risks for SMN and death in a nationwide population-based cohort of patients with GCC treated with current standard regimens. This study examined a Danish nationwide cohort of 5190 men with GCC who entered the Danish Testicular Cancer database between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2007. Treatment results were compared with a randomly sampled, age-stratified, population-based control group. Cases of gonadal and extragonadal primary were included in the nationwide cohort. The treatments were surveillance only; retroperitoneal radiotherapy (RT); bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP); or more than 1 line of treatment (MTOL). Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for SMN and death calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model were compared with those of age-matched controls. The study population comprised 2804 patients with seminoma and 2386 with nonseminoma. The median follow-up was 14.4 years (interquartile range, 8.6-20.5 years). The 20-year cumulative incidence of SMN with death as a competing risk was 7.8% (surveillance), 7.6% (BEP), 13.5% (RT), 9.2% (MTOL), and 7.0% (controls). We found no increased risk for SMN after surveillance, while the HRs were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.0), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3), and 3.7 (95% CI, 2.5-5.5), respectively, after BEP, RT, and MTOL. Mortality owing to non-GCC causes was decreased after surveillance, but increased by 1.3 times after BEP and RT and by 2.6 times after MTOL. Excess mortality due to SMN was found after BEP (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2), RT (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-2.9), and MTOL (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.6-9.6). We found no increased risk for SMN or death among patients undergoing surveillance only

  2. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research: An interpretive synthesis of experiences from six interlinked Danish studies.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Vitus, Kathrine; Ditlevsen, Kia; TØrslev, Mette Kirstine; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational settings as sites for recruitment. Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion of experiences among the researchers involved. Success in recruitment seemed to depend partly on recruitment site. Using healthcare facilities as the recruitment site and healthcare professionals as gatekeepers was less efficient than using schools and employees from educational institutions. Successful study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite their interest in high-quality health research into all population groups, fail to facilitate research access to some of the most disadvantaged groups, who need to be included in order to understand the mechanisms behind health disparities. This happens despite the genuine wish of many healthcare professionals to help facilitate such research. In this way, the findings indirectly emphasize the specific challenge of accessing more vulnerable and sick groups in research studies.

  3. A comparison of three methods to measure asthma in epidemiologic studies: results from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Granström, Charlotta; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old, the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between the methods using kappa statistics. Highest prevalence of asthma was found using the prescription registry (32.2%) followed by the self-report (12.0%) and the hospitalization registry (6.6%). We found a substantial non-overlap between the methods (kappa = 0.21-0.38). When all three methods were combined the asthma prevalence was 3.6%. In conclusion, self-reported asthma, ICD-10 diagnoses from a hospitalization registry and data on anti-asthmatic medication use from a prescription registry lead to different prevalences of asthma in the same cohort of children. The non-overlap between the methods may be due to different abilities of the methods to identify cases with different phenotypes, in which case they should be treated as separate outcomes in future aetiological studies.

  4. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Asthma in Epidemiologic Studies: Results from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Granström, Charlotta; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old, the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between the methods using kappa statistics. Highest prevalence of asthma was found using the prescription registry (32.2%) followed by the self-report (12.0%) and the hospitalization registry (6.6%). We found a substantial non-overlap between the methods (kappa = 0.21–0.38). When all three methods were combined the asthma prevalence was 3.6%. In conclusion, self-reported asthma, ICD-10 diagnoses from a hospitalization registry and data on anti-asthmatic medication use from a prescription registry lead to different prevalences of asthma in the same cohort of children. The non-overlap between the methods may be due to different abilities of the methods to identify cases with different phenotypes, in which case they should be treated as separate outcomes in future aetiological studies. PMID:22606255

  5. Risk of atrial fibrillation associated with coffee intake: Findings from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health study.

    PubMed

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Johansen, Martin Berg; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Tjønneland, Anne; Mittleman, Murray A; Overvad, Kim

    2016-06-01

    There have been discrepant findings on whether coffee consumption is associated with the rate of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). We used data on 57,053 participants (27,178 men and 29,875 women) aged 50-64 years in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. All participants provided information on coffee intake via food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. Incident AF was identified using nationwide registries. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 3415 AF events occurred. Compared with no intake, coffee consumption was inversely associated with AF incidence, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.15) for more than none to <1 cup/day, 0.88 (95% CI 0.71-1.10) for 1 cup/day, 0.86 (95% CI 0.71-1.04) for 2-3 cups/day, 0.84 (95% CI 0.69-1.02) for 4-5 cups/day, 0.79 (95% CI 0.64-0.98) for 6-7 cups/day and 0.79 (95% CI 0.63-1.00) for >7 cups/day (p-linear trend = 0.02). In this large population-based cohort study, higher levels of coffee consumption were associated with a lower rate of incident AF. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  6. The cohort of young Danish farmers – A longitudinal study of the health effects of farming exposure

    PubMed Central

    Elholm, Grethe; Omland, Øyvind; Schlünssen, Vivi; Hjort, Charlotte; Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Working in agriculture poses a serious risk for development of respiratory diseases, especially when working in animal housing. Animal workers are exposed to a mixture of organic and inorganic dust together with fumes and gases, including allergens and microbial-associated molecular patterns with a potentially major impact on respiratory health and the immune system. Exposure to microbial agents in animal housing is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, accelerated lung function decline, and neutrophil-mediated inflammation. These clinical findings are often seen without IgE-mediated sensitization. In fact it has been found in recent studies that the prevalence of atopic sensitization and atopic asthma is low among farmers compared with other populations. The SUS study was designed to identify the type and occurrence of respiratory symptoms and disease, and to investigate risk factors for respiratory disorders and changes in lung function among young farming students. The cohort of young Danish farmers was established in 1992/1994 and followed up in 2007/2008 with a participation rate of 51.7%. The cohort consists of 1734 male farming students, 230 female farming students, and 407 army recruits as controls. PMID:20865102

  7. How do Danish community pharmacies vary in engaging customers in medicine dialogues at the counter – an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kaae, Susanne; Saleem, Sahdia; Kristiansen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Counter counseling is an important part of community pharmacies service delivery. Difficulties arise because customers appear less interested than the staff in discussing their medicine. It is unclear how individual pharmacies differ with regard to overcoming these obstacles. Objective This study explores differences in the communication practices of pharmacies with regard to engaging customers in medicine dialogues. Methods The work of Stevenson et al. describing five types of interaction scenarios at the counter was used for structured overt non-participant observations of 100 encounters in each of five Danish pharmacies. Variation in pharmacies success in engaging customers in medicine dialogues were calculated using descriptive statistics, and the statistical significance of observed differences across pharmacies was analyzed using odds ratios (OR). Results Considerable differences between the pharmacies were identified. Differences exist in how often pharmacy staff attempts to encourage customers to participate in medication dialogues and how often they succeed. The pharmacies serving the most customers per day were the most successful. A possible link between a low number of refill customers offered counseling and ‘success rate’ was identified. Conclusions The pharmacies showed considerable variation in attempts to engage customers in medication dialogues at the counter and success in doing so. The reasons for the identified patterns are unclear. PMID:25243031

  8. Perceptions of coercion in the community: a qualitative study of patients in a Danish assertive community treatment team.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, Marie Høgh; Morthorst, Britt; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-03-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) has been claimed to be paternalistic and coercive, yet little is known about how patients experience the assertive aspects of ACT. To explore views on--and perceptions of--coercion of patients in Danish assertive community teams. In-depth interviews were conducted with six purposefully selected patients and analysed using thematic analysis. Patients reported lack of influence on treatment process and a poor alliance with case-mangers, not being recognised as an autonomous person, and experiences of staff crossing the line and intruding privacy, as most central to perceptions of coercion. A collaborative and mutually trusting relationship, commitment, persistence and availability of staff, and recognition of the need for social support and help with everyday activities, were most important for counteracting such experiences. Perceptions of coercion were not emphasised in patients' account of their engagement with ACT, and generally only related to patients' initial contact with ACT staff. The study suggests that developing mental health practices that enhance the formation of a therapeutic relationship with patients will minimize circumstances that induce perceptions of coercion. ACT, with its engaged and committed staff with sufficient time, focusing on social and practical issues, is successful in facilitating such a contact, as experienced by patients.

  9. Lung and bladder cancer among Danish urban bus drivers and tramway employees: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Soll-Johanning, Helle; Bach, Elsa; Jensen, Steen S

    2003-02-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels produces small amounts of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. We investigated the association between employment and lung and bladder cancer in Danish bus drivers and tramway employees. We carried out a nested case-control study of 153 lung and 84 bladder cancer cases, and 606 controls sampled in a cohort of 18 174 bus drivers or tramway employees employed in Copenhagen during the period 1900-1994. The cases and controls or their next of kin were interviewed about smoking, along with occupational and residential history. An exposure index based on which bus routes the bus drivers had mainly been driving was established. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The analysis showed decreasing risk for lung cancer with increasing years of employment as a bus driver (RR = 0.97 for each added year, 95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99). The air pollution index based on main bus for the bus drivers showed no positive correlation with risk.

  10. Barriers among Danish women and general practitioners to raising the issue of intimate partner violence in general practice: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mørk, Trine; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Taket, Ann

    2014-06-03

    Thirty-five percent of Danish women experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. However, health care professionals are not in the practice of asking about intimate partner violence (IPV) in Denmark. It is currently unknown what hinders general practitioners from asking about partner violence and how Danish women would perceive such an inquiry. This aspect has not previously been explored in Denmark. An exploratory study was conducted to examine what hinders general practitioners (GPs) from asking and what Danish women's views and attitudes are regarding being asked about IPV. Data were collected through individual and group interviews with a sample of three GPs and a diverse sample of 13 women, including both survivors of partner violence and those without any history of partner violence. An interpretative analysis was performed with the data. This study provides important knowledge regarding the barriers and attitudes towards inquiry about IPV in primary care in Denmark. Results indicate that Denmark is facing the same challenges when responding to survivors of IPV as other similar countries, including Sweden, Norway, the UK, USA, and Australia. Danish women want general practitioners to ask about violence in a respectful and non-judgemental manner. However, general practitioners are resistant towards such an inquiry and would benefit from training regarding how to respond to women who have been exposed to IPV. It is acceptable to inquire about IPV with women in Denmark in a non-judgemental and respectful way. Informing about IPV prevalence is important prior to the inquiry. However, general practitioners require more awareness and training before a favourable environment for this change in procedure can be created. Further large-scale research is needed to support the evidence generated by this small study.

  11. The longitudinal association between multiple job holding and long-term sickness absence among Danish employees: an explorative study using register-based data.

    PubMed

    Bouwhuis, Stef; Garde, Anne Helene; Geuskens, Goedele A; Boot, Cécile R L; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-11-01

    Multiple job holding (MJH) is common in many countries, but little is known about its (health) consequences. Our aim is to explore the longitudinal association between MJH and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among Danish employees. We included employees (N = 8968) who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), based on a representative sample of the Danish working population. Three dichotomous independent variables were created: MJH in general, combination MJH (i.e. second job as employee) and hybrid MJH (i.e. self-employed in second job). LTSA (≥5 weeks) was measured using the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization during 78 weeks of follow-up. Potential confounders included demographics, health, and work characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study whether LTSA was associated with MJH in general, combination MJH, and hybrid MJH. Interaction effects for gender, age, total working hours per week (≤37 or >37 h a week), and shift work were tested. In total, 11.7% (N = 1048) of the respondents reported having multiple jobs and 7.6% (N = 678) experienced LTSA during follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, no significant association between LTSA and MJH in general (OR = 0.82), combination MJH (OR = 0.81), or hybrid MJH (OR = 0.83) was found. Among employees working more than 37 h per week, combination MJH was associated with a higher likelihood of LTSA (OR = 1.50). We did not find evidence for an increased likelihood of LTSA among multiple job holders. Future research should study the likelihood of LTSA among subgroups of multiple job holders, e.g. those working long hours.

  12. Health care utilization in general practice after HPV vaccination-A Danish nationwide register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Krogsgaard, Lene Wulff; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Lützen, Tina Hovgaard; Vestergaard, Mogens; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Rytter, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has increasingly been suspected of adverse effects in Denmark since 2013. By using consultations with the general practitioner (GP) as an indicator for morbidity, this study aims to examine the association between HPV vaccination and morbidity in girls in the Danish childhood immunization program. The study is a nationwide register-based cohort study. Both the HPV and the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccines were offered to 12-year-old girls in Denmark in the study period (2008-2015). Therefore, both vaccines were included as exposures to allow differentiation between potential effects. This resulted in four exposure groups: HPV only vaccinated, HPV+MMR vaccinated, MMR only vaccinated, and Non-vaccinated girls. Outcomes were: daytime consultation rates and frequent GP attendance (> 7 annual GP consultations). We estimated consultation rates by negative binomial regressions analysis and frequent GP attendance by logistic regression analysis. Both analyses were stratified on the years 2008-2013 versus 2014. The study included 214,240 girls born in 1996-2002. All vaccinated groups consulted the GP more often than the non-vaccinated group, both before and after the vaccination. After the vaccination, an increase in consultations was observed for all three vaccinated groups; most distinct for girls vaccinated in 2014. For girls vaccinated before 2014, we found a slightly higher risk of frequent GP attendance after vaccination in the HPV only group compared to the non-vaccinated group, whereas in 2014, frequent GP attendance was seen for all three vaccinated groups; most substantial for the MMR only vaccinated group. In this study, no exclusive increase in health care utilization was detected after HPV vaccination. However, a general difference in the health care utilization pattern was found between vaccinated and non-vaccinated girls, which increased after the time of vaccination, primarily for girls vaccinated after 2013.

  13. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS).

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-2.34) and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors.

  14. Fractures in Individuals with and without a History of Infantile Autism. A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Discharge Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2012-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and types of fractures in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time was 30.3 years (range 27.3-30.4…

  15. Are changes in workplace bullying status related to changes in salivary cortisol? A longitudinal study among Danish employees.

    PubMed

    Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mors, Ole; Kaerlev, Linda; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30 min after awakening and at 8 p.m.). All participants responding to the item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after newly onset of and discontinuance of workplace bullying. All analyses were adjusted for the potentially confounding effect of differences from baseline to follow-up in education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, cohort, sampling waves, time of awakening, and time of sampling. We found no indication of statistically significant difference in saliva cortisol, neither when participants changed their self-labelling from not bullied at baseline to being bullied at follow-up, nor when they at follow-up two years later reported discontinuance of bullying. This longitudinal study on the impact of changes in bullying status on change in cortisol levels showed consistent lack of associations with onset and discontinuance of workplace bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of α-linolenic acid and risk of myocardial infarction: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bork, Christian S; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim

    2016-07-01

    Intake of the plant-derived ω-3 (n-3) fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3; n-3) may reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of ALA, adipose tissue content of ALA, and risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 57,053 participants, aged 50-64 y, were enrolled in the prospective Danish cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health between 1993 and 1997. Dietary intake of ALA was assessed with the use of a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire in the full cohort, whereas the adipose tissue content of ALA was determined with the use of gas chromatography in all incident MI cases and in a random sex-stratified sample of the total cohort (n = 3500). During a median of 17 y of follow-up, we identified 2177 male and 912 female cases of MI. After appropriate exclusions, we included 2124 men and 854 women for analyses of dietary intake of ALA, whereas 1994 men and 770 women were included in the analysis of the adipose tissue content of ALA. In multivariate analyses that were conducted with the use of restricted cubic splines and adjusted for established CHD risk factors, weak positive associations in men and weak U-shaped associations in women were shown between both dietary intake and the adipose tissue content of ALA and risk of MI, but these associations were not statistically significant. Additional adjustments for dietary factors did not influence the observed associations numerically. This study suggests that ALA has no appreciable association with risk of incident MI in either men or women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Folic acid supplement use and menstrual cycle characteristics: a cross-sectional study of Danish pregnancy planners

    PubMed Central

    Cueto, Heidi T.; Riis, Anders H.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Wise, Lauren A.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between folic acid (FA) supplementation obtained through either single FA tablets or multivitamins (MVs) and menstrual cycle characteristics among 5,386 women aged 18–40 years, enrolled in an Internet-based study of Danish women attempting pregnancy during 2007–2011. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of FA supplementation with menstrual cycle regularity, short (<27 days), long (30–33 days), and very long (≥34 days) cycle length, and duration and intensity of menstrual bleeding. Results Compared with non-use, FA supplementation was associated with reduced odds of short cycle length [OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94], and a trend towards increased odds of very long cycle length [OR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.87–1.68] compared with cycle length of 27–29 days. The inverse association with short cycle length was stronger among 18–30 year-old women [OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.53–0.87], nulliparous women [OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.52–0.84], and women who used both FA and MVs [OR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.60–0.95]. We found no clear association between FA supplementation and cycle regularity and duration and intensity of menstrual bleeding. Conclusion FA supplementation was inversely associated with short menstrual cycle length. This association was strongest among women aged 18–30 years, nulliparous women, and women who used both FA and MVs. PMID:26123570

  18. Effect of propranolol on survival in patients with decompensated cirrhosis: a nationwide study based Danish patient registers.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ulrich C; Benfield, Thomas; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-09-01

    We assessed the impact of propranolol on death, risk of hepatorenal syndrome and peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. This study was a retrospective observational study and data were retrieved from Danish databases. We used our own criteria to stratify the patients into groups of patients with mildly decompensated cirrhosis or severely decompensated cirrhosis. A subgroup of patients with a history of peritonitis was also analyzed. Follow-up time was limited to 2 years from cohort entry. The reported hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were based on a propensity score matched cohort. Among 3719 patients, we found 3075 patients with mildly and 644 with severely decompensated cirrhosis. Propranolol was used by 20% of the patients. Among the patients with mildly decompensated cirrhosis, propranolol use vs. non-propranolol was related with a HR of 0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.9) and among the patients with severely decompensated cirrhosis, the HR was 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-0.9). Reduced mortality was found for doses of propranolol lower than 160 mg/day only. Among 361 patients with peritonitis, we found reduced mortality in the propranolol group with a HR of 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.8). The use of propranolol was associated with a HR of 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.9) for developing peritonitis during follow-up among patients with severely decompensated cirrhosis. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, we found an association between propranolol use and reduced mortality risk for doses lower than 160 mg/day. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Association between surgical delay and survival in high-risk emergency abdominal surgery. A population-based Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vester-Andersen, Morten; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Buck, David Levarett; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2016-01-01

    In patients with perforated peptic ulcer, surgical delay has recently been shown to be a critical determinant of survival. The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to evaluate the association between surgical delay by hour and mortality in high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery in general. All in-patients aged ≥ 18 years having emergency abdominal laparotomy or laparoscopy performed within 48 h of admission between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2010 in 13 Danish hospitals were included. Baseline and clinical data, including surgical delay and 90-day mortality were collected. The crude and adjusted association between surgical delay by hour and 90-day mortality was assessed by binary logistic regression. A total of 2803 patients were included. Median age (interquartile range [IQR]) was 66 (51-78) years, and 515 patients (18.4%) died within 90 days of surgery. Over the first 24 h after hospital admission, each hour of surgical delay beyond hospital admission was associated with a median (IQR) decrease in 90-day survival of 2.2% (1.9-3.3%). No statistically significant association between surgical delay by hour and 90-day mortality was shown; crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval 1.016 (1.004-1.027) and 1.003 (0.989-1.017), respectively. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the primary finding. In the present population-based cohort study of high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery, no statistically significant adjusted association between mortality and surgical delay was found. Additional research in diagnosis-specific subgroups of high-risk patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery is warranted.

  20. Pre-eclampsia and first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bergink, V; Laursen, T M; Johannsen, B M W; Kushner, S A; Meltzer-Brody, S; Munk-Olsen, T

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that postpartum psychiatric episodes may share similar etiological mechanisms with immune-related disorders. Pre-eclampsia is one of the most prevalent immune-related disorders of pregnancy. Multiple clinical features are shared between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric disorders, most prominently a strong link to first pregnancies. Therefore, we aimed to study if pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. We conducted a cohort study using the Danish population registry, with a total of 400 717 primiparous women with a singleton delivery between 1995 and 2011. First-lifetime childbirth was the main exposure variable and the outcome of interest was first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. The main outcome measures were monthly incidence rate ratios (IRRs), with the period 11-12 months after birth as the reference category. Adjustments were made for age, calendar period, reproductive history, and perinatal maternal health including somatic and obstetric co-morbidity. Primiparous women were at particularly high risk of first-onset psychiatric episodes during the first month postpartum [IRR 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.53-3.40] and pre-eclampsia added to that risk (IRR 4.21, 95% CI 2.89-6.13). Having both pre-eclampsia and a somatic co-morbidity resulted in the highest risk of psychiatric episodes during the 3-month period after childbirth (IRR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72-8.50). We confirmed an association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric episodes. The possible explanations for this association, which are not mutually exclusive, include the psychological impact of a serious medical condition such as pre-eclampsia and the neurobiological impact of pre-eclampsia-related vascular pathology and inflammation.

  1. Pre-eclampsia and first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes: a Danish population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, V.; Laursen, T. M.; Johannsen, B. M. W.; Kushner, S. A.; Meltzer-Brody, S.; Munk-Olsen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that postpartum psychiatric episodes may share similar etiological mechanisms with immune-related disorders. Pre-eclampsia is one of the most prevalent immune-related disorders of pregnancy. Multiple clinical features are shared between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric disorders, most prominently a strong link to first pregnancies. Therefore, we aimed to study if pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. Method We conducted a cohort study using the Danish population registry, with a total of 400 717 primiparous women with a singleton delivery between 1995 and 2011. First-lifetime childbirth was the main exposure variable and the outcome of interest was first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. The main outcome measures were monthly incidence rate ratios (IRRs), with the period 11–12 months after birth as the reference category. Adjustments were made for age, calendar period, reproductive history, and perinatal maternal health including somatic and obstetric co-morbidity. Results Primiparous women were at particularly high risk of first-onset psychiatric episodes during the first month postpartum [IRR 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.53–3.40] and pre-eclampsia added to that risk (IRR 4.21, 95% CI 2.89–6.13). Having both pre-eclampsia and a somatic co-morbidity resulted in the highest risk of psychiatric episodes during the 3-month period after childbirth (IRR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72–8.50). Conclusions We confirmed an association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric episodes. The possible explanations for this association, which are not mutually exclusive, include the psychological impact of a serious medical condition such as pre-eclampsia and the neurobiological impact of pre-eclampsia-related vascular pathology and inflammation. PMID:26243040

  2. Discrepancy between self- and proxy-rated pain in Alzheimer's disease: results from the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Vogel, Asmus; Waldorff, Frans B; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of self- and proxy-reported pain in a cohort with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify characteristics of individuals with AD reporting pain. Data were collected at the baseline visit of the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study. Community. Three hundred twenty-one community-living individuals with AD (MMSE ≥ 20) and their primary caregivers. Pain was assessed as part of the EuroQol EQ-5D (caregiver- and self-rated). The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease Scale, EQ-5D visual analog scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire were also used. Fair agreement was found between self- and proxy ratings on pain (kappa = 0.34). Thirty-three percent of individuals with AD reported pain, whereas caregivers reported that 52% had pain ( P < .001). Individuals who had self- or proxy-rated pain were significantly more likely to be female, had more depressive and other neuropsychiatric symptoms, and rated their quality of life lower. Self- and proxy-reported pain differ in individuals with mild AD, with proxies rating more pain than the individuals with AD. Self- and proxy-rated pain was significantly associated with more neuropsychiatric and depressive symptoms and lower quality of life. In general, this study indicates that pain occurs frequently even in individuals with mild AD and that pain assessment may require self- and proxy report to identify individuals with need for possible treatment. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Risk of childhood otitis media with focus on potentially modifiable factors: A Danish follow-up cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Lous, Jørgen; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Homøe, Preben

    2018-03-01

    Otitis media is the primary cause of antibiotic prescription in children. Two-thirds of all children experience at least one episode of otitis media before the age of 7 years. The aim of this study was to characterise the attributable effect of several modifiable risk exposures on the risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at age 18 months and 7 years within a large prospective national birth cohort. The study used the Danish National Birth Cohort comprising information about otitis media and risk exposures from more than 50,000 mother-child pairs from the period 1996-2002. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors and to calculate the population attributable fraction. Short time with breastfeeding, early introduction to daycare, cesarean section, and low compliance to the national vaccination program were all associated with an increased risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months of age and at 7 years of age. The fraction of children with otitis media attributed from breastfeeding lasting for less than 6 months was 10%. Introduction to daycare before the age of 12 months attributed with 20% of the cases of >3 episodes of otitis media. Short duration of breastfeeding, early introduction into daycare, cesarean section, and low compliance with the national vaccination program increased the risk of experiencing >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months, and at 7 years of age. These are factors that all can be modulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of housing characteristics on leisure-time sitting. A prospective cohort study in Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Linneberg, Allan; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-12-01

    Built environmental attributes have been studied in relation to domestic time spent sedentary. An indoor behaviour has thus been linked to an outdoor setting. Yet, attributes of the actual domestic environment may also influence the time spent sedentary at home. Therefore, the aim was to examine if housing characteristics were cross-sectionally and prospectively related to leisure-time sitting in adults. In the Danish Health2006 cohort, 2308 adults were followed for 5 years. At baseline, subjects self-reported housing characteristics (habitat type, habitat surface area and household size), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and socio-demographic factors. Leisure-time sitting was self-reported at baseline and 5-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression was used to assess cross-sectional and prospective associations. At baseline habitat surface area and household size were inversely associated with leisure-time sitting (p<0.01). Living in an apartment was associated with higher leisure-time sitting compared to living in a house (p<0.01). Household size was a predictor of 5-year leisure-time sitting (p<0.01), after adjustment for confounders and the other housing characteristics. Habitat type, habitat surface area and household size were associated with leisure-time sitting in adults, while especially household size was a predictor of leisure-time sitting five years later. The findings highlight the importance of home-environmental attributes when targeting a reduction in sedentary behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothyroidism is a predictor of disability pension and loss of labor market income: a Danish register-based study.

    PubMed

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-09-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market income progression over 5 years were evaluated using a difference in difference model. With a hazard ratio of 2.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.73-2.89), individuals diagnosed with hypothyroidism had a significantly increased risk of disability pension. This remained significant when adjusting for educational level and comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.51). In an analysis of labor market income, 2 years before compared with 2 years after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid individuals had on average a €1605 poorer increase than their euthyroid controls (P < .001). Essentially similar results were found in the twin population. A diagnosis of hypothyroidism before the age of 60 is associated with loss of labor market income and an 89% increased risk of receiving a disability pension.

  6. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Pressure Pain Sensitivity in the Adult Danish General Population: The DanFunD Study.

    PubMed

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Jørgensen, Torben; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ebstrup, Jeanette F; Carstensen, Tina; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Increased pressure pain sensitivity and impaired descending pain control have been associated with chronic pain, but knowledge on the variability in the adult general population is lacking. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and descending pain control assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were recorded in a randomly selected sample (n = 2,199, 53% female) of the Danish adult general population aged 18 to 70 years. PPTs were recorded over the tibialis anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle. CPM was defined as the difference between PPT assessments before and during conditioning with cold pressor pain (hand) for 2 minutes. Conditioning pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale and questionnaire data were collected. Female sex (P < .001) and younger age (P ≤ .02) was associated with lower PPTs at both body sites. For the trapezius muscle, high perceived stress was associated with lower PPTs (P < .02), whereas an interaction was found between body mass index and sex. CPM potency was lower in female compared with male participants (P ≤ .003), whereas no association with age was found. Higher level of education (P ≤ .05), premature withdrawal from the cold pressor test (P ≤ .02), and high visual analog scale score (P ≤ .02) were associated with a larger CPM response. Data from this large population-based study provide new insight into the gender and age variation in pain sensitivity and CPM response. Decreased CPM potency and increased pain sensitivity in female participants were found, emphasizing the need to improve the understanding of its clinical consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. β-Blockers and Survival among Danish Patients with Malignant Melanoma: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lemeshow, Stanley; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Phillips, Gary; Yang, Eric V.; Antonsen, Sussie; Riis, Anders H.; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Jackson, Rebecca; Glaser, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Background To study whether use of β-blockers increases survival in patients with malignant melanoma because experimental data suggest that catecholamine hormones may be involved in stimulating the aggressiveness of malignant melanoma. Methods A total of 4,179 patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma in Denmark with a median follow-up of 4.9 years and identified in the Danish Cancer Registry participated. Data on β-blocker use, comorbidity, and survival were obtained from medical and administrative databases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs for all-cause mortality with 95% CIs with adjustment for prognostic factors. Results A total of 372 (8.9%) patients with malignant melanoma were treated with β-blockers within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis. The median β-blocker duration for exposure within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis, more than 90 days, and no prior exposure was 7.6, 1.4, and 0 years, respectively. The patients receiving β-blockers were older, had more comorbidities, and more cardiovascular and psychotropic drug user than the patients receiving no β-blockers prior to melanoma diagnosis. After adjustment for age and comorbidity index, the HR for melanoma death was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.64–1.20) and for all-cause mortality was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67–0.97). Conclusion Increased survival time of patients with melanoma receiving β-blockers suggests that this class of drugs may hold promise in treatment strategy for these patients. Impact The observations described here suggest that catecholamines may retard melanoma progression and that β-blockers may have unrecognized potential as a therapeutic intervention for melanoma. PMID:21933972

  8. Maternal Caffeine Consumption during Pregnancy and Behavioral Disorders in 11-Year-Old Offspring: A Danish National Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hvolgaard Mikkelsen, Susanne; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, Jørn; Niclasen, Janni; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2017-10-01

    To examine the association between maternal caffeine consumption from coffee and tea during pregnancy and offspring behavioral disorders. We studied 47 491 children enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on maternal coffee and tea consumption was collected at 15 and 30 weeks of gestation. When the child was 11 years old, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire was filled in by children, parents, and teachers. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) for offspring behavioral disorders. At 15 weeks of gestation 3% and 4% of the pregnant women consumed ≥8 cups/d of coffee or tea, respectively. Maternal coffee consumption ≥8 cups/d at 15 weeks of gestation was associated with increased risk of hyperactivity-inattention disorder (RR 1.47; 95% CI 1.18-1.83), conduct-oppositional disorders (RR 1.22; 95% CI 1.01-1.48), and any psychiatric disorder (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.40). Maternal tea consumption ≥8 cups/d at 15 weeks of gestation was associated with increased risk of anxiety-depressive disorders (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.09-1.52) and any psychiatric disorder (RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.11-1.40). An increased risk of hyperactivity-inattention disorder was observed with increasing daily caffeine consumption at 15 weeks of gestation. High maternal caffeine consumption from coffee and tea at 15 weeks of gestation was associated with behavioral disorders in 11-year-old offspring. We hypothesize that caffeine exposure may affect the fetal brain and program for behavioral disorders later in life. The fetal brain seems to be more sensitive to caffeine exposure at 15 weeks of pregnancy compared with 30 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and risk for congenital malformations: results of a Danish register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leite, Mimmi; Albieri, Vanna; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk for congenital malformations. Population-based prospective cohort study. Denmark. A total of 838 265 singleton liveborn babies delivered in Denmark between 1997 and 2010 and registered in the Danish Medical Birth Register containing detailed information on smoking during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Associations [odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI] between maternal smoking and risk for various groups of congenital malformations, investigated using the generalized estimating equation for binary outcomes, with adjustment for potential confounders. Groups of congenital malformations. Ever smoking during pregnancy did not increase the overall risk for congenital malformations, but increased risks were observed for multiple malformations (i.e. when two or more malformations are diagnosed in a child) (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.10) and various main groups of congenital malformations including the cardiovascular system (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.19), the respiratory system (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.41), the digestive system (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.24) and oral clefts (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.46), as well as for some specific congenital malformations including cardiac septal defects, malformations of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves, malformations of the great arteries, pyloric stenosis and clubfoot. Infants of women who quit smoking during the first two trimesters had no increased risk for most groups of congenital malformations. Maternal smoking increases the risk for a number of congenital malformations. Future smoking cessation programs should focus on this adverse health aspect in order to encourage more women to quit smoking before or in early pregnancy. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. No evidence of a causal relationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma: A Danish nationwide register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2018-01-01

    An interrelationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, due to a shared autoimmune background or based on deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork in the eye, has been suggested but is at present unsubstantiated. Therefore, our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide and population-based level, whether there is such an association. Observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. 121,799 individuals diagnosed with a first episode of hypothyroidism were identified and were matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls according to age and sex. Prevalence of glaucoma was recorded and cases and controls were followed over a mean of 7.1 years (range 0-17). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of glaucoma before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Overall, we found a higher prevalence of glaucoma in subjects with hypothyroidism as compared to controls (4.6% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001). Prior to the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the odds ratio (OR) was significantly increased for glaucoma [1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.13]. Based on the Cox regression model, there was no increased risk of glaucoma after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism [hazard ratio (HR) 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06], and the HR decreased further after adjusting for pre-existing co-morbidity (0.88; 95% CI: 0.84-0.93). There was an increased risk of glaucoma before but not after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, suggesting that screening for glaucoma in hypothyroid individuals is unwarranted.

  11. Danish Observational Study of Eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorderS (DOSES): a prospective study at 20 nursing homes in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Karstad, Kristina; Jørgensen, Anette F B; Greiner, Birgit A; Burdorf, Alex; Søgaard, Karen; Rugulies, Reiner; Holtermann, Andreas

    2018-02-28

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sickness absence and premature retirement are highly prevalent among eldercare workers. We conducted a prospective observational workplace study with the main purpose to investigate longitudinal associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions and occurrence of MSD and its consequences (pain-related interference with daily work activities and sickness absence) among Danish eldercare workers. At 20 Danish nursing homes, a total of 941 eldercare workers employed in day and evening shifts were invited to the study. Of those, 553 participated in the baseline measurements, and 441 completed the total period of 12 months follow-up. Data were collected from September 2013 to January 2016. Physical and psychosocial working conditions were assessed with multiple methods (observations, accelerometer measurements and work schedules), and multiple levels of information (nursing home, ward, resident and eldercare worker) were incorporated in the data collection. MSD and the consequences hereof were assessed monthly during a 1-year follow-up. Study participants and non-participants were comparable on most of the 27 sociodemographic, health and working condition characteristics at baseline. The exceptions were higher neck-shoulder pain intensity, less sickness absence, more exposure to negative behaviour from residents and a higher percentage of working day shifts and fewer evening shifts among participants compared with non-participants. The first publications will report on the associations of physical and psychosocial working conditions with occurrence of MSD and its consequences. In addition, the cohort gives the opportunity to investigate the importance of organisational, management and team factors for distribution of physical work demands and development of MSD among the workers. This will provide important knowledge for future workplace interventions to reduce MSD and sickness absence. © Article author(s) (or their

  12. "Doing the Secular": Academic Practices in the Study of Religion at Two Danish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Birgitte Schepelern

    2011-01-01

    The academic study of religion at the public university often presents itself as a secular, non-religious, scientific endeavor. The identity of the study is thus firmly rooted within one of the central secular-religious divides, namely that between science and religion. Based on the assumption that such distinctions between religion and the…

  13. The Danish Sarcoma Database.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative complications, and recurrence within 5 years follow-up. The database is also a valuable research tool to study the impact of technical and medical interventions on prognosis of sarcoma patients.

