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Sample records for danish eczema patients

  1. Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    Eczema is a term for several different types of skin swelling. Eczema is also called dermatitis. Most types cause dry, ... red, and to swell and itch even more. Eczema is not contagious. The cause is not known. ...

  2. Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Eczema: How to Help Your Child Avoid the Itch ... also called atopic dermatitis or AD . Who Gets Eczema? Eczema is the most common skin problem treated ...

  3. [Contact eczema in patients with leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K

    1986-01-01

    Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.

  4. Psychological profile of the atopic eczema patient.

    PubMed

    White, A; Horne, D J; Varigos, G A

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 40 patients with long-standing atopic eczema was carried out to test for the presence of certain psychological traits which had been reported in studies in earlier decades. A series of standardised personality tests was administered to these patients and the results compared with the findings for a normal group for each test. It was demonstrated that atopic eczema patients do have significantly high levels of anxiety and problems in dealing with anger and hostility. Whether such findings make any contribution to understanding the aetiology of this disorder is debatable, but they do have implications for treatment and management, and some of these are discussed.

  5. Improving Value for Patients with Eczema.

    PubMed

    Block, Julie

    2018-04-01

    Chronic diseases now represent a cost majority in the United States health care system. Contributing factors to rising costs include expensive novel and emerging therapies, under-treatment of disease, under-management of comorbidities, and patient dissatisfaction with care results. Critical to identifying replicable improvement methods is a reliable model to measure value. If we understand value within healthcare consumerism to be equal to a patient's health outcome improvement over costs associated with care (Value=Outcomes/Costs), we can use this equation to measure the improvement of value. Research and literature show that patient activation-the skills and confidence that equip patients to become actively engaged in their health care-impact health outcomes, costs, and patient experience. Reaching patient activation through engagement methods including shared decision-making (SDM) lead to improved value of care received. The National Eczema Association (NEA) Shared Decision-Making Resource Center can be a transformative strategy to measure and evaluate value of health care interventions for eczema patients to advance a value-driven health care system in the United States. Through this Resource Center, NEA will measure patient value through their own perceptions using validated PRO instruments and other patient-generated health data. Assessment of this data will reveal findings that can assist researchers in evaluating the impact this care framework on patient-perceived value across other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hand eczema in hairdressers: a Danish register-based study of the prevalence of hand eczema and its career consequences.

    PubMed

    Lysdal, Susan Hovmand; Søsted, Heidi; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-09-01

    Occupational hand eczema is common in hairdressers, owing to wet work and hairdressing chemicals. To estimate the prevalence of hand eczema and its career consequences among hairdressers in Denmark. A register-based study was conducted, comprising all graduates from hairdressing vocational schools from 1985 to 2007 (n = 7840). The participants received a self-administered postal questionnaire including questions on hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, and career change. A response rate of 67.9% (n = 5324) was obtained. Of the respondents, 44.3% no longer worked as hairdressers and had worked for an average of 8.4 years in the profession before leaving it. Hand eczema was more common among ex-hairdressers (48.4%) than among current hairdressers (37.6%) (p < 0.0001), and significantly more ex-hairdressers (26.8%) than current hairdressers (15.7%) had chronic hand eczema (p < 0.0001). Of the respondents with hand eczema, 75% were aged 15-24 years at onset, and 45.5% gave hand eczema as a reason for career change. In this group, logistic regression analysis showed that chronic hand eczema contributed the most to the decision to change career (odds ratio 50.12; 95% confidence interval 18.3-137). Hairdressers work an average of 8.4 years in the profession before leaving it, and hand eczema contributes significantly to this career change. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Optimal Diet Planning for Eczema Patient Using Integer Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen Sheng, Low; Sufahani, Suliadi

    2018-04-01

    Human diet planning is conducted by choosing appropriate food items that fulfill the nutritional requirements into the diet formulation. This paper discusses the application of integer programming to build the mathematical model of diet planning for eczema patients. The model developed is used to solve the diet problem of eczema patients from young age group. The integer programming is a scientific approach to select suitable food items, which seeks to minimize the costs, under conditions of meeting desired nutrient quantities, avoiding food allergens and getting certain foods into the diet that brings relief to the eczema conditions. This paper illustrates that the integer programming approach able to produce the optimal and feasible solution to deal with the diet problem of eczema patient.

  8. Objective research on tongue manifestation of patients with eczema.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Haifang; Fu, Linjie; Lu, Xiaozuo

    2017-07-20

    Tongue observation often depends on subjective judgment, it is necessary to establish an objective and quantifiable standard for tongue observation. To discuss the features of tongue manifestation of patients who suffered from eczema with different types and to reveal the clinical significance of the tongue images. Two hundred patients with eczema were recruited and divided into three groups according to the diagnostic criteria. Acute group had 47 patients, subacute group had 82 patients, and chronic group had 71 patients. The computerized tongue image digital analysis device was used to detect tongue parameters. The L*a*b* color model was applied to classify tongue parameters quantitatively. For parameters such as tongue color, tongue shape, color of tongue coating, and thickness or thinness of tongue coating, there was a significant difference among acute group, subacute group and chronic group (P< 0.05). For Lab values of both tongue and tongue coating, there was statistical significance among the above types of eczema (P< 0.05). Tongue images can reflect some features of eczema, and different types of eczema may be related to the changes of tongue images. The computerized tongue image digital analysis device can reflect the tongue characteristics of patients with eczema objectively.

  9. Immunomodulating effect of laser therapy in patients with microbial eczema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudchenko, Mycola O.; Denisenko, Olga I.

    1999-11-01

    While examining 90 patients suffering the microbial eczema (ME), we revealed disorders of the immune system in the majority of them (3/4). It was established that the inclusion of percutaneous laser irradiation of the blood in a course of multimodality treatment of patients with ME caused an immunomodulating action which resulted in an improved ME course in these patients.

  10. Fragrance allergy in patients with hand eczema - a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; White, Ian R; Basketter, David A; Menné, Torkil

    2003-06-01

    Fragrance allergy and hand eczema are both common among dermatological patients. Fragrance mix (FM) and its constituents have a recognized relevance to exposure to fine fragrances and cosmetic products. Based on extensive chemical analysis and database search, a new selection of fragrances was established, including 14 known fragrance allergens present in products to which hand exposure would occur. A non-irritating patch-test concentration for some fragrances was established in 212 consecutive patients. 658 consecutive patients presenting with hand eczema were patch tested with the European standard series and the developed selection of fragrances. 67 (10.2%) of the 658 patients had a positive reaction to 1 or more of our selection of fragrance chemicals present in the new selection. The most common reactions to fragrances not included in the FM were to citral, Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde) and oxidized l-limonene. A concomitant reaction to the FM identified potential fragrance allergy in less than (1/2) of these patients. Exposure assessment and a statistically significant association between a positive patch test to our selected fragrances and patients' history support the relevance of this selection of fragrances. Those with a positive reaction to our selected fragrances were significantly more likely to have 1 or more positive patch tests in the standard series. This observation is the basis for the hypothesis concerning cross-reactivity and the effect of simultaneous exposure. The study found that fragrance allergy could be a common problem in patients with eczema on the hands.

  11. Increased risk of lung cancer in patients with eczema: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Juan, Chao-Kuei; Shen, Jui-Lung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kim, Karen Wang; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2016-09-01

    The association between lung cancer and eczema remains controversial. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results. This retrospective population-based cohort study is aimed at clarifying the risk of lung cancer associated with eczema. By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 43,719 patients who had been newly diagnosed with eczema in the years 2000 to 2010. The comparison cohort included 87,438 randomly selected, age-matched patients without eczema. The cases of these two cohorts were followed until 2011. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the risk of lung cancer in eczema patients. The database did not contain any information regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status, or family history. After adjusting for age and comorbidity, the population with eczema had a 2.80-fold greater risk of developing lung cancer compared with the population in the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio 2.80, 95 % confidence interval 2.59-3.03). Eczema patients with comorbid diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive -pulmonary disease, alcoholic liver damage, or diabetes were at a higher risk of lung cancer compared with the non-eczema patients without comorbidity. Eczema is associated with a greater risk for the development of lung cancer. Further studies with more comprehensive information on potential confounders are warranted. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Assessing United States Patient and Dermatologist Experiences with Severe Chronic Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Eileen; Zelt, Susan; Reynolds, Maria; Sherrill, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with severe chronic hand eczema often have persistent symptoms that interfere with daily activities, social functioning, and employment. Many patients are refractory to topical corticosteroids. This survey-based study was performed to characterize treatment experiences, impact on productivity, and quality of life of patients with severe chronic hand eczema; understand dermatologists’ severe chronic hand eczema treatment patterns. Design: A web-based survey in the United States queried pre-identified patients with severe chronic hand eczema regarding symptoms, treatment history, quality of life, work productivity, treatment satisfaction, and healthcare utilization. In a separate survey, dermatologists were asked about treatment patterns and satisfaction with currently available therapies. Results: The most commonly reported symptoms currently experienced by patients (n=163) were dryness/flaking (81%), itchiness (75%), and cracking/tearing of the skin (71%). Over the last three months, 84 percent of patients with severe chronic hand eczema self-reported using topical steroids, and 30 percent used systemic corticosteroids or retinoids. Approximately 30 percent reported impairment while working and productivity loss. Patient quality of life was negatively impacted. Dermatologists (n=125) reported most often treating severe chronic hand eczema with topical corticosteroids (99%), followed by topical immunomodulators (71%) and systemic treatments (70%). Only two percent were very satisfied with currently available products. Conclusion: Patients with severe chronic hand eczema experience symptoms that negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. Few dermatologists are very satisfied with currently available severe chronic hand eczema treatment options. PMID:26705436

  13. Life quality assessment among patients with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Holm, E A; Wulf, H C; Stegmann, H; Jemec, G B E

    2006-04-01

    Quantification of quality of life (QoL) related to disease severity is important in patients with atopic eczema (AE), because the assessment provides additional information to the traditional objective clinical scoring systems. To measure health-related QoL (HRQoL) in patients with AE; to analyse discriminant, divergent and convergent validity by examining the association between various QoL methods; and to examine the association between disease severity assessed by an objective Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and QoL. HRQoL was assessed at two visits at a 6-monthly interval in 101 patients with AE and 30 controls with one dermatology-specific questionnaire [Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) or Children's DLQI (CDLQI)], one generic instrument (SF-36) and three visual analogue scales (VASs) of severity and pruritus. Objective SCORAD was used to measure disease severity. Patients with AE had significantly lower QoL than healthy controls and the general population. DLQI /CDLQI, pruritus, and patient and investigator overall assessment of eczema severity were significantly (P < 0.0001) and positively correlated with SCORAD, while the generic questionnaire showed only poor correlation. A gender difference was found for the mental component score of SF-36 (P = 0.019). AE has an impact on HRQoL. Patients' mental health, social functioning and role emotional functioning seem to be more affected than physical functioning. A simple VAS score of patients' assessment of disease severity showed the highest and most significant correlations with most of the HRQoL methods used. There is evidence to support the ability of patients with AE to make an accurate determination of their disease severity and QoL.

  14. The Quality of Life and Depressive Mood among Korean Patients with Hand Eczema.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi; Han, Tae Young; Lee, June Hyunkyung; Son, Sook-Ja

    2012-11-01

    Hand eczema is a disease frequently observed in dermatological practice. This condition has negative emotional, social, and psychological effects due to its impact on daily life and morphological appearance. Due to its considerable effect on the quality of life, this disease can lead to depression. However, not many studies have been performed on the quality of life and depression in hand eczema patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between the quality of life, depression, and disease severity in hand eczema patients in South Korea. A total of 138 patients with hand eczema participated in this study. The patients' quality of life was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Data on patients suffering from depression was obtained using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The disease severity was determined during the clinical examination, according to the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI). We found positive associations between DLQI and HECSI scores (p<0.05). BDI-II scores had also statistically positive correlations with HECSI scores (p<0.05). DLQI and BDI-II scores both increased with disease severity. Hand eczema negatively affected the quality of life and mood of patients relative to the disease severity. Therefore, we suggest that quality of life modification and emotional support should be included as a part of treatment for hand eczema.

  15. The Quality of Life and Depressive Mood among Korean Patients with Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi; Lee, June Hyunkyung; Son, Sook-Ja

    2012-01-01

    Background Hand eczema is a disease frequently observed in dermatological practice. This condition has negative emotional, social, and psychological effects due to its impact on daily life and morphological appearance. Due to its considerable effect on the quality of life, this disease can lead to depression. However, not many studies have been performed on the quality of life and depression in hand eczema patients. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between the quality of life, depression, and disease severity in hand eczema patients in South Korea. Methods A total of 138 patients with hand eczema participated in this study. The patients' quality of life was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Data on patients suffering from depression was obtained using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The disease severity was determined during the clinical examination, according to the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI). Results We found positive associations between DLQI and HECSI scores (p<0.05). BDI-II scores had also statistically positive correlations with HECSI scores (p<0.05). DLQI and BDI-II scores both increased with disease severity. Conclusion Hand eczema negatively affected the quality of life and mood of patients relative to the disease severity. Therefore, we suggest that quality of life modification and emotional support should be included as a part of treatment for hand eczema. PMID:23197909

  16. Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-01-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients. PMID:24891648

  17. Anxiety, depression and impaired health-related quality of life in patients with occupational hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Dana; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard; Finkeldey, Florence; John, Swen Malte; Dwinger, Christine; Werfel, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas L; Breuer, Kristine

    2012-10-01

    Occupational hand eczema is one of the most frequent occupational diseases. Few data about the prevalence of mental comorbidities are available. Objectives. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms, the impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their correlates in patients with occupational hand eczema. A test battery consisting of the German versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) as a specific instrument and the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) as a generic instrument for HRQoL was applied in 122 patients. The severity of hand eczema was assessed with the Osnabrueck Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI). Twenty per cent of patients had a positive anxiety score, and 14% had a positive depression score. Higher anxiety levels, a greater impairment in the SF-36 mental component summary score and a higher DLQI category score for symptoms and feelings was detected in females than in males. The OHSI correlated with the impairment in HRQoL, and an association of severe hand eczema with symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in males. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in our study population of patients with occupational hand eczema. Preventive measures should consider the psychosocial implications of occupational hand eczema. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. The Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure in young children: responsiveness and minimal clinically important difference.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, D M; Metcalfe, C; Ridd, M

    2016-11-01

    The Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) has been recommended as the core patient-reported outcome measure for trials of eczema treatments. Using data from the Choice of Moisturiser for Eczema Treatment randomized feasibility study, we assess the responsiveness to change and determine the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the POEM in young children with eczema. Responsiveness to change by repeated administrations of the POEM was investigated in relation to change recalled using the Parent Global Assessment (PGA) measure. Five methods of determining the MCID of the POEM were employed; three anchor-based methods using PGA as the anchor: the within-patient score change, between-patient score change and sensitivity and specificity method, and two distribution-based methods: effect size estimate and the one half standard deviation of the baseline distribution of POEM scores. Successive POEM scores were found to be responsive to change in eczema severity. The MCID of the POEM change score, in relation to a slight improvement in eczema severity as recalled by parents on the PGA, estimated by the within-patient score change (4.27), the between-patient score change (2.89) and the sensitivity and specificity method (3.00) was similar to the one half standard deviation of the POEM baseline scores (2.94) and the effect size estimate (2.50). The Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure as applied to young children is responsive to change, and the MCID is around 3. This study will encourage the use of POEM and aid in determining sample size for future randomized controlled trials of treatments for eczema in young children. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Quality of life, anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive tendencies in patients with chronic hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Christodoulou, Christos; Katoulis, Alexandros; Potouridou, Irene; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    Chronic hand eczema is a common dermatological disorder of multifactorial aetiology. It affects physical, material, social and psychological aspects of life, thereby impairing health-related quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess quality of life, anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive tendencies in patients with chronic hand eczema. Seventy-one patients with chronic hand eczema were included in the study. Quality of life was evaluated according to the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Patients were also assessed for anxiety and depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and for compulsive behaviour with the Leyton Trait Scale. The DLQI score was 11.11 ± 1.81 in patients with chronic hand eczema. Scores on the Leyton Trait Scale were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (p < 0.027). As concerns the HADS-Anxiety subscale, patients with hand dermatitis had statistically significantly higher scores than those of volunteers (p = 0.002). In contrast, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups with regard to the HADS-Depression subscale score and total HADS score. Hand eczema treatment should address the severity of skin lesions as well as the psychological impact of hand eczema. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Serum concentrations of metalloproteinase 2, metalloproteinase 9 and granzyme B in contact eczema patients

    PubMed Central

    Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Czajkowski, Rafał; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Contact eczema is a common skin condition with complex etiology, variable clinical presentation and lengthy therapy duration. The mechanism of contact eczema is complex, since it is affected by multiple inflammatory mediators. Aim To assess concentrations of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and granzyme B (GzmB) in patients with contact eczema. Material and methods Seventy patients with contact eczema and 30 healthy persons as controls were included in the study. In all subjects, MMP-2, MMP-9 and GzmB were determined using ELISA immunoassay. In study group patients, concentrations were assayed in periods of disease exacerbation and remission. Obtained results were analyzed statistically. Results Mean MMP-2 and GzmB concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. Mean MMP-2, MMP-9 and GzmB levels were also statistically significantly higher during skin lesion relapse compared to contact eczema remission periods. Conclusions The presented paper demonstrates that MMP-2, MMP-9 and GzmB are good markers of contact eczema exacerbations. PMID:24278051

  1. Association between mast cell chymase genotype and atopic eczema: comparison between patients with atopic eczema alone and those with atopic eczema and atopic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Sugiura, H; Uehara, M; Sato, H; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, T; Furuyama, J

    1999-06-01

    It has remained unclear whether genetic background of patients with atopic eczema (AE) alone is identical to that of patients with both AE and atopic respiratory disease. We aimed to assess whether there is a genetic difference between these two groups of AE patients. We determined the genotype with regard to an allelic polymorphism in the gene for mast cell chymase (MCC; a serine protease secreted from mast cells) in 169 AE patients. MCC genotype was significantly associated with pure AE patients who did not have a predisposition to atopic respiratory disease and whose serum IgE concentration was < 500 IU/mL. The distribution of MCC genotypes also differed significantly between the latter patients and those AE patients with bronchial asthma and a serum IgE concentration of > 2000 IU/mL. These results suggest that pure AE is associated with genetic variants of MCC, and that the genetic basis of pure AE differs from that of AE associated with atopic asthma.

  2. Emotion with tears decreases allergic responses to latex in atopic eczema patients with latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-07-01

    Allergic responses are enhanced by stress, whereas they are reduced by laughter in atopic eczema patients. Emotion with tears decreases plasma IL-6 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the effect of emotion with tears on allergic responses in patients with atopic eczema was studied. Sixty patients with atopic eczema having latex allergy viewed both the weather information video and the heart-warming movie, Kramer vs. Kramer. Just before and immediately after viewing each video, allergic responses to latex were measured. Viewing the weather information video did not cause emotion with tears in any patients, and it failed to modulate allergic responses. In contrast, viewing Kramer vs. Kramer caused emotion with tears in 44 of 60 patients, and it reduced allergic skin wheal responses to latex and latex-specific IgE production in them. Emotion with tears reduced allergic responses, and it may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases.

  3. Pompholyx eczema

    MedlinePlus

    Cheiropompholyx; Pedopompholyx; Dyshidrosis; Dyshidrotic eczema; Acral vesicular dermatitis; Chronic hand dermatitis ... year. You are more likely to develop pompholyx eczema when: You are under stress You have allergies, ...

  4. Inappropriate amounts of topical tacrolimus applied on Korean patients with eczema.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyunju; Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-06-01

    The limited efficacy of topical tacrolimus may result from insufficient frequency of application or amount applied in eczema patients. To investigate the frequency of application and amount of use of topical tacrolimus in patients with various types of eczema. The frequency of application and the applied amount of topical tacrolimus were assessed over two weeks. A total of 200 eczema patients completed this study. The average number of applications per day was 1.75 ± 0.53, despite instructions to apply the topical tacrolimus twice daily. With respect to the frequency of application, 147 (73.5%) and 122 (61.0%) of patients followed the prescription in the first and second weeks, respectively. The average amount applied per 2% of total body surface area (TBSA) was 0.54 ± 0.52 g. Only 53 (26.5%) patients applied between 80 and 120% of expected amount of topical tacrolimus. The frequency of application was self-reported, possibly resulting in limited accuracy. Korean patients with eczema tend to apply topical tacrolimus less frequently and in inappropriate amounts. Clear instructions regarding both the frequency and amount of application are needed to improve the therapeutic outcome with treatment with topical tacrolimus.

  5. The association between hand eczema and nickel allergy has weakened among young women in the general population following the Danish nickel regulation: results from two cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-12-01

    An association between nickel contact allergy and hand eczema has previously been demonstrated. In 1990, Denmark regulated the extent of nickel release in the ear-piercing process as well as nickel release from consumer products. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the Danish nickel regulation by comparing the prevalence of concomitant nickel allergy and hand eczema observed in two repeated cross-sectional studies performed in the same general population in Copenhagen. In 1990 and 2006, 3881 18-69 year olds completed a postal questionnaire and were patch tested with nickel. Data were analysed by logistic regression analyses and associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of concomitant nickel contact allergy and a history of hand eczema decreased among 18-35-year-old women from 9.0% in 1990 to 2.1% in 2006 (P < 0.01). The association between nickel contact allergy and a history of hand eczema decreased in this age group between 1990 (OR = 3.63; CI = 1.33-9.96) and 2006 (OR = 0.65; CI = 0.29-1.46). Among older women, no significant changes were observed in the association between nickel contact allergy and hand eczema. Regulatory control of nickel exposure may have reduced the effect of nickel on hand eczema in the young female population.

  6. Lack of association between atopic eczema and the genetic variants of interleukin-4 and the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain gene: heterogeneity of genetic backgrounds on immunoglobulin E production in atopic eczema patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Sugiura, H; Uehara, M; Hashimoto, Y; Donnelly, C; Montgomery, D S

    2001-10-01

    The genetic background of atopic eczema might be heterogeneous and there is a possibility that immunoglobulin (Ig)E responsiveness in patients with atopic eczema is controlled separately from the development of atopic eczema. Although both interleukin (IL)-4 and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain have an important role for IgE production and are therefore possible candidate genes for atopy, it has not been clarified whether these genes play any roles in atopic eczema patients who have normal IgE productivity. We aimed to assess whether the polymorphisms of the IL-4 gene and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain gene play any roles in atopic eczema patients, particularly in patients who have normal IgE productivity. We determined the genotype with regard to polymorphisms in the genes for IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (- 589C/T of IL-4; Ile50Val, Ala375Glu and Arg551Gln of IL-4 receptor alpha chain) in patients with atopic eczema using the fluorogenic 5' nuclease assay. IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain genotypes were not significantly associated with either total patients with atopic eczema or atopic eczema patients who had normal IgE productivity. The distribution of genotypes of IL-4-589C/T differed by the serum IgE levels in patients with atopic eczema. These results suggest that the polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain gene play no role in the development of atopic eczema in patients who have normal IgE productivity.

  7. User evaluation of patient counselling, combining nurse consultation and eHealth in hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Mollerup, Annette; Harboe, Gitte; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the findings from a user evaluation of a counselling programme for hand eczema patients in which face-to-face encounters were supplemented with user access to a new website. Patients treated for hand eczema in two different settings were included consecutively. Website utilization was examined by use of the transaction log. Comparisons were made between participants who used the website and those who did not. The patients' perspectives were explored by the use of interviews. Among potential website users (n = 140), 88 patients (63%) had an average of 5.1 site visits. At follow-up, the website users had improved more in quality of life (p = 0.014), current burden of disease (p = 0.053), and itching (p = 0.042). The website users reported more changes in habits than did the non-website users (p = 0.024). No differences in clinical severity of hand eczema were found. The interviewees were generally satisfied with the counselling and the website. The strict log-on procedures were considered to be an obstacle to using the site. The consecutive inclusion of participants was considered to be a barrier to engagement in the dialogue forum. The website users benefited from the website, although this was not substantiated by clinical measurements. The trial design partly hampered website utilization. An initial feasibility study could have been warranted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), a core instrument to measure symptoms in clinical trials: a Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) statement.

    PubMed

    Spuls, P I; Gerbens, L A A; Simpson, E; Apfelbacher, C J; Chalmers, J R; Thomas, K S; Prinsen, C A C; von Kobyletzki, L B; Singh, J A; Williams, H C; Schmitt, J

    2017-04-01

    The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has defined four core outcome domains for a core outcome set (COS) to be measured in all atopic eczema (AE) trials to ensure cross-trial comparison: clinical signs, symptoms, quality of life and long-term control. The aim of this paper is to report on the consensus process that was used to select the core instrument to consistently assess symptoms in all future AE trials. Following the HOME roadmap, two systematic reviews were performed which identified three instruments that had sufficient evidence of validity, reliability and feasibility to be considered for the final COS. At the fourth international HOME meeting, there was broad consensus among all stakeholders that the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) should be used as the core instrument (87·5% agreed, 9·4% unsure, 3·1% disagreed). All relevant stakeholders are encouraged to use POEM as the chosen instrument to measure the core domain of symptoms in all future AE clinical trials. Other instruments of interest can be used in addition to POEM. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Eek! It's Eczema!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Eczema KidsHealth / For Kids / Eczema What's in this article? ... need to worry. It's just eczema. What Is Eczema? Eczema (say: EK-zeh-ma) is also called ...

  10. [Experience of sexuality in patients with psoriasis and constitutional eczema].

    PubMed

    van Dorssen, I E; Boom, B W; Hengeveld, M W

    1992-10-31

    In order to determine the effect of chronic skin disorders on sexuality a cross-sectional study was carried out in the Dermatological Outpatient Clinic of Leiden University Hospital. Fifty-two patients with psoriasis and 25 patients with atopic dermatitis filled in a questionnaire which included items on sexual responsiveness and satisfaction. The response rate was 84%. One-third of the patients, especially those with psoriasis, had problems with dating and starting sexual relationships, and were embarrassed in these relationships. The sexual responsiveness of both male and female patients was below that in the normal population. Women appeared to have more problems in this area then men. Their sexual satisfaction was lower than in the average Dutch population, whereas in men this trend was found to be reversed. Sexual responsiveness did not correlate with the extent of the skin disease or location around genital areas, but was associated with self-esteem and the number of emotional complaints. In the treatment of patients with chronic skin disorders attention should be paid to sexual problems that may arise. Groups that are especially affected are females and young psoriatics who have their first sexual relationship.

  11. Tertiary individual prevention improves mental health in patients with severe occupational hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Breuer, K; John, S M; Finkeldey, F; Boehm, D; Skudlik, C; Wulfhorst, B; Dwinger, C; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Schmid-Ott, G

    2015-09-01

    Occupational hand eczema (OHE) is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QoL) and mental distress. Interdisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation measures in the framework of tertiary individual prevention (TIP) offered by the German employers' liability insurance associations include dermatological treatment, education and psychological interventions. To investigate the effects of interdisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation in the framework of TIP on mental health in patients with severe OHE and the relationships between recovery of OHE and improvement of mental health and QoL. A total of 122 patients participated in the study. A test battery consisting of the German versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) and the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS) was applied at the time of admission (T1) and 3 weeks after dismissal (T2). Severity of hand eczema was assessed with the Osnabrueck Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI). All parameters improved significantly from T1 to T2. A relationship was established between the improvement of QoL and recovery of OHE, while there was no such relationship between the improvement of mental distress and improvement of OHE. Nonresponders had significantly more cumulative days of sickness at T1. Our data underscore the importance of psychological interventions in addition to dermatological treatment in the framework of prevention measures for OHE. These measures should be applied at an early stage of OHE prior to the occurrence of sick leave. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Enhanced Expression of IL-18 and IL-18BP in Plasma of Patients with Eczema: Altered Expression of IL-18BP and IL-18 Receptor on Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yalin; Wang, Junling; Zhang, Huiyun; Xie, Hua; Song, Weiwei; Jiang, Qijun; Zhao, Nan; He, Shaoheng

    2017-01-01

    IL-18 has been found to be associated with eczema. However, little is known of the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in eczema. We therefore investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R on mast cells by using flow cytometry analysis and mouse eczema model. The results showed that plasma free IL-18 and free IL-18BP levels in eczema patients were higher than those in healthy controls. IL-18 provoked up to 3.1-fold increase in skin mast cells. IL-18 induced also an increase in IL-18BP+ mast cells, but a reduction of IL-18R+ mast cells in mouse eczema skin. It was found that house dust mite allergen Der p1 and egg allergen OVA induced upregulation of the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R mRNAs in HMC-1 cells following 2 and 16 h incubation. In conclusion, correlation of IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema plasma suggests an important balance between IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema. The decrease in molar concentration ratio of plasma IL-18BP/IL-18 and allergen-induced upregulated expression of IL-18 and IL-18R in skin mast cells of the patients with eczema suggests that anti-IL-18 including IL-18BP therapy may be useful for the treatment of eczema.

  13. Enhanced Expression of IL-18 and IL-18BP in Plasma of Patients with Eczema: Altered Expression of IL-18BP and IL-18 Receptor on Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    IL-18 has been found to be associated with eczema. However, little is known of the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in eczema. We therefore investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R on mast cells by using flow cytometry analysis and mouse eczema model. The results showed that plasma free IL-18 and free IL-18BP levels in eczema patients were higher than those in healthy controls. IL-18 provoked up to 3.1-fold increase in skin mast cells. IL-18 induced also an increase in IL-18BP+ mast cells, but a reduction of IL-18R+ mast cells in mouse eczema skin. It was found that house dust mite allergen Der p1 and egg allergen OVA induced upregulation of the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R mRNAs in HMC-1 cells following 2 and 16 h incubation. In conclusion, correlation of IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema plasma suggests an important balance between IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema. The decrease in molar concentration ratio of plasma IL-18BP/IL-18 and allergen-induced upregulated expression of IL-18 and IL-18R in skin mast cells of the patients with eczema suggests that anti-IL-18 including IL-18BP therapy may be useful for the treatment of eczema. PMID:28839348

  14. Factors associated with combined hand and foot eczema.

    PubMed

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E; Foti, C; Gimenéz-Arnau, A; Goncalo, M; Goossens, A; Le Coz, C; Diepgen, T L

    2017-05-01

    As for hand eczema, the aetiology of foot eczema is multifactorial and not very well understood. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with foot eczema in a cohort of hand eczema patients being classified into different subgroups. Associations between foot and hand eczema were studied in a cross-sectional design in a cohort of hand eczema patients. Consecutive patients were recruited from nine different European Centres during the period October 2011-September 2012. Data on demographic factors, presence of foot eczema, hand eczema duration and severity, and whether the hand eczema was work-related or not were available, as well as patch-test results. Of a total of 427 hand eczema patients identified, information on foot eczema was available in 419 patients who were included in the present study. A total of 125 patients (29.8%) had concomitant foot and hand eczema. It was found more often in association with hyperkeratotic hand eczema (P = 0.007) and was less often associated with irritant hand eczema (P < 0.001). However, foot eczema was nevertheless found in 18% of patient with irritant hand eczema and in 25% of patients with occupational hand eczema. Combined foot and hand eczema was associated with more severe and long-standing hand eczema (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). Contact allergy was found in 51.8% with no difference between patients with combined foot and hand eczema and patients with hand eczema only. Occurrence of combined foot and hand eczema is a common finding and not restricted to endogenous hand eczema. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Bacterial communities living on the skin of eczema patients vary with disease severity | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A new study published in Science Translational Medicine reveals that strains of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can dominate the skin of patients with eczema. This discovery could bring clinicians one step closer to understanding possible targets for treatment. Learn more...

  16. Gradual increase in cutaneous threshold induced by repeated hypnosis of healthy individuals and patients with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Hájek, P; Jakoubek, B; Radil, T

    1990-04-01

    Gradual increase in cutaneous pain threshold was found in healthy subjects and patients with atopic eczema during repeated hypnotic sessions with specific suggestions. This increase was less in the former than in the latter group. Repeated threshold measurements did not influence the threshold. The analgesic effect outlasted the hypnotic sessions by several months. It could be, however, suddenly reduced by appropriate hypnotic suggestion.

  17. Texting atopic dermatitis patients to optimize learning and eczema area and severity index scores: A pilot randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Singer, Hannah M; Levin, Laura E; Morel, Kimberly D; Garzon, Maria C; Stockwell, Melissa S; Lauren, Christine T

    2018-05-02

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic, debilitating disease. Poor adherence to treatment is the most important preventable contributor to adverse outcomes. Thus, improving adherence can improve patient outcomes. Text message reminders with embedded condition-specific information have been shown to improve pediatric immunization adherence but have not been assessed in atopic dermatitis. The objective was to assess the effect of daily text messages on Eczema Area Severity Index scores and caregiver knowledge of atopic dermatitis. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis enrolled during their initial appointment with a pediatric dermatologist and randomized 1:1 to standard care or daily text messages with patient education material and treatment reminders. Participants completed a multiple-choice atopic dermatitis knowledge quiz at initial and follow-up visits, and Eczema Area Severity Index scores were assessed. Forty-two patients enrolled, and 30 completed the study: 16 standard care group, 14 text message group. There was no significant difference in Eczema Area Severity Index score between the standard care and text message groups at follow-up, with mean decreases in Eczema Area Severity Index score of 53% and 58%, respectively. Mean score on follow-up atopic dermatitis knowledge quiz was significantly higher in the text message group (84% correct) than in the standard care group (75% correct) (P = .04). This pilot study did not demonstrate a difference in Eczema Area Severity Index scores with text message reminders. The significantly higher follow-up atopic dermatitis quiz score in the text message group indicates that participants read and retained information from text messages. Limitations include small sample size and short duration of follow-up. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluating Written Patient Information for Eczema in German: Comparing the Reliability of Two Instruments, DISCERN and EQIP

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Megan E.; Wahl, Josepha; Schlecht, Inga; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Patients actively seek information about how to cope with their health problems, but the quality of the information available varies. A number of instruments have been developed to assess the quality of patient information, primarily though in English. Little is known about the reliability of these instruments when applied to patient information in German. The objective of our study was to investigate and compare the reliability of two validated instruments, DISCERN and EQIP, in order to determine which of these instruments is better suited for a further study pertaining to the quality of information available to German patients with eczema. Two independent raters evaluated a random sample of 20 informational brochures in German. All the brochures addressed eczema as a disorder and/or therapy options and care. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients, agreement was tested with weighted kappas, and the correlation of the raters’ scores for each instrument was measured with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. DISCERN demonstrated substantial intra- and inter-rater reliability. It also showed slightly better agreement than EQIP. There was a strong correlation of the raters’ scores for both instruments. The findings of this study support the reliability of both DISCERN and EQIP. However, based on the results of the inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation analyses, we consider DISCERN to be the more precise tool for our project on patient information concerning the treatment and care of eczema. PMID:26440612

  19. Evaluating Written Patient Information for Eczema in German: Comparing the Reliability of Two Instruments, DISCERN and EQIP.

    PubMed

    McCool, Megan E; Wahl, Josepha; Schlecht, Inga; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Patients actively seek information about how to cope with their health problems, but the quality of the information available varies. A number of instruments have been developed to assess the quality of patient information, primarily though in English. Little is known about the reliability of these instruments when applied to patient information in German. The objective of our study was to investigate and compare the reliability of two validated instruments, DISCERN and EQIP, in order to determine which of these instruments is better suited for a further study pertaining to the quality of information available to German patients with eczema. Two independent raters evaluated a random sample of 20 informational brochures in German. All the brochures addressed eczema as a disorder and/or therapy options and care. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients, agreement was tested with weighted kappas, and the correlation of the raters' scores for each instrument was measured with Pearson's correlation coefficient. DISCERN demonstrated substantial intra- and inter-rater reliability. It also showed slightly better agreement than EQIP. There was a strong correlation of the raters' scores for both instruments. The findings of this study support the reliability of both DISCERN and EQIP. However, based on the results of the inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation analyses, we consider DISCERN to be the more precise tool for our project on patient information concerning the treatment and care of eczema.

  20. Classification of hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E; Foti, C; Gimenéz-Arnau, A; Goncalo, M; Goossens, A; Le Coz, C; Diepgen, T L

    2015-12-01

    Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. Patients were recruited from nine different tertiary referral centres. All patients underwent examination by specialists in dermatology and were checked using relevant allergy testing. Patients were classified into one of the six diagnostic subgroups of HE: allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, atopic HE, protein contact dermatitis/contact urticaria, hyperkeratotic endogenous eczema and vesicular endogenous eczema, respectively. An additional diagnosis was given if symptoms indicated that factors additional to the main diagnosis were of importance for the disease. Four hundred and twenty-seven patients were included, 379 (89%) of the patients could be classified directly into one of the six diagnostic subgroups, with irritant and allergic contact dermatitis comprising 249 patients (58%). For 32 (7%) more than one of the six diagnostic subgroups had been formulated as a main diagnosis, and 16 (4%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. We find that the classification system investigated in the present study was useful, being able to give an appropriate main diagnosis for 89% of HE patients, and for another 7% when using two main diagnoses. The fact that more than half of the patients had one or more additional diagnoses illustrates that HE is a multifactorial disease. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. The Hand Eczema Trial (HET): Design of a randomised clinical trial of the effect of classification and individual counselling versus no intervention among health-care workers with hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Agner, Tove; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Gluud, Christian

    2010-08-31

    Hand eczema is the most frequently recognized occupational disease in Denmark with an incidence of approximately 0.32 per 1000 person-years. Consequences of hand eczema include chronic severe eczema, prolonged sick leave, unemployment, and impaired quality of life. New preventive strategies are needed to reduce occupational hand eczema. We describe the design of a randomised clinical trial to investigate the effects of classification of hand eczema plus individual counselling versus no intervention. The trial includes health-care workers with hand eczema identified from a self-administered questionnaire delivered to 3181 health-care workers in three Danish hospitals. The questionnaire identifies the prevalence of hand eczema, knowledge of skin-protection, and exposures that can lead to hand eczema. At entry, all participants are assessed regarding: disease severity (Hand Eczema Severity Index); self-evaluated disease severity; number of eruptions; quality of life; skin protective behaviour, and knowledge of skin protection. The patients are centrally randomised to intervention versus no intervention 1:1 stratified for hospital, profession, and severity score. The experimental group undergoes patch and prick testing; classification of the hand eczema; demonstration of hand washing and appliance of emollients; individual counselling, and a skin-care programme. The control group receives no intervention. All participants are reassessed after six months. The primary outcome is observer-blinded assessment of disease severity and the secondary outcomes are unblinded assessments of disease severity; number of eruptions; knowledge of skin protection; skin-protective behaviour, and quality of life. The trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.Gov, NCT01012453.

  2. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    PubMed

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  3. The digital eczema centre utrecht.

    PubMed

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Veelen, Carien; Hover, Maaike; Eland-de Kok, Petra; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Sonnevelt, Gert-Jan; Mensing, Geert; Pasmans, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The University Medical Centre Utrecht (UMC Utrecht) has developed an eczema portal that combines e-consulting, monitoring and self-management training by a dermatology nurse online for patients and parents of young children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Patient satisfaction with the portal was high. It could be extended to become a Digital Eczema Centre for multidisciplinary collaboration between health-care providers from different locations and the patient. Before starting the construction of the Digital Eczema Centre, the feasibility was examined by carrying out a business case analysis. The purposes, strength and weaknesses showed that the Digital Eczema Centre offered opportunities to improve care for patients with AD. The financial analysis resulted in a medium/best case scenario with a positive result of euro50-240,000 over a period of five years. We expect that the Digital Eczema Centre will increase the accessibility and quality of care. The web-based patient record and the digital chain-of-care promote the involvement of patients, parents and multidisciplinary teams as well as the continuity and coordination of care.

  4. Viewing a humorous film decreases IgE production by seminal B cells from patients with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2009-02-01

    Sperms induced IgE production by seminal B cells from patients with atopic eczema via interaction of B cells with galectin-3 on sperms. We studied the effect of viewing a humorous film on IgE production by seminal B cells cultured with sperms. Twenty-four male patients with atopic eczema viewed a humorous film (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin). Just before and immediately after viewing, semen was collected, and seminal B cells and sperms were purified. Seminal B cells were cultured with sperms and IgE production was measured, while expression of galectin-3 on sperms was assessed. After viewing the humorous film, IgE production by B cells cultured with sperms was significantly decreased. Moreover, expression of galectin-3 on sperms was reduced. Viewing a humorous film reduced galectin-3 expression on sperms, which in turn decreased IgE production by seminal B cells cultured with sperms. These results indicate that viewing a humorous film may be helpful for the study and treatment of local IgE production and allergy in the reproductive tract.

  5. Predicting eczema severity beyond childhood.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Yin-Ching K; Poon, Terence Chuen W; Pong, Nga Hin; Kwan, Matthew; Lau, Shirley; Chiu, Yuen-Chun; Wong, Hin-Hei; Leung, Ting-Fan

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated factors associated with eczema severity in adolescence. Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), family and personal history of atopy, skin prick test for common food and aeroallergens, highest serum IgE level and eosinophil count were evaluated. Patients with paired NESSs (childhood-NESS is NESS performed at <10 years of age; adolescence-NESS is NESS performed at age >10 years) were further analyzed. Adolescence-NESS (n=383 patients) was associated with eczema onset in infancy, dust mite and food allergen sensitization, dietary avoidance, use of wet wrap, traditional Chinese medicine, immunomodulant (azathioprine or cyclosporine), high IgE level, eosinophil count, but not with family/personal history of atopy. Eighty-two patients had both childhood-NESS and adolescence-NESS (mean follow-up of 6.8 years) showing that adolescence-NESS was associated with childhood- NESS severity grades (P=0.034). Of these patients, 48% remained in the same severity grades, whereas 39% improved, and 13% deteriorated from childhood to adolescence. It is not possible to assure parents that their child can outgrow eczema. In eczema prognosis research, long-term follow-up is warranted.

  6. Increase in dermcidin-derived peptides in sweat of patients with atopic eczema caused by a humorous video.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Dermcidin (DCD)-derived peptide is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the sweat glands. However, the levels of DCD-derived peptide in sweat were decreased in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The effect of viewing a humorous video on the levels of DCD-derived peptide was studied. Twenty patients with AE viewed an 87-min humorous video (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin). Just before and immediately after viewing, sweat was collected, and the levels of DCD-derived peptide and total protein in sweat were measured. Viewing a humorous video increased the levels of DCD-derived peptide without affecting the levels of total protein in sweat. Viewing a humorous video increased DCD-derived peptide in sweat of patients with AE, and thus, it may be helpful in the treatment of skin infection of AE.

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies in acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema: results of a qualitative study of patients' experiences and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Magin, Parker J; Adams, Jon; Heading, Gaynor S; Pond, Dimity C; Smith, Wayne

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in patients with acne, psoriasis, or atopic eczema and the attitudes about CAM of these patients. This was a qualitative study, utilizing semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Patients were recruited from the practices of dermatologists and general practitioners in a noncapital Australian city. Twenty-six (26) interviews were conducted with patients with acne, 29 with psoriasis, and 7 with atopic eczema. Use of CAM therapies was common. Participants tended to value CAM over orthodox therapies because of their preference for natural approaches to their skin diseases and the perceived lesser potential for adverse effects of CAM therapies. Respondents with acne were more confident about the efficacy of CAM than were those with psoriasis or eczema. The resulting sense of control attenuated psychologic sequelae of acne. This was not apparent in psoriasis or eczema. Practitioners should be cognizant of the likely use of CAM and its implications (including the potential for attenuation of psychologic morbidity) in their patients who have skin diseases.

  8. A Study Comparing the Quality of Life of Patients in the Treatment of Eczema by Pediatric Generalists and Specialists

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-09

    Eczema; Dermatitis; Dermatitis, Atopic; Genetic Disease, Inborn; Hypersensitivity; Hypersensitivity, Immediate; Immune System Diseases; Skin Diseases; Skin Diseases, Eczematous; Skin Diseases, Genetic

  9. Increased AβPP processing in familial Danish dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shuji; Tamayev, Robert; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the BRI2/ITM2B gene causes Familial Danish Dementia (FDD). We have generated a mouse model of FDD, called FDDKI, genetically congruous to the human disease. These mice carry one mutant and one wild type Bri2/Itm2b allele, like FDD patients. Analysis of FDDKI mice and samples from human patients has shown that the Danish mutation causes loss of Bri2 protein. FDDKI mice show synaptic plasticity and memory impairments. BRI2 is a physiological interactor of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), a gene associated with Alzheimer's disease, which inhibits processing of AβPP. AβPP/Bri2 complexes are reduced in synaptic membranes of FDDKI mice. Consequently, AβPP metabolites derived from processing of AβPP by β-, α-, and γ-secretases are increased in Danish dementia mice. AβPP haplodeficiency prevents memory and synaptic dysfunctions, consistent with a role for AβPP-metabolites in the pathogenesis of memory and synaptic deficits. This genetic suppression provides compelling evidence that AβPP and BRI2 functionally interact. Here, we have investigated whether AβPP processing is altered in FDD patients' brain samples. We find that the levels of several AβPP metabolites, including Aβ, are significantly increased in the brain sample derived from an FDD patient. Our data are consistent with the findings in FDDKI mice, and support the hypothesis that the neurological effects of the Danish form of BRI2 are caused by toxic AβPP metabolites, suggesting that Familial Danish and Alzheimer's dementias share common pathogenic mechanisms.

  10. Environmental contact factors in eczema and the results of patch testing Chinese patients with a modified European standard series of allergens.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Feng; Guo, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2004-07-01

    Environmental contact factors in eczema were investigated in China by clinical questionnaire and patch testing patients with a modified European standard series of allergens. 217 consecutive eczema patients were studied. Contact dermatitis (CD) was clinically diagnosed in 30% of the patients. Among the patients patch tested, 46 patients had clinically diagnosed allergic CD (ACD), 20 patients clinically had non-ACD (NACD) (including 16 cases of irritant contact dermatitis, 1 case of phototoxic contact reaction and 3 cases of asteatotic eczema) and 115 patients had clinically suspected ACD. 45 patients (98%) in the ACD group went on to have relevant patch test results. The most common ACD was from metals, fragrance materials, cosmetics and rubber materials. The most common contact allergens identified were nickel, fragrance mix, para-phenylenediamine (PPD), carba mix and thimerosal. No adverse reactions were observed to patch testing, except for pruritus in patch-test-positive patients. The positive rate of patch testing in ACD was much higher than that in NACD (98% versus 15%, P < 0.05, chi(2)-test). 60 (28%) patients had facial dermatitis (FD). Among these, 20 (33%) were confirmed as having ACD. 48 (22%) patients had hand dermatitis (HD). Among these, 7 (15%) were confirmed as having ACD. Fewer patients were confirmed as having ACD in the HD group than in the FD (15% versus 33%, P < 0.05, chi(2)-test). Although the difference was not significant, the total positivity rate in the HD group (55%) was lower than in the other groups. 65 (30%) patients had unclassified endogenous eczema (UEE). The total positive rate of patch testing in the UEE group (56%) was no different from that in the FD or HD groups. However, the relevance of positive patch tests was hard to determine in UEE. These results indicate that CD is common in eczema; relatively more patients with FD have ACD, while other factors, such as irritation, may play more of a role in HD. The total positive rate

  11. Increased AβPP Processing in Familial Danish Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Shuji; Tamayev, Robert; D’Adamio, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the BRI2/ITM2B gene causes Familial Danish Dementia (FDD). We have generated a mouse model of FDD, called FDDKI, genetically congruous to the human disease. These mice carry one mutant and one wild type Bri2/Itm2b allele, like FDD patients. Analysis of FDDKI mice and samples from human patients has shown that the Danish mutation causes loss of Bri2 protein. FDDKI mice show synaptic plasticity and memory impairments. BRI2 is a physiological interactor of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), a gene associated with Alzheimer’s disease, which inhibits processing of AβPP. AβPP/Bri2 complexes are reduced in synaptic membranes of FDDKI mice. Consequently, AβPP metabolites derived from processing of AβPP by β-, α-, and γ-secretases are increased in Danish dementia mice. AβPP haplodeficiency prevents memory and synaptic dysfunctions, consistent with a role for AβPP-metabolites in the pathogenesis of memory and synaptic deficits. This genetic suppression provides compelling evidence that AβPP and BRI2 functionally interact. Here, we have investigated whether AβPP processing is altered in FDD patients’ brain samples. We find that the levels of several AβPP metabolites, including Aβ, are significantly increased in the brain sample derived from an FDD patient. Our data are consistent with the findings in FDDKI mice, and support the hypothesis that the neurological effects of the Danish form of BRI2 are caused by toxic AβPP metabolites, suggesting that Familial Danish and Alzheimer’s dementias share common pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:21841249

  12. Standardized Reporting of the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM): A Recommendation by the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) Initiative.

    PubMed

    Grinich, E; Schmitt, J; Küster, D; Spuls, P I; Williams, H C; Chalmers, J R; Thomas, K S; Apfelbacher, C; Prinsen, C A C; Furue, M; Stuart, B; Carter, B; Simpson, E

    2018-05-10

    Several organizations from multiple fields of medicine are setting standards for clinical research including protocol development, 1 harmonization of outcome reporting, 2 statistical analysis, 3 quality assessment 4 and reporting of findings. 1 Clinical research standardization facilitates the interpretation and synthesis of data, increases the usability of trial results for guideline groups and shared decision-making, and reduces selective outcome reporting bias. The mission of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is to establish an agreed-upon core set of outcomes to be measured and reported in all clinical trials of atopic dermatitis (AD). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Automatic detection and severity measurement of eczema using image processing.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Nafiul; Munia, Tamanna Tabassum Khan; Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nick; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2016-08-01

    Chronic skin diseases like eczema may lead to severe health and financial consequences for patients if not detected and controlled early. Early measurement of disease severity, combined with a recommendation for skin protection and use of appropriate medication can prevent the disease from worsening. Current diagnosis can be costly and time-consuming. In this paper, an automatic eczema detection and severity measurement model are presented using modern image processing and computer algorithm. The system can successfully detect regions of eczema and classify the identified region as mild or severe based on image color and texture feature. Then the model automatically measures skin parameters used in the most common assessment tool called "Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI)," by computing eczema affected area score, eczema intensity score, and body region score of eczema allowing both patients and physicians to accurately assess the affected skin.

  14. Steroid fears in children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Kam, Wai-Yan Christy; Leung, Ting-Fan; Lam, Man-Ching Adrian; Wong, Kin-Yee; Lee, Kwing-Chin Kenneth; Luk, Nai-Ming Tommy; Fok, Tai-Fai; Ng, Pak-Cheung

    2006-11-01

    Topical glucocorticoids (GCs) are the mainstay of treatment for eczema, but GC phobia and fears are very common among the parents of paediatric patients. To survey the nature and extent of "fears" of GC use, and to evaluate if disease severity is associated with such fears. Patients with eczema managed in the paediatric dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital were recruited in this survey. Disease severity and various aspects of belief and practices of GC use were assessed with the Nottingham Eczema Severity Score and a questionnaire. GC "fears" were present in two fifths of informants with non-eczematous skin disease and mild eczema, but three fifths in moderate-to-severe disease. Requests for steroid-sparing medications (such as tacrolimus or pimecrolimus) had been made in nearly 50% of cases with moderate-to-severe eczema, and many parents would wait until eczema had worsened or apply GC only as a last resort to avoid potential side effects. "Fears" were predominantly interpersonal and rarely iatrogenic in nature. Skin problems (in particular skin thinning) and adverse effects on growth were the side effects of GC of most concern. However, fewer than half of the informants had discussed their concerns with doctors. Our results suggest the importance of understanding the nature and extent to which GC fears, regardless of eczema severity, are prevalent so that sound advice can be offered in a timely manner to parents and patients.

  15. The Quality of Life in Hand Eczema Questionnaire (QOLHEQ): validation of the German version of a new disease-specific measure of quality of life for patients with hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Ofenloch, R F; Weisshaar, E; Dumke, A-K; Molin, S; Diepgen, T L; Apfelbacher, C

    2014-08-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is widely used as a patient-reported outcome to evaluate clinical trials. In routine care it can also be used to improve treatment strategies or to enhance patients' self-awareness and empowerment. Therefore a disease-specific instrument is needed that assesses in detail all the impairments caused by the disease of interest. For patients with hand eczema (HE) such an instrument was developed by an international expert group, but its measurement properties are unknown. To validate the German version of the Quality of Life in Hand Eczema Questionnaire (QOLHEQ), which covers the domains of (i) symptoms, (ii) emotions, (iii) functioning and (iv) treatment and prevention. The QOLHEQ was assessed up to three times in 316 patients with HE to test reliability and sensitivity to change. To test construct validity we also assessed several reference measures. The scale structure was analysed using the Rasch model for each subscale and a structural equation model was used to test the multi domain structure of the QOLHEQ. After minor adaptions of the scoring structure, all four subscales of the QOLHEQ did not significantly misfit the Rasch model (α > 0·05). The fit indices of the structural equation model showed a good fit of the multi domain construct with four subscales assessing HRQOL. Nearly all a priori-defined hypotheses relating to construct validity could be confirmed. The QOLHEQ showed a sensitivity to change that was superior compared with all reference measures. The QOLHEQ is ready to be used in its German version as a sensitive outcome measure in clinical trials and for routine monitoring. The treatment-relevant subscales enable its use to enhance patients' self-awareness and to monitor treatment decisions. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Enhancement of allergic skin wheal responses in patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome by playing video games or by a frequently ringing mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Kimata, H

    2003-06-01

    Playing video games causes physical and psychological stress, including increased heart rate and blood pressure and aggression-related feelings. Use of mobile phones is very popular in Japan, and frequent ringing is a common and intrusive part of Japanese life. Atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome is often exacerbated by stress. Stress increases serum IgE levels, skews cytokine pattern towards Th2 type, enhances allergen-induced skin wheal responses, and triggers mast cell degranulation via substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor. (1). In the video game study, normal subjects (n = 25), patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 25) or atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (n = 25) played a video game (STREET FIGHTER II) for 2 h. Before and after the study, allergen-induced wheal responses, plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor, and in vitro production of total IgE, antihouse dust mite IgE and cytokines were measured. (2). In the mobile phone study, normal subjects (n = 27), patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 27) or atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (n = 27) were exposed to 30 incidences of ringing mobile phones during 30 min. Before and after the study, allergen-induced wheal responses, plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor were measured. Playing video games had no effect on the normal subjects or the patients with allergic rhinitis. In contrast, playing video games significantly enhanced allergen-induced skin wheal responses and increased plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factors in the patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Moreover, playing video games enhanced in vitro production of total IgE and anti-house dust mite IgE with concomitant increased production of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 and decreased production of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in the patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. However, exposure

  17. Basal electrical impedance in relation to sodium lauryl sulphate-induced skin reactions--a comparison of patients with eczema and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Natalia; Hagströmer, Lena; Nyrén, Miruna; Emtestam, Lennart

    2003-11-01

    Identification of subjects at risk for contact dermatitis by screening tests is desirable in order to adjust the preventive measures to individual skin susceptibility. The present study aimed to examine the effects of basic physiological features, such as baseline electrical impedance (IMP) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), on reactivity to sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). On the basis of two previous studies, we re-evaluated the experimental irritant skin reactions (50 microL of 2% SLS in large Finn Chambers for 24 h) on the volar forearms of 29 patients with eczema and 19 healthy controls. We found definite differences in the baseline values of IMP, between the patients and the controls. Moreover, patients with eczema showed higher TEWL and lower MIX values on day 3 after exposure to SLS, which may indicate differences in SLS reactivity. After the study, the biophysical parameters of the eczema patients did not return to baseline, which suggests that their skin heals more slowly than that of normal subjects. Our findings indicate that the IMP technique may help to 'detect' chemically vulnerable skin. However, more studies are needed to determine the value of the basal electrical impedance parameters in assessing the risk of developing irritant contact dermatitis.

  18. Core beliefs and psychological distress in patients with psoriasis and atopic eczema attending secondary care: the role of schemas in chronic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Mizara, A; Papadopoulos, L; McBride, S R

    2012-05-01

    The role of ingrained cognitive and emotional patterns (schemas) in patients with psoriasis and eczema has not previously been investigated. High levels of psychiatric morbidity and psychological distress observed in these populations suggest the presence of maladaptive schemas and therefore a possible target for future successful psychological intervention. To investigate the presence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) in patients with psoriasis and eczema and to explore their links with psychological distress. A sample of 185 adults (psoriasis n = 55, atopic eczema n = 54, chronic disease control n = 23, normal control n = 53) completed validated, self-administered questionnaires. Differences were found between dermatology patients and control groups. Patients with psoriasis differed on seven EMS from the normal control group: emotional deprivation (P = 0·011), social isolation (P < 0·001), defectiveness (P < 0·001), failure (P < 0·001), vulnerability to harm (P < 0·001), subjugation (P = 0·009) and emotional inhibition (P = 0·002). They differed from the chronic disease group on vulnerability to harm (P = 0·002) only. Patients with eczema differed from the normal control group on eight EMS: emotional deprivation (P < 0·001), social isolation (P < 0·001), defectiveness (P < 0·001), failure (P < 0·001), dependence (P = 0·010), vulnerability to harm (P = 0·002), subjugation (P = 0·006) and insufficient self-control (P = 0·010). EMS were strongly positively related to psychological distress experienced by dermatology patients. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated two schemas, vulnerability to harm (P < 0·001) and defectiveness (P = 0·029), to be predictive of anxiety, and social isolation (P = 0·012) and vulnerability to harm (P = 0·018) to be predictive of depression, irrespective of age and years of coping for dermatology patients. The findings have important theoretical and clinical implications for psychological management of patients

  19. Impact of systemic alitretinoin treatment on skin barrier gene and protein expression in patients with chronic hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Kumari, V; Timm, K; Kühl, A A; Heine, G; Worm, M

    2016-12-01

    Chronic hand eczema (CHE) is a common inflammatory skin disease that affects approximately 10% of the population. Systemic alitretinoin has been shown to be effective in patients with CHE who are refractory to topical corticosteroids. To analyse the impact of alitretinoin on the skin barrier genes and protein expression in the skin lesions of patients with CHE. Fifteen patients with CHE were treated with 30 mg daily of alitretinoin for up to 27 weeks. Disease severity was assessed using a clinical score. Skin biopsies from all the patients were evaluated before and after therapy for the expression of Ki-67, various skin barrier genes and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. After alitretinoin application, an improvement in the clinical severity of CHE was observed in the majority of patients. Analysis of skin biopsies before treatment showed a significant increase in Ki-67-positive cells in the suprabasal layer and a dysregulated expression of various skin barrier genes, such as claudin 1, loricrin, filaggrin and cytokeratin 10, which were normalized after treatment. TSLP was significantly upregulated in patients with CHE and also normalized after alitretinoin treatment and negatively correlated with filaggrin. Our data indicate that the expression of barrier genes and proteins was normalized following treatment with alitretinoin in patients with CHE. The change in expression levels of these genes correlated with the clinical efficacy, suggesting that alitretinoin exhibits a disease-modifying activity. TSLP is upregulated in CHE and seems to counteract filaggrin expression in the skin. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and

  1. Eczema (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin to become scaly and inflamed), and contact dermatitis (caused by direct skin contact with an irritating substance, such as a metal, ... How Do I Get Rid of Eczema Scars? Eczema Impetigo View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & ...