  14. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Mogens T; Dupont, Nana; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S; Konnerup, Christel; Pihl, Tina H; Andersen, Pia H

    2014-04-08

    Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66-71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85-89%). Thirty one % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29-33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28-36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died or were euthanized (CI: 19-32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68-81%). The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners' attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias. If the survival rates are to be compared between hospitals, techniques or surgeons, prospective studies including mutually agreed-on disease severity scores and a predefined set of reasons for euthanasia are needed.

  15. Attitudes to a robot bathtub in Danish elder care: A hermeneutic interview study.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie Skovsgaard; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    In Western countries, assistive technology is implemented on a large scale in elder care settings. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the different attitudes to assistive technology among various groups of users. In this study, we investigated and explained the different attitudes among the involved leaders, nursing staff, and older people to a newly-implemented robot bathtub. Qualitative analyses of eight interviews with managers, nursing staff, and the older users revealed that the informants focused on different aspects (process, values, and functionality, respectively), used different implicit quality criteria, and ascribed different symbolic significance to the robot bathtub. Thus, the study demonstrated how attitudes toward the robot bathtub were connected to the informants' institutional role. The findings challenge the current paradigm, where technology is expected to operate as a passive tool, simply facilitating desired human acts and interactions. Further studies drawing on the epistemological and ontological perceptions of science technology studies are needed in order to understand human rationalities in the assistive technology context and to offer new insights into how technology "works" in organizations. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. The Studies of Readers' Responses to "The Snake,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip" in Spring 1981. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 13. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    Summaries of the Danish internal reports of the essay studies, the introspection studies, and the literary analyses that are part of the larger interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project concerning the collective versus the individual nature of the response to literature are presented in this report. Various sections of the five papers…

  17. Physical Activity and School Performance: Evidence from a Danish Randomised School-Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…

  18. A Retrospective Study of Social Relations in a Danish Primary School Class Taught in "Udeskole"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Mygind, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The use of the "outdoors" in pre-school and school settings is becoming an increasingly important field of education and researchers have emphasised the positive influence of the "outdoors" on various social aspects. However, the facilitative conditions for such positive influences are not studied exhaustively. Therefore, we…

  19. Experiences with Recruitment of Marginalized Groups in a Danish Health Promotion Program: A Document Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Marianne; Poulsen, Eva Kanstrup; Rytter, Anne Stoffersen; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    Studies have found that marginalized groups living in deprived neighborhoods are less likely to participate in health programs compared to the majority of society. This study evaluates recruitment approaches conducted during a national government-funded project in 12 deprived neighborhoods across Denmark between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment approaches could promote participation in health programs within deprived neighborhoods to reach marginalized groups. Documents from all 12 of the included municipalities were collected to conduct a document evaluation. The collected documents consisted of 1,500 pages of written material with 12 project descriptions, three midterm and 10 final evaluations. The collected data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. The results are based on the fact that only 10 municipalities have developed evaluations related to recruitment, and only three evaluations provided a description of which marginalized groups were recruited. Challenges related to recruitment consist of difficulties involving the target group, including general distrust, language barriers and a lack of ability to cope with new situations and strangers. Additional geographical challenges emerged, especially in rural areas. Positive experiences with recruitment approaches were mainly related to relationship building and trust building, especially through face-to-face contact and the project employees' presence in the neighborhood. Additionally, adjusting some of the interventions and the recruitment strategy increased participation. This study found that relation and trust between the residents and the project employees is an important factor in the recruitment of marginalized groups in deprived neighborhoods as well as adjusting the health interventions or recruitment strategy to the target groups. In future research, it is necessary to examine which recruitment approaches are effective under which circumstances to

  20. Residential road traffic noise exposure and colorectal cancer survival – A Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Solvang Jensen, Steen; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background Residential traffic noise exposure may entail sleep disruption and compromised circadian functioning; two factors which have been associated with a poor colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise and CRC survival. Methods and materials Road traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to February 2012 for incident CRC cases (n = 1,234) in a cohort of 57,053 Danes. We used Cox Proportional Hazard Models to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise at different time-windows, and overall and CRC-specific mortality. Furthermore, we investigated interaction with sex, age, prognostic factors, and comorbidity. Mortality Rate Ratios (MRR) were calculated in unadjusted models, and adjusted for railway noise, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic variables. Results During a median follow-up of 4 years, 594 patients died; 447 from CRC. We found no association between road traffic noise exposure and overall (MRR 1.00 (0.88–1.13) per 10 dB) or CRC-specific mortality (MRR 0.98 (0.85–1.13) per 10 dB) over the entire follow-up period, or 1 year preceding death. Results did not differ when examining colon and rectal cancer separately. Interaction analyses suggested that patients with less clinically advanced disease could be more susceptible to harmful effects of traffic noise. Conclusion The present study suggests no overall association between residential road traffic noise and concurrent mortality in CRC patients. As it is the first study of its kind, with relatively limited power, further studies are warranted. PMID:29084272

  1. Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B W; Nielsen, B M; Husby, I; Bugge, A; El-Naaman, B; Andersen, L B; Trolle, E; Heitmann, B L

    2013-08-01

    In some previous studies direct associations between intake of soft drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages and adiposity have been reported. The majority of these studies were, however, conducted in the USA and it is uncertain if the results are applicable to non-US countries. To assess the association between sweet drink intake at age 6 and 9 years and the subsequent 3- to 7-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and sum of four skin-folds (Σ4SF). Information on sweet drink intake (7 days food record) and physical activity (accelerometer) was obtained at age 6 years (n = 366) [Correction made here after initial online publication.] and 9 years (n = 269). Weight, height and Σ4SF were measured at age 6, 9 and 13 years. Additional information on socio-economic status, maternal BMI and pubertal status was obtained. No associations were observed between sweet drink intake at age 6 years and change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 6 to 9 years or 6 to 13 years. Also, no associations were observed between change in sweet drink intake from age 6 to 9 years and subsequent change in BMI or logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years. A weak direct association was observed between sweet drink intake at age 9 years and change in logΣ4SF from age 9 to 13 years (per 100 g ∼ 3.38 fl oz) (β: 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.001 to 0.029, P = 0.06), while no association was seen for BMI. In supplementary analyses a similar association was observed for soft drinks (β: 0.087, 95% CI: 0.048 to 0.126, P = 0.001) but only in the intervention group. We observed associations between intake of sweet drinks and soft drinks and change in skin-fold thickness in a group of Danish children. However, as the associations did not remain significant when multiple testing was considered or was only significant among children from the intervention group, the results do not confirm or refute the direct association reported in previous studies. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013

  2. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorative secondary outcome analysis on data from 784 children from the OPUS School Meal Study, a cluster-randomised cross-over trial where children received school meals for 3 months and habitual lunch for 3 months. At baseline, and at the end of each dietary period, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), dietary intake and physical activity were assessed. School meals increased vitamin D intake by 0·9 (95 % CI 0·7, 1·1) μg/d. No consistent effects were found on 25(OH)D, BMC, BA, BMD, IGF-1 or OC. However, season-modified effects were observed with 25(OH)D, i.e. children completing the school meal period in January/February had higher 25(OH)D status (5·5 (95 % CI 1·8, 9·2) nmol/l; P = 0·004) than children completing the control period in these months. A similar tendency was indicated in November/December (4·1 (95 % CI -0·12, 8·3) nmol/l; P = 0·057). However, the effect was opposite in March/April (-4·0 (95 % CI -7·0, -0·9) nmol/l; P = 0·010), and no difference was found in May/June (P = 0·214). Unexpectedly, the school meals slightly increased PTH (0·18 (95 % CI 0·07, 0·29) pmol/l) compared with habitual lunch. Small increases in dietary vitamin D might hold potential to mitigate the winter nadir in Danish children's 25(OH)D status while higher increases appear necessary to affect status throughout the year. More trials on effects of vitamin D intake from natural foods are needed.

  3. Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth and Hyperthyroidism: A Danish Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pregnancy loss in women suffering from hyperthyroidism has been described in case reports, but the risk of pregnancy loss caused by maternal hyperthyroidism in a population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal hyperthyroidism and pregnancy loss in a population-based cohort study. Study Design All pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 leading to hospital visits (n = 1,062,862) were identified in nationwide registers together with information on maternal hyperthyroidism for up to 2 years after the pregnancy [hospital diagnosis/prescription of antithyroid drug (ATD)]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for spontaneous abortion (gestational age <22 weeks) and stillbirth (≥22 weeks), reference: no maternal thyroid dysfunction. Results When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before/during the pregnancy (n = 5,229), spontaneous abortion occurred more often both in women treated before the pregnancy alone [aHR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18-1.40)] and in women treated with ATD in early pregnancy [1.18 (1.07-1.31)]. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and treated for the first time in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (n = 2,361), there was a high risk that the pregnancy under study had terminated with a stillbirth [2.12 (1.30-3.47)]. Conclusions Both early (spontaneous abortion) and late (stillbirth) pregnancy loss were more common in women suffering from hyperthyroidism. Inadequately treated hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may have been involved in spontaneous abortion, and undetected high maternal thyroid hormone levels present in late pregnancy may have attributed to an increased risk of stillbirth. PMID:25538898

  4. Who's choosing whom? A sociological study of the specialty choices in a Danish context

    PubMed Central

    Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate if habitus, the unconscious and embodied mental structures founded early in life, can contribute to our understanding of how individuals choose a medical specialty. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using standardized open-ended interviews. In the present research, sampling was purposive, with an aim to illuminating the study objective. A sample of six juniors and three senior doctors were recruited from gynecology and obstetrics, vascular surgery and general practice via a snowball method. The interview guide and the subsequent analysis were based on Bourdieu’s sociological theory. Results Three central themes emerged, labeled as “the use of distinctions and dichotomies”, “the shaping of habitus” and “consequences of the shaping of habitus”. These represent values and preferences developed through childhood education and experiences which may contribute to explaining specialty choices. Participants distinguished between specialties by referring to dichotomous characteristics of the specialty (such as sick/healthy patients; young/elderly patients; fine/coarse surgery). Conclusions Bourdieu’s theory is useful for broadening our understanding of specialty choice, as his central concept, habitus, was found to direct the choice of specialty and constrain the number of possible specialties for the individual doctor. Research is needed to better understand how various factors affect the specialty choices of medical school graduates.

  5. Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction in Commercial Buildings: Danish Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egedorf, Soren; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Martin, Rodney A.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely known that faults not only compromise building energy performance but also cause occupants discomfort. To cope with these, adverse condition and critical event prediction plays an important role. Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox (ACCEPT) is a tool which has been recently developed by NASA to allow for a timely prediction of an adverse event, with low false alarm and missed detection rates. In this paper, ACCEPT is used for fault detection and diagnosis in a commercial building. The building is situated in the University of Southern Denmark and is known to be an interesting case study which has been used in different studies related to building energy performance. In order to allow for the data from building to be used in ACCEPT, methods such as Kernel Density Estimation (KDE), Principle Component Analysis (PCA)-based contribution plots are used. A new PCA-based method is also developed for artificial fault generation. While the proposed method finds applications in different areas, it has been used for analysis purpose in this work. The results are evaluated, discussed and compared with results from Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA). CVA is known to be one of the best multivariate data-driven techniques in particularly under dynamically changing operational conditions.

  6. Introspection and Essay Studies Conducted in Turkey. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doltas, Dilek; Sevgen, Cevza

    As part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, both an introspection and an essay study were conducted with Turkish university prep-school students and junior college students to determine their responses to three fairytales: "The Snake, the Fox, and the Man,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip."…

  7. Maternal cancer and congenital anomalies in children - a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Momen, Natalie C; Ernst, Andreas; Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Olsen, Jørn; Li, Jiong; Gissler, Mika; Rasmussen, Finn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    Several studies on pregnancy-associated cancers have suggested an association with congenital anomalies in offspring. Previous studies have included maternal cancers diagnosed up to 2 years after pregnancy; however, long latency periods of some cancers mean that cancers diagnosed many years postpartum might have been present during pregnancy in a preclinical state. This paper considers the association between maternal cancers diagnosed from 2 years prior to pregnancy until the mother reaches 50 years of age, and congenital anomalies, as diagnosed at birth or within the first year of life. The current population-based study looks at associations of cancers in mothers with congenital anomalies in their children. Children were followed up from birth to diagnosis of a congenital anomaly, death, emigration or end of follow-up (whichever occurred first). A total of 56,016 children (2.6%) were considered exposed to a maternal cancer of any type; and they had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1.09) compared with unexposed children. The greatest HR was seen among children whose mothers had been diagnosed with cancers before or during pregnancy (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.75). Similar results were seen when paternal cancers were used as a 'negative control'. Statistically significant associations were seen for some specific congenital anomalies of organ systems (congenital anomalies of the musculoskeletal system [HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.25]) and for some specific types of maternal cancer (leukaemia [HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.61], The results of the main analyses suggest a small increase in risk of congenital anomalies in offspring of mothers diagnosed with cancer from 2 years before pregnancy, until the mother reaches 50 years of age; with the greatest increase seen for exposure in the pre-pregnancy and pregnancy period. These results may reflect shared causes for some cancers and some congenital anomalies. The similar results seen for

  8. Maternal cancer and congenital anomalies in children – a Danish nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Natalie C.; Ernst, Andreas; Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Olsen, Jørn; Li, Jiong; Gissler, Mika; Rasmussen, Finn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    Several studies on pregnancy-associated cancers have suggested an association with congenital anomalies in offspring. Previous studies have included maternal cancers diagnosed up to 2 years after pregnancy; however, long latency periods of some cancers mean that cancers diagnosed many years postpartum might have been present during pregnancy in a preclinical state. This paper considers the association between maternal cancers diagnosed from 2 years prior to pregnancy until the mother reaches 50 years of age, and congenital anomalies, as diagnosed at birth or within the first year of life. The current population-based study looks at associations of cancers in mothers with congenital anomalies in their children. Children were followed up from birth to diagnosis of a congenital anomaly, death, emigration or end of follow-up (whichever occurred first). A total of 56,016 children (2.6%) were considered exposed to a maternal cancer of any type; and they had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1.09) compared with unexposed children. The greatest HR was seen among children whose mothers had been diagnosed with cancers before or during pregnancy (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.75). Similar results were seen when paternal cancers were used as a ‘negative control’. Statistically significant associations were seen for some specific congenital anomalies of organ systems (congenital anomalies of the musculoskeletal system [HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.25]) and for some specific types of maternal cancer (leukaemia [HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.61], The results of the main analyses suggest a small increase in risk of congenital anomalies in offspring of mothers diagnosed with cancer from 2 years before pregnancy, until the mother reaches 50 years of age; with the greatest increase seen for exposure in the pre-pregnancy and pregnancy period. These results may reflect shared causes for some cancers and some congenital anomalies. The similar results seen for

  9. Social support and non-participation in breast cancer screening: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Social support may have an impact on screening participation. We studied the association between social support in 2006, defined as frequencies of contacts, instrumental support and emotional support and participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. This population-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who also were in the target group for the first round of organized breast cancer screening in the Central Denmark region in 2008-09. Women with infrequent contacts with friends and family in 2006 were more likely not to participate in screening in 2008-09 [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.26, P-value < 0.001 and PR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21-2.20, P-value < 0.001, respectively] as were women who reported not to have someone to look after her home if she was away for some time and women who reported usually not or never having someone to turn to with personal concerns (PR 1.97, 95% CI 1.53-2.54, P-value < 0.001 and PR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77, P-value = 0.002, respectively). Low social support, indicated by items in each social support attribute, was associated with non-participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. Targeted social interventions may, therefore, have an impact on future screening behaviour, which calls for further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Common Polymorphisms in the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway and Risk of Incident Myocardial Infarction: A Danish Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gammelmark, Anders; Nielsen, Michael S.; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B.; Overvad, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background The 5-lipoxygenase pathway (5-LOX) has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease and studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms related to key enzymes in this pathway may confer risk of myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the association of pre-selected genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes of 5-LOX (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and its activating protein (ALOX-5 and FLAP), leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4-H) and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4-S)) with incident MI. Methods In a Danish cohort including 57,053 participants, aged 50–64 at enrolment and recruited from 1993–97, we conducted a case-cohort study including cases with incident MI and a randomly selected sub cohort of 3,000 participants. Cases were identified from national registries through July 2013. A total of 22 SNPs were selected and genotyped using the commercially available KASP™ assay. A tandem-repeat polymorphism, located in the ALOX-5 gene, was genotyped by multi-titre plate sequencing. Haplotypes were inferred using PHASE 2.1. Results During a median follow-up of 17.0 years we identified 3,089 cases of incident MI. In FLAP, two SNPs were negatively associated with incident MI (rs9551963 & rs17222842) while one SNP (rs2247570) located in LTA4-H, was associated with higher risk of MI when comparing subjects with two copies of the variant allele to homozygotes for the wild type. However, only rs17222842 remained significantly associated with MI after correcting for multiple testing. Furthermore, the promoter polymorphism rs59439148 was associated with risk of MI in men. For male carriers of two variant alleles we found a hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% CI: 1.06;2.52) compared to homozygotes for the wild type. Previously described haplotypes (Hap-A -B, -E and -K) were not associated with MI in our population. Conclusion In conclusion, some common polymorphisms in the 5-lipoxygenase pathway were modestly associated with incident MI, suggesting

  11. Persistent Spatial Clusters of Prescribed Antimicrobials among Danish Pig Farms – A Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Fertner, Mette; Sanchez, Javier; Boklund, Anette; Stryhn, Henrik; Dupont, Nana; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobials has prompted political initiatives targeting a reduction in the use of veterinary antimicrobials in Denmark, especially for pigs. This study elucidates the tendency of pig farms with a significantly higher antimicrobial use to remain in clusters in certain geographical regions of Denmark. Animal Daily Doses/100 pigs/day were calculated for all three age groups of pigs (weaners, finishers and sows) for each quarter during 2012–13 in 6,143 commercial indoor pig producing farms. The data were split into four time periods of six months. Repeated spatial cluster analyses were performed to identify persistent clusters, i.e. areas included in a significant cluster throughout all four time periods. Antimicrobials prescribed for weaners did not result in any persistent clusters. In contrast, antimicrobial use in finishers clustered persistently in two areas (157 farms), while those issued for sows clustered in one area (51 farms). A multivariate analysis including data on antimicrobial use for weaners, finishers and sows as three separate outcomes resulted in three persistent clusters (551 farms). Compared to farms outside the clusters during this period, weaners, finishers and sows on farms within these clusters had 19%, 104% and 4% higher use of antimicrobials, respectively. Production type, farm type and farm size seemed to have some bearing on the clustering effect. Adding these factors as categorical covariates one at a time in the multivariate analysis reduced the persistent clusters by 24.3%, 30.5% and 34.1%, respectively. PMID:26317206

  12. Perceived academic quality and approaches to studying at Danish schools of occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, John T E; Gamborg, Gunner; Hammerberg, Gitten

    2005-01-01

    Students in the fourth semester of basic training programmes in occupational therapy at seven different institutions of higher education in Denmark were surveyed using the Course Experience Questionnaire [CEQ] and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory [RASI]. The CEQ proved to be a reasonably robust in this setting: most of the scales demonstrated satisfactory reliability, and a factor analysis confirmed its intended constituent structure. The CEQ also discriminated among students at the seven institutions in their patterns of scores. The RASI proved to be less satisfactory: many subscales did not demonstrate satisfactory reliability and its intended constituent structure was only partly confirmed by factor analysis. Moreover, the RASI failed to discriminate clearly among students at the seven institutions. The scores on the CEQ produced by students at four of the institutions raised concerns relating to the clarity of academic goals and standards, the teaching performance of staff, and the academic workload imposed on students. Nevertheless, students at five institutions produced relatively high ratings of their general satisfaction with their programmes, and students at all seven schools produced high ratings of the appropriateness of their assessments and the acquisition of generic skills.

  13. Reduced risk of UC in families affected by appendicitis: a Danish national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nyboe Andersen, Nynne; Gørtz, Sanne; Frisch, Morten; Jess, Tine

    2017-08-01

    The possible aetiological link between appendicitis and UC remains unclear. In order to investigate the hereditary component of the association, we studied the risk of UC in family members of individuals with appendicitis. A cohort of 7.1 million individuals was established by linkage of national registers in Denmark with data on kinship and diagnoses of appendicitis and UC. Poisson regression models were used to calculate first hospital contact rate ratios (RR) for UC with 95% CIs between individuals with or without relatives with a history of appendicitis. During 174 million person-years of follow-up between 1977 and 2011, a total of 190 004 cohort members developed appendicitis and 45 202 developed UC. Individuals having a first-degree relative with appendicitis before age 20 years had significantly reduced risk of UC (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.95); this association was stronger in individuals with a family predisposition to UC (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.83). Individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with appendicitis before age 20 years are at reduced risk of UC, particularly when there is a family predisposition to UC. Our findings question a previously hypothesised direct protective influence of appendicitis on inflammation of the large bowel. Rather, genetic or environmental factors linked to an increased risk of appendicitis while being protective against UC may explain the repeatedly reported reduced relative risk of UC in individuals with a history of appendicitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. [Oral contraceptives and cerebral thromboembolism. A Danish case-control study].

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, O

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective case control study was carried out in order to assess the risk of developing cerebral thromboembolism by use of low dose oral contraceptives (OC). The subjects were all the 794 women in Denmark aged 15-44 who had suffered a cerebral thromboembolic attack (CTA) during the period 1985-1989, and an age-matched randomly selected control population of 1588 women. CTA included occlusion of precerebral arteria (ICD 432), cerebral thrombosis (ICD 433), cerebral embolism (ICD 434), transitory cerebral ischaemia (TCI; ICD 435) and the unspecified group apoplexia cerebri (ICD 436). Of 692/1584 case/control questionnaires sent out, 590/1396 (85.1/88.1%) were returned. Among the cases, 15 refused to participate, 69 had a revised or unreliable diagnosis, 40 had previously had thromboembolic disease, 13 were pregnant, and 152 had a disease predisposing them for CTA, leaving 323 without known predisposition, of whom 320 reported use/non-use of OC. Among 1396 controls, eight either refused to participate, were mentally retarded or resident in foreign countries; 18 returned an uncompleted questionnaire, 17 had previously had thromboembolic disease, 31 were pregnant, and 130 had a disease predisposing them to CTA. Thus, 1198 non-predisposed controls were provided, among whom 1197 reported use/non-use of OC. Among 320 cases, 116 (36.3%) were OC users at the time of the CTA, vs. 191 users (16.0%) among 1197 controls, corresponding to a crude odds ratio (OR) of 3.00.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Predictors of visual outcome in patients operated for craniopharyngioma - a Danish national study.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Mads Forslund; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Doroudian, Ghazaleh; Nissen, Kamilla Rothe; Fugleholm, Kåre; Poulsgaard, Lars; Siersma, Volkert; Heegaard, Steffen

    2018-02-01

    Craniopharyngioma often causes visual loss due to the close relation to the anterior visual pathways. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of visual outcomes in patients with craniopharyngioma. Data from sixty-six patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngioma from 2009 to 2013 in Denmark were reviewed. Primary outcomes were visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF) defects from pre-and postoperative visits. Secondary outcomes were optic nerve atrophy (OA) and papilledema. Fifty-eight patients were included. The VA of the patients 1-year after surgery improved by -0.16 log(MAR) (95%CI: -0.30 to -0.02; p = 0.0266). Visual field (VF) defects worsened in 17 eyes (30%), remained stable in 21 eyes (37%) and improved in 19 eyes (33%). The presence of papilledema and the absence of OA were significantly correlated with an improvement in VA postoperatively (p = 0.011 and p = 0.011, respectively). Patients undergoing surgery within a week or less after their first ophthalmological examination had a significant improvement in VA (-0.36; 95%CI: -0.62 to -0.09; p = 0.0099). Patients undergoing surgery using a subfrontal approach also showed improvement in VA (p = 0.048). Tumour recurrence had a significantly worse VA outcome (p = 0.0074). Patients show a slight improvement in VA 1-year after operation for craniopharyngioma. The presence of papilledema and early surgical intervention is associated with a significant improvement in VA. Early involvement of a dedicated ophthalmologist is recommended to secure an early detection of a visual decline and potential tumour recurrence. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement and offspring psoriasis: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Chen, J; Olsen, J; Schlünssen, V; Momen, N; Li, J

    2017-03-01

    Prenatal stress may alter immune competence of the fetus. Limited data exist on the role of antenatal stress in psoriasis development. To investigate whether prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement increases the risk of offspring psoriasis. This register-based cohort study included 1 811 917 live singletons born from 1978 to 2008 in Denmark. The children were assigned to the bereaved group if their mothers lost a child, partner/spouse, parent or sibling during pregnancy or up to 12 months before pregnancy. Follow-up started at the date of birth and ended at the date of first hospital treatment for psoriasis or a prescription redeemed for topical vitamin D derivatives (often used to treat psoriasis), emigration, death or 31 December 2010, whichever came first. We evaluated the hazard ratio (HR) of psoriasis in bereaved children using Cox proportional hazards regressions, compared with the nonbereaved group. During 28 million person-years of follow-up, 7956 children were hospitalized or prescribed medications for psoriasis. By the age of 30 years, 1·54% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·25-1·90%] of children from the bereaved group were diagnosed with psoriasis, compared with 1·34% (95% CI 1·30-1·38%) of nonbereaved children. Overall, prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement was not associated with risk of psoriasis in general (HR 1·05, 95% CI 0·91-1·20). However, children born to mothers who lost a partner/spouse or an older child had an increased risk of psoriasis (HR 1·33, 95% CI 1·02-1·73). Prenatal exposure to the most stressful life event may contribute to the development and/or exacerbation of psoriasis. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Do recommendations for institutional food service result in better food service? A study of compliance in Danish hospitals and nursing homes from 1995 to 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, B E; Beck, A M; Lassen, A

    2007-01-01

    Since 1995, significant efforts by authorities and researchers have been directed towards addressing the nutritional problems in Danish hospitals and nursing homes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the increased focus on nutritional problems in patients and nursing home residents has resulted in measurable progress. A questionnaire-based study was carried out among foodservice managers in Danish hospitals (n=96) and nursing homes (n=898) in 1995 and 2002/3 (n=90) and (n=682), respectively. The study used compliance with selected issues in the official Danish recommendations for institutional food service as an indicator for progress. The issues included: using nutrient calculated recipes/menus, offering menu choice options, using feedback routines on acceptability of menus, maintaining nutritional steering committees, employing food and nutrition contact persons, employing official recommendations and offering choice between three different menu energy levels. Hospitals had a higher compliance compared to nursing homes. In 1995, this was the case for all questions asked and differences were statistically significant. Also in 2002/3, hospitals had a higher compliance, except in the case of established feedback routines. Differences were statistically significant. The results indicate that nutritional care is higher on the agenda in hospital, than in nursing homes. However, very little progress can be seen in compliance when results are analysed over the 8-year period. The only progress for nursing homes was that more homes had implemented feedback routines on acceptability of food service in 2002/3 than in 1995. The difference was statistically significant. For hospitals, however, no progress was found between 1995 and 2002/3. The attempts to improve the nutritional status of hospital patients and nursing home residents seem to have failed. Still, the initiatives taken to improve the situation seem relevant. Especially the nursing homes might

  18. Parental exposures to occupational asthmagens and risk of autism spectrum disorder in a Danish population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Singer, Alison B; Burstyn, Igor; Thygesen, Malene; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Fallin, M Daniele; Schendel, Diana E

    2017-03-31

    Environmental exposures and immune conditions during pregnancy could influence development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. However, few studies have examined immune-triggering exposures in relation to ASD. We evaluated the association between parental workplace exposures to risk factors for asthma ("asthmagens") and ASD. We conducted a population-based case-control study in the Danish population using register linkage. Our study population consisted of 11,869 ASD cases and 48,046 controls born from 1993 through 2007. Cases were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. ASD cases and controls were linked to parental Danish International Standard Classification of Occupations (DISCO-88) job codes. Parental occupational asthmagen exposure was estimated by linking DISCO-88 codes to an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix. Our maternal analyses included 6706 case mothers and 29,359 control mothers employed during the pregnancy period. We found a weak inverse association between ASD and any maternal occupational asthmagen exposure, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates (adjusted OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.99). In adjusted analyses, including 7647 cases and 31,947 controls with employed fathers, paternal occupational asthmagen exposure was not associated with ASD (adjusted OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.92-1.05). We found a weak inverse association between maternal occupational asthmagen exposure and ASD, and a null association between paternal occupational exposure and ASD. We suggest that unmeasured confounding negatively biased the estimate, but that this unmeasured confounding is likely not strong enough to bring the effect above the null. Overall, our results were consistent with no positive association between parental asthmagen exposure and ASD in the children.

  19. The Three Tales Chosen, the Establishment of the Texts and the Charting of Deviations, with a Collation of the "Original Tales," the Check Translations, and the Danish and Turkish Texts. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 11. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    Part of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, this paper provides information about the three fairy tales chosen for study: "The Snake, the Fox, and the Man,""The Gold Apple," and "Per Smed's Whip." Various sections of the paper contain descriptions of the following: (1) the selection procedures, (2)…

  20. Thirty-Year Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Danish Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Adelborg, Kasper; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Schmidt, Morten; Munch, Troels; Pedersen, Lars; Nielsen, Per Hostrup; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Toft Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Data are sparse on long-term mortality after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We examined short-term and long-term mortality of patients undergoing CABG surgery and a general population comparison cohort. Linking data from Danish registries, we conducted a nationwide, population-based cohort study on 51 307 CABG patients and 513 070 individuals from the general population matched on age, sex, and calendar year (1980-2009). The mortality risk was higher in patients having isolated CABG surgery than in the general population, particularly during 0 to 30 days (3.2% versus 0.2%), 11 to 20 years (51.1% versus 35.6%), and 21 to 30 years (62.4% versus 44.8%), but not substantially higher during 31 to 364 days (2.9% versus 2.4%) or 1 to 10 years (30.7% versus 25.8%). The 30-day adjusted mortality rate ratio for isolated CABG surgery was 13.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.59-14.49). Between 31 to 364 days and 1 to 10 years, the isolated CABG surgery cohort had a slightly higher mortality rate than the general population comparison cohort, adjusted mortality rate ratios of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.09-1.21) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.08-1.11), respectively. Between 11 to 20 years and 21 to 30 years, the adjusted mortality rate ratios were 1.62 (95% CI, 1.58-1.66) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.62-1.91). Within 30 days, CABG patients had a 25-fold, a 26-fold, and a 18-fold higher risk of dying from myocardial infarction, heart failure, or stroke, respectively, than members of the general population comparison cohort. We found substantial heterogeneity in absolute mortality rates according to baseline risk groups. The isolated CABG cohort had a higher mortality rate than the general population comparison cohort, especially within 30 days of and 10 years after surgery. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Association between perceived stress, multimorbidity and primary care health services: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Prior, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Karen Kjær; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2018-02-24

    Mental stress is common in the general population. Mounting evidence suggests that mental stress is associated with multimorbidity, suboptimal care and increased mortality. Delivering healthcare in a biopsychosocial context is key for general practitioners (GPs), but it remains unclear how persons with high levels of perceived stress are managed in primary care. We aimed to describe the association between perceived stress and primary care services by focusing on mental health-related activities and markers of elective/acute care while accounting for mental-physical multimorbidity. Population-based cohort study. Primary healthcare in Denmark. 118 410 participants from the Danish National Health Survey 2010 followed for 1 year. Information on perceived stress and lifestyle was obtained from a survey questionnaire. Information on multimorbidity was obtained from health registers. General daytime consultations, out-of-hours services, mental health-related services and chronic care services in primary care obtained from health registers. Perceived stress levels were associated with primary care activity in a dose-response relation when adjusted for underlying conditions, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. In the highest stress quintile, 6.8% attended GP talk therapy (highest vs lowest quintile, adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR): 4.96, 95% CI 4.20 to 5.86), 3.3% consulted a psychologist (IRR: 6.49, 95% CI 4.90 to 8.58), 21.5% redeemed an antidepressant prescription (IRR: 4.62, 95% CI 4.03 to 5.31), 23.8% attended annual chronic care consultations (IRR: 1.22, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 26.1% used out-of-hours services (IRR: 1.47, 95% CI 1.51 to 1.68). For those with multimorbidity, stress was associated with more out-of-hours services, but not with more chronic care services. Persons with high stress levels generally had higher use of primary healthcare, 4-6 times higher use of mental health-related services (most often in the form of psychotropic drug

  2. Alcohol drinking patterns and risk of diabetes: a cohort study of 70,551 men and women from the general Danish population.

    PubMed

    Holst, Charlotte; Becker, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Marit E; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with diabetes, but little is known about the role of drinking patterns. We examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and diabetes risk in men and women from the general Danish population. This cohort study was based on data from the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Of the 76,484 survey participants, 28,704 men and 41,847 women were eligible for this study. Participants were followed for a median of 4.9 years. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain information on alcohol drinking patterns, i.e. frequency of alcohol drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and consumption of wine, beer and spirits, from which we calculated beverage-specific and overall average weekly alcohol intake. Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained from the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. During follow-up, 859 men and 887 women developed diabetes. The lowest risk of diabetes was observed at 14 drinks/week in men (HR 0.57 [95% CI 0.47, 0.70]) and at 9 drinks/week in women (HR 0.42 [95% CI 0.35, 0.51]), relative to no alcohol intake. Compared with current alcohol consumers consuming <1 day/week, consumption of alcohol on 3-4 days weekly was associated with significantly lower risk for diabetes in men (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.59, 0.94]) and women (HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.53, 0.88]) after adjusting for confounders and average weekly alcohol amount. Our findings suggest that alcohol drinking frequency is associated with risk of diabetes and that consumption of alcohol over 3-4 days per week is associated with the lowest risk of diabetes, even after taking average weekly alcohol consumption into account.

  3. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and childhood autism in association with prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances: a nested case-control study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child's sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother's PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children.

  4. Labour market participation and sick leave among patients diagnosed with myasthenia gravis in Denmark 1997-2011: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Frost, Asger; Svendsen, Marie Louise; Rahbek, Jes; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lund, Thomas

    2016-11-17

    To examine labour market participation and long-term sick leave following a diagnosis with myasthenia gravis (MG) compared with the general Danish population and for specific subgroups of MG patients. A nationwide matched cohort study from 1997 to 2011 using data from population-based medical and social registries. The study includes 330 MG patients aged 18 to 65 years old identified from hospital diagnoses and dispensed prescriptions, and twenty references from the Danish population matching each MG patient on age, gender, and profession. Main outcome measures are labour market participation (yes/no) and long-term sick leave ≥9 weeks (yes/no) with follow-up at 1- and 2 years after the time of MG diagnosis or match. Based on complete person-level information on all public transfer payments in Denmark, persons having no labour market participation are defined as individuals receiving social benefits for severely reduced workability, flexijob, and disability pension. MG is consistently associated with higher odds of having no labour market participation and long-term sick leave compared with the general Danish population (no labour market participation & ≥9 weeks sick leave at 2-year follow-up, adjusted OR (95% CI): 5.76 (4.13 to 8.04) & 8.60 (6.60 to 11.23)). Among MG patients, females and patients treated with both acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and immunosuppression have higher odds of lost labour market participation and long-term sick leave. This study suggests that MG patients have almost 6 times higher odds of no labour market participation and almost 9 times higher odds of long-term sick leave 2 years after diagnosis compared with the general Danish population. In particular female MG patients and patients treated with both acetylcholinesterase and immunosuppression have high odds of a negative labour market outcome. Future research should focus on predictors in workplace and labour market policy of labour market participation among MG patients.

  5. Endogenous and Antipsychotic-Related Risks for Diabetes Mellitus in Young People With Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Wimberley, Theresa; Cohen, Dan; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes to excessive cardiovascular deaths and reduced life expectancy in schizophrenia. This population-based cohort study investigated the endogenous risk for diabetes in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia and evaluated the risks added by starting antipsychotic treatment in people with schizophrenia. The study followed all people born in Denmark on or after Jan. 1, 1977, until Jan. 1, 2013 (N=2,736,510). The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register ascertained schizophrenia diagnoses. The Danish National Prescription Registry provided data on prescriptions of antipsychotics. Diabetes was ascertained from the Danish National Patient Register and Danish National Prescription Registry. The authors estimated the endogenous and antipsychotic-related risks for diabetes by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, while accounting for potential confounders. Of the cohort members, 14,118 (0.52%) developed diabetes, and 8,945 (0.33%) developed schizophrenia during follow-up (49,582,279 person-years). The adjusted hazard ratio for diabetes was 3.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-5.41) in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia compared with the general population. The risk for diabetes after starting antipsychotic treatment was significantly higher (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.95-6.82) than the risk in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia, after adjustment for family history of diabetes and other potential confounders. First-line treatment with either first-generation antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.32-7.05) or second-generation antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.73-6.83) increased the risk for diabetes without a statistically significant difference. Appropriate sensitivity analyses limited to type 2 diabetes corroborated these results. Schizophrenia confers a high endogenous risk for diabetes, and the risk is further increased by both first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics

  6. The Danish Testicular Cancer database.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.

  7. The Danish Inguinal Hernia database

    PubMed Central

    Friis-Andersen, Hans; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database To monitor and improve nation-wide surgical outcome after groin hernia repair based on scientific evidence-based surgical strategies for the national and international surgical community. Study population Patients ≥18 years operated for groin hernia. Main variables Type and size of hernia, primary or recurrent, type of surgical repair procedure, mesh and mesh fixation methods. Descriptive data According to the Danish National Health Act, surgeons are obliged to register all hernia repairs immediately after surgery (3 minute registration time). All institutions have continuous access to their own data stratified on individual surgeons. Registrations are based on a closed, protected Internet system requiring personal codes also identifying the operating institution. A national steering committee consisting of 13 voluntary and dedicated surgeons, 11 of whom are unpaid, handles the medical management of the database. Results The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database comprises intraoperative data from >130,000 repairs (May 2015). A total of 49 peer-reviewed national and international publications have been published from the database (June 2015). Conclusion The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database is fully active monitoring surgical quality and contributes to the national and international surgical society to improve outcome after groin hernia repair. PMID:27822094

  8. Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Sinéad M.; Agerbo, Esben; Kenny, Louise C.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Greene, Richard A.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Khashan, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Background With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996), with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy) or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35), although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15) and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21), yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment, causes of

  9. Delineating chalk sand distribution of Ekofisk formation using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and stepwise regression (SWR): Case study Danish North Sea field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, A.; Nafian, M.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Danish North Sea Fields consist of several formations (Ekofisk, Tor, and Cromer Knoll) that was started from the age of Paleocene to Miocene. In this study, the integration of seismic and well log data set is carried out to determine the chalk sand distribution in the Danish North Sea field. The integration of seismic and well log data set is performed by using the seismic inversion analysis and seismic multi-attribute. The seismic inversion algorithm, which is used to derive acoustic impedance (AI), is model-based technique. The derived AI is then used as external attributes for the input of multi-attribute analysis. Moreover, the multi-attribute analysis is used to generate the linear and non-linear transformation of among well log properties. In the case of the linear model, selected transformation is conducted by weighting step-wise linear regression (SWR), while for the non-linear model is performed by using probabilistic neural networks (PNN). The estimated porosity, which is resulted by PNN shows better suited to the well log data compared with the results of SWR. This result can be understood since PNN perform non-linear regression so that the relationship between the attribute data and predicted log data can be optimized. The distribution of chalk sand has been successfully identified and characterized by porosity value ranging from 23% up to 30%.

  10. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  11. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Vaeth, Michael; Møller, Susanne; Ravnsbaek, Joan; von der Maase, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following surgery for breast cancer, and to identify clinical risk factors while adjusting for pre-cancer sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and psychiatric history. The study cohort consists of 4917 Danish women, aged 18-70 years, receiving standardized treatment for early stage invasive breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) and the surgical departments provided disease-, treatment-, and comorbidity data for the study cohort. Information concerning sociodemographics and psychiatric history were obtained from national longitudinal registries. The results indicated an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression (13.7%) compared to population-based samples. The pre-cancer variables: Social status, net-wealth, ethnicity, comorbidity, psychiatric history, and age were all independent risk factors for depressive symptoms. Of the clinical variables, only nodal status carried additional prognostic information. Physical functioning, smoking, alcohol use, and BMI were also independently associated with depressive symptoms. Risk factors for depressive symptoms were primarily restricted to pre-cancer conditions rather than disease-specific conditions. Special attention should be given to socio-economically deprived women with a history of somatic- and psychiatric disease and poor health behaviors.

  12. Relative validity of a semi-quantitative, web-based FFQ used in the 'Snart Forældre' cohort - a Danish study of diet and fertility.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Vibeke K; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Cueto, Heidi; Tucker, Katherine L; Wise, Lauren; Christensen, Tue; Mikkelsen, Ellen M

    2016-04-01

    To assess the relative validity of a semi-quantitative, web-based FFQ completed by female pregnancy planners in the Danish 'Snart Forældre' study. We validated a web-based FFQ based on the FFQ used in the Danish National Birth Cohort against a 4 d food diary (FD) and assessed the relative validity of intakes of foods and nutrients. We compared means and medians of intakes, and calculated Pearson correlation coefficients and de-attenuated coefficients to assess agreement between the two methods. We also calculated the proportion correctly classified based on the same or adjacent quintile of intake and the proportion of grossly misclassified (extreme quintiles). Participants (n 128) in the 'Snart Forældre' study who had completed the web-based FFQ were invited to participate in the validation study. Participants in the 'Snart Forældre' study, in total ninety-seven women aged 20-42 years. Reported intakes of dairy products, vegetables and potatoes were higher in the FFQ compared with the FD, whereas reported intakes of fruit, meat, sugar and beverages were lower in the FFQ than in the FD. Overall the de-attenuated correlation coefficients were acceptable, ranging from 0·33 for energy to 0·93 for vitamin D. The majority of the women were classified in the same or adjacent quintile and few women were misclassified (extreme quintiles). The web-based FFQ performs well for ranking women of reproductive age according to high or low intake of foods and nutrients and, thus, provides a solid basis for investigating associations between diet and fertility.

  13. Does stage of cancer, comorbidity or lifestyle factors explain educational differences in survival after endometrial cancer? A cohort study among Danish women diagnosed 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Seidelin, Ulla Holten; Ibfelt, Else; Andersen, Ingelise; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Høgdall, Claus; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have documented an association between socioeconomic position and survival from gynaecological cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between level of education and survival after endometrial cancer among Danish women; and whether differences in stage at diagnosis and comorbidity contribute to the educational differences in survival. Women with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database, with information on clinical characteristics, surgery, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status. Information on highest attained education, cohabitation and comorbidity was obtained from nationwide administrative registries. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between level of education and cancer stage and Cox proportional hazards model for analyses of overall survival. Of the 3638 patients identified during the study period, 787 had died by the end of 2011. The group of patients with short education had a higher odds ratio (OR) for advanced stage at diagnosis, but this was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.20; 95% CI 0.97-1.49). The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for dying of patients with short education was 1.47 (CI 95% 1.17-1.80). Adjustment for cohabitation status, BMI, smoking and comorbidity did not change HRs, but further adjustment for cancer stage yielded a HR of 1.36 (1.11-1.67). Early detection in all educational groups might reduce social inequalities in survival, however, the unexplained increased risk for death after adjustment for prognostic factors, warrants increased attention to patients with short education in all age groups throughout treatment and rehabilitation.

  14. Report on the Selection Procedure Based on Readers' Responses to the Original Nine Tales in Turkey. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 9. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doltas, Dilek, Ed.; And Others

    Prepared as part of the Turko-Danish Fairytale Project conducted to uncover universal, cross-cultural features in readers' response to literature, this paper reports on a pilot study to determine which three out of nine preselected fairy tales would elicit the most faceted response from a population of Turkish readers. After explaining the…

  15. Sex differences in the level and rate of change of physical function and grip strength in the Danish 1905-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Maier, Heiner; McGue, Matt; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2010-08-01

    The study was conducted to examine sex differences in the initial level and rate of change in physical function and grip strength. The baseline survey included 2,262 Danes born in 1905 and alive in 1998 and followed-up in 2000, 2003, and 2005. Hence, the authors fully used the power of having a cohort with multiple assessments in late life and virtually complete follow-up of lifespan (through December 2008). Latent growth curve modeling was used. Men had higher initial levels and rates of decline in strength score and grip strength. Lifespan was positively correlated with intercepts and slopes. The Danish data suggested that the longest-living individuals have higher initial levels of strength score and grip strength and smaller rate of change. The data further suggested that the initial level of strength score and grip strength was more predictive of mortality than the rate of change was, and the predictive effects were similar in men and women.

  16. Heterogeneity in 10-Year Course Trajectories of Moderate to Severe Major Depressive Disorder: A Danish National Register-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Musliner, Katherine L; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas M; Eaton, William W; Zandi, Peter P; Mortensen, Preben B

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that long-term trajectories of major depressive disorder (MDD) are heterogeneous. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) provides a rare opportunity to examine patterns and correlates of long-term trajectories in a large sample of patients with moderate to severe MDD. To characterize patterns and correlates of 10-year course trajectories of MDD in the DPCRR. A cohort containing 11 640 individuals born in Denmark in 1955 or later with their first recorded MDD diagnosis in the DPCRR between 1995 and 2002 was established. Patients were followed for 10 years from the date of their initial MDD diagnosis. Data were obtained from Danish civil and psychiatric national registers in June 2013 and were analyzed from April 4, 2014, to December 17, 2015. Correlates of trajectory class membership were sex, characteristics of the first recorded MDD episode (ie, age, severity, inpatient treatment, and record of suicide attempt or self-harm), and psychiatric diagnoses in parents (ie, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, substance abuse, and anxiety or somatoform disorders). The outcome variable was past-year contact at a psychiatric hospital with a main diagnosis of MDD during each of the 10 years following the initial MDD diagnosis. Trajectories were modeled using latent class growth analysis. The sample included 11 640 individuals (7493 [64.4%] women) aged 18 to 48 years (mean [SD], 31.4 [7.3]) at their first recorded MDD diagnosis. Four trajectory classes were identified: brief contact (77.0%) (characterized by low probability of contact after 2 years); prolonged initial contact (12.8%) (characterized by high decreasing probability of contact during the first 5 years); later reentry (7.1%) (characterized by moderate probability of contact during the second 5 years); and persistent contact (3.1%) (characterized by high or moderate probability of contact throughout). Female sex (odds ratio [OR] range, 1

  17. The association of health and voluntary early retirement pension and the modifying effect of quality of supervision: Results from a Danish register-based follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    de Wind, Astrid; Burr, Hermann; Pohrt, Anne; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Van der Beek, Allard Johan; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this article are to (1) determine whether and to what extent general perceived health and quality of supervision predict voluntary early retirement pension (VERP) and (2) assess whether quality of supervision modifies the association between general perceived health and VERP. Methods: Employees aged 49–64 years who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study in 2000 were selected. Their questionnaire data about health and work were linked to register data on social transfer payments, among others VERP, from 2001 to 2012 in the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization (N=1167). Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify the prospective association of general perceived health and quality of supervision on VERP. Relative excess risks due to interaction (RERIs) were calculated to assess whether quality of supervision modified the association between health and VERP. Results: Employees with poor health at baseline had an increased risk of VERP during follow-up (hazard ratio [HR]=1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.49). Quality of supervision at baseline was not associated to VERP during follow-up (HR=1.04; 95% CI 0.90–1.21). There was no statistically significant interaction of poor health and poor quality of supervision with regard to risk of VERP (RERI=−0.33; 95% CI −1.79 to 1.14). Conclusions: This study did not support the notion that quality of supervision buffers the association between poor health and VERP. Future research is needed to determine whether other aspects of supervision, for example supervisors’ opportunities to effectuate workplace adjustments, may modify the association of poor health and VERP. PMID:28381121

  18. "Perhaps I will die young." Fears and worries regarding disease and death among Danish adolescents and young adults with cancer. A mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Timm, Helle U; Graugaard, Christian; Boisen, Kirsten A; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional national study was initiated in order to evaluate healthcare services and survivorship from the perspective of Danish adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. The purpose of the paper was to examine (Q1) to what extend Danish AYAs experienced fears and worries about dying; (Q2) with whom, if anyone, they had shared those worries; and finally, (Q3) how fears and worries influenced their daily life. The emphasis will be on Q3. A 151-item questionnaire (including two closed- and one open-ended questions about fears of death and dying) was distributed among all 15-29-year-old Danes registered with a cancer diagnosis from 2009 to 2013. A total study population of 822 persons participated. Data was analyzed using a mixed design of descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Q1: Almost 80 % of AYAs with cancer expressed some worries about death; hereof, more than half of them expressed quite a bit or very much. The analysis showed significant gender differences, whereas age and duration of disease did not have any significant impact on such thoughts. Q2: One third had not talked to anybody about his or her worries. Q3: The analysis resulted in three overall categories: fear of disease and death having little or no influence (n = 100), fear influencing in various ways (n = 215), and fear of disease and death having a substantial influence (n = 75). The majority of AYAs had experienced fears and worries about dying, but one third of them had not talked to anybody about those thoughts. It is an important clinical point that young age does not preclude fears and worries about dying in AYAs with cancer.

  19. Probability and heritability estimates on primary osteoarthritis of the hip leading to total hip arthroplasty: a nationwide population based follow-up study in Danish twins.

    PubMed

    Skousgaard, Søren Glud; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Brandt, Lars Peter Andreas; Möller, Sören; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-11-20

    Primary hip osteoarthritis, radiographic as well as symptomatic, is highly associated with increasing age in both genders. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind this, in particular if this increase is caused by genetic factors. This study examined the risk and heritability of primary osteoarthritis of the hip leading to a total hip arthroplasty, and if this heritability increased with increasing age. In a nationwide population-based follow-up study 118,788 twins from the Danish Twin Register and 90,007 individuals from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register for the period 1995 to 2010 were examined. Our main outcomes were the cumulative incidence, proband-wise concordance and heritability on age, within-pair correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, and the genetic and environmental influence estimated in models taking into account that individuals may not have had a total hip arthroplasty at the time of follow-up. There were 94,063 twins eligible for analyses, comprising 835 cases of 36 concordant and 763 discordant twin pairs. The probability increased particularly from 50 years of age. After sex and age adjustment a significant additive genetic component of 47% (12:79), a shared environmental component of 21% (2:76) and a unique environment component of 32% (21:41) accounted for the variation in population liability to total hip arthroplasty. The sex-adjusted proband-wise concordance and heritability on age indicated an increasing age-associated genetic influence onwards from 60 years of age. The cumulative incidence in primary hip osteoarthritis leading to total hip arthroplasty increases in particular after the age of 50 years in both genders. Family factors of genes and shared environment are highly significant and account for 68% of the variation in the population liability to total hip arthroplasty; however, the genetic influence increases significantly from 60 years of age onwards.

  20. Predicted vitamin D status during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures in childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Granström, Charlotta; Vestergaard, Peter; Mølgaard, Christian; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-12-14

    In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on characteristics, dietary factors and lifestyle factors were collected on several occasions during pregnancy. We analysed the association between predicted vitamin D status, based on a subsample with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) biomarker measurements (n 1497) from gestation week 25, and first-time forearm fractures among offspring between birth and end of follow-up. Diagnoses were extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between predicted vitamin D status (based on smoking, season, dietary and supplementary vitamin D intake, tanning bed use and outdoor physical activity) in pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. Likewise, measured 25(OH)D, tanning bed use and dietary vitamin D intake were not associated with offspring forearm fractures. In mid-pregnancy, 91 % of the women reported intake of vitamin D from dietary supplements. Offspring of women who took >10 µg/d in mid-pregnancy had a significantly increased risk for fractures compared with the reference level of zero intake (hazard ratios (HR) 1·31; 95% CI 1·06, 1·62), but this was solely among girls (HR 1·48; 95% CI 1·10, 2·00). Supplement use in the peri-conceptional period exhibited similar pattern, although not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data indicated no protective effect of maternal vitamin D status with respect to offspring forearm fractures.

  1. Polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and interaction with dietary and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to investigate three polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and their possible interactions with diet and life style factors in relation to risk of CRC. Homozygous carriage of the variant allele of the TLR4/rs5030728 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of CRC (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.60; P = 0.02 (gene-dose model); IRR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.01-1.51; P = 0.04 (recessive model)). Del-carriers of the NFKB1/rs28362491 polymorphism had a 17% (95%CI: 1.03-1.34; P = 0.02) increased risk of CRC compared to homozygous carriers of the ins-allele. However, none of these risk estimates withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons. We found no strong gene-environment interactions between the examined polymorphism and diet and life style factors in relation to CRC risk.

  2. The Risk of Schizophrenia and Child Psychiatric Disorders in Offspring of Mothers with Lung Cancer and Other Types of Cancer: A Danish Nationwide Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Benros, Michael Eriksen; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal immune responses and brain-reactive antibodies have been proposed as possible causal mechanisms for schizophrenia and some child psychiatric disorders. According to this hypothesis maternal antibodies may cross the placenta and interact with the developing CNS of the fetus causing future neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, we investigated if children of mothers with cancer might be at higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders, with particular focus on small-cell lung cancer, which is known to induce production of antibodies binding to CNS elements. Methods Nationwide population-based registers were linked, including the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and The Danish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed as a cohort study using survival analysis techniques. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measures of relative risk. Results In general, parental cancer was not associated with schizophrenia in the offspring (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.01). Furthermore, we found no temporal associations with maternal cancer in general; neither around the pregnancy period. However, maternal small-cell lung cancer increased the risk of early-onset schizophrenia and maternal small-cell lung cancer diagnosed within 20 years after childbirth increased the risk of schizophrenia. Parental cancer was not associated with child psychiatric disorders (IRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05) except for the smoking related cancers. There was a significantly increased risk of child psychiatric disorders in offspring of both mothers (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16-1.58) and fathers (IRR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.30-1.66) with lung cancer of all types. Conclusions In general, parental cancer did not increase the risk of schizophrenia nor of child psychiatric disorders. However, maternal small-cell lung cancer increased the risk of schizophrenia in subgroups; and lung cancer in general increased the risk of child psychiatric disorders

  3. How does media coverage effect the consumption of antidepressants? A study of the media coverage of antidepressants in Danish online newspapers 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Green Lauridsen, Michael; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2017-08-02

    The news media has become a major source of health information for the public, and hence vital in the individuals' opinions and decisions about health topics. The first decrease in the usage of antidepressants in Denmark in over a decade happened alongside an intensive period of media coverage about antidepressants. The aim of this study was to examine the Danish media's coverage of antidepressants during 2010-2011 in order to explore what influence it could have had on the change in the use of antidepressants. Three media theoretical concepts, agenda-setting, priming and framing, were used to explain the media influence with regard to which subject the public should think about, which criteria the public should judge the subject by, and how the public should think about the subject. All articles about antidepressants in the main Danish Internet newspapers from 2010-2011 were analyzed via quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The quantitative analysis was used to determine agenda-setting (number of articles) and, by coding articles, how priming was used in the descriptions of antidepressants. In the qualitative analysis, all articles were analyzed and condensed to determine which frames were used. Quantitative results: 271 articles were included. Agenda-setting was shown by a marked increase in the number of articles about antidepressants. Eight main codes were identified, with the negatively-associated side effects being the major one, thereby priming the public to use side effects as a criterion when judging antidepressants. Qualitative results: Two main frames were identified: 1) economic profits vs. medicine safety, and 2) the necessity of antidepressants. Both frames presented a critical view on antidepressants. It is believed that the media's agenda-setting, priming and framing of antidepressants led the public to have a more skeptical view on antidepressants, which may have probably contributed to a decrease in the usage of antidepressants

  4. Polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and Interaction with Dietary and Life Style Factors in Relation to Colorectal Cancer in a Danish Prospective Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor–κB (NF-κB) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to investigate three polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and their possible interactions with diet and life style factors in relation to risk of CRC. Homozygous carriage of the variant allele of the TLR4/rs5030728 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of CRC (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–1.60; P = 0.02 (gene-dose model); IRR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.01–1.51; P = 0.04 (recessive model)). Del-carriers of the NFKB1/rs28362491 polymorphism had a 17% (95%CI: 1.03–1.34; P = 0.02) increased risk of CRC compared to homozygous carriers of the ins-allele. However, none of these risk estimates withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons. We found no strong gene-environment interactions between the examined polymorphism and diet and life style factors in relation to CRC risk. PMID:25705893

  5. Neonatal Vitamin D Levels in Relation to Risk of Overweight at 7 Years in the Danish D-Tect Case-Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Camilla B; Lundqvist, Marika; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D level in pregnancy may be associated with risk of overweight in the offspring later in life. In a case-cohort study based on Danish biobanks and registers we examined the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) level at birth and overweight at 7 years. Cases of overweight (n = 871) were randomly selected among 7-year-old children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) with a BMI above the 90th percentile. The cohort (n = 1,311) was a random sample selected among all Danish children born during the same period. Neonatal 25(OH)D was measured in dried blood spots. 25(OH)D3 exhibited the expected seasonal variation. Median level of 25(OH)D3 was 20.6 (11.9-33.3) nmol/l in the overweight group and 23.4 (13.5-34.3) nmol/l in the cohort. We found no association between neonatal 25(OH)D3 level and risk of overweight at age 7 years, neither in the crude model (OR (CI) 1.00 (0.99; 1.00)) nor in a model adjusted for maternal ethnicity, educational level, civil status, parity, season and year of birth, and offspring ponderal index (OR (CI) 1.00 (0.99; 1.01)). Risk of overweight at 7 years of age was not associated with vitamin D level at birth. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Relation of Periodontitis to Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality (from a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Egeberg, Alexander; Holmstrup, Palle; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2016-08-15

    Periodontitis and atherosclerosis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that periodontitis is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that a causal link may exist between the 2 diseases. Using Danish national registers, we identified a nationwide cohort of 17,691 patients who received a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis within a 15-year period and matched them with 83,003 controls from the general population. We performed Poisson regression analysis to determine crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. The results showed that patients with periodontitis were at higher risk of all examined end points. The findings remained significant after adjustment for increased baseline co-morbidity in periodontitis patients compared with controls, for example, with adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.02 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.18) for cardiovascular death and 2.70 (95% CI 2.60 to 2.81) for all-cause mortality. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis have a high burden of co-morbidity and an increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, our results support that periodontitis may be an independent risk factor for CVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does employee participation in workplace health promotion depend on the working environment? A cross-sectional study of Danish workers

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Villadsen, Ebbe; Burr, Hermann; Punnett, Laura; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) depends on the work environment. Methods Questionnaire data on participation in WHP activities (smoking cessation, healthy diet, exercise facilities, weekly exercise classes, contact with health professionals, health screenings) and the work environment (social support, fatiguing work, physical, quantitative and emotional demands, job control and WHP availability setting) were collected cross-sectionally in 2010 in a representative sample (n=10 605) of Danish workers. Binary regression analyses of the association between work environment characteristics and participation in WHP were conducted and adjusted for age, gender and industry. Results WHP offered during leisure time was associated with lower participation in all measured activities compared with when offered during working hours. Low social support and fatiguing work were associated with low participation in WHP. No associations with participation in WHPs were observed for physical work or quantitative demands, work pace or job strain. However, high physical demands/low job control and high emotional demands/low job control were associated with low participation. Conclusions Lower participation in WHP was associated with programmes during leisure, low social support, very fatiguing work and high physical or emotional demands with low job control. This suggests that to obtain proper effect of health promotion in a workplace setting, a good work environment is essential. PMID:27279474

  8. Does employee participation in workplace health promotion depend on the working environment? A cross-sectional study of Danish workers.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Villadsen, Ebbe; Burr, Hermann; Punnett, Laura; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-06-08

    To investigate if participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) depends on the work environment. Questionnaire data on participation in WHP activities (smoking cessation, healthy diet, exercise facilities, weekly exercise classes, contact with health professionals, health screenings) and the work environment (social support, fatiguing work, physical, quantitative and emotional demands, job control and WHP availability setting) were collected cross-sectionally in 2010 in a representative sample (n=10 605) of Danish workers. Binary regression analyses of the association between work environment characteristics and participation in WHP were conducted and adjusted for age, gender and industry. WHP offered during leisure time was associated with lower participation in all measured activities compared with when offered during working hours. Low social support and fatiguing work were associated with low participation in WHP. No associations with participation in WHPs were observed for physical work or quantitative demands, work pace or job strain. However, high physical demands/low job control and high emotional demands/low job control were associated with low participation. Lower participation in WHP was associated with programmes during leisure, low social support, very fatiguing work and high physical or emotional demands with low job control. This suggests that to obtain proper effect of health promotion in a workplace setting, a good work environment is essential. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. The Danish Adoption Register.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  10. Migraine and risk of stroke and acute coronary syndrome in two case-control studies in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Osler, Merete; Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim

    2017-01-01

    Migraine has consistently been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, while the evidence for a relation with other types of stroke or coronary outcomes is limited. We examined the association between migraine and stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes and the influence of potential confounding factors. All first-time hospital contacts for stroke (n=155,216) or ACS (n=97,799) were identified in Danish National Patient Registers and matched with 2 control groups of the background population. A hospital diagnosis of migraine and use of migraine medication were the main exposures and associations (odds ratios [OR]) were estimated using multiple logistic regression. Confounding was also addressed by including use of general headache medication as a negative control exposure. The diagnosis of migraine was associated with increased odds of both stroke (ORcrude, age <50 years: 4.80 [95% CI: 3.75-6.21]; ORcrude, age ≥50 years:1.91 [95% CI: 1.67-2.19]) and ACS (ORcrude:1.88 [95% CI: 1.53-2.32]), while the ORs for the associations between migraine medication and stroke and ACS were lower. Patients with a diagnosis of migraine or redeemed migraine medication had increased ORs of all stroke subtypes (ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke and transient ischemic attacks). The diagnosis of migraine was also associated with both angina and myocardial infarction (ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction [STEMI], non-STEMI and unspecified) with the highest OR for angina. These associations were not fully explained by adjustment for confounding co-variables or when compared with the negative control exposure that were assumed to be influenced by similar confounding factors, but no shared pathogenesis. Hospital-diagnosed migraine was associated with all stroke and ACS subtypes, with ischemic stroke and angina having the highest odds. Confounding did not explain the associations.

  11. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: the multicentre, rater blinded, randomised Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY).

    PubMed

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A; Rasmussen, M L H; Keiding, N; Rishøj, S; Siersma, V; Sørensen, J; Sørensen, L V; Vogel, A; Waldemar, G

    2012-07-17

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers. Multicentre, randomised, controlled, rater blinded trial. Primary care and memory clinics in five Danish districts. 330 outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their 330 primary care givers. Participating dyads (patient and primary care giver) were randomised to control support during follow-up or to control support plus DAISY intervention (multifaceted and semi-tailored counselling, education, and support). Primary outcomes at 12 months for patients were change from baseline in mini mental state examination (MMSE) score, Cornell depression scale score, and proxy rated European quality of life visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) score. For care givers, outcomes were change from baseline in geriatric depression scale (GDS 30 items) score and EQ-VAS score. Because of multiple testing, statistical significance was set at an adjusted P limit of <0.0005. At 12 months there were no significant differences between the two allocation groups in changes from baseline in the primary and secondary outcomes. However, although non-significant with the adjusted P limit, a small difference was observed for one of the primary patient outcomes (Cornell depression scale score) in patients in favour of the DAISY intervention group before and after adjusting for attrition (P = 0.0146 and P = 0.0103 respectively). The multifaceted, semi-tailored intervention with counselling, education, and support for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their care givers did not have any significant effect beyond that with well structured follow-up support at 12 months after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The small positive effect found in the unadjusted primary outcome addressing depressive symptoms in patients may call for further research focusing on patients with Alzheimer's disease and comorbid depression. ISRCTN

  12. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors mediate the association. The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. Mothers with <10 years of education had an elevated risk of preterm birth compared with mothers with >12 years of education and the association interacted with parity, while income and occupation affected the risk to a lesser degree. The adjusted HR for less educated nulliparous and parous women were 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.42) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.31-1.87), respectively, compared with women with >12 years of education. For parous women with <10 years of education inclusion of smoking in the model decreased the HR of preterm birth to 1.43 (95% CI 1.19-1.72). Maternal educational level was the strongest predictor of preterm birth among five socioeconomic measures and the gradient did not differ significantly according to the degree of preterm birth. For parous women smoking explained some of the educational gradient but in general the selected risk factors only reduced the relative educational gradient in preterm birth marginally.

  13. Associations between Recreational and Commuter Cycling, Changes in Cycling, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: A Cohort Study of Danish Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Martin G; Grøntved, Anders; Blond, Kim; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Jensen, Majken K; Østergaard, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Cycling is a recreational activity and mode of commuting with substantial potential to improve public health in many countries around the world. The aim of this study was to examine prospective associations between recreational and commuter cycling, changes in cycling habits, and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Danish adults from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. At baseline from 1993 to 1997, 24,623 men and 27,890 women from Denmark, 50-65 y of age and free of T2D and other chronic diseases, underwent a number of assessments, including completing a lifestyle questionnaire also addressing cycling habits. Approximately 5 y later, at a second examination, participants completed a new, updated lifestyle questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of incident T2D registered in the Danish National Diabetes Registry, according to recreational and commuter cycling and changes in cycling habits, with adjustment for a priori known T2D risk factors. During 743,245.4 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up 14.2 y), 6,779 incident cases of T2D were documented. Multivariable adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) were 1, 0.87 (0.82, 0.93), 0.83 (0.77, 0.89), 0.80 (0.74, 0.86) and 0.80 (0.74, 0.87) (p for trend = <0.001) for 0, 1-60, 61-150, 151-300, and >300 min/wk of total cycling (recreational and commuter cycling), respectively. In analysis of seasonal cycling, multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1, 0.88 (0.83, 0.94), and 0.80 (0.76, 0.85) for non-cyclists, seasonal cyclists (those cycling only in summer or winter), and those cycling during both summer and winter, respectively. How changes in total cycling from baseline to the second examination affected risk was also investigated, and multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1, 0.88 (0.78, 1.01), 0.80 (0.69, 0.91), and 0.71 (0.65, 0.77) for non-cyclists and for those who ceased, initiated, or continued cycling between baseline and the second examination, respectively. Lastly

  14. Associations between Recreational and Commuter Cycling, Changes in Cycling, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: A Cohort Study of Danish Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Martin G.; Grøntved, Anders; Blond, Kim; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Jensen, Majken K.; Østergaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Cycling is a recreational activity and mode of commuting with substantial potential to improve public health in many countries around the world. The aim of this study was to examine prospective associations between recreational and commuter cycling, changes in cycling habits, and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Danish adults from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Methods and Findings At baseline from 1993 to 1997, 24,623 men and 27,890 women from Denmark, 50–65 y of age and free of T2D and other chronic diseases, underwent a number of assessments, including completing a lifestyle questionnaire also addressing cycling habits. Approximately 5 y later, at a second examination, participants completed a new, updated lifestyle questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of incident T2D registered in the Danish National Diabetes Registry, according to recreational and commuter cycling and changes in cycling habits, with adjustment for a priori known T2D risk factors. During 743,245.4 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up 14.2 y), 6,779 incident cases of T2D were documented. Multivariable adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) were 1, 0.87 (0.82, 0.93), 0.83 (0.77, 0.89), 0.80 (0.74, 0.86) and 0.80 (0.74, 0.87) (p for trend = <0.001) for 0, 1–60, 61–150, 151–300, and >300 min/wk of total cycling (recreational and commuter cycling), respectively. In analysis of seasonal cycling, multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1, 0.88 (0.83, 0.94), and 0.80 (0.76, 0.85) for non-cyclists, seasonal cyclists (those cycling only in summer or winter), and those cycling during both summer and winter, respectively. How changes in total cycling from baseline to the second examination affected risk was also investigated, and multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1, 0.88 (0.78, 1.01), 0.80 (0.69, 0.91), and 0.71 (0.65, 0.77) for non-cyclists and for those who ceased, initiated, or continued cycling between baseline and the

  15. POSAiDA: presence of Staphylococcus aureus/MRSA and Enterococcus/VRE in Danish ambulances. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vikke, Heidi Storm; Giebner, Matthias

    2016-03-30

    Every year approximately one out of ten Danish patients contracts a healthcare associated infection (HAI). Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus are prominent in the group of pathogenic bacteria that underlie HAIs, causing unnecessary inconvenience and prolonging hospitalization. Bacterial colonization often occurs due to indirect patient-to-patient transmission, caused by poor hygiene compliance. This study aims to determine the level of contamination with S. aureus/MRSA and Enterococcus/VRE on presumed clean blood pressure cuffs in the Danish ambulances. Blood pressure cuffs were tested for contamination with S. aureus and Enterococcus when being cleaned according to everyday guidelines in this cross-sectional study. Imprints were performed with specific agar plates after cleaning with ethanol wipes. Positive imprints were typed and antibiotic susceptibility was determined. Both S. aureus and Enterococcus were found on blood pressure cuffs thought to be clean, however, to a limited extent. The average level of contamination by S. aureus was 0.54 CFU per 25 cm(2) (SD 1.98). Minimum and maximum values ranged from 0 to 12 CFU per 25 cm(2) and 10% of the 50 samples were positive. The average level of contamination by Enterococcus was 0.06 CFU per 25 cm(2) (SD 0.42). Minimum and maximum values ranged from 0 to 3 CFU per 25 cm(2) and 2% of the 50 samples were positive. All S. aureus isolates were found to be methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and the one Enterococcus isolate was identified as Enterococcus faecalis, negative for vancomycin resistance genes. Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus were detectable on equipment thought to be clean. However, all detected bacteria showed susceptibility towards methicillin or vancomycin. Findings of pathogens after cleaning may be due to cross-contamination, improper cleaning and limited effect of the currently used cleaning procedure and are thought to affect the risk of infection. Therefore, we recommend a thorough

  16. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. Objectives We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. Methods A total of 52,061 subjects (50–65 years of age) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen, reported data on physical activity in 1993–1997 and were followed until 2010. High exposure to air pollution was defined as the upper 25th percentile of modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels at residential addresses. We associated participation in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking with total and cause-specific mortality by Cox regression, and introduced NO2 as an interaction term. Results In total, 5,534 subjects died: 2,864 from cancer, 1,285 from cardiovascular disease, 354 from respiratory disease, and 122 from diabetes. Significant inverse associations of participation in sports, cycling, and gardening with total, cardiovascular, and diabetes mortality were not modified by NO2. Reductions in respiratory mortality associated with cycling and gardening were more pronounced among participants with moderate/low NO2 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.72 and 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.73, respectively] than with high NO2 exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations, indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel findings require replication in other study populations. Citation Andersen ZJ, de Nazelle A, Mendez MA, Garcia-Aymerich J, Hertel O, Tjønneland A, Overvad

  17. The effect of breast cancer on personal income three years after diagnosis by cancer stage and education: a register-based cohort study among Danish females.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ingelise; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Thielen, Karsten; Heinesen, Eskil; Diderichsen, Finn

    2015-01-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between stage of incident breast cancer (BC) and personal income three years after diagnosis. The analysis further considered whether the association differed among educational groups. The study was based on information from Danish nationwide registers. A total of 7,372 women aged 30-60 years diagnosed with BC, 48% with metastasis, were compared to 213,276 controls. Generalised linear models were used to estimate the effect of a cancer diagnosis on personal gross income three years after diagnosis, stratified by education and stage of cancer. The models were adjusted for income two years prior to cancer diagnosis and demographic, geographic and co-morbidity covariates. Adjusting for income two years prior to cancer diagnosis and other baseline covariates (see above), cancer had a minor effect on personal income three years after diagnosis. The effect of metastatic BC was a statistically significant reduction in income three years after diagnosis of -3.4% (95% CI -4.8;-2.0), -2.8% (95% CI -4.3;-1.3) and -4.1 (95% CI -5.9;-2.3) among further, vocational and low educated women, respectively. The corresponding estimates for the effect of localised BC were -2.5% (95% CI -3.8; -1.2), -1.6% (95% CI -3.0; -0.2) and -1.7% (95% CI -3.7; 0.3); the latter estimate (for the low-educated) was not statistically different from zero. We found no statistically significant educational gradient in the effect of cancer stage on income. In a Danish context, the very small negative effect of BC on personal income may be explained by different types of compensation in low- and high-income groups. The public income transfers are equal for all income groups and cover a relatively high compensation among low-income groups. However, high-income groups additionally receive pay-outs from private pension and insurance schemes, which typically provide higher coverage for high-income workers.