  2. Analysis of patient diaries in Danish ICUs: a narrative approach.

    PubMed

    Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2009-10-01

    The objective was to describe the structure and content of patient diaries written for critically ill patients in Danish intensive care units (ICUs). Critical illness is associated with physical and psychological aftermath including cognitive impairment and post-traumatic stress. Patient diaries written in the intensive care unit are used to help ICU-survivors come to terms with their illness. The study had a qualitative, descriptive and explorative design, using a narrative approach of analysis. Data were analysed on several levels: extra-case level, case level, diary-entry level, and sub-entry level. The sample consisted of 25 patient diaries written by critical care nurses in 2007 for patients at a general ICU in Denmark. The base narrative describes three stages: crisis, turning point, and normalisation. Each case includes parallel plots of nurse, patient and family, which converge during normalisation. Each diary is structured by: summary, daily entries and end note. Each diary entry is structured by: greeting, narrator status, patient status, family status/contextual cues and sign-off note. Patient diaries acknowledge the patient experience and provide new insights into nursing performance. This study offers a framework for understanding ICU patient diaries, which may facilitate cross-unit comparisons and support future guideline development. The dual perspectives of patient diaries and the ambiguous ownership of the narratives may pave the way for insights to improve critical care nursing and ICU rehabilitation.

  3. Clinical Features and Awareness of Hand Eczema in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Kea Jeung; Lee, Ga-Young; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kim, Do Won; Lee, Seok Jong; Lee, Cheol Heon; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul; Chang, Sung Eun; Moon, Kee Chan; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Hyung-Ok; Kang, Hoon; Lee, Min Geol; Kim, Soo-Chan; Ro, Young Suck; Ko, Joo Yeon; Park, Mi Youn; Kim, Myung Hwa; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Hae Young; Hong, Chang Kwun; Lee, Sung Yul; Bak, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand eczema is one of the most common skin disorders and negatively affects quality of life. However, a large-scale multicenter study investigating the clinical features of patients with hand eczema has not yet been conducted in Korea. Objective To identify the prevalence of various hand diseases, which is defined as all cutaneous disease occurring in hands, and to investigate the clinical features of patients with hand eczema and the awareness about hand eczema in the general population and to compare the prevalence of hand eczema between health care providers and non-health care providers. Methods To estimate the prevalence of hand diseases, we analyzed the medical records of patients from 24 medical centers. Patients were assessed by online and offline questionnaires. A 1,000 from general population and 913 hand eczema patients answered the questionnaire, for a total of 1,913 subjects. Results The most common hand disease was irritant contact dermatitis. In an online survey, the lifetime prevalence of hand eczema was 31.2%. Hand eczema was more likely to occur in females (66.0%) and younger (20~39 years, 53.9%). Health care providers and housewives were the occupations most frequently associated with hand eczema. Winter (33.6%) was the most common season which people experienced aggravation. The 63.0% and 67.0% answered that hand eczema hinders their personal relationship and negatively affects daily living activities, respectively. Conclusion Hand eczema is a very common disease and hinders the quality of life. The appropriate identification of hand eczema is necessary to implement effective and efficient treatment. PMID:27274632

  4. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  5. Eczema, Atopic Dermatitis, or Atopic Eczema: Analysis of Global Search Engine Trends.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Thyssen, Jacob P; Paller, Amy S; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates challenges for scientific communication, patient education, and advocacy. We sought to determine the relative popularity of the terms eczema, AD, and atopic eczema (AE) using global search engine volumes. A retrospective analysis of average monthly search volumes from 2014 to 2016 of Google, Bing/Yahoo, and Baidu was performed for eczema, AD, and AE in English and 37 other languages. Google Trends was used to determine the relative search popularity of each term from 2006 to 2016 in English and the top foreign languages, German, Turkish, Russian, and Japanese. Overall, eczema accounted for 1.5 million monthly searches (84%) compared with 247 000 searches for AD (14%) and 44 000 searches for AE (2%). For English language, eczema accounted for 93% of searches compared with 6% for AD and 1% for AE. Search popularity for eczema increased from 2006 to 2016 but remained stable for AD and AE. Given the ambiguity of the term eczema, we recommend the universal use of the next most popular term, AD.

  6. Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anything that can irritate your skin. Wear cotton gloves under plastic gloves to soak up sweat ... make your eczema worse. Wear clothes made of cotton or a cotton blend. Wool and some synthetic ...

  7. Flares in childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Langan, S M

    2009-01-01

    Eczema is a major public health problem affecting children worldwide. Few studies have directly assessed triggers for disease flares. This paper presents evidence from a published systematic review and a prospective cohort study looking at flare factors in eczema. This systematic review suggested that foodstuffs in selected groups, dust exposure, unfamiliar pets, seasonal variation, stress, and irritants may be important in eczema flares. We performed a prospective cohort study that focused on environmental factors and identified associations between exposure to nylon clothing, dust, unfamiliar pets, sweating, shampoo, and eczema flares. Results from this study also demonstrated some new key findings. First, the effect of shampoo was found to increase in cold weather, and second, combinations of environmental factors were associated with disease exacerbation, supporting a multiple component disease model. This information is likely to be useful to families and may lead to the ability to reduce disease flares in the future.

  8. Increased expression of RANTES, CCR3 and CCR5 in the lesional skin of patients with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoko; Pawankar, Ruby; Kimura, Yoichi; Kawana, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a relapsing inflammatory disease based on IgE sensitization and characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophil infiltration into the lesional skin. In the patch test reaction of AE by allergens, an increased infiltration of activated eosinophils has been demonstrated peaking at 24-48 h. Regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5) is a chemokine that induces eosinophil migration, and CCR3 and CCR5 are the receptors of RANTES. In order to further clarify the pathomechanisms of eosinophil infiltration in ongoing chronic inflammation in the skin of patients with AE and its relation to disease severity, we examined the expression of RANTES and its receptors CCR3 and CCR5 in challenged and unchallenged lesional skin of AE. We examined the number of RANTES+ cells, CCR3+ cells, CCR5+cells, activated (EG2+) eosinophils and CD3+ T cells in normal skin of healthy volunteers, and in challenged lesional skin (24 h after mite patch test) as well as unchallenged lesional skin of AE patients by immunohistochemistry. The cellular source of RANTES, CCR3 and CCR5 was analyzed by double immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies to RANTES, CCR3 or CCR5, and antibodies to ECP (EG2) or CD3. The numbers of RANTES+ cells, CCR3+ cells, CCR5+ cells, EG2+ cells and CD3+ cells were all significantly increased in challenged (mite patch-tested) lesional skin of AE patients as compared to those in unchallenged lesional skin and normal skin. The numbers of these cells in unchallenged lesional skin were greater than those in normal skin. The number of EG2+ cells in the unchallenged lesional skin correlated with both the peripheral blood eosinophil count and the SCORAD index. The number of EG2+ cells in challenged lesional skin correlated with the number of CCR5+ cells. Activated eosinophils and T cells expressed RANTES and various proportions of these cells were CCR3+ and CCR5+ in both challenged and unchallenged lesional skin

  9. [Atopic eczema: psychophysiological reactivity with standardized stressors].

    PubMed

    Münzel, K; Schandry, R

    1990-11-01

    In 18 atopic eczema patients with active symptomatology and 15 control subjects a comparison of reactivity to psychological stressors was made. The physiological measures were heart rate, peripheral vasomotor response, skin resistance level, spontaneous fluctuations of the skin resistance, and forearm skin temperature. In addition, self-ratings of subjective state, situational anxiety, and social anxiety were assessed. Mental arithmetic performed undisturbed and in distracting conditions, and anticipation of the latter and of having to speak in public served as stressors. The results show higher reaction values of the eczema patients for heart rate, peripheral vasomotor response, fluctuations of skin resistance and subjective tension. A subgroup of patients with extreme skin irritation (itching) reacted with an elevation of skin temperature, in contrast to control subjects and patients with less marked itching, in whom skin temperature dropped slightly. The results suggest that atopic eczema may have a psychophysiological component.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus colonization related to severity of hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Mernelius, S; Carlsson, E; Henricson, J; Löfgren, S; Lindgren, P-E; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Matussek, A; Anderson, C D

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge on Staphylococcus aureus colonization rates and epidemiology in hand eczema is limited. The aim of this study was to clarify some of these issues. Samples were collected by the "glove juice" method from the hands of 59 patients with chronic hand eczema and 24 healthy individuals. Swab samples were taken from anterior nares and throat from 43 of the 59 patients and all healthy individuals. S. aureus were spa typed and analysed by DNA-microarray-based genotyping. The extent of the eczema was evaluated by the hand eczema extent score (HEES). The colonization rate was higher on the hands of hand eczema patients (69 %) compared to healthy individuals (21 %, p < 0.001). This was also seen for bacterial density (p = 0.002). Patients with severe hand eczema (HEES ≥ 13) had a significantly higher S. aureus density on their hands compared to those with milder eczema (HEES = 1 to 12, p = 0.004). There was no difference between patients and healthy individuals regarding colonization rates in anterior nares or throat. spa typing and DNA-microarray-based genotyping indicated certain types more prone to colonize eczematous skin. Simultaneous colonization, in one individual, with S. aureus of different types, was identified in 60-85 % of the study subjects. The colonization rate and density indicate a need for effective treatment of eczema and may have an impact on infection control in healthcare.

  11. Danish VISA-A questionnaire with validation and reliability testing for Danish-speaking Achilles tendinopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Iversen, J V; Bartels, E M; Jørgensen, J E; Nielsen, T G; Ginnerup, C; Lind, M C; Langberg, H

    2016-12-01

    The VISA-A questionnaire has proven to be a valid and reliable tool for assessing severity of Achilles tendinopathy (AT). The aim was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the VISA-A questionnaire for a Danish-speaking AT population, and subsequently perform validity and reliability tests. Translation and following cross-cultural adaptation was performed as translation, synthesis, reverse translation, expert review, and pretesting. The final Danish version (VISA-A-DK) was tested for reliability on healthy controls (n = 75) and patients (n = 36). Tests for internal consistency, validity, and structure were performed on 71 patients. VISA-A-DK showed good reliability for patients (r = 0.80 ICC = 0.79) and healthy individuals (r = 0.98 ICC = 0.97). Internal consistency was 0.73 (Cronbach's alpha). The mean VISA-A-DK score in AT patients was 51 [47-55]. This was significantly lower than healthy controls with a score of 93 (90-95). Criterion validity was considered good when comparing the scores of the Danish version with the original version in both healthy individuals and patients. VISA-A-DK is a valid and reliable instrument and has shown compatible to the original version in assessment of AT patients. VISA-A-DK is a useful tool in the assessment of AT, both in research and in a clinical setting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Associations between lifestyle factors and hand eczema severity: are tobacco smoking, obesity and stress significantly linked to eczema severity?

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jennifer A; Fisker, Maja H; Agner, Tove; Clemmensen, Kim K B; Ebbehøj, Niels E

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that lifestyle factors such as smoking, overweight and stress may influence the prevalence and severity of hand eczema. To investigate the association between lifestyle factors and hand eczema severity in a cohort of patients with work-related hand eczema. Individuals with work-related hand eczema notified in the period between June 2012 and November 2013 were included in this questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Participants responded to a questionnaire including questions on lifestyle factors, as well as a photographic guide for assessment of severity of hand eczema and questions on quality of life. A total of 773 individuals (546 women and 227 men) responded to the questionnaire and were included in the study. A strong association was found between tobacco smoking and hand eczema severity (p = 0.003), whereas no significant association was found for body weight and stress. Other factors linked to severe eczema were male sex and older age (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively), and wet work (p = 0.08). The data from the present study strongly support an association between smoking and hand eczema severity. However, owing to the cross-sectional design of the study, no conclusion on causation can be drawn. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pseudoceramide for childhood eczema: does it work?

    PubMed

    Hon, K L; Wang, Susan S; Lau, Zoe; Lee, H C; Lee, Kenneth K C; Leung, T F; Luk, N M

    2011-04-01

    Atopic eczema is a chronic relapsing skin disease associated with atopy, and characterised by reduced skin hydration, impaired skin integrity (transepidermal water loss), and poor quality of life. Proper emollient usage is an important facet of its management. This study aimed to establish an approach to evaluate the efficacy of using an emollient over a 4-week period. Prospective observational study. A paediatric dermatology out-patient clinic of a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Consecutive new patients aged 5 to 18 years with atopic eczema diagnosed according to Hanifin and Rajka's criteria were recruited from March to August 2009. They or their parents were instructed to liberally apply the test emollient to the flexures and areas affected with eczema, twice daily. Outcome assessments were repeated 2 and 4 weeks later. Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss in the right forearm (2 cm below antecubital flexure), and disease severity (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index) and Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index. At the end of the study period, a global assessment of treatment was recorded. Thirty-three patients with atopic eczema were recruited and treated with applications of a pseudoceramide-containing cream (Curel, Kao, Japan). The mean age of the patients (16 males and 17 females) was 12 (standard deviation, 4) years. Four weeks following the use of the cream, skin hydration improved significantly and fewer patients were using topical corticosteroids. In these patients, there was no deterioration in transepidermal water loss, eczema severity, or quality of life. The pseudoceramide cream improved skin hydration but not severity or quality of life over a 4-week usage.

  14. Positive predictive value of infective endocarditis in the Danish National Patient Registry: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Lauge; Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Pedersen, Lars; Loldrup Fosbøl, Emil; Schmidt, Morten

    2018-05-30

    The positive predictive value of an infective endocarditis diagnosis is approximately 80% in the Danish National Patient Registry. However, since infective endocarditis is a heterogeneous disease implying long-term intravenous treatment, we hypothesiszed that the positive predictive value varies by length of hospital stay. A total of 100 patients with first-time infective endocarditis in the Danish National Patient Registry were identified from January 2010 - December 2012 at the University hospital of Aarhus and regional hospitals of Herning and Randers. Medical records were reviewed. We calculated the positive predictive value according to admission length, and separately for patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device and a prosthetic heart valve using the Wilson score method. Among the 92 medical records available for review, the majority of the patients had admission length ⩾2 weeks. The positive predictive value increased with length of admission. In patients with admission length <2 weeks the positive predictive value was 65% while it was 90% for admission length ⩾2 weeks. The positive predictive value was 81% for patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device and 87% for patients with a prosthetic valve. The positive predictive value of the infective endocarditis diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry is high for patients with admission length ⩾2 weeks. Using this algorithm, the Danish National Patient Registry provides a valid source for identifying infective endocarditis for research.

  15. Probiotics: immunomodulatory properties in allergy and eczema.

    PubMed

    Drago, L; Toscano, M; Pigatto, P D

    2013-10-01

    In the last decades the prevalence of allergic diseases and eczema raised significantly, and today they are the most common chronic pathologies affecting children. It has been shown that a functional intestinal mucosa provides a defensive barrier to the host against potential dangerous antigens, regulating the tolerance to them. Some inflammatory diseases of the gut weaken the barrier causing an increase in the mucosa permeability and in antigenic transition. As a consequence, there is an aberrant immune response and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines further compromises the barrier functionality. It has been demonstrated that a correlation between allergy and eczema onset and the intestinal microflora composition exists, and in particular, it has been showed that some microorganisms are able to influence the immune response. For these reasons it has been hypothesized that probiotics may have a beneficial role in preventing and treating allergies and eczema. However, the benefits of this treatment depend on many factors, such as the bacterial strain, the duration of administration, the pathology, the patient characteristics (age, diet, allergy predisposition). The aim of this work was to review the present knowledge about the use of probiotics in allergic diseases and eczema, highlighting their role in the aforementioned pathologies.

  16. Chronic hand eczema--self-management and prognosis: a study protocol for a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mollerup, Annette; Veien, Niels Kren; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2012-06-12

    Hand eczema has a one-year prevalence of approximately 10 % in the general Danish population. Often the disease becomes chronic with numerous implications for the individual's daily life, occupation and quality of life. However, no guidelines of self-management recommendations beyond the acute stage are given. Self-management of the disease is pivotal and involves self-monitoring of the condition, medication adherence, and preventive behaviour. Interventions best to support the individual in this ongoing process need to be developed. This paper describes the design of a randomised clinical trial to test a newly developed intervention of individual counselling versus conventional information. 300 patients consecutively referred to dermatologic treatment at two different settings are individually randomised to either the intervention programme, named 'The Healthy Skin Clinic' or to the control group. Block-wise randomisation according to setting and gender is carried out.The intervention offers a tool for self-monitoring; basic and specific individual counselling; the possibility of asynchronous communication with the intervention team; and an electronic patient dialogue forum. Primary outcome variable is objective assessment of the hand eczema severity performed at baseline prior to randomisation, and repeated at six months follow-up. Secondary outcome variables are dermatology related life quality and perceived global burden of disease. The trial aims at evaluating a newly developed guidance programme which is expected to support self-management of patients referred to dermatology treatment due to chronic hand eczema. The design of the protocol is pragmatic with blinding of neither participants nor the investigator. Thus, in the interpretation of the results, the investigator takes into account effects that may be attributed to actors of the interventions rather than the intervention per se as well of potential observer bias. Inclusion criterions are wide in order

  17. Chronic hand eczema - self-management and prognosis: a study protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hand eczema has a one-year prevalence of approximately 10 % in the general Danish population. Often the disease becomes chronic with numerous implications for the individual’s daily life, occupation and quality of life. However, no guidelines of self-management recommendations beyond the acute stage are given. Self-management of the disease is pivotal and involves self-monitoring of the condition, medication adherence, and preventive behaviour. Interventions best to support the individual in this ongoing process need to be developed. Methods/design This paper describes the design of a randomised clinical trial to test a newly developed intervention of individual counselling versus conventional information. 300 patients consecutively referred to dermatologic treatment at two different settings are individually randomised to either the intervention programme, named ‘The Healthy Skin Clinic’ or to the control group. Block-wise randomisation according to setting and gender is carried out. The intervention offers a tool for self-monitoring; basic and specific individual counselling; the possibility of asynchronous communication with the intervention team; and an electronic patient dialogue forum. Primary outcome variable is objective assessment of the hand eczema severity performed at baseline prior to randomisation, and repeated at six months follow-up. Secondary outcome variables are dermatology related life quality and perceived global burden of disease. Discussion The trial aims at evaluating a newly developed guidance programme which is expected to support self-management of patients referred to dermatology treatment due to chronic hand eczema. The design of the protocol is pragmatic with blinding of neither participants nor the investigator. Thus, in the interpretation of the results, the investigator takes into account effects that may be attributed to actors of the interventions rather than the intervention per se as well of potential observer

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity in adult eczema.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J; Romanos, M; Pfennig, A; Leopold, K; Meurer, M

    2009-10-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a common dermatological condition that causes significant problems in everyday life and high levels of illness-related stress in substantial proportions of patients. The extent to which adult AE is associated with clinically relevant psychiatric morbidity is unclear. To investigate the association between adult AE and major psychiatric/psychosomatic disorders. Case-control study utilizing the GKV database Saxony, an interdisciplinary administrative outpatient database from Germany. All patients documented as having AE at least twice within the study period (2003-2004) (n = 3769, mean age 44 years) were individually matched by age and sex to 3769 controls without AE. Logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship of AE with affective, stress-related, behaviour and schizophrenic disorders, considering sociodemographic characteristics, consulting behaviour and allergic comorbidities as potential confounding factors. Eczema was independently associated with affective [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.79], stress-related (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.35-1.77), behaviour (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.23) and schizophrenic disorders (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.22-3.71). For each psychiatric condition the likelihood of being affected significantly increased with each physician visit due to AE, suggesting that the risk of psychiatric comorbidity increases with the severity of AE. This study indicates psychiatric comorbidity of adults with AE. Collaboration between dermatologists and mental health specialists may optimize medical care for a significant subgroup of patients with AE.

  19. A novel molecular disease classifier for psoriasis and eczema.

    PubMed

    Garzorz-Stark, Natalie; Krause, Linda; Lauffer, Felix; Atenhan, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Stark, Sebastian P; Franz, Regina; Weidinger, Stephan; Balato, Anna; Mueller, Nikola S; Theis, Fabian J; Ring, Johannes; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Biedermann, Tilo; Eyerich, Stefanie; Eyerich, Kilian

    2016-10-01

    Novel specific therapies for psoriasis and eczema have been developed, and they mark a new era in the treatment of these complex inflammatory skin diseases. However, within their broad clinical spectrum, psoriasis and eczema phenotypes overlap making an accurate diagnosis impossible in special cases, not to speak about predicting the clinical outcome of an individual patient. Here, we present a novel robust molecular classifier (MC) consisting of NOS2 and CCL27 gene that diagnosed psoriasis and eczema with a sensitivity and specificity of >95% in a cohort of 129 patients suffering from (i) classical forms; (ii) subtypes; and (iii) clinically and histologically indistinct variants of psoriasis and eczema. NOS2 and CCL27 correlated with clinical and histological hallmarks of psoriasis and eczema in a mutually antagonistic way, thus highlighting their biological relevance. In line with this, the MC could be transferred to the level of immunofluorescence stainings for iNOS and CCL27 protein on paraffin-embedded sections, where patients were diagnosed with sensitivity and specificity >88%. Our MC proved superiority over current gold standard methods to distinguish psoriasis and eczema and may therefore build the basis for molecular diagnosis of chronic inflammatory skin diseases required to establish personalized medicine in the field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The ideal moisturizer: a survey of parental expectations and practice in childhood-onset eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Wang, Shuxin Susan; Pong, Nga Hin; Leung, Ting Fan

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the moisturizing and bathing practices and preferences of patients with childhood-onset eczema. The attitudes and practice of patients with eczema managed at a pediatric dermatology clinic were evaluated, using children with non-eczematous skin diseases as controls. Disease severity of eczema in the preceding 12 months was evaluated by the Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS). Skin hydration (SH) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were assessed. Majority of patients took shower instead of bath and spent 12-13 min in shower. Most eczema patients applied emollients after shower/bath. Air-conditioning use was frequent, and patients with eczema maintained a lower ambient temperature than non-eczema patients (p = 0.001). Most eczema patients reported regular emollient usage (1.8 times/day for mild vs 2.8 times/day for moderate-to-severe eczema, p = 0.001), and acceptability of the current product was good to fair. Parents reported that the current emollients were most often recommended by doctors. Majority of parents/patients with mild eczema thought an ideal emollient needs only to be used twice a day whereas moderate-to-severe patients preferred more frequent usage (p = 0.001), and most of them preferred a non-fragrant, non-herbal white cream. Agreements concerning ideal emollient usage were only "moderate-to-fair" (kappa values <0.61), implying what parents/patients practiced was not the same as what they preferred. This study helps better understand the emolliation practices and preferences of eczema patients. Doctors remain the most important source of recommendation. Majority think an ideal moisturizer is a non-fragrant, non-herbal, white or transparent cream which needs only to be used two to three times per day. Compliance may be enhanced if the recommended moisturizer conforms to the parents/patients preference.

  1. FLG mutation p.Lys4021X in the C-terminal imperfect filaggrin repeat in Japanese patients with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Nemoto-Hasebe, I; Akiyama, M; Nomura, T; Sandilands, A; McLean, W H I; Shimizu, H

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) have been shown to predispose to atopic eczema (AE). Further to establish population genetics of FLG mutations in the Japanese population and to elucidate effects of FLG mutations to filaggrin biosynthesis in skin of patients with AE. We searched for FLG mutations in 19 newly recruited Japanese patients with AE. We then screened 137 Japanese patients with AE and 134 Japanese control individuals for a novel mutation identified in the present study. In addition, we evaluated FLG mRNA expression by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and profilaggrin/filaggrin protein expression by immunohistochemical staining in the epidermis of the patients carrying the novel mutation. We identified a novel FLG nonsense mutation c.12069A>T (p.Lys4021X) in one patient with AE. Upon further screening, p.Lys4021X was identified in four patients with AE (2.9% of all the patients with AE). In total, there are at least eight FLG variants in the Japanese population. Here we show that about 27% of patients in our Japanese AE case series carry one or more of these eight FLG mutations and these variants are also carried by 3.7% of Japanese general control individuals. There is a significant statistical association between the eight FLG mutations and AE (chi(2) P = 6.50 x 10(-8)). Interestingly, the present nonsense mutation is in the C-terminal incomplete filaggrin repeat and is the mutation nearest the C-terminal among previously reported FLG mutations. Immunohistochemical staining for filaggrin revealed that this nonsense mutation leads to remarkable reduction of filaggrin protein expression in the patients' epidermis. We clearly demonstrated that FLG mutations are significantly associated with AE in the Japanese population. The present results further support the hypothesis that the C-terminal region is essential for proper processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin.

  2. Remarkable improvement of relapsing dyshidrotic eczema after treatment of coexistant hyperhidrosis with oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Markantoni, Vasiliki; Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Vavouli, Charitomeni; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    Dyshidrotic hand eczema is a common condition, which can be resistant to various treatments. Although a number of etiologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of dyshidrotic eczema, hyperhidrosis is assumed to play a significant role. Oxybutynin is an alternative treatment for hyperhidrosis. We present the cases of two patients suffering from hyperhidrosis and dyshidrotic eczema, who were treated with oxybutynin with impressive results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Atopic dermatitis, atopic eczema, or eczema? A systematic review, meta-analysis, and recommendation for uniform use of 'atopic dermatitis'.

    PubMed

    Kantor, R; Thyssen, J P; Paller, A S; Silverberg, J I

    2016-10-01

    The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates unnecessary confusion for patients, healthcare providers, and researchers. It also negatively impacts accurate communication of research in the scientific literature. We sought to determine the most commonly used terms for AD. A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (1945-2016) for the terms AD, atopic eczema (AE), and multiple other eczematous disorders. In MEDLINE, 33 060 were identified, of which 21 299 (64.4%) publications used the term 'AD', 15 510 (46.9%) 'eczema', and only 2471 (7.5%) AE. Most of these publications used the term AD (82.0%) or eczema (70.8%) without additional nomenclature; only 1.2% used AE alone. Few publications used the terminology 'childhood eczema', 'flexural eczema', 'infantile eczema', 'atopic neurodermatitis', or 'Besnier's prurigo'. AD was rarely used until the late 1970s, after which it became the most commonly used of the three terms and continuously increased until 2015. Atopic eczema decreased between 2008 and 2015. Atopic dermatitis was the most commonly used term in studies across almost all publication types, languages, and journals. Atopic dermatitis is the most commonly used term and appears to be increasing in popularity. Given that eczema is a nonspecific term that describes the morphological appearance of several forms of dermatitis, we strongly suggest the use of a more specific term, AD, in publications, healthcare clinician training, and patient education. Support from researchers, reviewers, and editors is key to success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of oral alitretinoin in patients with severe chronic hand eczema - a long-term analysis from a Swiss perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The impact on patients suffering from chronic hand eczema (CHE) is enormous, as no licensed systemic treatment option with proven efficacy for CHE is available. Alitretinoin is a novel agent which showed high clinical efficacy in patients with severe, refractory CHE. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of alitretinoin for CHE patient treatment from a Swiss third party payer perspective. A further objective of this study was to determine the burden of disease in Switzerland. Methods A long-term Markov cohort simulation model was used to estimate direct medical costs (€) and clinical effectiveness (quality adjusted life years, QALYs) of treating severe CHE patients with alitretinoin. Comparison was against the standard treatment of supportive care (optimised emollient therapy). Information on response rates were derived from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Costs were considered from the perspective of the Swiss health system. Swiss epidemiological data was derived from official Swiss Statistic institutions. Results Annual costs of alitretinoin treatment accounted for €2'212. After a time horizon of 22.4 years, average remaining long-term costs accounted for €42'208 or €38'795 in the alitretinoin and the standard treatment arm, respectively. Compared with the standard therapy, the addition of alitretinoin yielded an average gain of 0.230 QALYs at the end of the simulation. Accordingly, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio resulted in €14'816/QALY gained. These results were robust to changes in key model assumptions. Conclusion The therapy for CHE patients is currently insufficient. In our long-term model we identified the treatment with alitretinoin as a cost-effective alternative for the therapy of CHE patients in Switzerland. PMID:20579358

  5. [Hand eczema. The clinical classification of the roles of exogenous and endogenous factors in each type].

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Y

    1994-08-01

    Hand eczema is one of the most common dermatological disorders. Although it is a general term referring to eczematous dermatitis of the hands, it actually covers a wide range of diseases. The classification of hand eczema is controversial even now, as definitions of individual diseases have not yet been established. It is well-known that exogenous factors, such as chemicals or water, are associated with the occurrence of hand eczema. In this study, we focused on endogenous factors, especially personal or family history of atopy as a causative factor in hand eczema. According to exogenous and endogenous factors, we classified hand eczema into three types: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and dysidrosis. This classification is useful because it makes the definition of each disease clear. Skin-humidity and sebum measurement are simple and rapid methods of determining personal atopy, skin condition and the effect of treatment on hand eczema patients.

  6. Learning and feedback from the Danish patient safety incident reporting system can be improved.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Anders Damgaard; Rasmussen, Kurt; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2016-06-01

    The perceived usefulness of incident reporting systems is an important motivational factor for reporting. The usefulness may be facilitated by well-established feedback mechanisms and by learning processes. The aim of this study was to investigate how feedback mechanisms and learning processes were implemented at four Danish hospital units all located in one of the five Danish regions. Based on the concepts of feedback and learning from incident processes, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to 335 patient safety representatives from 200 departments at four Danish hospital units in one of the five Danish regions. The study showed that external reporters were rarely contacted for dialogue, grouped front-line staff were sparsely involved in the learning process, few evaluated the effectiveness of implemented interventions and personal factors were frequently perceived as a primary contributory factor to these incidents. In contrast, the patient safety representatives perceived their competencies as sufficient for the job, internal reporters were often contacted for dialogue, evaluation was widely used and management supported the work with incident reports. The results of the study identified several shortcomings in the implementation of learning processes and feedback mechanisms. The apparent existence of a person-focused approach stands out as an element of notice. The insufficient implementation we observed indicates that there is room for improvement in the efforts made to maximise learning from incidents in the investigated population. not relevant. not relevant.

  7. Psychiatric Treatment of Eczema: A Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. G.; Bettley, F. R.

    1971-01-01

    Seventy-two patients with eczema were randomly allotted to one of two treatment groups: A, those receiving dermatological treatment only, and B, those receiving the same dermatological treatment plus psychiatric treatment, limited where possible to four months. Cases were followed up at six-monthly dermatological assessments, 57 (79%) for 18 months. The findings suggest that in the presence of overt emotional disturbance, of new psychological or psychophysiological symptoms preceding the rash by up to a year, and of high motivation for it, brief psychiatric treatment improves the outcome in eczema (the proportion clear at 18 months was about doubled), whereas in their absence such treatment may worsen it, especially in the short term. PMID:5090759

  8. Impact of hand eczema severity on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Ujwala Priya; Peter, C. V. Dincy; Pulimood, Susanne A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is a common disease seen in dermatological practice comprising of a spectrum ranging from mild disease to a severe distressing and chronic course with a negative impact on the quality of life. Aim: To assess the impact of hand eczema severity on quality of life. Materials and Methods: Patients with hand eczema were enrolled in a prospective study. Disease severity was assessed by hand eczema severity index (HECSI) score and quality of life by dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Forty-six patients participated of which 22 (47.8%) were males and 24 (52.2%) females. The commonest age group affected among men and women was 50-59 years (31.8%) and 40-49 years (41.7%) respectively. History of atopy was found in 23.9% and 63% had persistent disease. In 28 (60.9%), the trigger was washing soaps and detergents of which 21 (87.5%) were housewives. Of those employed, 27.7% reported loss of work days. The mean HECSI score was 14.46 (S.D = 20.98) and mean DLQI score was 9.54 (S.D = 5.62). Gender, age, occupation and duration of disease did not significantly affect the quality of life or disease severity. Increased episodes of eczema (>4 episodes/year) showed a statistically significant correlation with DLQI (P value = 0.021). There was no significant correlation between HECSI score and DLQI in this study. Conclusion: Majority of the patients with hand eczema had a significant impairment of their quality of life. The impairment of quality of life in this study was mainly dependent on increased frequency of the eruptions and not on hand eczema severity. PMID:23741665

  9. [Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Salvador, José María; Subiabre-Ferrer, Daniela; García Rabasco, Ana; Esteve-Martínez, Altea; Zaragoza-Ninet, Violeta; Alegre de Miquel, Víctor

    2017-08-21

    Hand eczema is a frequent disease in adults. Diagnosing the cause of hand eczema is difficult due to different classifications. There is lack of evidence on hand eczema and its causes in children. A total of 389 children between 0 and 16 years were identified between 1996 and 2016, from whom 42 (10.8%) with exclusively hand eczema were selected. In all cases a standard battery of epicutaneous patch tests was performed, as well as additional batteries depending on the clinical suspicion. The clinical and epidemiological features of these children were recorded and compared against children with eczema in other locations. The 42 children with hand eczema included 25 (60.5%) girls, and 17 (40.5%) boys, with a mean age of 10.6 +- 3.9 years, and did not differ from that of children with eczema in other locations. The definitive diagnosis after patch-testing was Atopic Dermatitis in 15 cases, Allergic Contact Dermatitis in 14 patients, Endogenous Vesiculous Eczema in 6 cases, Endogenous Hyperkeratotic Eczema in 5 cases, and Irritant Contact Dermatitis in 2 cases. The most frequent allergens detected were thiomersal (9 cases), nickel (5 cases), mercury (5 cases), and cobalt (4 cases). Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Any child with eczema of hands in whom an allergic cause is suspected should be referred for patch- testing. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN

  11. Towards global consensus on outcome measures for atopic eczema research: results of the HOME II meeting.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel

    2012-09-01

    The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes research. In June 2011, the HOME initiative conducted a consensus study involving 43 individuals from 10 countries, representing different stakeholders (patients, clinicians, methodologists, pharmaceutical industry) to determine core outcome domains for atopic eczema trials, to define quality criteria for atopic eczema outcome measures and to prioritize topics for atopic eczema outcomes research. Delegates were given evidence-based information, followed by structured group discussion and anonymous consensus voting. Consensus was achieved to include clinical signs, symptoms, long-term control of flares and quality of life into the core set of outcome domains for atopic eczema trials. The HOME initiative strongly recommends including and reporting these core outcome domains as primary or secondary endpoints in all future atopic eczema trials. Measures of these core outcome domains need to be valid, sensitive to change and feasible. Prioritized topics of the HOME initiative are the identification/development of the most appropriate instruments for the four core outcome domains. HOME is open to anyone with an interest in atopic eczema outcomes research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. FOOT ECZEMA: THE ROLE OF PATCH TEST IN DETERMINING THE CAUSATIVE AGENT USING STANDARD SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Priya, K S; Kamath, Ganesh; Martis, Jacintha; D, Sukumar; Shetty, Narendra J; Bhat, Ramesh M; Kishore, B Nanda

    2008-01-01

    Foot dermatitis refers to the predominant involvement of feet in the eczematous process. This study is undertaken to determine the clinical pattern and causative agent in foot eczema and to evaluate the role of patch testing in determining the causative agent of foot eczema. Data was collected from 50 patients with foot eczema, who attended the out-patient department. The patch test was performed using Indian standard series. Patch test was positive in 88% of the patients. The most common site affected was the dorsal aspect of the foot (48%) and scaly plaque was the predominant morphological pattern. The highest number of patients (24%) showed positive reactions to mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and the lowest (4%) to neomycin sulfate. Rubber and rubber chemicals have been reported worldwide to be the most common sensitizer causing foot eczema. Thus, patch test has a major role in finding out the cause of foot eczema. PMID:19881990

  13. Correlation and agreement of self-assessed and objective skin disease severity in a cross-sectional study of patients with acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Magin, Parker J; Pond, C Dimity; Smith, Wayne T; Watson, Alan B; Goode, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown variable correlation of patients' self-assessed skin severity measures and clinician-assessed objective measures of severity. But, generally, correlation has not been as good as might be expected for conditions in which the objective physical extent of skin disease is apparent to the sufferer to an extent that is not applicable in many other diseases. This paper reports agreement and correlation of self-assessed and objective severity measures in a study of 108 subjects with acne, psoriasis, or atopic eczema. The study was a cross-sectional study examining psychological associations of these skin diseases. Objective severity was assessed with the Leeds technique (acne), the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, and Six Area Six Sign Atopic Dermatitis instruments. Agreement is a more appropriate measure than correlation in this situation and was measured with weighted kappa, while correlation was measured with Spearman's rank correlation. There was a modest correlation of ρ = 0.46 and similarly very modest agreement of 0.35 (weighted kappa) of self-assessed and clinician-assessed disease severity. Furthermore, self-assessed (but not clinician-assessed) severity was statistically associated with psychological morbidity in this study; i.e. - depression, anxiety, and overall psychological morbidity. Clinicians should consider psychological sequelae of skin disease, not only in those with objectively more severe disease but in patients across the severity spectrum. Both observational and interventional studies of skin disease should include both clinician-assessed and self-assessed measures of severity among assessed variables. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. A Double-Blind, Randomised Study Comparing the Skin Hydration and Acceptability of Two Emollient Products in Atopic Eczema Patients with Dry Skin.

    PubMed

    Djokic-Gallagher, Jasmina; Rosher, Phil; Oliveira, Gabriela; Walker, Jennine

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare professionals tend to recommend emollients based primarily on patient/consumer preference and cost, with cheaper options assumed to be therapeutically equivalent. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effects on skin hydration of two emollients prescribed in the UK, Doublebase Dayleve™ gel (DELP) and a cheaper alternative, Zerobase Emollient™ cream (ZBC). This was a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, concurrent bi-lateral (within-patient) comparison in 18 females with atopic eczema and dry skin on their lower legs. DELP gel and ZBC cream were each applied to one lower leg twice daily for 4 days and on the morning only on day 5. The efficacy of both products was assessed by hydration measurements using a Corneometer CM825 probe (Courage-Khazaka Electronic). The measurements were made three times daily on days 1 to 5. The primary efficacy variable was the area under the curve (AUC) of the change from baseline corneometer readings over the 5 days. Skin hydration using DELP gel was significantly higher than using ZBC cream (p < 0.0001). The cumulative increase in skin hydration observed for DELP gel was substantial and long lasting. In contrast, for ZBC cream, there was no significant improvement of the cumulative skin hydration as measured by the AUC (p = 0.22). DELP gel achieved substantial, long-lasting and cumulative skin hydration, whilst ZBC cream achieved no measurable improvement in skin hydration compared to before treatment. Healthcare professionals should be aware that different emollients can perform differently. Dermal Laboratories Ltd. EudraCT number:2014-001026-16.

  15. Content and reactivity to product perfumes in fragrance mix positive and negative eczema patients. A study of perfumes used in toiletries and skin-care products.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, S C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the elicitation potential of perfumes from 17 commonly sold lower-price cosmetic products. 8 of the perfumes were from stay-on cosmetics and 9 were from wash-off cosmetics. Each perfume was tested in 500 consecutive eczema patients, who also were tested with the European standard patch test series. 4.2% reacted to 1 or more of the wash-off product perfumes and 3.2% to 1 or more of the stay-on product perfumes. Concordant positive reactions between the fragrance mix and the product perfumes were found in 81.3% of positive reactions to the stay-on product perfumes and in 52.4% of the reactions to the wash-off product perfumes. Compared to the fragrance mix alone, only 1 additional case of contact allergy to the product perfumes was detected by balsam of Peru. Chemical analysis revealed that between 1 and 5 of the chemically-defined constituents of the fragrance mix were present in all of the product perfumes. Geraniol was found in 12 of the 17 perfumes and was most often detected. The concentration of the target fragrance materials ranged from 0.005%-1.35 w/v%. It is concluded that the allergenic constituents of the fragrance mix are impossible to avoid if perfumed cosmetics are used. Furthermore, patients suspected of perfume allergy need to be tested with their own perfumed products, as far from all cases of perfume allergy are detected by the fragrance mix and/or balsam of Peru in the European standard patch test series.

  16. Stress in mothers of young children with eczema

    PubMed Central

    Faught, Jamie; Bierl, Cynthia; Barton, Belinda; Kemp, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess parental stress levels of mothers of children less than 6 years old with eczema and compare these levels with those reported for other chronic childhood illnesses. Methods Mothers were recruited from hospital‐based out‐patient clinics (55%) or while their child was an in‐patient (45%) for management of eczema. Maternal stress was measured utilising the Parenting Stress Index‐Long Form (PSI) in 33 mothers. The severity of the eczema at the time of interview was documented by the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score and the Investigators' Global Assessment (IGA) score. Results The children with eczema had a mean age of 2.8 years. Mothers of children aged 5 years or less with eczema exhibited significantly higher total stress scores (mean PSI 259.6, 95% CI 244.9 to 274.3) as compared to mothers of normal children (PSI 222.8, 95% CI 221.4 to 224.2) and children with other chronic disorders such as insulin‐dependent diabetes (PSI 218.1, 95% CI 204.7 to 231.6) and profound deafness (PSI 221.7, 95% CI 206.4 to 237.0). Stress scores in the parental domain (138.2, 95% CI 128.9 to 147.6) did not differ significantly from the scores of parents of children with severe disabilities such as those requiring home enteral feeding (135.2, 95% CI 129.3 to 141.1) and those with Rett syndrome (132.8, 95% CI 125.0 to 140.6). Conclusions Moderate to severe childhood eczema should be regarded as a significant illness in which maternal stress is equivalent to that associated with the care of children with severe developmental and physical problems. PMID:17412743

  17. Measuring health-related quality of life in patients with mild to moderate eczema and psoriasis: clinical validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the DLQI. The Cavide Research Group.

    PubMed

    Badia, X; Mascaró, J M; Lozano, R

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of a Spanish version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in patients with mild to moderate eczema and psoriasis who were treated with topical corticosteroids. The final study sample comprised 237 patients (48% eczema). Discriminant validity was tested by comparing patients' scores with those of a random sample of the general population (n = 100), and convergent validity by analysing correlations between DLQI scores, measures of clinical severity, and domain scores on the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were tested in clinically stable patients (n = 94), and responsiveness in a clinically unstable group (n = 143) initiating treatment with topical corticosteroids. Patient scores were significantly higher than general population scores (4.3 vs. 0. 27, P < 0.001). Correlations with NHP domains ranged from 0.12 to 0. 32, and there was significant correlation with clinical measures (r = 0.26, P < 0.001). Reliability was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.88), and the instrument proved responsive to change (effect size for the total group of de novo patients = 0.70), though the great majority of changes occurred in items 1 and 2. The NHP Emotional Reactions and Mobility domains were more responsive than some DLQI domains. In clinical trials of treatments for mild to moderate eczema and psoriasis, it is likely that only items 1 and 2 of the DLQI will be needed, and it is probably advisable to include generic instruments alongside the DLQI.

  18. Predictive value of stroke discharge diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Register.

    PubMed

    Lühdorf, Pernille; Overvad, Kim; Schmidt, Erik B; Johnsen, Søren P; Bach, Flemming W

    2017-08-01

    To determine the positive predictive values for stroke discharge diagnoses, including subarachnoidal haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral infarction in the Danish National Patient Register. Participants in the Danish cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health with a stroke discharge diagnosis in the National Patient Register between 1993 and 2009 were identified and their medical records were retrieved for validation of the diagnoses. A total of 3326 records of possible cases of stroke were reviewed. The overall positive predictive value for stroke was 69.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 67.8-70.9%). The predictive values differed according to hospital characteristics, with the highest predictive value of 87.8% (95% CI 85.5-90.1%) found in departments of neurology and the lowest predictive value of 43.0% (95% CI 37.6-48.5%) found in outpatient clinics. The overall stroke diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Register had a limited predictive value. We therefore recommend the critical use of non-validated register data for research on stroke. The possibility of optimising the predictive values based on more advanced algorithms should be considered.

  19. The Danish version of the questionnaire on pain communication: preliminary validation in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, R; Møldrup, C; Christrup, L; Sjøgren, P; Hansen, O B

    2009-07-01

    The modified version of the patients' Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (M-PICS) is a tool designed to assess cancer patients' perceptions of patient-health care provider pain communication process. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the shortened Danish version of the M-PICS (SDM-PICS). The validated English version of the M-PICS was translated into Danish following the repeated back-translation procedure. Cancer patients were recruited for the study from specialized pain management facilities. Thirty-three patients responded to the SDM-PICS, Danish Barriers Questionnaire II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Pain Inventory Pain Severity Scale. A factor analysis of the SDM-PICS resulted in two factors: Factor one, patient information, consisted of four items assessing the extent to which the patient shared information with his/her health care provider, and Factor two, health care provider information, consisted of four items measuring the degree to which a health care provider was perceived as the one who shares information. Two separate items addressed the perceived level of information exchange between the patient and the health care provider. The SDM-PICS total had an internal consistency of 0.88. The SDM-PICS scores were positively related to pain relief and inversely related to the measures of cognitive pain management barriers, anxiety, and reported pain levels. The SDM-PICS seems to be a reliable and valid measure of perceived patient-health care provider communication in the context of cancer pain.

  20. Danish translation, cultural adaption and initial psychometric evaluation of the patient feedback form.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Lærke K; Pappot, Helle; Zangger, Graziella; Bastholt, Lars; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Dieperink, Karin B

    2018-04-27

    No suitable Danish questionnaire exists to evaluate patient satisfaction with various patient reported outcome measures. Thus, the aim of this research project was to conduct a study on the translation and cultural adaption of an American patient reported experience measures questionnaire, "Patient Feedback Form", among Danish patients, and to examine selected psychometric properties within reliability. In the first phase of the study, the Patient Feedback Form was forward and backward translated following the methodology of existing guidelines. Subsequently, cognitive interviewing was performed with seven cancer patients and seven healthy persons (19-86 years old/6 men and 8 women) to ensure that questions were easy to understand and made sense to Danish interviewees. In the second phase, phone interviews were carried out with 95 prostate cancer patients after they had responded to the same Patient Feedback Form. Missing data was imputed using the Expectation-Maximization technique. To examine the structure of the questionnaire, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to investigate internal consistency. There were only minor disagreements in the translation process, and the reconciliation went smoothly (phase 1). With regard to one item, however, it was difficult to reach a consensus. Through the qualitative validation process, the right solution was found. The results from the psychometric testing (phase 2) showed that four factors had an Eigen value > 1, but only one factor was extracted as the Scree plot had a clear "elbow", showing a one factor structure that explained 46.1% of the variance. The internal consistency was high as Cronbach's alpha was 0.89. The translated, culturally adapted, and validated version of the Patient Feedback Form seems to be suitable for measuring satisfaction with patient reported outcome measures in a Danish setting. While the results should be treated with caution due to the small sample

  1. Face-masks for facial atopic eczema: consider a hydrocolloid dressing.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius

    2013-08-01

    Facial involvement of atopic eczema in young children can be difficult to manage. Chronic scratching and rubbing, combined with parental reluctance to use topical corticosteroids on the face, often results in recalcitrant facial eczema. While wet wraps are a useful management option for moderate/severe atopic eczema involving the trunk and limbs they are difficult to use on the face. We describe the use of a face-mask using a widely available adhesive hydrocolloid dressing (DuoDerm extra thin) in three children with recalcitrant facial atopic eczema. Symptomatic control of itch or soreness was obtained within hours and the facial atopic eczema was markedly improved by 7 days. The face-masks were easy to apply, each lasting 1-4 days. One patient had a single adjuvant application of a potent topical corticosteroid under the hydrocolloid dressing. All three patients had long remissions (greater than 3 months) of their facial eczema, although all continued to have significant eczema involving their trunk and limbs. Face-masks made from hydrocolloid dressings, with or without topical corticosteroids, are worth considering in children with recalcitrant facial eczema. © 2012 The Author. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Existential concerns about death: a qualitative study of dying patients in a Danish hospice.

    PubMed

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests that addressing dying patients' existential concerns can improve their quality of life. We aimed to illuminate dying patients' existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semistructured interviews with 17 patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the imminent death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Some patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. They wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life. We argue that the patients' existential concerns could not be fully captured by Yalom's existential psychology or by Kübler-Ross's theory about death stages. Patients' complex concerns could be more fully explained taking an outset in Heidegger's phenomenological thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Establishment and baseline characteristics of a nationwide Danish cohort of patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kulas Søborg, Marie-Louise; Leganger, Julie; Quitzau Mortensen, Laura; Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate national prevalence, general demographic characteristics and survival of Danish patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). A population-based cohort study was conducted using a database consisting of the entire Danish population alive at any given time between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, based upon longitudinal Danish national registers. All patients with EDS were identified, and the cohort was described by disease prevalence, basic demographic characteristics, mean age at death and mortality for the observational period of 13 years. The cohort held 1427 unique persons with EDS, giving a national prevalence of 0.02%. The EDS population had a mean ( s . d .) age of 34.9 (18.6) years and comprised 73.9% females and 26.1% males. Of the cohort, 95.9% originated from Denmark and 57% were unmarried. We found that 31.6% of the cohort received state-granted subsidies, of which 77% were in the form of early retirement pension. Regarding educational status, 28.1% of the EDS cohort had completed primary education (⩽10th grade) as their highest educational level, while 71.9% had completed a higher level. During the observation period, 42 patients died, with a mean ( s . d .) age at death of 53.6 (21.7) years. This study confirmed a small national prevalence of patients diagnosed with EDS and showed that the majority of patients diagnosed are female. The EDS cohort had a lower educational level, mean age and life expectancy compared with the background population and showed a predisposition for receiving state-granted subsidies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Preeclampsia Associates with Asthma, Allergy, and Eczema in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Jakob; Sevelsted, Astrid; Anderson, Ulrik D; Bisgaard, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia reflects an unusual increase in systemic inflammation during pregnancy. We studied associations between preeclampsia and asthma, allergy, and eczema in Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2000 (COPSAC 2000 ) and in national registries. COPSAC 2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma, allergy, and eczema were diagnosed prospectively, and lung function measured at age 1 month and 7 years. Sensitization was evaluated at age 6 months, 18 months, 4 years, and 6 years by skin prick tests and IgE measurements. The register-based cohort included 1.7 million children from Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Children born to mothers with preeclampsia were analyzed regarding risk of asthma, allergy, and eczema. In the COPSAC 2000 cohort, 5.6% (n = 23) were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids at age 7 years (adjusted odds ratio, 4.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-14.43]; P = 0.0337), increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (adjusted β-coefficient log-μmol, -0.80 [95% CI, -1.55 to -0.06]; P = 0.0348), and allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.58-14.78]; P = 0.0057) in the 7-year-old children. Furthermore, the children had an increased risk of sensitization to both aeroallergens and food allergens, and increased amount of total IgE during childhood. In the registry-based cohort, 3.7% (n = 62,728) were born to mothers with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of asthma, eczema, and aeroallergen and food allergy, especially pronounced after a duration of preeclampsia of 14 days or more. Maternal asthma increased the risk of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a shared prenatal risk factor for asthma, eczema, and allergy in childhood pointing toward in utero immune programming of the child.

  5. [Diabetes passport--understanding and use among different ethnic groups of diabetes patients. Interviews with Turkish, Pakistani and Danish patients].

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Vibe-Petersen, Jette; Røjen, Dorrit; Mølvig, Jens C

    2007-11-12

    Diabetes passports for patients have been used for years in hospitals in our region. Since 2004 data have been printed from the electronic database DiabetesRASK and a new edition of the passport is given to patients at each visit. One of the objectives of the passport is to serve as a pedagogic tool. However, patients' understanding and use of the passport has never been studied. Inclusion criteria for patients: type 2 diabetes, born in Turkey (T) or Pakistan (P), regular attendees at the outpatient clinics at Hvidovre Hospital or Amager Hospital and their personal diabetes data in the database DiabetesRASK. A comparable group of Danish diabetes patients was selected. All were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. 14 T, 11 P and 10 D patients participated in the study. 53% T and 73% P had the ability to read in their own language while 15% T and 55% P were able to read in Danish. In the groups fewer than 25% had ever shown their passport to the GP. Between 0% and 36% of any of the given questions were understood or identified correctly by T patients. Similar figures for the P and D patients were 0-55% and 30-100%. It is demonstrated that the diabetes passport is not widely used by patients. Furthermore, we found poor understanding of information on the passport in general but with great individual variability. The poorest understanding was found among immigrants, which might be the result of language problems. However, Danish patients also had insufficient understanding of the information. We recommend that the diabetes passport be rewritten so that it is more easily understood by patients and that outpatient clinics also allocate more resources to the guidance of patients concerning the passport.

  6. The Danish Barriers Questionnaire-II: preliminary validation in cancer pain patients.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona; Sjøgren, Per; Hansen, Ole Bo

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Barriers Questionnaire-II (DBQ-II). The validated Norwegian version of the DBQ-II was translated into Danish. Cancer patients for the study were recruited from specialized pain management facilities. Thirty-three patients responded to the DBQ-II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scale. A factor analysis of the DBQ-II resulted in six scales. Scale one, Fatalism, consisted of three items addressing fatalistic beliefs regarding cancer pain management. Scale two, Immune System, consisted of three items addressing the belief that pain medications harm the immune system. Scale three, Monitor, consisted of three items addressing the fear that pain medicine masks changes in one's body. Scale four, Communication, consisted of five items addressing the concern that reports of pain distract the physician from treating the cancer, and the belief that "good" patients do not complain. Scale five, Addiction, consisted of two items addressing the fear of becoming addicted to pain medication. Finally, scale six, Tolerance, consisted of three items addressing the fear of getting tolerant to analgesic effect of pain medicine. Items related to medication side effects were analyzed as separate units. The DBQ-II total had an internal consistency of 0.87. The DBQ-II total score was related to measures of pain relief and anxiety. The DBQ-II seems to be a reliable and valid measure of the barriers to pain management among Danish cancer patients.

  7. Association between childhood eczema and headaches: An analysis of 19 US population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (or eczema) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with sleep disturbances and quality-of-life impairment. Sleep disturbances have been shown to cause headaches in childhood. However, an association between eczema and headaches is not well established. We sought to determine whether childhood eczema is associated with increased headaches and whether such association is related to fatigue or sleep disturbance. We analyzed data from 401,002 children and adolescents in 19 US population-based cross-sectional studies from the National Survey of Children's Health 2003/2004 and 2007/2008 and the National Health Interview Survey 1997-2013. In multivariate models controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, highest level of education in the family, insurance coverage, number of persons in the household, birthplace in the United States, ever history of asthma, hay fever, and food allergy, eczema was found to be associated with headaches in 14 of 19 studies. In a pooled analysis of all 19 studies, children with eczema compared with those without eczema had a significantly higher prevalence (10.7% [95% CI, 10.3% to 11.0%] vs 5.4% [95% CI, 5.3% to 5.5%]) and odds (1.52 [95% CI, 1.45-1.59]) of headaches. Mild (1.79 [95% CI, 1.07-2.98]) and severe (2.72 [95% CI, 1.33-5.57]) eczema were associated with significantly higher odds of headaches. In particular, eczema associated with atopy, fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and only 0 to 3 nights of sufficient sleep had even higher odds of headache than eczema alone. Eczema is associated with increased headaches in childhood, particularly in patients with severe disease accompanied by atopy, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between childhood eczema and headaches: An analysis of 19 US population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Jonathan I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (or eczema) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with sleep disturbances and quality-of-life impairment. Sleep disturbances have been shown to cause headaches in childhood. However, an association between eczema and headaches is not well established. Objectives We sought to determine whether childhood eczema is associated with increased headaches and whether such association is related to fatigue or sleep disturbance. Methods We analyzed data from 401,002 children and adolescents in 19 US population-based cross-sectional studies from the National Survey of Children’s Health 2003/2004 and 2007/2008 and the National Health Interview Survey 1997–2013. Results In multivariate models controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, highest level of education in the family, insurance coverage, number of persons in the household, birthplace in the United States, ever history of asthma, hay fever, and food allergy, eczema was found to be associated with headaches in 14 of 19 studies. In a pooled analysis of all 19 studies, children with eczema compared with those without eczema had a significantly higher prevalence (10.7% [95% CI, 10.3% to 11.0%] vs 5.4% [95% CI, 5.3% to 5.5%]) and odds (1.52 [95% CI, 1.45–1.59]) of headaches. Mild (1.79 [95% CI, 1.07–2.98]) and severe (2.72 [95% CI, 1.33–5.57]) eczema were associated with significantly higher odds of headaches. In particular, eczema associated with atopy, fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and only 0 to 3 nights of sufficient sleep had even higher odds of headache than eczema alone. Conclusions Eczema is associated with increased headaches in childhood, particularly in patients with severe disease accompanied by atopy, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. PMID:26329510

  9. Translation, adaptation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) in a Danish version.

    PubMed

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sokolowski, Ineta; Vedsted, Peter

    2009-06-29

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a measure that assesses patient knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. This study validates the Danish translation of the 13-item Patient Activation Measure (PAM13) in a Danish population with dysglycaemia. 358 people with screen-detected dysglycaemia participating in a primary care health education study responded to PAM13. The PAM13 was translated into Danish by a standardised forward-backward translation. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and average inter-item correlation) and item-rest correlations. Scale properties were assessed by Rasch Rating Scale models. The item response was high with a small number of missing values (0.8-4.2%). Floor effect was small (range 0.6-3.6%), but the ceiling effect was above 15% for all items (range 18.6-62.7%). The alpha-coefficient was 0.89 and the average inter-item correlation 0.38. The Danish version formed a unidimensional, probabilistic Guttman-like scale explaining 43.2% of the variance. We did however, find a different item sequence compared to the original scale. A Danish version of PAM13 with acceptable validity and reliability is now available. Further development should focus on single items, response categories in relation to ceiling effects and further validation of reproducibility and responsiveness.