  18. Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet - a randomised controlled trial in Danish children. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Thorsen, Anne V; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2014-06-14

    The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (NND)) School Meal Study investigated the effects on the intake of foods and nutrients of introducing school meals based on the principles of the NND covering lunch and all snacks during the school day in a cluster-randomised cross-over design. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years from forty-six school classes at nine schools received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The whole diet of the children was recorded over seven consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes of potatoes (130 %, 95 % CI 2·07, 2·58), fish (48 %, 95 % CI 1·33, 1·65), cheese (25 %, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·36), vegetables (16 %, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·21), eggs (10 %, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19) and beverages (6 %, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·09), and lower intakes of bread (13 %, 95 % CI 0·84, 0·89) and fats (6 %, 95 % CI 0·90, 0·98) were found among the children during the NND period than in the control period (all, P< 0·05). No difference was found in mean energy intake (P= 0·4), but on average children reported 0·9 % less energy intake from fat and 0·9 % higher energy intake from protein during the NND period than in the control period. For micronutrient intakes, the largest differences were found for vitamin D (42 %, 95 % CI 1·32, 1·53) and iodine (11 %, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·15) due to the higher fish intake. In conclusion, the present study showed that the overall dietary intake at the food and nutrient levels was improved among children aged 8-11 years when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the principles of the NND.

  19. Does macrolide use confer risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest compared with penicillin V? A Danish national case-crossover and case-time-control study.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius; Jensen, Aksel; Knudsen, Jenny D; Arpi, Magnus; Andersson, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lippert, Freddy; Weeke, Peter E

    2018-02-23

    Macrolides have been associated with proarrhythmic properties, but the evidence is conflicting. We evaluated the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with specific macrolides in a retrospective study. Associations between specific macrolides and OHCA were examined by conditional logistic regression analyses in case-crossover and case-time-control models, using penicillin-V treatment as the comparative reference. From nationwide registries, we identified all OHCAs in Denmark from 2001 to 2010 and use of antibiotics. The present study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (Danish Data Protection Agency (ref.no. 2007-58-0015, local ref.no. GEH-2014-017, (I-Suite.nr. 02 735)). We identified 29 111 patients with an OHCA. Of these, 514 were in macrolide treatment ≤7 days before OHCA and 1237 in penicillin-V treatment. In the case-crossover analyses, overall macrolide use was not associated with OHCA with penicillin V as negative comparative reference (OR=0.90; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.10). Compared with penicillin-V treatment, specific macrolides were not associated with increased risk of OHCA: roxithromycin (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.26), erythromycin (OR=0.68; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.06), clarithromycin (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.48) and azithromycin (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.27).Similar results were obtained using case-time-control models: overall macrolide use (OR=0.81; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06) and specific macrolides (roxithromycin ( OR=0.70; 95% CI 0.49 to 1.00), erythromycin ( OR=0.67; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.18), clarithromycin ( OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.39) or azithromycin ( OR=1.17; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.95)). The risk of OHCA during treatment with macrolides was similar to that of penicillin V, suggesting no additional risk of OHCA associated with macrolides. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability: Investigation from Interviewed Twins for Genetic Links to Affective Psychoses and for Cross-Cohort Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2016-03-01

    We studied schizophrenia liability in a Danish population-based sample of 44 twin pairs (13 MZ, 31 DZ, SS plus OS) in order to replicate previous twin study findings using contemporary diagnostic criteria, to examine genetic liability shared between schizophrenia and other disorders, and to explore whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia liability specified variance attributable to additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors, this model did not differ significantly from a model that also included non-additive genetic factors, consistent with recent interview-based twin studies. Schizophrenia showed strong genetic links to other psychotic disorders but much less so for the broader category of psychiatric disorders in general. We also observed a marginally significant decline in schizophrenia variance attributable to environmental factors over successive Western European cohorts, consistent perhaps with improvements in diagnosis and in prenatal and perinatal care and with a secular decline in the prevalence of schizophrenia in that region.

  1. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11-13 year old children. A mixed methods study in four Danish public schools.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Breiting, Soren; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils' attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The polymorphism rs3024505 proximal to IL-10 is associated with risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease in a Danish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Østergaard, Mette; Jacobsen, Bent A; Tjønneland, Anne; Krarup, Henrik B; Vogel, Ulla

    2010-05-28

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to normal constituents of the intestinal flora in the genetically predisposed host. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/HMOX1) is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme, whereas the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta/IL1B) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10/IL10) are key modulators for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1 beta, IL-10, and HO-1 genes, together with smoking, were associated with risk of CD and UC. Allele frequencies of the IL-1 beta T-31C (rs1143627), and IL-10 rs3024505, G-1082A (rs1800896), C-819T (rs1800871), and C-592A (rs1800872) and HO-1 A-413T (rs2071746) SNPs were assessed using a case-control design in a Danish cohort of 336 CD and 498 UC patients and 779 healthy controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by logistic regression models. Carriers of rs3024505, a marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene, were at increased risk of CD (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06-1.85, P = 0.02) and UC (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12-1.82, P = 0.004) and, furthermore, with risk of a diagnosis of CD and UC at young age (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10-1.96) and OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.76), respectively). No association was found between the IL-1 beta, IL-10 G-1082A, C-819T, C-592A, and HO-1 gene polymorphisms and CD or UC. No consistent interactions between smoking status and CD or UC genotypes were demonstrated. The rs3024505 marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene was significantly associated with risk of UC and CD, whereas no association was found between IL-1 beta or HO-1 gene polymorphisms and risk of CD and UC in this Danish study, suggesting that IL-10, but not IL-1 beta or HO-1, has a role in IBD etiology in this population.

  3. The polymorphism rs3024505 proximal to IL-10 is associated with risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease in a Danish case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to normal constituents of the intestinal flora in the genetically predisposed host. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/HMOX1) is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme, whereas the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1β (IL-1β/IL1B) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10/IL10) are key modulators for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1β, IL-10, and HO-1 genes, together with smoking, were associated with risk of CD and UC. Methods Allele frequencies of the IL-1β T-31C (rs1143627), and IL-10 rs3024505, G-1082A (rs1800896), C-819T (rs1800871), and C-592A (rs1800872) and HO-1 A-413T (rs2071746) SNPs were assessed using a case-control design in a Danish cohort of 336 CD and 498 UC patients and 779 healthy controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by logistic regression models. Results Carriers of rs3024505, a marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene, were at increased risk of CD (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06-1.85, P = 0.02) and UC (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12-1.82, P = 0.004) and, furthermore, with risk of a diagnosis of CD and UC at young age (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10-1.96) and OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.76), respectively). No association was found between the IL-1β, IL-10 G-1082A, C-819T, C-592A, and HO-1 gene polymorphisms and CD or UC. No consistent interactions between smoking status and CD or UC genotypes were demonstrated. Conclusions The rs3024505 marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene was significantly associated with risk of UC and CD, whereas no association was found between IL-1β or HO-1 gene polymorphisms and risk of CD and UC in this Danish study, suggesting that IL-10, but not IL-1β or HO-1, has a role in IBD etiology in this population. PMID:20509889

  4. Is prolonged sitting at work associated with the time course of neck–shoulder pain? A prospective study in Danish blue-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Korshøj, Mette; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the extent to which objectively measured sitting time at work is associated with the course of neck–shoulder pain across 1 year in blue-collar workers. Methods Data were analysed from 625 blue-collar workers in the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPHACTO) cohort study (2012–2013). Objective data on sitting time were collected at baseline using accelerometry. Self-reported pain intensity (numeric rating scale 0–10) in the neck–shoulder region was registered for 1 year using repeated text messages (14 in total). Linear mixed models were used to determine the relationship between per cent time in sitting at work and trajectories of neck–shoulder pain, with and without adjustment for demographic, occupational and lifestyle factors, and baseline pain intensity. Results More sitting time at work was associated with a faster decline in pain intensity over 12 months, as indicated by a statistically significant effect of sitting on pain trajectories in the crude (p=0.020) and fully adjusted models (p=0.027). Conclusions In blue-collar workers, more sitting time at work was associated with a favourable development of pain intensity over time. The relationship between sitting at work and pain needs further investigation before explicit recommendations and guidelines on sedentary behaviour among blue-collar workers can be developed. PMID:28186937

  5. Young female cancer patients’ experiences with fertility counselling and fertility preservation—a qualitative small-scale study within the Danish health care setting

    PubMed Central

    Hoeg, Didde; Schmidt, Lone; Macklon, Kirsten T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fertility counselling for young women newly diagnosed with cancer is an important field of preconceptional counselling. This qualitative, small-scale study explored how young women newly diagnosed with cancer experienced specialized fertility preservation counselling and treatment in the public Danish health care system. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with five women below 40 years recently diagnosed with cancer. All women received fertility counselling by a fertility specialist at the Fertility Clinic, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark before initiation of cancer treatment. Participants were interviewed at a place chosen by them, and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation developed by Malterud and inspired by Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis. Results None of the participants were aware that chemotherapy could destroy their eggs. The participants described how specialized fertility counselling and fertility preservation contributed to a belief in life after cancer, which gave them hope that they would survive their cancer disease. Further, the women described how the possibility of fertility preservation removed a huge concern and enabled them to concentrate on their cancer treatment and on getting better. Conclusion Overall, the specialized fertility counselling and treatment to preserve fertility was highly valued. The women felt it gave them a choice about their future fertility. The fertility expert presented the various fertility-preserving scenarios, and the women were content that they had an actual choice. PMID:27413812

  6. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. Leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to <6h/day. Within strata of leisure time physical activity, sitting time was positively associated with metabolic syndrome. For example, in the moderate to vigorous physical activity stratum, ORs were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11-1.54) and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.16-1.88) in participants who sat 6-10 and ≥10h/day compared to <6h/day. Higher amounts of sitting time seem to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, even amongst individuals who are physically active. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Are forward bending of the trunk and low back pain associated among Danish blue-collar workers? A cross-sectional field study based on objective measures.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Morten; Samani, Afshin; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Gupta, Nidhi; Madeleine, Pascal; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between the duration of objectively measured forward bending of the trunk and low back pain (LBP) intensity among 198 Danish blue-collar workers (male = 115; female = 83). The duration of forward bending of ≥ 30°, ≥ 60° and ≥ 90° was divided into high (the highest tertile) and low-moderate (the remaining tertiles) categories. High (>5) and low ( ≤ 5) pain intensities were categorised from a self-reported 0-9 scale. Results of multi-adjusted logistic regressions indicated no significant positive associations between forward bending and LBP intensity. On the contrary, higher duration of forward bending of ≥ 30° was associated with lower LBP intensity during all day (OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.15-1.02; p = 0.05) and work (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.17-1.15; p = 0.09). This indication of a negative association may be explained by fear-avoidance behaviour of the blue-collar worker, job crafting or healthy worker effect.

  8. X-chromosomal maternal and fetal SNPs and the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery in a Danish/Norwegian genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Myking, Solveig; Boyd, Heather A; Myhre, Ronny; Feenstra, Bjarke; Jugessur, Astanand; Devold Pay, Aase S; Ostensen, Ingrid H G; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Busch, Tamara; Ryckman, Kelli K; Geller, Frank; Magnus, Per; Gjessing, Håkon K; Melbye, Mads; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the maternal genome is an important contributor to spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). There is also a significant excess of males among preterm born infants, which may imply an X-linked mode of inheritance for a subset of cases. To explore this, we examined the effect of maternal and fetal X-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk of PTD in two independent genome-wide association studies and one replication study. Participants were recruited from the Danish National Birth Cohort and the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort studies. Data from these two populations were first analyzed independently, and then combined in a meta-analysis. Overall, we evaluated 12,211 SNPs in 1,535 case-mother dyads and 1,487 control-mother dyads. Analyses were done using a hybrid design that combines case-mother dyads and control-mother dyads, as implemented in the Haplin statistical software package. A sex-stratified analysis was performed for the fetal SNPs. In the replication study, 10 maternal and 16 fetal SNPs were analyzed using case-parent triads from independent studies of PTD in the United States, Argentina and Denmark. In the meta-analysis, the G allele at the maternal SNP rs2747022 in the FERM domain containing 7 gene (FRMD7) increased the risk of spontaneous PTD by 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.4). Although an association with this SNP was confirmed in the replication study, it was no longer statistically significant after a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. We did not find strong evidence in our data to implicate X-chromosomal SNPs in the etiology of spontaneous PTD. Although non-significant after correction for multiple testing, the mother's G allele at rs2747022 in FRMD7 increased the risk of spontaneous PTD across all populations in this study, thus warranting further investigation in other populations.

  9. Hyperthyroidism incidence fluctuates widely in and around pregnancy and is at variance with some other autoimmune diseases: a Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism in women of reproductive age is predominantly caused by Graves' disease. Pregnancy associated changes in the immune system may influence the onset of disease, but population-based incidence rates in and around pregnancy have not been reported. The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of maternal hyperthyroidism (defined by redeemed prescription of antithyroid drugs) in and around pregnancy and to compare this with the incidence of other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This was a population-based cohort study. The study used the Danish nationwide registers. The participants were women who gave birth to singleton liveborn children in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403,958). Incidence rates (IR) of maternal hyperthyroidism during a 4-year period beginning 2 years before and ending 2 years after the date when the mother was giving birth for the first time in the study period were measured. Altogether 3673 women (0.9%) were identified with an onset of hyperthyroidism from 1997 to 2010, and the overall IR of maternal hyperthyroidism was 65.0/100,000/year. The IR of hyperthyroidism in and around pregnancy varied widely and was high in the first 3 months of pregnancy [incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs the remaining study period: 1.50 (95% CI 1.09-2.06)), very low in the last 3 months of pregnancy (0.26 (0.15-0.44)], and reached the highest level 7-9 months postpartum [3.80 (2.88-5.02)]. The incidence variation in and around pregnancy was different for RA and IBD. These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hyperthyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence of hyperthyroidism was high in early pregnancy and postpartum, whereas such particular pattern was not observed for other diseases of autoimmune origin.

  10. Infections during pregnancy and after birth, and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a register-based study utilizing a Danish historic birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Morsi W; Hougaard, David M; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Grove, Jakob; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Mortensen, Erik L

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that immune dysfunction may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition, several studies have reported that congenital and postnatal infections may contribute to the neurobiological basis of ASD. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between infections during pregnancy and after birth, and ASD. A case-control study design was adopted. Both cases and controls were retrieved from a historic birth cohort (HBC) maintained at Statens Serum Institute in Copenhagen/Denmark and were followed up retrospectively during pregnancy and after birth over four pre-defined periods. Study subjects were followed-up utilizing Danish nation-wide health registers for outpatient and hospital admissions due to infections. Associations between infections and ASD were analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel estimate of the odds ratio (OR) and logistic regression models. In total, 414 ASD cases and 820 controls were followed-up during pregnancy and a mean 16.3 years after birth. Crude, but not adjusted estimates showed that ASD cases had an increased risk of hospital admission due to infection at the end of the first year of life (OR = 1.48 [range: 1.07-2.05], P = 0.02) and at the end of the follow-up period (OR = 1.30 [range: 1.02-1.64], P = 0.03). The present findings indicate that infections have a potential role in the pathophysiology of ASD; however, further studies are necessary to determine if infections etiologically contribute to ASD or if they act as an epiphenomenon due to distorted immunity in children with ASD.

  11. Differences in heart rate reserve of similar physical activities during work and in leisure time - A study among Danish blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Pieter; Korshøj, Mette; Hallman, David M; Huysmans, Maaike A; van der Beek, Allard J; Straker, Leon M; Holtermann, Andreas

    2018-03-15

    Recent studies suggest that while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) promotes general health, engaging in occupational physical activity (OPA) may have negative health consequences. It has been hypothesized that the different health effects from OPA and LTPA can be explained by differences in physical activity (PA) intensity in these two domains. To assess the intensity of OPA and LTPA, we aimed to study the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) during similar types of OPA and LTPA during workdays. Data from the NOMAD study on Danish blue-collar workers (n=124) with objective measurements of PA (using accelerometers) and heart rate (using heart rate monitors) for 4 workdays were analysed. Activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking, and stair climbing were identified and %HRR in each of these activities was determined for work and leisure. %HRR was significantly higher during OPA than LTPA. These differences were more pronounced in men than in women. Although not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model, we found indications that these differences were more pronounced in those with low compared to high fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study with objective measurements showing that %HRR is higher during the same gross-body postural activities when performed at work compared to leisure-time during workdays. This elevated intensity may help explaining the negative health consequences of engagement in high levels of OPA. Future guidelines should distinguish OPA from LTPA, possibly by advising workers to remain active during their leisure time, in particular when they are highly active at work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding duration with attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Østerdal, Marie Louise; Gillman, Matthew W; Knudsen, Vibeke K; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Strøm, Marin; Bellinger, David C; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2008-09-01

    Few studies have examined the overall effect of maternal fish intake during pregnancy on child development or examined whether the developmental benefits of maternal fish intake are greater in infants breastfed for a shorter duration. We aimed to study associations of maternal prenatal fish intake and breastfeeding duration with child developmental milestones. We studied 25 446 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a prospective population-based cohort study including pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002. Mothers reported child development by a standardized interview, which we used to generate developmental scores at ages 6 and 18 mo. We used multivariate cumulative ordinal logistic regression to evaluate the odds of higher developmental scores associated with maternal fish intake and breastfeeding, after adjustment for child age, sex, and growth; maternal size and pregnancy characteristics; and parental education and social status. Higher maternal fish intake and greater duration of breastfeeding were associated with higher child developmental scores at 18 mo [odds ratio: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.38) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of fish intake, and 1.28 (1.18, 1.38) for breastfeeding for > or =10 mo compared with breastfeeding for < or =1 mo]. Associations were similar for development at 6 mo. Associations of fish intake with child development did not differ by breastfeeding duration. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding are independently associated with better early child development. Future research and consumption guidelines, incorporating nutritional benefits as well as contaminant risks, should consider the overall effect of prenatal fish consumption on child development.

  13. Associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding duration with attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort2

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Østerdal, Marie Louise; Gillman, Matthew W; Knudsen, Vibeke K; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Strøm, Marin; Bellinger, David C; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the overall effect of maternal fish intake during pregnancy on child development or examined whether the developmental benefits of maternal fish intake are greater in infants breastfed for a shorter duration. Objective We aimed to study associations of maternal prenatal fish intake and breastfeeding duration with child developmental milestones. Design We studied 25 446 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a prospective population-based cohort study including pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002. Mothers reported child development by a standardized interview, which we used to generate developmental scores at ages 6 and 18 mo. We used multivariate cumulative ordinal logistic regression to evaluate the odds of higher developmental scores associated with maternal fish intake and breastfeeding, after adjustment for child age, sex, and growth; maternal size and pregnancy characteristics; and parental education and social status. Results Higher maternal fish intake and greater duration of breast-feeding were associated with higher child developmental scores at 18 mo [odds ratio: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.38) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of fish intake, and 1.28 (1.18, 1.38) for breast-feeding for ≥10 mo compared with breastfeeding for ≤1 mo]. Associations were similar for development at 6 mo. Associations of fish intake with child development did not differ by breastfeeding duration. Conclusions Maternal fish intake during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding are independently associated with better early child development. Future research and consumption guidelines, incorporating nutritional benefits as well as contaminant risks, should consider the overall effect of prenatal fish consumption on child development. PMID:18779297

  14. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: Results from a Danish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Jensen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. From 1995 through 1999, we included 267 women with ovarian cancer, 115 women with borderline ovarian tumors and 911 randomly selected control women. All women completed a beverage frequency questionnaire with detailed information on coffee and tea consumption. Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression models. Both coffee (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97 per cup/day) and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98 per 100 mg/day) decreased the risk of ovarian cancer. These associations were significant only for the serous and "other" subtypes of ovarian cancer. No relation between tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk was observed. The risk estimates for borderline ovarian tumors resembled those observed for ovarian cancer, but did not reach statistical significance. Our results indicate that coffee consumption and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined is associated with a modest decreased risk of ovarian cancer. However, more biological studies are needed to identify bioactive chemical compounds in coffee that potentially could affect ovarian cancer development.

  15. Bibliography. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doltas, Dilek, Ed.; And Others

    Assembled in the course of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, which examined the nature of collective and individual response to fairytale literature, this bibliography cites materials pertinent to response assessment. Listed by author, the subjects of the approximately 150 titles include language and meaning, poetics, literary…

  16. Excess Mortality in Hyperthyroidism: The Influence of Preexisting Comorbidity and Genetic Confounding: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study of Twins and Singletons

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Frans; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2012-01-01

    Context: Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased mortality and, if so, whether the association is influenced by comorbidity and/or genetic confounding. Methods: This was an observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. We identified 4850 singletons and 926 twins from same-sex pairs diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Each case was matched with four controls for age and gender. The Charlson score was calculated from discharge diagnoses on an individual level to measure comorbidity. Cases and controls were followed up for a mean of 10 yr (range 0–31 yr), and the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Results: In singletons there was a significantly higher mortality in individuals diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than in controls [HR 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–1.46]. This persisted after adjustment for preexisting comorbidity (HR 1,28; 95% CI 1.21–1.36). In twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism (625 pairs), the twin with hyperthyroidism had an increased mortality compared with the corresponding cotwin (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.09–1.88). However, this was found only in dizygotic pairs (HR 1.80; 95% CI 1.27–2.55) but not in monozygotic pairs (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.60–1.50). Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased mortality independent of preexisting comorbidity. The study of twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism suggests that genetic confounding influences the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality. PMID:22930783

  17. Maternal intake of vitamins A, E and K in pregnancy and child allergic disease: a longitudinal study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-03-28

    Fat-soluble vitamins A, E and K have been shown to play roles in immunity and inflammation, but studies on child allergic disease have been few and inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between maternal intake of vitamins A, E and K in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis. We used data on 44 594 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal intake of fat-soluble vitamins was calculated based on the information from a validated FFQ completed in mid-pregnancy. At 18 months, interviews with the mothers were conducted to evaluate doctor-diagnosed child asthma. At age 7 years, we assessed child asthma and allergic rhinitis using questions from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and by national registries on hospital contacts and medication use. Current asthma was defined as asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months by maternal report. We calculated multivariable risk ratios and 95 % CI by comparing the highest v. lowest quintile (Q) of maternal vitamin A, E and K intake in relation to child allergic disease outcomes. Maternal total vitamin K intake was directly associated with ever admitted asthma (Q5 v. Q1: 1·23, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·50) and current asthma at 7 years (Q5 v. Q1: 1·30, 95 % CI 0·99, 1·70). Weak inverse associations were present for maternal vitamin A and E intake during pregnancy with child allergic rhinitis. Maternal vitamin K intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of child asthma, and should be explored further on a mechanistic level. Conversely, maternal vitamin A and E intake may protect against child allergic rhinitis.

  18. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D. PMID:26506373

  19. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes--The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-10-21

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5-6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61-0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53-0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D.

  20. Is prolonged sitting at work associated with the time course of neck-shoulder pain? A prospective study in Danish blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Korshøj, Mette; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-11-10

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which objectively measured sitting time at work is associated with the course of neck-shoulder pain across 1 year in blue-collar workers. Data were analysed from 625 blue-collar workers in the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPHACTO) cohort study (2012-2013). Objective data on sitting time were collected at baseline using accelerometry. Self-reported pain intensity (numeric rating scale 0-10) in the neck-shoulder region was registered for 1 year using repeated text messages (14 in total). Linear mixed models were used to determine the relationship between per cent time in sitting at work and trajectories of neck-shoulder pain, with and without adjustment for demographic, occupational and lifestyle factors, and baseline pain intensity. More sitting time at work was associated with a faster decline in pain intensity over 12 months, as indicated by a statistically significant effect of sitting on pain trajectories in the crude (p=0.020) and fully adjusted models (p=0.027). In blue-collar workers, more sitting time at work was associated with a favourable development of pain intensity over time. The relationship between sitting at work and pain needs further investigation before explicit recommendations and guidelines on sedentary behaviour among blue-collar workers can be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Time trends in lifetime incidence rates of first-time diagnosed anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa across 16 years in a Danish nationwide psychiatric registry study.

    PubMed

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jensen, Christina Mohr

    2015-11-01

    To study recent time trends in the incidence of diagnosed anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) based on nationwide psychiatric register data. The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry was used to identify the incidence of diagnosed cases with AN and BN at the ages of 4-65 years from 1995 to 2010. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated and were adjusted for time trends in the total number of people diagnosed in psychiatry. Time trends were analyzed using JoinPoint regression analysis. A total of N = 5,902 persons had a first-time incidence of AN, and a total of N = 5,113 had first-time incidence of BN. Incidence rates increased for AN from 6.4 to 12.6 per 100,000 person-years, and for BN from 6.3 to 7.2 per 100,000 person-years. In 2010, the male-to-female ratio was 1:8 for AN, and 1:20 for BN. There was an earlier onset for AN than for BN, and age at incidence decreased during the observation period for AN but not for BN. A sizeable part of the increasing incidence rates for AN and in particular, the younger AN age groups, could be attributed to an increase in the total number of N = 249,607 persons with first-time diagnoses in psychiatry. Incidence rates had increased slightly for AN, but were stable for BN across 16 years in this nationwide study and to a large extent were reflective of a general increase in diagnosed mental disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy: overall and relative survival-a population based study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG).

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Peer; Carstensen, Stina Lyck; Ejlertsen, Bent; Kroman, Niels; Offersen, Birgitte; Bodilsen, Anne; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies have pointed at a better survival after breast conserving surgery (BCS) compared with mastectomy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this remains true when more extensive tumor characteristics and treatment data were included. The cohort included patients registered after primary surgery for early invasive breast cancer in the database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, in the period 1995-2012. The cohort was divided into three groups: (i) patients who primarily had a mastectomy, (ii) patients treated by BCS, and (iii) patients who primarily had BCS and then mastectomy [intention to treat (ITT) by BCS]. The association between overall mortality and standard mortality ratio (SMR) and risk factors was analyzed in univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. A total of 58,331 patients were included: 27,143 in the mastectomy group, 26,958 in the BCS group, and 4230 in the BCS-ITT group. After adjusting for patient and treatment characteristics, the relative risk (RR) was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.15-1.25) after mastectomy and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01-1.15) after BCS first and then mastectomy, as compared to BCS. Statistically significant interactions were not observed for age, period of treatment, and nodal status, but patients with Charlson's Comorbidity Index (CCI) score 2+ had no increased mortality after mastectomy, as opposed to patients with CCI 0-1. Loco-regional radiation therapy (RT) in node positive patients did not reduce the increased risk associated with mastectomy [RR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.19-1.38)]. Patients assigned to BCS have a better survival than patients assigned to mastectomy. Residual confounding after adjustment for registered characteristics presumably explained the different outcomes, thus consistent with selection bias. Diversities in RT did not appear to explain the observed difference in survival after BCS and mastectomy.

  3. Improved outcome in acute myeloid leukemia patients enrolled in clinical trials: A national population-based cohort study of Danish intensive chemotherapy patients.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Mette; Sengeløv, Henrik; Medeiros, Bruno C; Kjeldsen, Lars; Overgaard, Ulrik Malthe; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Marcher, Claus Werenberg; Jensen, Morten Krogh; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell

    2016-11-01

    Clinical trials are critical to improve AML treatment. It remains, however, unclear if clinical trial participation per se affects prognosis and to what extent the patients selected for trials differ from those of patients receiving intensive therapy off-trial.We conducted a population-based cohort study of newly diagnosed Danish AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy between 2000-2013. We estimated accrual rates and compared characteristics, complete remission (CR) rates, and relative risks (RRs) of death at 90-day, 1-year, and 3-years in clinical trial patients to patients treated off-trial.Of 867 patients, 58.3% (n = 504) were included in a clinical trial. Accrual rates were similar across age groups (p = 0.55). Patients with poor performance status, comorbidity, therapy-related and secondary AML were less likely to be enrolled in trials. CR rates were 80.2% in trial-patients versus 68.6% in patients treated off- trial. Also, trial-patients had superior survival at 1-year; 72%, vs. 54% (adjusted RR of death 1.28(CI = 1.06-1.54)), and at 3 years; 45% vs. 29% (adjusted RR 1.14(CI = 1.03-1.26)) compared to patients treated off-trial.Despite high accrual rates, patients enrolled in clinical trials had a favorable prognostic profile and a better survival than patients treated off-trial. In conclusion, all trial results should be extrapolated with caution and population-based studies of "real world patients" have a prominent role in examining the prognosis of AML.

  4. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten; Jess, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD. Information was collected by questionnaires from The Danish National Birth Cohort (enrolment 1996-2002) at 16(th) and 30(th) week of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A total of 55,699 women were followed from childbirth until development of IBD (using validated National Hospital Discharge Register diagnoses), emigration, death, or end of follow-up, 31(st) of October, 2011. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and evaluating pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and socio-occupational status as potential confounders. Risk of IBD increased with decreasing level of self-rated pre-pregnancy health (p = 0.002) and was elevated in women with poor self-rated pregnancy course (HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). Associations persisted for more than 5 years postpartum. Hyperemesis and preeclampsia were not significantly associated with risk of IBD. This is the first prospective observational study to suggest that poor self-rated health--in general and in relation to pregnancy--is associated with increased risk of IBD even in the long term though results needs further confirmation. Symptoms of specific pregnancy complications were, on the other hand, not significantly associated with risk of IBD.

  5. Effects of Diagnostic Work-Up on Medical Decision-Making for Canine Urinary Tract Infection: An Observational Study in Danish Small Animal Practices.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T M; Bjørnvad, C R; Cordoba, G; Damborg, P; Guardabassi, L; Siersma, V; Bjerrum, L; Jessen, L R

    2018-02-22

    Clinical signs of urinary tract disease in dogs often lead to prescription of antibiotics. Appropriate diagnostic work-up could optimize treatment and reduce the risk of inappropriate use of antibiotics. To describe and evaluate the impact of diagnostic work-up on decision to treat (DTT) and choice of antibiotic treatment (COT) for dogs presenting with clinical signs of urinary tract disease. One hundred and fifty-one dogs presenting to 52 Danish veterinary practices. Prospective, observational study. Clinical signs, diagnostic work-up, and prescriptions were recorded. Urine samples were submitted to a reference laboratory for quantitative bacterial culture (QBC) and susceptibility testing. The laboratory results were used as reference for assessing the appropriateness of DTT and COT. In the majority of dogs, veterinarians performed dipstick (99%), microscopic examination of urine (80%) and bacterial culture (56%). Fifty-one percent of dogs had urinary tract infection (UTI) based on reference QBC. Appropriate DTT was made for 62% of the dogs, while 36% were over-prescribed and 2% under-prescribed. Inappropriate use of second-line agents was found in 57% of the UTI cases. Performing microscopy-but not culture-significantly impacted DTT (P = 0.039) while no difference was seen in COT (P = 0.67). The accuracy of in-house microscopy and culture were 64.5 and 77%, respectively. Over-prescription of antibiotics was common among dogs with suspected UTI, regardless of the diagnostic work-up performed. Test inaccuracy under practice conditions and incoherence between diagnostic test results and decision-making both explained inappropriate and unnecessary use of antibiotics. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Claus D; Rasmussen, Kurt; Kyed, Morten; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2012-07-23

    Reviews of the literature on the health and work environment of ambulance personnel have indicated an increased risk of work-related health problems in this occupation. The aim of this study was to compare health status and exposure to different work environmental factors among ambulance personnel and the core work force in Denmark. In addition, to examine the association between physical and psychosocial work environment factors and different measures of health among ambulance personnel. Data were taken from a nationwide sample of ambulance personnel and fire fighters (n = 1,691) and was compared to reference samples of the Danish work force. The questionnaire contained measures of physical and psychosocial work environment as well as measures of musculoskeletal pain, mental health, self-rated health and sleep quality. Ambulance personnel have half the prevalence of poor self-rated health compared to the core work force (5% vs. 10%). Levels of mental health were the same across the two samples whereas a substantially higher proportion of the ambulance personnel reported musculoskeletal pain (42% vs. 29%). The ambulance personnel had higher levels of emotional demands and meaningfulness of and commitment to work, and substantially lower levels of quantitative demands and influence at work. Only one out of ten aspects of physical work environment was consistently associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Emotional demands was the only psychosocial work factor that was associated with both poorer mental health and worse sleep quality. Ambulance personnel have similar levels of mental health but substantially higher levels of musculoskeletal pain than the work force in general. They are more exposed to emotional demands and these demands are associated with higher levels of poor mental health and poor sleep quality. To improve work environment, attention should be paid to musculoskeletal problems and the presence of positive organizational support

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder in children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S L; Laurberg, P; Wu, C S; Olsen, J

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association between maternal hyper- and hypothyroidism and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the child. A population-based cohort study. Singletons liveborn in Denmark between 1991 and 2004. A total of 857 014 singletons alive and living in Denmark at the age of 3 years. Information on the diagnosis and/or treatment of maternal thyroid disease and the neurodevelopmental disorders ADHD and ASD in the child was obtained from Danish nationwide registers. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for risk of ADHD and ASD in children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction, adjusting for potential confounding factors. ADHD and ASD in the child. Altogether, 30,295 singletons (3.5%) were born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction. Maternal hyperthyroidism diagnosed and treated for the first time after the birth of the child increased the risk of ADHD in the child (adjusted HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.05-1.44), whereas hypothyroidism increased the risk of ASD (adjusted HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.14-1.59). No significant association was seen for maternal diagnosis and treatment prior to the birth of the child. Children born to mothers diagnosed and treated for the first time for thyroid dysfunction after their birth may have been exposed to abnormal levels of maternal thyroid hormone already present during the pregnancy, and this untreated condition could increase the risk of specific neurodevelopmental disorders in the child. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. X-Chromosomal Maternal and Fetal SNPs and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Delivery in a Danish/Norwegian Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Ronny; Feenstra, Bjarke; Jugessur, Astanand; Devold Pay, Aase S.; Østensen, Ingrid H. G.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Busch, Tamara; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Geller, Frank; Magnus, Per; Gjessing, Håkon K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the maternal genome is an important contributor to spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). There is also a significant excess of males among preterm born infants, which may imply an X-linked mode of inheritance for a subset of cases. To explore this, we examined the effect of maternal and fetal X-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk of PTD in two independent genome-wide association studies and one replication study. Methods Participants were recruited from the Danish National Birth Cohort and the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort studies. Data from these two populations were first analyzed independently, and then combined in a meta-analysis. Overall, we evaluated 12,211 SNPs in 1,535 case-mother dyads and 1,487 control-mother dyads. Analyses were done using a hybrid design that combines case-mother dyads and control-mother dyads, as implemented in the Haplin statistical software package. A sex-stratified analysis was performed for the fetal SNPs. In the replication study, 10 maternal and 16 fetal SNPs were analyzed using case-parent triads from independent studies of PTD in the United States, Argentina and Denmark. Results In the meta-analysis, the G allele at the maternal SNP rs2747022 in the FERM domain containing 7 gene (FRMD7) increased the risk of spontaneous PTD by 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.4). Although an association with this SNP was confirmed in the replication study, it was no longer statistically significant after a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Conclusion We did not find strong evidence in our data to implicate X-chromosomal SNPs in the etiology of spontaneous PTD. Although non-significant after correction for multiple testing, the mother’s G allele at rs2747022 in FRMD7 increased the risk of spontaneous PTD across all populations in this study, thus warranting further investigation in other populations. PMID:23613933

  9. Is the use of oral contraceptives associated with operatively treated anterior cruciate ligament injury? A case-control study from the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry.

    PubMed

    Rahr-Wagner, Lene; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm; Mehnert, Frank; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Lind, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is 2 to 9 times higher in women than in men. In addition, in vitro studies have demonstrated that ACL is an estrogen target tissue, and some studies have therefore suggested a protective association between oral contraceptives (OC) and the likelihood of sustaining ACL injury. There is a protective association between OC use and the likelihood of operatively treated ACL injury. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The study population included 4497 women with an operatively treated ACL injury registered in the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry for the 2005 to 2011 period and 8858 age-matched controls with no ACL injury. The study evaluated exposure to OC use at the time of ACL injury (index date) and in the 5 previous years ("ever user") or no OC use ("never user"). Ever users were further classified as either new users (patients who redeemed their first prescription within the first year before the index date), long-term users (redeemed additional prescriptions 1 to 5 years before the index date), or recent users (redeemed their most recent prescription >1 year before the index date). Finally, a dose-response analysis of OC use was performed. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the relative risk (RR) with a 95% CI of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury according to OC use. The adjusted RR associating OC with ACL injury was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90) between ever users and never users. Furthermore, there was a decreased RR of sustaining ACL injury of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91) in long-term users and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.89) in recent users. Using OC for more than 4 years did not seem to alter the likelihood of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury. This population-based pharmacoepidemiological study including 13,355 women indicates that a protective association exists between OC use and the likelihood of sustaining an operatively treated ACL injury. Although this

  10. Validation of the Danish National Diabetes Register

    PubMed Central

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications. PMID:25565889

  11. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications.

  12. Changes in Drug Use and Polypharmacy After the Age of 90: A Longitudinal Study of the Danish 1905 Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Oksuzyan, Anna; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    To determine the longitudinal development of drug use in very old adults. Longitudinal cohort study with waves in 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Nationwide study in Denmark. All living Danes born in 1905 were approached in 1998; 2,262 responded at baseline. Self-reported use of regularly taken drugs. Mean and median number of drugs and growth curve models were used to identify the change in number of drugs as the cohort aged from 92 to 100. The within-person use of drugs increased with age for women (0.19 per year; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-0.24) and men (0.15 per year; 95% CI = 0.06-0.24). Persons leaving the study prematurely had higher baseline values and a steeper increase in their annual use of drugs. The population-level mean number of drugs increased from baseline (3.6 drugs) to the first follow-up (4.1 drugs) but thereafter remained stable at approximately 4 drugs. Women used more drugs than men at all waves. In this first longitudinal study of drug use in nonagenarians, individuals used an increasing number of drugs as they aged. This increase is difficult to detect in cross-sectional analyses of the population-level mean. More efforts to understand what is reasonable prescribing at these older ages are needed. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Exposure to topical chloramphenicol during pregnancy and the risk of congenital malformations: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomseth, Vilde; Cejvanovic, Vanja; Jimenez-Solem, Espen; Petersen, Kasper M; Poulsen, Henrik E; Andersen, Jon T

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether exposure to topical chloramphenicol in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with congenital malformations. The authors conducted a nationwide cohort study including all women giving live birth between 1997 and 2011 in Denmark. All women redeeming at least one prescription of chloramphenicol eye drops or eye ointment during the first 84 days of pregnancy were identified. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of malformations among exposed women compared to non-exposed women. 966 372 births between 1997 and 2011 were included. A total of 6024 women were exposed to topical chloramphenicol in the first trimester. The rate of congenital malformations was 3.50% among offspring of exposed mothers and 3.49% among unexposed. Exposure to topical chloramphenicol in the first trimester was not associated with major congenital malformations (adjusted odds ratio = 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.22) or specific major malformations. The number of redeemed prescriptions decreased significantly during pregnancy as compared to before and after pregnancy (p < 0.0001). In this study, we found no association between dispensing of chloramphenicol eye drops or eye ointment in the first trimester of pregnancy and major congenital malformations. This is in accordance with a previous study analysing the risk of systemic chloramphenicol. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Childhood intelligence in relation to adult coronary heart disease and stroke risk: evidence from a Danish birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Batty, G David; Mortensen, Erik L; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Osler, Merete

    2005-11-01

    While recent studies have reported an inverse relation between childhood intelligence test scores and all-cause mortality in later life, the link with disease-specific outcomes has been rarely examined. Furthermore, the potential confounding effect of birthweight and childhood social circumstances is unknown. We investigated the relation of childhood intelligence with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk in a cohort of 6910 men born in 1953 in the Copenhagen area of Denmark. Events were ascertained from 1978 to 2000 using a cause-of-death register and hospital discharge records. There were 150 CHD (19 fatal; 131 non-fatal) and 93 stroke (4 fatal; 89 non-fatal) events during follow-up into mid-life. Childhood intelligence was inversely related to CHD with the highest rate apparent in adults with low childhood test scores (HR(lowest vs. highest quartile), 2.70; 95% confidence interval: 1.60, 4.57; P(trend) = 0.0001). After adjustment for paternal social class and birthweight, this association was attenuated only marginally. There was little evidence of a IQ-stroke relationship. The cognitive characteristics captured by IQ testing in the present study, such as communication and problem solving ability, appear to be associated with risk of CHD. Health promotion specialists and clinical practitioners may wish to consider these skills in their interactions with the general public. Replication of these results using studies which hold data on intelligence and socio-economic position across the life course is required.

  15. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women: A Danish register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in 495,244 women. In this nationwide, register-based cohort study, nine types of early childhood adversity (family disruption, residential instability, placement in out-of-home care, familial death, parental somatic illness, parental psychiatric illness, parental disability, severe parental criminality, and parental substance use disorder) were defined and exposure during the first 6 years of life was determined. Hazard ratios for eating disorders were calculated using Cox regression. Few adversities were significantly associated with AN, and for each, the presence of the adversity was associated with lower risk for AN. BN, and EDNOS were positively associated with several types of adversities. AN rates were unchanged or reduced by up to 54% by adversities, whereas rates of BN and EDNOS were unchanged or increased by adversities by up to 49 and 89%, respectively. Our findings indicate that childhood adversities appear to be associated with an increased risk of BN and in particular EDNOS, whereas they seem to be either unassociated or associated with a decreased risk of AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The impact of maternal celiac disease on birthweight and preterm birth: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Khashan, A S; Henriksen, T B; Mortensen, P B; McNamee, R; McCarthy, F P; Pedersen, M G; Kenny, L C

    2010-02-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes have been associated with maternal celiac disease (CD). In this study, we investigate the effect of treated and untreated maternal CD on infant birthweight and preterm birth. A population-based cohort study consisted of all singleton live births in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 was used. A total of 1,504,342 babies were born to 836,241 mothers during the study period. Of those, 1105 babies were born to women with diagnosed CD and 346 were born to women with undiagnosed CD. Women with diagnosed CD were considered as treated with a gluten free diet while women with undiagnosed CD were considered as untreated. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small for gestational age (SGA: birthweight <10th centile), very small for gestational age (VSGA: birthweight <5th centile) and preterm birth. We compared these measures in treated and untreated women with those of a reference group (no history of CD). Women with untreated CD delivered smaller babies [difference = -98 g (95% CI: -130, -67)], with a higher risk of SGA infants [OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.63)], VSGA infants [OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.03)] and preterm birth [OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.72)] compared with women without CD. Women with treated CD had no increased risk of reduced mean birthweight, risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants or preterm birth compared with women without CD. Untreated maternal CD increases the risk of reduced birthweight, the risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants and preterm birth. Diagnosis and presumed treatment of maternal CD with a gluten-free diet appeared to result in a birthweight and preterm birth rate similar to those in women without CD.

  17. A population-based screening study for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Danish postmenopausal women: acceptability and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Marie; Frost, Lars; Søgaard, Rikke; Klausen, Ib Christian; Lorentzen, Vibeke; Lindholt, Jes

    2018-02-05

    Reducing women's cardiovascular risk and the economic costs associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes (DM) continues to be a challenge. Whether a multifaceted CVD screening programme is beneficial as a preventive strategy in women remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CVD and DM as well as the acceptability toward screening and preventive actions. An observational study was performed among all women born in 1936, 1941, 1946 and 1951 living in Viborg Municipality, Denmark, from October 2011. In total, 1984 were invited to screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), carotid plaque (CP), hypertension (HT), atrial fibrillation (AF), DM and dyslipidaemia. Participants with positive tests were offered prophylactic intervention including follow-up consultations in case of AAA, PAD and/or CP. Participants with AAA ≥ 50 mm were referred to specialists in vascular surgery. Women with AF or potential familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) were referred to cardiology work-up. Among those invited, 1474 (74.3%) attended screening, but the attendees' share decreased with increasing age groups (p < 0.001). AAA was diagnosed in 10 (0.7%) women, PAD in 101 (6.9%) and CP in 602 (40.8%). The percentage of women with these conditions rose with increasing age group (p < 0.05). Unconfirmed potential HT was observed in 94 (6.4%), unknown AF in 6 (0.4%), DM in 14 (1%) and potential FH in 35 (2.4%). None of these findings differed across age groups. Among the 631 women diagnosed with AAA, PAD and/or CP, 182 (28.8%) were already in antiplatelet and 223 (35.3%) in lipid-lowering therapy prior to screening. Antiplatelet therapy was initiated in 215 (34.1%) and lipid-lowering therapy in 191 (30.3%) women. Initiation of antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy was further recommended to 134 (21.2%) and 141 (22.4%) women, respectively, who hesitated to follow the recommendation. The study

  18. Depression and Anxiety in the Postpartum Period and Risk of Bipolar Disorder: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Agerbo, Esben; Li, Jiong; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Bergink, Veerle; Munk-Olsen, Trine

    2017-05-01

    The first-onset affective episode requiring inpatient treatment in the postpartum period can be a marker of bipolar disorder, but it is unknown whether milder postpartum affective episodes are also indicators of underlying bipolarity. Therefore, we aimed to study whether women with a nonpsychotic postpartum affective episode treated with antidepressants have an increased risk of bipolar disorder. A register-based cohort study was conducted in Denmark of 122,622 parous women without psychiatric history who received a first-time antidepressant prescription during 1997-2012. We compared women with a first-time antidepressant prescription, which was our indicator of a first-onset affective disorder, within 1 year postpartum to women with a first-time antidepressant prescription outside the postpartum period. Our outcome was psychiatric contact for bipolar disorder (ICD-10 criteria) during follow-up, and we estimated hazard ratios using Cox regressions. The risk of bipolar disorder among women with a postpartum affective episode was higher than that in women with an affective episode outside the postpartum period. The risk of bipolar disorder was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.12-2.48) for postpartum antidepressant monotherapy and 10.15 (95% CI, 7.13-14.46) for postpartum antidepressant therapy plus a subsequent prescription for anxiolytics when these therapies were compared to antidepressant monotherapy outside the postpartum period. First-onset nonpsychotic postpartum affective disorder can be a marker of underlying bipolarity. Women who fill an antidepressant prescription following childbirth should be asked about hypomanic or manic symptoms and monitored long term. Clinically, when antidepressant monotherapy is ineffective or the individual woman experiences persistent and concerning symptoms, health professionals should consider a possible bipolar spectrum disorder.

  19. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  20. Prognosis of shoulder tendonitis in repetitive work: a follow up study in a cohort of Danish industrial and service workers

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J; Mikkelsen, S; Andersen, J; Fallentin, N; Baelum, J; Svendsen, S; Thomsen, J; Frost, P; Thomsen, G; Overgaard, E; Kaergaard, A; the, P

    2003-01-01

    Methods: In a follow up study of musculoskeletal disorders in industrial and service workers, 113 employees were identified with a history of shoulder pain combined with clinical signs of shoulder tendonitis. The workers had yearly reexaminations up to three times. Quantitative estimates of duration, repetitiveness, and forcefulness of current tasks were obtained from video recordings. Perception of job demands, decision latitude, and social support was recorded by a job content questionnaire. Recovery of shoulder tendonitis was analysed by Kaplan-Meier survival technique and by logistic regression on exposure variables and individual characteristics in models, allowing for time varying exposures. Results: Some 50% of workers recovered within 10 months (95% CI 6 to 14 months). Higher age was strongly related to slow recovery, while physical job exposures were not. Perception of demands, control, and social support at the time when the shoulder disorder was diagnosed, were associated with delayed recovery, but these psychosocial factors did not predict slow recovery in incident cases identified during follow up. Conclusion: The median duration of shoulder tendonitis in a cross sectional sample of industrial and service workers was in the order of 10 months. This estimate is most likely biased towards too high a value. Recovery was strongly reduced in higher age. Physical workplace exposures and perceived psychosocial job characteristics during the period preceding diagnosis seem not to be important prognostic factors. PMID:12937204

  1. Parkinson's disease and risk of prostate cancer: A Danish population-based case-control study, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Christina G; Nørgaard, Mette; Borre, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Prostate cancer growth and progression may be linked to neurogenesis and to medical anti- Parkinson treatment, but results are inconclusive. Therefore, we examined the association between Parkinson's disease and risk of prostate cancer in a population based case-control study. We identified 45,429 patients diagnosed with incident prostate cancer during 1997-2010 from the National Cancer Registry. Five age-matched population controls (n=227,145) were selected for each case. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age and comorbidity for prostate cancer associated with Parkinson's disease were computed using conditional logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by duration of Parkinson's disease and stage of prostate cancer (localized and advanced). In total, 245 patients (0,5%) and 1656 controls (0,7%) had Parkinson's disease. Overall, patients with Parkinson's disease had a 27% lower risk of prostate cancer compared with patients without Parkinson's disease (adjusted OR (ORa) 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.83). Risk of prostate cancer decreased with increasing duration of Parkinson's disease. The odds ratios were slightly lower for advanced prostate cancer (ORa, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.88) than for localized prostate cancer (ORa 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Parkinson's disease was associated with a risk reduction overall (27%), which decreased with increasing duration of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer: a Danish population-based case-control study, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Christina G; Nørgaard, Mette; Friis, Søren; Skriver, Charlotte; Borre, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Conflicting evidence has suggested that statins possess chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, we examined the association between statin use and risk of PCa in a Denmark-based case-control study. We identified 42,480 patients diagnosed with incident PCa during 1997-2010 from a national cancer registry. Five age-matched population controls (n=212,400) were selected for each case using risk-set sampling. Statin use from 1996 to the index date was obtained from the National Prescription Registry. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, comorbidity, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and educational level for PCa associated with statin use, were computed using conditional logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by duration of statin use (0-1, 2-4, 5-9, or ≥10 years), stage of PCa (localized or advanced), and type of statin used (lipophilic or hydrophilic). In total, 7915 patients (19%) and 39,384 controls (19%) redeemed statin prescriptions prior to the index date. Overall, statin users had a 6% lower risk of PCa compared with non-users [adjusted OR (ORa), 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-0.97]. Risk estimates did not differ substantially by duration or type of statin used. Slightly larger statin use-associated risk reductions were observed for advanced PCa (ORa, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96) and with statin use ≥10 years (ORa, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.95). Statin use was associated with a risk reduction overall (6%) and, specifically with advanced PCa (10%). Differences in diagnostic measures and residual confounding by socioeconomic parameters may have influenced our results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-assessed health, perceived stress and non-participation in breast cancer screening: A Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Population-based cancer screening is offered in many countries to detect early stages of cancer and reduce mortality. Screening efficiency and equality is susceptible due to a group of non-participants. We investigated associations between self-assessed health, perceived stress and subsequent non-participation in breast cancer screening. This population-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who were also the target group (aged 50-69 years) for the first organised breast cancer screening programme -3 years later in the Central Denmark Region in 2008-2009. A U-shaped association was observed for physical health assessment as women with the highest (PR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), and the lowest (PR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.18-1.68) physical health scores were less likely to participate in the programme than women with physical health scores in the middle range. Women with low mental health assessment were more likely not to participate than women with mental health scores in the middle range (PR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.22-1.69). Higher non-participation propensity was also observed for women with the highest perceived stress scores (PR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.07-1.51) compared with women scoring in the middle range. Women with highest and lowest self-assessed physical health, with lowest mental health or highest perceived stress were significantly more likely not to participate in breast cancer screening 2-3 years later than women who reported average health. Interventions targeting these groups may promote equal participation in future breast cancer screening programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perinatal outcome of singleton siblings born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: Danish national sibling-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Pinborg, Anja; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Vestergaard, Christina; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2011-03-01

    To compare the perinatal outcome of singleton siblings conceived differently. National population-based registry study. Denmark, from 1994 to 2008. Pairs of siblings (13,692 pairs; n = 27,384 children) conceived after IVF, intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo replacement (FER), or spontaneous conception subcategorized into five groups according to succession: [1] IVF-ICSI vs. spontaneous conception (n = 7,758), [2] IVF-ICSI vs. FER (n = 716), [3] FER vs. FER (n = 34), [4] IVF-ICSI vs. IVF-ICSI (n = 2,876), and [5] spontaneous conception vs. spontaneous conception (n = 16,000). Observations were obtained from national registries. Birth weight, gestational age, low birth weight (<2,500 g), preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) and perinatal deaths. Mean birth weight was 65 g (95% confidence interval [CI], 41-89] lower in all assisted reproductive technology children compared with their spontaneously conceived siblings. FER children were 167 g (95% CI, 90-244] heavier than siblings born after replacement of fresh embryos. The difference in birth weight between firstborn and second born sibling depended on order of conception method. Higher risk of low birth weight with (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95%CI, 1.1-1.7] and preterm birth (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6] was observed in IVF/ICSI compared with spontaneous conception. When differentiating between order and mode of conception, it seems that assisted reproductive technology plays a role in mean birth weight and risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. Birth weight was higher in siblings born after FER compared with fresh embryos replacement. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin D intake in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease - a prospective study in 44,825 Danish mother-child pairs.

    PubMed

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Jensen, Camilla B; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2013-10-31

    Past studies suggest that maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against child wheeze but studies on asthma are limited. Our objective was to examine the relation between intake of vitamin D in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. We examined data from 44,825 women enrolled during pregnancy in the longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). We estimated vitamin D intake from diet and supplements based on information from a validated food frequency questionnaire completed in gestational week 25. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using data from phone interviews. We assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis by self-report at age 7 and asthma by using records from national registries. Current asthma at age 7 was defined as lifetime asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We calculated multivariable risk ratios with 95% CIs comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of vitamin D intake in relation to child allergic disease outcomes. The median (5%-95%ile) intake of total vitamin D was 11.7(3.0-19.4) μg/day (68% from supplements). In multivariable analysis, mothers in the highest (vs. lowest) quintile of total vitamin D intake were less likely to have children classified with current asthma at 7 years (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96, P = 0.02) and they were less likely to have children admitted to the hospital due to asthma (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64, 1.00, P = 0.05). We found no associations with child asthma at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis at 7 years. Our findings suggest a weak inverse relationship between high total vitamin D and asthma outcomes in later, but not early, childhood. The data did not suggest a clear threshold of vitamin D intake above which risk of asthma was reduced.

  6. Vitamin D intake in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease – a prospective study in 44,825 Danish mother-child pairs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past studies suggest that maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against child wheeze but studies on asthma are limited. Our objective was to examine the relation between intake of vitamin D in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. Methods We examined data from 44,825 women enrolled during pregnancy in the longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002). We estimated vitamin D intake from diet and supplements based on information from a validated food frequency questionnaire completed in gestational week 25. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using data from phone interviews. We assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis by self-report at age 7 and asthma by using records from national registries. Current asthma at age 7 was defined as lifetime asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We calculated multivariable risk ratios with 95% CIs comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of vitamin D intake in relation to child allergic disease outcomes. Results The median (5%-95%ile) intake of total vitamin D was 11.7(3.0-19.4) μg/day (68% from supplements). In multivariable analysis, mothers in the highest (vs. lowest) quintile of total vitamin D intake were less likely to have children classified with current asthma at 7 years (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96, P = 0.02) and they were less likely to have children admitted to the hospital due to asthma (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64, 1.00, P = 0.05). We found no associations with child asthma at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis at 7 years. Conclusions Our findings suggest a weak inverse relationship between high total vitamin D and asthma outcomes in later, but not early, childhood. The data did not suggest a clear threshold of vitamin D intake above which risk of asthma was reduced. PMID:24176134

  7. Is the association between high strain work and depressive symptoms modified by private life social support: a cohort study of 1,074 Danish employees?

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ida E H; Jorgensen, Anette F B; Borritz, Marianne; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner

    2014-07-08

    Previous studies have shown that psychosocial working conditions characterized by high psychological demands and low decision latitude (i.e., high strain work) are associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Little is known, however, concerning how this association may be modified by factors outside the working environment. This article examines the modifying role of private life social support in the relation between high strain work and the development of severe depressive symptoms. Data were questionnaire-based, collected from a cross-occupational sample of 1,074 Danish employees. At baseline, all participants were free of severe depressive symptoms, measured by the Mental Health Inventory. High strain work was defined by the combination of high psychological demands at work and low control, measured with multi-dimensional scales. Private life social support was operationalized as the number of life domains with confidants and dichotomized as low (0-1 domains) or high (2 or more domains). Using logistic regression we examined the risk of onset of severe depressive symptoms, adjusting for sex, age, occupational position, and prior depressive symptoms. Separately, neither high strain work nor low private life social support statistically significantly predicted depressive symptoms. However, participants with joint exposure to high strain work and low private life social support had an Odds ratio (OR) for severe depressive symptoms of 3.41 (95% CI: 1.36-8.58), compared to participants with no work strain and high private life social support. There was no increased risk for participants with high strain work and high private life social support (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.65-2.68). The interaction term for departure from additivity was, however, not statistically significant (p = 0.18). Our findings suggest that high strain work may increase risk of depressive symptoms in individuals with low private life social support, although the effect-modification was

  8. Long-term follow-up of late morbidity, cosmetic outcome and body image after breast conserving therapy. A study from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG).

    PubMed

    Lyngholm, Christina D; Christiansen, Peer M; Damsgaard, Tine E; Overgaard, Jens

    2013-02-01

    The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) introduced BCT as a standard treatment in Denmark in 1990. The aim of this study was to investigate late morbidity, cosmetic outcome, and body image after BCT and to associate these outcome variables with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. A total of 214 patients treated with BCT from 1989-2002 participated in a long-term follow-up visit comprising an interview, clinical examination, photos of the breast region and completion of a questionnaire on Body Image. Median follow-up time was 12 years (range 7-20). Moderate to severe fibrosis was found in 23% of patients and was associated with chemotherapy [OR 2.6, CI (1.1; 5.9), p = 0.02], large breast size [OR 3.2, CI (1.6; 6.4), p = 0.001], and smoking [OR 2.4, CI (1.1; 4.9), p = 0.02]. Patients with a satisfactory cosmetic outcome, when assessed by a clinician, were characterized by small tumors [OR 3.2, CI (1.5; 6.8), p = 0.003] and small to medium sized breasts [OR 2.0, CI (1.1; 3.5), p = 0.002]. Fifty percent of patients scored good or excellent when assessed by a clinician compared to 88% when reported by the patients themselves. Patients satisfied with their own cosmetic outcome were the younger patients [< 50 years; OR 3.2, CI (1.1; 8.6), p = 0.03] with no postoperative complications [OR 3.3, CI (1.2; 9.2), p = 0.02]. Regarding body image 15% felt less feminine, 25% felt less sexually attractive, and 28% of patients had changed their clothing habits as a result of the disease or treatment. The majority of patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcome after BCT, whereas only half of the patients were found to have a good or excellent cosmetic outcome when assessed by the clinician. Body image was found to be only minimally disturbed in the majority of patients. The level of moderate to severe fibrosis was acceptable compared to both national and international studies with similar patient compositions.

  9. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  10. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children. PMID:25299657

  11. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Gitte; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Sparsø, Thomas; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2008-05-01

    The gene encoding the alpha2 Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) is a credible biological and positional candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, and previous attempts to relate AHSG variation with type 2 diabetes and obesity in Swedish and French Caucasians have been largely successful. We related seven frequent AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms to a range of metabolic traits, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. The polymorphisms were genotyped in 7,683 white Danish subjects using Taqman allelic discrimination or chip-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, providing a statistical power of >99% to replicate previous findings. Data were analyzed in case-control and haplotype settings, and quantitative metabolic traits were examined for association. Moreover, epistatic effects between AHSG variants and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) and beta-2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms were investigated. The -469T>G (rs2077119) and IVS6+98C>T (rs2518136) polymorphisms were associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.007 and P = 0.006, respectively, or P(corr) = 0.04 and P(corr) = 0.03, respectively, following correction for multiple hypothesis testing), and in a combined analysis of the present and a previous study -469T>G remained significant (odds ratio 0.90 [95% CI 0.84-0.97]; P = 0.007). Furthermore, two AHSG haplotypes were associated with dyslipidemia (P = 0.003 and P(corr) = 0.009). Thr248Met (rs4917) tended to associate with lower fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test serum insulin release (P = 0.02, P(corr) = 0.1 for fasting and P = 0.04, P(corr) = 0.2 for area under the insulin curve) and improved insulin sensitivity estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (9.0 vs. 8.6 mmol x l(-1) x pmol(-1) x l(-1); P = 0.01, P(corr) = 0.06). Indications of epistatic effects of AHSG variants with the IRS1 Gly971Arg polymorphism were observed for fasting

  12. Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and oestrogen doses: Danish cohort study, 2001-9

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of venous thromboembolism from use of combined oral contraceptives according to progestogen type and oestrogen dose. Design National historical registry based cohort study. Setting Four registries in Denmark. Participants Non-pregnant Danish women aged 15-49 with no history of thrombotic disease and followed from January 2001 to December 2009. Main outcome measures Relative and absolute risks of first time venous thromboembolism. Results Within 8 010 290 women years of observation, 4307 first ever venous thromboembolic events were recorded and 4246 included, among which 2847 (67%) events were confirmed as certain. Compared with non-users of hormonal contraception, the relative risk of confirmed venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing 30-40 µg ethinylestradiol with levonorgestrel was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 3.8), with desogestrel was 6.6 (5.6 to 7.8), with gestodene was 6.2 (5.6 to 7.0), and with drospirenone was 6.4 (5.4 to 7.5). With users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel as reference and after adjusting for length of use, the rate ratio of confirmed venous thromboembolism for users of oral contraceptives with desogestrel was 2.2 (1.7 to 3.0), with gestodene was 2.1 (1.6 to 2.8), and with drospirenone was 2.1 (1.6 to 2.8). The risk of confirmed venous thromboembolism was not increased with use of progestogen only pills or hormone releasing intrauterine devices. If oral contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, or drospirenone are anticipated to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism sixfold and those with levonorgestrel threefold, and the absolute risk of venous thromboembolism in current users of the former group is on average 10 per 10 000 women years, then 2000 women would need to shift from using oral contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, or drospirenone to those with levonorgestrel to prevent one event of venous thromboembolism in one year. Conclusion After

  13. Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and oestrogen doses: Danish cohort study, 2001-9.

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2011-10-25

    To assess the risk of venous thromboembolism from use of combined oral contraceptives according to progestogen type and oestrogen dose. National historical registry based cohort study. Four registries in Denmark. Non-pregnant Danish women aged 15-49 with no history of thrombotic disease and followed from January 2001 to December 2009. Relative and absolute risks of first time venous thromboembolism. Within 8,010,290 women years of observation, 4307 first ever venous thromboembolic events were recorded and 4246 included, among which 2847 (67%) events were confirmed as certain. Compared with non-users of hormonal contraception, the relative risk of confirmed venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing 30-40 µg ethinylestradiol with levonorgestrel was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 3.8), with desogestrel was 6.6 (5.6 to 7.8), with gestodene was 6.2 (5.6 to 7.0), and with drospirenone was 6.4 (5.4 to 7.5). With users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel as reference and after adjusting for length of use, the rate ratio of confirmed venous thromboembolism for users of oral contraceptives with desogestrel was 2.2 (1.7 to 3.0), with gestodene was 2.1 (1.6 to 2.8), and with drospirenone was 2.1 (1.6 to 2.8). The risk of confirmed venous thromboembolism was not increased with use of progestogen only pills or hormone releasing intrauterine devices. If oral contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, or drospirenone are anticipated to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism sixfold and those with levonorgestrel threefold, and the absolute risk of venous thromboembolism in current users of the former group is on average 10 per 10,000 women years, then 2000 women would need to shift from using oral contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, or drospirenone to those with levonorgestrel to prevent one event of venous thromboembolism in one year. After adjustment for length of use, users of oral contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, or

  14. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such as the Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing the size of the reference population for Danish Jerseys. The first ap...

  15. Changes in hospitalisation and surgical procedures among the oldest-old: a follow-up study of the entire Danish 1895 and 1905 cohorts from ages 85 to 99 years

    PubMed Central

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Jeune, Bernard; Juel, Knud; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to examine whether the Danish 1905 cohort members had more active hospital treatment than the 1895 cohort members from ages 85 to 99 years and whether it results in higher in-hospital and post-operative mortality. Methods: in the present register-based follow-up study the complete Danish birth cohorts born in 1895 (n = 12,326) and 1905 (n = 15,477) alive and residing in Denmark at the age of 85 were followed from ages 85 to 99 years with regard to hospitalisations and all-cause and cause-specific surgical procedures, as well as in-hospital and post-operative mortality. Results: the 1905 cohort members had more frequent hospital admissions and operations, but they had a shorter length of hospital stay than the 1895 cohort at all ages from 85 to 99 years. The increase in primary prosthetic replacements of hip joint was observed even within the 1895 cohort: no patients were operated at ages 85–89 years versus 2.2–3.6% at ages 95–99 years. Despite increased hospitalisation and operation rates, there was no increase in post-operative and in-hospital mortality rates in the 1905 cohort. These patterns were similar among men and women. Conclusions: the observed patterns are compatible with more active treatment of the recent cohorts of old-aged persons and reduced age inequalities in the Danish healthcare system. No increase in post-operative mortality suggests that the selection of older patients eligible for a surgical treatment is likely to be based on the health status of old-aged persons and the safety of surgical procedures rather than chronological age. PMID:23531440

  16. Changes in hospitalisation and surgical procedures among the oldest-old: a follow-up study of the entire Danish 1895 and 1905 cohorts from ages 85 to 99 years.

    PubMed

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Jeune, Bernard; Juel, Knud; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-07-01

    to examine whether the Danish 1905 cohort members had more active hospital treatment than the 1895 cohort members from ages 85 to 99 years and whether it results in higher in-hospital and post-operative mortality. in the present register-based follow-up study the complete Danish birth cohorts born in 1895 (n = 12,326) and 1905 (n = 15,477) alive and residing in Denmark at the age of 85 were followed from ages 85 to 99 years with regard to hospitalisations and all-cause and cause-specific surgical procedures, as well as in-hospital and post-operative mortality. the 1905 cohort members had more frequent hospital admissions and operations, but they had a shorter length of hospital stay than the 1895 cohort at all ages from 85 to 99 years. The increase in primary prosthetic replacements of hip joint was observed even within the 1895 cohort: no patients were operated at ages 85-89 years versus 2.2-3.6% at ages 95-99 years. Despite increased hospitalisation and operation rates, there was no increase in post-operative and in-hospital mortality rates in the 1905 cohort. These patterns were similar among men and women. the observed patterns are compatible with more active treatment of the recent cohorts of old-aged persons and reduced age inequalities in the Danish healthcare system. No increase in post-operative mortality suggests that the selection of older patients eligible for a surgical treatment is likely to be based on the health status of old-aged persons and the safety of surgical procedures rather than chronological age.