  10. Morbidity and medicine prescriptions in a nationwide Danish population of patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hass Rubin, Katrine; Nybo, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Andersen, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of other diseases is not clarified. We aimed to investigate morbidity and medicine prescriptions in PCOS. A National Register-based study. Patients with PCOS (PCOS Denmark and an embedded cohort; PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH)) and one control population. Premenopausal women with PCOS underwent clinical and biochemical examination (PCOS OUH, n=1217). PCOS Denmark (n=19 199) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. Three age-matched controls were included per patient (n=57 483). Diagnosis codes and filled prescriptions. The mean (range) age of the PCOS Denmark group and controls was 30.6 (12-60) years. Patients in PCOS Denmark had higher Charlson index, higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension than controls. PCOS was associated with a two times increased risk of stroke and thrombosis, whereas the risk of other cardiovascular diseases was not increased. Thyroid disease, asthma, migraine, and depression were more prevalent in PCOS Denmark vs controls, whereas fractures were rarer. Infertility was increased in patients compared with controls, but the mean number of births was higher in PCOS. Medicine prescriptions within all diagnosis areas were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in controls.In PCOS OUH, polycystic ovaries (PCO) and irregular menses were associated with a more adverse metabolic risk profile, but individual Rotterdam criteria were not associated with cardiometabolic diagnoses. Cardiometabolic and psychiatric morbidity were significantly increased in a Danish population with PCOS. Medical diseases are frequent also in young patients with PCOS. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Accuracy of the hypospadias diagnoses and surgical treatment registrations in the Danish National Patient Register

    PubMed Central

    Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard; Jønsson, Anne Aggerholm; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn; Thorup, Jorgen; Olsen, L Henning; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Danish National Health registers provide a valuable data source that offers unique opportunities for observational research, including studies on the congenital anomaly hypospadias. The accuracy of the diagnosis and surgical treatment registration of hypospadias in the Danish National Patient Register (DNPR) remains unknown. Patients and methods We randomly sampled 500 patients diagnosed with hypospadias in the DNPR from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2012. Among these, 384 patients were also registered with surgical treatment for hypospadias. Medical records were collected and reviewed independently by two investigators. Any classification disagreements were resolved by consensus. Using the medical records as the gold standard, we estimated positive predictive values (PPVs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the hypospadias diagnoses and surgical treatment registrations overall, as well as for the clinical subtypes. Results We were able to retrieve medical records for 463 (92.6%) patients with hypospadias diagnoses and for 329 (85.7%) patients registered with surgical treatment. Presence of hypospadias was confirmed in 450 of 463 patients, yielding an overall PPV (95% CI) of 97.6% (95.8%–98.7%). For subtypes of hypospadias, the PPVs ranged between 37.5% and 72.7%. For surgical treatment of hypospadias, the overall PPV was 99.7% (97.9%–99.9%). Conclusion The validity of the registration of hypospadias diagnoses as well as surgical treatment for hypospadias in the DNPR is overall very high. For the specific subtypes of hypospadias diagnoses codes and the specific surgical treatment codes, the PPVs are lower and cautious use is warranted. However, the DNPR remains a valuable tool for future observational research on hypospadias. PMID:29042817

  12. Life-style factors and hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Anveden Berglind, I; Alderling, M; Meding, B

    2011-09-01

    Previous knowledge of the impact of certain life-style factors on hand eczema is scanty. To investigate a possible association between hand eczema and life-style factors such as obesity, physical exercise, stress, smoking and alcohol consumption. In a cross-sectional public health survey in Stockholm, Sweden, 27,994 (58%) randomly chosen individuals aged 18-64 years completed a postal questionnaire regarding physical and mental health, social relations, economic status and work. Of these, 27,793 individuals responded to the question regarding hand eczema and were included in the present study. The association between life-style factors and hand eczema was analysed by prevalence proportion ratios (PPR), using a generalized linear model. Hand eczema was more common among individuals who reported high stress levels, PPR 1·326 (95% CI 1·303-1·350). There was also a positive dose-response relationship between hand eczema and stress. Hand eczema was less common among individuals reporting high physical exercise, and most apparent in women, PPR 0·781 (95% CI 0·770-0·792). Men who reported high alcohol intake reported hand eczema less often, PPR 0·958 (95% CI 0·930-0·987). Obese individuals reported hand eczema more commonly, PPR 1·204 (95% CI 1·174-1·234). There was a slight increase of hand eczema among smokers, PPR 1·025 (95% CI 1·006-1·044). Hand eczema was more common in individuals who reported stress, obesity and smoking. In individuals who reported high physical exercise levels hand eczema was less common. As there appears to be an association between life-style factors and hand eczema it is important to consider life-style factors in clinical practice. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. [Psychosocial factors of chronic hand eczema].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Panpan; Li, Ji; Xie, Hongfu; Kuang, Yehong; Li, Jie; Su, Juan; Zhu, Wu

    2017-02-28

    To study the psychosocial factors in patient with chronic hand eczema (CHE).
 Methods: Personality traits, emotional state, and quality of life of 240 patients with CHE and 221 normal control (NC) subjects were assessed by General Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety (SAS), and Eczema Quality of Life Scale (EQOLS).
 Results: In comparison, EPQ scores, scores of extraversion (E) factor in patients with CHE were significantly lower than those in NC subjects (P<0.01), but scores of neuroticism (N) factor in patients with CHE were significantly higher than those in NC subjects (P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in scores of psychoticism (P) and lie (L) factors between two groups (P>0.05). Patients with CHE had significantly higher scores in SDS and SAS compared with the NC subjects (P<0.01). Patients with CHE had significantly higher scores in scale of morbid, physical, social, psychological, general quality of life, and total scores of EQOLS compared with the NC subjects (P<0.01). The level of skin lesions and the degree of itch were significantly correlated with scores in scale SDS, SAS, morbid, physical, social, psychological, general quality of life, and total scores of EQOLS compared with the NC subjects (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Personality of patients with CHE is prone to emotional instability of introverts.Patients with CHE have a higher level of depression and anxiety, and exert a negative effect on their quality of life, which is related to severity of disease.

  14. Patient reported outcome in posttraumatic pituitary deficiency: results from The Danish National Study on posttraumatic hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Klose, Marianne; Stochholm, Kirstine; Janukonyté, Jurgita; Christensen, Louise Lehman; Cohen, Arieh S; Wagner, Aase; Laurberg, Peter; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Andersen, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic pituitary hormone deficiency is often suggested. The impact of these predominantly mild and often irreproducible deficiencies on outcome is less clear. The aim of the present study was to describe patient reported outcome in a national a priori unselected cohort of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to deficiencies identified upon pituitary assessment. We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were Danish patients with a head trauma diagnosis recorded in the Danish Board of Health diagnostic code registry; 439 patients (and 124 healthy controls) underwent assessment of anterior pituitary function 2.5 years (median) after TBI. Questionnaires on health-related quality of life (QoL) (SF36, EuroQoL-5D, QoL assessment of GH deficiency in adults) and fatigue (MFI-20) were completed in parallel to pituitary assessment. Patients with TBI had significant detriments in QoL. Impairment (mainly physical scales) related to pituitary deficiency, although only partially confirmed after adjustment for demographic differences. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism related to several QoL scores. Increasing impairments were observed with declining total testosterone concentrations (men), but not free testosterone concentrations or any other hormone concentrations. Total testosterone was not independently related to impaired QoL and fatigue, after adjustment for demographics, and treatment with antidiabetics, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Only a very limited relationship between pituitary hormone deficiencies and QoL/fatigue was demonstrated. Due to the dominating influence of concurrent comorbidities, pituitary deficiencies were not independently related to QoL/fatigue. Causality is still to be shown, and whether substitution therapy could be of additional relevance in selected patients needs to be proven. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Particular characteristics of atopic eczema in tropical environments. The Tropical Environment Control for Chronic Eczema and Molecular Assessment (TECCEMA) cohort study*

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés; Cardona, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a prevalent health problem in the world. Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor, but the roles of other factors, inherent in tropic region, are unknown. Objective A cohort study was designed in a tropical city to investigate molecular and environmental risk factors for eczema, considering as particular features perennial exposure to mites, poor living conditions and others tropical characteristics. Methods 433 patients were included at baseline and biological samples were collected during 24 months of follow-up. Clinical information was collected using questionnaires (SCORAD, DLQI and a subjective scale) during each clinical assessment. Results The prevalence of atopic eczema was 93%, with similar frequency between children and adults; parents history of eczema and polysensitization to mites, dogs, cats, cockroaches and birds, were risk factors for severe and persistent eczema and allergic comorbidities. Food sensitization was present in 16% of patients but food-induced allergies were scarce. Psychiatric, dental and ocular disorders were the most frequent non-allergic comorbidities. Study limitations selection bias. Conclusion We presented a tropical cohort of patients with eczema and we identified some risk factors for severe and persistent dermatitis. Some patterns of sensitization were associated with severe eczema and respiratory symptoms, and the natural history of "atopic march" is different to that described in some industrialized countries. The collection of biological samples will contribute to the understanding of the gene/environment interactions leading to allergy inception and evolution. PMID:28538875

  16. Particular characteristics of atopic eczema in tropical environments. The Tropical Environment Control for Chronic Eczema and Molecular Assessment (TECCEMA) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés; Cardona, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a prevalent health problem in the world. Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor, but the roles of other factors, inherent in tropic region, are unknown. A cohort study was designed in a tropical city to investigate molecular and environmental risk factors for eczema, considering as particular features perennial exposure to mites, poor living conditions and others tropical characteristics. 433 patients were included at baseline and biological samples were collected during 24 months of follow-up. Clinical information was collected using questionnaires (SCORAD, DLQI and a subjective scale) during each clinical assessment. The prevalence of atopic eczema was 93%, with similar frequency between children and adults; parents history of eczema and polysensitization to mites, dogs, cats, cockroaches and birds, were risk factors for severe and persistent eczema and allergic comorbidities. Food sensitization was present in 16% of patients but food-induced allergies were scarce. Psychiatric, dental and ocular disorders were the most frequent non-allergic comorbidities. selection bias. We presented a tropical cohort of patients with eczema and we identified some risk factors for severe and persistent dermatitis. Some patterns of sensitization were associated with severe eczema and respiratory symptoms, and the natural history of "atopic march" is different to that described in some industrialized countries. The collection of biological samples will contribute to the understanding of the gene/environment interactions leading to allergy inception and evolution.

  17. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    PubMed

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  18. Occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones in Danish contact dermatitis patients: results from a Danish multicentre study (2009-2012).

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Sommerlund, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to isothiazolinones has reached epidemic levels. Few studies have presented data on occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones. To present demographics and examine risk factors for sensitization to methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with MI and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in Danish dermatitis patients. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from three Danish hospitals departments was conducted. All patients consecutively patch tested with MI, MCI/MI and BIT between 2009 and 2013 were included. MI contact allergy showed a significantly increased trend in prevalence from 1.8% in 2009 to 4.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Females with facial dermatitis mainly drove the increase in 2012. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that MI sensitization was significantly associated with occupational exposures, hand and facial dermatitis, age > 40 years, and the occupational groups of tile setters/terrazzo workers, machine operators, and painters. MCI/MI contact allergy was significantly associated with the following high-risk occupations: painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration of isothiazolinones, and especially MI, in both consumer products and industrial products is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Alitretinoin and acitretin in severe chronic hand eczema; results from a retrospective daily practice study.

    PubMed

    Politiek, Klaziena; Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise Anna

    2016-09-01

    Acitretin has been used off-label for years to treat chronic hand eczema, but acitretin is less often prescribed as alitretinoïne was approved. This study evaluates both retinoids in a daily practice cohort of patients with severe chronic hand eczema in terms of drug survival and reasons for discontinuation. Patients using alitretinoin or acitretin between 01-01-1994 and 01-08-2015 were included in this retrospective daily practice study and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier drug survival curves. Potential determinants were analyzed by Cox regression analyses. Ninety-five patients were treated with alitretinoin and 109 patients with acitretin. The main reasons for discontinuation were adverse events and cleared hand eczema, 29.5 and 27.4% in alitretinoin versus 43.1 and 23.9% in acitretin. Patients with hyperkeratotic hand eczema had most often a good effect of treatment: 68.3% in alitretinoin and 50.7% in acitretin treatment. The drug survival rates of alitretinoin and acitretin after 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks were 69.3, 45.1, 19.6, 7.0% and 74.3, 45.5, 33.8, 23.2%, respectively. Alitretinoin and acitretin are effective treatment options for patients with hand eczema. However, both treatments were more effective in patients with hyperkeratotic hand eczema. Fewer patients discontinued alitretinoin compared with acitretin due to adverse events. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nummular Eczema of Breast: A Potential Dermatologic Complication after Mastectomy and Subsequent Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Iwahira, Yoshiko; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Kuwata, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Purposes. The present paper reports clinical cases where nummular eczema developed during the course of breast reconstruction by means of implantation and evaluates the occurrence patterns and ratios of this complication. Methods. 1662 patients undergoing breast reconstruction were reviewed. Patients who developed nummular eczema during the treatment were selected, and a survey was conducted on these patients regarding three items: (1) the stage of the treatment at which nummular eczema developed; (2) time required for the lesion to heal; (3) location of the lesion on the reconstructed breast(s). Furthermore, histopathological examination was conducted to elucidate the etiology of the lesion. Results. 48 patients (2.89%) developed nummular eczema. The timing of onset varied among these patients, with lesions developing after the placement of tissue expanders for 22 patients (45.8%); after the tissue expanders were replaced with silicone implants for 12 patients (25%); and after nipple-areola complex reconstruction for 14 patients (29.2%). Nummular eczema developed both in periwound regions (20 cases: 41.7%) and in nonperiwound regions (32 cases: 66.7%). Histopathological examination showed epidermal acanthosis, psoriasiform patterns, and reduction of sebaceous glands. Conclusions. Surgeons should recognize that nummular eczema is a potential complication of breast reconstruction with tissue expanders and silicone implants. PMID:26380109

  1. Hand dermatitis/eczema: current management strategy.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Sharma, Alpna D

    2010-07-01

    Ever since its inception a couple of centuries ago, hand dermatitis/eczema has been in the reckoning. Idiosyncrasies continued to loom large thereafter, till it acquired its appropriate position. Dermatitis/eczema are synonymous, often used to indicate a polymorphic pattern of the inflammation of the skin, characterized by pruritus, erythema and vesiculation. A spectrum delineated into acute sub-acute and chronic dermatitis of the hands. Pompholyx, recurrent focal palmer peeling, ring, wear and tear and fingertip eczema, apron, discoid eczema, chronic acral dermatitis, gut and patchy papulosquamous eczema are its clinical variants. Occupational dermatitis/eczema may be contributory. Etiological definitions are clinched by detailed history of exogenous and endogenous factors. However, scientific confirmation of the entity is through patch testing by using available antigens.

  2. Risk of psoriasis in patients with childhood asthma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, A; Khalid, U; Gislason, G H; Mallbris, L; Skov, L; Hansen, P R

    2015-07-01

    Psoriasis and asthma are disorders driven by inflammation. Psoriasis may carry an increased risk of asthma, but the reverse relationship has not been investigated. To investigate the risk of psoriasis in subjects with childhood asthma in a nationwide Danish cohort. Data on all Danish individuals aged 6-14 years at study entry between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2011 (n = 1,478,110) were linked at an individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, concomitant medication and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. There were 21,725 cases of childhood asthma and 6586 incident cases of psoriasis. There were 5697 and 889 incident cases of mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. The incidence rates of overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 4.49, 3.88 and 0.61 for the reference population, and 5.95, 5.18 and 0.83 for subjects with childhood asthma, respectively. The IRRs for overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 3.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-7.17], 5.03 (95% CI 2.48-10.21) and 2.27 (95% CI 0.61-8.42) for patients with childhood asthma. Childhood asthma was associated with a significantly increased risk of psoriasis. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical significance and effects of therapeutic interventions on this association. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Satisfaction with information provided to Danish cancer patients: validation and survey results.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit; Lundstrøm, Louise Hyldborg; Groenvold, Mogens

    2013-11-01

    To validate five items (CPWQ-inf) regarding satisfaction with information provided to cancer patients from health care staff, assess the prevalence of dissatisfaction with this information, and identify factors predicting dissatisfaction. The questionnaire was validated by patient-observer agreement and cognitive interviews. The prevalence of dissatisfaction was assessed in a cross-sectional sample of all cancer patients in contact with hospitals during the past year in three Danish counties. The validation showed that the CPWQ performed well. Between 3 and 23% of the 1490 participating patients were dissatisfied with each of the measured aspects of information. The highest level of dissatisfaction was reported regarding the guidance, support and help provided when the diagnosis was given. Younger patients were consistently more dissatisfied than older patients. The brief CPWQ performs well for survey purposes. The survey depicts the heterogeneous patient population encountered by hospital staff and showed that younger patients probably had higher expectations or a higher need for information and that those with more severe diagnoses/prognoses require extra care in providing information. Four brief questions can efficiently assess information needs. With increasing demands for information, a wide range of innovative initiatives is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. JP-HHT phenotype in Danish patients with SMAD4 mutations.

    PubMed

    Jelsig, A M; Tørring, P M; Kjeldsen, A D; Qvist, N; Bojesen, A; Jensen, U B; Andersen, M K; Gerdes, A M; Brusgaard, K; Ousager, L B

    2016-07-01

    Patients with germline mutations in SMAD4 can present symptoms of both juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT): the JP-HHT syndrome. The complete phenotypic picture of this syndrome is only just emerging. We describe the clinical characteristics of 14 patients with SMAD4-mutations. The study was a retrospective, register-based study. SMAD4 mutations carriers were identified through the Danish HHT-registry, the genetic laboratories - and the genetic departments in Denmark. The medical files from relevant departments were reviewed and symptoms of HHT, JPS, aortopathy and family history were noted. We detected 14 patients with SMAD4 mutations. All patients had polyps removed and 11 of 14 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for JPS. Eight patients were screened for HHT-symptoms and seven of these fulfilled the Curaçao criteria. One patient had aortic root dilation. Our findings support that SMAD4 mutations carriers have symptoms of both HHT and JPS and that the frequency of PAVM and gastric involvement with polyps is higher than in patients with HHT or JPS not caused by a SMAD4 mutation. Out of eight patients screened for aortopathy, one had aortic root dilatation, highlighting the need for additional screening for aortopathy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Systematic review of cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Politiek, Klaziena; Oosterhaven, Jart A F; Vermeulen, Karin M; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2016-08-01

    The individual burden of disease in hand eczema patients is considerable. However, little is known about the socio-economic impact of this disease. The aims of this review were to evaluate the literature on cost-of-illness in hand eczema, and to compose a checklist for future use. The literature was retrieved from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to October 2015. Quality evaluation was based on seven relevant items in cost-of-illness studies. Cost data (direct and indirect) were extracted and converted into euros (2014 price level) by use of the Dutch Consumer Price Index. Six articles were included. The mean annual total cost per patient ranged from €1311 [corrected] to €9792 (direct cost per patient, €521 to €3722; [corrected] and indirect cost per patient, €100 to €6846). Occupational hand eczema patients showed indirect costs up to 70% of total costs, mainly because of absenteeism. A large diversity in hand eczema severity was found between studies. The socio-economic burden of hand eczema is considerable, especially for more severe and/or occupational hand eczema. Absenteeism from paid work leads to a high total cost-of-illness, although disregard of presenteeism often leads to underestimation of indirect costs. Differences in included cost components, the occupational status of patients and hand eczema severity make international comparison difficult. A checklist was added to standardize the approach to cost-of-illness studies in hand eczema. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Danish patients are positive towards fees for non-attendance in public hospitals. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lou, Stina; Frumer, Michal; Olesen, Steen; Nielsen, Agnete Hedemann; Væggemose, Ulla

    2016-07-01

    Patients' non-attendance is a significant problem in modern healthcare. Non-attendance delays treatment, reduces efficiency and increases healthcare costs. For several years, the introduction of financial incentives such as a non-attendance fee has been discussed in Denmark. Set in the context of a tax-financed, free-for-all healthcare system, the political hesitance to introduce fees relates to concerns that additional fees may be badly received by tax-paying citizens and may undermine the political priority of patient equity. The aim of this qualitative sub-study was to investigate patients' attitudes towards a fee for non-attendance. Six semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 44 patients who had been informed about being charged a fee for non-attendance. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Overall, patients' attitudes towards the non-attendance fee were positive. Non-attendance was viewed as evidence of disregard for the common free-for-all healthcare, and a fee was expected to motivate non-attendees to show up. However, most patients argued that certain groups (e.g. the mentally disabled) should be exempted from the fee. Furthermore, an implementation of fees should be easy to manage administratively and should not increase bureaucracy. In general, patients' attitudes towards implementing non-attendance fees are positive. Danish Regions, Ministry of Health and Central Denmark Region. not relevant.

  7. Dermoscopy in differential diagnosis of palmar psoriasis and chronic hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; Stinco, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Clinical differentiation between palmar psoriasis and chronic hand eczema may sometimes be a diagnostic challenge; in such cases histopathological analysis helps to differentiate the two conditions. In the present study, palmar psoriasis and chronic hand eczema were investigated using dermoscopy and the significance of specific dermoscopic features was assessed in order to improve their non-invasive differentiation. Ten patients with biopsy-proven palmar psoriasis and 11 patients with biopsy-proven chronic hand eczema were included in the study. We found that the presence of diffuse white scales was significant in palmar psoriasis whereas the presence of yellowish scales, brownish-orange dots/globules and yellowish-orange crusts was significant in chronic hand eczema. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. ISRCTN84102309. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Mapping of HLA- DQ haplotypes in a group of Danish patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lund, Flemming; Hermansen, Mette N; Pedersen, Merete F; Hillig, Thore; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Sölétormos, György

    2015-10-01

    A cost-effective identification of HLA- DQ risk haplotypes using the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) technique has recently been applied in the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) in four European populations. The objective of the study was to map risk HLA- DQ haplotypes in a group of Danish CD patients using the SNP technique. Cohort A: Among 65 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms we compared the HLA- DQ2 and HLA- DQ8 risk haplotypes obtained by the SNP technique (method 1) with results based on a sequence specific primer amplification technique (method 2) and a technique used in an assay from BioDiagene (method 3). Cohort B: 128 patients with histologically verified CD were tested for CD risk haplotypes (method 1). Patients with negative results were further tested for sub-haplotypes of HLA- DQ2 (methods 2 and 3). Cohort A: The three applied methods provided the same HLA- DQ2 and HLA- DQ8 results among 61 patients. Four patients were negative for the HLA- DQ2 and HLA- DQ8 haplotypes (method 1) but were positive for the HLA- DQ2.5-trans and HLA- DQ2.2 haplotypes (methods 2 and 3). Cohort B: A total of 120 patients were positive for the HLA- DQ2.5-cis and HLA- DQ8 haplotypes (method 1). The remaining seven patients were positive for HLA- DQ2.5-trans or HLA- DQ2.2 haplotypes (methods 2 and 3). One patient was negative with all three HLA methods. The HLA- DQ risk haplotypes were detected in 93.8% of the CD patients using the SNP technique (method 1). The sensitivity increased to 99.2% by combining methods 1 - 3.

  10. Childhood eczema: disease of the advantaged?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, H. C.; Strachan, D. P.; Hay, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the increased prevalence of childhood eczema in advantaged socioeconomic groups is due to increased parental reporting. DESIGN--Comparison of parental reports of eczema with visible eczema recorded by medical officers during a detailed physical examination. SETTING--National birth cohort study. SUBJECTS--8279 children from England, Wales, and Scotland born during 3-9 March 1958 and followed up at the ages of 7, 11, and 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence of eczema according to parental report compared with medical officer's examination at the ages of 7, 11, and 16. RESULTS--Prevalence of both reported and examined eczema increased with rising social class at the ages of 7, 11, and 16 years. The point prevalence of examined eczema at age 7 was 4.8%, 3.6%, 3.6%, 2.4%, 2.2%, and 2.4% in social classes I, II, III non-manual, III manual, IV, and V respectively (chi 2 value for linear trend 12.6, P < 0.001). This trend persisted after adjustment for potential confounders such as region and family size and was not present for examined psoriasis or acne. CONCLUSIONS--Eczema is more prevalent among British schoolchildren in social classes I and II than those in lower classes. Exposures associated with social class are probably at least as important as genetic factors in the expression of childhood eczema. PMID:8173454

  11. Decreased sudomotor function is involved in the formation of atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Aya; Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Saki; Kijima, Akiko; Kitaba, Shun; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Katayama, Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Eczema in the cubital fossa, which is susceptible to sweat, is frequently observed in atopic dermatitis (AD). However, there has been no direct evidence that sweating causes eczema in the cubital fossa. To investigate this issue, axon reflex-mediated sweating volume (AXR) and skin barrier function in the cubital fossa were measured in subjects with AD and in healthy volunteers, and were applied to clinical feature of the cubital fossa. AXR in the cubital fossa decreased in AD subjects; it positively correlated only with water-holding capacity in healthy subjects but not in patients with in AD. Furthermore, AD subjects with lichenoid eczema and either prurigo or papules over the cubital fossa showed extremely decreased AXR. These results suggest that decreased sweating is a major source of water in the stratum corneum, and decreased sudomotor function may be involved in both the cause and aggravation of representative atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.

  12. Assessment of dietary food and nutrient intake and bone density in children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Leung, T F; Wang, S S; Kwok, F Yy; Leung, L Ws; Chow, C M; Hon, K L

    2017-10-01

    Dietary restrictions are common among patients with eczema, and such practice may lead to diminished bone mineral density. This study investigated dietary intake and bone mineral density in Hong Kong Chinese children with eczema. This cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Chinese children aged below 18 years with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited from our paediatric allergy and dermatology clinics over a 6-month period in 2012. Subjects with stable asthma and/or allergic rhinitis who were free of eczema and food allergy as well as non-allergic children were recruited from attendants at our out-patient clinics as a reference group. Intake of various foods and nutrients was recorded using a food frequency questionnaire that was analysed using Foodworks Professional software. Bone mineral density at the radius and the tibia was measured by quantitative ultrasound bone sonometry, and urinary cross-linked telopeptides were quantified by immunoassay and corrected for creatinine level. Overall, 114 children with eczema and 60 other children as reference group were recruited. Eczema severity of the patients was classified according to the objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis score. Males had a higher daily energy intake than females (median, 7570 vs 6736 kJ; P=0.035), but intake of any single food item or nutrient did not differ between them. Compared with the reference group, children with eczema had a higher intake of soybeans and miscellaneous dairy products and lower intake of eggs, beef, and shellfish. Children with eczema also consumed less vitamin D, calcium, and iron. The mean (standard deviation) bone mineral density Z-score of children with eczema and those in the reference group were 0.52 (0.90) and 0.55 (1.12) over the radius (P=0.889), and 0.02 (1.03) and -0.01 (1.13) over the tibia (P=0.886), respectively. Urine telopeptide levels were similar between the groups. Calcium intake

  13. Serum Vitamin D levels and Vitamin D supplementation do not correlate with the severity of chronic eczema in children.

    PubMed

    Galli, E; Rocchi, L; Carello, R; Giampietro, P G; Panei, P; Meglio, P

    2015-03-01

    Eczema is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, affecting about 20% of children. The pathogenic mechanisms of eczema are still not fully understood, and current treatment of moderate-severe eczema is often difficult. Recently, it has been suggested that Vitamin D plays a key role in this disease, even if mechanisms are only partially known. The purpose of our study was to assess the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a pediatric population suffering from chronic eczema (IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated), and to correlate these phenotypes with the SCORAD severity and selected clinical and biological parameters. Moreover, we aimed to evaluate whether a supplementation of Vitamin D3 could affect the same clinical and laboratory parameters. 89 children with chronic eczema were enrolled in the study. Severity of eczema was assessed with the SCORAD index. Past and present history was taken, and patients were divided into two groups according to the state of sensitization. According to a randomization schedule, the enrolled children were assigned to the following groups: supplementation group, which received a daily oral Vitamin D3 supplementation (2000 IUs) for 3 months; control group which received no supplementation. Vitamin D concentrations in patients with moderate and severe eczema were not statistically different from Vitamin D concentration detected in the serum of patients with mild eczema. Furthermore, we did not find any correlation between Vitamin D levels, total IgEs and SCORAD index, both in the Sensitized and in the Not-Sensitized group. The Vitamin D3 supplementation did not influence the SCORAD severity or the total IgEs concentration. To our knowledge, our study is the first one that shows no correlation between serum levels of Vitamin D, eczema severity and IgE sensitization in a pediatric population suffering from chronic eczema.

  14. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2016-01-01

    Background Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Methods The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. Results We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0–62.9). For “Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1–62.0). Similarly, the PPV for “Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5–72.9). “Herpes viral encephalitis” (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5–89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. Conclusion The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus. PMID:27330328

  15. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2016-01-01

    Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0-62.9). For "Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus" (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1-62.0). Similarly, the PPV for "Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus" (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5-72.9). "Herpes viral encephalitis" (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5-89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus.

  16. Few food diets in the treatment of atopic eczema.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, M G; Carter, C M; Boulton, P; Turner, M W; Soothill, J F; Atherton, D J

    1989-01-01

    Sixty six children with severe atopic eczema were treated with highly restricted ('few food') diets followed, if they improved, by serial reintroduction of excluded foods. Twenty four patients (36%) improved considerably during the few food phase of the diet. Fifteen of these (23% of the study group) maintained this improvement on dietary treatment, of whom three abandoned the diet after periods ranging from six to 10 months, despite continued benefit, because they found the dietary restrictions too arduous. Thus 12 out of 66 children (18%) with severe eczema experienced prolonged and useful benefit from this dietary manoeuvre. Double blind food challenges performed in 10 patients failed to establish that parental identification of provoking foods is reliable. A search for historical and in vitro predictors of diet responsiveness was unsuccessful in this series. PMID:2624475

  17. Knowledge, instruction and behavioural change: building a framework for effective eczema education in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deryn Lee; Thompson, Murray John

    2014-01-01

    Aims A discussion on the reasons educational interventions about eczema, by nurses, are successful, with the subsequent development of a theoretical framework to guide nurses to become effective patient educators. Background Effective child and parent education is the key to successful self-management of eczema. When diagnosed, children and parents should learn to understand the condition through clear explanations, seeing treatment demonstrations and have ongoing support to learn practical skills to control eczema. Dermatology nurses provide these services, but no one has proposed a framework of the concepts underpinning their successful eczema educational interventions. Design A discussion paper. Data Sources A literature search of online databases was undertaken utilizing terms ‘eczema OR atopic dermatitis’, ‘education’, ‘parent’, ‘nurs*’, ‘framework’, ‘knowledge’, motivation’, in Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Pubmed. Limits were English language and 2003–2013. Implications for Nursing The framework can inform discussion on child and parent education, provide a scaffold for future research and guide non-specialist nurses, internationally, in providing consistent patient education about eczema. Conclusion Founded on an understanding of knowledge, the framework utilizes essential elements of cognitive psychology and social cognitive theory leading to successful self-management of eczema. This framework may prove useful as a basis for future research in child and parent education, globally, in the healthcare community. A framework has been created to help nurses understand the essential elements of the learning processes at the foundation of effective child and parent education. The framework serves to explain the improved outcomes reported in previous nurse-led eczema educational interventions. PMID:25312442

  18. Knowledge, instruction and behavioural change: building a framework for effective eczema education in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Deryn Lee; Thompson, Murray John

    2014-11-01

    A discussion on the reasons educational interventions about eczema, by nurses, are successful, with the subsequent development of a theoretical framework to guide nurses to become effective patient educators. Effective child and parent education is the key to successful self-management of eczema. When diagnosed, children and parents should learn to understand the condition through clear explanations, seeing treatment demonstrations and have ongoing support to learn practical skills to control eczema. Dermatology nurses provide these services, but no one has proposed a framework of the concepts underpinning their successful eczema educational interventions. A discussion paper. A literature search of online databases was undertaken utilizing terms 'eczema OR atopic dermatitis', 'education', 'parent', 'nurs*', 'framework', 'knowledge', motivation', in Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Pubmed. Limits were English language and 2003-2013. The framework can inform discussion on child and parent education, provide a scaffold for future research and guide non-specialist nurses, internationally, in providing consistent patient education about eczema. Founded on an understanding of knowledge, the framework utilizes essential elements of cognitive psychology and social cognitive theory leading to successful self-management of eczema. This framework may prove useful as a basis for future research in child and parent education, globally, in the healthcare community. A framework has been created to help nurses understand the essential elements of the learning processes at the foundation of effective child and parent education. The framework serves to explain the improved outcomes reported in previous nurse-led eczema educational interventions. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Classification and possible bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhou, Ping; Shen, Yi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the classification and bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China. To investigate the prevalence of eczema and dermatitis in outpatients of dermatology clinics in China, examine classification and proportion of common types of dermatitis and the possible bacterial infection, and analyze the possible related factors. Outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in mainland China from July 1 to September 30, 2014, were enrolled in this cross-sectional and multicenter study. Among 9393 enrolled outpatients, 636 patients (6.7%) were excluded because of incomplete information. The leading subtypes of dermatitis were unclassified eczema (35.5%), atopic dermatitis (13.4%), irritant dermatitis (9.2%), and widespread eczema (8.7%). Total bacterial infection rate was 52.3%, with widespread eczema, stasis dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis being the leading three (65.7%, 61.8%, and 61.4%, respectively). Clinically very likely bacterial infection has a significant positive correlation with disease duration, history of allergic disease, history of flexion dermatitis, and severe itching. Atopic dermatitis has become a common subtype of dermatitis in China. Secondary bacterial infection is common in all patients with dermatitis, and more attentions should be paid on this issue in other type of dermatitis apart from atopic dermatitis. PMID:28858126

  20. Patients with cancer and change of general practice: a Danish population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grooss, Kasper; Hjertholm, Peter; Carlsen, Anders H; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background General practice plays an important role in the cancer care pathway. Patient dissatisfaction with the diagnostic process may be expressed by changing to another general practice. Aim To compare the frequency of change of practice (COP) in patients with cancer (n = 150 216) with a matched cancer-free control cohort (n = 1 502 114) and to analyse associations with cancer type and patient characteristics. Design and setting A population-based matched cohort study using historical and prospectively collected data from Danish nationwide registers. Method COP was defined as a change of practice list, unrelated to change of address or reorganisation of the practice. Data were analysed monthly in the year before and after a cancer diagnosis. Results More patients with cancer than controls changed general practice (4.1% versus 2.6%) from 7 months before and until 12 months after diagnosis. The COP rate varied by cancer type (rectal cancer served as reference). Before the diagnosis, COP was most often seen among patients with ovarian cancer (risk ratio [RR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10 to 2.08) and multiple myeloma (RR 1.89, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.67). After the diagnosis, COP was most frequent among patients with brain cancer (RR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.82) and ovarian cancer (RR 1.51, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.88). Conclusion Patients with cancer changed general practice more frequently than the cancer-free controls. COP variations between cancer types may be attributed to lack of diagnostic timeliness due to clinical complexity of the diagnosis and the role of the GP in the diagnostic process. PMID:27215570

  1. Tacrolimus treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2003-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is today the most common chronic disease of children in Europe, the US and Japan. The 'golden standard' of therapy is topical glucocorticosteroids and emollients. The steroids have been on the market for four decades, are efficacious, but only advised for short-term treatment due to their risks of side effects. More than 16,000 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis have been enrolled in clinical studies of tacrolimus. One third of patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis experience over 90% improvement in their disease over a 12-week treatment period and up to 70% of patients have over 50% improvement. A 1-year treatment leads to more than 90% improvement in 75% of patients. The most pronounced side effect is a burning sensation occurring in up to 60% of patients. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disease leading to a demand for long-term treatment control. Such treatment options have not previously been available--except for emollients which are not efficacious for controlling skin inflammation. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are new treatment options, free from the potential side effects of topical steroids, which are known for their efficacy in short-term treatment. The new treatment modalities prevent the eczema from relapsing and at the same time they control active eczema. The future will see a shift towards the long-term use of tacrolimus which is able to control the skin inflammation and, hopefully, shorten the course of the eczema.

  2. Skin prick testing in atopic eczema: atopic to what and at what age?

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Wang, Shuxin Susan; Wong, Wing Lam; Poon, Wing Kwan; Mak, Ka Yi; Leung, Ting Fan

    2012-05-01

    Atopic eczema is a common and distressing disease. This study aimed to review the age-dependent pattern of atopic sensitization to food and aeroallergens in patients with eczema by skin prick testing. The results of skin prick test (SPT), serum IgE, bronchial challenge test, and family history of atopy in eczema patients seen at a pediatric dermatology clinic were reviewed. SPT results were available in 816 eczema patients. In these patients, 90% had atopic sensitization to at least one aeroallergen, 69% to at least one food allergen, and 94% to at least one allergen by SPT. Together with a family history of atopy in parents or siblings and a personal history of airway atopies, 97% and 99.8% of the patients were atopic, respectively. Bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) was demonstrated in 44% of 339 patients. Aeroallergen was more prevalent than food allergen sensitization among children older than 10 years. The mites (D. pteronysissnus, D. farinae and Blomia Tropicalis) were the most prevalent allergens regardless of age and BHR, but D. pteronysissnus and D. farinae sensitization were more prevalent among BHR-positive patients. Beef is the least sensitized food protein in all ages. The majority of patients with eczema are atopic to aeroallergens. The mites (D. pteronysissnus, D. farinae and Blomia Tropicalis) are the most prevalent allergens regardless of age and BHR.

  3. Patients' Perception of Clinicians Use of ICT During Patient Consultation in the Different Sectors of Danish Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lone Stub; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark ICT is a central part of almost all healthcare professionals' daily practices, and patients are increasingly encouraged to take and active interest in own health data. Therefore, ICT is an important part of what happens at consultations between the patients and the healthcare professionals. We explore the impact of ICT based on a survey of citizens'/patients' experience of interaction with healthcare professionals. How often and for what ICT was used in communication with the patients in different sectors of the Danish healthcare. The results show that ICT is used in communication with citizens and during interaction with patient, however the use of ICT is mostly for the healthcare professionals own benefit and only about 15%-39% of the reported instances ICT was used to communication and interact with the patient. Through the concept of boundary objects we proposes a model that split the object of the technology mediated information into three setting for communication between patients and healthcare professionals. We propose further studies into how ICT can be used to explore the possibilities for more interactive and involving care processes as a key element in further development of eHealth.

  4. Positive predictive value of peptic ulcer diagnosis codes in the Danish National Patient Registry.

    PubMed

    Viborg, Søren; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Jepsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Diagnoses of peptic ulcer are registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) for administrative as well as research purposes, but it is unknown whether the coding validity depends on the location of the ulcer. To validate the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th revision diagnosis codes of peptic ulcer in the DNPR by estimating positive predictive values (PPVs) for gastric and duodenal ulcer diagnoses. We identified all patients registered with a hospital discharge diagnosis of peptic ulcer from Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, in 1995-2006. Among them, we randomly selected 200 who had an outpatient gastroscopy at the time of ulcer diagnosis. We reviewed the findings from these gastroscopies to confirm the presence of peptic ulcer and its location. We calculated PPVs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gastric and duodenal ulcer diagnoses, using descriptions from the gastroscopic examinations as standard reference. In total, 182 records (91%) were available for review. The overall PPV of peptic ulcer diagnoses in DNPR was 95.6% (95% CI 91.5-98.1), with PPVs of 90.3% (95% CI 82.4-95.5) for gastric ulcer diagnoses, and 94.4% (95% CI 87.4-98.2) for duodenal ulcer diagnoses. PPVs were constant over time. The PPV of uncomplicated peptic ulcer diagnoses in the DNPR is high, and the location of the ulcers is registered correctly in most cases, indicating that the diagnoses are useful for research purposes.

  5. Eczema, Sleep, and Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J. Declan; Gold, Michael; Martin, A. James; Winwood, Peter; Lushington, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is a general consensus that sleep disruption in children causes daytime behavioral deficits. It is unclear if sleep disruption in children with eczema has similar effects particularly after controlling for known comorbid disorders such as asthma and rhinitis. Methods: Parents of children (6-16 y) with eczema (n = 77) and healthy controls (n = 30) completed a validated omnibus questionnaire which included the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised (S), Child Health Questionnaire, Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, and additional items assessing eczema, asthma, rhinitis, and demographics. Results: Compared to controls, children with eczema had a greater number of sleep problems with a greater percentage in the clinical range, lower quality of life, and higher levels of ADHD and oppositional behavior. They also had elevated rhinitis and asthma severity scores. Importantly, structural equation modelling revealed that the effect of eczema on the behavioral variables of Hyperactivity, ADHD Index, and Oppositional Behaviors were mediated through sleep with no direct effect of eczema on these behaviors. The comorbid atopic disorders of rhinitis and asthma also had independent effects on behavior mediated through their effects on sleep. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that the daytime behaviors seen in children with eczema are mediated independently by the effects of eczema, asthma, and rhinitis on sleep quality. These findings highlight the importance of sleep in eczematous children and its role in regulating daytime behavior. Citation: Camfferman D; Kennedy JD; Gold M; Martin AJ; Winwood P; Lushington K. Eczema, sleep, and behavior in children. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):581-588. PMID:21206547

  6. Accuracy of angina pectoris and acute coronary syndrome in the Danish National Patient Register.

    PubMed

    Bork, Christian Sørensen; Al-Zuhairi, Karam Sadoon; Hansen, Steen Møller; Delekta, Joanna; Joensen, Albert Marni

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Patient Register (DNPR)is widely used for research and administrative purposes. However, its usability is highly dependent of the validity of the registered data. We therefore aimed to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of angina pectoris and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the DNPR. We selected a random sample of 500 patients registered with angina pectoris and a random sample of 500 patients registered with ACS among all hospitalisations at any department in Northern Denmark between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2007. We reviewed the medical records of the sample patients and recorded whether the angina pectoris and the ACS diagnoses were valid, based on the European Society of Cardiology criteria. The PPV of definite and probable angina pectoris was 45.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.3-50.6%), whereas the PPV of verified ACS was 86.6% (95% CI: 83.3-89.5%). Stratification by hospital department revealed significantly higher PPVs for diagnoses received in a cardiology unit for both angina pectoris (61.7%; 95% CI: 53.4-69.6%) and ACS (95.5%; 95% CI: 91.3-98.0%). Stratification by gender showed a significantly higher PPV among men registered with angina pectoris (51.2%; 95% CI: 45.3-57.1%). The angina pectoris and ACS data contained in the DNPR should be used with caution in register studies if validation is not possible. Restricting analyses of ACS data to patients discharged from cardiology wards may be a useful option in register-based studies. none. not relevant. Articles published in the DMJ are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

  7. Correlations among steroid fear, acceptability, usage frequency, quality of life and disease severity in childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Yin Ching K; Pong, Nga Hin; Luk, David C K; Lee, Vivian W; Woo, Wing Man; Lam, Chak Yiu Justin; Yeung, Yun Ting Eunice; Chau, Yiu Shing Sunny; Chui, Ka Kam Kenneth; Li, Ka Hin Gabriel; Leung, Ting Fan

    2015-10-01

    Topical corticosteroids (CSs) are the mainstay of treatment for eczema but CS phobia and fears are prevalent and influence therapeutic efficacy. To quantify if CS acceptability and fear affect patients' quality-of-life (QoL). Patients with eczema managed in the pediatric dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital were surveyed. Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS) for severity, Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) for QoL, CS fear, acceptability and reported frequency of CS use were measured with quantified questions. CS fears were prevalent among parents and caregivers of patients with eczema. Fifty-eight percent of parents reported general acceptability of CS as being very good or good, and many applied CS to their child regularly every week. However, >40% of parents reported CS fear "always" or "often", 41% reported that they "always" or "often" apply CS only when eczema got worse, 57% would discuss CS fear with their doctors, 30% would request CS-sparing medications and 14% "always" or "often" use traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Fears were predominantly interpersonal and less often iatrogenic in nature. Skin problems were the most concerned side effects of CS. CS acceptability, frequency of CS usage, CS fear and usage of alternative medications were independent domains in eczema management: CS fears correlated with CDLQI; CS usage frequency correlated with NESS and negatively with parental education; and CS acceptability correlated with parental education. Ordinal logistic regressions showed worse QoL was associated with more CS fear (odds ratio: 1.092 [95% CI: 1.023-1.165], p = 0.008). The extent of CS fears is independent of CS acceptability, but correlates with patients' QoL. Desensitization of parental CS fears should be integral part of eczema education and therapeutics in order to improve therapeutic efficacy and patients' QoL.

  8. A clinical trial for evaluation of leech application in the management of Vicarcikā (Eczema)

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, K.M. Pratap; Rao, S. Dattatreya; Umar, Shaik Nafeez; Gopalakrishnaiah, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin diseases are among the most common health problems worldwide and are associated with a considerable burden. Eczema is such a skin ailment which cause psychological, social and financial burden on the patient and their families. Management of eczema with antibiotics, antihistamines, steroids etc., are available but even after their use relapses, recurrences and other complications are very common. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of leech application in the management of vicarcikā (Eczema) with standard clinical parameters viz. Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score, SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Materials and Methods: An open labeled clinical trial study without control group was conducted with 27 patients having the classical symptoms of vicarcikā (Eczema), selected as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from outpatient department and inpatient department sections of Shalya Department, S.V. Ayurvedic Hospital, Tirupati. Minimum four sittings of leech application were carried out with 7 days interval. Pre- and post-treatment evaluation of the patient was done with Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score, SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Statistical Analysis: Analysis of the data was done with Student's paired t-test. Results: The total EASI score showed considerable reduction up to 54.45% (P < 0.01) and the SCORAD Index significantly reduced by 55% (P < 0.01). The life quality of the patient calculated by DLQI improved significantly by 62.36% (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Leech application gives significant relief for the symptoms of eczema. The life quality of the patient also improved significantly after leech therapy. No adverse reactions were reported during the entire course of study. PMID:25593404

  9. Validating the Danish adaptation of the World Health Organization's International Classification for Patient Safety classification of patient safety incident types

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Validation of a Danish patient safety incident classification adapted from the World Health Organizaton's International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS-WHO). Design Thirty-three hospital safety management experts classified 58 safety incident cases selected to represent all types and subtypes of the Danish adaptation of the ICPS (ICPS-DK). Outcome Measures Two measures of inter-rater agreement: kappa and intra-class correlation (ICC). Results An average number of incident types used per case per rater was 2.5. The mean ICC was 0.521 (range: 0.199–0.809) and the mean kappa was 0.513 (range: 0.193–0.804). Kappa and ICC showed high correlation (r = 0.99). An inverse correlation was found between the prevalence of type and inter-rater reliability. Results are discussed according to four factors known to determine the inter-rater agreement: skill and motivation of raters; clarity of case descriptions; clarity of the operational definitions of the types and the instructions guiding the coding process; adequacy of the underlying classification scheme. Conclusions The incident types of the ICPS-DK are adequate, exhaustive and well suited for classifying and structuring incident reports. With a mean kappa a little above 0.5 the inter-rater agreement of the classification system is considered ‘fair’ to ‘good’. The wide variation in the inter-rater reliability and low reliability and poor discrimination among the highly prevalent incident types suggest that for these types, precisely defined incident sub-types may be preferred. This evaluation of the reliability and usability of WHO's ICPS should be useful for healthcare administrations that consider or are in the process of adapting the ICPS. PMID:23287641

  10. Decreased natural killer cell activity in atopic eczema.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, T J; Rycroft, R; Brostoff, J

    1985-01-01

    We have studied NK cell activity in atopic and non-atopic subjects using a standard 51Cr-release assay and K562 target cells. In atopics (AT) with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma, NK cell activity was similar to that in non-atopic (N) subjects, whilst patients with severe atopic eczema (AE) had depressed NK cell activity compared to AT or N subjects. In addition, circulating T-cell numbers and Con A responsiveness was decreased in AE, although neither parameter was correlated with decreased NK cell activity. However, decreased NK cell activity in atopic eczema was positively correlated with decreased numbers of Fc gamma + lymphocytes (P = 0.01) and decreased effector: target cell binding (P = 0.05), and negatively correlated with increased monocytes in AE (P = 0.09). AE NK cell activity was equally or more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of drugs such as dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandins (PG) D2,E2 and histamine. The relative percentage increase in NK cell activity by the interferon inducer poly I:C was similar in AE patients and controls. The results suggest that reduced numbers of circulating NK cells and pre-NK cells account for the depressed level of NK cell activity in subjects with severe atopic eczema. PMID:3876984

  11. Eczema

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have you ever tried a new type of soap and developed an itchy rash? That reaction may ... wash gently with a nondrying facial cleanser or soap substitute, and use facial moisturizers, makeup, and sunscreens ...

  12. A cohort study of Danish patients with interstitial lung diseases: burden, severity, treatment and survival.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterised by varying degrees of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. We hypothesised that IPF and unclassifiable ILD were common in a Danish ILD cohort and that prognostic factors based on disease characteristics and comorbidities could be identified The aims of the PhD study were to describe the demographics of ILD in Central Denmark, to characterise the distribution of ILD diagnoses, and to assess prognostic factors in IPF and unclassifiable ILD. The study is based on a cohort of 431 ILD patients referred to our department during a 6-year period. All ILD diagnoses were re-evaluated according to current diagnostic criteria. Patients were followed from the time of first visit on suspicion of an ILD to the last visit to the centre, death, transplantation, or discharge from follow-up. The incidence of ILD was 4.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the incidence of IPF was 1.3 per 100,000 inhabitants in Central Den-mark. The most frequently occurring ILDs were IPF (28%), unclassifiable ILDs (extensive fibrotic disease and other unclassifiable ILDs) (24%), connective tissue disease-related ILD (14%), hyper-sensitivity pneumonitis (7%) and NSIP (7%). Cardiovascular dis-ease was present in 21% of the patients. The presence of cardio-vascular disease at the time of IPF diagnosis did not lead to increased mortality, whereas cardiovascular disease diagnosed during the course of IPF was a statistically significant predictor of mortality. Our study also showed that diabetes and concomitant anticoagulant therapy were associated with worse outcome in IPF, and that a simple HRCT scoring system could be used in the prediction of outcome in fibrotic ILDs. The study of unclassifiable ILD revealed two disease categories: one group characterised by extensive fibrotic disease and one characterised by more inflammatory features. The latter group was characterised by younger age and significantly better

  13. Upregulated expression of substance P (SP) and NK1R in eczema and SP-induced mast cell accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Mengmeng; Zheng, Wenjiao; Jiang, Qijun; Zhao, Zuotao; Wang, Zhiyun; Wang, Junling; Zhang, Huiyun; He, Shaoheng

    2017-08-01

    Substance P (SP) was reported to be associated with eczema and acts as a potent skin mast cell secretagogue. However, little is known of its expression in inflammatory cells in eczema and its ability in induction of mast cell accumulation. In the present study, we investigated expression of SP and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) on peripheral blood leukocytes and mast cells from patients with eczema and influence of SP on mast cell accumulation by using flow cytometry analysis, trans-epithelial cell migration assay and mouse peritoneal model. The results showed that plasma SP and IL-17A levels in eczema patients were higher than that in healthy control subject. The percentages of SP+ and NK1R+ expression populations of monocytes, helper T cells, natural killer T cells and basophils in peripheral blood of eczema patients were markedly elevated. It was observed that not only absolute number of mast cells but also SP+ and NK1R+ mast cells are enhanced in the lesion skin of eczema. SP showed a potent chemoattractant action on mast cells as assessed by a mouse peritoneal model and a trans-endothelium cell migration assay. SP-induced mast cell accumulation appears a CD18/CD11a complex, L-selectin and ICAM-1-dependent event which can be blocked by a NK-1R antagonist RP67580. In conclusion, elevated expression of SP in patients with eczema and the ability of SP in induction of mast cell accumulation indicate strongly that SP is a potent proinflammatory mediator, which contributes to the pathogenesis of eczema. Inhibitors of SP and blockers of NK1R are likely useful agents for treatment of eczema.

  14. Atopic eczema and the filaggrin story.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sara J; Irvine, Alan D

    2008-06-01

    The discovery that null mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are associated with atopic eczema represents the single most significant breakthrough in understanding the genetic basis of this complex disorder. The association has been replicated in multiple independent studies during the past 2 years with the use of various methodologies, from populations in Europe, the United States, and Japan. Filaggrin plays a key role in epidermal barrier function, and its association with atopic eczema emphasizes the importance of barrier dysfunction in eczema pathogenesis. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the role of FLG mutations in ichthyosis vulgaris, atopic eczema, and other skin disorders, with an emphasis on potential clinical applications. Further research is needed to clarify the precise role of filaggrin in skin and systemic atopic disease, to pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions.

  15. Nurse-led clinics reduce severity of childhood atopic eczema: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, E; Williams, A; Manias, E; Varigos, G

    2006-12-01

    The increasing prevalence and impact of atopic eczema in children in Western countries such as Australia substantiate the need to evaluate the current management of this illness. It has been well documented that the most important aspects in the management of atopic eczema are to allow adequate time for education and demonstration of treatments. However, current models of healthcare funding restrict the opportunity for patient education during medical consultation times. The contribution of nursing to patient care through nurse-led clinics has significant potential in the management of many common chronic illnesses, although atopic eczema has received minimal attention by researchers to date. To discuss the current clinical management of atopic eczema, and to identify the evidence surrounding the benefits of nurse-led clinics in managing patients with chronic illnesses. Systematic searches were undertaken using the Cochrane Library, MedLine, PUBMed and CINAHL from 1995 to 2005. Manual searches of references of retrieved articles identified two additional key studies from 1990 and 1993 which were also included in the review. In total, 22 relevant publications were identified. These included both primary research and descriptive studies that covered the medical management of eczema, patient education and improved patient outcomes. The evidence emerging from the literature indicates that the current management of eczema through doctor-led clinics could be improved, with doctors often lacking the time to offer sufficient patient education to manage chronic illnesses effectively. The literature supports the efficacy of nurse-led clinics in the management of chronic illnesses. The benefits of nurse-led clinics include increased patient satisfaction, longer consultations resulting in improved patient education and similar health outcomes when compared with care from a doctor. No studies were identified comparing nurse-led and doctor-led clinics in the management of eczema

  16. Cross-Cultural Translation, Adaptation and Reliability of the Danish M. D. Andeson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hajdú, Sara Fredslund; Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Wessel, Irene

    2017-08-01

    The objectives were to translate and culturally adapt the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) into Danish and subsequently test the reliability of the Danish version. The MDADI was translated into Danish and cross culturally adapted through cognitive interviews. The final version was test-retest evaluated in a group of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients who responded to the questionnaire twice with a mean of eight days apart. Interclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha, floor and ceiling effects, standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were investigated. Fourteen patients were interviewed on the comprehensibility of the Danish MDADI, and all found the questionnaire meaningful, easy to understand, non-offensive and to include relevant aspects of dysphagia related to HNC. Sixty-four patients were included in the test-retest study. Especially, one item in the emotional scale (E7) appeared to be often misinterpreted, and ceiling effects were found in all four subdomains (global, emotional, functional and physical). The four subdomains and the composite score showed acceptable test-retest reliability and internal consistency in a Danish population of HNC patients. The Danish MDADI is reliable in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reproducibility and can be used in assessing the health-related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients with dysphagia.

  17. User Fees in General Practice: Willingness to Pay and Potential Substitution Patterns-Results from a Danish GP Patient Survey.

    PubMed

    Kronborg, Christian; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; Fournaise, Anders; Kronborg, Christel Nøhr

    2017-10-01

    Increases in public expenditures to general practitioner (GP) services and specialist care have spurred debate over whether to implement user fees for healthcare services such as GP consultations in Denmark. The objective of this study was to examine Danish patients' attitudes towards user fees and their willingness to pay (WTP) for a consultation, and to investigate how user charges may impact patients' behaviour. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a GP clinic. A total of 343 individual persons answered the questionnaire. One hundred and seventy (50%) persons were not willing to pay for a consultation. Among patients reporting positive WTP values, the mean WTP was 137 (standard deviation 140) Danish kroner (DKK). Patients who were 65 years old or older were more likely to be willing to pay for a GP consultation than patients under the age of 65 years. Furthermore, patients with a personal annual income of more than 200,000 DKK were more likely to be willing to pay for a consultation than other income groups. With respect to patients with a positive WTP value, their own assessment of the seriousness of the consultation and their self-assessed health influenced the amount they would be willing to pay. Finally, we observed a stated willingness to substitute GP consultations with alternatives that are free of charge. About half of the patients with an appointment for a GP consultation are willing to pay for the consultation. User charges may potentially influence the patients' behaviour. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784731.

  18. The Eczema Education Programme: intervention development and model feasibility.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K; Ersser, S J; Dennis, H; Farasat, H; More, A

    2014-07-01

    The systematic support of parents of children with eczema is essential to their effective management; however, we have few models of support. This study examines the rationale, evidence base and development of a large-scale, structured, theory-based, nurse-led intervention, the 'Eczema Education Programme' (EEP), for parents of children with eczema. To outline development of the EEP, model of delivery, determine its feasibility and evaluate this based on service access and parental satisfaction data. Parent-child dyads meeting EEP referral criteria were recruited and demographic information recorded. A questionnaire survey of parental satisfaction was conducted 4 weeks post EEP; parental focus groups at 6 weeks provided comparative qualitative data. Descriptive statistics were derived from the questionnaire data using Predictive Analytics Software (PASW); content analysis was applied to focus group data. A total of 356 parents attended the EEP during the evaluation period. Service access was achieved for those in a challenging population. Both survey data (n = 146 parents, 57%) and focus group data (n = 21) revealed a significant level of parental satisfaction with the programme. It was feasible to provide the EEP as an adjunct to normal clinical care on a large scale, achieving a high level of patient/parent satisfaction and access within an urban area of multiple deprivation and high mobility. The intervention is transferable and the results are generalizable to other ethnically diverse child eczema populations within metropolitan areas in Britain. A multicentre RCT is required to test the effectiveness of this intervention on a larger scale. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Atopic and Non-atopic Eczema.