  17. Trends in Off-Label Prescribing of Sedatives, Hypnotics and Antidepressants among Children and Adolescents - A Danish, Nationwide Register-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Eva Skovslund; Rasmussen, Lotte; Hellfritzsch, Maja; Thomsen, Per Hove; Nørgaard, Mette; Laursen, Torben

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, psychotropic drug use among children and adolescents in Europe and USA has increased. However, the majority of psychotropic drugs are not formally approved for use in children and adolescents, and consequently, use is often off-label. The objectives were to describe time trends in off-label prescribing rates and the most commonly used types of psychotropic drugs by age and gender in Danish children and adolescents. Using the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we identified all prescriptions for sedatives, hypnotics and antidepressants filled for children and adolescents in 2006-2012. Information on diagnoses was obtained from the Danish National Registry of Patients and allowed classification of prescriptions as either on- or off-label. We identified 186,831 prescriptions filled for 29,851 children and adolescents: 88.0% of these were classified as off-label. During 2006-2012, off-label rates for sedatives and hypnotics increased significantly, except for prescriptions for girls aged 15-17 years [range 24.1-98.2% (girls), 31.9% to 99.0% (boys)]. In the same period, the number of registered melatonin prescriptions (all off-label) increased expansively. For antidepressants, we found decreasing trends in off-label rates over time [range 94.5-65.6% (girls), 93.8-71.2% (boys)]. Off-label prescribing of psychotropic drugs to Danish children and adolescents is common. Off-label rates for sedatives and hypnotics increased in the period of 2006-2012, whereas off-label rates for antidepressants declined. Off-label rates might be underestimated and should be considered a conservative estimate. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  18. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status: the Odense Androgen Study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K; Brixen, K; Hermann, A P; Andersen, M; Hagen, C

    2006-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old men and to analyze whether sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status are independent correlates of obesity and physical inactivity. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Seven hundred and eighty-three Caucasian, Danish men, aged 20-29 years recruited from 2042 respondents in a questionnaire survey of 3000 men, randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. Questionnaire, interview and physical examination. The 783 included men and the 2042 questionnaire respondents matched the background population demographically. The 783 men matched the questionnaire respondents as regards BMI, physical activity, chronic disease, medication, smoking, sociodemography and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.7 and 7.9%, respectively (World Health Organization criteria). Using waist circumference (WC) cutoffs of 94 and 102 cm, the prevalence was 16.2 and 10.6%, respectively; 24.4% were physically inactive. BMI and WC increased significantly from age 20 to 29 years. Physical activity decreased significantly with age and correlated inversely with WC, but not with BMI. Occupation, geography, partner status, fatherhood and tobacco exposure were independently related with obesity and physical inactivity. Obesity was also related to musculoskeletal complaints, whereas chronic diseases and low educational level were associated with physical inactivity. Age was not independently related with either outcome. In affluent societies, sociodemographic changes may partly explain the age-related decrease in physical activity and the parallel increase in WC and BMI.

  20. Can DNA sequencing show differences between microbial communities in Polish and Danish wastewater treatment plants?

    PubMed

    Miłobędzka, A; Muszyński, A

    2017-03-01

    The microbial populations in the activated sludge of two Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were identified and quantified using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons over a 2-year period. Their dynamics over time were compared to Danish WWTPs (data collected in previous studies by Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University). The bacterial communities in Polish and Danish WWTPs were similar to each other, but the microbial diversity in Polish WWTPs was lower. The dominant genera in Polish WWTPs were more abundant than in Danish WWTPs; 30 of them constituted more than half the of activated sludge community. Polish WWTPs showed a higher abundance of bacteria involved in nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal (Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), while polyphosphate-acculumating bacteria were the dominant bacterial group in Danish plants. The microbial community structures in the examined Polish WWTPs were relatively similar to each other and showed strong seasonal variations which are not normally observed in Danish WWTPs.

  1. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships.

    PubMed

    Ádám, Balázs

    2013-01-01

    Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. The majority of accidents happened to Danish and non-EU workers on non-passenger ships. The injury rate varied around 70 per 1000 among Danish seafarers, while the rate for non-Danish employees was about 30 per 1000. Crude and adjusted relative risk was found significantly lower for EU (0.33-0.46;0.26-0.39) and for non-EU (0.41-0.53; 0.54-0.65) workers compared to Danish seafarers. The difference decreased, but remained significant in most cases for serious injuries. Occupational injury rates show considerable nationality differences as reported from non-passenger ships registered under the Danish flag. The differences can only be partly explained by varying reporting practices. The findings confirm the results of previous studies and point out the need for effective interventions in the high-risk groups.

  2. General inattentiveness is a long-term reliable trait independently predictive of psychological health: Danish validation studies of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2016-05-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps < .001). Second, MAAS scores showed satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability in 100 retested healthy university students. Finally, MAAS sample mean scores as well as individuals' scores demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability across a 6 months interval in the adult community (retested N = 407), intraclass correlations ≥ .74. MAAS scores displayed significantly stronger long-term test-retest reliability than scores measuring psychological distress (z = 2.78, p = .005). Test-retest reliability estimates did not differ within demographic and socioeconomic strata. Scores on the Danish MAAS were psychometrically validated in healthy adults. MAAS's inattentiveness scores reflected a unidimensional construct, long-term reliable disposition, and a factor of independent significance for predicting psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Hyperthyroidism is associated with work disability and loss of labour market income. A Danish register-based study in singletons and disease-discordant twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2015-11-01

    To examine the risk of disability pension and changes in labour market income in patients with hyperthyroidism. From a 5% random sample of the Danish population and twins from the Danish Twin Registry we identified 1942 hyperthyroid singletons and 7768 non-hyperthyroid (matched 1:4) controls as well as 584 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. Singletons and twins were followed for a mean of 9 years (range 1-20). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the risk of disability pension and a difference-in-differences model was used to evaluate changes in labour market income. Hyperthyroid individuals had an increased risk of receiving disability pension: hazard ratio (HR) was 1.88, (95% CI: 1.57-2.24). Subdividing as to the cause of hyperthyroidism did not change this finding: Graves' disease (GD) HR was 1.51 (95% CI: 0.87-2.63) and toxic nodular goitre (TNG) HR was 2.10 (95% CI: 1.02-4.36). With respect to labour market income, the income of hyperthyroid individuals increased on average 1189 € less than their controls (P<0.001). This difference in income was more pronounced in GD (2539 €) than in TNG (132 €). Essentially similar results, with respect to disability pension and labour market income, were seen within monozygotic twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe work disability as reflected by an 88% increased risk of receiving disability pension and a significant loss of labour market income. Similar results in monozygotic twins discordant for hyperthyroidism suggest that genetic confounding is unlikely. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Use of β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and risk of breast cancer recurrence: a Danish nationwide prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Gitte Vrelits; Ganz, Patricia A; Cole, Steven W; Pedersen, Lars A; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Garne, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Peer M; Lash, Timothy L; Ahern, Thomas P

    2013-06-20

    To estimate associations between use of β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and breast cancer recurrence in a large Danish cohort. We enrolled 18,733 women diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer between 1996 and 2003. Patient, treatment, and 10-year recurrence data were ascertained from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group registry. Prescription and medical histories were ascertained by linkage to the National Prescription Registry and Registry of Patients, respectively. β-Blocker exposure was defined in aggregate and according to solubility, receptor selectivity, and individual drugs. ACE inhibitor and ARB exposures were defined in aggregate. Recurrence associations were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models in which time-varying drug exposures were lagged by 1 year. Compared with never users, users of any β-blocker had a lower recurrence hazard in unadjusted models (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.0) and a slightly higher recurrence hazard in adjusted models (adjusted HR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.5). Associations were similar for exposures defined by receptor selectivity and solubility. Although most individual β-blockers showed no association with recurrence, metoprolol and sotalol were associated with increased recurrence rates (adjusted metoprolol HR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8; adjusted sotalol HR = 2.0, 95% CI, 0.99 to 4.0). ACE inhibitors were associated with a slightly increased recurrence hazard, whereas ARBs were not associated with recurrence (adjusted ACE inhibitor HR = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.4; adjusted ARBs HR = 1.1, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.3). Our data do not support the hypothesis that β-blockers attenuate breast cancer recurrence risk.

  5. Use of β-Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers, and Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Gitte Vrelits; Ganz, Patricia A.; Cole, Steven W.; Pedersen, Lars A.; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Peter Garne, Jens; Christiansen, Peer M.; Lash, Timothy L.; Ahern, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate associations between use of β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and breast cancer recurrence in a large Danish cohort. Patients and Methods We enrolled 18,733 women diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer between 1996 and 2003. Patient, treatment, and 10-year recurrence data were ascertained from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group registry. Prescription and medical histories were ascertained by linkage to the National Prescription Registry and Registry of Patients, respectively. β-Blocker exposure was defined in aggregate and according to solubility, receptor selectivity, and individual drugs. ACE inhibitor and ARB exposures were defined in aggregate. Recurrence associations were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models in which time-varying drug exposures were lagged by 1 year. Results Compared with never users, users of any β-blocker had a lower recurrence hazard in unadjusted models (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.0) and a slightly higher recurrence hazard in adjusted models (adjusted HR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.5). Associations were similar for exposures defined by receptor selectivity and solubility. Although most individual β-blockers showed no association with recurrence, metoprolol and sotalol were associated with increased recurrence rates (adjusted metoprolol HR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8; adjusted sotalol HR = 2.0, 95% CI, 0.99 to 4.0). ACE inhibitors were associated with a slightly increased recurrence hazard, whereas ARBs were not associated with recurrence (adjusted ACE inhibitor HR = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.4; adjusted ARBs HR = 1.1, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.3). Conclusion Our data do not support the hypothesis that β-blockers attenuate breast cancer recurrence risk. PMID:23650417

  6. Sex Differences in Task Distribution and Task Exposures among Danish House Painters: An Observational Study Combining Questionnaire Data with Biomechanical Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Wulff Svendsen, Susanne; Frølund Thomsen, Jane; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. Methods To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N = 9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task distributions in a typical week. To obtain task exposures, postures and movements were measured in 25 male and 25 female house painters for one whole working day per person. We used goniometers on the wrists, and inclinometers on the forehead and the upper arms. Participants filled in a logbook allowing task-specific exposures to be identified. Percentiles and % time with non-neutral postures were used to characterise postures. Velocity, range of motion, repetitiveness, and variation were used as measures of movement. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics and unpaired double-sided t-tests with post-hoc Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate sex differences. Results Statistically significant (p<0.05) sex differences were revealed in task proportions, but the proportions differed by less than 4%. For task exposures, no statistically significant sex differences were found. Conclusions Only minor sex differences were found in task distribution and task exposures regarding postures and movements among Danish house painters. Sex-specific task exposure matrices were established. PMID:25365301

  7. Curriculum Regulations for the Danish Higher Preparatory Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    Information is presented on curriculum regulations for the Danish Higher Preparatory (HP) Examination. The examination is composed of common core subjects and elective subjects. Information is presented on the number of weekly lessons for common core and elective subjects; foreign language study; music and creative art; joint classes including…

  8. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-02-12

    Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age.The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status.The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due to a longer production life. However, a

  10. Polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette transporter genes and interaction with diet and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family transports various molecules across the enterocytes in the gut protecting the intestine against potentially harmful substances. Moreover, ABC transporters are involved in mucosal immune defence through interaction with cytokines. The study aimed to assess whether polymorphisms in ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to investigate gene-environment (dietary factors, smoking and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and gene-gene interactions between previously studied polymorphisms in IL1B and IL10 and ABC transporter genes in relation to CRC risk. We used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox' proportional hazards model. None of the polymorphisms were associated with CRC, but ABCB1 and ABCG2 haplotypes were associated with risk of CRC. ABCB1/rs1045642 interacted with intake of cereals and fiber (p-Value for interaction (P(int)) = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). In a three-way analysis, both ABCB1/rs1045642 and ABCG2/rs2231137 in combination with IL10/rs3024505 interacted with fiber intake in relation to risk of CRC (P(int) = 0.0007 and 0.009). Our results suggest that the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance 1 and BRCP, in cooperation with IL-10, are involved in the biological mechanism underlying the protective effect of fiber intake in relation to CRC. These results should be replicated in other cohorts to rule out chance findings.

  11. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    PubMed

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to <2% since 2013. The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an

  12. The Danish Heart Failure Registry.

    PubMed

    Schjødt, Inge; Nakano, Anne; Egstrup, Kenneth; Cerqueira, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Danish Heart Failure Registry (DHFR) is to monitor and improve the care of patients with incident heart failure (HF) in Denmark. The DHFR includes inpatients and outpatients (≥18 years) with incident HF. Reporting to the DHFR is mandatory for the Danish hospital departments treating patients with incident HF. Final decision to register a patient in the DHFR is made by a cardiologist to ensure the validity of the diagnosis. Approximately 42,400 patients with incident HF were registered in the DHFR in July 2015. The main variables recorded in the DHFR are related to the indicators for quality of care in patients with incident HF: performance of echocardiography, functional capacity (New York Heart Association functional classification), pharmacological therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin II antagonist inhibitors, beta-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist), nonpharmacological therapy (physical training, patient education), 4-week readmission rate, and 1-year mortality. Furthermore, basic patient characteristics and prognostic factors (eg, smoking and alcohol) are recorded. At the annual national audit in the DHFR, the indicators and standards for good clinical quality of care for patients with HF are discussed, and recommendations are reported back to clinicians to promote quality improvement initiatives. Furthermore, results and recommendations are communicated to the public in an annual report. All standards for the quality indicators have been met at a national level since 2014. Indicators for treatment status 1 year after diagnosis are under consideration (now prevalent HF). The DHFR is a valuable tool for continuous improvement of quality of care in patients with incident HF in Denmark. Furthermore, it is an important resource for the Danish registry-based HF research.

  13. An explorative outcome study of CBT-based multidisciplinary treatment in a diverse group of refugees from a Danish treatment centre for rehabilitation of traumatized refugees.

    PubMed

    Palic, Sabina; Elklit, Ask

    2009-01-01

    A group of highly traumatized refugees n = 26 with diverse cultural backgrounds in a Danish Clinic for Traumatized Refugees (CTR) was assessed for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and other aspects of general functioning. Patients were assessed at intake, after the end of treatment and six months later. The results point to very high symptom levels and a large need for treatment in this population. Psychiatric symptoms and their correlates were assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Trauma Symptom Checklist-23 (TSC-23), the Global Assessment of Function (GAF), and the Crisis Support Scale (CSS). The Trail Making Test A & B (TMT) was used as a screening instrument for acquired brain damage, with promising results. Indications of effectiveness from 16-18 weeks of multidisciplinary treatment (physiotherapy, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and social counseling) were supported with small to medium effect sizes on most outcome measures. The results are discussed in terms of clinical implications and future treatment, assessment, and research needs.

  14. Surveillance of Hospital Contacts among Danish Seafarers and Fishermen with Focus on Skin and Infectious Diseases—A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaerlev, Linda; Jensen, Anker; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A systematic overview of time trends in hospital contacts among Danish seafarers and fishermen by job title and analyses on skin and infectious diseases. Methods: Occupational cohorts with hospital contacts 1994–1998 and 1999–2003. Standardized hospital contact ratios (SHCR) were estimated using national rates and ranked by SHCR size. Results: For non-officers in 1994–1998, infectious diseases had the highest SHCR, followed by neoplastic and endocrinal diseases; in 1999–2003 skin diseases were followed by endocrinal and gastrointestinal diseases. For fishermen in 1994–1998, nervous system, gastrointestinal, and skin diseases had the highest SHCRs; in 1999–2003 it was nervous system, skin, and lymphohematopoietic diseases. As for skin diseases, male fishermen and non-officer seamen generally had increased SHCRs, but engine room personnel specifically had a low SHCR for eczema (eight cases). Fishermen had high SHCRs for tuberculosis in both time periods (six and nine cases, respectively). Non-officer seamen on cargo ships had increased SHCRs for HIV in both time periods and for hepatitis in 1994–1999. Extending the follow-up until 2000 or 2005 showed similar results. Conclusions: Surveillance of seamen’s health gives useful information. The elevated SHCR for HIV infection among non-officers has not declined despite preventive information campaigns. Tuberculosis among fishermen may be due to infection on shore. Skin diseases had very high SHCRs, not due to cutaneous oil exposure. PMID:25411726

  15. Are negative aspects of social relations predictive of angina pectoris? A 6-year follow-up study of middle-aged Danish women and men.

    PubMed

    Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla

    2012-04-01

    Social relations have been shown to be protective against ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but little is known about the impact of negative aspects of the social relations on IHD. During a 6-year follow-up, the authors aimed to assess if negative aspects of social relations were associated with angina pectoris among 4573 middle-aged Danish men and women free of heart disease at baseline in 2000. Nine per cent experienced onset of symptoms of angina pectoris. A higher degree of excessive demands or worries from the social relations was associated with increased risk of angina after adjustment for age, gender, social class, cohabitation status and depression in a dose-response manner. For example, experiencing excessive demands or worries always/often from different roles in the social relations was associated with an increased risk: partner OR=3.53 (1.68 to 7.43), children OR=2.19 (1.04 to 4.61), other family OR=1.91 (1.24 to 2.96). Except for frequent conflicts with the partner and neighbours, conflicts with the social relations was not a risk factor for angina. The authors found no interaction of negative aspects of social relations with gender, age, social class, cohabitation status or depression in terms of angina. Excessive demands and serious worries from significant others seem to be important risk factors for development of angina pectoris.

  16. Danish physicians' preferences for prescribing escitalopram over citalopram and sertraline to treatment-naïve patients: a national, register-based study.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Karen Killerup; Glintborg, Dorte; Moreno, Søren Ilsøe; Thirstrup, Steffen; Aagaard, Lise; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2013-05-01

    To investigate whether general practitioners, hospital physicians and specialized practitioners in psychiatry have similar preferences for initiating treatment with expensive serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). All first-time prescriptions for the SSRIs escitalopram, citalopram and sertraline reported to the Danish National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics from April 1, 2009 until March 31, 2010 were analysed with regard to treatment naivety and type of prescriber. A prescription was considered as first time if the patient had not received a prescription for the same drug within the last 2 years. Patients who had not received a prescription for an antidepressant within 6 months prior to the date of redemption were classified as treatment-naïve. We included 82,702 first-time prescriptions, 65,313 (79 %) of which were for treatment-naïve patients. Of the treatment-naïve patients, 19 % were initially prescribed escitalopram. Hospital physicians prescribed escitalopram to 34 % of their treatment-naïve patients, while practitioners specialized in psychiatry prescribed it to 25 %, and general practitioners prescribed it to 17 %. General practitioners, however, were responsible for initiating 87 % of all treatment-naïve patients. The most expensive SSRI, escitalopram, is prescribed as first choice to one in five patients receiving their first antidepressant of escitalopram, citalopram or sertraline. General practitioners made the bulk of all first-time SSRI prescriptions to treatment-naïve patients.

  17. Do stage of disease, comorbidity or access to treatment explain socioeconomic differences in survival after ovarian cancer? - A cohort study among Danish women diagnosed 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Ibfelt, Else Helene; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Høgdall, Claus; Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Osler, Merete; Johansen, Christoffer; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjær, Susanne K

    2015-06-01

    In order to reduce social inequality in cancer survival, knowledge is needed about where in the cancer trajectory disparities occur, and how social and health-related aspects may interact. We aimed to determine whether socioeconomic factors are related to cancer diagnosis stage, and whether socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer can be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, treatment or lifestyle factors. In the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database we identified 2873 cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2010. From this data we retrieved information on prognostic factors, treatment information and lifestyle factors. Age, vital status, comorbidity, education, income and cohabitation status were ascertained from nationwide administrative registers. Associations were analyzed with logistic regression and Cox regression models. Educational level was weakly associated with cancer stage. Short education, lower income and living without a partner were related to poorer survival after ovarian cancer. Among women with early cancer stage, HR (95% CI) for death was 1.75 (1.20-2.54) in shorter compared to longer educated women. After adjustment for comorbid conditions, cancer stage, tumour histology, operation status and lifestyle factors, socioeconomic differences in survival persisted. Socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer were to some extent, but not fully explained by differences in important prognostic factors, suggesting further investigations into this problem, however implying that socially less advantaged ovarian cancer patients should receive attention during cancer treatment and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  19. Youth, suicide attempts and low level of education: A Danish historical register-based cohort study of the outcome of suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Larsen, Kim Juul; Bilenberg, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2015-12-01

    In Denmark, it is a political goal that 95% of all young people should complete an upper secondary education. For some young people, this goal can be difficult to achieve. An association has been established between suicidal behaviour and school performance. We hypothesise that young people who have attempted suicide have a lower chance of finishing secondary education. We used Danish historical population registers to perform a longitudinal cohort design and extended Cox regression modelling to estimate crude and adjusted estimates of the effect of suicide attempt on secondary education. We used the birth cohorts 1983-1989, and all subjects were followed from birth until the end of 2011 (n = 355,725). For suicide attempters, the likelihood of completing secondary education was one-third of non-attempters (crude hazard ratio = 0.38). A part of the impact can be explained by confounding factors. Individuals with a suicide attempt at age 16-20 years or with multiple suicide attempts were most likely not to complete secondary education. Compared to mentally ill non-attempters, suicide attempters with mental illness were more likely not to finish secondary education. A suicide attempt is not necessarily causal for not finishing secondary education, but it is a marker, and it predicts an increased likelihood of not finishing secondary education. We need to identify individuals at risk for suicide attempts and subsequently provide the necessary support. Completing secondary education is important, as it provides better chances of employment, higher wages and more opportunities for individuals in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Pre-conceptual and prenatal supplementary folic acid and multivitamin intake, behavioral problems, and hyperkinetic disorders: A study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC).

    PubMed

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen A; Catov, Janet M; Ritz, Beate

    2017-03-09

    To evaluate whether early folic acid or multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders (HKD), treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and ADHD-like behaviors reported by parents participating in the DNBC for children at age 7. HKD diagnosis and ADHD medication use data were obtained from the Danish National Hospital, Central Psychiatric and Pharmaceutical registers. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for HKD diagnosis and ADHD medication use and risk ratios (RRs) for parent-reported ADHD behavior collected with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), comparing children whose mothers took folic acid or multivitamin supplements early in pregnancy defined as starting periconceptionally (4 weeks prior to their last menstrual period (LMP)) through 8 weeks after their LMP (4-8 weeks), to children whose mothers indicated no supplement use for the same entire period. We identified 384 children (1.1%) with a hospital diagnosis for HKD and 642 children (1.8%) treated with ADHD medication. We found no association between risk of HKD diagnosis or intake of ADHD medication and early maternal folic acid use. However, early multivitamin use was associated with an approximately 30% reduction in risk for HKD diagnosis (aHR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.96) and 21% reduction in treatment with ADHD medication (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-0.98). We observed a reduced risk in parent-reported ADHD behaviors, but these results were attenuated after adjustment. Our data suggest that multivitamin use in early pregnancy may reduce risk for HKD diagnosis and treatment for ADHD in the offspring.

  1. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Sandøe, P; Kondrup, S V; Bennett, P C; Forkman, B; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H F; Serpell, J A; Lund, T B

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog's personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems.

  2. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane; Brasso, Klaus; Friis, Søren; Tjønneland, Anne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-11-01

    Social differences in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality might be related to testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Although routine PSA screening is not recommended in Denmark, testing without clinical indication increased during the past decade. We evaluated associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox regression analysis was used to examine associations with mortality. PSA testing without clinical indication was less likely among patients > 67 years (OR 0.7; 0.5-1.0). Men who were, PSA tested without clinical indication, were more likely to have vocational training (OR 1.8; 1.1-2.9) or higher education (OR 1.5; 0.9-2.5) and less likely to have advanced disease (OR 0.6; 0.4-0.9). PSA testing without clinical indication more often preceded therapy with curative intent (OR 1.8; 1.1-2.9) and less often palliative treatment (OR 0.6; 0.3-1.0). Men who were PSA tested without clinical indication had non-significantly lower overall and PC-specific mortality [hazard ratios 0.8 (0.5-1.2) and 0.6 (0.3-1.1), respectively]. PSA testing without clinical indication was associated with higher educational level. PC detected by PSA testing with no clinical indication was more often localized and treated with curative intent.

  3. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Kondrup, S. V.; Bennett, P. C.; Forkman, B.; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H. F.; Serpell, J. A.; Lund, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog’s personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems. PMID:28234931

  4. Shaping the Social: design of a settings-based intervention study to improve well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in Danish vocational schools.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Holmberg, Teresa; Johansen, Christoffer; Stock, Christiane; Laursen, Bjarne; Zinckernagel, Line; Øllgaard, Anne Louise; Ingholt, Liselotte

    2015-06-20

    The social environment at schools is an important setting to promote educational attainment, and health and well-being of young people. However, within upper secondary education there is a need for evidence-based school intervention programmes. The Shaping the Social intervention is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were selected to either implement the intervention or continue with normal practice for comparison. In the baseline survey conducted 2011-2012, 2,329 students from four intervention schools and 3,371 students from six comparison schools answered a computer-based questionnaire during class, representing 73% and 81% of eligible students, and 22% of all technical/agricultural vocational schools in Denmark. Follow-up assessment was conducted 10 weeks after baseline and at the same time teachers of the intervention classes answered a questionnaire about implementation. School dropout rates will be tracked via national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing appropriate evaluation strategies. To address difficulties in implementing settings-based interventions, as highlighted in prior research, the strategy was to involve intervention schools in the development of the intervention. Baseline differences will be included in the effectiveness analysis, so will the impact of likely mediators and moderators of the intervention. ISRCTN57822968. Date of registration: 16/01/2013.

  5. Association Study of CHRNA7 Promoter Variants with Sensory and Sensorimotor Gating in Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls: A Danish Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Oranje, Bob; Melchior, Linea; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Werge, Thomas M; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Tümer, Zeynep; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with a core component of impaired cognitive function still remaining as one of the greatest challenges in the pharmacological treatment of the disorder. The CHRNA7 gene, encoding the subunit of the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), is suggested as a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia. CHRNA7 has also been genetically linked to the P50 auditory evoked potential deficit, a candidate endophenotype of schizophrenia, but not to prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI). In this study, 95 antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenic patients and 450 unaffected controls were screened for CHRNA7 promoter variants to investigate the association with schizophrenia, P50 suppression and PPI. We found that the promoter variant -194C (rs28531779) was significantly associated with schizophrenia, but did not find any association of this variant with P50 suppression or PPI. In addition, individuals with CHRNA7 promoter variants had elevated startle magnitude in pulse-alone trials compared to individuals without a variant. The present findings provide further support for a role of the α7nAChR in schizophrenia and show a genetic link between CHRNA7 and startle magnitude, indicating that cholinergic neurotransmission involving the α7nAChR could be involved in sensory registration processes.

  6. The Danish Register of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Morten; Videbæk, Jørgen; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2011-07-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) constitute the largest group of congenital defects with a prevalence at birth of 5-11 per 1000 live births, and the population of adults with CHD is increasing. However, few population-based long-term outcome data exist. The Danish Register of Congenital Heart Disease holds data on patients diagnosed with CHD since 1963 and patients below 25 years of age with other types of heart disease. Overall and defect specific validation is ongoing. Together with other Danish registers, the Danish Register of Congenital Heart Disease provides extensive research possibilities.

  7. Milk intake is not associated with low risk of diabetes or overweight-obesity: a Mendelian randomization study in 97,811 Danish individuals.

    PubMed

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-08-01

    High dairy/milk intake has been associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes observationally, but whether this represents a causal association is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high milk intake is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obesity, observationally and genetically. In 97,811 individuals from the Danish general population, we examined the risk of incident type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obesity by milk intake observationally and by LCT-13910 C/T genotype [polymorphism (rs4988235) upstream from the lactase (LCT) gene], where TT and TC genotypes are associated with lactase persistence and CC with nonpersistence. Observationally for any compared with no milk intake, the HR for type 2 diabetes was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.24; P = 0.11), whereas the OR for overweight-obesity was 1.06 (1.02, 1.09; P = 0.002). Median milk intake was 5 glasses/wk (IQR: 0-10) for lactase TT/TC persistence and 3 (0-7) for CC nonpersistence. Genetically for lactase TT/TC persistence compared with CC nonpersistence, the OR was 0.96 (0.86, 1.08; P = 0.50) for type 2 diabetes and 1.06 (1.00, 1.12; P = 0.04) for overweight-obesity. In a stratified analysis for type 2 diabetes, corresponding values in those with and without milk intake were 0.88 (0.76, 1.03; P = 0.11) and 1.35 (1.07, 1.70; P = 0.01) (P-interaction: 0.002), whereas no gene-milk interaction on overweight-obesity was found. For a 1-glass/wk higher milk intake, the genetic risk ratio for type 2 diabetes was 0.99 (0.93, 1.06), and the corresponding observational risk was 1.01 (1.00, 1.01). For overweight-obesity, the corresponding values were 1.01 (1.00, 1.02) genetically and 1.00 (1.00, 1.01) observationally. High milk intake is not associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes or overweight-obesity, observationally or genetically via lactase persistence. The higher risk of type 2 diabetes in lactase-persistent individuals without milk intake likely is explained by collider stratification

  8. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder, and distress (the Danish IBBIS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Rie; Fisker, Jonas; Hoff, Andreas; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2017-12-02

    Common mental disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease and cause negative effects on both the individual and society. Stress-related disorders influence the individual's workability and cause early retirement pensions in Denmark. There is no clear evidence that mental health care alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery for this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the Danish IBBIS (Integreret Behandlings- og BeskæftigelsesIndsats til Sygemeldte) study is to examine the efficacy of (1) a stepped mental health care intervention with individual stress coaching and/or group-based MBSR and (2) an integrated stepped mental health care with individual stress coaching and/or group-based MBSR and vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder or distress in Denmark. This three-armed, parallel-group, randomized superiority trial is set up to investigate the effectiveness of a stepped mental health care intervention and an integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of exhaustion disorder, adjustment disorder or distress in Denmark. The trial has an investigator-initiated multicenter design. Six hundred and three patients will be recruited from Danish vocational rehabilitation centers in four municipalities and randomly assigned into three groups: (1) IBBIS mental health care integrated with IBBIS vocational rehabilitation, (2) IBBIS mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation, and (3) standard mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation. The primary outcome is register-based return to work at 12 months. The secondary outcome measures are self-assessed level of depression (BDI), anxiety (BAI), distress symptoms (4DSQ), work- and social functioning (WSAS), and

  9. The danish regions pediatric triage model has a limited ability to detect both critically ill children as well as children to be sent home without treatment - a study of diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lotte Høeg; Mogensen, Christian Backer; Wittenhoff, Lena; Skjøt-Arkil, Helene

    2017-05-30

    The Danish Regions Pediatric Triage model (DRPT) was introduced in 2012 and subsequent implemented in most Danish acute pediatric departments. The aim was to evaluate the validity of DRPT as a screening tool to detect both the most serious acute conditions and the non-serious conditions in the acute referred patients in a pediatric department. The study was prospective observational, with follow-up on all children with acute referral to pediatric department from October to December 2015. The DRPT was evaluated by comparison to a predefined reference standard and to the actual clinical outcomes: critically ill children and children returned to home without any treatment. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and likelihood for positive and negative test were calculated. Five hundred fifty children were included. The DRPT categorized 7% very urgent, 28% urgent, 29% standard and 36% non-urgent. The DRPT was equal to the reference standard in 31% of the children (CI: 27-35%). DRPT undertriaged 55% of the children (CI: 51-59%) and overtriaged 14% of the children (CI: 11-17%). For the most urgent patients the sensitivity of DRPT was 31% (CI: 20-48%) compared to the reference standard and 20% (CI: 7-41) for critically ill. For children with non-urgent conditions the specificity of DRPT was 66% (CI: 62-71%) compared to the reference standard and 68% (CI: 62-75%) for the children who went home with no treatment. In none of the analyses, the likelihood ratio of the negative test was less than 0.7 and the positive likelihood ratio only reached more than 5 in one of the analyses. This study is the first to evaluate the DRPT triage system. From the very limited validity studies of other well-established triage systems, it is difficult to judge whether the DRPT performs better or worse than the alternatives. The DRPT errs to the undertriage side. If the sensitivity is low, a number of the sickest children are undetected and

  10. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  11. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry: establishment, completeness and validity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh; Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Gradel, Kim Oren; Guldberg, Rikke

    2016-08-30

    The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database completeness of patient registration and validity of data. The completeness of the number of patients registered in the database was evaluated in the study period from January 2009 through December 2014 by comparing cases reported to the DNOR with the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Pathology Registry. The data validity of important clinical variables was evaluated by a random sample of 100 patients from the DNOR using the medical records as reference. A total of 2241 patients were registered in the DNOR by December 2014 with an overall patient completeness of 92 %, which increased during the study period (from 78 % in 2009 to 96 % in 2014). Medical records were available for all patients in the validity analyses. Most variables showed a high agreement proportion (56-100 %), with a fair to good chance-corrected agreement (k = 0.43-1.0). The completeness of patient registration was very high (92 %) and the validity of the most important patient data was good. The DNOR is a newly established national database, which is a reliable source for future scientific studies and clinical quality assessments among patients with gliomas.

  12. Are Danish doctors comfortable teaching in English?

    PubMed

    Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D

    2016-08-27

    From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.

  13. Why did Danish women's life expectancy stagnate? The influence of interwar generations' smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Oeppen, Jim; Rizzi, Silvia; Möller, Sören; Zarulli, Virginia; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2016-12-01

    The general health status of a population changes over time, generally in a positive direction. Some generations experience more unfavourable conditions than others. The health of Danish women in the interwar generations is an example of such a phenomenon. The stagnation in their life expectancy between 1977 and 1995 is thought to be related to their smoking behaviour. So far, no study has measured the absolute effect of smoking on the mortality of the interwar generations of Danish women and thus the stagnation in Danish women's life expectancy. We applied a method to estimate age-specific smoking-attributable number of deaths to examine the effect of smoking on the trends in partial life expectancy of Danish women between age 50 and 85 from 1950 to 2012. We compared these trends to those for women in Sweden, where there was no similar stagnation in life expectancy. When smoking-attributable mortality was excluded, the gap in partial life expectancy at age 50 between Swedish and Danish women diminished substantially. The effect was most pronounced in the interwar generations. The major reason for the stagnation in Danish women's partial life expectancy at age 50 was found to be smoking-related mortality in the interwar generations.

  14. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the antioxidant genesCAT,GRandSOD1, erythrocyte enzyme activities, dietary and life style factors and breast cancer risk in a Danish, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tjonneland, Anne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2017-09-08

    Exposure to estrogens and alcohol consumption - the two only well-established risk factors for breast cancer - are capable of causing oxidative stress, which has been linked to progression of breast cancer. Here, five functional polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes SOD1 , CAT and GSR were investigated in 703 breast cancer case-control pairs in the Danish, prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort together with gene-environment interactions between the polymorphisms, enzyme activities and intake of fruits and vegetables, alcohol and smoking in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results showed that genetically determined variations in the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD1 , CAT and GSR were not associated with risk of breast cancer per se . However, intake of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and smoking status interacted with some of the polymorphisms in relation to breast cancer risk. Four polymorphisms were strongly associated with enzyme activity, but there was no interaction between any of the studied environmental factors and the polymorphisms in relation to enzyme activity. Additionally, single measurement of enzyme activity at entry to the cohort was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Our results therefore suggest that the antioxidant enzyme activities studied here are not major determinants of breast cancer risk.

  15. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes CAT, GR and SOD1, erythrocyte enzyme activities, dietary and life style factors and breast cancer risk in a Danish, prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tjonneland, Anne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to estrogens and alcohol consumption - the two only well-established risk factors for breast cancer - are capable of causing oxidative stress, which has been linked to progression of breast cancer. Here, five functional polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes SOD1, CAT and GSR were investigated in 703 breast cancer case-control pairs in the Danish, prospective “Diet, Cancer and Health” cohort together with gene-environment interactions between the polymorphisms, enzyme activities and intake of fruits and vegetables, alcohol and smoking in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results showed that genetically determined variations in the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD1, CAT and GSR were not associated with risk of breast cancer per se. However, intake of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and smoking status interacted with some of the polymorphisms in relation to breast cancer risk. Four polymorphisms were strongly associated with enzyme activity, but there was no interaction between any of the studied environmental factors and the polymorphisms in relation to enzyme activity. Additionally, single measurement of enzyme activity at entry to the cohort was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Our results therefore suggest that the antioxidant enzyme activities studied here are not major determinants of breast cancer risk. PMID:28968965

  16. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Nina N; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne; Lassen, Anne D

    2016-12-01

    To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public kitchens before and after kitchen employees participated in conversion projects. Public kitchens participating in the nine organic food conversion projects under the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, initiated during autumn 2012 and spring 2013 and completed in summer 2015. A total of 622 public kitchens. The average (median) increase in organic food percentage from baseline to follow-up was 24 percentage points (P<0·001) during an overall median follow-up period of 1·5 years. When analysing data according to public kitchen type, the increase remained significant for seven out of eight kitchens. Furthermore, the proportion of public kitchens eligible for the Organic Cuisine Label in either silver (60-90 % organic food procurement) or gold (90-100 % organic food procurement) level doubled from 31 % to 62 %, respectively, during the conversion period. Conversion project curriculum mostly included elements of 'theory', 'menu planning', 'network' and 'Organic Cuisine Label method' to ensure successful implementation. The study reports significant increases in the level of organic food procurement among public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Recommendations for future organic conversion projects include adding key curriculum components to the project's educational content and measuring changes in organic food percentage to increase the chances of successful implementation.

  17. Danish guidelines on management of otitis media in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, C H; Lous, J; Berg, J; Christensen, J J; Håkonsen, S J; Jakobsen, M; Johansen, C J; Nielsen, L H; Hansen, M P; Poulsen, A; Schousboe, L P; Skrubbeltrang, C; Vind, A B; Homøe, P

    2016-08-01

    Otitis media is one of the most common diseases in small children. This underlines the importance of optimizing diagnostics and treatment of the condition. Recent literature points toward a stricter approach to diagnosing acute otitis media (AOM). Moreover, ventilating tube treatment for recurrent AOM (RAOM) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) has become the most frequently performed surgical procedure in pre-school children. Therefore, the Danish Health and Medicines Authority and the Danish Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery deemed it necessary to update the Danish guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media and surgical treatment of RAOM and COME. The GRADE system (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was used in order to comply with current standards of evidence assessment in formulation of recommendations. An extensive literature search was conducted between July and December 2014. The quality of the existing literature was assessed using AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation), AMSTAR (assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews), QUADAS-2 (Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies), Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for randomized trials and ACROBAT-NRSI (A Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies). The working group consisted of otolaryngologists, general practitioners, pediatricians, microbiologists and epidemiologists. Recommendations for AOM diagnosis, surgical management for RAOM and COME, including the role of adenoidectomy and treatment of ventilating tube otorrhea, are proposed in the guideline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatitis A among Danish travellers 1980-2007.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Ulla Schierup; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Howitz, Michael; Petersen, Eskild

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a descriptive study on hepatitis A among Danish travellers in the period 1980-2007 based on data from a large survey among 26,640 Danes regarding travel habits, as well as national surveillance and population data. There are five messages to be read from the results: (1) The incidence of hepatitis A is declining at most destinations worldwide. (2) Reported incidence rates tend to overestimate the risk for the average tourist because they include immigrants visiting friends and family in the country of origin. (3) The immunization strategy in Denmark (leaving it up to the individual traveller to seek advice and pay for the immunization) seems to work well for most Danish travellers as 75% travelled immune. (4) Danes travel very frequently to hepatitis A endemic areas and will spend on average 6 months in endemic areas from the age of 18 till 79. (5) 80% of all incident cases 2002-2006 were immigrants or children of immigrants. The immunization strategy is not effective in this group. In conclusion, the risk of acquiring hepatitis A abroad is low for the average ethnic Danish tourist, while it is high in immigrants and their children. Thus, special focus on this group of travellers is warranted.

  19. Dan Field - Danish North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, L.N.

    1991-03-01

    The Dan field is a simple, salt-induced structural dome with the bulk of oil and gas trapped in low permeability chalk of Upper Cretaceous and Lower Paleocene age. Oil in place is in excess of 2 Bbbl. Matrix permeabilities are generally less than 3 md. Permeability enhancement from natural fracturing as d toit is known from other chalk fields in the North Sea appears to be limited. The lack of natural fracturing gave rise to rapid production decline in the wells drilled during the 1970s and early 1980s. Significant effort was continuously directed towards overcoming the lack of natural fracturing.more » In 1987, the first horizontal well was drilled in the Dan field. This was to be the industry's first hydraulically fractured well. Since then, seven more horizontal wells with massive propped hydraulic fractures have been drilled in the field. The technique has more than doubled production per well, thereby proving to be viable for further development of the Dan field. Horizontal wells have recently successfully been placed in three other chalk fields in the Danish North Sea. The introduction of horizontal wells has required strong geological participation in the well planning phase. In particular, determination of the orientation of the in-situ stress has been the subject of extensive investigation. In the drilling phase, geological involvement has led to optimization of certain geological techniques, such as high-resolution biostratigraphy that is required to ensure correct stratigraphic placement of the individual well.« less

  20. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System.

    PubMed

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K; Baranoski, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System into Danish, using the forward-back translation method described by the principles of good practice for the translation process for patient-reported outcomes. In Phase 2, the Danish group sought to replicate the ISTAP validation study and validate the classification system with registered nurses (RN) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists. The ISTAP classification system was validated by 241 RNs, and 29 non-RN. The results indicated a moderate level of agreement on classification of skin tears by type (Fleiss' Kappa=0.460). A moderate level of agreement was demonstrated for both the RN group and the non-RN group (Fleiss' Kappa=0.464 and 0.443, respectively). The ISTAP Skin Tear Classification System was developed with the goal of establishing a global language for describing and documenting skin tears and to raise the health-care community's awareness of skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system supports the earlier ISTAP study and further validates the classification system. The Danish translation of the classification system is vital to the promotion of skin tears in both research and the clinical settings in Denmark.

  1. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database.

    PubMed

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients.

  2. Literary Analyses of the Danish, the Greenlandic, and the Turkish Stories Used in the "Folktale Project." Folktale: A Cross-Cultural, Interdisciplinary Study of the Experience of Literature. Paper 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay; And Others

    As part of the Folktale project, which explores similarities and dissimilarities in the response to literature from and in different cultures, advanced undergraduate students in classes on literary interpretation or literary history analyzed a Danish, a Greenlandic, and a Turkish folk tale. Two male and two female students in classes on literary…

  3. The Fairytale Project in a Context of Modern Criticism. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevgen, Cevza

    To put the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project, which is concerned with the dynamics of reader response to literature, into a theoretical framework, this paper first describes how modern aesthetics take an interdisciplinary approach and investigate--by cross cultural approaches and in human behavior terms--the phenomenon of art and…

  4. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  5. Why do Danish adolescents take up smoking?

    PubMed

    Holm, Klavs; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Hein

    2003-03-01

    For the first time a comprehensive international research-based smoking prevention programme addressing adolescents has been launched in Denmark. The ESFA cohort study started in 1997, and this article presents baseline findings. Factors that relate to the initiation of adolescent smoking are found among the concepts of attitude, social norms, social pressure and self-efficacy beliefs. Baseline findings from Danish adolescents (n = 1770) in secondary school (mean age 13.8 years). The cross-sectional baseline data show that the attitude-social influence-efficacy-model proves to be of value in highlighting the associations of adolescent smoking behaviour. Social self-efficacy, peer smoking behaviour and the intention to smoke proved to have the strongest associations with smoking. It is recommended that self-efficacy beliefs and the individual intentions to smoke should be included in the future in smoking prevention programmes in Denmark. Furthermore, a distinction between the roles of parents and peers should be emphasized when addressing the social environment of adolescents in health promotion.

  6. Neonatal levels of adiponectin, interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 are associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in childhood and adolescence: A nationwide Danish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Pipper, Christian B; Eising, Stefanie; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Svensson, Jannet; Pociot, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of the early phase of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis is important for targeting primary prevention. We examined if 14 preselected mediators of immune responses differed in neonates that later developed T1D compared to control neonates. The study is a case-control study with a 1:2 matching. The individuals were born between 1981 through 2002. Cases were validated using the National Patient Register and the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register. Interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, transforming growth factor beta 1 (active form), leptin, adiponectin, c-reactive protein, mannose-binding lectin and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 were measured by using a flowmetric Luminex xMAP® technology. We tested two models both including a number of possible confounders. In the first model (model 1) we also adjusted for HLA-DQB1 genotype. A total of 1930 groups of assay-matched cases and controls (4746 individuals) were included in the statistical analyses. Adiponectin was negatively associated with later risk of T1D in both models (relative change (RC), model 1: 0.95, P=0.046 and model 2: 0.95, P=0.006). IL-10 and IL-12 were both positively associated with T1D risk in the model 2 (RC, 1.19, P=0.006 and 1.07, P=0.02, respectively)-these results were borderline significant in model 1, but showed the same direction as the results from model 2. Our results indicate that specific immunological signatures are already present at time of birth in children developing T1D before the age of 18years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brokner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-10-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats and haylage early or late cut. Fibre was analysed as crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dietary fibre (DF = non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) plus lignin). In haylage all analysed fibre fractions increased with advancing stage of maturity, with the cell wall components cellulose, non-cellulosic residue, xylose and lignin causing this increase. Crude protein (CP) and sugars decreased with advancing stage of maturity. Feeding early cut haylage resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05) higher ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), energy, NDF, total NSP, DF and CP compared to feeding late cut haylage. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) higher ATTD of CF, DF and starch in ICE than in DW. Diet affected several faecal parameters with a significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH in faeces when horses were fed the early cut haylage. Concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in faeces from horses fed early cut haylage, reflecting the higher fermentability (higher ATTD) of this diet. There was no marked effect of breed on faecal parameters. The DF analysis method gave the most appropriate differentiation of the fibre fractions and their digestibility, compared to the traditional CF, ADF and NDF analyses. A major advantage of the DF analysis is the capacity of recovering soluble fibres. The results suggested that ICE had higher ATTD of DF than DW, and this was caused by a tendency for a higher ATTD of cellulose, but further studies are required to verify that in general.

  8. Using mixed methods to assess how cancer patients' needs in relation to their relatives are met in the Danish health care system: a report from the population-based study "The Cancer Patient's World".

    PubMed

    Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit; Lundstrøm, Louise Hyldborg; Lund, Line; Groenvold, Mogens

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this paper were to validate four items assessing how patients' needs regarding support to and from their relatives are met and to investigate patients' evaluation of this support. Items were validated by patient-observer agreement and cognitive interviews. Adequacy of support was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 1,490 Danish cancer patients; 147 of these also answered an open-ended question. All items performed well in the validation. Only 4 % reported lack of support from their relatives, whereas 9 and 11 % had lacked support from the health care professionals regarding how to tell the relatives about the disease and regarding the relatives in general, respectively. Although the patients' expectations are not unequivocal, a large proportion (35 %) reported that the health care professionals had shown little interest in how the relatives were doing. This was most pronounced for female patients and patients sampled in urban areas. Compared to older patients, younger patients lacked more support with respect to the relatives in general and regarding how to tell them about the disease. Divorced patients were less satisfied than married patients on all measures. While most patients felt well-supported by their relatives, the oldest, the divorced, and those without children may be a vulnerable group. Many patients reported that the health care staff showed insufficient interest in the well-being of the relatives. Thus, it may be beneficial for both the patient and the relatives if health care professionals acknowledge and support the relatives in fulfilling their important role as caregiver and companion.

  9. CEF is superior to CMF for tumours with TOP2A aberrations: A Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis on Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Study 89D

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdóttir, Katrín Á.; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Zahrieh, David; Gelber, Richard D.; Knoop, Ann; Bonetti, Marco; Mouridsen, Henning; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to examine TOP2A gene copy number changes as a means to identify groups of breast cancer patients with superior benefit from treatment with anthracyclines. Materials and methods Tumour tissue was retrospectively collected and successfully analysed for TOP2A in 773 of 980 Danish patients randomly assigned to receive intravenous CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) or CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil) in DBCG trial 89D. Subgroup analyses on this material published by Knoop et al [11] and updated by Nielsen et al [21], demonstrated that superiority of CEF over CMF is limited to patients with TOP2A aberrations, defined as patients whose tumours have TOP2A ratio below 0.8 or above 2.0. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) technique was applied to these data to explore the pattern of treatment effect relative to TOP2A and to compare that pattern to the ranges previously used to define “aberrations.” Results The pattern of treatment effect illustrated by the STEPP analysis confirmed that the superiority of CEF over CMF is indeed limited to patients whose tumours have high or low TOP2A ratios. The hypothesis of no treatment effect-covariate interaction was rejected (p=0.02). Furthermore, results indicated that the interval of TOP2A ratios hitherto denoted as “normal” could be narrower than previously assumed. Conclusion A more optimal separation of TOP2A subgroups could be obtained by altering cut-points currently used to define TOP2A amplified and TOP2A deleted tumours by narrowing the TOP2A normal interval, and consequently enlarging the population with TOP2A aberrated tumours. PMID:20464479

  10. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  11. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish horses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are able to infect horses. However, the extend to which Danish horses are infected and seroconvert due to these two bacteria is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum in Danish horses. Methods A total of 390 blood samples collected from all major regions of Denmark and with a geographical distribution corresponding to the density of the Danish horse population were analyzed. All samples were examined for the presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum by the use of the SNAP®4DX ® ELISA test. Results Overall, 29.0% of the horses were seropositive for B. burgdorferi sensu lato whereas 22.3% were seropositive for A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions Antibodies against B burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum are commonly found among Danish horses thus showing that Danish horses are frequently infected by these organisms. PMID:20082693

  12. Cultural Bases of Risk Behavior: Danish Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey; Balle-Jensen, Lene

    1993-01-01

    Risk behavior was investigated among 1,053 Danish adolescents aged 12-20. Behaviors included those related to driving, sex, and marijuana and other drug use. Found driving a car while intoxicated was rare even among oldest adolescents, though the majority reported riding a bicycle while intoxicated. Participation in risk behavior was analyzed in…

  13. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  14. Ethnic differences in leptin and adiponectin levels between Greenlandic Inuit and Danish children

    PubMed Central

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Sorensen, Kaspar; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels-Jacob; Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Helge, Jørn W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish and Inuit children. Methods In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years) had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005)] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI)] compared to both northern [2,076 (2,525–1,706)] (p<0.001) and southern (2,515 (3,137–2,016)) (p<0.001) living Inuit boys and higher in Danish girls [6,988 (8,353–5,847)] compared to southern living Inuit girls [4,910 (6,370–3,785)] (p=0.021) and tended to be higher compared to northern living Inuit girls [5,131 (6,444–4,085)] (p=0.052). Plasma adiponectin was higher for both Danish boys [22,359 (2,573–19,428)] [ng/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI)] and girls [26,609 (28,994–24,420)] compared to southern living Inuit boys [15,306 (18,406–12,728)] and girls [18,864 (22,640–15,717)] (both p<0.001), respectively. All differences remained after adjustment for body fat percentage (BF%), aerobic fitness, age and puberty. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively. These differences were eliminated after adjustment for BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. Conclusions In contrast to our hypothesis, plasma leptin was higher in Danish children despite a more healthy metabolic profile compared to Inuit children. As expected, plasma adiponectin was lowest in Inuit children with the most adverse metabolic profile. PMID:23940841

  15. Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry—Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies 6 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B.; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. Methods: During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. Results: The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m3 (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m3 (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to ‘increase’ dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (<20 employees). The following determinants of exposure were found to ‘decrease’ dust concentration: manual assembling/packing; sanding with adequate exhaust ventilation; adequate exhaust ventilation; vacuum cleaning of machines and special cleaning staff. Conclusions: Despite a substantial

  16. Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Individuals Diagnosed as Children with Atypical Autism: A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism/pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified…

  17. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones? A cross-sectional study among healthy young Danish men.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M L; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P; Olsen, J; Håkonsen, L B; Ramlau-Hansen, C H

    2012-11-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B) were determined. There was a tendency towards lower semen characteristics at higher intake of alcohol past 5 days, albeit with no statistically significant dose-response association. The ratio between free estradiol and free testosterone was higher at higher alcohol intake during the 5 days preceding semen sampling. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with impairment of most semen characteristics but without a coherent dose-response pattern. The study indicates an association between recent alcohol intake and a hormonal shift towards higher estradiol/testosterone ratio. The hormonal changes observed may over time, lead to adverse effects on semen quality, but longitudinal studies are needed to study this. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotic treatment failure when consulting patients with respiratory tract infections in general practice. A qualitative study to explore Danish general practitioners' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bordado Sköld, Margrethe; Aabenhus, Rune; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2017-12-01

    Prescribing antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is common in primary healthcare although most of these infections are of viral origin and antibiotics may not be helpful. Some of these prescriptions will not be associated with a quick recovery, and might be regarded as cases of antibiotic treatment failure (ATF). We studied antibiotic treatment failure in patients with acute RTIs from a general practitioner (GP) perspective, aiming to explore (i) GPs' views of ATF in primary care; (ii) how ATF influences the doctor-patient relationship; and (iii) GPs' understanding of patients' views of ATF. Qualitative study based on semi-structured, recorded interviews of 18 GPs between August and October 2012. The interviews started with discussion of a unique case of acute RTI involving ATF, followed by a more general reflection of the topic. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. In patients with acute RTIs, GPs proposed and agreed to a medical definition of antibiotic treatment failure but believed patients' views to differ significantly from this medical definition. GPs thought ATF affected their daily work only marginally. GPs used many communicative tools to maintain trust with patients in cases of ATF, but they did not consider such incidents to affect the doctor-patient relationship adversely. These findings suggest a possible communication gap between doctors and patients, partly due to a narrow medical definition of ATF. Studies describing patients' views are still missing. General practitioners' experiences and views on antibiotic treatment failure in acute respiratory infections or its effects on the doctor-patient relationship have not been studied previously.

  19. Residential distance to high-voltage power lines and risk of neurodegenerative diseases: a Danish population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Frei, Patrizia; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Mezei, Gabor; Pedersen, Camilla; Cronberg Salem, Lise; Johansen, Christoffer; Röösli, Martin; Schüz, Joachim

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between residential distance to high-voltage power lines and neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease. A Swiss study previously found increased risk of Alzheimer's disease for people living within 50 m of a power line. A register-based case-control study including all patients diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases during the years 1994-2010 was conducted among the entire adult population of Denmark. Using conditional logistic regression models, hazard ratios for ever living close to a power line in the time period 5-20 years before diagnosis were computed. The risks for developing dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and motor neuron disease were not increased in persons living within close vicinity of a power line. The risk of Alzheimer's disease was not increased for ever living within 50 m of a power line (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.69, 1.56). No dose-response according to number of years of living within 50 m of a power line was observed, but there were weak indications of an increased risk for persons diagnosed by the age of 75 years. Overall, there was little support for an association between neurodegenerative disease and living close to power lines.

  20. The influence of endometriosis-related symptoms on work life and work ability: a study of Danish endometriosis patients in employment.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karina E; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Baldursson, Einar B; Schultz, Rikke; Forman, Axel

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about the implications of endometriosis on women's work life. This study aimed at examining the relation between endometriosis-related symptoms and work ability in employed women with endometriosis. In a cohort study, 610 patients with diagnosed endometriosis and 751 reference women completed an electronic survey based on the Endometriosis Health Profile 30-questionnaire and the Work Ability Index (short form). Percentages were reported for all data. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess risk factors for low work ability. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.025 in all analyses. In binary analyses a diagnosis of endometriosis was associated with more sick days, work disturbances due to symptoms, lower work ability and a wide number of other implications on work life in employed women. Moreover, a higher pain level and degree of symptoms were associated with low work ability. Full regression analysis indicated that tiredness, frequent pain, a higher daily pain level, a higher number of sick days and feeling depressed at work were associated with low work ability. A long delay from symptom onset to diagnosis was associated with low work ability. These data indicate a severe impact of endometriosis on the work ability of employed women with endometriosis and add to the evidence that this disease represents a significant socio-economic burden. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. No association between HMOX1 and risk of colorectal cancer and no interaction with diet and lifestyle factors in a prospective Danish case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vibeke; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-07

    Red meat is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). We wanted to evaluate whether a functional polymorphism in the HMOX1 gene encoding heme oxygenase modifies risk of CRC or interacts with diet or lifestyle factors because this would identify heme or heme iron as a risk factor of CRC. The HMOX1 A-413T (rs2071746) was assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and interactions with diet (red meat, fish, fiber, cereals, fruit and vegetables) and lifestyle (use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and smoking status) were assessed in a case-cohort study of 928 CRC cases and a comparison group of 1726 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. No association between HMOX1 A-413T and CRC risk was found (TT vs. AA + TA; IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.98-1.36, p = 0.10 for the adjusted estimate). No interactions were found between diet or lifestyle and HMOX1 A-413T. HMOX1 A-413T was not associated with CRC risk and no interactions with diet or lifestyle were identified in this large, prospective cohort with high meat intake. The results reproduced the previous findings from the same cohort and did not support a link between heme or heme iron and colorectal cancer. These results should be sought and replicated in other well-characterized cohorts with high meat intake.

  2. No Association between HMOX1 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and No Interaction with Diet and Lifestyle Factors in a Prospective Danish Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Vibeke; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Red meat is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). We wanted to evaluate whether a functional polymorphism in the HMOX1 gene encoding heme oxygenase modifies risk of CRC or interacts with diet or lifestyle factors because this would identify heme or heme iron as a risk factor of CRC. The HMOX1 A-413T (rs2071746) was assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and interactions with diet (red meat, fish, fiber, cereals, fruit and vegetables) and lifestyle (use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and smoking status) were assessed in a case-cohort study of 928 CRC cases and a comparison group of 1726 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. No association between HMOX1 A-413T and CRC risk was found (TT vs. AA + TA; IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.98–1.36, p = 0.10 for the adjusted estimate). No interactions were found between diet or lifestyle and HMOX1 A-413T. HMOX1 A-413T was not associated with CRC risk and no interactions with diet or lifestyle were identified in this large, prospective cohort with high meat intake. The results reproduced the previous findings from the same cohort and did not support a link between heme or heme iron and colorectal cancer. These results should be sought and replicated in other well-characterized cohorts with high meat intake. PMID:25574604

  3. Grip strength and lower limb extension power in 19–72-year-old Danish men and women: the Health2006 study

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Nina; Linneberg, Allan; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess muscular fitness by hand grip strength (HGS) and lower limb extension power (LEP) and to explore associations with age, leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and body composition. Study population A population-based sample of 19–72-year-old men and women were invited to participate in the health survey 'Health2006'. The response rate was 43.8% (N=3471), 55% were women, and the mean age was 49±13 years. Methods Height, weight, waist circumference, HGS and LEP were measured and participants answered a self-administered questionnaire. LEP was measured in a subsample of subjects (n=438). Gender-stratified multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Data were adjusted for age, height and waist circumference. Results A large inter-individual variation was found in HGS and LEP. Both measures declined with age and were highly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.0001). LTPA was positively associated with HGS in men (p=0.0002) and women (p<0.0001) in the total sample, but in the subsample was significant in men only (p=0.004); the association between LTPA and LEP was significant in women only (p=0.02). Conclusion In this large population-based study sample, muscular fitness declined with age and LTPA was associated with HGS in both genders. The findings emphasise the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle at any age. PMID:22021882

  4. The Danish Organic Action Plan 2020: assessment method and baseline status of organic procurement in public kitchens.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Nina N; Lassen, Anne D; Løje, Hanne; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-01

    With political support from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, organic public procurement in Denmark is expected to increase. In order to evaluate changes in organic food procurement in Danish public kitchens, reliable methods are needed. The present study aimed to compare organic food procurement measurements by two methods and to collect and discuss baseline organic food procurement measurements from public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Comparison study measuring organic food procurement by applying two different methods, one based on the use of procurement invoices (the Organic Cuisine Label method) and the other on self-reported procurement (the Dogme method). Baseline organic food procurement status was based on organic food procurement measurements and background information from public kitchens. Public kitchens participating in the six organic food conversion projects funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 during 2012 and 2013. Twenty-six public kitchens (comparison study) and 345 public kitchens (baseline organic food procurement status). A high significant correlation coefficient was found between the two organic food procurement measurement methods (r=0·83, P<0·001) with measurements relevant for the baseline status. Mean baseline organic food procurement was found to be 24 % when including measurements from both methods. The results indicate that organic food procurement measurements by both methods were valid for the baseline status report of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Baseline results in Danish public kitchens suggest there is room for more organic as well as sustainable public procurement in Denmark.

  5. Nutrient deficiency and obstetrical outcomes in pregnant women following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A retrospective Danish cohort study with a matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hammeken, Lianna Hede; Betsagoo, Ramsina; Jensen, Ann Nygaard; Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2017-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and small-for-gestational-age births are known to be associated although the etiology is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate pregnancy outcomes and maternal nutritional status among pregnant women with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using maternal anemia and gestational weight gain as indicators of micronutrient and macronutrient deficiency in pregnancy. The study was designed as a retrospective matched cohort study. All Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated pregnant women (n=151) who were followed in the outpatient obstetric clinic at Aalborg University Hospital in Denmark and gave birth between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 were included. Each Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated woman was closely matched with a non-Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated woman. Primary outcomes were small-for-gestational-age birth, maternal anemia and gestational weight gain. The two groups (matched 1:1) were compared by paired tests on all measures, conditional logistic regression for paired binary data and the paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired continuous data. The risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (odds ratio (OR)=2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.04-6.82) and maternal anemia (OR=3.0, 95% CI; 1.09-8.25) were significantly increased for the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group compared to the non-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group. No significant difference was found in gestational weight gain (p=0.169) between women with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (11.51kg±8.97 standard deviation (SD)) and non- Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated women (12.18kg±6.28 SD). A history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery increases the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and anemia, while a finding of differences in gestational weight gain is uncorroborated. Our findings suggest a role of micronutrient deficiency rather than reduced gestational weight gain in the etiology of small-for-gestational-age birth among

  6. How can we strengthen students' social relations in order to reduce school dropout? An intervention development study within four Danish vocational schools.

    PubMed

    Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan; Zinckernagel, Line; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Stock, Christiane; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2015-05-22

    This article describes the rationale and contents of an intervention program aimed at strengthening students' social relations in order to reduce dropout from vocational schools in Denmark. Taking its theoretical cue from the concept of 'social participation', a qualitative study was performed to investigate the specific relationships between the social environment within the schools and the institutional structures in order to analyse reasons for school dropout and their relation to well-being, cigarette smoking and substance use. The development study was based on ethnographic methods, including 22 qualitative interviews with students 17-19 years old and fieldwork with participant observations at four vocational schools over 40 days, including informal interviews and discussion meetings with managers, teachers, counselors and students. As part of the fieldwork, four additional qualitative interviews and four group interviews were conducted with students 16-25 years old. The qualitative data collection resulted in seven major themes to be addressed in the intervention: social relations, sole focus on professional skills, institutionalized individualization, importance of the introduction period, physical surroundings and schedules, tobacco and cannabis use and communication about drug use. The program addressing these themes incorporates suggestions that are meant to improve how teachers welcome new students, to enable greater integration of social and educational activities and to enhance the capacity of teachers and counselors to deal with drug use problems among students. The development of new intervention programs might benefit from adopting a theoretical and methodological perspective that enables a closer exploration of the everyday social practices in which interventions are embedded. Thus, we aimed to create a comprehensive intervention that worked through organizational changes in everyday school practices. Intervention programs must be planned in

  7. Somatic Symptoms: Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health - A Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F; Poulsen, Chalotte H; Lau, Cathrine J; Skovbjerg, Sine; Fink, Per K; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94.9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate or not statistically associated with the health status outcomes. Opposite, almost all the symptoms were strongly associated with the two outcomes when not accounting for symptom co-occurrence. In conclusion, we found that somatic symptoms were frequent and associated in a complex structure. The associations between symptoms and health status measures differed between the symptoms and depended on the co-occurrence of symptoms. This indicates an importance of considering both the specific

  8. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system: results from a 5-year follow-up cohort study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra; Ziebe, Søren; Mikkelsen Englund, Anne L; Hald, Finn; Boivin, Jacky; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Seven hundred and thirty-nine couples having no child at study entry and with data on kind of treatment and live birth (yes/no) for each treatment attempt at the specialized public fertility clinic. Treatment data for medically assisted reproduction attempts conducted at the public fertility clinics were abstracted from medical records. Flow diagrams were drawn for different standard treatment cycles and direct costs at each stage in the flow charts were measured and valued by a bottom-up procedure. Indirect costs were distributed to each treatment cycle on the basis of number of visits as basis. Costs were adjusted to 2012 prices using a constructed medical price index. Live birth, costs. Total costs per live birth in 2012 prices were estimated to 10,755€. Costs per treated couple - irrespective of whether the treatment was terminated by a live birth or not - were estimated at 6607€. Costs per live birth of women <35 years at treatment initiation were 9338€ and 15,040€ for women ≥35 years. The public costs for live births after conception with medically assisted reproduction treatment are relatively modest. The results can be generalized to public fertility treatment in Denmark and to other public treatment settings with similar limitations in numbers of public treatment cycles offered. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Vaccinations against smallpox and tuberculosis are associated with better long-term survival: a Danish case-cohort study 1971-2010.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Sørup, Signe; Haugaard, Line Klingen; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2017-04-01

    When vaccinations with vaccinia against smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against tuberculosis were phased out in some high-income countries around 1980, the impact on overall mortality was not examined. Recent studies from low-income countries have suggested that these vaccines are associated with mortality reductions, not explained by specific disease protection. We examined whether vaccinia and BCG administered in childhood were associated with long-term mortality reductions in a high-income population. In this case-cohort study, we followed 47 622 schoolchildren from Copenhagen, Denmark, born 1965 to 1976, from their first health examination to 2010. This cohort experienced the phase-out of vaccinia and BCG vaccination programmes. A sub-cohort of 5 316 individuals (699 excluded) was followed for 164 450 person-years (0.2% were lost to follow-up), and 401 deaths due to natural causes (841 deaths in total) occurred in the full cohort. Compared with individuals who had not received vaccinia or BCG, those who had received both vaccinia and BCG had an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.81] for mortality due to natural causes of death; those who only received BCG had an aHR of 0.58 (95% CI: 0.39-0.85). Vaccinia and BCG were not associated with any protection against deaths by accidents, suicide or murder, the combined aHR being 0.94 (95% CI: 0.62-1.42). Vaccinia and BCG vaccinations were associated with better long-term survival, which was not explained by specific protection. Vaccines with beneficial non-specific effects may reduce overall mortality even after the target diseases are eradicated.

  10. Severe maternal stress exposure due to bereavement before, during and after pregnancy and risk of overweight and obesity in young adult men: a Danish National Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06) was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively). Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31). There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.

  11. What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay; Glümer, Charlotte; Juel, Knud

    2015-09-01

    Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and different types of non-respondents to estimate alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity among non-respondents. Prospective follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in two cross-sectional health surveys. Denmark. A total sample of 39 540 Danish citizens aged 16 years or older. Register-based information on cause-specific mortality and morbidity at the individual level was obtained for respondents (n = 28 072) and different types of non-respondents (refusals n = 8954; illness/disabled n = 731, uncontactable n = 1593). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences in alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity, respectively, in a 12-year follow-up period. Overall, non-response was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) of 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-1.78] for alcohol-related morbidity, 1.88 (95% CI = 1.38-2.57) for alcohol-related mortality, 1.55 (95% CI = 1.27-1.88) for drug-related morbidity, 3.04 (95% CI = 1.57-5.89) for drug-related mortality and 1.15 (95% CI = 1.03-1.29) for smoking-related morbidity. The hazard ratio for smoking-related mortality also tended to be higher among non-respondents compared with respondents, although no significant association was evident (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.95-1.36). Uncontactable and ill/disabled non-respondents generally had a higher hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with refusal non-respondents. Health survey non-respondents in Denmark have an increased hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with

  12. Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vibeke; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2012-05-17

    More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872) and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624:88). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. No associations were found between the IL10 rs3024505 polymorphism and risk of CRC. There was interaction between rs3024505 and dietary fibre (P-value for interaction = 0.01). IL10 rs3024505 homozygous wildtype carriers were at 27% reduced risk of CRC per 10 g fibre per day (95% CI: 0.60-0.88) whereas variant carriers had no risk reduction by fibre intake. Also, interaction between IL10 C-592A and intake of fibre was found (P-value for interaction = 0.02). Among those eating <17.0 grams of fibre per day, carriers of an C-592A variant allele had a statistically significantly higher risk of colorectal cancer compared to homozygous wildtypes. No significant differences in colorectal cancer risk were observed between the reference group (CC and <17.0 g/day) and carriers of one C-592A variant allele eating 17.0 or more grams of dietary fibre per day. This suggests that the increased risk due to carrying the variant allele can be overcome by higher fibre intake. No interactions between IL10 polymorphisms and dietary meat, cereal, or fish intake, or

  13. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Werner, Louise B; Hellgren, Lars I; Raff, Marianne; Jensen, Søren K; Petersen, Rikke A; Drachmann, Tue; Tholstrup, Tine

    2013-07-10

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589.

  14. Adult cognitive ability and educational level in relation to concussions in childhood and adolescence: a population study of young men.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Frøsig, Anna J; Engberg, Aase W

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of concussion(s) suffered through childhood and adolescence with completed level of school education and cognitive ability in young adulthood. Educational level and scores on a test of cognitive ability were obtained for a cohort of 130,298 young men processed by the Danish draft board. Of these, 6146 had, at some age from birth onwards, been briefly admitted to hospital with a main discharge diagnosis of concussion. A further 402 had two such concussions and 48 had three or more. Educational level and cognitive ability test scores were negatively associated with the number of concussions and the age at concussion(s). Most markedly, compared to the 123,684 non-concussed men, those with two or more concussions had lower educational levels (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.89), as also did those sustaining one concussion between the age of 13 up to the time of testing (OR = 0.47: 0.42-0.52). Since concussions do not generally have long-term effects, the results suggest that lower educational level is primarily a risk factor for sustaining a concussion at all ages, but in particular in adolescence more than in childhood and in the case of multiple concussions. It should, however, be recognized that, in some proportion of cases, the educational deficits have probably arisen as a consequence of the persistent symptoms of a lengthy post-concussional syndrome.