    PubMed

    Rożalski, Michał; Rudnicka, Lidia; Samochocki, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common term used in the medical literature, but according to The Nomenclature Review Committee Of The World Allergy Organization the name which should be used is eczema. Eczema is divided into two subtypes: atopic and non-atopic. These subtypes differ in the level of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, response to allergens in skin prick tests, and detection of specific IgE antibodies. Non-atopic eczema is characterized by a low level of total IgE, negative skin prick tests, and undetectable specific IgE antibodies. It is estimated that 10-45% cases of eczema are non-atopic ones. In recent studies, other features differentiating these two subtypes have been identified, such as female predominance in non-atopic eczema. A more severe course, damage of the epidermal barrier, predominance of Th2 (T helper cells 2) response, and a lower positive reaction to metal patch tests are the characteristics of the atopic subtype. In our opinion, new diagnostic criteria taking into account the non-atopic subtype of eczema need to be established.

  20. Positive predictive value of peptic ulcer diagnosis codes in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Viborg, Søren; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Jepsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Diagnoses of peptic ulcer are registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) for administrative as well as research purposes, but it is unknown whether the coding validity depends on the location of the ulcer. Objective To validate the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision diagnosis codes of peptic ulcer in the DNPR by estimating positive predictive values (PPVs) for gastric and duodenal ulcer diagnoses. Methods We identified all patients registered with a hospital discharge diagnosis of peptic ulcer from Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, in 1995–2006. Among them, we randomly selected 200 who had an outpatient gastroscopy at the time of ulcer diagnosis. We reviewed the findings from these gastroscopies to confirm the presence of peptic ulcer and its location. We calculated PPVs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gastric and duodenal ulcer diagnoses, using descriptions from the gastroscopic examinations as standard reference. Results In total, 182 records (91%) were available for review. The overall PPV of peptic ulcer diagnoses in DNPR was 95.6% (95% CI 91.5–98.1), with PPVs of 90.3% (95% CI 82.4–95.5) for gastric ulcer diagnoses, and 94.4% (95% CI 87.4–98.2) for duodenal ulcer diagnoses. PPVs were constant over time. Conclusion The PPV of uncomplicated peptic ulcer diagnoses in the DNPR is high, and the location of the ulcers is registered correctly in most cases, indicating that the diagnoses are useful for research purposes. PMID:28503076

  1. Family functioning and perceived support from nurses during cancer treatment among Danish and Australian patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Dieperink, Karin B; Coyne, Elisabeth; Creedy, Debra K; Østergaard, Birte

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare family functioning and perceptions of support from nurses among Danish and Australian adult oncology patients and family members. Family can have a strong influence on the health of individuals, providing support during a health crisis such as cancer. However, family functioning and supportive care from nurses may vary across cultures and settings. A descriptive, cross-sectional comparative design with patients and family members from Denmark and Australia. Participants were asked to fill in translated versions of the Iceland-Expressive Family Functioning Questionnaire (ICE-EFFQ) and Iceland-Expressive Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ). In total, 232 participants were recruited. The Danish cohort consisted of 56 patients and 54 family members. The Australian cohort consisted of 83 patients and 39 family members. Mean age was 59 years. No significant differences were found between Danish and Australian families. However, compared to patients, family members reported significantly lower overall family functioning, expressive emotions and communication, as well as less emotional support from nurses. Family functioning was comparable between Denmark and Australia. Family members reported less emotional support than patients. Nurses need to consider the patient and the family as a unit with complex needs that require monitoring and attention during oncology treatment. Families supporting a member with cancer have significant and often unmet needs. Assessment, information-sharing and health education need to include the family. Supportive care information may be shared between Denmark and Australia and inspires the development of common guidelines for optimal family nursing practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in preschool children with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Catal, F; Topal, E; Soylu, N; Ozel Ozcan, O; Celiksoy, M H; Babayiğit, A; Karakoç, H T E; Erge, D; Sancak, R

    2016-01-01

    To compare with a control group the frequency of psychiatric disorders and severity of psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with atopic eczema. The study included children between the ages of 3-5 who were diagnosed to have atopic eczema. The parents of the children with atopic eczema were interviewed in person and were asked to fill in "The Early Childhood Inventory-4" form. This form assesses the psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in children between the ages of 3-5. The atopic eczema group included 80 patients (38 male, 42 female) with a mean age of 48.4 ± 15.7 months and the control group included 74 patients (41 male, 33 female) with a mean age of 49.9 ± 15.19 months. It was established that 68.8% of the group with atopic eczema received at least one psychiatric diagnosis. Between the psychiatric disorders, ADHD (Odds ratio: 2.57, 95% CI: 1.049-6.298, p=0.035), enuresis and encopresis (Odds ratio: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.121-5.097, p=0.022) and attachment disorder (Odds ratio: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.046-3.953, p=0.035) were found to be significantly higher when compared with the healthy control group. When the groups were compared in terms of psychiatric symptom severity scores calculated by using ECI-4, ADHD severity (p=0.043), conduct disorder severity (p=0.001), anxiety disorders severity (p<0.001), eating disorders severity (p=0.011) and tic disorder severity (p=0.01) were found to be higher in the atopic eczema group. Psychiatric illnesses are frequent in preschool children with atopic eczema. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of moisturizers among Danish atopic dermatitis patients-which perceived product characteristics associate with long-term adherence?

    PubMed

    Joergensen, Kristina Melbardis; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2018-03-01

    To identify factors perceived as most important regarding choice and continued use of moisturizers for adult patients with AD. Online survey among members of the Atopic eczema society Denmark. Among 75 participants, the most commonly tried (89.3%) and preferred (16%) product was Locobase ® (Leo Pharma, Denmark). A-derma ® (Pierre Fabre, France) had most continued use. The main reason for choosing preferred product was 'Best effect, in my experience' (36%). 'High lipid content' and 'GP/dermatologist suggested product' were considered as important main factors. 'Consistency', 'absorbs fast', and 'nice to wear' were secondary reasons for preferred product. A majority, 81.3% of respondents claimed to be very aware of perfumes and additives, 52% were very aware of allergy certification bodies on the product. AD patients state that the most important factor when choosing a product is out of personal experience followed by high lipid content and recommended by GP/dermatologist. As secondary reasons 'consistency', 'absorbs fast', and 'nice to wear' were important. Respondents generally use more than one product and are aware of additives. Evidence-based guidance on the choice of emollients is needed. The role of the professionals supporting the patient in navigating this market of emollients is therefore particularly important.

  4. The psychosocial burden of hand eczema: Data from a European dermatological multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Marron, Servando E; Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Navarro-Lopez, Jorge; Gieler, Uwe; Kupfer, Jörg; Dalgard, Florence J; Lien, Lars; Finlay, Andrew Y; Poot, Françoise; Linder, Dennis; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Misery, Laurent; Jemec, Gregor B E; Romanov, Dmitry; Sampogna, Francesca; Szabo, Csanad; Altunay, Ilknur K; Spillekom-van Koulil, Saskia; Balieva, Flora; Ali, Faraz M; Halvorsen, Jon A; Marijuan, Pedro C

    2018-06-01

    The essential physical role, visibility and social importance of the hands place a major psychological burden on patients with hand eczema. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social and clinical characteristics of patients with hand eczema, in particular the prevalences of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and comorbidities. Data on patients with hand eczema were analysed from a large European multicentre study conducted with dermatology outpatients from 13 countries. Groups of patients and controls were compared to analyse the psychological burden of hand eczema. Female patients with hand eczema had higher Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores for anxiety (n = 86, median = 7.0) than controls (n = 900, median = 5.0, P = .02), and for depression (median = 4.0) than controls (3.0, P < .001). Patients with high suicidal ideation, with low socioeconomic status and who were widowed or divorced were more likely to fulfil the HADS criteria for anxiety [odds ratio (OR) > 1, P = .038, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively]. The median Dermatology Life Quality Index score was 7.0 (n = 68). This study identifies a specific psychological burden experienced by hand eczema patients, highlighting the need for focused psychosocial interventions. Physicians in particular should be aware of the need to identify anxiety and depression in female patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Novel unconventional therapeutic approaches to atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Worm, M; Henz, B M

    2000-01-01

    Atopic eczema is a chronic, recurrent, multifactorial skin disease, and, accordingly, there are numerous therapeutic options for its symptomatic treatment. Conventional medications are however often unsatisfactory for many patients because of adverse effects on long-term use. For this reason, patients often readily welcome unconventional therapeutic approaches. We present here a selected number of such treatment modalities, namely gamma-linolenic acid, Chinese herbal tea, diets eliminating allergens, pseudoallergens, metal salts and sodium, and bioresonance. When stringent scientific criteria are applied in the evaluation of such study results, none of the reviewed alternative treatments provides unequivocal, convincing evidence of its efficacy, even when double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are available. With Chinese herbal tea, potentially serious adverse effects should be considered as well. Any new type of unconventional therapy should thus be thoroughly evaluated and shown to be equal or superior to conventional treatments with regard to both efficacy and tolerability before it is recommended for use in clinical practice. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Quality of life, use of topical medications and socio-economic data in hand eczema: a Swedish nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Bingefors, Kerstin; Lindberg, Magnus; Isacson, Dag

    2011-06-01

    Hand eczema is common and has an adverse impact on the lives of patients. There is a need for population-based surveys on the pharmacoepidemiological aspects, quality of life and impact of socioeconomic factors in hand eczema. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate these factors. A questionnaire-based nationwide survey of health was performed, including questions on hand eczema, use of pharmaceuticals and socioeconomic factors. Quality of life was estimated with the generic instrument Short Form 36 (SF-36). The questionnaire was sent to 7,985 persons (age range 18-84 years), response rate 61.1% (n = 4,875). The 1-year prevalence of hand eczema in the study population was 7.5%. In this group, quality of life was lower. All dimensions of SF-36 were affected, most markedly general health and those dimensions reporting on mental health. In the group with self-reported hand eczema, 51% reported using topical pharmaceuticals. Hand eczema was more common among women (9.1%, n = 2,630) than among men (5.6%, n = 2,245) and in the age group below 65 years (8.5%, n = 3,274) compared with those aged 65 years and over (4.3%, n = 1,151). This survey clearly demonstrates the impact of hand eczema on several dimensions of life and also highlights age, gender and socioeconomic differences.

  7. Hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and filaggrin mutations in adult Danes: a registry-based study assessing risk of disability pension.

    PubMed

    Heede, Nina G; Thuesen, Betina H; Thyssen, Jacob P; Linneberg, Allan; Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis and hand eczema often impair the ability of people to work. Only a few studies have investigated whether individuals with loss-of-function filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, who often have severe and early onset of dermatitis, experience occupational consequences. To investigate the personal consequences of having atopic dermatitis and/or hand eczema and FLG mutations. Adult Danes from the general population (n = 3247) and patients with atopic dermatitis and/or hand eczema (n = 496) were genotyped for common FLG mutations, and completed a questionnaire about skin symptoms and hand eczema. Socioeconomic variables, including disability pension, and information on work in risk occupations were retrieved from national registries. The reasons for granting disability pension were unknown. Disability pension was associated with hand eczema in the general population, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Moreover, self-reported hand eczema and atopic dermatitis were associated with particularly high risk of disability pension among FLG mutation carriers [odds ratio (OR) 4.02 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-14.11; and OR 6.01 and 95%CI: 2.37-15.34, respectively]. Furthermore, 60% of the FLG mutation carriers with atopic dermatitis who developed hand eczema had experienced symptoms before adulthood. In the general population, self-reported hand eczema and atopic dermatitis, particularly in individuals with a genetically impaired skin barrier, were associated with disability pension, suggesting that FLG mutations carriers with a history of atopic dermatitis and hand eczema could benefit from early attention with respect to choice of occupation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Translation and validation of the Danish version of the brief family assessment measure III in a sample of acutely admitted elderly medical patients.

    PubMed

    Shamali, Mahdi; Konradsen, Hanne; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Østergaard, Birte

    2017-11-13

    Family functioning plays a pivotal role in the adaptation to illness of both individuals and families, especially among elderly patients. The Brief Family Assessment Measure Third Edition (Brief FAM-III) is among the most frequently used self-report instruments that measures family functioning. However, no Danish translation or measure of its psychometric properties in a Danish population is available. The purpose of this study was to translate the Brief FAM-III into Danish and then evaluate its psychometric properties in elderly patients. The Brief FAM-III was translated into Danish using the forward-backward translation procedure and examined its psychometric properties in 60 elderly patients (aged over 65) consecutively admitted to an acute medical ward. Internal consistency reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the Brief FAM-III. Evaluation of the Danish version of the Brief FAM-III confirmed the three-factor structure (General Scale, Self-Rating Scale and Dyadic Relationships Scale) identified in the original instrument. However, goodness-of-fit indicators showed a relatively poor model fit. Cronbach's alpha for the total scales of Brief FAM-III was 0.94 suggesting good internal consistency. The Danish version of the Brief FAM-III demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability to assess family functioning among acutely admitted elderly Danish patients. We suggest that it may also be useful for monitoring family functioning over time or determining the effects of therapeutic interventions in elderly medical patients; however, further testing is recommended. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. [Prevention of atopic eczema. Evidence based guidelines].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, T

    2005-03-01

    With an estimated prevalence of 12% for preschool children and 3% for adults, atopic eczema is a serious public health problem. This disease severely jeopardizes quality of life and is associated with considerable costs. Since there is still no causal therapy, primary and secondary prevention are especially important. Here the evidence basis for recommendations on prevention of atopic eczema is discussed on the basis of the first evidence-based consensus guideline (S3) on allergy prevention. This recommends that babies should be breastfed exclusively for at least 4 months and exposure to passive smoking be avoided even during pregnancy; restriction of the maternal diet during pregnancy has no influence, though during breastfeeding it can lower the incidence of eczema among babies at risk. Thereby this measure should be balanced with potential consequences of malnutrition. There seems to be a positive correlation between keeping small rodents (rabbits, guinea pigs), and possibly cats, and the occurrence of atopic eczema, while keeping dogs has no effect or even a protective effect. Avoidance of an unfavorable indoor climate is probably also helpful in preventing eczema. There is no evidence to support deviating from the current recommendations of the standing committee for vaccination.

  10. Serum, cheek cell and breast milk fatty acid compositions in infants with atopic and non-atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, K; Sallinen, J; Linderborg, K; Isolauri, E

    2006-02-01

    The major theory implicating diet with allergic diseases is associated with altered food consumption and subsequent changes in fatty acid composition. To investigate fatty acid compositions among infants with atopic and non-atopic eczema and healthy infants and to evaluate the expediency of non-invasive cheek cell phospholipid fatty acid composition as a marker in patients with eczema. Diagnosis of eczema in infants was confirmed clinically and by positive (atopic eczema, n=6) or negative (non-atopic eczema, n=6) skin prick testing in comparison with controls (n=19). The fatty acid compositions of infant cheek cell and serum phospholipids and breast milk total lipids were analysed by gas chromatography. The distinction between atopic and non-atopic eczema was manifested in cheek cell phospholipids as linoleic acid (14.69 (13.67-15.53)% of total fatty acids; the median (interquartile range)), the sum of n-6 fatty acids (19.94 (19.06-20.53)%) and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids (22.70 (21.31-23.28)%) were higher in infants with atopic eczema compared with non-atopic eczema (12.69 (10.87-13.93); 17.72 (15.63-18.91) and 19.90 (17.64-21.06), respectively; P<0.05) and controls (12.50 (12.16-13.42); 18.19 (17.43-18.70) and 20.32 (19.32-21.03), respectively; P<0.05). Serum phospholipid gamma-linolenic acid was lower in both atopic and non-atopic eczema compared with controls (P<0.05) and additionally eicosapentaenoic acid was higher in atopic eczema compared with controls (P<0.05). These preliminary results suggest differences in fatty acid compositions between the two types of eczema, calling for further evaluation in a larger setting. The two types of eczema may be regulated by different immunological processes, and fatty acids may have a more profound role in the atopic type.

  11. Therapeutic management of anal eczema: an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Havlickova, B; Weyandt, G H

    2014-01-01

    Aim To conduct a systematic review of treatments for anal eczema (AE). Methods We conducted a Medline search for clinical trial data for the treatment of perianal diseases including AE, including papers not published in the English language. We assessed the study reports using the system recommended by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. No meta-analysis was attempted. Results The evidence base for topical treatments used to treat AE is very poor: there are very few studies and many of those that exist are of poor quality. The best evidence was found for medications that are yet to be licensed for AE. Among products with existing licences for the treatment of eczema, our assessment found some evidence to support the continued use of mild-to-moderate corticosteroids first line in most patients. Discussion Features of the perianal region, and the fact that it is almost always occluded, mean that not all medications recommended in the general treatment guidelines for eczema are appropriate for AE. However, there are no specific treatment guidelines for these patients. This may in part be because of the lack of high-quality evidence-based medicine in this therapy area. Many frequently prescribed medications were developed and licensed many years ago, in an era when clinical trial design was not expected to be as rigorous as it is today. Conclusion This review highlights the need to conduct more high-quality clinical trials in patients with AE in order that specific guidelines for the management of this difficult proctological condition can be prepared. PMID:24898365

  12. Update on the use of alitretinoin in treating chronic hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Ghasri, Pedram; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2010-04-19

    Chronic hand eczema is a debilitating dermatological condition with significant economic, social, and functional impacts. To date, conventional treatments such as topical corticosteroids, phototherapy, and systemic immunosuppressants have yielded disappointing results, owing to either a lack of efficacy or significant adverse events. Oral alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) is a unique panagonist retinoid with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity that has emerged as a novel treatment for chronic hand eczema. Several large-scale clinical studies have demonstrated oral alitretinoin's high efficacy rate of 28% to 89%, its safe tolerability profile, and its positive impact on quality of life, validating it as a therapeutic option for patients with severe chronic hand eczema refractory to standard treatment.

  13. Update on the use of alitretinoin in treating chronic hand eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ghasri, Pedram; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hand eczema is a debilitating dermatological condition with significant economic, social, and functional impacts. To date, conventional treatments such as topical corticosteroids, phototherapy, and systemic immunosuppressants have yielded disappointing results, owing to either a lack of efficacy or significant adverse events. Oral alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) is a unique panagonist retinoid with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity that has emerged as a novel treatment for chronic hand eczema. Several large-scale clinical studies have demonstrated oral alitretinoin’s high efficacy rate of 28% to 89%, its safe tolerability profile, and its positive impact on quality of life, validating it as a therapeutic option for patients with severe chronic hand eczema refractory to standard treatment. PMID:21437060

  14. Classification and possible bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China: A cross-sectional and multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhou, Ping; Shen, Yi-Wei

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the classification and bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China.To investigate the prevalence of eczema and dermatitis in outpatients of dermatology clinics in China, examine classification and proportion of common types of dermatitis and the possible bacterial infection, and analyze the possible related factors.Outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in mainland China from July 1 to September 30, 2014, were enrolled in this cross-sectional and multicenter study. Among 9393 enrolled outpatients, 636 patients (6.7%) were excluded because of incomplete information.The leading subtypes of dermatitis were unclassified eczema (35.5%), atopic dermatitis (13.4%), irritant dermatitis (9.2%), and widespread eczema (8.7%). Total bacterial infection rate was 52.3%, with widespread eczema, stasis dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis being the leading three (65.7%, 61.8%, and 61.4%, respectively). Clinically very likely bacterial infection has a significant positive correlation with disease duration, history of allergic disease, history of flexion dermatitis, and severe itching.Atopic dermatitis has become a common subtype of dermatitis in China. Secondary bacterial infection is common in all patients with dermatitis, and more attentions should be paid on this issue in other type of dermatitis apart from atopic dermatitis.

  15. Systematic review of treatments for atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Hoare, C; Li Wan Po, A; Williams, H

    2000-01-01

    Atopic eczema is the commonest inflammatory skin disease of childhood, affecting 15-20% of children in the UK at any one time. Adults make up about one-third of all community cases. Moderate-to-severe atopic eczema can have a profound effect on the quality of life for both sufferers and their families. In addition to the effects of intractable itching, skin damage, soreness, sleep loss and the social stigma of a visible skin disease, other factors such as frequent visits to doctors, special clothing and¿the need to constantly apply messy topical applications all add to the burden of disease. The cause of atopic eczema is unknown, though a genetic pre-disposition and a combination of allergic and non-allergic factors appear to be important in determining disease expression. Treatment of atopic eczema in the UK is characterised by a profusion of treatments aimed at disease control. The evidential basis of these treatments is often unclear. Most people with atopic eczema are managed in primary care where the least research has been done. The objectives of this scoping review are two-fold. To produce an up-to-date coverage 'map' of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments of atopic eczema. To assist in making treatment recommendations by summarising the available RCT evidence using qualitative and quantitative methods. Data sources included electronic searching of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register, the Cochrane Skin Group specialised register of trials, hand-searching of atopic eczema conference proceedings, follow-up of references in retrieved articles, contact with leading researchers and requests to relevant pharmaceutical companies. Only RCTs of therapeutic agents used in the prevention and treatment of people with atopic eczema of any age were considered for inclusion. Only studies where a physician diagnosed atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis were included. Data extraction was conducted by two observers onto abstraction

  16. [Symptoms of anxiety and depression in atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Brzoza, Zenon; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Nowakowski, Marek; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Rogala, Barbara; Hese, Robert T

    2005-01-01

    The presence of chronic disease is a risk factor for the development of mood disturbances and panic disorders. They can influence the course of disease and effectiveness of therapy. Depression may be the cause of making light doctor's advice. Anxious patients often aggravate symptoms of the disease. To study symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (ZAZS). Material. We studied 38 patients suffering from adequately controlled moderate ZAZS and 62 volunteers in the control group. Mental status of subjects was assessed by means of State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires. ZAZS patients demonstrated higher intensity of anxiety (as a trait and as a state) than healthy subjects. Intensity and prevalence of depression in the atopic eczema/ dermatitis syndrome group was higher than in the control group. Patients suffering from atopic/eczema dermatitis syndrome are pre-disposed to anxiety and depression manifestation. Even adequately controlled symptoms of atopic/eczema dermatitis syndrome may be the cause of those disturbances' occurrence.

  17. The effect of a corticosteroid cream and a barrier-strengthening moisturizer in hand eczema. A double-blind, randomized, prospective, parallel group clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M; Wirén, K; Smerud, K T; Meland, N; Hønnås, H; Mørk, G; Lützow-Holm, C; Funk, J; Meding, B

    2012-05-01

    Hand eczema is a common and persistent disease with a relapsing course. Clinical data suggest that once daily treatment with corticosteroids is just as effective as twice daily treatment. The aim of this study was to compare once and twice daily applications of a strong corticosteroid cream in addition to maintenance therapy with a moisturizer in patients with a recent relapse of hand eczema. The study was a parallel, double-blind, randomized, clinical trial on 44 patients. Twice daily application of a strong corticosteroid cream (betamethasone valerate 0.1%) was compared with once daily application, where a urea-containing moisturizer was substituted for the corticosteroid cream in the morning. The investigator scored the presence of eczema and the patients judged the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), which measures how much the patient's skin problem has affected his/her life over the past week. The patients also judged the severity of their eczema daily on a visual analogue scale. Both groups improved in terms of eczema and DLQI. However, the clinical scoring demonstrated that once daily application of corticosteroid was superior to twice daily application in diminishing eczema, especially in the group of patients with lower eczema scores at inclusion. Twice daily use of corticosteroids was not superior to once daily use in treating eczema. On the contrary, the clinical assessment showed a larger benefit from once daily treatment compared with twice daily, especially in the group of patients with a moderate eczema at inclusion. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) statement to assess clinical signs of atopic eczema in trials.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis I; Thomas, Kim S; Simpson, Eric; Furue, Masutaka; Deckert, Stefanie; Dohil, Magdalene; Apfelbacher, Christian; Singh, Jasvinder A; Chalmers, Joanne; Williams, Hywel C

    2014-10-01

    The lack of core outcome sets for atopic eczema (AE) is a major obstacle for advancing evidence-based treatment. The global Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has already defined clinical signs, symptoms, quality of life, and long-term control of flares as core outcome domains for AE trials. This article deals with the standardization of measurement instruments to assess clinical signs of AE. To resolve the current lack of standardization of the assessment of clinical signs of AE, we followed a structured process of systematic reviews and international consensus sessions to identify 1 core outcome measurement instrument for assessment of clinical signs in all future AE trials. Systematic reviews indicated that from 16 different instruments identified to assess clinical signs of AE, only the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and the objective Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index were identified as extensively validated. The EASI has adequate validity, responsiveness, internal consistency, and intraobserver reliability. The objective SCORAD index has adequate validity, responsiveness, and interobserver reliability but unclear intraobserver reliability to measure clinical signs of AE. In an international consensus study, patients, physicians, nurses, methodologists, and pharmaceutical industry representatives agreed that the EASI is the preferred core instrument to measure clinical signs in all future AE trials. All stakeholders involved in designing, reporting, and using clinical trials on AE are asked to comply with this consensus to enable better evidence-based decision making, clearer scientific communication, and improved patient care. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Paediatric eczema and psychosocial morbidity: how does eczema interact with parents' illness beliefs?

    PubMed

    Walker, C; Papadopoulos, L; Hussein, M

    2007-01-01

    Thus far there has been relatively little work on children's illness representations regarding eczema and how these relate to parental conceptualizations of their child's psychosocial health. This is important because the challenge of raising a child with a serious illness can affect many facets of a parent's everyday life and the behaviour of parents can be closely related to the health of the child. Two hundred and thirty-two children with eczema, asthma, eczema and asthma, and healthy controls between 7 and 12 years of age and their parents were recruited. Children were administered the Children's Illness Perception Questionnaire. Questionnaires completed by the parents were The Personality Inventory for Children and The Parental Stress Inventory. Parents of children with eczema did not judge their children to have poorer psychosocial health than controls, but parents of children with eczema could not be distinguished between in terms of whether their child was significantly affected by their eczema or not. This work could have important implications for the quality of life of the child and for the parent-child relationship and these implications are considered.

  20. [The psychosocial status of patients with endogenous eczema. A study using cluster analysis for the correlation of psychological factors with somatic findings].

    PubMed

    Gieler, U; Ehlers, A; Höhler, T; Burkard, G

    1990-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate whether patients with atopic dermatitis differ as a group from controls on psychological measures of mood and personality or whether psychologically deviant and normal patient subgroups can be distinguished. Furthermore, we were interested in what clinical characteristics might co-vary with psychological disability in patients with atopic dermatitis. In all, 93 patients filled in a standardized mood scale (Hamburg-Erlanger-Stimmungsbarometer) and a personality scale (Kurztest zur Erfassung der Persönlichkeitsstruktur). Compared with matched controls, patients described themselves as being more anxious, more aroused, more depressed and less energetic, and they reached higher neuroticism scores. A cluster analysis identified four patient subgroups. Only one of the subgroups (n = 17) was psychologically disabled according to the questionnaire scores. In contrast to a psychologically stabile patient group, the psychologically disabled patients showed an earlier age of onset of dermatitis, but less intense itching and scratching. They reported more somatic complaints and a higher level of familial stress, were more dissatisfied with their life situation and work, had fewer friends and experienced more losses of significant others. Furthermore, they more frequently rated their disorder as being determined by psychological factors and were more intelligent. Thus, the questionnaires identified a subgroup of patients who may need psychotherapeutic interventions.

  1. The eczema risk variant on chromosome 11q13 (rs7927894) in the population-based ALSPAC cohort: a novel susceptibility factor for asthma and hay fever.

    PubMed

    Marenholz, Ingo; Bauerfeind, Anja; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Kerscher, Tamara; Granell, Raquel; Nickel, Renate; Lau, Susanne; Henderson, John; Lee, Young-Ae

    2011-06-15

    In a genome-wide association study, a common variant on chromosome 11q13.5 (rs7927894[T]) has been identified as a susceptibility locus for eczema. We aimed to analyze the effect of this risk variant on asthma and hay fever and to determine its impact on the general population level in over 9300 individuals of the prospectively evaluated Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. We demonstrate an association of rs7927894[T] with atopic asthma and with hay fever. The largest effect sizes were found in patients with the combined phenotype atopic asthma plus eczema [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-1.88; P = 3.7 × 10(-4)] and hay fever plus eczema (OR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.15-1.62; P = 3.8 × 10(-4)). We replicated the effects of rs7927894[T] on eczema-associated asthma and hay fever independently in the German GENUFAD (GEnetic studies in NUclear Families with Atopic Dermatitis) study and show that they are significantly larger than the effect observed in eczema. The estimated population attributable risk fractions for eczema, eczema-associated atopic asthma or hay fever were 9.3, 24.9 and 23.5%, respectively. Finally in eczema, we found a synergistic interaction of rs7927894[T] with filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, which are a major cause of epidermal barrier dysfunction, and replicated the interaction in the German Multicenter Allergy Study birth cohort. The synergistic effect of rs7927894[T] and FLG mutations on eczema risk as well as the association of both variants with eczema-associated atopic asthma and hay fever point to an involvement of rs7927894[T] in a functional pathway that is linked to the barrier defect.

  2. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the DANish randomized, controlled, multicenter study to assess the efficacy of Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with non-ischemic Systolic Heart failure on mortality (DANISH).

    PubMed

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Pehrson, Steen; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Haarbo, Jens; Videbæk, Lars; Korup, Eva; Jensen, Gunnar; Hildebrandt, Per; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Bruun, Niels Eske; Eiskjær, Hans; Brandes, Axel; Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Egstrup, Kenneth; Hastrup-Svendsen, Jesper; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars

    2016-09-01

    The effect of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure (HF) caused by coronary artery disease is well documented. However, the effect of primary prophylactic ICDs in patients with systolic HF not due to coronary artery disease is much weaker. In addition, HF management has improved, since the landmark ICD trials and a large proportion of patients now receive cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) where the effect of ICD treatment is unknown. In the DANISH study, 1,116 patients with symptomatic systolic HF not caused by coronary artery disease have been randomized to receive an ICD or not, in addition to contemporary standard therapy. The primary outcome of the trial is time to all-cause death. Follow-up will continue until June 2016 with a median follow-up period of 5 years. Baseline characteristics show that enrolled patients are treated according to current guidelines. At baseline, 97% of patients received an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, 92% received a β-blocker, 58% a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, and 58% were scheduled to receive CRT. Median age was 63 years (range, 21-84 years) at baseline, and 28% were women. DANISH will provide pertinent information about the effect on all-cause mortality of a primary prophylactic ICD in patients with symptomatic systolic HF not caused by coronary artery disease on contemporary standard therapy including CRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Bank, Steffen; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Burisch, Johan; Pedersen, Natalia; Roug, Stine; Galsgaard, Julie; Turino, Stine Ydegaard; Brodersen, Jacob Broder; Rashid, Shaista; Avlund, Sara; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm; Green, Anders; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen; Vogel, Ulla; Andersen, Vibeke

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) treatment in a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical practice and to establish a cohort for future studies of genetic markers associated with treatment response. A national, clinically based cohort of previously naïve anti-TNF treated patients from 18 medical departments was established. The patients were screened for tuberculosis prior to treatment initiation. By combining the unique personal identification number of Danish citizens (the CPR number) from blood samples with data from the National Patient Registry, patients with International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10) codes K50-K63 were identified. Treatment efficacy reflected the maximum response within 22 weeks. Among 492 patients with CD and 267 patients with UC, 74%/13%/14% and 65%/12%/24% were responders, partial responders and non-responders to anti-TNF therapy, respectively. More patients with UC than with CD were non-responders (odds ratio (OR) = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.87, p = 0.001). Young age was associated with a beneficial response (p = 0.03), whereas smoking ≥ 10 cigarettes/day was associated with non-response among patients with CD (OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.13-4.81, p = 0.03). In this clinically based cohort of Danish patients with IBD treated with anti-TNF, high response rates were found. Heavy smoking was associated with non-response, whereas young age at treatment initiation was associated with a beneficial response among patients with CD. Thus, the results obtained in this cohort recruited from clinical practice were similar to those previously obtained in clinical trials. The work was funded by Health Research Fund of Central Denmark Region, Colitis-Crohn Foreningen and the University of Aarhus (PhD grant). Clinicaltrials NCT02322008.

  4. Effect of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, macro minerals and trace elements on eczema.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Liza, Kaniz Fatema; Sarwar, Md Shahid; Ahmed, Jamiuddin; Adnan, Md Tareek; Chowdhury, Manjurul Islam; Hossain, Mohammad Zahid; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul

    2015-09-01

    The exact etiology and pathogenesis of eczema are not yet fully understood, although different factors are considered as pathogenic mechanisms in the development of eczema. Our study was designed to determine extent of serum lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, macro minerals and trace elements in patients with eczema, and thereby, find any pathophysiological correlation. The study was conducted as a case-control study with 65 eczema patients as cases and 65 normal healthy individuals as controls. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Antioxidants- vitamin A and E concentration was determined by RP-HPLC method whereas vitamin C was evaluated for serum ascorbic acid by UV spectrophotometric method. Serum macro minerals (Na, K, Ca) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). This study found significantly higher level of MDA (p < 0.001) and lower level of antioxidants (p < 0.05) in patients in comparison to the control subjects. Analysis of serum macro minerals (Na, K and Ca) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) found that the mean values of Na, K, Ca, Zn and Fe were 2771.60 ± 75.64, 66.33 ± 3.03, 48.41 ± 2.50, 0.30 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.009 mg/L for the patient group and 3284.81 ± 34.51, 162.18 ± 3.72, 87.66 ± 2.10, 0.75 ± 0.06 and 0.87 ± 0.06 mg/L for the control group, accordingly. There was a significant difference for all the minerals between the patients and controls (p < 0.001). This study suggests a strong association between the pathogenesis of eczema with the elevated level of MDA and depleted level of antioxidants, macro minerals, and trace elements.

  5. Patient acceptability, efficacy, and skin biophysiology of a cream and cleanser containing lipid complex with shea butter extract versus a ceramide product for eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, K L; Tsang, Y C; Pong, N H; Lee, Vivian W Y; Luk, N M; Chow, C M; Leung, T F

    2015-10-01

    To investigate patient acceptability, efficacy, and skin biophysiological effects of a cream/cleanser combination for childhood atopic dermatitis. Paediatric dermatology clinic at a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Consecutive paediatric patients with atopic dermatitis who were interested in trying a new moisturiser were recruited between 1 April 2013 and 31 March 2014. Swabs and cultures from the right antecubital fossa and the worst eczematous area, disease severity (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index), skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss were obtained prior to and following 4-week usage of a cream/cleanser containing lipid complex with shea butter extract (Ezerra cream; Hoe Pharma, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia). Global or general acceptability of treatment was documented as 'very good', 'good', 'fair', or 'poor'. A total of 34 patients with atopic dermatitis were recruited; 74% reported 'very good' or 'good', whereas 26% reported 'fair' or 'poor' general acceptability of treatment of the Ezerra cream; and 76% reported 'very good' or 'good', whereas 24% reported 'fair' or 'poor' general acceptability of treatment of the Ezerra cleanser. There were no intergroup differences in pre-usage clinical parameters of age, objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index, pruritus, sleep loss, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, topical corticosteroid usage, oral antihistamine usage, or general acceptability of treatment of the prior emollient. Following use of the Ezerra cream, mean pruritus score decreased from 6.7 to 6.0 (P=0.036) and mean Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index improved from 10.0 to 8.0 (P=0.021) in the 'very good'/'good' group. There were no statistically significant differences in the acceptability of wash (P=0.526) and emollients (P=0.537) with pre-trial products. When compared with the data of another ceramide-precursor moisturiser in a previous study, there was no statistical difference in efficacy and acceptability between the two

  6. Influence of weather and climate on subjective symptom intensity in atopic eczema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocks, E.; Busch, R.; Fröhlich, C.; Borelli, S.; Mayer, H.; Ring, J.

    The frequent clinical observation that the course of atopic eczema, a skin disease involving a disturbed cutaneous barrier function, is influenced by climate and weather motivated us to analyse these relationships biometrically. In the Swiss high-mountain area of Davos the intensity of itching experienced by patients with atopic eczema was evaluated and compared to 15 single meteorological variables recorded daily during an entire 7-year observation period. By means of univariate analyses and multiple regressions, itch intensity was found to be correlated with some meteorological variables. A clear-cut inverse correlation exists with air temperature (coefficient of correlation: -0.235, P<0.001), but the effects of water vapour pressure, air pressure and hours of sunshine are less pronounced. The results show that itching in atopic eczema is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions. The data suggest that, in patients with atopic eczema, a certain range of thermo-hygric atmospheric conditions with a balance of heat and water loss on the skin surface is essential for the skin to feel comfortable.

  7. Hyper IgE in Childhood Eczema and Risk of Asthma in Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chantel; Hon, Kam Lun; Kung, Jeng Sum Charmaine; Pong, Nga Hin; Leung, Ting-Fan; Wong, Chun Kwok

    2016-06-10

    Atopic eczema is a common childhood disease associated with high IgE and eosinophilia. We characterized the clinical features associated with hyper-IgE (defined as IgE > 2000 IU/L) in eczema. Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), family and personal history of atopy, skin prick test (SPT) for common food and aeroallergens, highest serum IgE ever and eosinophil counts were evaluated in 330 children eczema patients. Childhood-NESS (NESS performed at <10 years of age) and adolescent-NESS (NESS performed at >10 years of age) were further analyzed. IgE correlated with NESS (spearman coefficient 0.35, p < 0.001) and eosinophil percentage (spearman coefficient 0.56, p = 0.001). Compared with IgE ≤ 2000IU/L (n = 167), patients with hyper-IgE (n = 163) were associated with male gender (p = 0.002); paternal atopy (p = 0.026); personal history of atopic rhinitis (p = 0.016); asthma (p < 0.001); dietary avoidance (p < 0.001); use of wet wrap (p < 0.001); traditional Chinese medicine use (TCM, p < 0.001); immunomodulant use (azathioprine or cyclosporine, p < 0.001); skin prick sensitization by dust mites (p < 0.001), cats (p = 0.012), dogs (p = 0.018), food (p = 0.002); eosinophilia (p < 0.001); more severe disease during childhood (p < 0.0001) and during adolescence (p < 0.0001), but not onset age of eczema or maternal atopy. Logistic regression showed that hyper-IgE was associated with personal history of asthma (exp(B) = 5.12, p = 0.002) and eczema severity during childhood and adolescence (p < 0.001). For patients <10 years of age, dust mite sensitization (p = 0.008) was associated with hyper-IgE. For patients >10years of age, food allergen sensitization was associated with hyper-IgE (p = 0.008). Hyper-IgE is independently associated with asthma, more severe atopy and more severe eczema during childhood and adolescence. IgE > 2000 IU/L may be a tool to aid prognostication of this chronic relapsing dermatologic disease and its progression to asthma.

  8. Hip fracture risk in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis: A population-based study using English and Danish data.

    PubMed

    Otete, Harmony; Deleuran, Thomas; Fleming, Kate M; Card, Tim; Aithal, Guru P; Jepsen, Peter; West, Joe

    2018-04-17

    Cirrhosis, the prevalence of which is increasing, is a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. However, little is known of the actual risk of hip fractures in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Using linked primary and secondary care data from the English and Danish nationwide registries, we quantified the hip fracture risk in two national cohorts of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. We followed 3,706 English and 17,779 Danish patients with a diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis, and we identified matched controls from the general populations. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of hip fracture for patients vs. controls, adjusted for age, sex and comorbidity. The five-year hip fracture risk was raised both in England (2.9% vs. 0.8% for controls) and Denmark (4.6% vs. 0.9% for controls). With confounder adjustment, patients with cirrhosis had fivefold (adjusted HR 5.5; 95% CI 4.3-6.9), and 8.5-fold (adjusted HR 8.5; 95% CI 7.8-9.3) increased rates of hip fracture, in England and Denmark, respectively. This association between alcoholic cirrhosis and risk of hip fracture showed significant interaction with age (p <0.001), being stronger in younger age groups (under 45 years, HR 17.9 and 16.6 for English and Danish patients, respectively) than in patients over 75 years (HR 2.1 and 2.9, respectively). In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, 30-day mortality following a hip fracture was 11.1% in England and 10.0% in Denmark, giving age-adjusted post-fracture mortality rate ratios of 2.8(95% CI 1.9-3.9) and 2.0(95% CI 1.5-2.7), respectively. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have a markedly increased risk of hip fracture and post-hip fracture mortality compared with the general population. These findings support the need for more effort towards fracture prevention in this population, to benefit individuals and reduce the societal burden. Alcoholic cirrhosis creates a large public health burden and is a risk factor for bone fractures. Based on data from England and

  9. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy and subsequent epilepsy in patients with affective disorders: A register-based Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bøg, Fie Krossdal; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Osler, Merete

    It has been suggested that Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) might increase the risk of epilepsy but the few patient studies with retrospective data from medical records do not support the hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between ECT and subsequent incident epilepsy in patients with affective disorder. We also explored whether any association varied with number of ECTs and time since last treatment. All 169,457 patients with first hospital contact for an affective disorder between January 2005 and December 2015 were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry and followed for incident epilepsy from January 2005 until November 2016. The association between ECT and epilepsy was examined using Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for gender, age, educational level, comorbid schizophrenia, previous stroke and antidepressant and antipsychotic medication use. A total of 5875 patients had at least one ECT and 1873 patients developed epilepsy (Incidence rate: 213 pr. 100,000 person years) during the follow-up of mean 5 years. In patients below age 40 years, ECT was associated with a higher rate of epilepsy after adjustment for covariables (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.84; 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = [1.24-2.74]). In patients aged 41-60 years ECT was not associated with epilepsy, while for those above 60 treated with ECT the rate was lower (HR = 0.57; (95% CI = [0.37-0.89]). In patients with affective disorders, we found a weak positive association between ECT and subsequent diagnosis of epilepsy in those younger than 40 years, and a weak negative association in patients older than 60 years. The associations might be subject to residual confounding from risk factors related to ECT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resurfacing shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis: outcome in 167 patients from the Danish Shoulder Registry.

    PubMed

    Voorde, Pia C Ten; Rasmussen, Jeppe V; Olsen, Bo S; Brorson, Stig

    2015-06-01

    There is no consensus on which type of shoulder prosthesis should be used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We describe patients with RA who were treated with shoulder replacement, regarding patient-reported outcome, prosthesis survival, and causes of revision, and we compare outcome after resurfacing hemi-arthroplasty (RHA) and stemmed hemi-arthroplasty (SHA). We used data from the national Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry and included patients with RA who underwent shoulder arthroplasty in Denmark between 2006 and 2010. Patient-reported outcome was obtained 1-year postoperatively using the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder index (WOOS), and rates of revision were calculated by checking revisions reported until December 2011. The patient-reported outcome of RHA was compared to that of SHA using regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and previous surgery. During the study period, 167 patients underwent shoulder arthroplasty because of rheumatoid arthritis, 80 (48%) of whom received RHA and 34 (26%) of whom received SHA. 16 patients were treated with total stemmed shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), and 24 were treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA). 130 patients returned a completed questionnaire, and the total mean WOOS score was 63. The cumulative 5-year revision rate was 7%. Most revisions occurred after RHA, with a revision rate of 14%. Mean WOOS score was similar for RHA and for SHA. This study shows that shoulder arthroplasty, regardless of design, is a good option in terms of reducing pain and improving function in RA patients. The high revision rate in the RHA group suggests that other designs may offer better implant survival. However, this should be confirmed in larger studies.

  12. Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Heinl, Daniel; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Deckert, Stefanie; Chalmers, Joanne; Ofenloch, Robert; Humphreys, Rosemary; Sach, Tracey; Chamlin, Sarah; Schmitt, Jochen

    2015-04-16

    Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing skin disease that has a substantial impact on quality of life (QoL). By means of a consensus-based process, the Harmonising Outcome Measures in Eczema (HOME) initiative has identified QoL as one of the four core outcome domains to be assessed in all eczema trials (Allergy 67(9):1111-7, 2012). Various measurement instruments exist to measure QoL in adults with eczema, but there is a great variability in both content and quality (for example, reliability and validity) of the instruments used, and it is not always clear if the best instrument is being used. Therefore, the aim of the proposed research is a comprehensive systematic assessment of the measurement properties of the existing measurement instruments that were developed and/or validated for the measurement of patient-reported QoL in adults with eczema. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of patient-reported measures of QoL developed and/or validated for adults with eczema. Medline via PubMed and EMBASE will be searched using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing, or comparing measurement properties of QoL instruments for adult patients with eczema. Eligibility assessment and data abstraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Evidence tables will be generated for study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties, and interpretability. The quality of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. Methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study has investigated a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will produce a comprehensive assessment of measurement properties of existing QoL instruments in

  13. Danish evidence-based clinical guideline for use of nutritional support in pulmonary rehabilitation of undernourished patients with stable COPD.

    PubMed

    Beck, Anne Marie; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Tobberup, Randi; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2015-02-01

    Disease-related under-nutrition is a common problem in individuals with COPD. The rationale for nutritional support in pulmonary rehabilitation therefore seems obvious. However there is limited evidence regarding the patient-relevant outcomes i.e. activities of daily living (ADL) or quality of life. Therefore the topic was included in The Danish Health and Medicines Authority's development of an evidence-based clinical guideline for rehabilitation of patients with stable COPD. The methods were specified by The Danish Health and Medicines Authority as part of a standardized approach to evidence-based national clinical practice guidelines. They included formulation of a PICO with pre-defined criteria for the Population, Intervention, Control and Outcomes. Existing guidelines or systematic reviews were used after assessment using the AGREE II tool or AMSTAR, if possible. We identified primary studies by means of a systematic literature search (July to December 2013), and any identified studies were then quality assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the GRADE approach. The extracted data on our pre-defined outcomes were summarized in meta-analyses when possible, or meta-analyses from existing guidelines or systematic reviews were adapted. The results were used for labeling and wording of the recommendations. Data from 12 randomized controlled trials were included in a systematic review, which formed the basis for our recommendations as no new primary studies had been published. There were evidence of moderate quality that nutritional support for undernourished patients with COPD lead to a weight gain of 1.7kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 2.2kg), but the effect was quantified as a mean change from baseline, which is less reliable. There were evidence of moderate quality that nutritional therapy does not increase in the 6 minute walking distance of 13 m (95% confidence interval: -27 to 54 m) when results in the intervention and control groups were

  14. Second Malignant Neoplasms and Cause of Death in Patients With Germ Cell Cancer: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kier, Maria G; Hansen, Merete K; Lauritsen, Jakob; Mortensen, Mette S; Bandak, Mikkel; Agerbaek, Mads; Holm, Niels V; Dalton, Susanne O; Andersen, Klaus K; Johansen, Christoffer; Daugaard, Gedske

    2016-12-01

    Patients given systemic treatment for testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) are at increased risk for a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Previous studies on SMN and causes of death lacked information on the exact treatment applied or were based on patients receiving former treatment options. To evaluate the treatment-specific risks for SMN and death in a nationwide population-based cohort of patients with GCC treated with current standard regimens. This study examined a Danish nationwide cohort of 5190 men with GCC who entered the Danish Testicular Cancer database between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2007. Treatment results were compared with a randomly sampled, age-stratified, population-based control group. Cases of gonadal and extragonadal primary were included in the nationwide cohort. The treatments were surveillance only; retroperitoneal radiotherapy (RT); bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP); or more than 1 line of treatment (MTOL). Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for SMN and death calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model were compared with those of age-matched controls. The study population comprised 2804 patients with seminoma and 2386 with nonseminoma. The median follow-up was 14.4 years (interquartile range, 8.6-20.5 years). The 20-year cumulative incidence of SMN with death as a competing risk was 7.8% (surveillance), 7.6% (BEP), 13.5% (RT), 9.2% (MTOL), and 7.0% (controls). We found no increased risk for SMN after surveillance, while the HRs were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.0), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3), and 3.7 (95% CI, 2.5-5.5), respectively, after BEP, RT, and MTOL. Mortality owing to non-GCC causes was decreased after surveillance, but increased by 1.3 times after BEP and RT and by 2.6 times after MTOL. Excess mortality due to SMN was found after BEP (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2), RT (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5-2.9), and MTOL (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.6-9.6). We found no increased risk for SMN or death among patients undergoing surveillance only

  15. Treatment with a barrier-strengthening moisturizer prevents relapse of hand-eczema. An open, randomized, prospective, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Lodén, Marie; Wirén, Karin; Smerud, Knut; Meland, Nils; Hønnås, Helge; Mørk, Gro; Lützow-Holm, Claus; Funk, Jörgen; Meding, Birgitta

    2010-11-01

    Hand eczema influences the quality of life. Management strategies include the use of moisturizers. In the present study the time to relapse of eczema during treatment with a barrier-strengthening moisturizer (5% urea) was compared with no treatment (no medical or non-medicated preparations) in 53 randomized patients with successfully treated hand eczema. The median time to relapse was 20 days in the moisturizer group compared with 2 days in the no treatment group (p = 0.04). Eczema relapsed in 90% of the patients within 26 weeks. No difference in severity was noted between the groups at relapse. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) increased significantly in both groups; from 4.7 to 7.1 in the moisturizer group and from 4.1 to 7.8 in the no treatment group (p < 0.01) at the time of relapse. Hence, the application of moisturizers seems to prolong the disease-free interval in patients with controlled hand eczema. Whether the data is applic-able to moisturizers without barrier-strengthening properties remains to be elucidated.

  16. Experimental eczema. 12 effects of x-rays in experimental eczema (combined injury) (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Adatto, R.

    1961-01-01

    Contact dermatitis was induced in guinea pig nipples by local application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene after previous sensitization. No effect of x irradiation on the histologic aspects of the developing dermatitis could be detected when doses of 800 or 1600 r were given 2 to 16 days after sensitization or repeated 100-r doses were given. Although a 800-r dose had no detectable effect on epithelium, it was found to alter the eczematous reaction when given 72 hr before the eliciting application of dinitrocitlorobenzene in sensitized animals. Eczematous epithelium in irradiated skin showed swelling of cells, indistinct cell boundaries, diminished numbers of nuclei,more » and fewer mitoses blocked by colchicine; none of these changes was produced by eczema alone. The changes in epidermis induced by irradiation with 800 r before eliciting eczema resembled those produced by much higher x-ray doses (2400 r), indicating that eczema augments the cellular changes induced by irradiation.« less

  17. Altered Gut Microbiota Composition Associated with Eczema in Infants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huajun; Liang, Hong; Wang, Yuezhu; Miao, Maohua; Shi, Tao; Yang, Fen; Liu, Enuo; Yuan, Wei; Ji, Zai-Si; Li, De-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups. We identified four genera enriched in healthy infants: Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera, Haemophilus and Streptococcus; and five genera enriched in infants with eczema: Escherichia/Shigella, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis and Clostridium XlVa. Several species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, that are known to be associated with atopy or inflammation, were found to be significantly enriched in infants with eczema. Higher abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in eczematous infants might reduce the integrity of intestinal barrier function and therefore increase the risk of developing eczema. On the other hand, Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus salivarius, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties, were less abundant in infants with eczema. The observed differences in genera and species between cases and controls in this study may provide insight into the link between the microbiome and eczema risk.

  18. Tobacco smoking and hand eczema - is there an association?

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jennifer A; Clemmensen, Kim K; Nixon, Rosemary L; Diepgen, Thomas L; Agner, Tove

    2015-12-01

    Numerous risk factors have been suggested for hand eczema. This systematic review evaluates the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema. To review the literature systematically on the association between smoking and hand eczema. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to 27 January 2015 for articles on the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema, including human studies in English and German only. Experimental studies, studies on tobacco allergy, case reports, reviews and studies on second-hand smoking were excluded. Twenty articles were included. Among studies in occupational settings, three of seven found a statistically significant positive association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema prevalence rate, as did four of eight population-based studies. The association was stronger for studies in occupational settings than for population-based studies. No studies reported tobacco to be a clear protective factor for hand eczema. Two of five studies regarding severity found a positive association between smoking and hand eczema severity. Overall, the data indicate that smoking may cause an increased frequency of hand eczema, particularly in high-risk occupations. However, data from studies controlling for other risk factors are conflicting, and few prospective studies are available. Studies controlling for other risk factors are needed, and information regarding the diagnosis of subclasses of hand eczema, as well as severity, may be important. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Infant feeding and the development of food allergies and atopic eczema: An update.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Allen, Katrina J; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness of food allergies in the community. Dermatologists frequently see patients with atopic eczema, where parents are extremely concerned about the role of food allergy. Advice given to parents regarding the timing of introduction of solid foods has changed markedly over the past decade. Whereas previous advice advocated delaying the introduction of solid foods until the infant's gastrointestinal system had matured, recent studies suggest that the introduction of solids from around 4 to 6 months may actually prevent the development of allergies. Studies on maternal dietary restrictions during pregnancy and lactation have led researchers to believe that antigen avoidance does not play a significant role in the prevention of atopic disease. Breastfeeding exclusively for 4 to 6 months has multiple benefits for mother and child, however, it does not convincingly prevent food allergies or decrease atopic eczema. New evidence suggests that the use of hydrolysed formulas does not delay or prevent atopic eczema or food allergy. This article aims to highlight current evidence and provide an update for dermatologists on the role of food exposure in the development of atopic disease, namely atopic eczema. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Cupping Therapy May be Harmful for Eczema: A PubMed Search

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Kam Lun E.; Luk, David Chi Kong; Leong, Kin Fon; Leung, Alexander K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids, and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aureus colonization is a common complication. As there is no immediate cure, many parents seek alternative therapies that claim unproven therapeutic efficacy. We report a girl with long history of treatment noncompliance. After practicing a long period of dietary avoidance and supplementation, the grandparents took her to an alternative medicine practitioner. Following cupping therapy and acupuncture, the child developed blistering and oozing over her back the next day, which rapidly evolved to two large irregular-edge deep ulcers. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics and received multidisciplinary supportive intervention. Using search words of  “cupping,” “eczema,” and “atopic dermatitis,” only two reports were found on PubMed. Therapeutic efficacy was claimed but not scientifically documented in these reports. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with serious undesirable sequelae. Physicians should be aware of various alternative treatment modalities and be prepared to offer evidence-based advice to the patients with eczema and their families. PMID:24282650

  1. Frequency of the HFE C282Y and H63D mutations in Danish patients with clinical haemochromatosis initially diagnosed by phenotypic methods.

    PubMed

    Milman, Nils; Koefoed, Pernille; Pedersen, Palle; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Eiberg, Hans

    2003-12-01

    To assess the frequency of the C282Y and H63D mutations on the HFE gene in Danish patients with clinical hereditary haemochromatosis initially diagnosed by phenotypic methods. In the period 1950-1985, an epidemiological survey in Denmark identified 179 patients with clinical idiopathic haemochromatosis diagnosed by phenotypic methods (serum transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, liver biopsy and mobilisable body iron stores). In 32 unrelated patients, frozen blood samples were available for genetic analysis. In a subsequent series of 26 unrelated Danish patients, a phenotypic diagnosis of clinical idiopathic haemochromatosis was made before blood samples were taken for HFE genotyping. The total series consisted of 58 patients (40 men and 18 women) with a median age of 60 yrs (range 18-74). HFE genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Among the patients, 55 of 58 (94.8%) were C282Y/C282Y homozygous. One 63-year-old woman (1.7%) was compound C282Y/H63D heterozygous. Two women (3.4%), aged 42 and 43 yrs were negative for both the C282Y and the H63D mutation. In the Danish population, homozygosity for the C282Y mutation appears to be the prevailing cause of clinically overt genetic haemochromatosis. This finding has implications both for the evaluation of patients with iron overload disorders and for the strategy in future population screening surveys.

  2. Subgroup analysis of telehealthcare for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the cluster-randomized Danish Telecare North Trial

    PubMed Central

    Witt Udsen, Flemming; Lilholt, Pernille H; Hejlesen, Ole K; Ehlers, Lars H

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Results from the Danish cluster-randomized trial of telehealthcare to 1,225 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the Danish Telecare North Trial, concluded that the telehealthcare solution was unlikely to be cost-effective, by applying international willingness-to-pay threshold values. The purpose of this article was to assess potential sources of variation across subgroups, which could explain overall cost-effectiveness results or be utilized in future economic studies in telehealthcare research. Methods First, the cost-structures and cost-effectiveness across COPD severities were analyzed. Second, five additional subgroup analyses were conducted, focusing on differences in cost-effectiveness across a set of comorbidities, age-groups, genders, resource patterns (resource use in the social care sector prior to randomization), and delivery sites. All subgroups were investigated post hoc. In analyzing cost-effectiveness, two separate linear mixed-effects models with treatment-by-covariate interactions were applied: one for quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gain and one for total healthcare and social sector costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used for each subgroup result in order to quantify the uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness results. Results The study concludes that, across the COPD severities, patients with severe COPD (GOLD 3 classification) are likely to be the most cost-effective group. This is primarily due to lower hospital-admission and primary-care costs. Telehealthcare for patients younger than 60 years is also more likely to be cost-effective than for older COPD patients. Overall, results indicate that existing resource patterns of patients and variations in delivery-site practices might have a strong influence on cost-effectiveness, possibly stronger than the included health or sociodemographic sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion Future research should focus more on sources of heterogeneity found in

  3. Dyshidrotic eczema associated with the use of IVIg

    PubMed Central

    Kotan, Dilcan; Erdem, Teoman; Acar, Bilgehan Atilgan; Boluk, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is highly effective for autoimmune diseases including myasthenia gravis. Recovery is observed at approximately. 75% of myasthenia gravis patients through IVIg treatment. As a result of many clinical studies, the recommended dose is determined as 0.4 g/kg for 5 days (maximum total dose at 2 g/kg body weight). If an additional immunomodulatory treatment is not administered, IVIg maintenance treatment is needed mostly. However, some side effects may inhibit long-term treatment. For this reason, it is important to know the effect profile well and when the treatment should be discontinued. A female myasthenia gravis patient case is presented here, where dyshidrotic eczema has occurred after the second dose of  intravenous Ig medication and whose treatment is despite further IVIg therapy. PMID:23417935

  4. The Danish test battery for auditory processing disorder evaluated with patient and control data.

    PubMed

    Raben Pedersen, Ellen

    2018-06-10

    This study evaluates the Danish test battery for auditory processing disorder (APD). The battery consists of four behavioural tests, two speech and two non-speech stimuli tests. The evaluation includes determination of: (1) new cut-off values (pass-fail criteria), (2) the sensitivity and the specificity of the entire test battery and (3) the failure rate of different test combinations. For each test in the battery, cut-off values were determined using the weighted Youden index. Applying the newly derived cut-off values, the distribution of failing specific test combinations was determined. A group of 112 children diagnosed with APD (57 boys, 55 girls, aged 6-16 years) and a control group containing 158 children without auditory problems (75 boys, 83 girls, aged 6-16 years). Cut-off values for different weights of the sensitivity and the specificity have been determined. Using the criterion that at least two tests have to be failed for APD to be suspected, the sensitivity and the specificity of the entire test battery were 95.3% and 91.6%, respectively. Some test combinations were found to have higher failure rates than others. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity the test battery has good predictive value in APD assessment.