  15. Thirty-year trends in heart failure hospitalization and mortality rates and the prognostic impact of co-morbidity: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Ulrichsen, Sinna Pilgaard; Pedersen, Lars; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    We examined 30-year nationwide trends in heart failure hospitalization and mortality rates, and the prognostic impact of co-morbidity. We conducted a population-based cohort study of 317 161 patients with first-time inpatient hospitalizations for heart failure during 1983-2012. We computed the standardized hospitalization rate and 5-year mortality risk. Co-morbidity levels and calendar periods of diagnosis were compared by means of mortality rate ratios (MRRs) based on Cox regression. The standardized hospitalization rate (per 100 000 persons) decreased between 1983 and 2012 by 25% for women (from 192 to 144) and by 14% for men (from 217 to 186). The decrease reflected an average annual 1% increase until 2000 and a 3.5% decline thereafter. Between 1983-1987 and 2008-2012, 1-year mortality declined from 45% to 33% and 1- to 5-year mortality from 59% to 43%. The decline occurred independently of patients' co-morbidity levels. Comparing 2008-2012 with 1983-1987, the 5-year age-, sex-, and co-morbidity-adjusted MRR was 0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.58]. Using low co-morbidity as reference, the adjusted 5-year MRR in 2003-2007 was increased by 43% for moderate, 66% for severe, and 2.2-fold for very severe co-morbidity. The magnitude of co-morbidity-associated mortality increased over time and was highest in the youngest patients. Hospitalization rates for heart failure have declined markedly since 2000 in Denmark. One- and five-year mortality declined >40% over the last three decades. The decline in mortality occurred for patients with all levels of co-morbidity, but co-morbidity burden was a strong prognostic factor. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Trends in contact allergy to fragrance mix I in consecutive Danish patients with eczema from 1986 to 2015: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bennike, N H; Zachariae, C; Johansen, J D

    2017-04-01

    For more than 30 years, fragrance mix I (FMI) has been the most important screening marker for fragrance contact allergy. Meanwhile, governmental and corporate initiatives have been implemented, aimed at reducing sensitization to fragrance allergens, including the single constituents of FMI. To examine trends in contact allergy to FMI from 1986 to 2015 in patients with dermatitis, and to test the hypothesis that sensitization to the fragrance screening marker has decreased within recent years. This was a cross-sectional registry study on patch test results to FMI among consecutively tested patients with dermatitis from a single university clinic across three 10-year periods. From 2006 to 2015, data on eczema location according to the MOAHLFA index (male; occupation; atopic dermatitis; hand; leg; face; age ≥ 40 years), clinical relevance of sensitization, and cosmetic exposures were available. Of 24 168 patients, 7·8% (95% confidence interval 7·4-8·1) were sensitized to FMI. For women, a significant trend (P = 0·004) was observed for an increase in sensitization to FMI across the three decades. From 2011 to 2015, the prevalence of contact allergy to FMI increased significantly for women (8·0% vs. 10·4%, P = 0·002) and men (4·4% vs. 7·3%, P = 0·002) compared with the previous 5-year period. From 2006 to 2015, clinical relevance was established in 78·2% of FMI-positive patients with no differences over time. An increase (28·6% vs. 36·1%, P = 0·05) in FMI-positive patients suffering from facial dermatitis was observed for the period 2011 to 2015 compared with 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of contact allergy to FMI has been increasing in recent years. There was no demonstrable effect of previous preventive initiatives. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Associations and predictions of readmission or death in acutely admitted older medical patients using self-reported frailty and functional measures. A Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jane; Aadahl, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Eriksen, Helle Højmark; Lund, Hans; Overvad, Kim

    2018-02-13

    To assess whether frailty in acutely admitted older medical patients, assessed by a self-report questionnaire and evaluation of functional level at discharge, was associated with readmission or death within 6 months after discharge. A second objective was to assess the predictive performance of models including frailty, functional level, and known risk factors. A cohort study including acutely admitted older patients 65+ from seven medical and two acute medical units. The Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG), and grip strength (GS) exposure variables were measured. Associations were assessed using Cox regression with first unplanned readmission or death (all-causes) as the outcome. Prediction models including the three exposure variables and known risk factors were modelled using logistic regression and C-statistics. Of 1328 included patients, 50% were readmitted or died within 6 months. When adjusted for gender and age, there was an 88% higher risk of readmission or death if the TFI scores were 8-13 points compared to 0-1 points (HR 1.88, CI 1.38;2.58). Likewise, higher TUG and lower GS scores were associated with higher risk of readmission or death. The area under the curve for the prediction models ranged from 0.64 (0.60;0.68) to 0.72 (0.68;0.76). In acutely admitted older medical patients, higher frailty assessed by TFI, TUG, and GS was associated with a higher risk of readmission or death within 6 months after discharge. The performance of the prediction models was mediocre, and the models cannot stand alone as risk stratification tools in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Faurschou, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-05-01

    . To assess the role of LN as a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in patients with SLE. . The study was conducted using individual-level data from multiple nationwide registers. We identified a cohort of patients diagnosed with SLE and further determined if they had a diagnosis of LN during 1995-2011. Each SLE patient was matched with five population controls. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated to measure the risk of MI, stroke and CVM in SLE patients relative to population controls and in SLE patients with relative to without LN. . We identified 1644 SLE patients with incident SLE; 233 of these patients had a diagnosis of incident LN during follow-up. The number of events in the SLE cohort was: 42 (MI), 74 (stroke) and 56 (CVM). For MI, the HR was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.4) in SLE without LN and 18.3 (95% CI: 5.1, 65) in SLE with LN. The HR for LN was 8.5 (95% CI: 2.2, 33; P = 0.002). For stroke, HRs were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.9) and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.9, 8.7) in SLE without and with LN, respectively, and we found no significant association with LN (P = 0.115). For CVM, the respective HRs were 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) and 7.8 (95% CI: 3.0, 20). The corresponding HR for LN was 4.9 (95% CI: 1.8, 13.7; P = 0.002). . The risk of MI and CVM, but not of stroke, is significantly higher in SLE patients with LN than SLE patients without LN.

  19. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. Results No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Conclusions Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589 PMID:23842081

  20. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-12-01

    Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP data from 4,771 twins was merged with their parents' social and economic data, available from Statistics Denmark. Low back pain data ['any low back pain' and 'persistent low back pain (more than 30 days)'] were collected in 1994, when the subjects were 12-18 years of age, and collected again eight years later. Socioeconomic data of the parents (education, income, social class and long-term illness, all for both mother and father) were collected in 1994. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between each parameter of parental SES in adolescence and LBP at baseline as well as at follow-up. Finally, the influence of a variable combining the different socioeconomic parameters was established. All estimates were controlled for smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index at baseline. In the logistic regression models, only three of the 32 estimates were statistically significant. When merging the socioeconomic variables into a combined score, the results indicated that a good social background had a protective effect against the persistent LBP, while there was no association with any LBP. However, the statistical significance of this effect was unclear. We found no or very weak indications of possible relationships between social factors in adolescence and LBP at baseline and at follow-up.

  1. Treatment efficiency of a wet detention pond combined with filters of crushed concrete and sand: a Danish full-scale study of stormwater.

    PubMed

    Sønderup, Melanie J; Egemose, Sara; Bochdam, Timm; Flindt, Mogens R

    2015-12-01

    Traditional wet detention ponds and sand filters remove particles efficiently, whereas only a minor part of the dissolved and bioavailable load is removed. To improve the retention of dissolved substances, we tested crushed concrete as a filter material simultaneously with a traditional sand filter placed after an existing wet pond. The particulate fractions (particles, organic matter, phosphorus, and heavy metals) were removed efficiently in the pond and both filter materials, with the concrete filter often being best seen over a year. Dissolved heavy metals (lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd)) were largely retained, though a washout was observed from the pond (Ni and Cu), concrete filter (Cr), and sand filter (Ni) during the first month. The pond only retained total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) during summer. Crushed concrete and sand had a high (>70%) retention of TDP within the first months of operation, but the retention dropped in both filters due to a large oil load into the system (4 kg impermeable ha(-1) in 1 month). The poor retention might to some degree be due to mineralization processes turning particulate phosphorus (PP) into TDP. The massive oil load was retained efficiently (99.3%) in the pond and both filters, clearly illustrating that both filter materials were able to retain either oil or TDP. An additional pilot study showed that at residence times of 1 h, crushed concrete bound 90% TDP whereas sand only bound 22% TDP. Retention of TDP and PP decreased with shorter residence time in both materials, but fastest in sand.

  2. A SWOT analysis of the organization and financing of the Danish health care system.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Terkel

    2002-02-01

    The organization and financing of the Danish health care system was evaluated within a framework of a SWOT analysis (analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) by a panel of five members with a background in health economics. The present paper describes the methods and materials used for the evaluation: selection of panel members, structure of the evaluation task according to the health care triangle model, selection of background material consisting of documents and literature on the Danish health care system, and a 1-week study visit.

  3. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life? Analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of Danish men

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are ‘metabolically healthy, but obese’ (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, ‘metabolically at risk, normal weight’ (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early-onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. Setting General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. Participants From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between 1943 and 1977, all obese men (BMI ≥31 kg/m2, N=1930) were identified along with a random 1% sample of the others (N=3601). Our analysis includes 2392 of these men attending a research clinic in mid-life (mean age 42). For 613 of these men, data on childhood BMI are available. We summarised childhood BMI growth (7–13 years) using a multilevel model. Early-onset obesity was defined as obesity at examination for national service. Outcome measurement We defined metabolic health at the mid-life clinic as non-fasting serum cholesterol <6.6 mmol/L, non-fasting glucose <8.39 mmol/L and pulse pressure <48 mm Hg. Participants were categorised into four groups according to their obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and metabolic health in mid-life. Results 297 of 1097 (27.1%) of obese men were metabolically healthy; 826 of 1295 (63.8%) non-obese men had at least one metabolic abnormality. There was no evidence that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). Conclusions We found no robust evidence that early-onset obesity or rapid BMI growth in childhood is protective for cardiometabolic health. PMID:24736038

  4. Integrated mental health care and vocational rehabilitation to improve return to work rates for people on sick leave because of depression and anxiety (the Danish IBBIS trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Rie; Hoff, Andreas; Fisker, Jonas; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2017-12-02

    Depression and anxiety are among the largest contributors to the global burden of disease and have negative effects on both the individual and society. Depression and anxiety are very likely to influence the individual's work ability, and up to 40% of the people on sick leave in Denmark have depression and/or anxiety. There is no clear evidence that treatment alone will provide sufficient support for vocational recovery in this group. Integrated vocational and health care services have shown good effects on return to work in other, similar welfare contexts. The purpose of the IBBIS (Integrated Mental Health Care and Vocational Rehabilitation to Individuals on Sick Leave Due to Anxiety and Depression) interventions is to improve and hasten the process of return to employment for people in Denmark on sick leave because of depression and anxiety. This three-arm, parallel-group, randomized superiority trial has been set up to investigate the effectiveness of the IBBIS mental health care intervention and the integrated IBBIS mental health care and IBBIS vocational rehabilitation intervention for people on sick leave because of depression and/or anxiety in Denmark. The trial has an investigator-initiated multicenter design. A total of 603 patients will be recruited from Danish job centers in 4 municipalities and randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: (1) IBBIS mental health care integrated with IBBIS vocational rehabilitation, (2) IBBIS mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation, and (3) standard mental health care and standard vocational rehabilitation. The primary outcome is register-based return to work at 12 months. The secondary outcome measures are self-assessed level of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), stress symptoms (Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire), work and social functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), and register-based recurrent sickness absence. This study will provide new knowledge

  5. Benefit of Clopidogrel Therapy in Patients With Myocardial Infarction and Chronic Kidney Disease—A Danish Nation‐Wide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Blicher, Thalia Marie; Hommel, Kristine; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Torp‐Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette; Kamper, Anne‐Lise; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate clopidogrel treatment after incident myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods and Results By linking nation‐wide registries, information about patients admitted with incident MI was found. Primary endpoints were all‐cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, a composite of all‐cause mortality and recurrent MI, and a composite of fatal and nonfatal bleedings. Effect of clopidogrel use versus clopidogrel nonuse was estimated using an adjusted Cox's regression model stratified according to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treatment. A total of 69 082 incident MI patients in the period 2002–2011 were included. Clopidogrel treatment was associated with hazard ratios (HRs) for the combined endpoint of all‐cause mortality and recurrent MI in PCI‐treated patients of 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 1.72) in renal replacement therapy (RRT) patients, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.88) in non‐end‐stage CKD patients and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.61 to 0.77) in patients without kidney disease (P for interaction=0.60). In patients not treated with PCI, HRs were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.68 to 1.21) in RRT patients, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99) in non‐end‐stage CKD patients, and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.87 to 0.95) in patients without kidney disease (P for interaction=0.74). An increase in bleeding events (not significant) was noted for clopidogrel‐treated patients not undergoing PCI and for non‐end‐stage CKD patients undergoing PCI, whereas clopidogrel was associated with less bleedings in PCI‐treated RRT patients and patients without kidney disease. Conclusions During a 1‐year follow‐up, after MI, clopidogrel was associated with improved outcomes in patients with non‐end‐stage CKD. Even though no effect difference, compared to patients without CKD, was observed, the benefit associated with the use of clopidogrel after MI in patients requiring RRT is less

  6. The effect of community-acquired bacteraemia on return to workforce, risk of sick leave, permanent disability pension and death: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; Koch, Kristoffer; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-01-29

    Little is known about the prognosis of community-acquired bacteraemia (CAB) in workforce adults. We assessed return to workforce, risk for sick leave, disability pension and mortality within 1 year after CAB in workforce adults compared with blood culture-negative controls and population controls. Population-based cohort study. North Denmark, 1996-2011. We used population-based healthcare registries to identify all patients aged 20-58 years who had first-time blood cultures obtained within 48 h of medical hospital admission, and who were part of the workforce (450 bacteraemia exposed patients and 6936 culture-negative control patients). For each bacteraemia patient, we included up to 10 matched population controls. Return to workforce, risk of sick leave, permanent disability pension and mortality within 1 year after bacteraemia. Regression analyses were used to compute adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs. One year after admission, 78% of patients with CAB, 85.7% of culture-negative controls and 96.8% of population controls were alive and in the workforce, and free from sick leave or disability pension. Compared with culture-negative controls, bacteraemia was associated with an increased risk for long-term sick leave (4-week duration, 40.2% vs 23.9%, adjusted RR, 1.51; CI 1.34 to 1.70) and an increased risk for mortality (30-day mortality, 4% vs 1.4%, adjusted RR, 2.34, CI 1.22 to 4.50; 1-year mortality, 8% vs 3.9%, adjusted RR, 1.73; CI 1.18 to 2.55). Bacteraemia patients had a risk for disability pension similar to culture-negative controls (2.7% vs 2.6%, adjusted RR, 0.99, CI 0.48 to 2.02) but greater than population controls (adjusted RR, 5.20; 95% CI 2.16 to 12.50). CAB is associated with long duration of sick leave and considerable mortality in working-age adults when compared with blood culture-negative controls, and an increased 1-year risk for disability pension when compared with population controls.

  7. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular effects associated with the DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin compared with metformin, a retrospective cohort study on the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Scheller, N M; Mogensen, U M; Andersson, C; Vaag, A; Torp-Pedersen, C

    2014-03-01

    We performed a retrospective cohort study, investigating the clinical outcomes including mortality and cardiovascular disease of sitagliptin compared with metformin monotherapies. All patients receiving monotherapy with the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-IV) inhibitor sitagliptin between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 were identified. All-cause mortality and a composite endpoint of stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and all-cause mortality associated with sitagliptin monotherapy were compared with metformin monotherapy. In addition, as an indicator of efficacy we analysed the hazard ratio of changing treatment. A total of 84 756 patients were included in the analysis, 1228 (1.4%) received sitagliptin monotherapy whereas the remaining 83 528 (98.6%) patients received metformin monotherapy. Patients using metformin were younger than patients using sitagliptin (59.0 ± 15.2 vs. 62.5 ± 13.1) were less often male (51.6 vs. 54.2%) and had longer treatment duration with monotherapy (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1 years). Compared with patients receiving metformin, patients using sitagliptin showed no statistically significant excess risks of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.71; p = 0.153] or the composite endpoint (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.92-1.61; p = 0.164). However, the use of sitagliptin monotherapy was associated with an increased likelihood of changing treatment (hazard ratio, 4.88; 95% CI, 4.46-5.35; p < 0.001). In a retrospective analysis, sitagliptin monotherapy compared with metformin monotherapy was not associated with any statistical significant increased risk of all-cause mortality or the composite endpoint, but was associated with an increased likelihood of changing glucose-lowering treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  9. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  10. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Lise H; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering/capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures.

  11. The Danish National Quality Database for Births.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered.

  12. A Lexical Comparison of Signs from Icelandic and Danish Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldersson, Russell R.; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a comparison of lexical items in the vocabulary of Icelandic and Danish sign languages prompted by anecdotal reports of similarity and historical records detailing close contact between the two communities. Drawing on previous studies, including Bickford (2005), McKee and Kennedy (1998, 2000a, 2000b) and Parkhurst and…

  13. Discriminative Validity of the Danish Version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahlhut, Michelle; Gard, Gunvor; Aadahl, Mette; Christensen, Jette

    2011-01-01

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) assesses functional status in children with disabilities aged 0.5-7.5 years. The purpose of this study was to examine if the Danish version of the PEDI was able to discriminate between nondisabled children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).…

  14. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  15. The Relevance and Consequences of PISA Science in a Danish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolin, Jens; Krogh, Lars Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a case study that described and analyzed the changes in the Danish school culture induced and encouraged by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results. The educational policy and reforms that were temporally connected with the publication of the PISA 2000 results are outlined and the related…

  16. The Danish large wind turbine program. [feasibility of wind power in a utility grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pederson, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Danish wind energy program and its present status is given. Results and experiences from tests on the Gedser windmill (200 kW) are presented. The key results are presented from the preliminary design study and detailed design of two new WECS (630 kW each) is described.

  17. Danish Higher Education: Expansion, Crisis and Institution Building. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John S.

    Part of a series of studies on higher education in different countries, this paper examines the organization of higher education in Denmark, the growth of the system, the nature of the parliamentary legislation of the 1970's, and the Danish system from the standpoint of institution-building. There are three state-supported sectors of higher…

  18. The Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Frischknecht Christensen, Erika; Berlac, Peter Anthony; Nielsen, Henrik; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services (QEMS) is to assess, monitor, and improve the quality of prehospital emergency medical service care in the entire prehospital patient pathway. The aim of this review is to describe the design and the implementation of QEMS. The study population consists of all "112 patient contacts" defined as emergency patients, where the entrance to health care is a 112 call forwarded to one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers in Denmark since January 1, 2014. Estimated annual number of included "112 patients" is 300,000-350,000. We defined nine quality indicators and the following variables: time stamps for emergency calls received at one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers, dispatch of prehospital unit(s), arrival of first prehospital unit, arrival of first supplemental prehospital unit, and mission completion. Finally, professional level and type of the prehospital resource dispatched to an incident and end-of-mission status (mission completed by phone, on scene, or admission to hospital) are registered. Descriptive data included age, region, and Danish Index for Emergency Care including urgency level. QEMS is a new database under establishment and is expected to provide the basis for quality improvement in the prehospital setting and in the entire patient care pathway, for example, by providing prehospital data for research and other quality databases.

  19. Ninth grade school performance in Danish childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Frederiksen, Marie Hoffmann; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors can experience learning problems resulting in lower-than-expected attained education as adults. It is unclear whether learning problems manifest already during adolescence. We analysed nationwide Danish registries on school grades for Danish children during 2001-2014. Applying a matched design we compared grades of childhood cancer survivors to children without cancer at ninth grade. We estimated grade differences by subject and its correlation to cancer site and age at diagnosis. The available statistical precision allowed for an analysis of more rare cancer sites. The total study population was 793 332 children (mean age 15.24 years and 49.7% girls), of whom 1320 were childhood cancer survivors. Lower rank grades were seen in children with cancer in all school subjects but differed substantially according to cancer site. Most affected were survivors of central nervous system (CNS) tumours, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, leukaemia, other malignant neoplasm and germ-cell tumours. Survivors from other cancer types did not obtain lower grades. Lower rank grades were associated with young age at diagnosis. The effect of childhood cancer differed substantially between cancer sites. The largest effect was among survivors of CNS tumours and leukaemia diagnosed at a young age, suggesting an association with radiation therapy. However, the majority of cancer survivors fare well. Increasing awareness on children affected by cancer and special accommodations may help maximise the learning potential of those most affected.

  20. Ninth grade school performance in Danish childhood cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Frederiksen, Marie Hoffmann; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood cancer survivors can experience learning problems resulting in lower-than-expected attained education as adults. It is unclear whether learning problems manifest already during adolescence. Methods: We analysed nationwide Danish registries on school grades for Danish children during 2001–2014. Applying a matched design we compared grades of childhood cancer survivors to children without cancer at ninth grade. We estimated grade differences by subject and its correlation to cancer site and age at diagnosis. The available statistical precision allowed for an analysis of more rare cancer sites. Results: The total study population was 793 332 children (mean age 15.24 years and 49.7% girls), of whom 1320 were childhood cancer survivors. Lower rank grades were seen in children with cancer in all school subjects but differed substantially according to cancer site. Most affected were survivors of central nervous system (CNS) tumours, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, leukaemia, other malignant neoplasm and germ-cell tumours. Survivors from other cancer types did not obtain lower grades. Lower rank grades were associated with young age at diagnosis. Conclusions: The effect of childhood cancer differed substantially between cancer sites. The largest effect was among survivors of CNS tumours and leukaemia diagnosed at a young age, suggesting an association with radiation therapy. However, the majority of cancer survivors fare well. Increasing awareness on children affected by cancer and special accommodations may help maximise the learning potential of those most affected. PMID:28081550

  1. A hereditary disposition for bovine peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Danish Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Anette B; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Páll S; Bendixen, Christian; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Fredholm, Merete

    2014-12-10

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible hereditary disposition to PNSTs in dairy cattle by statistical analysis performed on data from 567 cattle with PNSTs. Furthermore, a preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on DNA isolated from 28 affected and 28 non-affected Holstein cows to identify loci in the bovine genome involved in the development of PNSTs. PNSTs were significantly more common in the Danish Holstein breed than in other breeds with 0.49% of Danish Holsteins slaughtered during an eight-year-period having PNSTs. PNSTs also occurred significantly more frequently in the offspring of some specific Holstein sires. Examination of three generation pedigrees showed that these sires were genetically related through a widely used US Holstein sire. The PNSTs included in GWAS were histologically classified as neurofibroma-schwannoma (43%), schwannoma (36%) and neurofibroma (21%) and derived from Holstein cows with multiple PNSTs. A single SNP on chromosome 27 reached genome-wide significance. Gross and histological characteristics of bovine PNSTs are comparable to PNSTs in humans (schwannomatosis). Danish Holsteins are genetically disposed to develop PNSTs but the examined materials are insufficient to allow determination of the mode of inheritance.

  2. Clinical indications for antibiotic use in Danish general practice: results from a nationwide electronic prescription database.

    PubMed

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Siersma, Volkert; Bjerrum, Lars

    2017-06-01

    To assess the availability and applicability of clinical indications from electronic prescriptions on antibiotic use in Danish general practice. Retrospective cohort register-based study including the Danish National Prescription Register. Population-based study of routine electronic antibiotic prescriptions from Danish general practice. All 975,626 patients who redeemed an antibiotic prescription at outpatient pharmacies during the 1-year study period (July 2012 to June 2013). Number of prescriptions per clinical indication. Number of antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants by age and gender. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between patient and provider factors and missing clinical indications on antibiotic prescriptions. A total of 2.381.083 systemic antibiotic prescriptions were issued by Danish general practitioners in the study period. We identified three main clinical entities: urinary tract infections (n = 506.634), respiratory tract infections (n = 456.354) and unspecified infections (n = 416.354). Women were more exposed to antibiotics than men. Antibiotic use was high in children under 5 years and even higher in elderly people. In 32% of the issued prescriptions, the clinical indication was missing. This was mainly associated with antibiotic types. We found that a prescription for a urinary tract agent without a specific clinical indication was uncommon. Clinical indications from electronic prescriptions are accessible and available to provide an overview of drug use, in casu antibiotic prescriptions, in Danish general practice. These clinical indications may be further explored in detail to assess rational drug use and congruence with guidelines, but validation and optimisation of the system is preferable.

  3. Reliability and validity of a Danish adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory.

    PubMed

    Zachariae, R; Mirz, F; Johansen, L V; Andersen, S E; Bjerring, P; Pedersen, C B

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a Danish translation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), a self-report measure of perceived tinnitus handicap. The Danish version of the THI was administered to 50 patients reporting tinnitus as their primary complaint or secondary to hearing loss. Construct validity was assessed using tinnitus symptom rating scales, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Tinnitus Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and perceived tinnitus loudness and pitch. The Danish translation of the THI and its subscales showed good internal consistency reliabilities (c = 0.93 to alpha = 0.74) comparable to those of the original version. High to moderate correlations were observed between THI and psychological distress, tinnitus symptom ratings, neuroticism and maladaptive tinnitus coping. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to validate the three subscales of THI, and high intercorrelations found between the subscales question whether they represent three distinct factors. The results suggest that the Danish THI-Total scale may be a reliable and valid measure of general tinnitus related distress that can be used in a clinical setting to quantify the impact of tinnitus on daily living.

  4. Using action learning to reduce health inequity in Danish municipalities.

    PubMed

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2017-05-02

    Purpose The aim of this study is to clarify how action learning can be used as a vehicle for promoting equal access to municipal health services for socially disadvantaged groups in a Danish context. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the methods for reducing health inequity developed in the study and to discuss how action learning methodologically contributed to achieving these results. Design/methodology/approach In the study, the front-line staff from 19 health and social service units in six different municipalities, in Denmark, each formed an action learning group to develop methods for reducing health inequity in a municipal health setting. Each group was guided by an external facilitator, according to an Action Learning Action Research phase model (ALAR-model), which structured the cyclical development of methods into four phases: diagnosing, planning action, taking action and evaluating action. Findings Two types of results of the study are reported in the paper. First, the authors present an overview of the results the 19 participating municipal units have achieved in their action learning processes, as well as two case examples of how two units have worked with action learning and the concrete methods and tools they have developed in this process. Second, they report the challenges and dilemmas the 19 units faced when working with action learning in the study. Originality/value With its use of action learning techniques and the ALAR-model, this study contributes to the development of practice-based methods to reduce unequal access to municipal health services for socially disadvantaged groups. Through the study, the front-line staff in the health and social service units has been involved in the problem-solving process, to a much greater extent than it has previously been adopted in a Danish municipal health setting.

  5. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under…

  6. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  7. Dysthymia in male adolescents is associated with increased risk of later hospitalization for psychotic disorders: a historical-prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Lubin, Gad; Caspi, Asaf; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Shmushkevitz, Mordechai; Yoffe, Rinat; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Davidson, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Retrospective studies indicate that patients with psychotic disorders and schizophrenia often suffer from depressive symptoms before the onset of psychosis. In a historical-prospective design, we studied the association between dysthymia in adolescence and later hospitalization for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia. The Israeli Draft Board screens the entire, unselected population of 16-17 years old male adolescents for psychiatric disorders. These adolescents were followed for hospitalization for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia using the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry. Of 275,705 male adolescents screened, 1267 (0.5%) were hospitalized for psychotic disorders (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 20.0-29.9), and 757 (0.3%) were hospitalized for schizophrenia (ICD-10 20.0-20.9) over the next 1-10 years. Of 275,705 male adolescents screened, 513 (0.2%) were diagnosed as suffering from dysthymia by the Draft Board. Of these adolescents, 10/513 (2.0%) were later hospitalized for psychotic disorders (including schizophrenia, HR=3.967, 95%CI (confidence intervals): 2.129-7.390), and 4/513 (0.8%) were later hospitalized for schizophrenia (HR=2.664, 95%CI: 0.997-7.116). In this population-based cohort of male adolescents, dysthymia was associated with increased risk for future psychotic disorders. Dysthymia in some adolescents might be a prodromal symptom, while in others it might be a risk factor for later psychosis. Clinicians assessing dysthymic adolescents should be aware that these symptoms might be part of the prodrome. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-12-01

    External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.

  9. Surveillance of maritime deaths on board Danish merchant ships, 1986-2009.

    PubMed

    Borch, Daniel F; Hansen, Henrik L; Burr, Hermann; Jepsen, Jørgen R

    2012-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated a high death rate among seafarers signed on Danish ships during the years 1986-1993. This study aimed to examine and analyse the subsequent development until 2009. A total of 356 fatalities were identified from data supplied from the Danish Maritime Authority, an insurance company, and other sources. Maritime deaths among seafarers signed on Danish ships comprise deaths from 1) accidents, suicides and homicides; and 2) disease on board. Deaths due to 2) occurring ashore within 30 days after signing off were included. The overall and mode-specific death rates were calculated for three eight-year observation periods. The rates for work-related fatal accidents were compared with the rates for land-based trades. All categories of maritime deaths were significantly reduced from 1986 to 2009 - in particular during the last eight-year period (Accidents 1986-1993: 66.6 per 100,000 person years, 2002-2009: 27.0 per 100,000 person years, diseases 49.5-26.1, suicides 14.4-7.8). In spite of the remarkable improvement since 1986, seafarers remain in 2002-2009 more than six times more likely to die from occupational accidents (including shipwrecks) than do workers ashore. The favourable trend of maritime deaths in the Danish merchant fleet may be due to 1) preventive measures - e.g. interventions relating to vessel safety, work environment, and improved medical care on board - and to 2) technological and organizational changes - e.g. newer and larger vessels in the Danish merchant fleet, changed composition of the workforce, and reduced shore leaves. The persisting excess risk warrants further preventive actions.

  10. Genetic and Environmental Regulation on Longitudinal Change of Metabolic Phenotypes in Danish and Chinese Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; Tan, Qihua; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben; Dalgård, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The rate of change in metabolic phenotypes can be highly indicative of metabolic disorders and disorder-related modifications. We analyzed data from longitudinal twin studies on multiple metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins representing two populations of distinct ethnic, cultural, social-economic backgrounds and geographical environments. The study covered a relatively large sample of 502 pairs of Danish adult twins followed up for a long period of 12 years with a mean age at intake of 38 years (range: 18-65) and a total of 181 Chinese adult twin pairs traced for about 7 years with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years (range: 23-64). The classical twin models were fitted to the longitudinal change in each phenotype (Δphenotype) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to the variation in Δphenotype. Moderate to high contributions by the unique environment were estimated for all phenotypes in both Danish (from 0.51 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol up to 0.72 for triglycerides) and Chinese (from 0.41 for triglycerides up to 0.73 for diastolic blood pressure) twins; low to moderate genetic components were estimated for long-term change in most of the phenotypes in Danish twins except for triglycerides and hip circumference. Compared with Danish twins, the Chinese twins tended to have higher genetic control over the longitudinal changes in lipids (except high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and glucose, higher unique environmental contribution to blood pressure but no genetic contribution to longitudinal change in body mass traits. Our results emphasize the major contribution of unique environment to the observed intra-individual variation in all metabolic phenotypes in both samples, and meanwhile reveal differential patterns of genetic and common environmental regulation on changes over time in metabolic phenotypes across the two samples.

  11. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS <1.28. All participants were characterized by anthropometrics (weight, height, and waist circumference) and fasting serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. Results: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p<0.0001) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) (p<0.0001) independent of age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity. PMID:27611730

  12. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens Christian

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS <1.28. All participants were characterized by anthropometrics (weight, height, and waist circumference) and fasting serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p<0.0001) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) (p<0.0001) independent of age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity.

  13. Identifying divergent foster care careers for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care drift, instability, and placement disruptions to define the unstable foster care career as a subset of foster care careers. I then use administrative data on 30,239 Danish children born 1982-1987 who entered foster care to generate nine foster care careers, two of which meet the criteria for an unstable career. Children with a high number of risk factors associated with foster care entry were also the most likely to enter an unstable career. I end by discussing implications for recent studies of the effect of foster care on children's later life outcomes and the relevance of the findings for practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M; Ersbøll, A K

    2013-05-01

    Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of Campylobacter in the Danish broiler population. In this study, we observed a non-random temporal occurrence of Campylobacter, with high prevalence during summer and low during winter. Significant spatio-temporal clusters were identified in the same areas in the summer months from 2007 to 2009. Range of influence between broiler farms were estimated at distances of 9.6 km and 13.5 km in different years. Identification of areas and time with greater risk indicates variable presence of risk factors with space and time. Implementation of safety measures on farms within high-risk clusters during summer could have an impact in reducing prevalence.

  15. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance.

  16. PAH biomarkers in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Danish waters.

    PubMed

    Tairova, Zhanna M; Strand, Jakob; Chevalier, Julie; Andersen, Ole

    2012-04-01

    Eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus) sampled at surveillance stations during the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 in different Danish coastal areas, were studied for biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and effects. Two analytical techniques, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), were applied for detecting PAH metabolites in bile and urine. CYP1A activity, in this study regarded as potential biomarker of effect, was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver of eelpouts from different stations. Biliary PAH metabolite measurements were used for monitoring the environmental PAH load at the surveillance stations. There was found significant difference in biliary PAH metabolite content between sexes with male fish containing higher concentrations of PAH metabolites than females. The urinary PAH metabolite content did not show the same spatial trends as biliary PAH metabolites. However, fish from Aarhus Bight and Vejle Fjord had significantly higher levels of PAH metabolites in both urine and bile compared to the reference station Agersø. Normalisation methods applied for bile and urine matrices did not have any effect or only slightly reduced the coefficients of variation in data sets. The CYP1A activity in eelpout liver did not show the same spatial distribution trends between sampling sites as did biliary or urinary PAH metabolite contents. Male eelpouts showed significantly higher CYP1A activity than females in fall sampling period but there were no differences found in the spring period. General comparison between both seasons showed that eelpouts sampled in the fall had significantly higher CYP1A activity than fish sampled during spring season. Overall, the results of this study describe selected biomarker responses in eelpouts to environmental PAH load at the different areas along Danish coasts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  18. [What do people talk about in Danish hospital elevators?].

    PubMed

    Hasman, A; Hansen, N R; Lassen, A; Rabøl, R; Holm, S

    1997-11-10

    Hospital elevators make up a part of the public space of hospitals which is used by both employees, patients, and patients' relatives. We performed an observational study to ascertain the frequency of ethically problematic conversations between employees in the elevators of three Danish hospitals. We defined a conversation as problematic if it breached confidentiality or if it could raise doubts about the professional or ethical standard of the hospital or its employees. Based on this definition we found that problematic conversations occurred in 18 out of 201 elevator-trips where more than one member of the hospital staff was present in the elevator (9%, 95% confidence limits 5-14%). The most common types of problems were breaches of confidentiality (6 cases), complaints about stressful work (4 cases), and complaints about the organisation (3 cases).

  19. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for minerals in Danish Holstein and Dani