  5. A Danish population-based analysis of 105 mantle cell lymphoma patients: incidences, clinical features, response, survival and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Andersen, N S; Jensen, M K; de Nully Brown, P; Geisler, C H

    2002-02-01

    This study presents the first large clinical analysis of 105 unselected mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients diagnosed from 1992 to 2000 in a well-defined Danish population. The annual incidences were 0.7/100000 for men and 0.2/100000 for women, with no significant change during the study period. Of 97 evaluable cases, 43% achieved a complete response (CR) after initial therapy. The median disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 15 and 30 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, splenomegaly (P=0.002), anaemia (P=0.0001) and age (P=0.002), but not the international prognostic index (IPI) and the Ann Arbor staging system, had an independent impact on survival. Moreover, in a sub-analysis of 45 younger MCL patients (<65 years), a trend towards an OS plateau of 58% was observed in cases without splenomegaly and anaemia (n=29). Thus, in contrast to previously suggested prognostic factors, these variables may prove useful for clinical decisions in a significant subset of MCL patients.

  6. Atopic dermatitis, atopic eczema, or eczema? A systematic review, meta-analysis, and recommendation for uniform use of ‘atopic dermatitis’

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, R.; Thyssen, J. P.; Paller, A. S.; Silverberg, J. I.

    2017-01-01

    Background The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates unnecessary confusion for patients, healthcare providers, and researchers. It also negatively impacts accurate communication of research in the scientific literature. We sought to determine the most commonly used terms for AD. Methods A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS (1945–2016) for the terms AD, atopic eczema (AE), and multiple other eczematous disorders. Results In MEDLINE, 33 060 were identified, of which 21 299 (64.4%) publications used the term ‘AD’, 15 510 (46.9%) ‘eczema’, and only 2471 (7.5%) AE. Most of these publications used the term AD (82.0%) or eczema (70.8%) without additional nomenclature; only 1.2% used AE alone. Few publications used the terminology ‘childhood eczema’, ‘flexural eczema’, ‘infantile eczema’, ‘atopic neurodermatitis’, or ‘Besnier’s prurigo’. AD was rarely used until the late 1970s, after which it became the most commonly used of the three terms and continuously increased until 2015. Atopic eczema decreased between 2008 and 2015. Atopic dermatitis was the most commonly used term in studies across almost all publication types, languages, and journals. Conclusion Atopic dermatitis is the most commonly used term and appears to be increasing in popularity. Given that eczema is a nonspecific term that describes the morphological appearance of several forms of dermatitis, we strongly suggest the use of a more specific term, AD, in publications, healthcare clinician training, and patient education. Support from researchers, reviewers, and editors is key to success. PMID:27392131

  7. Positive predictive value of cardiac examination, procedure and surgery codes in the Danish National Patient Registry: a population-based validation study

    PubMed Central

    Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Munch, Troels; Frøslev, Trine; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Schmidt, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Objective Danish medical registries are widely used for cardiovascular research, but little is known about the data quality of cardiac interventions. We computed positive predictive values (PPVs) of codes for cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries registered in the Danish National Patient Registry during 2010–2012. Design Population-based validation study. Setting We randomly sampled patients from 1 university hospital and 2 regional hospitals in the Central Denmark Region. Participants 1239 patients undergoing different cardiac interventions. Main outcome measure PPVs with medical record review as reference standard. Results A total of 1233 medical records (99% of the total sample) were available for review. PPVs ranged from 83% to 100%. For examinations, the PPV was overall 98%, reflecting PPVs of 97% for echocardiography, 97% for right heart catheterisation and 100% for coronary angiogram. For procedures, the PPV was 98% overall, with PPVs of 98% for thrombolysis, 92% for cardioversion, 100% for radiofrequency ablation, 98% for percutaneous coronary intervention, and 100% for both cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators. For cardiac surgery, the overall PPVs was 99%, encompassing PPVs of 100% for mitral valve surgery, 99% for aortic valve surgery, 98% for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 100% for heart transplantation. The accuracy of coding was consistent within age, sex, and calendar year categories, and the agreement between independent reviewers was high (99%). Conclusions Cardiac examinations, procedures and surgeries have high PPVs in the Danish National Patient Registry. PMID:27940630

  8. Treatment strategies and outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma among 1011 patients aged 75 years or older: A Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Juul, Maja Bech; Jensen, Pernille Hammershoej; Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Dessau-Arp, Andriette; Haziri, Donika; Kristensen, Helene Bjoerg; Baech, Joachim; Schurmann, Lene; Clausen, Michael Roost; Valentin, Rebecca; Knudsen, Lene Meldgaard; Munksgaard, Lars; El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Frederiksen, Henrik; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer

    2018-06-20

    Optimal treatment strategy for the oldest patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains controversial, as this group often is precluded from clinical trials, and population-based studies are limited. All Danish DLBCL-patients ≥75 years diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 were identified, using the Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO). Information regarding baseline characteristics, treatment, comorbidities and outcomes was retrieved from LYFO, the Danish National health registries and medical records. Patients were stratified by age (75-79; 80-84 and 85 + years), comorbidity score and treatment modality (standard treatment [R-CHOP/CHOP-like], less intensive regimens or palliative treatment). A total of 1011 patients were included. Standard treatment was initiated in 64%, ranging from 83% among patients aged 75-79 years to 32% among patient aged 85 + years. With standard treatment, median overall survival (OS) estimates were 4·6, 2·6, and 1·9 years for the age groups 75-79, 80-84 and 85+ years. Among patient aged 75-79 and 80-84 years, OS was superior with standard treatment, although high comorbidity scores attenuated this association. Among patients aged 85+ years, survival was not influenced by treatment intensity. Patients ≥80 years had similar OS regardless of intended (R-)CHOP dosing, whereas patients of 75-79 years scheduled for full dose had higher OS. Standard treatment was not associated with increased hospitalisation. Standard treatment is feasible with good outcomes in a large proportion of elderly DLBCL-patients. Planned dose reduction in patients aged ≥80 years had no negative impact on OS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What's in a name? Atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema, but not eczema alone.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, J I; Thyssen, J P; Paller, A S; Drucker, A M; Wollenberg, A; Lee, K H; Kabashima, K; Todd, G; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Bieber, T

    2017-12-01

    The ideal nomenclature of atopic dermatitis (AD) / atopic eczema (AE) has long been contested. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the disparate nomenclature of this disease may have important deleterious ramifications for clinical care and research. An electronic questionnaire regarding the preferred nomenclature for AD was sent to councilors of the International Eczema Council (IEC) (n=77), an international group of clinicians and researchers with expertise in AD/AE. The survey consisted of 2 questions for consensus regarding the preference for an atopic prefix, and preference for the term AD or AE, and an exploratory question about the acceptability of the terms AD, AE or eczema. Consensus was defined a priori as at least 90% agreement for each question with a response rate of at least 90%. Seventy-one of 77 (92.2%) IEC councilors and associates responded to the survey, with all respondents completing the entire survey. Consensus was reached for question 1, with 69 of 71 respondents (97.2%) preferring the atopic prefix. However, consensus was not reached for question 2, with 40 respondents (58.0%) preferring the term AD and 30 (43,5%) preferring AE. Sixty-three respondents (88.7%) and 55 (77.5%) felt that the terms AD and AE were acceptable, whereas only 11 (15.5%) felt that eczema was acceptable. The IEC noted that the term eczema is imprecise, and its use is confusing. The consensus of the IEC was to recommend use of the prefix "atopic" (i.e., AD or AE) in all publications, presentations and discussions about the disorder. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  10. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema): An Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Arthur L.

    1962-01-01

    Atopic (spontaneous) allergies and nonatopic (induced) allergies are often confused. The meaning of these terms is definite, but the occurrence of either (in a given individual) may depend upon his autonomic nervous system control. The evidence that allergens produce the cutaneous changes in atopic dermatitis is flimsy, and neurodermatitis would be a more appropriate term since the entity falls into that pattern of skin changes. Treatment carried out, from infancy sometimes to old age, consists of careful management of the patient in the physical and emotional spheres, avoidance of external irritation and the use of a multiplicity of anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory and sedative agents. PMID:13955448

  11. Systematic genetic screening in a prospective group of Danish patients with pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Morten Steen Svarer; Jacobsen, Niels; Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Lund, Lars; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Recent guidelines recommend consideration of genetic screening in all newly diagnosed patients with pheochromocytoma. Patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma in the Region of Southern Denmark during 2006–2013 without previously recognized monogenetic etiology were offered genetic screening for mutations in the VHL, RET, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes. A total of 41 patients were included, and genetic data were available in 35. In four of the 35 patients, a pathogenic variant was identified prior to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (von Hippel–Lindau disease, n=2; neurofibromatosis type 1, n=2). The patients carrying a genetic mutation were all younger than 45 years at time of diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, two patients presented with bilateral tumors, and one patient had a positive family history of pheochromocytoma. Genetic screening of the remaining 31 patients did not identify any mutations. The sporadic cases had a median age of 58 years (range 33–80 years). Three of 31 sporadic cases (ages 60, 69, and 76 years at time of diagnosis) presented with bilateral adrenal tumors, one patient had multiple adrenal tumors in both adrenal glands, and no patients had a positive family history of pheochromocytoma. Of the 31 patients, 24 (68.6%) were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma due to evaluation of an adrenal incidentaloma. In conclusion, monogenetic etiology was identified in four of 35 (11.4%) patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma. PMID:28721348

  12. Is admittance to specialised palliative care among cancer patients related to sex, age and cancer diagnosis? A nation-wide study from the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD).

    PubMed

    Adsersen, Mathilde; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Sjøgren, Per; Groenvold, Mogens

    2017-03-23

    Specialised palliative care (SPC) takes place in specialised services for patients with complex symptoms and problems. Little is known about what determines the admission of patients to SPC and whether there are differences in relation to institution type. The aims of the study were to investigate whether cancer patients' admittance to SPC in Denmark varied in relation to sex, age and diagnosis, and whether the patterns differed by type of institution (hospital-based palliative care team/unit, hospice, or both). This was a register-based study of adult patients living in Denmark who died from cancer in 2010-2012. Data sources were the Danish Palliative Care Database, Danish Register of Causes of Death and Danish Cancer Registry. The associations between the explanatory variables (sex, age, diagnosis) and admittance to SPC were investigated using logistic regression. In the study population (N = 44,548) the overall admittance proportion to SPC was 37%. Higher odds of overall admittance to SPC were found for women (OR = 1.23; 1.17-1.28), younger patients (<40 compared with 80+ years old) (OR = 6.44; 5.19-7.99) and patients with sarcoma, pancreatic and stomach cancers, whereas the lowest were for patients with haematological malignancies. The higher admission found for women was most pronounced for hospices compared to hospital-based palliative care teams/units, whereas higher admission of younger patients was more pronounced for hospital-based palliative care teams/units. Patients with brain cancer were more often admitted to hospices, whereas patients with prostate cancer were more often admitted to hospital-based palliative care teams/units. It is unlikely that the variations in relation to sex, age and cancer diagnoses can be fully explained by differences in need. Future research should investigate whether the groups having the lowest admittance to SPC receive sufficient palliative care elsewhere.

  13. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Orskov, Bjarne; Sørensen, Vibeke Rømming; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Strandgaard, Svend

    2012-04-01

    With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2008. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, infection, other and unknown. Cardiovascular disease was the major cause of death. A multivariate competing risk model comparing the two 8-year periods, adjusted for age at ESRD, gender and treatment modality, showed that deaths from cardiovascular disease decreased by 35% [hazard ratios (HR) 0.65, P=0.008] and deaths from cerebrovascular disease decreased by 69% (HR 0.31, P=0.0003) from the first to the second time period. There were no significant changes between the time periods in death from cancer, infection, other or unknown. From the first to the second 8-year interval, the prevalence of cancer increased by 35% (P=0.0002) while the cancer incidence was stable. In Danish patients with ADPKD and ESRD, there was a significant reduction in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths from 1993 to 2008. The prevalence of cancer increased without significant change in cancer incidence or deaths from cancer.

  14. Prevention of hand eczema: effect of an educational program versus treatment as usual - results of the randomized clinical PREVEX trial.

    PubMed

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per; Bonde, Jens Peter; Agner, Tove

    2018-03-01

    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema, with follow-up after one year. Co-primary outcomes were total sickness absence, health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), and self-reported severity of hand eczema. Results Patients (N=1668) with notified occupational skin diseases from July 2012 to November 2014 were invited to participate in the trial. Of these, 756 were randomized to the intervention (N= 376) versus control (N=380) group. The intervention group had 21% fewer sickness absence days compared with the control group [95% confidence interval (CI) -55-40%, P=0.43]. We found no significant difference in the change of HR-QoL for the intervention compared with the control group (4% lower in the intervention group, 95% CI -18-13%, P=0.67). The ordinal odds of scoring worse on self-reported hand eczema severity was 15% lower in the intervention compared with the control group (95% CI -39-18%, P=0.34). Post-hoc sub-group analyses indicated that the effect of the intervention on severity differed between occupations, being detrimental to healthcare workers and beneficial in all other occupations. Conclusion The educational skincare program had no marked effect on the primary outcomes sickness absence, HR-QoL, and severity of hand eczema when compared with treatment as usual.

  15. Oral and Topical Antibiotics for Clinically Infected Eczema in Children: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial in Ambulatory Care.

    PubMed

    Francis, Nick A; Ridd, Matthew J; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Butler, Christopher C; Hood, Kerenza; Shepherd, Victoria; Marwick, Charis A; Huang, Chao; Longo, Mirella; Wootton, Mandy; Sullivan, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Eczema may flare because of bacterial infection, but evidence supporting antibiotic treatment is of low quality. We aimed to determine the effect of oral and topical antibiotics in addition to topical emollient and corticosteroids in children with clinically infected eczema. We employed a 3-arm, blinded, randomized controlled trial in UK ambulatory care. Children with clinical, non-severely infected eczema were randomized to receive oral and topical placebos (control), oral antibiotic (flucloxacillin) and topical placebo, or topical antibiotic (fusidic acid) and oral placebo, for 1 week. We compared Patient Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) scores at 2 weeks using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). We randomized 113 children (40 to control, 36 to oral antibiotic, and 37 to topical antibiotic). Mean (SD) baseline Patient Oriented Eczema Measure scores were 13.4 (5.1) for the control group, 14.6 (5.3) for the oral antibiotic group, and 16.9 (5.5) for the topical antibiotic group. At baseline, 104 children (93%) had 1 or more of the following findings: weeping, crusting, pustules, or painful skin. Mean (SD) POEM scores at 2 weeks were 6.2 (6.0) for control, 8.3 (7.3) for the oral antibiotic group, and 9.3 (6.2) for the topical antibiotic group. Controlling for baseline POEM score, neither oral nor topical antibiotics produced a significant difference in mean (95% CI) POEM scores (1.5 [-1.4 to 4.4] and 1.5 [-1.6 to 4.5] respectively). There were no significant differences in adverse effects and no serious adverse events. We found rapid resolution in response to topical steroid and emollient treatment and ruled out a clinically meaningful benefit from the addition of either oral or topical antibiotics. Children seen in ambulatory care with mild clinically infected eczema do not need treatment with antibiotics. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  16. Effect of socioeconomic status on mortality after bacteremia in working-age patients. A Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Kristoffer; Nørgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality. We conducted a population-based cohort study in two Danish regions. All patients 30 to 65 years of age with first time bacteremia from 2000 through 2008 were identified in a population-based microbiological bacteremia database (n = 8,653). Individual-level data on patients' SES (educational level and personal income) and comorbid conditions were obtained from public and medical registries. We used Cox regression to examine mortality within 30 days after bacteremia with and without cumulative adjustment for potential mediators. Bacteremia patients of low SES were more likely to live alone and be unmarried than patients of high SES. They also had more pre-existing comorbidity, more substance abuse, more Staphylococcus aureus and nosocomial infections, and more admissions to small nonteaching hospitals. Overall, 1,374 patients (15.9%) died within 30 days of follow-up. Patients of low SES had consistently higher mortality after bacteremia than those of high SES crude hazard ratio for low vs. high education, 1.38 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-1.61]; crude hazard ratio for low-income vs. high-income tertile, 1.58 [CI, 1.39-1.80]. Adjustment for differences in social support, pre-existing comorbidity, substance abuse, place of acquisition of the infection, and microbial agent substantially attenuated the effect of SES on mortality (adjusted hazard ratio for low vs. high education, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.98-1.36]; adjusted hazard ratio for low-income vs. high-income tertile, 1.29 [CI, 1.12-1.49]). Further adjustment for characteristics of the admitting hospital had minimal effect on observed mortality differences. Low SES was strongly associated with increased 30-day mortality after bacteremia. Less social support, more pre-existing comorbidity, more substance abuse, and differences in place of acquisition and

  17. The Prevalence of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Danish Patients Hospitalised with Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Melgaard, Dorte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Bøgsted, Martin; Bendtsen, Mette Dahl; Hansen, Tina

    2017-06-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) are prevalent conditions in the elderly. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between CAP, OD, and frailty in patients admitted to a department of respiratory medicine at a regional hospital. The outcome was mortality during hospitalization and within 30 days of discharge and rehospitalization within 30 days of discharge. A total of 154 consecutive patients (54.5% male, mean age 77.4 years (SD 11.51)) hospitalized because of CAP from September 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014 at North Denmark Regional Hospital were included in this study. The volume-viscosity swallow test was conducted for each patient. A total of 34.42% patients presented with OD. Patients with OD and CAP presented significant differences in age, CURB-65, and dementia compared with those of patients with CAP alone. The majority lived in nursing homes, had a lower body mass index, Barthel 20 score, and handgrip strength, and had poor oral health compared with patients with CAP only. Patients with OD presented an increased length of stay in hospital (P < 0.001), intra-hospital mortality (P < 0.001), and 30-day mortality rate (P < 0.001) compared with those of patients with CAP only. Their rate of rehospitalization 0-30 days after discharge was also increased (P < 0.001) compared with that of patients with CAP only. Thus, OD is related to frailty and poor outcome.

  18. The Danish Anaesthesia Database.

    PubMed

    Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. The DAD was founded in 2004 as a part of Danish Clinical Registries (Regionernes Kliniske Kvalitetsudviklings Program [RKKP]). Patients undergoing general anesthesia, regional anesthesia with or without combined general anesthesia as well as patients under sedation are registered. Data are retrieved from public and private anesthesia clinics, single-centers as well as multihospital corporations across Denmark. In 2014 a total of 278,679 unique entries representing a national coverage of ~70% were recorded, data completeness is steadily increasing. Records are aggregated for determining 13 defined quality indicators and eleven defined complications all covering the anesthetic process from the preoperative assessment through anesthesia and surgery until the end of the postoperative recovery period. Registered variables include patients' individual social security number (assigned to all Danes) and both direct patient-related lifestyle factors enabling a quantification of patients' comorbidity as well as variables that are strictly related to the type, duration, and safety of the anesthesia. Data and specific data combinations can be extracted within each department in order to monitor patient treatment. In addition, an annual DAD report is a benchmark for departments nationwide. The DAD is covering the anesthetic process for the majority of patients undergoing anesthesia in Denmark. Data in the DAD are increasingly used for both quality and research projects.

  19. Vitamin D and the Development of Atopic Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    A “vitamin D hypothesis” has been proposed to explain the increased prevalence of eczema in regions with higher latitude. This review focuses on the current available evidence with regard to the possible effect of vitamin D on the development of atopic eczema. Observational studies have indicated a link between vitamin D status and eczema outcomes, including lower serum vitamin D levels associated with increased incidence and severity of eczema symptoms. Vitamin D is known to have a regulatory influence on both the immune system and skin barrier function, both critical in the pathogenesis of eczema. However heterogeneous results have been found in studies to date investigating the effect of vitamin D status during pregnancy and infancy on the prevention of eczema outcomes. Well-designed, adequately powered, randomised controlled trials are needed. The study design of any new intervention trials should measure vitamin D levels at multiple time points during the intervention, ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure via the use of individual UV dosimeters, and investigate the role of individual genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, the current available evidence does not allow firm conclusions to be made on whether vitamin D status affects the development of atopic eczema. PMID:26239464

  20. Breast-feeding reduces the risk for childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Kull, Inger; Böhme, Maria; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Nordvall, Lennart; Pershagen, Göran; Wickman, Magnus

    2005-09-01

    The evidence for a preventive effect of breast-feeding on the development of eczema in childhood remains controversial. To investigate the effect of breast-feeding in various phenotypes of eczema to 4 years. A birth cohort of 4089 children made up the study base. Data on breast-feeding, allergic symptoms, and potential confounders were obtained from questionnaires when the children were 2 months and 1, 2, and 4 years old. At 4 years, blood specific IgE was analyzed. Children with symptoms of eczema and asthma during the period of breast-feeding were excluded in most analyses on risk assessment of eczema and asthma, respectively, to avoid disease-related modification of exposure. Exclusive breast-feeding for >or=4 months reduced the risk for eczema at the age of 4 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63--0.96) irrespective of combination with asthma, sensitization to common allergens, or parental allergic disease. This decreased risk was most evident for children with onset of eczema during the first 2 years persisting to 4 years (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45--0.77). Among children with early-onset eczema, irrespective of persistency, followed by late onset of asthma or early-onset asthma irrespective of persistency, followed by late-onset eczema to 4 years, a protective effect of breast-feeding was also seen (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30--0.76). Breast-feeding 4 months or more reduces the risk for eczema and onset of the allergy march to age 4.

  1. Endotoxin Exposure and Eczema in the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Phipatanakul, Wanda; Celedón, Juan C.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Milton, Donald K.; Sredl, Diane; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Exposure to endotoxin in early life has been proposed as a factor that may protect against the development of allergic diseases such as eczema. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between endotoxin exposure in early life and eczema in the first year of life in children with parental history of asthma or allergies. Methods This study used a prospective birth cohort study of 498 children who had a history of allergy or asthma in at least 1 parent and lived in metropolitan Boston. A subset of 401 living rooms had house dust samples adequate for analysis of endotoxin. Results In multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, income, and season of birth, endotoxin levels in the living room at 2 to 3 months of age was inversely associated with physician- or nurse-diagnosed eczema in the first year of life (odds ratio [OR] for each quartile increment: 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61–0.96). Exposure to a dog in the home at age 2 to 3 months was also inversely associated with eczema in the first year of life, but the CI widened when endotoxin was included in the multivariate model (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.27–1.09). Other variables associated with eczema in the first year of life included paternal history of eczema (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.03–3.55) and maternal specific immunoglobulin E positivity to ≥1 allergen (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.01–2.56). Conclusions Among children with parental history of asthma or allergies, exposure to high levels of endotoxin in early life may be protective against eczema in the first year of life. In these children, paternal history of eczema and maternal sensitization to at least 1 allergen are associated with an increased risk of eczema in the first year of life. PMID:15231902

  2. Altered Gut Microbiota Composition Associated with Eczema in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Maohua; Shi, Tao; Yang, Fen; Liu, Enuo; Yuan, Wei; Ji, Zai-Si; Li, De-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups. We identified four genera enriched in healthy infants: Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera, Haemophilus and Streptococcus; and five genera enriched in infants with eczema: Escherichia/Shigella, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis and Clostridium XlVa. Several species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, that are known to be associated with atopy or inflammation, were found to be significantly enriched in infants with eczema. Higher abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in eczematous infants might reduce the integrity of intestinal barrier function and therefore increase the risk of developing eczema. On the other hand, Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus salivarius, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties, were less abundant in infants with eczema. The observed differences in genera and species between cases and controls in this study may provide insight into the link between the microbiome and eczema risk. PMID:27812181

  3. Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Mortality after Bacteremia in Working-Age Patients. A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Kristoffer; Nørgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study in two Danish regions. All patients 30 to 65 years of age with first time bacteremia from 2000 through 2008 were identified in a population-based microbiological bacteremia database (n = 8,653). Individual-level data on patients’ SES (educational level and personal income) and comorbid conditions were obtained from public and medical registries. We used Cox regression to examine mortality within 30 days after bacteremia with and without cumulative adjustment for potential mediators. Results Bacteremia patients of low SES were more likely to live alone and be unmarried than patients of high SES. They also had more pre-existing comorbidity, more substance abuse, more Staphylococcus aureus and nosocomial infections, and more admissions to small nonteaching hospitals. Overall, 1,374 patients (15.9%) died within 30 days of follow-up. Patients of low SES had consistently higher mortality after bacteremia than those of high SES crude hazard ratio for low vs. high education, 1.38 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–1.61]; crude hazard ratio for low-income vs. high-income tertile, 1.58 [CI, 1.39–1.80]. Adjustment for differences in social support, pre-existing comorbidity, substance abuse, place of acquisition of the infection, and microbial agent substantially attenuated the effect of SES on mortality (adjusted hazard ratio for low vs. high education, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.98–1.36]; adjusted hazard ratio for low-income vs. high-income tertile, 1.29 [CI, 1.12–1.49]). Further adjustment for characteristics of the admitting hospital had minimal effect on observed mortality differences. Conclusions Low SES was strongly associated with increased 30-day mortality after bacteremia. Less social support, more pre-existing comorbidity, more substance

  4. Functional examination of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 intronic mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sanne M; Dandanell, Mette; Rasmussen, Lene J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Krogh, Lotte N; Bernstein, Inge; Okkels, Henrik; Wikman, Friedrik; Nielsen, Finn C; Hansen, Thomas V O

    2013-10-03

    Germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 predispose to the development of colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). These mutations include disease-causing frame-shift, nonsense, and splicing mutations as well as large genomic rearrangements. However, a large number of mutations, including missense, silent, and intronic variants, are classified as variants of unknown clinical significance. Intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 variants were investigated using in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assay to asses the effect on splicing. We describe in silico and in vitro characterization of nine intronic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 mutations identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients, of which four mutations are novel. The analysis revealed aberrant splicing of five mutations (MLH1 c.588 + 5G > A, MLH1 c.677 + 3A > T, MLH1 c.1732-2A > T, MSH2 c.1276 + 1G > T, and MSH2 c.1662-2A > C), while four mutations had no effect on splicing compared to wild type (MLH1 c.117-34A > T, MLH1 c.1039-8 T > A, MSH2 c.2459-18delT, and MSH6 c.3439-16C > T). In conclusion, we classify five MLH1/MSH2 mutations as pathogenic, whereas four MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 mutations are classified as neutral. This study supports the notion that in silico prediction tools and mini-gene assays are important for the classification of intronic variants, and thereby crucial for the genetic counseling of patients and their family members.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate in a Danish cohort of 259 selected patients.

    PubMed

    Lerbaek, Anne; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, Torkil

    2004-08-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate is present in many plants. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate is well known but infrequently reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to allyl isothiocyanate in patients with suspected contact dermatitis from vegetables and food. 259 such patients were tested at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark, from 1994 to 2003. Only 2 patients (0.8%) had a positive reaction (+) to allyl isothiocyanate and 43 patients (16.6%) had a ?+ reaction. One of the patients with a positive reaction provided samples of margarine, salad cream, oil and mayonnaise. These were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and a moderate concentration of allyl isothiocyanate (2.5 ppm) was detected in the sample of margarine. This patient was a professional sandwich maker presenting with fingertip dermatitis mimicking 'tulip fingers' or allergic contact dermatitis from garlic and onions. In conclusion, allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate occurs in only a limited number of cases, despite frequent exposure. The large number of ?+ reactions raises the question as to whether the recommended patch test concentration is too low.

  6. Measurement properties of quality of life measurement instruments for infants, children and adolescents with eczema: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heinl, Daniel; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Drucker, Aaron M; Ofenloch, Robert; Humphreys, Rosemary; Sach, Tracey; Flohr, Carsten; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2016-02-09

    Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease that exerts a substantial negative impact on quality of life (QoL). The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has used a consensus-based process which identified QoL as one of the four core outcome domains to be assessed in all eczema clinical trials. A number of measurement instruments exist to measure QoL in infants, children, and adolescents with eczema, and there is a great variability in both content and quality of the instruments used. Therefore, the objective of the proposed research is to comprehensively and systematically assess the measurement properties of the existing measurement instruments that were developed and/or validated for the measurement of patient-reported QoL in infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of patient-reported measures of QoL developed and/or validated for infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. A systematic literature search will be carried out in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing, or comparing measurement properties of QoL instruments for infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. Two reviewers will independently perform eligibility assessment and data abstraction. Evidence tables will be used to record study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties, and interpretability. The adequacy of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study has examined a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will yield a comprehensive assessment

  7. Symptoms and findings in adult-onset celiac disease in a historical Danish patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Schøsler, Louise; Christensen, Lisbet A; Hvas, Christian L

    2016-03-01

    The presentation of celiac disease (CD) has changed over the past decades. We aimed to describe the incidence of CD and its complications at diagnosis in a historical cohort in a well-defined population in Denmark. We included all patients aged 15+ years, who lived in Aarhus County, Denmark, and who were diagnosed with CD between January 2008 and August 2013. Data regarding gastrointestinal symptoms, anthropometrics, biochemistry, and bone mineral density were retrieved from patient records. A total of 93 patients with a valid CD diagnosis were identified, corresponding to an incidence rate of 6.4 per 100,000 person-years. At diagnosis, diarrhea and weight loss occurred in 54% and 47% patients, respectively. In total, 30% had anemia; 40%, iron deficiency; 20%, folate deficiency; and 17%, vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was present in 34%. In 28%, bone mineral density was determined during the first year after diagnosis. Of these, 54% had osteopenia and 12% osteoporosis. After introduction of a gluten-free diet, 28% had normalized transglutaminase antibody levels after 6 months, and 56% did after 12 months. Diabetes mellitus type 1 was present in 7%; dermatitis herpetiformis, in 3%; and thyroid dysfunction, in 5%. Only half of newly diagnosed CD patients presented with classic gastrointestinal symptoms. Anemia and vitamin deficiencies were common. Bone mineral density was determined in less than a third of the patients, and osteoporosis occurred in 12% of these. Serologic markers of CD normalized in approximately half of patients during the first year after the diagnosis.

  8. Predictors of visual outcome in patients operated for craniopharyngioma - a Danish national study.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Mads Forslund; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Doroudian, Ghazaleh; Nissen, Kamilla Rothe; Fugleholm, Kåre; Poulsgaard, Lars; Siersma, Volkert; Heegaard, Steffen

    2018-02-01

    Craniopharyngioma often causes visual loss due to the close relation to the anterior visual pathways. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of visual outcomes in patients with craniopharyngioma. Data from sixty-six patients who underwent surgery for craniopharyngioma from 2009 to 2013 in Denmark were reviewed. Primary outcomes were visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF) defects from pre-and postoperative visits. Secondary outcomes were optic nerve atrophy (OA) and papilledema. Fifty-eight patients were included. The VA of the patients 1-year after surgery improved by -0.16 log(MAR) (95%CI: -0.30 to -0.02; p = 0.0266). Visual field (VF) defects worsened in 17 eyes (30%), remained stable in 21 eyes (37%) and improved in 19 eyes (33%). The presence of papilledema and the absence of OA were significantly correlated with an improvement in VA postoperatively (p = 0.011 and p = 0.011, respectively). Patients undergoing surgery within a week or less after their first ophthalmological examination had a significant improvement in VA (-0.36; 95%CI: -0.62 to -0.09; p = 0.0099). Patients undergoing surgery using a subfrontal approach also showed improvement in VA (p = 0.048). Tumour recurrence had a significantly worse VA outcome (p = 0.0074). Patients show a slight improvement in VA 1-year after operation for craniopharyngioma. The presence of papilledema and early surgical intervention is associated with a significant improvement in VA. Early involvement of a dedicated ophthalmologist is recommended to secure an early detection of a visual decline and potential tumour recurrence. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification of metallic items that caused nickel dermatitis in Danish patients.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2010-09-01

    Nickel allergy is prevalent as assessed by epidemiological studies. In an attempt to further identify and characterize sources that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis, we analysed items identified by nickel-allergic dermatitis patients as causative of nickel dermatitis by using the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test. Dermatitis patients with nickel allergy of current relevance were identified over a 2-year period in a tertiary referral patch test centre. When possible, their work tools and personal items were examined with the DMG test. Among 95 nickel-allergic dermatitis patients, 70 (73.7%) had metallic items investigated for nickel release. A total of 151 items were investigated, and 66 (43.7%) gave positive DMG test reactions. Objects were nearly all purchased or acquired after the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive. Only one object had been inherited, and only two objects had been purchased outside of Denmark. DMG testing is valuable as a screening test for nickel release and should be used to identify relevant exposures in nickel-allergic patients. Mainly consumer items, but also work tools used in an occupational setting, released nickel in dermatitis patients. This study confirmed 'risk items' from previous studies, including mobile phones.

  10. Labour market participation and sick leave among patients diagnosed with myasthenia gravis in Denmark 1997-2011: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Frost, Asger; Svendsen, Marie Louise; Rahbek, Jes; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lund, Thomas

    2016-11-17

    To examine labour market participation and long-term sick leave following a diagnosis with myasthenia gravis (MG) compared with the general Danish population and for specific subgroups of MG patients. A nationwide matched cohort study from 1997 to 2011 using data from population-based medical and social registries. The study includes 330 MG patients aged 18 to 65 years old identified from hospital diagnoses and dispensed prescriptions, and twenty references from the Danish population matching each MG patient on age, gender, and profession. Main outcome measures are labour market participation (yes/no) and long-term sick leave ≥9 weeks (yes/no) with follow-up at 1- and 2 years after the time of MG diagnosis or match. Based on complete person-level information on all public transfer payments in Denmark, persons having no labour market participation are defined as individuals receiving social benefits for severely reduced workability, flexijob, and disability pension. MG is consistently associated with higher odds of having no labour market participation and long-term sick leave compared with the general Danish population (no labour market participation & ≥9 weeks sick leave at 2-year follow-up, adjusted OR (95% CI): 5.76 (4.13 to 8.04) & 8.60 (6.60 to 11.23)). Among MG patients, females and patients treated with both acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and immunosuppression have higher odds of lost labour market participation and long-term sick leave. This study suggests that MG patients have almost 6 times higher odds of no labour market participation and almost 9 times higher odds of long-term sick leave 2 years after diagnosis compared with the general Danish population. In particular female MG patients and patients treated with both acetylcholinesterase and immunosuppression have high odds of a negative labour market outcome. Future research should focus on predictors in workplace and labour market policy of labour market participation among MG patients.

  11. Physical activity and the association with fatigue and sleep in Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Løppenthin, K; Esbensen, B A; Østergaard, M; Jennum, P; Tolver, A; Aadahl, M; Thomsen, T; Midtgaard, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine physical activity behavior in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to identify potential correlates of regular physical activity including fatigue, sleep, pain, physical function and disease activity. A total of 443 patients were recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic and included in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity was assessed by a four-class questionnaire, in addition to the Physical Activity Scale. Other instruments included the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Health Assessment Questionnaire. Disease activity was obtained from a nationwide clinical database. Of the included patients, 80 % were female and mean age was 60 (range 21-88 years). Hereof, 22 % (n = 96) were regularly physically active, and 78 % (n = 349) were mainly sedentary or having a low level of physical activity. An inverse univariate association was found between moderate to vigorous physical activity, and fatigue (MFI mental, MFI activity, MFI physical and MFI general), sleep, diabetes, depression, pain, patient global assessment, HAQ and disease activity. The multivariate prediction model demonstrated that fatigue-related reduced activity and physical fatigue were selected in >95 % of the bootstrap samples with median odds ratio 0.89 (2.5-97.5 % quantiles: 0.78-1.00) and 0.91 (2.5-97.5 % quantiles: 0.81-0.97), respectively, while disease activity was selected in 82 % of the bootstrap samples with median odds ratio 0.90. Moderate to vigorous physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the absence of several RA-related factors with the most important correlates being reduced activity due to fatigue, physical fatigue and disease activity.

  12. Family eczema-history in 2-year olds with eczema; a prospective, population-based study. The PACT-study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A maternal line of inheritance regarding eczema has been described in several studies, whereas others find associations to both a maternal as well as a paternal line of inheritance. When studying family history of eczema symptoms, cohort studies including siblings are rare. Time point for assessing family eczema-history could be of importance when studying the associations between family eczema-history and children with eczema, as parents with unaffected children may not recall mild symptoms in other siblings or their own disease history. We therefore aimed to study the associations between reported eczema in mother, father and siblings and reported eczema in index child where information on family history was collected at two different ages of index child. Methods Parents/children participating in The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (PACT) study were given questionnaires on reported eczema symptoms in mother, father and siblings at 6 weeks and 1 year. When index child was 2 years of age, a detailed questionnaire on different health issues with emphasize on different allergy related disorders were filled in. Results Both maternal and paternal reports on eczema were significantly associated with eczema in index child. Reporting family eczema-history at 1 year (N = 3087), "eczema sibling only" [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.13 (2.27-4.33)] as well as all other family-groups containing siblings with eczema were strongly associated with eczema 2 years. When family eczema-history was reported at 6 weeks (N = 2657), reporting of "eczema sibling only" was not associated to reported eczema at 2 years in index child [aOR = 1.31 (0.77-2.23)]. Conclusions Having sibling(s) with eczema strengthened the associations between maternal and paternal reports on eczema with eczema in index child only when exposure was reported at 1 year. These findings indicate that results from questionnaires-based studies of family eczema-history depend on whether or

  13. Evaluation of the measurement properties of symptom measurement instruments for atopic eczema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gerbens, L A A; Prinsen, C A C; Chalmers, J R; Drucker, A M; von Kobyletzki, L B; Limpens, J; Nankervis, H; Svensson, Å; Terwee, C B; Zhang, J; Apfelbacher, C J; Spuls, P I

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms have been identified as a core outcome domain for atopic eczema (AE) trials. Various instruments exist to measure symptoms in AE, but they vary in quality and there is a lack of standardization between clinical trials. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the quality of the evidence on the measurement properties of AE symptom instruments, thereby informing consensus discussions within the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative regarding the most appropriate instruments for the core outcome domain symptoms. Using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and predefined criteria for good measurement properties on identified development and validation studies of AE symptom instruments, a best evidence synthesis was performed to draw an overall conclusion on quality of the instruments and to provide recommendations. Eighteen instruments were identified and evaluated. When the quality and results of the studies were considered, only five of these instruments had sufficient validation data to consider them for the core outcome set for the core outcome domain symptoms. These were the paediatric Itch Severity Scale (ISS), Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index (SA-EASI) and adapted SA-EASI. ISS (paediatric version), POEM, PO-SCORAD, SA-EASI and adapted SA-EASI are currently the most appropriate instruments and therefore have the potential to be recommended as core symptom instrument in future clinical trials. These findings will be utilized for the development of a core outcome set for AE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Permeability of the small intestine to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with acute gastroenteritis or eczema

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1985-06-01

    Increased gut permeability to macromolecules is thought to be an important factor in the development of food hypersensitivity. The latter can develop in the course of acute gastroenteritis and could play a role in infantile eczema. The authors studied gut permeability in 10 normal adults, 11 control children, 7 children with acute gastroenteritis, and 8 patients with infantile eczema, making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was given orally (50-100 microCi); 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the oral dose. Mean and standard error were 2.35 +/- 0.24, 2.51more » +/- 0.21, 9.96 +/- 3.44, and 10.90 +/- 2.05 in normal adults, control children, and gastroenteritis and eczema patients, respectively. Differences between controls and either gastroenteritis (p less than 0.001) or eczema (p less than 0.001) patients are significant. The results support the hypothesis that increased gut permeability could play a role in food hypersensitivity.« less

  15. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral and topical antibiotics for children with clinically infected eczema in the community: the ChildRen with Eczema, Antibiotic Management (CREAM) study.

    PubMed

    Francis, Nick A; Ridd, Matthew J; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Shepherd, Victoria; Butler, Christopher C; Hood, Kerenza; Huang, Chao; Addison, Katy; Longo, Mirella; Marwick, Charis; Wootton, Mandy; Howe, Robin; Roberts, Amanda; Haq, Mohammed Inaam-ul; Madhok, Vishnu; Sullivan, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Secondary skin infection is common during eczema exacerbations and many children are treated with antibiotics when this is suspected, although there is little high-quality evidence to justify this practice. To determine the clinical effectiveness of oral and topical antibiotics, in addition to standard treatment with emollients and topical corticosteroids, in children with clinically infected eczema. Multicentre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. General practices and dermatology clinics in England, Wales and Scotland. Children (aged 3 months to < 8 years) with a diagnosis of eczema (according to U.K. Working Party definition) and clinical suspicion of infection. (1) Oral flucloxacillin and topical placebo; (2) topical fusidic acid (Fucidin(®), Leo Laboratories Limited) and oral placebo; and (3) oral and topical placebos, all for 1 week. Patient-Orientated Eczema Measure (POEM) at 2 weeks (assessing subjective severity in the week following treatment). We randomised 113 children (36 to oral antibiotic, 37 to topical antibiotic and 40 to placebo), which was fewer than our revised target sample size of 282. A total of 103 (92.0%) children had one or more clinical features suggestive of infection and 78 (69.6%) children had Staphylococcus aureus cultured from a skin swab. Oral and topical antibiotics resulted in a 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) -1.35 to 4.40] and 1.49 (95% CI -1.55 to 4.53) increase (worse subjective severity) in POEM score at 2 weeks, relative to placebo and controlling for baseline POEM score. Eczema Area and Severity Index (objective severity) scores were also higher (worse) in the intervention groups, at 0.20 (95% CI -0.12 to 0.52) and 0.42 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.75) for oral and topical antibiotics, respectively, at 2 weeks. Analyses of impact on the family, quality of life, daily symptom scores, and longer-term outcomes were all consistent with the finding of no or limited difference and a trend towards worse outcomes in the

  16. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Quality of Life in Hand Eczema Questionnaire (QOLHEQ).

    PubMed

    Ofenloch, Robert F; Oosterhaven, Jart A F; Susitaival, Päivikki; Svensson, Åke; Weisshaar, Elke; Minamoto, Keiko; Onder, Meltem; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A; Bulbul Baskan, Emel; Diepgen, Thomas L; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2017-07-01

    The Quality of Life in Hand Eczema Questionnaire (QOLHEQ) is the only instrument assessing disease-specific health-related quality of life in patients with hand eczema. It is available in eight language versions. In this study we assessed if the items of different language versions of the QOLHEQ yield comparable values across countries. An international multicenter study was conducted with participating centers in Finland, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Turkey. Methods of item response theory were applied to each subscale to assess differential item functioning for items among countries. Overall, 662 hand eczema patients were recruited into the study. Single items were removed or split according to the item response theory model by country to resolve differential item functioning. After this adjustment, none of the four subscales of the QOLHEQ showed significant misfit to the item response theory model (P < 0.01), and a Person Separation Index of greater than 0.7 showed good internal consistency for each subscale. By adapting the scoring of the QOLHEQ using the methods of item response theory, it was possible to obtain QOLHEQ values that are comparable across countries. Cross-cultural variations in the interpretation of single items were resolved. The QOLHEQ is now ready to be used in international studies assessing the health-related quality of life impact of hand eczema. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

    2004-06-01

    Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema.

  18. Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Onderdonk, Andrew B; McCracken, John; Litonjua, Augusto A; Laskey, Daniel; Delaney, Mary L; Dubois, Andrea M; Gold, Diane R; Ryan, Louise M; Weiss, Scott T; Celedón, Juan C

    2008-09-22

    A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and 4 months of life. Nine infants were diagnosed with eczema by the age of 6 months (cases) and 12 infants were not (controls). After conducting denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of stool samples, we compared the microbial diversity of cases and controls using the number of electrophoretic bands and the Shannon index of diversity (H') as indicators. Control subjects had significantly greater fecal microbial diversity than children with eczema at ages 1 (mean H' for controls = 0.75 vs. 0.53 for cases, P = 0.01) and 4 months (mean H' for controls = 0.92 vs. 0.59 for cases, P = 0.02). The increase in diversity from 1 to 4 months of age was significant in controls (P = 0.04) but not in children who developed eczema by 6 months of age (P = 0.32). Our findings suggest that reduced microbial diversity is associated with the development of eczema in early life.

  19. Sleep and neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J Declan; Gold, Michael; Simpson, Carol; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Sleep disruption in childhood is associated with clearly defined deficits in neurocognition and behaviour. Childhood eczema is also a potent cause of sleep disruption though it is unknown whether it too results in neurocognitive deficits. To test this hypothesis, neurocognitive (WISC-IV), parental-reported sleep quality (Sleep Disturbance Scale of Children (SDSC)) and overnight polysomnographic (PSG) data were collected in 21 children with eczema and 20 healthy controls (age range 6-16 years). Children with eczema had worse sleep quality on both PSG (notably increased nocturnal wakefulness, a higher number of stage shifts and a longer latency to REM onset) and parental report. In addition, they demonstrated significant neurocognitive deficits (especially verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and to a lesser extent working memory) with a composite Full Scale IQ 16 points lower than controls. Parental reported sleep problems but not PSG parameters were correlated with reduced neurocognitive performance. However, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eczema status was predictive while sleep fragmentation (parental or PSG) was not predictive of neurocognitive performance. As this is the first study to systematically examine neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema and given the finding of significant deficits it merits replication especially given the prevalence of the condition. The unanswered question is whether these cognitive deficits normalise with effective eczema treatment and if this is mediated by improvements in sleep architecture. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermoregulation, scratch, itch and sleep deficits in children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Camfferman, D; Short, M A; Kennedy, J D; Gold, M; Kohler, M; Lushington, K

    2016-09-01

    Successful sleep onset and maintenance is associated with a reduction in core temperature, facilitated by heat loss at the distal periphery. Problems with initiating and maintaining sleep in children with eczema may relate to impaired thermoregulatory mechanisms, which also contribute to itching and scratching. Our hypothesis was that nocturnal distal skin temperature in eczematous children would be lower than controls, and would also be related to poor sleep quality. We compared overnight polysomnography and distal (finger) and proximal (clavicle) skin temperature in 18 children with eczema and 15 controls (6-16 years). Children with eczema had longer periods of nocturnal wakefulness (mean [SD] = 88.8 [25.8] vs. 44.3 [35.6] min) and lower distal temperatures (34.1 [0.6] °C vs. 34.7 [0.4] °C) than controls, whereas proximal temperature and the distal-proximal gradient were not significantly different. In children with eczema, a higher distal temperature was associated with indicators of poor sleep quality, whereas lower distal temperature was related to more scratching events during sleep. In conclusion, our findings indicate complex interrelationships among eczema, thermoregulation and sleep, and further, that deficits in thermoregulatory mechanisms may contribute to sleep disturbances in children with eczema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The associations between personality traits, education, occupation and the occurrence of eczema in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke; Montgomery, Scott; Kornilaki, Ekaterina N; Tsivrikos, Dimitrios; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    There were 5834 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at 11 years, educational qualifications at 33 years, the Big Five-Factor personality traits, occupational levels and eczema (measured at age 50 years). Results showed that eczema in childhood, educational achievement and occupational levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of reported eczema in adulthood. Emotionally Stable people (non-neurotic) were less likely to have eczema, but those with high Agreeableness and Openness more likely to have eczema. Childhood cognitive ability was significantly and positively associated with eczema in adulthood.

  2. A multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of ion-exchange water softeners for the treatment of eczema in children: the Softened Water Eczema Trial (SWET).

    PubMed

    Thomas, K S; Koller, K; Dean, T; O'Leary, C J; Sach, T H; Frost, A; Pallett, I; Crook, A M; Meredith, S; Nunn, A J; Burrows, N; Pollock, I; Graham-Brown, R; O'Toole, E; Potter, D; Williams, H C

    2011-02-01

    measured using the Six Area, Six Sign Atopic Dermatitis (SASSAD) score. This is an objective severity scale completed by blinded observers (research nurses) unaware of the allocated intervention. Secondary outcomes included use of topical medications, night-time movement, patient-reported eczema severity and a number of quality of life measures. A planned subgroup analysis was conducted, based on participants with at least one mutation in the gene encoding filaggrin (a protein in the skin thought to be important for normal skin barrier function). Target recruitment was achieved (n = 336). The analysed population included 323 children who had complete data. The mean change in primary outcome (SASSAD) at 12 weeks was -5.0 [standard deviation (SD) 8.8] for the water softener group (group A) and -5.7 (SD 9.8) for the usual care group (group B) [mean difference 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.37 to 2.69, p = 0.53]. The per-protocol analysis supported the main analysis, and there was no evidence that the treatment effect varied between children with and without mutations in the filaggrin gene. No between-group differences were found in the three secondary outcomes that were assessed blindly (use of topical medications; night-time movement; proportion showing reasonable, good or excellent improvement). Small, but statistically significant, differences in favour of the water softener were found in three of the secondary outcomes that were assessed by participants [Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM); well-controlled weeks (WCWs); Dermatitis Family Index (DFI)]. The results of the economic evaluation, and the uncertainty surrounding them, suggest that ion-exchange water softeners are unlikely to be a cost-effective intervention for children with atopic eczema from an NHS perspective. Water softeners provided no additional benefit to usual care in this study population. Small, but statistically significant, differences were found in some secondary outcomes as reported by

  3. Formulation and clinical evaluation of topical dosage forms of Indian Penny Wort, walnut and turmeric in eczema.

    PubMed

    Khiljee, Sonia; Rehman, Nisarur; Khiljee, Tanzila; Loebenberg, Raimar; Ahmad, Rao Saeed

    2015-11-01

    Eczema is characterized by itching, lichenification, scaling, oedema and erythema. Current management strategies include corticosteroids, which are limited due to side effects. Many herbal remedies are used traditionally but unfortunately have not been validated in controlled clinical trials. Three popular traditional treatments of eczema include Indian pennywort, Walnut and Turmeric. In this study three topical formulations (micro emulsion, gel and ointment) were prepared from extracts of Indian pennywort, Walnut and Turmeric. These formulations were monitored for stability for a period of three months. Controlled clinical trials were conducted on 360 eczema patients. Clinical parameters observed were degree of erythema, oedema, scaling, itching and lichenification. Effects of each formulation on these clinical parameters were compared with placebo formulations. Micro emulsion formulations in all cases proved to be more effective in reducing semi quantitative scores of erythema and oedema. Itching was relieved more by gel formulation. The ointment showed more efficacy towards scaling and lichenification. Comparison of the effects of placebo and the specific formulations was performed by chi-square statistics and found to be highly significant. In summary it is concluded that all the formulations could be used as promising source for treatment of eczema.

  4. Topical treatment with fresh human milk versus emollient on atopic eczema spots in young children: a small, randomized, split body, controlled, blinded pilot study.

    PubMed

    Berents, Teresa Løvold; Rønnevig, Jørgen; Søyland, Elisabeth; Gaustad, Peter; Nylander, Gro; Løland, Beate Fossum

    2015-05-04

    Public health nurses report on effects of fresh human milk as treatment for conjunctivitis, rhinitis and atopic eczema (AE), the latter being highly prevalent in early childhood. Emollients and topical corticosteroids are first line treatment of AE. As many caregivers have steroid phobia, alternative treatment options for mild AE are of interest. The aim of this small pilot study was to assess the potential effects and risks of applying fresh human milk locally on eczema spots in children with AE. This was a split body, controlled, randomized and physician blinded pilot study, of children with AE with two similar contralateral eczema spots having a mother breastfeeding the child or a sibling. Fresh expressed milk and emollient was applied on the intervention spot and emollient alone on the control area, three times a day for four weeks. The severity and area of the eczema spots was evaluated weekly, and samples from milk and the spots were analysed weekly with respect to bacterial colonisation. Of nine patients included, six completed the study. Mean age at inclusion was 18.5 months. The spots examined were localized on the arms, legs or cheeks. The spots were similar in severity, but differed in area. In one patient the eczema ceased after inclusion. In four patients both control and intervention areas increased during the intervention. The relative change in eczema area compared to baseline showed less increase in the intervention spots in two patients, whereas the opposite was observed in three. In four children Staphylococcus aureus was found in their eczema once or more. In three of the 28 human milk samples, Staphylococcus aureus, alfa haemolytic streptococci or coagulase negative staphylococci were detected. Staphylococcus aureus was found once both in human milk and in the eczema spots, no clinical signs of infection were however observed. No secondary infection due to milk application was detected. In this small pilot study, no effect was found on eczema

  5. Associations of childhood eczema severity: A US population based study

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about predictors of eczema severity in the US population. We sought to determine the distribution and associations of childhood eczema severity in the US. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a prospective questionnaire-based study of a nationally representative sample of 91,642 children (0-17yr). The prevalence of childhood eczema was 12.97% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]=12.42–13.53); 67.0% (95% CI: 64.8–69.2) had mild, 26.0% (95% CI: 23.9–28.1) moderate and 7.0% (95% CI: 5.8–8.3) severe disease. There was significant statewide-variation of the distribution of eczema severity (Rao-Scott chi square, P=0.004), with highest rates of severe disease in Northeastern and Midwestern states. In univariate models, eczema severity was increased with older age, African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower household income, oldest child in the family, home with a single mother, lower paternal/maternal education level, maternal general health, maternal/paternal emotional health, dilapidated housing and garbage on the streets. In multivariate survey logistic regression models using stepwise and backward selection, moderate–severe eczema was associated with older age, lower household income and fair or poor maternal health, but inversely associated with birthplace outside the US. These data indicate that environmental and/or lifestyle factors play an important role in eczema severity. PMID:24819283

  6. Atopic Dermatitis Anti-IgE Paediatric Trial (ADAPT): the role of anti-IgE in severe paediatric eczema: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Susan; Cornelius, Victoria; Chen, Tao; Radulovic, Suzana; Wan, Mandy; Jahan, Rahi; Lack, Gideon

    2017-03-22

    The evidence for systemic treatments for severe childhood eczema is limited and largely based on extrapolation of data from adult studies. Current therapies are often immunosuppressant and may be associated with both short- and long-term side effects. There is increasing in vitro and murine-model evidence for the role of IgE in the immunopathogenesis of atopic eczema. The aim of the study is to assess whether anti-IgE treatment (omalizumab) improves eczema, compared to placebo. The Atopic Dermatitis Anti-IgE Paediatric Trial (ADAPT) is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessing the role of anti-IgE in the management of severe paediatric eczema. Children with severe atopic eczema, with an objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score of over 40 will be recruited. These children are candidates for systemic therapy, have failed systemic therapy or have experienced side effects from systemic therapy. Sixty-two patients aged between 4 and 19 years will receive anti-IgE for 6 months. The primary outcome measure will be the validated eczema score, the objective SCORAD at 24 weeks. This study has 90% power to detect a 33% relative reduction in SCORAD between active and placebo groups, with 5% significance. IgE may have a role to play in eczema, particularly in childhood. This forms the basis for the hypothesis that anti-IgE may be an effective treatment in this patient population. This will be the largest study to evaluate the efficacy of anti-IgE (omalizumab) versus placebo in children with severe eczema. The findings will help to clarify the role of anti-IgE as a potential treatment option in patients with severe childhood eczema. European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT) Number: 2010-020841-29 . Assigned on 14 May 2010. ISRCTN Registry, Identifier: ISRCTN15090567 . Retrospectively assigned on 3 December 2014. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02300701 . First received 21 November 2014.

  7. A multi-centre, parallel group superiority trial of silk therapeutic clothing compared to standard care for the management of eczema in children (CLOTHES Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Eleanor F; Haines, Rachel H; Cowdell, Fiona; Sach, Tracey H; Dean, Taraneh; Pollock, Ian; Burrows, Nigel P; Buckley, Hannah; Batchelor, Jonathan; Williams, Hywel C; Lawton, Sandra; Brown, Sara J; Bradshaw, Lucy E; Ahmed, Amina; Montgomery, Alan A; Mitchell, Eleanor J; Thomas, Kim S

    2015-09-02

    Eczema is a chronic, itchy skin condition that can have a large impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. People with eczema are often keen to try out non-pharmacological therapies like silk therapeutic garments that could reduce itching or the damage caused by scratching. However, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these garments in the management of eczema has yet to be proven. The CLOTHES Trial will test the hypothesis that 'silk therapeutic garments plus standard eczema care' is superior to 'standard care alone' for children with moderate to severe eczema. Parallel group, observer-blind, pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial of 6 months' duration. Three hundred children aged 1 to 15 years with moderate to severe eczema will be randomised (1:1) to receive silk therapeutic garments plus standard eczema care, or standard eczema care alone. Primary outcome is eczema severity, as assessed by trained and blinded investigators at 2, 4 and 6 months (using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI)). Secondary outcomes include: patient-reported eczema symptoms (collected weekly for 6 months to capture long-term control); global assessment of severity; quality of life of the child, family and main carer; use of standard eczema treatments (emollients, corticosteroids applied topically, calcineurin inhibitors applied topically and wet wraps); frequency of infections; and cost-effectiveness. The acceptability and durability of the clothing will also be assessed, as will adherence to wearing the garments. A nested qualitative study will assess the views of a subset of children wearing the garments and their parents, and those of healthcare providers and commissioners. Randomisation uses a computer-generated sequence of permuted blocks of randomly varying size, stratified by recruiting hospital and child's age (< 2 years; 2 to 5 years; > 5 years), and concealed using a secure web-based system. The sequence of treatment allocations

  8. Patient education as a status passage in life - An ethnographic study exploring participation in a Danish group based patient education programme.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Antoft, Rasmus

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the theory of status passage to the empirical field of group-based patient education. On the basis of ethnographic fieldwork carried out in the context of a local Danish patient education programme aimed at people diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, we illustrate how participation in the programme for the recently diagnosed is a regularised status passage symbolising a transition in life from a novice to a more experienced person with chronic illness. We demonstrate how central properties of status passage are at play and how they are shaped by interactions among the different agents: participants, lay experts and health professionals. We highlight how the unique biographical situation of the individual and the individual timing of participation is an important factor affecting whether the patient education programme succeeds in regularising the status passage. We highlight the ambiguity of the role of the health professionals in directing the status passage of the recently diagnosed. On one hand, health professionals empowered the participants by giving them access to professional knowledge and guidance and thereby supporting the status passage. On the other hand, the effort to direct responsibility back to the participants did not consider individual biographical situations, and thereby risked leaving the participants frustrated and unable to pass. Further, we point to the special significance of the socialising process between the participants, with the recently diagnosed being the novices asking questions and seeking guidance and the lay experts and the experienced participants taking the role of coaches, guiding the recently diagnosed managing the status passage into chronic illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eczema therapeutics in children: what do the clinical trials say?

    PubMed

    Leung, Theresa N H; Hon, K L

    2015-06-01

    Eczema or atopic dermatitis is a common childhood atopic disease associated with chronicity and impaired quality of life. As there is no cure for the disease, treatment relies on topical and systemic anti-allergic or immunomodulating therapies. Topical corticosteroid, macrolide immunosuppressants, and oral immunomodulating drugs for recalcitrant disease have been the mainstay of therapy. Management of atopic dermatitis must consider the individual symptomatic variability of the disease. Basic therapy is focused on patient/family education, hydrating topical treatment, and avoidance of specific and non-specific provocative factors. Anti-inflammatory treatment based on topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors is used for exacerbation management and more recently in selective cases for proactive therapy. Systemic immunosuppressive treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonisation and superinfection may induce disease exacerbation and justify additional antimicrobial treatment. Adjuvant therapy includes ultraviolet (UV) irradiation preferably with UVA1 or narrowband UVB. Dietary recommendations should be specific and given only when food allergy is confirmed. Allergen-specific immunotherapy against aeroallergens may be useful in selected cases. Parallel use of traditional and proprietary topical and herbal medicine has also been popular in China and many cities in Asia. Complementary and alternative medicine may have a place but evidence-based data are lacking.

  10. Epidemiology and Comorbidity in Children with Psoriasis and Atopic Eczema.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Matthias; Radtke, Marc A; Glaeske, Gerd; Reich, Kristian; Christophers, Enno; Schaefer, Ines; Jacobi, Arnd

    2015-01-01

    First studies have shown that juvenile psoriasis is associated with an increased prevalence of comorbidity. We carried out a data analysis to characterise the profiles of comorbidity in children with psoriasis and atopic eczema. Prevalence data were derived from the database of a German statutory health insurance company according to ICD-10 codes L40 (psoriasis) and L20 (atopic eczema) of children up to 18 years insured in 2009. Data sets included 1.64 million persons and 293,181 children. 1,313 children = 0.45% (0.42-0.47) had a diagnosis of psoriasis and 30,354 = 10.35% (10.24-10.47) had a diagnosis of atopic eczema. Obesity, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and diabetes were more often diagnosed in children with psoriasis in comparison to all children without psoriasis and to those with atopic eczema. Children with psoriasis and atopic eczema show different and specific patterns of comorbidity which should be detected early and treated adequately. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Computational analysis of multimorbidity between asthma, eczema and rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Daniel; Pinart, Mariona; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Saeys, Yvan; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Akdis, Mübeccel; Auffray, Charles; Ballereau, Stéphane; Benet, Marta; García-Aymerich, Judith; González, Juan Ramón; Guerra, Stefano; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Lambrecht, Bart; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Melen, Erik; Sunyer, Jordi; Valenta, Rudolf; Valverde, Sergi; Wickman, Magnus; Bousquet, Jean; Oliva, Baldo; Antó, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The mechanisms explaining the co-existence of asthma, eczema and rhinitis (allergic multimorbidity) are largely unknown. We investigated the mechanisms underlying multimorbidity between three main allergic diseases at a molecular level by identifying the proteins and cellular processes that are common to them. Methods An in silico study based on computational analysis of the topology of the protein interaction network was performed in order to characterize the molecular mechanisms of multimorbidity of asthma, eczema and rhinitis. As a first step, proteins associated to either disease were identified using data mining approaches, and their overlap was calculated. Secondly, a functional interaction network was built, allowing to identify cellular pathways involved in allergic multimorbidity. Finally, a network-based algorithm generated a ranked list of newly predicted multimorbidity-associated proteins. Results Asthma, eczema and rhinitis shared a larger number of associated proteins than expected by chance, and their associated proteins exhibited a significant degree of interconnectedness in the interaction network. There were 15 pathways involved in the multimorbidity of asthma, eczema and rhinitis, including IL4 signaling and GATA3-related pathways. A number of proteins potentially associated to these multimorbidity processes were also obtained. Conclusions These results strongly support the existence of an allergic multimorbidity cluster between asthma, eczema and rhinitis, and suggest that type 2 signaling pathways represent a relevant multimorbidity mechanism of allergic diseases. Furthermore, we identified new candidates contributing to multimorbidity that may assist in identifying new targets for multimorbid allergic diseases. PMID:28598986

  12. Computational analysis of multimorbidity between asthma, eczema and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Daniel; Pinart, Mariona; Koppelman, Gerard H; Saeys, Yvan; Nawijn, Martijn C; Postma, Dirkje S; Akdis, Mübeccel; Auffray, Charles; Ballereau, Stéphane; Benet, Marta; García-Aymerich, Judith; González, Juan Ramón; Guerra, Stefano; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Lambrecht, Bart; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Melen, Erik; Sunyer, Jordi; Valenta, Rudolf; Valverde, Sergi; Wickman, Magnus; Bousquet, Jean; Oliva, Baldo; Antó, Josep M

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms explaining the co-existence of asthma, eczema and rhinitis (allergic multimorbidity) are largely unknown. We investigated the mechanisms underlying multimorbidity between three main allergic diseases at a molecular level by identifying the proteins and cellular processes that are common to them. An in silico study based on computational analysis of the topology of the protein interaction network was performed in order to characterize the molecular mechanisms of multimorbidity of asthma, eczema and rhinitis. As a first step, proteins associated to either disease were identified using data mining approaches, and their overlap was calculated. Secondly, a functional interaction network was built, allowing to identify cellular pathways involved in allergic multimorbidity. Finally, a network-based algorithm generated a ranked list of newly predicted multimorbidity-associated proteins. Asthma, eczema and rhinitis shared a larger number of associated proteins than expected by chance, and their associated proteins exhibited a significant degree of interconnectedness in the interaction network. There were 15 pathways involved in the multimorbidity of asthma, eczema and rhinitis, including IL4 signaling and GATA3-related pathways. A number of proteins potentially associated to these multimorbidity processes were also obtained. These results strongly support the existence of an allergic multimorbidity cluster between asthma, eczema and rhinitis, and suggest that type 2 signaling pathways represent a relevant multimorbidity mechanism of allergic diseases. Furthermore, we identified new candidates contributing to multimorbidity that may assist in identifying new targets for multimorbid allergic diseases.

  13. Comparison of skin hydration evaluation sites and correlations among skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, SCORAD index, Nottingham Eczema Severity Score, and quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Wong, Kin Yee; Leung, Ting-Fan; Chow, Chung-Mo; Ng, Pak-Cheung

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dryness of the skin, pruritus and involvement of the skin flexures. Skin hydration (SH) and integrity, as measured by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), are important parameters for objectively quantifying AD research. To evaluate if sites in the forearm are equivalent to the antecubital fossa for standard SH and TEWL measurements; and to determine the correlations among these measurements and scores of disease severity and quality of life. We evaluated SH and TEWL under standardized conditions at three common measurement sites in the forearm (antecubital flexure, 2 cm below the antecubital flexure, mid-forearm), and determined the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score, Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), and Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI). Significant correlations between clinical scores, SH, and TEWL were obtained at a site 2 cm below the antecubital fossa (r = -0.553, p < 0.001 for SH and SCORAD; r = 0.596, p < 0.001 for TEWL and SCORAD). SH and TEWL were also correlated with long-term severity of AD as measured by NESS (r = -0.494, p = 0.001 for SH; r = 0.430, p = 0.004 for TEWL), while TEWL was significantly correlated with CDLQI (r = 0.323, p = 0.035). Overall, similar significant correlations were obtained at the mid-forearm, but less so at the antecubital fossa. In AD research, three sites on the forearm appear to be convenient for determination of SH and TEWL. This is the first report to demonstrate that significant correlations are obtained among acute and chronic scores of AD disease severity, quality of life, and the bioengineering parameters.

  14. Physicians' perceptions of an eczema action plan for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ntuen, Edidiong; Taylor, Sarah L; Kinney, Megan; O'Neill, Jenna L; Krowchuk, Daniel P; Feldman, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    Poor adherence to topical medications in atopic dermatitis may lead to exposure to more costly and potentially toxic systemic agents. Written action plans (WAPs) improve adherence and treatment outcomes in asthma patients and may be useful for children with atopic dermatitis. To assess physicians' perceptions of a WAP for atopic dermatitis and their openness to using it. An Eczema Action Plan (EAP) was modeled from those used in pediatric asthma. A brief survey to assess the perceived practicality and usefulness of the EAP was sent to 48 pediatricians in our local area and to 17 pediatric dermatologists nationally. Survey items included layout, graphics, readability, accuracy, and utility. Qualitative analyses were performed due to small sample sizes. Seventeen pediatricians from five community practices and eight pediatric dermatologists responded (response rates of 35% and 41%, respectively). Layout was rated as excellent by 59% of pediatricians and 43% of pediatric dermatologists, the graphics were rated good (60% and 70%), the readability as good to excellent (100% and 86%), the accuracy as excellent or good (83% and 86%), and usefulness as good to excellent (100% of both groups). Most (71%) of the pediatric dermatologists reported already having their own patient education materials for atopic dermatitis, but none of the pediatricians did. All pediatricians and 60% of pediatric dermatologists reported they were likely to use the EAP in their clinical practices. Limitations included the sample size being small, but it still provided for qualitative assessment of generalists and sub-specialists. We did not assess how the EAP would be perceived by patients or their families. The practice settings of the community and academic physicians are not identical, which may make for weakened comparisons. Pediatricians are open to using an EAP for atopic dermatitis. If an EAP were effective at improving adherence and outcomes in atopic dermatitis, widespread implementation

  15. Predicting phenotypes of asthma and eczema with machine learning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that asthma and eczema are heterogeneous diseases. We investigated the predictive ability of a spectrum of machine learning methods to disambiguate clinical sub-groups of asthma, wheeze and eczema, using a large heterogeneous set of attributes in an unselected population. The aim was to identify to what extent such heterogeneous information can be combined to reveal specific clinical manifestations. Methods The study population comprised a cross-sectional sample of adults, and included representatives of the general population enriched by subjects with asthma. Linear and non-linear machine learning methods, from logistic regression to random forests, were fit on a large attribute set including demographic, clinical and laboratory features, genetic profiles and environmental exposures. Outcome of interest were asthma, wheeze and eczema encoded by different operational definitions. Model validation was performed via bootstrapping. Results The study population included 554 adults, 42% male, 38% previous or current smokers. Proportion of asthma, wheeze, and eczema diagnoses was 16.7%, 12.3%, and 21.7%, respectively. Models were fit on 223 non-genetic variables plus 215 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In general, non-linear models achieved higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods, especially for asthma and wheeze, less for eczema, with areas under receiver operating characteristic curve of 84%, 76% and 64%, respectively. Our findings confirm that allergen sensitisation and lung function characterise asthma better in combination than separately. The predictive ability of genetic markers alone is limited. For eczema, new predictors such as bio-impedance were discovered. Conclusions More usefully-complex modelling is the key to a better understanding of disease mechanisms and personalised healthcare: further advances are likely with the incorporation of more factors/attributes and longitudinal measures. PMID:25077568

  16. Danish physicians' preferences for prescribing escitalopram over citalopram and sertraline to treatment-naïve patients: a national, register-based study.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Karen Killerup; Glintborg, Dorte; Moreno, Søren Ilsøe; Thirstrup, Steffen; Aagaard, Lise; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2013-05-01

    To investigate whether general practitioners, hospital physicians and specialized practitioners in psychiatry have similar preferences for initiating treatment with expensive serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). All first-time prescriptions for the SSRIs escitalopram, citalopram and sertraline reported to the Danish National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics from April 1, 2009 until March 31, 2010 were analysed with regard to treatment naivety and type of prescriber. A prescription was considered as first time if the patient had not received a prescription for the same drug within the last 2 years. Patients who had not received a prescription for an antidepressant within 6 months prior to the date of redemption were classified as treatment-naïve. We included 82,702 first-time prescriptions, 65,313 (79 %) of which were for treatment-naïve patients. Of the treatment-naïve patients, 19 % were initially prescribed escitalopram. Hospital physicians prescribed escitalopram to 34 % of their treatment-naïve patients, while practitioners specialized in psychiatry prescribed it to 25 %, and general practitioners prescribed it to 17 %. General practitioners, however, were responsible for initiating 87 % of all treatment-naïve patients. The most expensive SSRI, escitalopram, is prescribed as first choice to one in five patients receiving their first antidepressant of escitalopram, citalopram or sertraline. General practitioners made the bulk of all first-time SSRI prescriptions to treatment-naïve patients.

  17. Report from the third international consensus meeting to harmonise core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME)

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, JR; Schmitt, J; Apfelbacher, C; Dohil, M; Eichenfield, LF; Simpson, EL; Singh, J; Spuls, P; Thomas, KS; Admani, S; Aoki, V; Ardeleanu, M; Barbarot, S; Berger, T; Bergman, JN; Block, J; Borok, N; Burton, T; Chamlin, SL; Deckert, S; DeKlotz, CC; Graff, LB; Hanifin, JM; Hebert, AA; Humphreys, R; Katoh, N; Kisa, RM; Margolis, DJ; Merhand, S; Minnillo, R; Mizutani, H; Nankervis, H; Ohya, Y; Rodgers, P; Schram, ME; Stalder, JF; Svensson, A; Takaoka, R; Teper, A; Tom, WL; von Kobyletzki, L; Weisshaar, E; Zelt, S; Williams, HC

    2014-01-01

    Summary This report provides a summary of the third meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative held in San Diego, CA, U.S.A., 6–7 April 2013 (HOME III). The meeting addressed the four domains that had previously been agreed should be measured in every eczema clinical trial: clinical signs, patient-reported symptoms, long-term control and quality of life. Formal presentations and nominal group techniques were used at this working meeting, attended by 56 voting participants (31 of whom were dermatologists). Significant progress was made on the domain of clinical signs. Without reference to any named scales, it was agreed that the intensity and extent of erythema, excoriation, oedema/papulation and lichenification should be included in the core outcome measure for the scale to have content validity. The group then discussed a systematic review of all scales measuring the clinical signs of eczema and their measurement properties, followed by a consensus vote on which scale to recommend for inclusion in the core outcome set. Research into the remaining three domains was presented, followed by discussions. The symptoms group and quality of life groups need to systematically identify all available tools and rate the quality of the tools. A definition of long-term control is needed before progress can be made towards recommending a core outcome measure. What's already known about this topic? Many different scales have been used to measure eczema, making it difficult to compare trials in meta-analyses and hampering improvements in clinical practice. HOME core outcome measures must pass the OMERACT (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology) filter of truth (validity), discrimination (sensitivity to change and responsiveness) and feasibility (ease of use, costs, time to perform and interpret). It has been previously agreed as part of the consensus process that four domains should be measured by the core outcomes: clinical signs, patient

  18. Specific allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of atopic eczema: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tam, H H; Calderon, M A; Manikam, L; Nankervis, H; Núñez, I G; Williams, H C; Durham, S R; Boyle, R J

    2016-09-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT) is an effective allergy treatment, but it is unclear whether SIT is effective for atopic eczema (AE). We undertook a systematic review to assess SIT efficacy and safety for treating AE. We searched databases, ongoing clinical trials registers, and conference proceedings up to July 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SIT using standardized allergen extracts, compared with placebo/control, for treating AE in patients with allergic sensitization were eligible. We identified 12 eligible trials with 733 participants. Interventions included subcutaneous (six trials), sublingual (four trials), oral or intradermal SIT in children/adults allergic to house dust mite (10 trials), grass pollen or other inhalants. Risk of bias was moderate, with high loss to follow-up and nonblinding as the main concerns. For our primary outcomes, three studies (208 participants) reported no significant difference - patient-reported global disease severity improvement RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.45, 1.26); and eczema symptoms mean difference -0.74 on a 20-point scale (95% CI -1.98, 0.50). Two studies (85 participants) reported a significant difference - SIT improved global disease severity RR 2.85 (95% CI 1.02, 7.96); and itch mean difference -4.20 on a 10-point scale (95% CI -3.69, -4.71). Meta-analysis was limited due to extreme statistical heterogeneity. For some secondary outcomes, meta-analyses showed benefits for SIT, for example investigator-rated improvement in eczema severity RR 1.48 (95% CI 1.16, 1.88; six trials, 262 participants). We found no evidence of adverse effects. The overall quality of evidence was low. We found no consistent evidence that SIT is effective for treating AE, but due to the low quality of evidence further research is needed to establish whether SIT has a role in AE treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinical Characteristics, Treatments, and Prognosis of Atopic Eczema in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Tanei, Ryoji

    2015-05-18

    Atopic eczema (AE) in the elderly is gradually increasing and has been added to the classification of AE in recent years. This investigation retrospectively analyzed 60 patients with elderly AE. Among the clinical characteristics, a male predominance, existence of several patterns of onset and clinical course, and associations with immunoglobulin (Ig)E-allergic-status and asthmatic complication were observed. The highest positive-rate and positive-score for serum-specific IgE against Dermatophagoides farinae were 83.8% and 2.65 in patients with IgE-allergic AE, and a lower incidence of lichenified eczema in the elbow and knee folds were observed. In terms of treatments and outcomes, clinical improvement and clinical remission were observed in 80.8% and 36.5% of cases, respectively, using standard treatments and combined therapy with oral corticosteroid in severe cases. As for complications and final prognosis, most elderly AE patients reached the end of life with AE, but patients with IgE-allergic AE showed significantly lower incidences of complications of malignancy and death from malignancy. These results indicate that AE in the elderly represents a new subgroup of AE with specific features.

  20. Clinical Characteristics, Treatments, and Prognosis of Atopic Eczema in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tanei, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) in the elderly is gradually increasing and has been added to the classification of AE in recent years. This investigation retrospectively analyzed 60 patients with elderly AE. Among the clinical characteristics, a male predominance, existence of several patterns of onset and clinical course, and associations with immunoglobulin (Ig)E-allergic-status and asthmatic complication were observed. The highest positive-rate and positive-score for serum-specific IgE against Dermatophagoides farinae were 83.8% and 2.65 in patients with IgE-allergic AE, and a lower incidence of lichenified eczema in the elbow and knee folds were observed. In terms of treatments and outcomes, clinical improvement and clinical remission were observed in 80.8% and 36.5% of cases, respectively, using standard treatments and combined therapy with oral corticosteroid in severe cases. As for complications and final prognosis, most elderly AE patients reached the end of life with AE, but patients with IgE-allergic AE showed significantly lower incidences of complications of malignancy and death from malignancy. These results indicate that AE in the elderly represents a new subgroup of AE with specific features. PMID:26239460

  1. The development and use of a new methodology to reconstruct courses of admission and ambulatory care based on the Danish National Patient Registry.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, Kenn Schultz; Sandegaard, Jakob; Mølbak, Kåre; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-11-01

    The Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) contains clinical and administrative data on all patients treated in Danish hospitals. The data model used for reporting is based on standardized coding of contacts rather than courses of admissions and ambulatory care. To reconstruct a coherent picture of courses of admission and ambulatory care, we designed an algorithm with 28 rules that manages transfers between departments, between hospitals and inconsistencies in the data, e.g., missing time stamps, overlaps and gaps. We used data from patients admitted between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. After application of the DNPR algorithm, we estimated an average of 1,149,616 courses of admission per year or 205 hospitalizations per 1000 inhabitants per year. The median length of stay decreased from 1.58days in 2010 to 1.29days in 2014. The number of transfers between departments within a hospital increased from 111,576 to 176,134 while the number of transfers between hospitals decreased from 68,522 to 61,203. We standardized a 28-rule algorithm to relate registrations in the DNPR to each other in a coherent way. With the algorithm, we estimated 1.15 million courses of admissions per year, which probably reflects a more accurate estimate than the estimates that have been published previously. Courses of admission became shorter between 2010 and 2014 and outpatient contacts longer. These figures are compatible with a cost-conscious secondary healthcare system undertaking specialized treatment within a hospital and limiting referral to advanced services at other hospitals. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry

    PubMed Central

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea; Korshøj, Lene; Voldsgaard, Inge; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care in psychiatric hospitals or outpatient clinics. During the first year after the diagnosis, patients are classified as incident patients, and after this period as prevalent patients. Main variables The registry currently contains 21 clinical quality measures in relation to the following domains: diagnostic evaluation, antipsychotic treatment including adverse reactions, cardiovascular risk factors including laboratory values, family intervention, psychoeducation, postdischarge mental health care, assessment of suicide risk in relation to discharge, and assessment of global functioning. Descriptive data The recorded data are available electronically for the reporting clinicians and responsible administrative personnel, and they are updated monthly. The registry publishes the national and regional results of all included quality measures in the annual audit reports. External researchers may obtain access to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time devoted is necessary to maintain the integrity of the registry and the validity of the data. PMID:27843348

  3. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry.

    PubMed

    Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea; Korshøj, Lene; Voldsgaard, Inge; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care in psychiatric hospitals or outpatient clinics. During the first year after the diagnosis, patients are classified as incident patients, and after this period as prevalent patients. The registry currently contains 21 clinical quality measures in relation to the following domains: diagnostic evaluation, antipsychotic treatment including adverse reactions, cardiovascular risk factors including laboratory values, family intervention, psychoeducation, postdischarge mental health care, assessment of suicide risk in relation to discharge, and assessment of global functioning. The recorded data are available electronically for the reporting clinicians and responsible administrative personnel, and they are updated monthly. The registry publishes the national and regional results of all included quality measures in the annual audit reports. External researchers may obtain access to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time devoted is necessary to maintain the integrity of the registry and the validity of the data.

  4. TREatment of ATopic eczema (TREAT) Registry Taskforce: protocol for an international Delphi exercise to identify a core set of domains and domain items for national atopic eczema registries.

    PubMed

    Gerbens, Louise A A; Boyce, Aaron E; Wall, Dmitri; Barbarot, Sebastien; de Booij, Richard J; Deleuran, Mette; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A; Roberts, Amanda; Vestergaard, Christian; Weidinger, Stephan; Apfelbacher, Christian J; Irvine, Alan D; Schmitt, Jochen; Williamson, Paula R; Spuls, Phyllis I; Flohr, Carsten

    2017-02-27

    Patients with moderate-to-severe atopic eczema (AE) often require photo- or systemic immunomodulatory therapies to induce disease remission and maintain long-term control. The current evidence to guide clinical management is small, despite the frequent and often off-label use of these treatments. Registries of patients on photo- and systemic immunomodulatory therapies could fill this gap, and the collection of a core set concerning these therapies in AE will allow direct comparisons across registries as well as data sharing and pooling. Using an eDelphi approach, the international TREatment of ATopic eczema (TREAT) Registry Taskforce aims to seek consensus between key stakeholders internationally on a core set of domains and domain items for AE patient registries with a research focus that collect data of children and adults on photo- and systemic immunomodulatory therapies. Participants from six stakeholder groups will be invited: doctors, nurses, non-clinical researchers, patients, as well as industry and regulatory body representatives. The eDelphi will comprise three sequential online rounds, requesting participants to rate the importance of each proposed domain and domain items. Participants will be able to add domains and domain items to the proposed list in round 1. A final consensus meeting will be held with representatives of each stakeholder group. Identifying a uniform core set of domains and domain items to be captured by AE patient registries will increase the utility of individual registries, and provide greater insight into the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of photo- and systemic immunomodulatory therapies to guide clinical management across dermatology centres and country borders. Not applicable. This eDelphi study was registered in the Core Outcome Measures for Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database.

  5. Danish Palliative Care Database.

    PubMed

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010-2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness.

  6. Somatization: the under-recognized factor in nonspecific eczema. The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

    PubMed

    Klokk, M; Stansfeld, S; Overland, S; Wilhelmsen, I; Gotestam, K G; Steinshamn, S; Mykletun, A

    2011-03-01

    Psychodermatology has focused primarily on depression and anxiety in eczema. Skin symptoms are listed among many others for the ICD-10 diagnosis of somatization disorder. Somatization (unexplained somatic symptoms) is highly prevalent in the general population, but its association with eczema is yet to be empirically investigated. We therefore explored the association between somatization and eczema by examining the extent of somatization in eczema compared with allergic rhinitis, and by examining if eczema was more strongly associated with somatization than with anxiety and depression. Finally, we aimed to examine the relationship between the site of eczema and somatization for individual somatic symptoms and for somatic symptoms as a whole. For this population-based cross-sectional study we employed data from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) with 15,225 participants aged 41-48 years. Information on nonspecific eczema, allergic rhinitis, somatization, anxiety, depression and other covariates was obtained by self-report. The association between nonspecific eczema and somatization was strong and followed a dose-response pattern, as did all somatic symptoms in our index of somatization when analysed separately. The association between nonspecific eczema and somatization was stronger than that between rhinitis and somatization, and also the association between nonspecific eczema and anxiety and depression. In multivariate models, somatization accounted for most of the association between nonspecific eczema and anxiety/depression. In contrast, the association between nonspecific eczema and somatization was robust for adjustment for anxiety/depression. Somatization was strongly associated with nonspecific eczema. This applies to a whole range of somatic symptoms constituting the construct of somatization. There is hardly any mention of somatization in leading dermatological journals, in contrast to anxiety and depression which are frequently reported in eczema. We

  7. Alcohol Intake During Pregnancy and Offspring's Atopic Eczema Risk.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keiko; Konishi, Kie; Tamura, Takashi; Shiraki, Makoto; Iwasa, Shinichi; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-05-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been suggested to have an effect on the immune system, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption has a role in developing allergic diseases. We aimed to examine the associations of total alcohol intake during pregnancy with the risks of childhood asthma and atopic eczema in a birth cohort in Japan. Pregnant women were recruited at a maternal clinic from May 2000 to October 2001. The children who were born to these mothers were followed until November 2007. Total alcohol intake, including alcohol as a cooking ingredient, was assessed using 5-day dietary records. Mother reports of physician-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema were annually obtained from the questionnaires. Asthma assessed by the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Diseases questionnaire and atopic eczema assessed by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questions were also obtained in 2007. A total of 350 children participated in the follow-up survey. Maternal total alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risks of atopic eczema before age 3. The positive association with atopic eczema was also observed when it was defined as before age 5. In the high versus the low tertile of maternal total alcohol intake, the estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of child's eczema were 1.90 (95% CI: 0.96 to 3.76) before age 3 and 1.74 (95% CI: 0.93 to 3.24) before age 5, respectively. The estimated HRs of child's asthma before age 3 was 1.61 (95% CI: 0.70 to 3.69) in the high versus the low of maternal total alcohol intake and 2.11 (95% CI: 0.93 to 4.81) among children having drinking mothers versus nondrinking mothers in pregnancy, although maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy was not significantly associated with the risk of asthma before age 5. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy might have an effect on developing atopic eczema in offspring. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Comorbidity and survival of Danish patients with colon and rectal cancer from 2000–2011: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ostenfeld, Eva Bjerre; Nørgaard, Mette; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Jacobsen, Jacob Bonde; Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate recent trends in the prevalence and impact of comorbidity on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival in the Central Region of Denmark. Material and methods Using the Danish National Registry of Patients, we identified 5,777 and 2,964 patients with a primary colon or rectal cancer, respectively, from 2000 through 2011. We estimated survival according to Charlson Comorbidity Index scores and computed mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex. Results More than one-third of CRC patients had comorbidity at diagnosis. During the study period, 1-year survival increased substantially in colon cancer patients with Charlson score 0 (72% to 80%) and modestly for Charlson score 3+ patients (43% to 46%). Using colon cancer patients with Charlson score 0 as reference, adjusted 1-year MRRs in patients with Charlson score 3+ were 2.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57–3.05) in 2000–2002 and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.96–3.35) in 2009–2011. One-year survival after rectal cancer improved from 81% to 87% in patients with Charlson score 0 and from 56% to 60% in Charlson score 3+. Corresponding MRRs in patients with Charlson 3+ were 2.21 (95% CI: 1.33–3.68) in 2000–2002 and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.91–5.00) in 2009–2011 using Charlson score 0 as reference. Five-year MRRs did not differ substantially from 1-year MRRs. Conclusion Comorbidity was common among CRC patients and was associated with poorer prognosis. We observed improved survival from 2000 to 2011 for all comorbidity levels, with least improvement for colon cancer patients with comorbid conditions. PMID:24227924

  9. [Eczema and food allergy--is there a causal relationship?].

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    In spite of popular beliefs, the relationship between eczema and food allergy still puzzles researchers and clinicians, which in part is due to the variety of mechanisms involved in various types of allergy. One has to realize the differences between hypersensitivity reactions to food proteins (allergens capable of initiating immediate hypersensitivity or immune complex reactions) and low-molecular weight compounds (haptens that may initiate cytotoxic reactions or delayed-type allergy). Hardly doubted is the role of IgE specific to food proteins in anaphylactic reactions and allergic urticaria. The involvement of food protein-specific IgE also is well-documented in protein contact dermatitis, with exposure to offending allergens occurring mainly through direct contact to the skin. In case of oral intake, protein allergens can provoke oral allergy syndrome or allergic reactions of esophageal mucosa, yet after arriving in the stomach they undergo hydrolytic digestion and loose antigenicity. The popular notion "food allergy causes eczema" was challenged by last decade's research suggesting that allergy to food proteins develops secondarily to eczema, and in the later course manifests as anaphylaxis or urticaria, not eczema. On the other hand, somewhat unnoticed remains the wide array of haptens present in food - be it natural components, food additives (dyes, aromas, preservatives, emulsifiers, etc.) or contaminations (e.g. pesticides, veterinary drugs). Haptens can be absorbed already through oral mucosa, they don't undergo digestion and are capable of provoking delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions strongly resembling atopic eczema. Induction of such reactions can be facilitated by cosmetics that frequently contain the same haptens as food.

  10. Contact Eczema Caused by True Teak (Tectona Grandis)

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, H. K.

    1962-01-01

    An epidemiological study of occupational contact eczema in a furniture factory is presented. The localization, distribution, and clinical features of the skin lesions were characteristic of contact eczema caused by a sensitizing or irritating dust. True teak—Tectona grandis—was the cause of the skin condition. That teak is a fairly potent sensitizer and also contains primary irritants is fully confirmed by the present study. About half the employees who were heavily exposed to teak dust suffered from eczema and/or severe itching. Only 8% of those with slight exposure to teak dust experienced skin symptoms. Patch tests with native teak dust moistened with water were applied on 10 “controls” and 112 workers who were exposed to teak in various working procedures. Moistened teak dust produced toxic reactions in 20·5%, while native teak dust did not have primary irritant effects and was, therefore, considered to be the substance of choice for patch testing; 18·7% of the workers showed an allergic skin reaction to native teak dust. The diagnosis of allergic contact eczema was made in 12·5%, and 6·2% were considered to have latent allergy. Primary irritant (contact) eczema was considered to be present in four individuals who had experienced acute, transitory, eczematous eruptions during the hot part of the summer when they perspired freely. In these cases the patch test to native teak dust was negative. Desensitization or “hardening” was observed in four workers. In most cases the skin lesions were not severe enough to cause sickness absence. The cause of the relatively high percentage of sensitization to teak among the workers in the factory is discussed. The importance of suitable prophylactic measures is stressed. PMID:14459786

  11. Climatic factors are associated with childhood eczema prevalence in US

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Hanifin, Jon; Simpson, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD, atopic eczema) is driven by a complex relationship between genetic predisposition and environmental exposures. We sought to determine the impact of specific climatic factors on the US prevalence of AD. We used a merged analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health from a representative sample of 91,642 children age 0–17 years and the 2006–2007 National Climate Data Center and Weather Service measurements of relative humidity (%), indoor heating degree days (HDD), clear sky UV indices ozone levels, and outdoor air temperature. As a proxy for AD, we used an affirmative response to the NSCH survey question asking whether the participant’s child has been given a doctor diagnosis of “eczema or any other kind of skin allergy” in the previous 12 months. In multivariate models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age and household income, eczema prevalence was significantly lower with highest-quartile mean annual relative humidity (logistic regression, adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]=0.82 [0.71–0.96], P=0.01) and issued UV index (0.73 [0.64–0.84], P<0.0001), and with two other factors associated with increased UV exposure. Eczema prevalence was decreased with highest-quartile air temperature (0.80 [0.70–0.92], P=0.002), but increased with 3rd–quartile mean annual HDD (1.26 [1.11–1.43], P=0.0003). This study provides evidence of climate influences on the US prevalence of childhood eczema. PMID:23334343

  12. Herbal creams used for atopic eczema in Birmingham, UK illegally contain potent corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, H M; Goddard, W; Gill, S; Moss, C

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether "herbal creams" reported as being effective for the treatment of childhood atopic eczema contained corticosteroids. Patients attending the paediatric dermatology clinic at Birmingham Children's Hospital, April 2001 to March 2002, and who reported using "herbal creams" with good effect for atopic eczema were asked to submit the cream for analysis. Hydrocortisone, clobetasone butyrate, betamethasone valerate, and clobetasol propionate were analysed by HPLC. Twenty four creams from 19 patients, median (interquartile range) age 3.82 (0.69-7.98) years were analysed. All five creams labelled Wau Wa and the two labelled Muijiza cream contained clobetasol propionate. Thirteen of 17 unnamed creams contained corticosteroids: clobetasol proprionate (n = 4), clobetasol proprionate + hydrocortisone (n = 1), betamethasone valerate (n = 2), clobetasone butyrate (n = 3), and hydrocortisone (n = 2); there was an unidentified peak in one. Further analysis suggested Wau Wa cream contained approximately 20% proprietary Dermovate Cream in a paraffin base. No parents were aware that the creams contained steroid. The majority of herbal creams analysed illegally contained potent or very potent topical steroids. There is an urgent need for tighter regulation of herbal creams and for increased public education about the potential dangers of alternative therapies.

  13. Guideline for translation and national validation of the Quality of Life in Hand Eczema Questionnaire (QOLHEQ).

    PubMed

    Oosterhaven, Jart A F; Schuttelaar, Marie L A; Apfelbacher, Christian; Diepgen, Thomas L; Ofenloch, Robert F

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for well-developed and validated questionnaires to measure patient reported outcomes. The Quality of Life in Hand Eczema Questionnaire (QOLHEQ) is such a validated instrument measuring disease-specific health-related quality of life in hand eczema patients. A re-validation of measurement properties is required before an instrument is used in a new population. With the objective of arriving at a guideline for translation and national validation of the QOLHEQ, we have developed the design of a reference study on how to adequately assess measurement properties of the QOLHEQ based on interdisciplinary discussions and current standards. We present a step-by-step guideline to assess translation (including cross-cultural adaptation), scale structure, validity, reproducibility, responsiveness, and interpretability. We describe which outcomes should be reported for each measurement property, and give advice on how to calculate these. It is also specified which sample size is needed, how to deal with missing data, and which cutoff values should be applied for the measurement properties assessed during the validation process. In conclusion, this guideline, presenting a reference validation study for the QOLHEQ, creates the possibility to harmonize the national validation of the various language versions of the QOLHEQ. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genomic insights into the atopic eczema-associated skin commensal yeast Malassezia sympodialis.

    PubMed

    Gioti, Anastasia; Nystedt, Björn; Li, Wenjun; Xu, Jun; Andersson, Anna; Averette, Anna F; Münch, Karin; Wang, Xuying; Kappauf, Catharine; Kingsbury, Joanne M; Kraak, Bart; Walker, Louise A; Johansson, Henrik J; Holm, Tina; Lehtiö, Janne; Stajich, Jason E; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Kahmann, Regine; Kennell, John C; Cardenas, Maria E; Lundeberg, Joakim; Saunders, Charles W; Boekhout, Teun; Dawson, Thomas L; Munro, Carol A; de Groot, Piet W J; Butler, Geraldine; Heitman, Joseph; Scheynius, Annika

    2013-01-22

    Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders, such as atopic eczema/dermatitis and dandruff, and they also can cause systemic infections. Here we describe the 7.67-Mbp genome of Malassezia sympodialis, a species associated with atopic eczema, and contrast its genome repertoire with that of Malassezia globosa, associated with dandruff, as well as those of other closely related fungi. Ninety percent of the predicted M. sympodialis protein coding genes were experimentally verified by mass spectrometry at the protein level. We identified a relatively limited number of genes related to lipid biosynthesis, and both species lack the fatty acid synthase gene, in line with the known requirement of these yeasts to assimilate lipids from the host. Malassezia species do not appear to have many cell wall-localized glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) proteins and lack other cell wall proteins previously identified in other fungi. This is surprising given that in other fungi these proteins have been shown to mediate interactions (e.g., adhesion and biofilm formation) with the host. The genome revealed a complex evolutionary history for an allergen of unknown function, Mala s 7, shown to be encoded by a member of an amplified gene family of secreted proteins. Based on genetic and biochemical studies with the basidiomycete human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, we characterized the allergen Mala s 6 as the cytoplasmic cyclophilin A. We further present evidence that M. sympodialis may have the capacity to undergo sexual reproduction and present a model for a pseudobipolar mating system that allows limited recombination between two linked MAT loci. Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders. The previously published genome of M. globosa provided some of the first insights into Malassezia biology and its involvement in dandruff. Here, we present the genome of M. sympodialis, frequently isolated from patients with

  15. Report from the fourth international consensus meeting to harmonize core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME initiative).

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J R; Simpson, E; Apfelbacher, C J; Thomas, K S; von Kobyletzki, L; Schmitt, J; Singh, J A; Svensson, Å; Williams, H C; Abuabara, K; Aoki, V; Ardeleanu, M; Awici-Rasmussen, M; Barbarot, S; Berents, T L; Block, J; Bragg, A; Burton, T; Bjerring Clemmensen, K K; Creswell-Melville, A; Dinesen, M; Drucker, A; Eckert, L; Flohr, C; Garg, M; Gerbens, L A A; Graff, A L B; Hanifin, J; Heinl, D; Humphreys, R; Ishii, H A; Kataoka, Y; Leshem, Y A; Marquort, B; Massuel, M-A; Merhand, S; Mizutani, H; Murota, H; Murrell, D F; Nakahara, T; Nasr, I; Nograles, K; Ohya, Y; Osterloh, I; Pander, J; Prinsen, C; Purkins, L; Ridd, M; Sach, T; Schuttelaar, M-L A; Shindo, S; Smirnova, J; Sulzer, A; Synnøve Gjerde, E; Takaoka, R; Vestby Talmo, H; Tauber, M; Torchet, F; Volke, A; Wahlgren, C-F; Weidinger, S; Weisshaar, E; Wollenberg, A; Yamaga, K; Zhao, C Y; Spuls, P I

    2016-07-01

    This article is a report of the fourth meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative held in Malmö, Sweden on 23-24 April 2015 (HOME IV). The aim of the meeting was to achieve consensus over the preferred outcome instruments for measuring patient-reported symptoms and quality of life for the HOME core outcome set for atopic eczema (AE). Following presentations, which included data from systematic reviews, consensus discussions were held in a mixture of whole group and small group discussions. Small groups were allocated a priori to ensure representation of different stakeholders and countries. Decisions were voted on using electronic keypads. For the patient-reported symptoms, the group agreed by vote that itch, sleep loss, dryness, redness/inflamed skin and irritated skin were all considered essential aspects of AE symptoms. Many instruments for capturing patient-reported symptoms were discussed [including the Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis index, Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index, Itch Severity Scale, Atopic Dermatitis Quickscore and the Nottingham Eczema Severity Score] and, by consensus, POEM was selected as the preferred instrument to measure patient-reported symptoms. Further work is needed to determine the reliability and measurement error of POEM. Further work is also required to establish the importance of pain/soreness and the importance of collecting information regarding the intensity of symptoms in addition to their frequency. Much of the discussion on quality of life concerned the Dermatology Life Quality Index and Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis; however, consensus on a preferred instrument for measuring this domain could not be reached. In summary, POEM is recommended as the HOME core outcome instrument for measuring AE symptoms. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British

  16. Integrated, multidisciplinary care for hand eczema: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The individual and societal burden of hand eczema is high. Literature indicates that moderate to severe hand eczema is a disease with a poor prognosis. Many patients are hampered in their daily activities, including work. High costs are related to high medical consumption, productivity loss and sick leave. Usual care is suboptimal, due to a lack of optimal instruction and coordination of care, and communication with the general practitioner/occupational physician and people involved at the workplace. Therefore, an integrated, multidisciplinary intervention involving a dermatologist, a care manager, a specialized nurse and a clinical occupational physician was developed. This paper describes the design of a study to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated care for hand eczema by a multidisciplinary team, coordinated by a care manager, consisting of instruction on avoiding relevant contact factors, both in the occupational and in the private environment, optimal skin care and treatment, compared to usual, dermatologist-led care. Methods The study is a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside. The study population consists of patients with chronic, moderate to severe hand eczema, who visit an outpatient clinic of one of the participating 5 (three university and two general) hospitals. Integrated, multidisciplinary care, coordinated by a care manager, including allergo-dermatological evaluation by a dermatologist, occupational intervention by a clinical occupational physician, and counselling by a specialized nurse on optimizing topical treatment and skin care will be compared with usual care by a dermatologist. The primary outcome measure is the cumulative difference in reduction of the clinical severity score HECSI between the groups. Secondary outcome measures are the patient's global assessment, specific quality of life with regard to the hands, generic quality of life, sick leave and

  17. The Danish Testicular Cancer database.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.

  18. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    PubMed

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to <2% since 2013. The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an

  19. Psychological disturbance in atopic eczema: the extent of the problem in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Absolon, C M; Cottrell, D; Eldridge, S M; Glover, M T

    1997-08-01

    Although psychological factors are widely considered to be important in atopic eczema, there have been few controlled studies to assess the extent of disturbance in affected children and the problems experienced by their parents. This study was designed to find out the degree of psychological difficulty experienced by children with atopic eczema, whether their mothers show higher levels of mental distress than a comparison group, and whether the families of children with atopic eczema have less social support than the comparison group. We investigated 30 school-aged children with atopic eczema for psychological problems using the Rutter parent scale and compared them with 30 children with relatively minor skin lesions such as viral warts. Mental distress in mothers was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire. The Family Support Scale was used to get a measure of the social support experienced by the families. We found twice the rate of psychological disturbance in children in the eczema group compared with the control group. This difference was statistically significant for children with moderately severe eczema and severe eczema, but not for children with very mild eczema. Levels of mental distress were no greater in mothers of children with eczema than in parents of the control group and there was no difference in the degree of social support experienced by their families. These findings indicate that school-aged children with moderate and severe atopic eczema are at high risk of developing psychological difficulties, which may have implications for their academic and social development.

  20. Improved emollient use reduces atopic eczema symptoms and is cost neutral in infants: before-and-after evaluation of a multifaceted educational support programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parents and carers of children with eczema often underuse emollient therapy, essential to repairing and protecting the defective skin barrier in atopic eczema. Educational interventions delivered by specialist dermatology nurses in hospital settings have been shown to improve emollient use and reduce symptoms of atopic eczema, but benefits of community-based interventions are uncertain. Support and information about appropriate care may often be inadequate for patients and carers in the community. Methods A multifaceted educational support programme was evaluated as a method of increasing emollient use and reducing atopic eczema in children. Support provided for parents and carers included an educational DVD, online daily diary and telephone helpline. The before and after study included 136 British children and their parents, providing baseline and 12 week follow-up data while receiving the programme. Measures included emollient use, POEM and PEST scores, and cost of care. Results Average emollient use increased by 87.6 g (95% CI: 81.9 to 119.5 g, p = 0.001) from baseline with the change being immediate and persistent. The POEM score reduced on average by 5.38 (95% CI: 4.36 to 6.41, p = 0.001), a 47% reduction from baseline. Similarly the PEST score reduced on average by 0.61 (95% CI: 0.47 to 0.75, p = 0.001), a 48% reduction from baseline. Sleep disturbance was reduced by 1.27 nights per week (95% CI: 0.85 to 1.68, p = 0.001) and parental feeling of control improved by 1.32 points (95% CI: 1.16 to 1.48, p = 0.001). From the NHS perspective, the programme was cost neutral overall within the study period. Conclusion A community-based multifaceted educational support programme greatly increased emollient use, reducing symptoms of atopic eczema and general practitioner contacts, without increasing cost. Significant benefits may accrue to the families and carers of children with atopic eczema due to improved sleep patterns and

  1. Association between preschool eczema and medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school age.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Emma Kristin; Ballardini, Natalia; Kull, Inger; Bergström, Anna; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2017-02-01

    Several studies show an association between eczema and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, but the mechanisms and time sequence remain unclear. Information on the association between eczema and other disorders involving the central nervous system (CNS) is limited. The aim was to explore whether preschool eczema was associated with ADHD or other CNS-associated disorders requiring pharmacotherapy at school age and to analyze whether eczema at other ages of childhood was associated with medication for ADHD. From a Swedish birth cohort, 3606 children were included in the analyses. At 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 years of age, their parents answered questionnaires regarding eczema the last year. Information on prescribed medications during school age (10-18 years of age) was derived by record linkage to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. A total of 1178 (32.7%) of the children had preschool eczema (eczema at 1, 2, and/or 4 years), and 162 (4.5%) of the children had dispensed ADHD medication at school age. Preschool eczema was not associated with ADHD medication at school age (crude odds ratio 1.16; 95% Confidence Intervals: 0.83-1.61). There was no significant association between preschool eczema and use of antidepressants, migraine drugs, or anti-epileptics at school age. Infantile eczema, school-age eczema, and eczema ever up to 16 years of age were not associated with ADHD medication at school age. In this large birth cohort, there were no significant associations between preschool eczema and medications for ADHD, depression/anxiety/phobia, migraine, or epilepsy at school age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. House dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for treating eczema.

    PubMed

    Nankervis, Helen; Pynn, Emma V; Boyle, Robert J; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; Hewson, Deanne M; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2015-01-19

    Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that tends to involve skin creases, such as the folds of the elbows or knees; it is an intensely itchy skin condition, which can relapse and remit over time. As many as a third of people with eczema who have a positive test for allergy to house dust mite have reported worsening of eczema or respiratory symptoms when exposed to dust. To assess the effects of all house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema. We searched the following databases up to 14 August 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the GREAT database. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant studies. We handsearched abstracts from international eczema and allergy meetings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any of the house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema, which included participants of any age diagnosed by a clinician with eczema as defined by the World Allergy Organization. We included all non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that sought to reduce or avoid exposure to house dust mite and their allergenic faeces. The comparators were any active treatment, no treatment, placebo, or standard care only. Two authors independently checked the titles and abstracts identified, and there were no disagreements. We contacted authors of included studies for additional information. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane methodology. We included seven studies of 324 adults and children with eczema. Overall, the included studies had a high risk of bias. Four of the seven trials tested interventions with multiple components, and three tested a single intervention. Two of the seven trials included only children, four included children and adults, and one

  3. Risk Factors for Post-treatment Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): An Analysis of 647 Cases of CRPS from the Danish Patient Compensation Association.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Pelle B; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Lauritzen, Jes B; Krogsgaard, Michael R

    2018-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging condition that includes a broad spectrum of sensory, autonomic, and motor features predominantly in extremities recovering from a trauma. Few large-scale studies have addressed occurrence of and factors associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) following orthopedic treatment. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with post-treatment development of CRPS. Using the Danish Patient Compensation Association's database, we identified 647 patients claiming post-treatment CRPS between 1992 and 2015. Age, gender, initial diagnosis, treatment, and amount of compensation were extracted. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify variables associated with approval of the claim. For carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients, we registered whether symptoms were bilateral or unilateral and if neurophysiology prior to treatment was pathologic. The following ratios were found: women:men was 4:1, primary diagnosis to the upper limb:lower limb was 2.5:1, and surgical:nonsurgical treatment was 3:1. Mean age was 47.5 ± 13.7 years, and no intergender difference was detected. Antebrachial fracture (23%) and CTS (9%) were the most common primary conditions. Surgical treatment was associated with approval of the claim (odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 5.3; P < 0.001). Half of CTS patients had normal neurophysiology prior to surgery; among patients with unilateral symptoms, 71.4% had normal neurophysiology. Female gender, surgical treatment, and treatment to the upper limb were risk factors. Elective surgery accounted for a large number of post-treatment CRPS patients. In CTS patients developing CRPS, normal neurophysiological examination findings were common, and it could be suspected that these patients were suffering from an pre-clinical stage of CRPS, not CTS. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  4. Quality of life and psychosocial issues are important outcome measures in eczema treatment.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Pong, N H; Poon, Terence C W; Chan, Dorothy F Y; Leung, T F; Lai, Kelly Y C; Wing, Y K; Luk, Nai Ming

    2015-02-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a common relapsing inflammatory skin disease in children associated with chronicity and poor quality of life. Many children also display depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms. To investigate the prevalence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and if these symptoms are associated with disease severity, quality of life and skin biophysiology in childhood AE. Psychological symptoms, eczema severity, quality of life and biophysical skin condition of consecutive adolescents at the pediatric dermatology clinic of a teaching hospital were evaluated with the validated Chinese versions of Depressive, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum skin hydration (SH), respectively. AE patients (n=120) had lower SH, higher TEWL, worse CDLQI and reported higher overall, depressive and stress symptom scores, personal history of atopy, current topical corticosteroid usage and food avoidance than non-AE patients (n=26). Depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were reported in 21%, 33% and 23% of AE patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that these symptoms were significantly correlated with a poor quality of life (partial correlations of 0.40-0.49; p<0.001). Male patients had more severe disease (higher NESS, p=0.036) and DASS-depressive symptoms (multivariate OR=3.2, p=0.034) than females. Patients who reported current topical steroid usage generally practiced food avoidance (p=0.047), had poor quality of life (p=0.043) but less DASS-depression (multivariate OR=0.354, p=0.043). Only 6% of the 120 AE patients reported prior psychology consultation. Quality of life impairments correlate with disease severity, aberrant skin biophysiology, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents with AE. Physicians caring for these patients must evaluate the different but

  5. Psychological and educational interventions for atopic eczema in children.

    PubMed

    Ersser, S J; Latter, S; Sibley, A; Satherley, P A; Welbourne, S

    2007-07-18

    Psychological and educational interventions have been used as an adjunct to conventional therapy for children with atopic eczema to enhance the effectiveness of topical therapy. There have been no relevant systematic reviews applicable to children. To assess the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions in changing outcomes for children with atopic eczema. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (to September 2004), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2005), MEDLINE (from 1966-2005), EMBASE (from 1980 to week 3, 2005 ), PsycINFO (from 1872 to week 1, 2005). On-line: National Research Register, Meta-register of Controlled Trials, ZETOC alerts, SIGLE (August 2005). RCTs of psychological or educational interventions, or both, used to manage children with atopic eczema. Two authors independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed trial quality and extracted data. A lack of comparable data prevented data synthesis. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Some included studies required clearer reporting of trial procedures. Rigorous established outcome measures were not always used. Interventions described in all 5 RCTs were adjuncts to conventional therapy. Four focused on intervention directed towards the parents; data synthesis was not possible. Psychological interventions remain virtually unevaluated by studies of robust design; the only included study examined the effect of relaxation techniques (hypnotherapy and biofeedback) on severity. Three educational studies identified significant improvements in disease severity between intervention groups. A recent German trial evaluated long term outcomes and found significant improvements in both disease severity (3 months to 7 years, p=0.0002, 8 to 12 years, p=0.003, 13 to 18 years, p=0.0001) and parental quality of life (3 months to 7 years, p=0.0001, 8 to 12 years p=0.002), for children with atopic eczema. One study found video

  6. Incidence and survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma by morphology, anatomical site and TNM stage: a Danish Population-based Register Study 1989-2011.

    PubMed

    Bay, Christiane; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Storm, Hans H; Engholm, Gerda

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of melanoma of the skin has risen in Denmark in recent decades, the increase being steeper from 2004. It is unclear whether this represents a true rise in incidence or whether it is caused by an increased awareness of the condition. To assess whether the increase was characterised by early-stage melanomas and a higher proportion of melanomas with superficial spreading morphology, we studied all skin melanoma patients registered in the Danish Cancer Register 1989-2011 (n=27,010) and followed up for death through 2013. Trends in age-standardised incidence by sex, subsite and morphology, relative survival, TNM stage distribution and stage-specific relative survival from 2004 were analysed. The incidence of melanoma more than doubled over 23 years. A steeper increase from 2004 was driven mainly by superficial spreading tumours, but the proportion of nodular melanomas in patients 50 years of age and over also increased significantly. The largest increase occurred for stage I tumours and for tumours on the trunk. From 1989-1993 to 2009-2011 the 5-year relative survival increased at 12% and 6% points for male and female patients, respectively. Greater awareness, and thus lower stage at diagnosis (mediated by a large skin cancer prevention campaign from 2007), might explain part of the increase, but the increase in nodular melanoma also points to a genuine increase in the risk of melanoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of infants with atopic eczema with pimecrolimus cream 1% improves parents' quality of life: a multicenter, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Staab, Doris; Kaufmann, Roland; Bräutigam, Matthias; Wahn, Ulrich

    2005-09-01

    Atopic eczema begins primarily in infancy or early childhood, and sleep loss due to night-time pruritus can have a considerable impact on patients' and parents' quality of life (QoL). In this study, infants (n = 196) with mild to severe atopic eczema were randomized 2:1, double-blind, to receive either pimecrolimus cream 1% (Elidel, Novartis Pharma, Nürnberg, Germany) or the corresponding vehicle bid for 4 wk, followed by a 12 wk, open-label phase and a 4 wk, treatment-free, follow-up period. The parents' QoL was measured at baseline and at the end of the double-blind phase, using the questionnaire 'QoL in Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis' (PQoL-AD), thus data presented here refer to the initial 4-wk treatment phase only. After 4 wk of double-blind treatment, an increase in the mean percentage change from baseline in eczema area and severity index of 71.5% was observed with pimecrolimus, compared with 19.4% with vehicle. The increase in efficacy was paralleled by the following mean percentage changes from baseline in the five domains of the questionnaire in pimecrolimus and vehicle, respectively: psychosomatic well-being: 14.6% vs. 6.2%; effects on social life: 6.7% vs. 2.3%; confidence in medical treatment: 10.0% vs. 3.7%; emotional coping: 16.1% vs. 6.5%; acceptance of disease: 19.6% vs. 7.0%. Analysis (ancova) of the dependent variable difference from baseline and the covariate baseline value revealed values of p < 0.05 for all five domains, despite the very short duration of the study. It is concluded that improvements in atopic eczema in infants achieved by treatment with pimecrolimus have a significant beneficial effect on the QoL of parents.

  8. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations as a predictor for atopic eczema, allergic sensitization and eczema-associated asthma in Polish children population.

    PubMed

    Dębińska, Anna; Danielewicz, Hanna; Drabik-Chamerska, Anna; Kalita, Danuta; Boznański, Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin (FLG) gene were identified as a major risk factor for atopic eczema. The aim of the study was to investigate the importance of 4 common FLG null mutations in the susceptibility to atopic eczema and other allergic phenotypes in Polish children population. The FLG mutations were determined in 158 children younger than 2 years of age. All subjects were selected using a detailed questionnaire and blood samples for total and specific IgE measurements were obtained. Cases of atopic eczema were diagnosed according to the criteria of Hanifin and Rajka and skin examination. All FLG mutations were genotyped by real-time PCR assays with a subsequent melting curve analysis using a SimpleProbe® probes. The combined genotype of all 4 mutations (carriage of ≥ 1 FLG mutation) was significantly associated with atopic eczema (p = 0.016). The odds ratio (OR) for individuals carrying 1 of these 4 null mutations was 5.52 (95% CI; 1.11 ÷ 37.12). The significant association between either the combined FLG genotype or 2282del14 deletion and eczema was seen only in the allergic group. The association with asthma was restricted to asthma occurring in the context of eczema (OR, 6.27; 95% CI, 0.89 ÷ 53.56; p = 0.042). Our study confirms the previous findings that FLG mutations are strongly associated with atopic eczema and confer a significant risk of allergic sensitization and asthma in the context of eczema. These results underline the role of the epidermal barrier and filaggrin insufficiency in the pathogenesis of atopic eczema and eczema-associated asthma.

  9. The perceptions of danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Results Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Conclusions Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical

  10. The perceptions of Danish physiotherapists on the ethical issues related to the physiotherapist-patient relationship during the first session: a phenomenological approach.

    PubMed

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor

    2011-10-12

    In the course of the last four decades, the profession of physiotherapy has progressively expanded its scope of responsibility and its focus on professional autonomy and evidence-based clinical practice. To preserve professional autonomy, it is crucial for the physiotherapy profession to meet society's expectations and demands of professional competence as well as ethical competence. Since it is becoming increasingly popular to choose a carrier in private practice in Denmark this context constitutes the frame of this study. Physiotherapy in private practice involves mainly a meeting between two partners: the physiotherapist and the patient. In the meeting, power asymmetry between the two partners is a condition that the physiotherapist has to handle. The aim of this study was to explore whether ethical issues rise during the first physiotherapy session discussed from the perspective of the physiotherapists in private practice. A qualitative approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews with 21 physiotherapists were carried out twice and analysed by using a phenomenological framework. Four descriptive themes emerged: general reflections on ethics in physiotherapy; the importance of the first physiotherapy session; the influence of the clinical environment on the first session and; reflections and actions upon beneficence towards the patient within the first session. The results show that the first session and the clinical context in private practice are essential from an ethical perspective. Ethical issues do occur within the first session, the consciousness about ethical issues differs in Danish physiotherapy private practice, and reflections and acts are to a lesser extent based on awareness of ethical theories, principles and ethical guidelines. Beneficence towards the patient is a fundamental aspect of the physiotherapists' understanding of the first session. However, if the physiotherapist lacks a deeper ethical awareness, the physiotherapist may reason

  11. Cardiovascular risk in patients with sleep apnoea with or without continuous positive airway pressure therapy: follow-up of 4.5 million Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, M; Nielsen, O W; Lip, G Y H; Ruwald, M H; Christiansen, C B; Kristensen, S L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Hansen, M L; Gislason, G H

    2014-12-01

    The prognostic significance of age and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on cardiovascular disease in patients with sleep apnoea has not been assessed previously. Using nationwide databases, the entire Danish population was followed from 2000 until 2011. First-time sleep apnoea diagnoses and use of CPAP therapy were determined. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) were analysed using Poisson regression models. Amongst 4.5 million individuals included in the study, 33 274 developed sleep apnoea (mean age 53, 79% men) of whom 44% received persistent CPAP therapy. Median time to initiation of CPAP therapy was 88 days (interquartile range 34-346). Patients with sleep apnoea had more comorbidities compared to the general population. Crude rates of MI and ischaemic stroke were increased for sleep apnoea patients (5.4 and 3.6 events per 1000 person-years compared to 4.0 and 3.0 in the general population, respectively). Relative to the general population, risk of MI [IRR 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57-1.86] and ischaemic stroke (IRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.35-1.66) was significantly increased in patients with sleep apnoea, in particular in patients younger than 50 years (IRR 2.12, 95% CI 1.64-2.74 and IRR 2.34, 95% CI 1.77-3.10, respectively). Subsequent CPAP therapy was not associated with altered prognosis. Sleep apnoea is associated with increased risk of ischaemic stroke and MI, particularly in patients younger than 50 years of age. CPAP therapy was not associated with a reduced rate of stroke or MI. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. The Danish Inguinal Hernia database.

    PubMed

    Friis-Andersen, Hans; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    To monitor and improve nation-wide surgical outcome after groin hernia repair based on scientific evidence-based surgical strategies for the national and international surgical community. Patients ≥18 years operated for groin hernia. Type and size of hernia, primary or recurrent, type of surgical repair procedure, mesh and mesh fixation methods. According to the Danish National Health Act, surgeons are obliged to register all hernia repairs immediately after surgery (3 minute registration time). All institutions have continuous access to their own data stratified on individual surgeons. Registrations are based on a closed, protected Internet system requiring personal codes also identifying the operating institution. A national steering committee consisting of 13 voluntary and dedicated surgeons, 11 of whom are unpaid, handles the medical management of the database. The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database comprises intraoperative data from >130,000 repairs (May 2015). A total of 49 peer-reviewed national and international publications have been published from the database (June 2015). The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database is fully active monitoring surgical quality and contributes to the national and international surgical society to improve outcome after groin hernia repair.

  13. Associations of maternal and fetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with childhood eczema: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Elbert, Niels J; den Dekker, Herman T; de Jongste, Johan C; Reiss, Irwin; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to low levels of vitamin D in fetal life might affect the developing immune system, and subsequently the risk of childhood eczema. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in mid-gestation and at birth were associated with the risk of eczema until the age of 4 years. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 3019 mothers and their children, maternal blood samples in mid-gestation and umbilical cord blood samples at birth were used to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (severely deficient <25.0 nmol/l, deficient 25.0-49.9 nmol/l, sufficient 50.0-74.9 nmol/l, optimal ≥75.0 nmol/l). Eczema was prospectively assessed by annual questionnaires until the age of 4 years. Eczema patterns included never, early (age ≤1 year only), late (age >1 year only), and persistent eczema (age ≤ and >1 year). Data were assessed using the generalized estimating equations and multinomial regression models. Compared with the optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D group, sufficient, deficient, and severely deficient groups of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in mid-gestation were not associated with the risk of overall eczema (odds ratios [95% confidence interval]: 1.09 [0.82, 1.43], 1.04 [0.87, 1.25], and 0.94 [0.81, 1.10], p-values for trend >0.05), nor with eczema per year or eczema patterns in children up to the age of 4 years. Similarly, we observed no associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D groups at birth with any eczema outcome. Our results suggest that levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in mid-gestation and at birth are not associated with the risk of overall eczema, eczema per year, or eczema patterns among children until the age of 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Randomised clinical trial of early specialist palliative care plus standard care versus standard care alone in patients with advanced cancer: The Danish Palliative Care Trial.

    PubMed

    Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Damkier, Anette; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Nielsen, Jan Bjoern; Pedersen, Lise; Sjøgren, Per; Strömgren, Annette Sand; Vejlgaard, Tove Bahn; Gluud, Christian; Lindschou, Jane; Fayers, Peter; Higginson, Irene J; Johnsen, Anna Thit

    2017-10-01

    Beneficial effects of early palliative care have been found in advanced cancer, but the evidence is not unequivocal. To investigate the effect of early specialist palliative care among advanced cancer patients identified in oncology departments. The Danish Palliative Care Trial (DanPaCT) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01348048) is a multicentre randomised clinical trial comparing early referral to a specialist palliative care team plus standard care versus standard care alone. The planned sample size was 300. At five oncology departments, consecutive patients with advanced cancer were screened for palliative needs. Patients with scores exceeding a predefined threshold for problems with physical, emotional or role function, or nausea/vomiting, pain, dyspnoea or lack of appetite according to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were eligible. The primary outcome was the change in each patient's primary need (the most severe of the seven QLQ-C30 scales) at 3- and 8-week follow-up (0-100 scale). Five sensitivity analyses were conducted. Secondary outcomes were change in the seven QLQ-C30 scales and survival. Totally 145 patients were randomised to early specialist palliative care versus 152 to standard care. Early specialist palliative care showed no effect on the primary outcome of change in primary need (-4.9 points (95% confidence interval -11.3 to +1.5 points); p = 0.14). The sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Analyses of the secondary outcomes, including survival, also showed no differences, maybe with the exception of nausea/vomiting where early specialist palliative care might have had a beneficial effect. We did not observe beneficial or harmful effects of early specialist palliative care, but important beneficial effects cannot be excluded.

  15. Improving quality of care in peptic ulcer bleeding: nationwide cohort study of 13,498 consecutive patients in the Danish Clinical Register of Emergency Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, Steffen J; Møller, Morten H; Larsson, Heidi; Johnsen, Søren P; Madsen, Anders H; Bendix, Jørgen; Adamsen, Sven; Jensen, Anders G; Zimmermann-Nielsen, Erik; Nielsen, Ann-Sophie; Kallehave, Finn; Oxholm, Dorthe; Skarbye, Mona; Jølving, Line R; Jørgensen, Henrik S; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) is complex, and mortality remains high. We present results from a nationwide initiative to monitor and improve the quality of care (QOC) in PUB. All Danish hospitals treating PUB patients between 2004 and 2011 prospectively registered demographic, clinical, and prognostic data. QOC was evaluated using eight process and outcome indicators, including time to initial endoscopy, hemostasis obtainment, proportion undergoing surgery, rebleeding risks, and 30-day mortality. A total of 13,498 PUB patients (median age 74 years) were included, of which one-quarter were in-hospital bleeders. Preadmission use of anticoagulants, multiple coexisting diseases, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists scores increased between 2004 and 2011. Considerable improvements were observed for most QOC indicators over time. Endoscopic treatment was successful with primary hemostasis achieved in more patients (94% in 2010-2011 vs. 89% in 2004-2006, relative risk (RR) 1.06 (95% confidence intervals 1.04-1.08)), endoscopy delay for hemodynamically unstable patients decreased during this period (43% vs. 34% had endoscopy within 6 h, RR 1.33 (1.10-1.61)), and fewer patients underwent open surgery (4% vs. 6%, RR 0.72 (0.59-0.87)). After controlling for time changes in prognostic factors, rebleeding rates improved (13% vs. 18%, adjusted RR 0.77 (0.66-0.91)). Crude 30-day mortality was unchanged (11% vs. 11%), whereas adjusted mortality decreased nonsignificantly over time (adjusted RR 0.89 (0.78-1.00)). QOC in PUB has improved substantially in Denmark, but the 30-day mortality remains high. Future initiatives to improve outcomes may include earlier endoscopy, having fully trained endoscopists on call, and increased focus on managing coexisting disease.

  16. Reaching clinically relevant outcome measures for new pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy of atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Joanne; Deckert, Stefanie; Schmitt, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the core outcome set (COS) for atopic eczema trials. COS describe a minimum set of outcomes to be assessed in a defined situation. COS are required to overcome the current situation of different trials using different endpoints with unclear/insufficient measurement properties resulting in incomparable trials. The global multi-stakeholder Harmonising Outcomes Measures for Eczema initiative developed the Harmonising Outcomes Measures for Eczema roadmap as a generic framework for COS development. Following the establishment of a panel representing all stakeholders, a core set of outcome domains need to be selected based on systematic reviews and consensus methods. Outcome measurement instruments to assess these core domains need to be valid, reliable, and feasible. There is broad global consensus that clinical signs, quality of life, symptoms, and long-term control of flares form the COS for atopic eczema trials. The Eczema Area and Severity Index is recommended to assess clinical signs in atopic eczema trials. Systematic reviews to identify adequate outcome measurement instruments for the other core outcome domains are underway. Clinical signs should be assessed in all atopic eczema trials by at least the Eczema Area and Severity Index. Quality of life, symptoms, and flares should also be assessed in all atopic eczema trials by a valid, reliable, and feasible instrument.

  17. Valid screening questions useful to diagnose hand and forearm eczema are available in the Spanish language, a new tool for global research.

    PubMed

    Martí-Margarit, Anna; Manresa, Josep M; Herdman, Mike; Pujol, Ramon; Serra, Consol; Flyvholm, Mary-Ann; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    Hand eczema is an impacting cutaneous disease. Globally valid tools that help to diagnose hand and forearm eczema are required. To validate the questions to detect hand and/or forearm eczema included in the "Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire" (NOSQ-2002) in the Spanish language. A prospective pilot study was conducted with 80 employees of a cleaning company and a retrospective one involving 2,546 individuals. The responses were analysed for sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values. The final diagnosis according to the patients' hospital records, the specialty care records and the physical examination was taken as gold standard. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was also evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity, in a worst case scenario (WC) combining both questions, were 96.5% and 66.7%, respectively, and in a per protocol (PP) analysis, were 96.5% and 75.2%. The questions validated detected eczema effectively, making this tool suitable for use e.g. in multicentre epidemiological studies or clinical trials.

  18. Incidence of hip and knee replacement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis following the introduction of biological DMARDs: an interrupted time-series analysis using nationwide Danish healthcare registers.

    PubMed

    Cordtz, René Lindholm; Hawley, Samuel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Højgaard, Pil; Zobbe, Kristian; Overgaard, Søren; Odgaard, Anders; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Dreyer, Lene

    2018-05-01

    To study the impact of the introduction of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and associated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management guidelines on the incidence of total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR) in Denmark. Nationwide register-based cohort and interrupted time-series analysis. Patients with incident RA between 1996 and 2011 were identified in the Danish National Patient Register. Patients with RA were matched on age, sex and municipality with up to 10 general population comparators (GPCs). Standardised 5-year incidence rates of THR and TKR per 1000 person-years were calculated for patients with RA and GPCs in 6-month periods. Levels and trends in the pre-bDMARD (1996-2001) were compared with the bDMARD era (2003-2016) using segmented linear regression interrupted by a 1-year lag period (2002). We identified 30 404 patients with incident RA and 297 916 GPCs. In 1996, the incidence rate of THR and TKR was 8.72 and 5.87, respectively, among patients with RA, and 2.89 and 0.42 in GPCs. From 1996 to 2016, the incidence rate of THR decreased among patients with RA, but increased among GPCs. Among patients with RA, the incidence rate of TKR increased from 1996 to 2001, but started to decrease from 2003 and throughout the bDMARD era. The incidence of TKR increased among GPCs from 1996 to 2016. We report that the incidence rate of THR and TKR was 3-fold and 14-fold higher, respectively among patients with RA compared with GPCs in 1996. In patients with RA, introduction of bDMARDs was associated with a decreasing incidence rate of TKR, whereas the incidence of THR had started to decrease before bDMARD introduction. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Discrete choice as a method for exploring education preferences in a Danish population of patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schiøtz, Michaela; Bøgelund, Mette; Almdal, Thomas; Willaing, Ingrid

    2012-05-01

    To determine preferences among patients with type 2 diabetes for content and format of patient education. Using discrete choice methods, we surveyed patients about their preferences for patient education. We investigated preferred content and format regarding education on living well with diabetes, preventing complications, healthy eating, exercising, and psychosocial issues related to diabetes. We obtained usable responses from 2187 patients with type 2 diabetes. Acquiring competencies to live a fulfilling life with diabetes, adjust diet and exercise habits, and prevent complications was significantly more highly valued than was simply being informed about these topics. Patients preferred to be involved in the planning of their diabetes care and valued individually tailored content higher than prescheduled content. Women and younger patients found diet and exercise significantly more important than did men, and patients with poorly controlled diabetes valued all education and support more highly than did patients in better control. Patients with type 2 diabetes prefer to be actively involved in educational activities, to develop competencies to prevent and manage complications, and to involve their social network in supporting them. Future patient education should enhance participation and competence development and include relatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IL13 genetic polymorphisms, smoking, and eczema in women: a case-control study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2011-10-21

    Several genetic association studies have examined the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL13 gene and eczema, and have provided contradictory results. We investigated the relationship between the IL13 SNPs rs1800925 and rs20541 and the risk of eczema in Japanese young adult women. Included were 188 cases who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Control subjects were 1,082 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor and who had no current asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, number of children, smoking, and education. The minor TT genotype of SNP rs1800925 was significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema in the co-dominant model: the adjusted odds ratio was 2.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.03-4.67). SNP rs20541 was not related to eczema. None of the haplotypes were significantly associated with eczema. Compared with women with the CC or CT genotype of SNP rs1800925 who had never smoked, those with the TT genotype who had ever smoked had a 2.85-fold increased risk of eczema, though the adjusted odds ratio was not statistically significant, and neither multiplicative nor additive interaction was statistically significant. Our findings suggest that the IL13 SNP rs1800925 is significantly associated with eczema in Japanese young adult women. We could not find evidence for an interaction between SNP rs1800925 and smoking with regard to eczema.

  1. Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level. Methods and Findings Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts. Conclusions The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (∼7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later

  2. Association of variants in innate immune genes with asthma and eczema

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunita; Poon, Audrey; Himes, Blanca E.; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Sordillo, Joanne E.; Belanger, Kathleen; Milton, Donald K.; Bracken, Michael B.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Leaderer, Brian P.; Gold, Diane R.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The innate immune pathway is important in the pathogenesis of asthma and eczema. However, only a few variants in these genes have been associated with either disease. We investigate the association between polymorphisms of genes in the innate immune pathway with childhood asthma and eczema. In addition, we compare individual associations with those discovered using a multivariate approach. Methods Using a novel method, case control based association testing (C2BAT), 569 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 44 innate immune genes were tested for association with asthma and eczema in children from the Boston Home Allergens and Asthma Study and the Connecticut Childhood Asthma Study. The screening algorithm was used to identify the top SNPs associated with asthma and eczema. We next investigated the interaction of innate immune variants with asthma and eczema risk using Bayesian networks. Results After correction for multiple comparisons, 7 SNPs in 6 genes (CARD25, TGFB1, LY96, ACAA1, DEFB1, and IFNG) were associated with asthma (adjusted p-value<0.02), while 5 SNPs in 3 different genes (CD80, STAT4, and IRAKI) were significantly associated with eczema (adjusted p-value < 0.02). None of these SNPs were associated with both asthma and eczema. Bayesian network analysis identified 4 SNPs that were predictive of asthma and 10 SNPs that predicted eczema. Of the genes identified using Bayesian networks, only CD80 was associated with eczema in the single-SNP study. Using novel methodology that allows for screening and replication in the same population, we have identified associations of innate immune genes with asthma and eczema. Bayesian network analysis suggests that additional SNPs influence disease susceptibility via SNP interactions. Conclusion Our findings suggest that innate immune genes contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and eczema, and that these diseases likely have different genetic determinants. PMID:22192168

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Butylbenzyl Phthalate and Early Eczema in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Robin M.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Goldstein, Inge F.; Chen, Qixuan; Rundle, Andrew G.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent cross-sectional studies suggest a link between butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) in house dust and childhood eczema. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate whether concentrations of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), the main BBzP metabolite in urine, during pregnancy are associated prospectively with eczema in young children, and whether this association varies by the child’s sensitization to indoor allergens or serological evidence of any allergies. Methods: MBzP was measured in spot urine samples during the third trimester of pregnancy from 407 African-American and Dominican women residing in New York City in 1999–2006. Repeated questionnaires asked mothers whether their doctor ever said their child had eczema. Child blood samples at 24, 36, and 60 months of age were analyzed for total, anti-cockroach, dust mite, and mouse IgE. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with multivariable modified Poisson regression. Analyses included a multinomial logistic regression model for early- and late-onset eczema versus no eczema through 60 months of age. Results: MBzP was detected in > 99% of samples (geometric mean = 13.6; interquartile range: 5.7–31.1 ng/mL). By 24 months, 30% of children developed eczema, with the proportion higher among African Americans (48%) than among Dominicans (21%) (p < 0.001). An interquartile range increase in log MBzP concentration was associated positively with early-onset eczema (RR = 1.52 for eczema by 24 months; 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 1.91, p = 0.0003, n = 113 reporting eczema/376 total sample), adjusting for urine specific gravity, sex, and race/ethnicity. MBzP was not associated with allergic sensitization, nor did seroatopy modify consistently the MBzP and eczema association. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to BBzP may influence the risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:22732598

  4. IL13 genetic polymorphisms, smoking, and eczema in women: a case-control study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several genetic association studies have examined the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL13 gene and eczema, and have provided contradictory results. We investigated the relationship between the IL13 SNPs rs1800925 and rs20541 and the risk of eczema in Japanese young adult women. Methods Included were 188 cases who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Control subjects were 1,082 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor and who had no current asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, number of children, smoking, and education. Results The minor TT genotype of SNP rs1800925 was significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema in the co-dominant model: the adjusted odds ratio was 2.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.03-4.67). SNP rs20541 was not related to eczema. None of the haplotypes were significantly associated with eczema. Compared with women with the CC or CT genotype of SNP rs1800925 who had never smoked, those with the TT genotype who had ever smoked had a 2.85-fold increased risk of eczema, though the adjusted odds ratio was not statistically significant, and neither multiplicative nor additive interaction was statistically significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the IL13 SNP rs1800925 is significantly associated with eczema in Japanese young adult women. We could not find evidence for an interaction between SNP rs1800925 and smoking with regard to eczema. PMID:22013915

  5. The impact of smoking on thromboembolism and mortality in patients with incident atrial fibrillation: insights from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health study.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Ida Ehlers; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Lane, Deirdre A; Overvad, Thure Filskov; Skjøth, Flemming; Overvad, Kim; Lip, Gregory Y H; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2014-03-01

    Smoking and atrial fibrillation (AF) are major health problems worldwide and are responsible for substantial health-care costs. Our aim was to investigate whether smoking impacts the risk of stroke and death in patients with AF. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed data from a large Danish cohort: the Diet, Cancer, and Health study. This was a cohort study of 57,053 people (27,178 men; 29,876 women) aged 50 to 64 years. The risk of thromboembolism (ischemic stroke/arterial thromboembolism) or death according to smoking habits among 3,161 patients with incident AF (mean age, 66.9 years; 2,032 men, 1,129 women) was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models after a median follow-up of 4.9 years. Of those with AF, 34% were current smokers and 37% former smokers. After adjustment for vitamin K antagonist treatment, the hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) of thromboembolism or death were 3.13 (1.72-6.37) and 2.73 (2.02-3.70) among women and men who currently were heavy smokers (>25 g/d), respectively. The associations remained after adjustment for well-established risk factors with HRs of 3.64 (1.88-7.07) and 2.17 (1.59-2.95) among women and men, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, smoking was still strongly associated with thromboembolism or death after censoring people with a cancer diagnosis during follow-up. Smoking is associated with a higher risk of thromboembolism or death in patients with AF even after adjusting for well-recognized risk factors used in stroke risk stratification schemes. The associations may be modified by sex, as the associations were strongest among women.

  6. Evaluating the use and limitations of the Danish National Patient Register in register-based research using an example of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mason, K; Thygesen, L C; Stenager, E; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2012-03-01

    The Danish National Patient Register, Landspatientregistret (LPR), is a register of all hospital discharges and outpatient treatments in Denmark. It is increasingly used in research so it is important to understand to what extent this can be used as an accurate source of information. Virtually all patients in Denmark with multiple sclerosis (MS) are reported to the Combined MS Registry (DMSR), so this was used as the standard which the LPR was compared against. All residents of Denmark are assigned a unique Civil Register (CPR) number; this was used to compare data between registers. The LPR completeness was estimated by the proportion of cases from the DMSR that could be retrieved from the LPR. The LPR validity was estimated by the proportion of cases, listed in the LPR and DMSR, in whom the MS diagnosis could be confirmed as definite/probable/possible by the DMSR. We found that 86.9% of those who were DMSR listed with an approved MS diagnosis were also listed in the LPR with a MS diagnosis. The diagnosis was valid in 96.3% of patients listed in the LPR when compared against the DMSR. The low completeness reduces the usefulness of the LPR in epidemiological MS research, in particular incidence studies. The study also found that the completeness of the LPR could be increased to 92.8% by including LPR records from other departments in addition, but this reduced the validity of the LPR to 95.1%. However, these results cannot uncritically be applied to registration of other diseases in the LPR. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Effects of time and recall of patch test results on quality of life (QoL) after testing. Cross-sectional study analyzing QoL in hand eczema patients 1, 5 and 10 years after patch testing.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Wasim N; Lindberg, Magnus

    2017-08-01

    Patch testing can improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). To study the impact on HRQOL of elapsed time after patch testing (1-10 years), and how the outcome of testing and patients' recall affects HRQOL. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire was sent to all patients (aged 18-65 years) who were patch tested for suspected contact allergy in 2009, 2005 and 2000 at the Department of Dermatology in Örebro. The response rate was 51% (n = 256). The DLQI score was significantly lower at 10 years after patch testing (mean DLQI = 5.5) than at 1 year (mean DLQI = 7.7). Work was the most impaired aspect. A binary logistic model showed that only time (10 years after testing) was associated with no effect, a light effect or a moderate effect (DLQI < 10) on HRQOL. No such association was seen for patients with negative or positive test results concerning full recall, partial recall or no recall of diagnosed allergens. Although there was an improvement in HRQOL over time, the work aspect remained a major problem. The improvement was not affected by the outcome of testing and patients' recall of test results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Choice of Moisturiser for Eczema Treatment (COMET): feasibility study of a randomised controlled parallel group trial in children recruited from primary care.

    PubMed

    Ridd, Matthew J; Garfield, Kirsty; Gaunt, Daisy M; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Redmond, Niamh M; Powell, Kingsley; Wilson, Victoria; Guy, Richard H; Ball, Nicola; Shaw, Lindsay; Purdy, Sarah; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-11-16

    To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of 'leave on' emollients for children with eczema. Single-centre, pragmatic, 4-arm, observer-blinded, parallel, randomised feasibility trial. General practices in the UK. Children with eczema aged 1 month to <5 years. Primary outcome-proportion of parents who reported use of the allocated study emollient every day for the duration of follow-up (12 weeks). Other feasibility outcomes-participant recruitment and retention, data collection and completeness and blinding of observers to allocation. Aveeno lotion, Diprobase cream, Doublebase gel, Hydromol ointment. 197 children were recruited-107 by self-referral (mainly via practice mail-outs) and 90 by inconsultation (clinician consenting and randomising) pathways. Participants recruited inconsultation were younger, had more severe Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure scores and were more likely to withdraw than self-referrals. Parents of 20 (10%) of all the randomised participants reported using the allocated emollient daily for 84 days. The use of other non-study emollients was common. Completeness of data collected by parent-held daily diaries and at monthly study visits was good. Daily diaries were liked (81%) but mainly completed on paper rather than via electronic ('app') form. Major costs drivers were general practitioner consultations and eczema-related prescriptions. Observer unblinding was infrequent, and occurred at the baseline or first follow-up visit through accidental disclosure. It is feasible in a primary care setting to recruit and randomise young children with eczema to emollients, follow them up and collect relevant trial data, while keeping observers blinded to their allocation. However, reported use of emollients (study and others) has design implications for future trials. ISRCTN21828118/EudraCT2013-003001-26. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. Choice of Moisturiser for Eczema Treatment (COMET): feasibility study of a randomised controlled parallel group trial in children recruited from primary care

    PubMed Central

    Ridd, Matthew J; Garfield, Kirsty; Gaunt, Daisy M; Redmond, Niamh M; Powell, Kingsley; Wilson, Victoria; Guy, Richard H; Ball, Nicola; Shaw, Lindsay; Purdy, Sarah; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of ‘leave on’ emollients for children with eczema. Design Single-centre, pragmatic, 4-arm, observer-blinded, parallel, randomised feasibility trial. Setting General practices in the UK. Participants Children with eczema aged 1 month to <5 years. Outcome measures Primary outcome—proportion of parents who reported use of the allocated study emollient every day for the duration of follow-up (12 weeks). Other feasibility outcomes—participant recruitment and retention, data collection and completeness and blinding of observers to allocation. Interventions Aveeno lotion, Diprobase cream, Doublebase gel, Hydromol ointment. Results 197 children were recruited—107 by self-referral (mainly via practice mail-outs) and 90 by inconsultation (clinician consenting and randomising) pathways. Participants recruited inconsultation were younger, had more severe Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure scores and were more likely to withdraw than self-referrals. Parents of 20 (10%) of all the randomised participants reported using the allocated emollient daily for 84 days. The use of other non-study emollients was common. Completeness of data collected by parent-held daily diaries and at monthly study visits was good. Daily diaries were liked (81%) but mainly completed on paper rather than via electronic (‘app’) form. Major costs drivers were general practitioner consultations and eczema-related prescriptions. Observer unblinding was infrequent, and occurred at the baseline or first follow-up visit through accidental disclosure. Conclusions It is feasible in a primary care setting to recruit and randomise young children with eczema to emollients, follow them up and collect relevant trial data, while keeping observers blinded to their allocation. However, reported use of emollients (study and others) has design implications for future trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN21828118/EudraCT2013

  10. Prognostic value of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor tumor expression in Danish ovarian cancer patients: from the 'MALOVA' ovarian cancer study.

    PubMed

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Christensen, Lise; Høgdall, Claus K; Blaakaer, Jan; Gayther, Simon; Jacobs, Ian J; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2007-11-01

    Estrogen and progesterone are important hormones secreted by the ovary acting through specific receptors. Tumor tissue expression profiles of these have demonstrated prognostic value in malignancies such as breast, uterine and prostate cancer. In this study, including tissue samples from 773 Danish patients with an ovarian tumor, we evaluated whether estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression correlated with clinico-pathological parameters, and a possible prognostic impact on ovarian cancer (OC) patients was investigated. Using tissue array and immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the ER and PR expression levels in tissues from 582 women with OC and 191 women with low malignancy potential (LMP) ovarian tumors. Our results demonstrated that ER was expressed in 30 of the 191 LMP tumors (16%) and in 207 of the 582 OC (36%). PR was expressed in 38 LMP tumors (20%) and in 115 OC (20%). For both tumor types an excess of positive tumors was found in the serous compared to the mucinous subtype (p< or =0.00001). The frequency of ER expression-positive OC increased with increasing FIGO stage (p=0.0003), and the frequency of PR-positive tumors increased with increasing histological grade (p=0.0006). In a Cox survival analysis, a tissue ER and PR expression 10% or higher was found to imply an independent significant advantageous course of patient disease-specific survival (ER: hazard ratio (HR), 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.99; PR: HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.94) together with FIGO stage, residual tumor after primary surgery, age at diagnosis and other histological types vs. serous adenocarcinoma. The histological grade of tumor was found to have no independent prognostic value. The prognostic value of ER and PR was found additive with a HR for patients with high ER and PR expression of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.31-0.74) compared to patients with <10% expression for both receptors. In conclusion, our results predict that an elevated expression of ER and PR

  11. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer: Influence of stage, treatment and comorbidity among Danish patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Susanne O; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik; Mellemgaard, Anders; Østerlind, Kell; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer

    2015-05-01

    To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid conditions and socioeconomic information (education, income and cohabitation status) from nationwide population-based registers. Associations between SEP and receipt of first-line treatment were analysed in multivariate logistic regression models and those with overall mortality in Cox regression models with stepwise inclusion of possible mediators. For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients with high-stage disease who lived alone were less likely to receive first-line treatment. The socioeconomic difference in overall survival was partly explained by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity, although some differences remained after adjustment. Among patients with high-stage disease, the hazard ratio (HR) for death of those with low income was 1.12 (95% CI 1.05-1.19) in comparison with those with high income. Among patients with low-stage disease, those who lived alone had a 14% higher risk for dying (95% CI 1.05-1.25) than those who lived with a partner. The differences in risk for death by SEP were greatest in the first six months after diagnosis. Socioeconomic differences in survival after lung cancer are partly explained by social inequality in stage, first-line treatment and comorbidity

  12. Who participates in a randomized trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) after breast cancer? A study of factors associated with enrollment among Danish breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Elsass, Peter; Flyger, Henrik Lavlund; Sumbundu, Antonia; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-05-01

    Discussion regarding the necessity to identify patients with both the need and motivation for psychosocial intervention is ongoing. Evidence for an effect of mindfulness-based interventions among cancer patients is based on few studies with no systematic enrollment. We used Danish population-based registries and clinical databases to determine differences in demographics, breast cancer and co-morbidity among 1208 women eligible for a randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00990977) of mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR. Participants (N = 336) were found to be younger (p < 0.001) and have a less recent diagnosis at invitation than decliners (N = 872; p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and time since diagnosis at invitation, a statistically significant difference was also found between the two groups in use of psychologist sessions (p < 0.05), whereas neither breast cancer variables nor co-morbidity was significantly different. Self-reported data obtained by use of validated psychometric scales from 169 decliners and 336 women who agreed to enroll in the trial showed statistically significant differences in level of education, distress, anxiety, depression, well being and symptom burden. No differences were observed with regard to marital status, children living at home, affiliation to the work market, psychiatric caseness or any lifestyle measure. Our findings indicate that participants are younger, have a less recent diagnosis and have a higher level of education than those who refuse. This should be taken into account in designing and evaluating trials of psychosocial interventions and in planning mindfulness-based interventions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Global Expression Profiling in Atopic Eczema Reveals Reciprocal Expression of Inflammatory and Lipid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sääf, Annika M.; Tengvall-Linder, Maria; Chang, Howard Y.; Adler, Adam S.; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Scheynius, Annika; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Bradley, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background Atopic eczema (AE) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder. In order to dissect the genetic background several linkage and genetic association studies have been performed. Yet very little is known about specific genes involved in this complex skin disease, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Methodology/Findings We used human DNA microarrays to identify a molecular picture of the programmed responses of the human genome to AE. The transcriptional program was analyzed in skin biopsy samples from lesional and patch-tested skin from AE patients sensitized to Malassezia sympodialis (M. sympodialis), and corresponding biopsies from healthy individuals. The most notable feature of the global gene-expression pattern observed in AE skin was a reciprocal expression of induced inflammatory genes and repressed lipid metabolism genes. The overall transcriptional response in M. sympodialis patch-tested AE skin was similar to the gene-expression signature identified in lesional AE skin. In the constellation of genes differentially expressed in AE skin compared to healthy control skin, we have identified several potential susceptibility genes that may play a critical role in the pathological condition of AE. Many of these genes, including genes with a role in immune responses, lipid homeostasis, and epidermal differentiation, are localized on chromosomal regions previously linked to AE. Conclusions/Significance Through genome-wide expression profiling, we were able to discover a distinct reciprocal expression pattern of induced inflammatory genes and repressed lipid metabolism genes in skin from AE patients. We found a significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in AE with cytobands associated to the disease, and furthermore new chromosomal regions were found that could potentially guide future region-specific linkage mapping in AE. The full data set is available at http://microarray-pubs.stanford.edu/eczema. PMID

  14. Strengths and resources used by Australian and Danish adult patients and their family caregivers during treatment for cancer.

    PubMed

    Coyne, E; Dieperink, K B; Østergaard, B; Creedy, D K

    2017-08-01

    Family plays an essential role in supporting the patient with cancer, however, relatively little attention has been given to understanding the strengths and resources of the family unit across different settings and countries. This study aims to investigate the strengths and resources of patients and family members in Australia and Denmark. Using a descriptive, cross-sectional design, 232 patient and family participants from inpatient and outpatient oncology services in Australia and Denmark completed paper based surveys that included the Family Hardiness Index (FHI) and Family Crisis Orientated Personal Evaluation Scales (F-COPES), together with demographic and health information. The family's appraisal of the cancer and ways the family worked together predicted the level of external resources used to manage their circumstances. After a cancer diagnosis patients and family respond in different ways related to their family functioning. There is a need for nurses to work closely with the family to understand their strengths and resources, and tailor support and information for family to promote optimal patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Lis-Balchin, M; Kirk-Smith, M

    2000-09-01

    Childhood atopic eczema is an increasingly common condition in young children. As well as being irritating to the child, it causes sleepless nights for both the child and the family and leads to difficulties in parental relationships and can have severe effects on employment. A group of eight children, born to professional working mothers were studied to test the hypothesis that massage with essential oils (aromatherapy) used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with normal medical treatment, would help to alleviate the symptoms of childhood atopic eczema. The children were randomly allocated to the massage with essential oils group and both counselled and massaged with a mixture of essential oils by the therapist once a week and the mother every day over a period of 8 weeks. The preferred essential oils, chosen by the mothers for their child, from 36 commonly used aromatherapy oils, were: sweet marjoram, frankinsence, German chamomile, myrrh, thyme, benzoin, spike lavender and Litsea cubeba. A control group of children received the counselling and massage without essential oils. The treatments were evaluated by means of daily day-time irritation scores and night time disturbance scores, determined by the mother before and during the treatment, both over an 8 week period; finally general improvement scores were allocated 2 weeks after the treatment by the therapist, the general practitioner and the mother. The study employed a single case experimental design across subjects, such that there were both a within-subject control and between-subjects control, through the interventions being introduced at different times. The results showed a significant improvement in the eczema in the two groups of children following therapy, but there was no significant difference in improvement shown between the aromatherapy massage and massage only group. Thus there is evidence that tactile contact between mother and child benefits the symptoms of atopic eczema but there is no

  16. Research statistics in Atopic Eczema: what disease is this?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atopic eczema is a common and distressing disease. This study aims to review PubMed indexed research statistics on atopic eczema over a-10 year period to investigate the clinical relevance and research interest about this disease. Methods PubMed (a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine) was searched for the terms “atopic dermatitis” and “eczema”, with limits activated (Humans, Clinical Trial, Meta-Analysis, Randomized Controlled Trial, English, published in the last 10 years), and editorials, letters, practice guidelines, reviews, and animal studies excluded. Journal impact factor (IF) is in accordance with Journal Citation Report (JCR) 2009, a product of Thomson ISI (Institute for Scientific Information). Results A total of 890 articles were retrieved. Taking out publications that were irrelevant and those without an impact factor, 729 articles were obtained. These articles were grouped into dermatology (n = 337, mean IF: 3.01), allergy/immunology (n = 215, mean IF: 4.89), pediatrics (n = 118, mean IF: 2.53) and miscellaneous subject categories (n = 142, mean IF: 5.10). The impact factors were highest in the miscellaneous category (p = 0.0001), which includes such prestigious journals as the New England journal of Medicine (n = 1, IF: 47.05), the Lancet (n = 4, IF: 30.76) and BMJ (n = 6, IF: 13.66). There was no publication in any family medicine or general practice journal. The British Journal of Dermatology (n = 78), Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (n = 49) and Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (n = 46) had the highest number of publications on the subject. Atopic eczema ranked higher in impact factors in allergy/immunology although more publications appeared in the dermatology category. Conclusions Atopic eczema is a multidisciplinary disease. Its clinical relevance and research interests are definitely beyond that of a mere cutaneous disease. Investigators may consider

  17. Home environment and suspected atopic eczema in Japanese infants: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Ohya, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ohfuji, Satoko; Saito, Kyoko; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hirota, Yoshio

    2007-08-01

    Atopic eczema is most commonly diagnosed in children under the age of 5 yr. Environmental factors during pregnancy or in early life may confer risk for childhood atopic eczema. The present prospective study examined the relationship of the perinatal home environment and the risk of suspected atopic eczema among Japanese infants under the age of 1. Study subjects were 865 parent-child pairs. The term 'suspected atopic eczema' was used to define an outcome based on our questionnaire at 2-9 months postpartum. Adjustment was made for maternal age, gestation, family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, time of delivery before the second survey, baby's older siblings, baby's sex, and baby's birth weight. A high mite allergen level from maternal bedclothes and mold in the kitchen during pregnancy were significantly associated with an increased risk of suspected atopic eczema. Frequent vacuuming practices during pregnancy and giving the infant a bath or shower at least once a day were significantly inversely related to the risk of suspected atopic eczema. Maternal smoking, maternal use of a synthetic duvet and pillow, carpet use in the living room and maternal bedroom, indoor domestic pets, no ducted heating appliance, and gas use for cooking during pregnancy and household smoking in the same room as the infant, infant's synthetic duvet, carpet use in the infant's room, or vacuuming the infant's room were not related to the risk of suspected atopic eczema. High house dust mite allergen levels and mold in the kitchen during pregnancy may increase the risk of infantile atopic eczema, whereas frequent vacuuming practices during pregnancy and giving the infant a bath or shower at least once a day may protect against infantile atopic eczema.

  18. Case-control study of eczema associated with IL13 genetic polymorphisms in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Kiyohara, Chikako; Koyanagi, Midori; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Shirasawa, Senji; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Several association studies have investigated the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL13 gene and eczema, with inconsistent results. We conducted a case-control study of the relationship between the polymorphisms of rs1800925 and rs20541 and the risk of eczema in Japanese children aged 3 years. Included were the 209 cases identified based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Controls were 451 children without eczema based on ISAAC questions who had not been diagnosed by a physician as having asthma or atopic eczema. The minor TT genotype of the rs1800925 SNP and the minor AA genotype of the rs20541 SNP were significantly related to an increased risk of eczema: adjusted odds ratio for the TT genotype was 2.78 (95% confidence interval 1.22-6.30) and that for the AA genotype was 2.38 (95% confidence interval 1.35-4.18). Haplotype analyses showed a protective association between the CG haplotype and eczema, whereas the TA haplotype was positively related to the risk of eczema. Perinatal smoking exposure did not interact with genotypes of the IL13 gene in the etiology of eczema. The significant association of the rs20541 SNP with eczema essentially disappeared after additional adjustment for the rs1800925 SNP, whereas a relationship with the rs1800925 SNP remained significant. A common genetic variation in the IL13 gene at the levels of both single SNPs and haplotypes was associated with eczema. However, the significant association with the rs20541 SNP might be ascribed to the rs1800925 SNP. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Outdoor environment, ozone, radionuclide-associated aerosols and incidences of infantile eczema in Minsk, Belarus.

    PubMed

    Belugina, I N; Yagovdik, N Z; Belugina, O S; Belugin, S N

    2018-05-06

    The early occurrence of atopic dermatitis in infants may be influenced by urban air pollution. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between incidences of infantile eczema in children under 2 years of age and urban outdoor environmental factors. A 11-year population-based study was conducted in retrospective design. The age/gender-adjusted incidence rates of infantile eczema were determined using the data of outpatient visits. We analysed 1965 cases with atopic dermatitis including infantile eczema in relation to the annual means of outdoor monitoring data from 2005 through 2015 in Minsk. Logistic regression and principal component analysis were performed to determine association between the annual means of air pollutants, meteorological variables and incidences of infantile eczema. Higher mean annual carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, lead, particulate matter and ground-level ozone were associated with high incidence rates of infantile eczema both in boys and girls. Higher nitrogen dioxide was associated with high incidence rates of infantile eczema in girls 1-2 years of age and boys 0-2 years of age. There were identified by principal component analysis five combinations of pollutants and meteorological factors. High incidence rates of infantile eczema were associated with the combinations contained higher levels of air pollutants and ultraviolet index, or lower β-activity of the radionuclide-associated aerosols. The higher phenol and formaldehyde levels the higher incidence rates of infantile eczema were observed among boys 0-1 years of age and girls 1-2 years of age. The higher total column ozone with lower lead level was associated with low incidence rates of infantile eczema among boys and girls 1-2 years of age. Urban outdoor air pollutants and their combination with meteorological conditions may impact onset of infantile eczema in both genders. © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental

  1. Hand eczema and atopic dermatitis in adolescents: a prospective cohort study from the BAMSE project.

    PubMed

    Grönhagen, C; Lidén, C; Wahlgren, C-F; Ballardini, N; Bergström, A; Kull, I; Meding, B

    2015-11-01

    There is a well-known association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and hand eczema but less is known about how age at onset, persistence and severity of AD influence the risk of developing hand eczema. To examine the role of AD in the occurrence of hand eczema in adolescence. In addition, associations between asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, sensitization to common airborne and food allergens, and hand eczema were studied. From the population-based birth cohort BAMSE, 2927 adolescents who had been followed up repeatedly concerning allergy-related disease were included. Questionnaires identified adolescents with hand eczema at 16 years, and their blood was analysed for specific IgE. A total of 152 (5·2%) adolescents had hand eczema at the age of 16 years. Many of these adolescents had a history of AD (n = 111; 73·0%) and asthma and/or rhinitis (n = 83; 54·6%), respectively. Children with AD (aged 0-16 years) had more than threefold increased odds ratios (OR) for having hand eczema; those with persistent or severe AD had a crude OR of 6·1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·0-9·1] and 5·3 (95% CI 2·9-9·6), respectively. We confirm a strong association between AD during childhood and hand eczema in adolescence. Children with persistent or more severe AD are at greater risk of developing hand eczema. Asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, positive specific IgE or age at onset of AD are not associated with hand eczema in adolescence. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Association between breastfeeding and eczema during childhood and adolescence: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingying; Ramette, Alban; Jurca, Maja; Goutaki, Myrofora; Beardsmore, Caroline S; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Breastfeeding is said to protect children from eczema (atopic dermatitis), but the available evidence is conflicting and subject to the influences of parental atopy and reverse causation (when mothers extended duration of breastfeeding because their children had eczema). In the prospective, population-based Leicester Respiratory Cohort study, we assessed duration of breastfeeding in children aged 1-4 years. Prevalence of eczema was determined by questionnaire surveys that were repeated until the children were 17 years old. We investigated the association between having been breastfed and current eczema using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for potential confounders, and tested for effect modification by parental atopy. We also assessed the association between having been breastfed and incident eczema at ages 2, 4, and 6 years using multivariable logistic regression. Among the 5,676 children in the study, 2,284 (40%) had never been breastfed, while 1,610 (28%), 705 (12%), and 1,077 (19%) had been breastfed for 0-3, 4-6, and >6 months, respectively. Prevalence of current eczema decreased from 36% in 1-year-olds to 18% in children aged 10-17 years. Breastfeeding was not associated with current eczema. Compared with children who had never been breastfed, the adjusted odds ratios for current eczema at any age were 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.90-1.15) for children who had been breastfed for 0-3 months, 0.97 (0.82-1.13) for children breastfed for 4-6 months, and 0.98 (0.85-1.14) for children breastfed for >6 months. There was no strong evidence for an effect modification by parental atopy (p-value for interaction term was 0.061) and no association between having been breastfed and incident eczema later in childhood. This population-based cohort study found no evidence for protection of breastfeeding against childhood eczema at any age, from infancy through adolescence.

  3. Is Patch Testing with Food Additives Useful in Children with Atopic Eczema?

    PubMed

    Catli, Gonul; Bostanci, Ilknur; Ozmen, Serap; Dibek Misirlioglu, Emine; Duman, Handan; Ertan, Ulker

    2015-01-01

    Atopy patch testing is a useful way to determine delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to foods and aeroallergens. Although food additives have been accused of worsening atopic eczema symptoms, according to recent studies the role of food additives in atopic eczema remains unclear. The purpose of our study was to investigate food additive hypersensitivity in a group of children with atopic eczema by using standardized atopy patch testing and to determine the role of food additive hypersensitivity in atopic eczema. Thirty-four children with atopic eczema and 33 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Children who consumed foods containing additives and did not use either antihistamines or local or systemic corticosteroids for at least 7 days prior to admission were enrolled in the study. All children were subjected to atopy patch testing and after 48 and 72 hours their skin reactions were evaluated by using the guidelines. Positive atopy patch test results were significantly higher in the atopic eczema group. Forty-one percent of the atopic eczema group (n = 14) and 15.2% (n = 5) of the control group had positive atopy patch test results with food additives (p = 0.036) (estimated relative risk 1.68, case odds 0.7, control odds 0.17). Carmine hypersensitivity and the consumption of foods containing carmine, such as gumdrops, salami, and sausage, were significantly higher in the children with atopic eczema. This is the first study investigating hypersensitivity to food additives in children with atopic eczema. Our results indicate that carmine may play a role in atopic eczema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Red blood cell storage duration and long-term mortality in patients undergoing cardiac intervention: a Danish register study.

    PubMed

    Dencker, D; Pedersen, F; Engstrøm, T; Schroeder, T V; Lönn, L; Johansson, P I; De Backer, O

    2017-08-01

    To study the effect of red blood cell (RBC) storage duration on long-term mortality in patients undergoing cardiac intervention. RBCs undergo numerous structural and functional changes during storage. Observational studies have assessed the association between RBC storage duration and patient outcomes with conflicting results. Between January 2006 and December 2014, 82 408 patients underwent coronary angiography. Of these, 1856 patients received one to four RBC units within 30 days after this procedure. Patients were allocated according to length of RBC storage duration: short-term (≤11 days), intermediate (IM)-term (12-23 days) and long-term (≥24 days). The study endpoints were 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality. A total of 4168 RBC units were given to 1856 patients. The mean RBC storage duration was 8.5 ± 2.1, 17.7 ± 3.4 and 29.9 ± 3.4 days in the short-term, IM-term and long-term storage groups, respectively. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the groups. The long-term storage group received significantly more units (2.4 ± 1.0 units) as compared to the short-term (2.0 ± 1.0 units; P < 0.001) and IM-term storage group (2.2 ± 1.0 units; P < 0.01). In the survival analysis, there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the groups (log-rank: 0.509 for 30-days mortality; 0.493 for 5-year mortality). Additional stratified analysis demonstrated no association between RBC storage duration and long-term mortality. This study did not find an association between RBC storage duration and 30-days or long-term mortality in patients undergoing cardiac intervention. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Tetrahydrobiopterin responsiveness after extended loading test of 12 Danish PKU patients with the Y414C mutation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jytte Bieber; Nielsen, Karin E; Güttler, Flemming

    2010-02-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation due to defects in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Phe accumulation can lead to cognitive impairment. Some individuals with PKU respond to tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) treatment, the natural cofactor of PAH, by a reduction in blood Phe concentrations.We tested 12 patients with PKU, 8-29 years of age, all carrying the common Y414C mutation in the PAH gene. Three were homozygous and nine were compound heterozygous, with the second mutation being a putative null mutation. During the study period, genuine protein was increased to approximately 1 g/kg. The patients were treated with 20, 10, and 5 mg BH4/kg/day for 1 week on each dose, starting with 20 mg/kg. A positive response was defined as a decline in blood Phe>30%. Blood Phe was measured four times a week. Nonresponding children were excluded from the study. Eleven of 12 patients had a positive response with 20 mg/kg, 5/10 responded on 10 mg/kg, and 1/9 on 5 mg/kg. Two were late responders, with a response on 20 mg/kg after >48 h. We could confirm the previously reported inconsistent responsiveness of Y414C in the nine heterozygous patients, whereas the three homozygous patients had early median Phe declines of 73%, 51%, and 27%, respectively, on the three different doses. The varying responses despite uniform trial conditions and genotypes may be due to individual differences in BH4 absorption or metabolism. No side effects were observed.

  6. Treatment of Eczema: Corticosteroids and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Chong, Melanie; Fonacier, Luz

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that requires a manifold approach to therapy. The goal of therapy is to restore the function of the epidermal barrier and to reduce skin inflammation. This can be achieved with skin moisturization and topical anti-inflammatory agents, such as topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Furthermore, proactive therapy with twice weekly use of both topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors in previously affected areas has been found to reduce the time to the next eczematous flare. Adjunctive treatment options include wet wrap therapy, anti-histamines, and vitamin D supplementation. Bacterial colonization, in particular Staphylococcus aureus, can contribute to eczematous flares and overt infection. Use of systemic antibiotics in infected lesions is warranted; however, empiric antibiotics use in uninfected lesions is controversial. Local antiseptic measures (i.e., bleach baths) and topical antimicrobial therapies can be considered in patients with high bacterial colonization. Difficult-to-treat AD is a complex clinical problem that may require re-evaluation of the initial diagnosis of AD, especially if the onset of disease occurs in adulthood. It may also necessitate evaluation for contact, food, and inhaled allergens that may exacerbate the underlying AD. There are a host of systemic therapies that have been successful in patients with difficult-to-treat AD, however, these agents are limited by their side effect profiles. Lastly, with further insight into the pathophysiology of AD, new biological agents have been investigated with promising results.

  7. An observer-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial comparing localized immersion psoralen-ultraviolet A with localized narrowband ultraviolet B for the treatment of palmar hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Brass, D; Fouweather, T; Stocken, D D; Macdonald, C; Wilkinson, J; Lloyd, J; Farr, P M; Reynolds, N J; Hampton, P J

    2017-12-13

    Hand eczema is a common inflammatory dermatosis that causes significant patient morbidity. Previous studies comparing psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA) with narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) have been small, nonrandomized and retrospective. To conduct an observer-blinded randomized controlled pilot study using validated scoring criteria to compare immersion PUVA with NB-UVB for the treatment of chronic hand eczema unresponsive to topical steroids. Sixty patients with hand eczema unresponsive to clobetasol propionate 0·05% were randomized to receive either immersion PUVA or NB-UVB twice weekly for 12 weeks with assessments at intervals of 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients achieving 'clear' or 'almost clear' Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) response at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included assessment of the modified Total Lesion and Symptom Score (mTLSS) and the Dermatology Life Quality index (DLQI). In both treatment arms, 23 patients completed the 12-week assessment for the primary outcome measure. In the PUVA group, five patients achieved 'clear' and eight 'almost clear' [intention-to-treat (ITT) response rate 43%]. In the NB-UVB group, two achieved 'clear' and five 'almost clear' (ITT response rate 23%). For the secondary outcomes, median mTLSS scores were similar between groups at baseline (PUVA 9·5, NB-UVB 9) and at 12 weeks (PUVA 3, NB-UVB 4). Changes in DLQI were similar, with improvements in both groups. In this randomized pilot trial recruitment was challenging. After randomization, there were acceptable levels of compliance and safety in each treatment schedule, but lower levels of retention. Using validated scoring systems - PGA, mTLSS and DLQI - as measures of treatment response, the trial demonstrated that both PUVA and NB-UVB reduced the severity of chronic palmar hand eczema. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Oral Alitretinoin in the Treatment of Severe Refractory Chronic Hand Eczema in the Spanish National Health System: Description and Analysis of Current Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, S; Roustan, G; Plazas, M J; Armengol, S; Paz, S; Lizan, L

    2016-03-01

    Hand eczema affects nearly 10% of the population. The condition becomes severe and chronic in 5% to 7% of cases and is refractory to topical corticosteroids in 2% to 4%. This study aimed to describe the current use of oral alitretinoin in treating Spanish national health system patients with hand eczema that is refractory to potent topical corticosteroids. Observational, descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional study based on the retrospective analysis of records for patients with hand eczema treated with alitretinoin in the Spanish national health system. We reviewed the records for 62 patients in 13 hospitals in 5 different administrative areas (autonomous communities) of Spain. Alitretinoin was usually used at a dosage of 30mg/d. In most cases the physician judged the clinical response to be satisfactory after a single cycle. The recorded adverse effects were foreseeable and of the type reported for systemic retinoids. The dermatologists agreed that the clinical benefits achieved with alitretinoin favored adherence to treatment and an early return to work. The results show that oral alitretinoin is being used according to established recommendations and that response is good, with few adverse effects. The dermatologists agreed that the benefits favored adherence and improved the patients' health related quality of life. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Eczema and cardiovascular risk factors in 2 US adult population studies.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Greenland, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Eczema is associated with high rates of sleep disturbance and quality-of-life impairment. These factors might have a negative impact on psychosocial development and behavior and could increase cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine whether adults with eczema have increased cardiovascular risk factors. We analyzed data for 27,157 and 34,525 adults aged 18 to 85 years from the 2010 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey. Adults with eczema had higher odds of ever smoking 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (survey logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18-1.47) and current smoking history (aOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.12-1.45), with significantly younger age of onset (survey linear regression; adjusted β, -0.58; 95% CI, -0.95 to -0.21). Eczema was also associated with greater odds of ever drinking 12 or more alcoholic beverages annually (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31), including current intake of moderate (aOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.62) and heavier (aOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.23-2.03) amounts. Adults with a history of eczema had lower odds of daily vigorous activity (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.99) and lower frequency of vigorous activity in the past week (adjusted β, -0.46; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.21) than did adults without a history of eczema. Those with eczema had a higher body mass index than did those without eczema (adjusted β, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.37-1.36), particularly a body mass index of 35 or more (aOR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16-2.05), and higher odds of hypertension (aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85), hypertension on 2 visits (aOR, 1.56; 1.22-1.99), and lifetime prediabetes (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.19-2.45). Finally, there were significant interactions between eczema and sleep disturbances such that eczema associated with fatigue, daytime sleepiness, or insomnia was associated with even higher odds of obesity, hypertension, hypertension on 2 visits, prediabetes, diabetes, and high cholesterol than eczema alone. We found that eczema in adults is a marker for

  10. Atopic eczema in children: another harmful sequel of divorce.

    PubMed

    Bockelbrink, A; Heinrich, J; Schäfer, I; Zutavern, A; Borte, M; Herbarth, O; Schaaf, B; von Berg, A; Schäfer, T

    2006-12-01

    Different lifestyle factors seem to be associated with the risk for atopic diseases and some studies suggest that stress increases the risk of allergic sensitization, asthma and atopic eczema. Only few studies have investigated the association of early stressful life events and atopic eczema (AE) in children. Parents of participants of the ongoing LISA birth cohort study were asked to give information on life events, such as severe disease or death of a family member, unemployment, or divorce of the parents. Lifetime prevalence of AE and incidence after the assessment period for life events were compared. Prevalence of AE until the age of 4 years was 21.4%. Reported life events within the first 2 years were: severe disease (17.5%) or death (8.4%) of a family member, divorce/separation (3.4%), and unemployment (2.7%). Divorce/separation was associated with a significantly [odds ratio (OR) 3.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-7.66] increased and disease with a significantly (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.13-0.68) decreased incidence of AE for the subsequent 2 years of life. No effect was seen for unemployment. Divorce/separation of the parents and severe disease of a family member influence the risk of developing AE.

  11. Suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social function in adolescents with eczema: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema.

  12. Association Between TSLP Polymorphisms and Eczema in Japanese Women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    We examined the association between thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases were 188 women who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for eczema. Controls were 565 women without eczema according to the ISAAC criteria, who had not been diagnosed with asthma, atopic eczema, and/or allergic rhinitis by a doctor and who had no asthma as defined by the European Community Respiratory Health Survey criteria and no rhinoconjunctivitis according to the ISAAC criteria. Compared with women with the TT genotype of SNP rs1837253, those with the TC or CC genotype had a significantly increased risk of eczema after adjustment for age and smoking, although this association was not significant in crude analysis. There were no relationships between SNP rs3806933 or rs2289276 and eczema. The TC and CC genotypes combined of SNP rs1837253 may be significantly positively associated with eczema.

  13. Environmental Factors Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota in Children with Eczema: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carmen W H; Wong, Rosa S; Law, Patrick T W; Wong, Cho Lee; Tsui, Stephen K W; Tang, Winnie P Y; Sit, Janet W H

    2016-07-16

    Eczema is a common skin condition that impairs children's daily life activities and quality of life. Previous research shows that gut microbiome composition plays an important role in the development of eczema. The present review summarizes evidence on environmental factors related to altered gut microbiota in children with eczema. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015. The search strategy focused on articles published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals with no publication year limit. Only original studies and review articles that reported environmental factors on gut microbiome specific to eczema were included in this review. We selected six studies (total 1990 participants) for full review and identified that the composition of gut microbiota specific to eczema could be influenced by the following environmental factors: length of gestation, mode of delivery, type of feeding, method of treatment, number of older siblings, and other lifestyle factors. There has been inconsistent empirical evidence as to the modulatory effects of gut microbiota on immunological functions in children with eczema. Further research on the environmental-host-microbial interaction is needed to develop a strong base of knowledge for the development and implementation of prevention strategies and policies for eczema.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicines and childhood eczema: a US population-based study.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lee-Wong, Mary; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in US children with eczema is unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether CAM use in the United States is associated with higher eczema prevalence. We sought to determine the eczema prevalence in association with CAM usage. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey that included a nationally representative sample of 9417 children ages 0 to 17 years. Overall, 46.9% (95% confidence interval, 45.6%-48.2%) of children in the United States used 1 or more CAM, of which 0.99% (0.28%-1.71%) used CAM specifically to treat their eczema, including herbal therapy (0.46%), vitamins (0.33%), Ayurveda (0.28%), naturopathy (0.24%), homeopathy (0.20%), and traditional healing (0.12%). Several CAMs used for other purposes were associated with increased eczema prevalence, including herbal therapy (survey logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.07 [1.40-3.06]), vitamins (1.45 [1.21-1.74]), homeopathic therapy (2.94 [1.43-6.00]), movement techniques (3.66 [1.62-8.30]), and diet (2.24 [1.10-4.58]), particularly vegan diet (2.53 [1.17-5.51]). In conclusion, multiple CAMs are commonly used for the treatment of eczema in US children. However, some CAMs may actually be harmful to the skin and be associated with higher eczema prevalence in the United States.

  15. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in Danish Twins.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Michael Asger; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Skov, Vibe; Kruse, Torben A; Thomassen, Mads; Skytthe, Axel; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Christensen, Kaare

    2018-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by clonal hyperproliferation of immature and mature cells of the myeloid lineage. Genetic differences have been proposed to play a role in the development of MPNs. Monozygotic twin pairs with MPNs have been reported in a few case reports, but the MPN concordance pattern in twins remains unknown. All twin pairs born in the period 1900-2010 were identified in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. Only pairs with both twins alive on January 1, 1977, and those born thereafter were included to allow identification in the Danish National Patient Registry. A total of 158 twin pairs were registered with an MPN diagnosis: 36 monozygotic, 104 dizygotic, and 18 pairs with unknown zygosity. MPNs were diagnosed in both twins in 4 pairs. The probandwise concordance rates for monozygotic twin pairs were higher than for dizygotic twin pairs (15 vs. 0%; p = 0.016). An estimated concordance rate of 15% (95% CI 0.059-0.31) is modest, but given the rarity of MPNs this finding is clinically relevant and provides further support for the role of genetic predisposition in the development of MPNs. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Treatment policy for psoriasis and eczema: a survey among dermatologists in the Netherlands and Belgian Flanders.

    PubMed

    Roelofzen, Judith H J; Aben, Katja K H; Khawar, Ali J M; Van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Van Der Valk, Pieter G M

    2007-01-01

    Today, many therapies are available for the treatment of psoriasis and eczema. One of the oldest topical therapies is coal tar. Coal tar has been used for decades, but over the past years, the use of coal tar has decreased for several reasons, including the supposed carcinogenicity of coal tar. We investigated the current and past treatment policies for psoriasis and eczema with special emphasis on the use of tar products; a postal survey was conducted among all dermatologists in two European countries: the Netherlands (n = 360) and the Flemish speaking part of Belgium (Flanders) (n = 328). This study was conducted as part of the ongoing LATER-study ("Late effects of coal tar treatment in eczema and psoriasis; the Radboud study"). All practising dermatologists received a questionnaire. Dermatologists were asked to describe their treatment policies in mild/moderate psoriasis, severe psoriasis, mild/moderate eczema and severe eczema. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62.5% for the Dutch dermatologists and 45.7% for the Flemish dermatologists. Almost all dermatologists prescribe topical corticosteroids. In eczema, most of the dermatologists prescribe the recently introduced calcineurin inhibitors (95%). Coal tar is a second choice topical therapy. Dutch dermatologists mainly use tar in the treatment of eczema (72% vs. 48% in Flanders), whereas in Flanders, tar is mainly prescribed in psoriasis (60% vs. 41% in Holland). Flemish dermatologists very frequently prescribe PUVA in psoriasis (93% vs. 63%). Topical treatment, especially topical corticosteroids, is the mainstay in psoriasis and eczema. Coal tar still is an important (second choice) therapy for the topical treatment of psoriasis and eczema, but its use varies from country to country. Despite the carcinogenicity of PUVA, this photochemotherapy is frequently prescribed by dermatologists, mainly in Flanders.

  17. Atopic and nonatopic eczema in adolescence: is there a difference?

    PubMed

    Johansson, E K; Ballardini, N; Bergström, A; Kull, I; Wahlgren, C-F

    2015-10-01

    There is limited information on clinical manifestations of atopic eczema (AE) and non-AE in teenagers. To describe the characteristics of adolescent eczema in the general population and to identify potential differences between AE and non-AE in teenagers. Overall, 3108 teenagers were included from the population-based BAMSE cohort and 2529 of these teenagers provided blood samples for analysis of specific IgE. At age 16 years, the teenagers answered questionnaires regarding the symptoms of eczema, asthma and rhinitis for the previous year. The prevalence of eczema in adolescence was 9·6% (n = 297). More girls than boys had eczema (12·5% vs. 6·5%; P < 0·001). The age at onset was usually within the first 2 years of life (48·8%), but onset in adolescence was also common (25·6%). Eczema was mild in 72·7% of cases, moderate in 16·8% and severe in 10·4%. Body folds were most frequently affected (73·4%). More than half of the teenagers with eczema had AE (59%). The teenagers with AE had more severe and more chronic eczema. Onset in infancy was most common in AE and onset in adolescence was most common in non-AE. There were no major differences in location or seasonal variance between AE and non-AE in adolescence. AE is more common than non-AE among teenagers. More than one in four teenagers with eczema has moderate-to-severe disease. Onset in adolescence is common, especially for non-AE. AE in adolescence has an earlier onset and is more chronic and more severe than non-AE. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Factors accounting for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema: the Hordaland health study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association between anxiety and depression, and eczema is well known in the literature, but factors underlying this association remain unclear. Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and female gender have been found to be associated with both depression and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety are known to be associated with anxiety and depression, further, somatization symptoms and health anxiety have also been found in several dermatological conditions. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, somatization and health anxiety are possible contributing factors in the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema. The aim of the study is to examine the relevance of proposed contributing factors for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema, including, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, health anxiety and somatization. Methods Anxiety and depression was measured in the general population (n = 15715) employing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Information on eczema, female gender, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, health anxiety and somatization was obtained by self-report. Results Somatization and health anxiety accounted for more than half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, while the other factors examined were of minor relevance for the association of interest. Conclusions We found no support for female gender and omega-3 fatty acid supplement as contributing factors in the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety accounted for about half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, somatization contributed most. The association between anxiety/depression, and eczema was insignificant after adjustment for somatization and health anxiety. Biological mechanisms underlying the mediating effect of somatization are yet to be revealed. PMID:20412596

  19. Acupuncture and a gluten-free diet relieve urticaria and eczema in a case of undiagnosed dermatitis herpetiformis and atypical or extraintestinal celiac disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ohlsen, Bahia A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of acupuncture and a gluten-free diet (GFD) for urticaria and severe eczema in a patient with undiagnosed dermatitis herpetiformis and atypical or extraintestinal celiac disease. A 48-year-old woman presented with intense urticaria, eczema, worsening heartburn, chronic constipation, headaches, and an intense feeling of heat for 4 months. Results of punch biopsies of the skin lesions and laboratory tests were inconclusive. After the acupuncture sessions reported here ended, human leukocyte antigen blood typing revealed celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis-associated human leukocyte antigen DQ-8. Results of an endoscopy and colonoscopy were negative. The patient received 3 acupuncture treatments a week for 12 weeks. The patient's symptoms began in March 2008. She began using topical and oral steroids and felt that her symptoms were not responding. Acupuncture began in July 2008. At the end of the first 12 treatments, during which she was using topical and oral steroids, the urticaria and constipation resolved completely; and she had temporary relief from the heartburn. It is thought that the urticaria and constipation resolved because of the acupuncture as that was the only change. At the end of the second 12 treatments, during which time she had started Optifast, a GFD, the heartburn, headache, and eczema resolved. At the end of the third 12 treatments, all her symptoms remained resolved. Steroid treatment was discontinued after the first 12 treatments. Acupuncture and diet changes appeared to provide relief from the urticaria and eczema of dermatitis herpetiformis beyond that obtained by traditional treatment of a GFD alone.

  20. Specific allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Tam, Herman; Calderon, Moises A; Manikam, Logan; Nankervis, Helen; García Núñez, Ignacio; Williams, Hywel C; Durham, Stephen; Boyle, Robert J

    2016-02-12

    Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT) is a treatment that may improve disease severity in people with atopic eczema (AE) by inducing immune tolerance to the relevant allergen. A high quality systematic review has not previously assessed the efficacy and safety of this treatment. To assess the effects of specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT), including subcutaneous, sublingual, intradermal, and oral routes, compared with placebo or a standard treatment in people with atopic eczema. We searched the following databases up to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 7, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), Web of Science™ (from 2005), the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT database), and five trials databases. We searched abstracts from recent European and North American allergy meetings and checked the references of included studies and review articles for further references to relevant trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of specific allergen immunotherapy that used standardised allergen extracts in people with AE. Two authors independently undertook study selection, data extraction (including adverse effects), assessment of risk of bias, and analyses. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We identified 12 RCTs for inclusion in this review; the total number of participants was 733. The interventions included SIT in children and adults allergic to either house dust mite (10 trials), grass pollen, or other inhalant allergens (two trials). They were administered subcutaneously (six trials), sublingually (four trials), orally, or intradermally (two trials). Overall, the risk of bias was moderate, with high loss to follow up and lack of blinding as the main methodological concern.Our primary outcomes were 'Participant- or parent-reported global assessment of disease severity at the end of treatment'; 'Participant- or parent-reported specific

  1. Psychological and educational interventions for atopic eczema in children.

    PubMed

    Ersser, Steven J; Cowdell, Fiona; Latter, Sue; Gardiner, Eric; Flohr, Carsten; Thompson, Andrew Robert; Jackson, Karina; Farasat, Helen; Ware, Fiona; Drury, Alison

    2014-01-07

    Psychological and educational interventions have been used as an adjunct to conventional therapy for children with atopic eczema to enhance the effectiveness of topical therapy. This is an update of the original Cochrane review. To assess the effect of psychological and educational interventions for atopic eczema in children. We updated our searches of the following databases to January 2013: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), OpenGrey, and PsycINFO (from 1806). We also searched six trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Randomised controlled trials of psychological or educational interventions, or both, used to assist children and their carers in managing atopic eczema. Three authors independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. A lack of comparable data prevented data synthesis, and we were unable to conduct meta-analysis because there were insufficient data. We included 10 RCTs, of which 5 were new to this update; all interventions were adjuncts to conventional therapy and were delivered in primary- and secondary-care settings. There were 2003 participants in the 9 educational interventions and 44 participants in the 1 psychological study. Some included studies had methodological weaknesses; for example, we judged four studies to have high risk of detection bias, attrition bias, or other bias. Our primary outcomes were participant-rated global assessment, reduction in disease severity (reported as objective SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis)), and improvement in sleep and quality of life. No study reported participant-rated global assessment or improvement of sleep.The largest and most robust study (n = 992) demonstrated significant reduction in disease severity and improvement in quality of life, in both

  2. Managing atopic eczema in childhood: the health visitor and school nurse role.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jean

    2008-06-01

    Atopic eczema affects up to 20% of children in the UK. It is a disease of varying severity, and health visitors and school nurses have a vital role in educating and supporting children and their parents and carers in its management. Diagnosis and assessment needs to consider atopic eczema severity, effect on quality of life and contributing trigger factors. Treatment should be tailored to the individual child and should include education on emollient therapy, the use of topical corticosteroids and other measures. A case study is included to highlight practical issues and the support of the child and family in coping with atopic eczema at home and in school.

  3. The Danish Adoption Register.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  4. Prevalence, incidence and predictive factors for hand eczema in young adults – a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hand eczema is common in the general population and affects women twice as often as men. It is also the most frequent occupational skin disease. The economic consequences are considerable for society and for the affected individuals. Methods To investigate the prevalence and incidence of hand eczema and to evaluate risk factors for development of hand eczema in young adults. Subjects and methods; This is a prospective follow-up study of 2,403 young adults, 16 – 19 years old in 1995 and aged 29 – 32 years, 13 years later, in 2008. They completed a postal questionnaire that included questions regarding one-year prevalence of hand eczema, childhood eczema, asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis and factors considered to affect hand eczema such as hand-washing, washing and cleaning, cooking, taking care of small children and usage of moisturisers. These factors were evaluated with the multinominal logistic regression analysis. Results The one-year prevalence of hand eczema was 15.8% (females 20.3% and males 10.0%, p < 0.001). The incidence was 11.6 cases per 1000 person-years (females 14.3 and males 5.2, p < 0.001). Childhood eczema was the most important risk factor for hand eczema. The odds ratios were 13.17 when having hand eczema 1995 and 2008 compared to 5.17 in 2008 (p < 0.001). A high frequency of hand washing was important in predicting hand eczema only when having 1-year prevalence 2008, OR 1.02 (p = 0.038). Conclusions After 13 years an increased 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was found. The significant risk factors for hand eczema changed over time from endogenous to exogenous factors. PMID:24164871

  5. Eczema and sleep and its relationship to daytime functioning in children.

    PubMed

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, John D; Gold, Michael; Martin, Alfred J; Lushington, Kurt

    2010-12-01

    Chronic childhood eczema has significant morbidity characterised by physical discomfort, emotional distress, reduced child and family quality-of-life and, of particular note, disturbed sleep characterised by frequent and prolonged arousals. Sleep disturbance affects up to 60% of children with eczema, increasing to 83% during exacerbation. Even when in clinical remission, children with eczema demonstrate more sleep disturbance than healthy children. Notably, disturbed sleep in otherwise healthy children is associated with behavioural and neurocognitive deficits. Preliminary evidence suggests that disturbed sleep in children with eczema is also associated with behavioural deficits while the impact on neuropsychological functioning remains unexplored. In conclusion, a disease which affects up to 20% of children in some countries and may produce long-term behavioural and neurocognitive deficits merits further evaluation using standardised tests of sleep, behaviour and neurocognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2010-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier. PMID:20739029

  7. Economic evidence for the prevention and treatment of atopic eczema: a protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sach, Tracey Helen; McManus, Emma; Mcmonagle, Christopher; Levell, Nick

    2016-05-27

    Eczema, synonymous with atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin disease that has a similar impact on health-related quality of life as other chronic diseases. The proposed research aims to provide a comprehensive systematic assessment of the economic evidence base available to inform economic modelling and decision making on interventions to prevent and treat eczema at any stage of the life course. Whilst the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT) database collects together the effectiveness evidence for eczema, there is currently no such systematic resource on the economics of eczema. It is important to gain an overview of the current state of the art of economic methods in the field of eczema in order to strengthen the economic evidence base further. The proposed study is a systematic review of the economic evidence surrounding interventions for the prevention and treatment of eczema. Relevant search terms will be used to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EconLit, Scopus, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and Web of Science in order to identify relevant evidence. To be eligible for inclusion studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating the cost, utility or full economic evaluation of interventions for preventing or treating eczema. Two reviewers will independently assess studies for eligibility and perform data abstraction. Evidence tables will be produced presenting details of study characteristics, costing methods, outcome methods and quality assessment. The methodological quality of studies will be assessed using accepted checklists. The systematic review is being undertaken to identify the type of economic evidence available, summarise the results of the available

  8. Patients Presenting with Miliaria While Wearing Flame Resistant Clothing in High Ambient Temperatures: A Case Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-22

    year-old Caucasian woman with a medical history of eczema developed a miliaria-like rash (small red rash with papules) on her inner thighs, knee fossa... eczema developed itchy miliaria-like rash (small red rash with papules) to his inner thighs, bilateral pos- terior calves, and inner elbow (Figure 2...Our patient sought medical attention from the military dermatologist, who diagnosed the rash as eczema and treated it with a cortisone IM injection

  9. Patients Presenting with Miliaria While Wearing Flame Resistant Clothing in High Ambient Temperatures: A Case Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-22

    Case presentation 1 A 23-year-old Caucasian woman with a medical history of eczema developed a miliaria-like rash (small red rash with papules...perspiration. Case presentation 2 A 31-year-old African-American man with a medical history of eczema developed itchy miliaria-like rash (small...military dermatologist, who diagnosed the rash as eczema and treated it with a cortisone IM injection (name and dose unknown). Our patient deployed to

  10. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  11. [Effects of infant feeding practice on eczema during early childhood in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou].

    PubMed

    Zheng, X Q; Zhu, G W; Zheng, Z Q; Yang, Y; Gong, C D; Deng, S S; Wu, Q L; Peng, Y M

    2016-12-02

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of eczema in early childhood and effect of infant feeding practice on eczema by different regions of China with diverse climate and dietary patterns. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted from June 2012 to October 2012 in Shanghai, Hohhot, and Fuzhou. The parent or guardian of the children aged between 2.5 to 3.5 years attending routine health visit in the chosen communities were invited to complete a modified questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC). Logistic regression model was used to analyze of the family history of allergy, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods and other potential confounders. Result: A total of 2 242 children were interviewed, 750 from Shanghai, 716 from Hohhot, and 776 from Fuzhou. The prevalence of eczema in early childhood was significantly different among Shanghai (16.9%, 95% CI 16.87-16.93), Hohhot (34.5%, 95% CI 34.46-34.54)and Fuzhou (44.3%, 95% CI 44.26-44.34). The difference was statistically significant between 3 groups (χ 2 =72.05, P <0.05). Introducing complementary food after the age of 6 months was associated with a decreased risk for eczema when compared to introduction between 4 to 6 months(odds ratio (OR) 0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81) in Fuzhou, while there was no significant association between timing of introduction of complementary foods and eczema in Shanghai and Hohhot. Conclusion: The prevalence of eczema during early childhood is various among three cities. The relationship between timing of introduction of complementary foods and eczema in Fuzhou is different from that in Shanghai and Hohhot. The role of climate and dietary patterns on prevalence of eczema needs further studies.

  12. Association between severe eczema in children and multiple comorbid conditions and increased healthcare utilization

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with multiple comorbid conditions, such as asthma and food allergy. We sought to determine the impact of eczema severity on the development of these disorders and other non-atopic comorbidities in AD. Methods We used the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a prospective questionnaire-based study of a nationally representative sample of 91,642 children age 0-17 years. Prevalence and severity of eczema, asthma, hay fever and food allergy, sleep impairment, healthcare utilization, recurrent ear infections, visual and dental problems were determined. Results In general, more severe eczema correlated with poorer overall health, impaired sleep and increased healthcare utilization, including seeing a specialist, compared to children with mild or moderate disease (Rao-Scott Chi-square, P<0.0001). Severe eczema was associated with higher prevalence of comorbid chronic health disorders, including asthma, hay fever and food allergies (P<0.0001). In addition, the severity of eczema was directly related to the severity of the comorbidities. These associations remained significant in multivariate logistic regression models that included age, sex and race/ethnicity. Severe eczema was also associated with recent dental problems, including bleeding gums (P<0.0001), toothache (P=0.0004), but not broken teeth (P=0.04) or tooth decay (P=0.13). Conclusions These data indicate that severe eczema is associated with multiple comorbid chronic health disorders, impaired overall health and increased healthcare utilization. Further, these data suggest that children with eczema are at risk for decreased oral health. Future studies are warranted to verify this novel association. PMID:23773154

  13. Environmental factors associated with childhood eczema: Findings from a national web-based survey.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Mari; Yoshida, Koichi; Adachi, Yuichi; Furukawa, Mayumi; Itazawa, Toshiko; Odajima, Hiroshi; Saito, Hirohisa; Hide, Michihiro; Akasawa, Akira

    2016-10-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are known to be related to the development of childhood eczema. Our aim was to assess the environmental factors associated with the prevalence of eczema among children using a web-based survey. In June 2012, we conducted a nation-wide web-based survey to identify the prevalence and characteristics of allergic diseases among Japanese children. The prevalence of allergic diseases including eczema was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood core questionnaire. The associations between eczema prevalence and environmental factors, as well as those between background characteristics and comorbid allergic diseases among 6-12 year old children were assessed. A total of 28,348 children were included in the analysis. The prevalence of current eczema was 13.0%. Current eczema was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze, rhinitis, and food allergy. In multiple logistic regression models, birth during autumn (aOR: 1.18 95%CI: 1.06-1.31) or winter (aOR: 1.21 95%CI: 1.08-1.34), duration of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months (aOR: 1.14 95%CI: 1.06-1.23), and ownership of a pet from infancy (aOR: 2.61 95%CI: 1.68-4.07) were also associated with a higher prevalence of eczema. The prevalence was lower in those with a high annual household income (aOR: 0.90 95%CI: 0.81-0.99) and 2 or more siblings (aOR: 0.86 95%CI: 0.76-0.97). Duration of breastfeeding, season of birth, pet ownership, household income, and the number of siblings were associated with the prevalence of childhood eczema in a nationwide web survey. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal stress and psychological distress preconception: association with offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Healy, E; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Baird, J; Godfrey, KM

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. Objectives To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. Methods At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women’s Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a sub-sample psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n=2956) and 12 (n=2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months postpartum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale. Results Preconception perceived stress affecting health (OR 1.21 (95%CI 1.08-1.35), p=0.001) and stress in daily living (OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), p=0.014) were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months postpartum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between postnatal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Conclusion & Clinical Relevance Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. PMID:28218994

  15. Relevance of Cat and Dog Sensitization by Skin Prick Testing in Childhood Eczema and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Kathy Yin Ching; Pong, Nga Hin Henry; Leung, Ting Fan

    2017-01-01

    Household animal dander has been implicated as aeroallergen in childhood atopic diseases. Many parents seek healthcare advice if household pet keeping may be detrimental in atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated if skin sensitization by cat/dog dander was associated with disease severity and quality of life in children with AE. Demographics, skin prick test (SPT) results, disease severity (Nottingham eczema severity score NESS), Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), blood IgE and eosinophil counts of a cohort of AE patients were reviewed. 325 AE patients followed at a pediatric dermatology clinic were evaluated. Personal history of asthma was lowest (20%) in the dog-dander-positive-group but highest (61%) in bothcat- and-dog-dander-positive group (p=0.007). Binomial logistic regression ascertained that catdander sensitization was associated with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.056; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.109; p=0.029), dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 4.625; 95% CI, 1.444 to 14.815; p=0.010), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 2.330; 95% CI, 1.259 to 4.310; p=0.007) and keeping-cat-ever (aOR, 7.325; 95% CI, 1.193 to 44.971; p=0.032); whereas dogdander sensitization was associated with dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 9.091; 95% CI, 1.148 to 71.980; p=0.037), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.341 to 9.492; p=0.011) and keeping-dog-ever (aOR, 6.809; 95% CI, 2.179 to 21.281; p=0.001). However, neither cat nor dog sensitization were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, parental or sibling atopic status, disease severity or quality of life. Physicians should advise parents that there is no direct correlation between AE severity, quality of life, asthma or allergic rhinitis with cutaneous sensitization to cats or dogs. Sensitized patients especially those with concomitant asthma and severe symptoms may consider non-furry alternatives if they plan to have a pet. Highly sensitized

  16. The Harmonizing Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) roadmap: a methodological framework to develop core sets of outcome measurements in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Apfelbacher, Christian; Spuls, Phyllis I; Thomas, Kim S; Simpson, Eric L; Furue, Masutaka; Chalmers, Joanne; Williams, Hywel C

    2015-01-01

    Core outcome sets (COSs) are consensus-derived minimum sets of outcomes to be assessed in a specific situation. COSs are being increasingly developed to limit outcome-reporting bias, allow comparisons across trials, and strengthen clinical decision making. Despite the increasing interest in outcomes research, methods to develop COSs have not yet been standardized. The aim of this paper is to present the Harmonizing Outcomes Measures for Eczema (HOME) roadmap for the development and implementation of COSs, which was developed on the basis of our experience in the standardization of outcome measurements for atopic eczema. Following the establishment of a panel representing all relevant stakeholders and a research team experienced in outcomes research, the scope and setting of the core set should be defined. The next steps are the definition of a core set of outcome domains such as symptoms or quality of life, followed by the identification or development and validation of appropriate outcome measurement instruments to measure these core domains. Finally, the consented COS needs to be disseminated, implemented, and reviewed. We believe that the HOME roadmap is a useful methodological framework to develop COSs in dermatology, with the ultimate goal of better decision making and promoting patient-centered health care.

  17. Mild eczema affects self-perceived health among pre-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Natalia; Östblom, Eva; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Kull, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of eczema on health-related quality of life in the population-based birth cohort BAMSE with 2,756 pre-adolescent children. All answered the following questions on self-perceived health; "How are you feeling?", "How healthy do you consider yourself to be?" and "How happy are you with your life right now?". Children with ongoing eczema answered the "Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI)" questionnaire. In total, 350 (12.7%) of the children had eczema. Girls with eczema reported impaired self-perceived health as evaluated in the 3 questions; adjusted OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.16-2.55), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.18-2.42). Eczema among boys was not associated with impairment of self-perceived health. The mean CDLQI score was 3.98 (95% CI 3.37-4.58). Since eczema affects up to 20% of pre-adolescent girls, the findings have implications both for health care providers and for society as a whole.

  18. Atopic Eczema and Stress among Single Parents and Families: An Empirical Study of 96 Mothers.

    PubMed

    Gieler, Uwe; Schoof, Stefanie; Gieler, Tanja; Scheewe, Sibylle; Schut, Christina; Kupfer, Jörg

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the extent to which single mothers of children with atopic eczema experience disease-related stress. A total of 96 mothers were divided into 4 groups: mothers living with a partner, who had or did not have a child with atopic eczema, and single mothers, who had or did not have a child with atopic eczema. The following questionnaires were used to assess psychological burden: Short Stress Questionnaire (Kurzer Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Belastung; KFB), Satisfaction with Life Questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit; FLZ), General Depression Scale (Allgemeine Depressions-Skala; ADS), and the Questionnaire for Parents of Children with Atopic Eczema (Fragebogen für Eltern von Neurodermitis kranken Kindern; FEN). Single mothers had higher levels of helplessness and aggression due to their child's scratching behaviour than did mothers living with a partner and a child with atopic eczema. Single mothers of children with atopic eczema had the highest scores regarding experienced stress in the family and the lowest scores concerning general life satisfaction. Special care should be provided for single mothers with higher stress, in order to teach them how to deal with the scratching behaviour of their children.

  19. Immune-modulatory genomic properties differentiate gut microbiota of infants with and without eczema.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seungdae; Yap, Gaik Chin; Hong, Pei-Ying; Huang, Chiung-Hui; Aw, Marion M; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Lee, Bee Wah

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important role in human immunological processes, potentially affecting allergic diseases such as eczema. The diversity and structure of gut microbiota in infants with eczema have been previously documented. This study aims to evaluate by comparative metagenomics differences in genetic content in gut microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched controls. Stools were collected at the age of one month old from twelve infants from an at risk birth cohort in a case control manner. Clinical follow up for atopic outcomes were carried out at the age of 12 and 24 months. Microbial genomic DNA were extracted from stool samples and used for shotgun sequencing. Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that immune-regulatory TCAAGCTTGA motifs were significantly enriched in the six healthy controls (C) communities compared to the six eczema subjects (E), with many encoded by Bifidobacterium (38% of the total motifs in the C communities). Draft genomes of five Bifidobacterium species populations (B. longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. dentium, and B. pseudocatenulatum) were recovered from metagenomic datasets. The B. longum BFN-121-2 genome encoded more TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per one million genome sequence) than other Bifidobacterium genomes. Additionally, the communities in the stool of controls (C) were also significantly enriched in functions associated with tetrapyrrole biosynthesis compared to those of eczema (E). Our results show distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiota in infants associated with eczema and provide new insights into potential role of gut microbiota in affecting human immune homeostasis.

  20. The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database.

    PubMed

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients.

  1. Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Rumsby, Kate; Chorozoglou, Maria; Becque, Taeko; Roberts, Amanda; Liddiard, Lyn; Nollett, Claire; Hooper, Julie; Prude, Martina; Wood, Wendy; Thomas, Kim S; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of including emollient bath additives in the management of eczema in children. Design Pragmatic randomised open label superiority trial with two parallel groups. Setting 96 general practices in Wales and western and southern England. Participants 483 children aged 1 to 11 years, fulfilling UK diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. Children with very mild eczema and children who bathed less than once weekly were excluded. Interventions Participants in the intervention group were prescribed emollient bath additives by their usual clinical team to be used regularly for 12 months. The control group were asked to use no bath additives for 12 months. Both groups continued with standard eczema management, including leave-on emollients, and caregivers were given standardised advice on how to wash participants. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was eczema control measured by the patient oriented eczema measure (POEM, scores 0-7 mild, 8-16 moderate, 17-28 severe) weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were eczema severity over one year (monthly POEM score from baseline to 52 weeks), number of eczema exacerbations resulting in primary healthcare consultation, disease specific quality of life (dermatitis family impact), generic quality of life (child health utility-9D), utilisation of resources, and type and quantity of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors prescribed. Results 483 children were randomised and one child was withdrawn, leaving 482 children in the trial: 51% were girls (244/482), 84% were of white ethnicity (447/470), and the mean age was 5 years. 96% (461/482) of participants completed at least one post-baseline POEM, so were included in the analysis, and 77% (370/482) completed questionnaires for more than 80% of the time points for the primary outcome (12/16 weekly questionnaires to 16 weeks). The mean baseline POEM score was 9.5 (SD 5.7) in the

  2. Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Santer, Miriam; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Rumsby, Kate; Chorozoglou, Maria; Becque, Taeko; Roberts, Amanda; Liddiard, Lyn; Nollett, Claire; Hooper, Julie; Prude, Martina; Wood, Wendy; Thomas, Kim S; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2018-05-03

    To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of including emollient bath additives in the management of eczema in children. Pragmatic randomised open label superiority trial with two parallel groups. 96 general practices in Wales and western and southern England. 483 children aged 1 to 11 years, fulfilling UK diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. Children with very mild eczema and children who bathed less than once weekly were excluded. Participants in the intervention group were prescribed emollient bath additives by their usual clinical team to be used regularly for 12 months. The control group were asked to use no bath additives for 12 months. Both groups continued with standard eczema management, including leave-on emollients, and caregivers were given standardised advice on how to wash participants. The primary outcome was eczema control measured by the patient oriented eczema measure (POEM, scores 0-7 mild, 8-16 moderate, 17-28 severe) weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were eczema severity over one year (monthly POEM score from baseline to 52 weeks), number of eczema exacerbations resulting in primary healthcare consultation, disease specific quality of life (dermatitis family impact), generic quality of life (child health utility-9D), utilisation of resources, and type and quantity of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors prescribed. 483 children were randomised and one child was withdrawn, leaving 482 children in the trial: 51% were girls (244/482), 84% were of white ethnicity (447/470), and the mean age was 5 years. 96% (461/482) of participants completed at least one post-baseline POEM, so were included in the analysis, and 77% (370/482) completed questionnaires for more than 80% of the time points for the primary outcome (12/16 weekly questionnaires to 16 weeks). The mean baseline POEM score was 9.5 (SD 5.7) in the bath additives group and 10.1 (SD 5.8) in the no bath additives group. The mean POEM score

  3. Preconceptional and perinatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and eczema in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chan; Deng, Linjing; Ou, Cuiyun; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Xiang; Deng, Qihong

    2017-02-01

    Evidence linking prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution with eczema in early childhood is scare, and the role of components of air pollution and exposure timing remains unclear. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution during preconceptional and perinatal period and the risk of eczema in preschool children. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The prevalence of eczema was assessed by a standardized health questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter≤10μm (PM 10 ) during the 4th-6th and 1st-3rd month before pregnancy, entire pregnancy, and three trimesters were estimated by an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method based on concentrations measured at monitoring stations. Association between childhood eczema and exposure to air pollution was examined by logistic regression models in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure. Life-time prevalence of eczema in preschool children in Changsha was 28.6%. Childhood eczema was associated with traffic-related air pollutant NO 2 during 3 months before pregnancy and entire pregnancy with adjusted ORs=1.19 (95% CI: 1.04-1.37) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.03-1.42) respectively. The highest risk of eczema was observed for the 1st trimester exposure to NO 2 [OR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.09-1.46)]. However, no association was detected for SO 2 and PM 10 exposure during any window. High-level exposure to NO 2 during the whole time period significantly increased the effect of NO 2 in all windows on eczema risk as compared with low-level exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the association between both preconceptional and perinatal exposure to NO 2 and childhood eczema was consistent and robust, and this association was modified by some personal, parental hereditary and

  4. Parents' and carers' views about emollients for childhood eczema: qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Muller, I; Yardley, L; Lewis-Jones, S; Ersser, S; Little, P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Leave-on emollients form the mainstay of eczema treatment, but adherence is poor. We aimed to explore parents’/carers' views on effectiveness and acceptability of leave-on emollients for childhood eczema through secondary analysis of data from 2 qualitative data sets. Setting Study 1 recruited through mail-out from 6 general practices in southern England. Study 2 recruited from a feasibility trial of an intervention to support eczema self-care in 31 practices in the same area. Participants Study 1 included 28 interviews with carers of children aged ≤5 years with eczema. Study 2 included 26 interviews with carers of children aged ≤5 years with eczema. Methods Interviews followed semistructured guides: study 1 explored carers' understandings around eczema treatments in order to develop a web-based self-care support intervention; study 2 explored carers' understandings of eczema and eczema treatments after using the intervention. Interviews were carried out face to face or by telephone, audio-recorded and transcribed. Secondary analysis of data from both studies focused on views and experiences of emollient use. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach facilitated by NVivo V.10 software. Results In study 1, most participants felt emollients improved eczema but held mixed views about long-term use to prevent flare-ups. In study 2, where carers had used the web-based intervention, all participants held positive views about long-term emollient use. In both studies, participants expressed a range of preferences about emollient ‘thickness’; some felt that ‘thick’ emollients (ointments) were most effective, while others found these difficult to use. Carers described a process of ‘trial and error’, trying emollients suggested by professionals, friends and family, or bought over-the-counter. Carers expressed a need for understanding differences between products and their effective use. Conclusions Providing a rationale for long

  5. Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Background Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. Objectives To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. Methods The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Results Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51–0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11–6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10–1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31–6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23–2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22–2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60–1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. ChildhoodTrichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Conclusions Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:25171741

  6. Association between breastfeeding and eczema during childhood and adolescence: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ramette, Alban; Jurca, Maja; Goutaki, Myrofora; Beardsmore, Caroline S.; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is said to protect children from eczema (atopic dermatitis), but the available evidence is conflicting and subject to the influences of parental atopy and reverse causation (when mothers extended duration of breastfeeding because their children had eczema). Methods In the prospective, population-based Leicester Respiratory Cohort study, we assessed duration of breastfeeding in children aged 1–4 years. Prevalence of eczema was determined by questionnaire surveys that were repeated until the children were 17 years old. We investigated the association between having been breastfed and current eczema using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for potential confounders, and tested for effect modification by parental atopy. We also assessed the association between having been breastfed and incident eczema at ages 2, 4, and 6 years using multivariable logistic regression. Results Among the 5,676 children in the study, 2,284 (40%) had never been breastfed, while 1,610 (28%), 705 (12%), and 1,077 (19%) had been breastfed for 0–3, 4–6, and >6 months, respectively. Prevalence of current eczema decreased from 36% in 1-year-olds to 18% in children aged 10–17 years. Breastfeeding was not associated with current eczema. Compared with children who had never been breastfed, the adjusted odds ratios for current eczema at any age were 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.90–1.15) for children who had been breastfed for 0–3 months, 0.97 (0.82–1.13) for children breastfed for 4–6 months, and 0.98 (0.85–1.14) for children breastfed for >6 months. There was no strong evidence for an effect modification by parental atopy (p-value for interaction term was 0.061) and no association between having been breastfed and incident eczema later in childhood. Conclusions This population-based cohort study found no evidence for protection of breastfeeding against childhood eczema at any age, from infancy through adolescence. PMID:28945812

  7. Prevalence of childhood eczema and food sensitization in the First Nations reserve of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Mushua Innu of Natuashish, Labrador, Canada seem to have a high rate of childhood eczema. Anecdotally this problem seems to be more common now than 20 years ago. There has been speculation that this could be related to food sensitization that may have arisen coincident with a move away from a traditional Innu diet. We undertook to assess the prevalence and severity of pediatric eczema in Natuashish (population 792), and investigate the level of sensitization to common food antigens. Methods Over a three-month period we performed a population survey of all children in the community from the ages of 2–12 inclusive. The one-year prevalence of eczema was assessed using the United Kingdom Working Party’s diagnostic criteria, and graded on the Nottingham Severity Scale. All children with eczema and twice as many age/sex matched controls were offered complete blood counts, total IgE, and food specific IgE levels for egg white, cow’s milk protein and wheat. Results One hundred and eighty two (95% of the eligible children) were assessed. Of the 182 children examined eczema was diagnosed in 30 (16.5%) - 22 females and 8 males. The majority of children with eczema (20/30) were classified as being in the moderate and severe category. Of the 22 with eczema and 40 controls who consented to venipuncture all but 3 had IgE levels above the lab's reference range. Food specific antibody assays showed that 32, 23, and 5 percent of children with eczema were sensitized to egg, milk, and wheat respectively. None of the controls were sensitized. Conclusions The children of Natuashish, Labrador have a high rate of eczema, much of it graded as moderate or severe. IgE levels were markedly elevated in children with and without eczema, with average values at least ten-fold higher than other populations. There is no evidence of an unusual amount of sensitization to egg, milk or wheat. PMID:24649812

  8. Parents' and carers' views about emollients for childhood eczema: qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Santer, M; Muller, I; Yardley, L; Lewis-Jones, S; Ersser, S; Little, P

    2016-08-19

    Leave-on emollients form the mainstay of eczema treatment, but adherence is poor. We aimed to explore parents'/carers' views on effectiveness and acceptability of leave-on emollients for childhood eczema through secondary analysis of data from 2 qualitative data sets. Study 1 recruited through mail-out from 6 general practices in southern England. Study 2 recruited from a feasibility trial of an intervention to support eczema self-care in 31 practices in the same area. Study 1 included 28 interviews with carers of children aged ≤5 years with eczema. Study 2 included 26 interviews with carers of children aged ≤5 years with eczema. Interviews followed semistructured guides: study 1 explored carers' understandings around eczema treatments in order to develop a web-based self-care support intervention; study 2 explored carers' understandings of eczema and eczema treatments after using the intervention. Interviews were carried out face to face or by telephone, audio-recorded and transcribed. Secondary analysis of data from both studies focused on views and experiences of emollient use. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach facilitated by NVivo V.10 software. In study 1, most participants felt emollients improved eczema but held mixed views about long-term use to prevent flare-ups. In study 2, where carers had used the web-based intervention, all participants held positive views about long-term emollient use. In both studies, participants expressed a range of preferences about emollient 'thickness'; some felt that 'thick' emollients (ointments) were most effective, while others found these difficult to use. Carers described a process of 'trial and error', trying emollients suggested by professionals, friends and family, or bought over-the-counter. Carers expressed a need for understanding differences between products and their effective use. Providing a rationale for long-term emollient use and choice of emollients could help improve adherence

  9. FLG mutations in ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic eczema: spectrum of mutations and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M

    2010-03-01

    Filaggrin is a key protein involved in skin barrier function. Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris and have been shown to be major predisposing factors for atopic eczema (AE), initially in European populations. Subsequently, FLG mutations were identified in Japanese, Chinese, Taiwanese and Korean populations. It was demonstrated that FLG mutations are closely associated with AE in the Japanese population. Notably, the same FLG mutations identified in the European population were rarely found in Asians. These results exemplify differences in filaggrin population genetics between Europe and Asia. For mutation screening, background information needs to be obtained on prevalent FLG mutations for each geographical population. It is therefore important to establish the global population genetics maps for FLG mutations. Mutations at any site within FLG, even mutations in C-terminal imperfect filaggrin repeats, cause significant reductions in amounts of profilaggrin/filaggrin peptide in patient epidermis as the C-terminal region is essential for proper processing of profilaggrin into filaggrin. Thus, no genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed in patients with FLG mutations. A restoration of the barrier function seems a feasible and promising strategy for treatment and prevention in individuals with filaggrin deficiency.

  10. Diagnostic usefulness of dermoscopy in differentiating lichen aureus from nummular eczema.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kee Suck; Park, Jong Bin; Yang, Myeong Hyeon; Choi, Soo Young; Hwangbo, Hyun; Jang, Min Soo

    2017-05-01

    Lichen aureus (LA) is a variant of pigmented purpuric dermatosis that is characterized clinically by rust macules, papules or plaques, mainly on the legs. In some cases, LA can be difficult to be distinguished from nummular eczema (NE) with the naked eye. Dermoscopy can be applied to skin lesions, revealing additional features that can be highly valuable for correct diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate characteristic dermoscopic findings of LA and to identify distinctive features that can differentiate it from NE. Fourteen LA patients and 14 NE patients diagnosed by skin biopsy were enrolled. Skin lesions were evaluated via polarized dermoscopy. On dermoscopy, "coppery orange diffuse coloration of background", "round to oval red globules", "gray dots", and "networks of brownish to gray interconnected lines" were more commonly seen in LA (100%, 92.9%, 42.9% and 64.3%, respectively) compared with NE. "Scales", "shiny yellow clods" and "irregularly distributed brownish-red globules" were more commonly seen in NE (100%, 85.7% and 57.1%, respectively) compared with LA. Dermoscopy provides valuable information for diagnosis of LA and aids in differentiating it from NE. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Dairy and nondairy beverage consumption for childhood atopic eczema: what health advice to give?

    PubMed

    Hon, K L; Tsang, Y C; Poon, T C W; Pong, N H H; Luk, N M; Leung, T N H; Chow, C M; Leung, T F

    2016-03-01

    Many parents of children with atopic eczema (AE) practise empirical dietary avoidance and supplementation, and seek healthcare advice on whether consumption of dairy and nondairy beverages may be beneficial or detrimental for this condition. We investigated if frequency of consumption of beverages was associated with disease severity and quality of life (QoL). Parent-reported frequency of drinks and beverages were recorded in consecutive children with AE, and disease severity (Nottingham Eczema Severity Score; NESS), QoL (Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index; CDLQI), skin hydration (SH), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (RHR) and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. AE was associated with worse QoL than miscellaneous non-AE skin diseases (P < 0.001). Compared with children without AE, there was a trend for children with AE to drink less milk (P = 0.06) and more miscellaneous beverages (such as Chinese herbal tea and soymilk; P = 0.03). In children with AE, NESS correlated with CDLQI (ρ = 0.66, P < 0.001) and reduced SH (ρ = -0.32, P < 0.001), whereas CDLQI correlated with a higher RHR (ρ = 0.25, P < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression showed that male sex (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97; P = 0.04) and drinking fresh milk (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.93; P = 0.03) were independent factors associated with less severe disease. Moderate to severe impairment of CDLQI was associated with NESS (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.28-1.71; P < 0.001) and RHR (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08; P < 0.01) but not with reported habits of beverage consumption. Concerning cardiovascular health in AE, frequency of formula milk consumption was associated with RHR (ρ = 0.17, P = 0.04), and soft drink consumption was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (ρ = 0.18, P = 0.04). This study provides evidence for parental/patient guidance. Children with AE who reported more fresh milk consumption had less severe disease. There was no correlation

  12. High breast milk IL-1β level is associated with reduced risk of childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, A A; Chawes, B L; Carson, C G; Schoos, A-M M; Thysen, A H; Waage, J; Brix, S; Bisgaard, H

    2016-10-01

    We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution. To investigate the possible association between cytokine and chemokine levels in breast milk and development of eczema and recurrent wheeze during early childhood. Levels of 19 pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines were measured in 223 breast milk samples from mothers in the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC) high-risk birth cohort. Eczema and recurrent wheeze at the age of 0-3 years were prospectively diagnosed by COPSAC physicians adherent to predefined validated algorithms. Association analyses were performed by Cox regression adjusting for potential confounding factors and by multivariable principal component analysis. Increased IL-1β in breast milk (≥ 0.7 pg/mL) was associated with more than a halved risk of eczema before age three (aHR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.24-0.68; P < 0.001), which remained significant after false discovery rate adjustment (P = 0.008). The principal component analysis confirmed that a mediator pattern dominated by high levels of IL-1β, IL-17A, and CCL17 and low levels of CXCL1 and TSLP in breast milk protected against eczema (aHR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.98; P = 0.03). No associations were observed for recurrent wheeze. Elevated breast milk IL-1β level was associated with decreased risk of early childhood eczema suggesting either a direct protective effect of IL-1β or IL-1b acting as a proxy for a healthy maternal immune system protecting high-risk offspring from eczema. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Household environment, lifestyle behaviors, and dietary habits in relation to childhood atopic eczema in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    We aim to investigate associations of the child's individual characteristics, building characteristics, home environmental exposures, family lifestyle behaviors, and dietary habits on childhood eczema during lifetime-ever and in the last year before the survey. During April 2011-April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study and collected 13,335 parents-reported questionnaires of 4-6-year-old children from 72 kindergartens in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression model was used to investigate associations. After adjusted for sex, age, family history of atopy, and questionnaire reporter, the factors which were strongly associated (increased odds >30% and p value <0.05) with lifetime-ever eczema included mother employed during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.33), residence renovated during pregnancy (1.49) and in the child's first year of life (1.31), using laminate (1.58) and solid (1.42) wood as material of floor covering (compared to using cement), residence located in urban district (1.38), and dampness-related exposures in the early residence (mold spots/stains: 1.41; mold odor: 1.41) and in the current residence (water damage: 1.33; damp stains: 1.34; mold spots: 1.32; and windows pane condensation: 1.31). Parental smoking, pet-keeping, and incense-burning had no significant associations with childhood eczema. Similar associations were found for eczema in the last year before the survey. Families with sick children likely changed lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits. Childhood eczema could be influenced by many household environmental and non-environmental factors. Exposures during early lifetime likely have greater impact on childhood eczema than current exposures. Associations of lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits with childhood eczema could be modified by family avoidance behaviors.

  14. Infections increase risk of arterial and venous thromboses in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: 5102 patient-years of followup.

    PubMed

    Baronaite Hansen, Renata; Jacobsen, Søren

    2014-09-01

    Infections and thromboses are known complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated if infectious episodes in patients with SLE were followed by an increased risk of thrombotic events. A cohort of 571 patients with prevalent or incident SLE was followed for a mean of 8.9 ± 7.6 years. All episodes of hospitalized infections or episodes of cutaneous herpes zoster as well as arterial and venous thrombotic events were identified by retrospective chart review and prospective updating of a clinical database. For time-dependent analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ever-presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, thrombotic events were classified as occurring during the time at risk of 1 year after an infection or during the remaining control observation time. Of 271 infections identified, 104 were respiratory, 41 cutaneous herpes zoster, and 126 others. Of 159 thromboses identified, 98 were arterial. Incidence for arterial and venous thromboses within 1 year after infection was 2.18% and 2.56%, respectively, compared to patients who never had an infection (0.58 and 0.67). The adjusted 1-year risk of arterial and venous thrombosis after any infection was increased [relative rate (RR) 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6, and RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.9, respectively]. Venous thromboses were in particular more prevalent after respiratory infections (RR 5.4, 95% CI 2.3-13). The temporal associations observed in this study indicate that infections could be risk factors for arterial or venous thromboses in patients with SLE, although causality was not addressed by this study.

  15. A Comprehensive Review of the Treatment of Atopic Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disorder which usually develops in early childhood. In spite of intensive investigations, the causes of AE remain unclear, but are likely to be multifactorial in nature. Environmental factors or genetic-environmental interactions seem to play a key role in disease progression. Among various measures of AE managment, cutaneous hydration, which improves barrier function and relieve itchiness, may be helpful to reduce the need for topical steroid use and therefore should be used as a basic treatment. Avoiding aggravating factors is also a basic treatment of AE. Standard medical treatment with a pharmacologic approach may be necessary if basic treatment fails to control symptoms satisfactorily. Recently, more attention is given to a proactive therapeutic by regular intermittent application of low potency steroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors to prevent new flares. Furthermore, various targeted biologics are being introduced for AE control and are proposed as promising therapies. This paper provides a summary of the recent literature on the manangement of AE and a treatment guideline. PMID:26922927

  16. IL5RA polymorphisms, smoking and eczema in Japanese women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    The present case-control study examined the relationship between IL5RA SNPs and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases and control subjects were selected from pregnant women who participated in the baseline survey of the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, which is an ongoing prebirth cohort study. Cases comprised 188 women with eczema in the previous 12 months as defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), regardless of the presence of a doctor's diagnosis of atopic eczema. Control subjects comprised 1130 women without eczema as defined according to the ISAAC criteria who also had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor. Compared with the AA genotype of IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the AT genotype, but not the TT genotype, was significantly associated with a decreased risk of eczema. The ATTAGA haplotype and the GTAGCA haplotype of rs17882210, rs3804797, rs334809, rs9831572, rs6771148 and rs17881144 were significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema. In contrast, the GCTGCA haplotype was significantly related to a decreased risk of eczema. Multiplicative interactions between IL5RA SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and smoking with respect to eczema were marginally significant (P = 0.07 and 0.07, respectively). This is the first study to show significant associations between IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the ATTAGA haplotype, the GTAGCA haplotype, and the GCTGCA haplotype and eczema. Smoking may modify the relationships between SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and eczema. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Polymorphisms in the interleukin 13 and GATA binding protein 3 genes and the development of eczema during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, S.H.; Karmaus, W.; Kurukulaaratchy, R.; Sadeghnejad, A.; Huebner, M.; Ewart, S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Atopic eczema is characterized by Th2-dominant immunity with the cytokine interleukin 13 and the transcription factor GATA binding protein 3 playing a critical role. Objectives We assessed the association of polymorphisms in the IL13 and GATA3 genes with childhood eczema. Methods A birth cohort (n = 1456) was established on the Isle of Wight in 1989 and followed at the ages of 1 (n = 1167), 2 (n = 1174), 4 (n = 1218) and 10 years (n = 1373) to determine the prevalence of allergic disease including eczema. At 4 and 10 years, skin prick testing was performed. Whole blood samples (n = 923) were obtained at the 10-year assessment, stored frozen, and genotyped. Five polymorphisms from IL13 and seven from GATA3 were genotyped for this analysis. Repeated measurement analyses were conducted for the occurrence of eczema at ages 1, 2, 4 and 10 years. All analyses were adjusted for maternal and paternal eczema, low birth weight (< 2500 g), breastfeeding ≥ 3 months and age. Results IL13 was not associated with childhood eczema. For GATA3, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2275806 (promoter region) showed an increased odds ratio for atopic eczema independent of whether the comparison group had a positive skin prick test. The SNP rs444762 (intron 3 region) was associated with atopic eczema in comparison with children without eczema. The increased relative risks remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing only for rs2275806 (P < 0Æ05). Conclusions A SNP in GATA3 is associated with atopic eczema. This finding highlights the importance of GATA3 as an immune-modulating gene in atopic eczema. PMID:18410415

  18. Severity of eczema and mental health problems in Japanese schoolchildren: The ToMMo Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kuniyoshi, Yasutaka; Kikuya, Masahiro; Miyashita, Masako; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Nakaya, Naoki; Nagami, Fuji; Tomita, Hiroaki; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2018-04-13

    The association between eczema and mental health problems in schoolchildren has been underexplored. We aimed to investigate this association with the validated questionnaires. Of 46,648 invited children, we analyzed 9954 (21.3%) in the 2nd to the 8th grades from the ToMMo Child Health Study conducted in 2014 and 2015, a cross-sectional survey in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. We defined eczema status as "normal," "mild/moderate," or "severe," based on the presence of persistent flexural eczema and sleep disturbance, according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Eczema Symptom Questionnaire. Clinical ranges of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties scores and four SDQ subcategories of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer problems were defined as scores ≥16, ≥5, ≥5, ≥7, and ≥5, respectively. The mean SDQ total difficulties score significantly increased as eczema status worsened (all P ≤ 0.004 for trend). The OR of scores in the clinical range for SDQ total difficulties were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.31-1.74) for mild/moderate eczema and 2.63 (95% CI, 1.91-3.63) for severe eczema (P < 0.001 for trend), adjusted for sex, school grade, current wheeze, and disaster-related factors, using normal eczema as a reference. The association between severity of eczema and four SDQ subcategories showed a similar trend (all P ≤ 0.017 for trend). We found a significant association between severity of eczema and mental health problems. The presence of eczema was associated with four SDQ subcategories. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Guidelines for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hand eczema--short version.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Andersen, Klaus E; Chosidow, Oliver; Coenraads, Peter Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Fartasch, Manigé; Gimenez-Arnau, Ana; Nixon, Rosemary; Sasseville, Denis; Agner, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The guidelines aim to provide advice on the management of hand eczema (HE), using an evidence- and consensus-based approach. The guidelines consider a systematic Cochrane review on interventions for HE, which is based on a systematic search of the published literature (including hand-searching). In addition to the evidence- and consensus-based recommendation on the treatment of HE, the guidelines cover mainly consensus-based diagnostic aspects and preventive measures (primary and secondary prevention). Treatment recommendations include non-pharmacological interventions, topical, physical and systemic treatments. Topical corticosteroids are recommended as first line treatment in the management of HE, however continuous long-term treatment beyond six weeks only when necessary and under careful medical supervision. Alitretinoin is recommended as a second line treatment (relative to topical corticosteroids) for patients with severe chronic HE. Randomized control trials (RCT) are missing for other used systemic treatments and comparison of systemic drugs in "head-to-head" RCTs are needed. The guidelines development group is a working group of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis (ESCD) and has carefully tried to reconcile opposite views, define current optimal practice and provide specific recommendations, and meetings have been chaired by a professional moderator of the AWMF (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften; Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany). No financial support was given by any medical company. The guidelines are expected to be valid until December 2017 at the latest. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A 12-year-old girl with eczema not responding to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pennal, Alexandra; Pope, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl, who has had a history of intermittent skin rashes since infancy, presents for the sixth time in four months for exacerbation of eczema that is not responding to recommended treatment (daily baths, frequent moisturization and twice-daily application of medium-potency topical corticosteroids). Her parents express concern about the effect of her skin disease on the child’s life. They are worried about her sleeping difficulties and decreased involvement in her regular activities; for example, she has stopped playing sports and attending school. During the interview, the patient makes minimal eye contact and appears agitated. Her medical history includes allergic rhinitis. She looks systemically well, with normal temperature and vital signs. Skin examination shows generalized xerotic skin and erythematous patches, with predominantly flexural and facial excoriations affecting about half of the body. There is no evidence of burrows, track marks, vesicular or pustular lesions, or honey-coloured crusts. The rest of the exam is unremarkable. PMID:27503865

  1. Quality of life and childhood atopic dermatitis: the misery of living with childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Jones, S

    2006-08-01

    The misery of living with atopic eczema (syn. dermatitis, AD) cannot be overstated for it may have a profoundly negative effect on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and their family unit in many cases. As it is one of the commonest chronic relapsing childhood dermatosis (UK lifetime prevalence 16-20% by 20 years), with increasing worldwide prevalence, this has major social and financial implications for individuals, healthcare providers and society as a whole. This review explores the impact of AD on the lives of children and their family units and the use of some of the recently developed HRQoL measures, which have enabled investigation and categorisation of the physical, psychological and psycho-social effects of childhood eczema across all aspects of life. These effects include symptoms of itching and soreness, which cause sleeplessness in over 60%. Sleep deprivation leads to tiredness, mood changes and impaired psychosocial functioning of the child and family, particularly at school and work. Embarrassment, comments, teasing and bullying frequently cause social isolation and may lead to depression or school avoidance. The child's lifestyle is often limited, particularly in respect to clothing, holidays, staying with friends, owning pets, swimming or the ability to play or do sports. Restriction of normal family life, difficulties with complicated treatment regimes and increased work in caring for a child with eczema lead to parental exhaustion and feelings of hopelessness, guilt, anger and depression. The hidden costs involved in eczema management can be significant and have particular impact on lower income families. The impairment of quality of life caused by childhood eczema has been shown to be greater than or equal to other common childhood diseases such as asthma and diabetes, emphasising the importance of eczema as a major chronic childhood disease. HRQoL measures are proving to be valuable tools for use in the clinical setting, as

  2. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L

    2016-02-19

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children.

  3. HLA-C expression pattern is spatially different between psoriasis and eczema skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlén, Lina; Sakuraba, Kazuko; Ståhle, Mona; Sánchez, Fabio

    2007-02-01

    Interactions between genetic and environmental factors underlie the immune dysregulation and keratinocyte abnormalities that characterize psoriasis. Among known psoriasis susceptibility loci (PSORS), PSORS1 on chromosome 6 has the strongest association to disease. Altered expression of some PSORS1 candidate genes has been reported but little is known about HLA-C expression in psoriasis. This study compared expression of major histocompatibility complex class Ia and HLA-C in psoriasis, allergic contact eczema, and normal skin. Although HLA-C was abundant in protein extracts from both eczema and psoriasis, a consistent and intriguing difference in the expression pattern was observed; strong immunoreactivity in the basal cell layer, polarized towards the basement membrane in psoriasis, whereas in eczema lesions HLA-C immunostaining was present mostly in suprabasal cells. Inflammatory cells in the dermis were strongly stained in both diseases. Normal skin epithelium showed less intense but similar HLA-C staining as eczema lesions. HLA class Ia expression overall resembled that of HLA-C in all samples. The distinct HLA-C expression patterns in psoriasis and eczema suggest a functional role in the specific psoriasis immune response and not only a general feature of inflammation.

  4. Pathological role of regulatory T cells in the initiation and maintenance of eczema herpeticum lesions.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Sato, Yohei; Kurata, Maiko; Yamazaki, Yoshimi; Kimishima, Momoko; Shiohara, Tetsuo

    2014-02-01

    It remains unknown why the occurrence of eczema herpeticum (EH) caused by an extensive disseminated cutaneous infection with HSV-1 or HSV-2 is associated with the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis lesions after withdrawal of treatment. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) limit the magnitude of HSV-specific T cell responses in mice, their role in the induction and resolution of EH has not been defined. We initially investigated the frequencies, phenotype, and function of Tregs in the peripheral blood of atopic dermatitis with EH (ADEH) patients at onset and after clinical resolution, atopic dermatitis patients without EH, and healthy controls. Tregs with the skin-homing phenotype and the activated/induced phenotype were expanded at onset and contracted upon resolution. Treg-suppressive capacity was retained in ADEH patients and, the expanded Tregs suppressed IFN-γ production from HSV-1-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The increased frequency of CD14(dim)CD16(+) proinflammatory monocytes (pMOs) was also observed in the blood and EH skin lesions. Thus, pMOs detected in ADEH patients at onset were characterized by an increased ability to produce IL-10 and a decreased ability to produce proinflammatory cytokines, unlike their normal counterparts. Our coculture study using Tregs and pMOs showed that the pMOs can promote the expansion of inducible Tregs. Tregs were detected frequently in the vicinity of HSV-expressing and varicella zoster virus-expressing CD16(+) monocytes in the EH lesions. Expansions of functional Tregs, together with pMOs, initially required for ameliorating excessive inflammation occurring after withdrawal of topical corticosteroids could, in turn, contribute to the initiation and progression of HSV reactivation, resulting in the onset of EH.

  5. Milk-induced eczema is associated with the expansion of T cells expressing cutaneous lymphocyte antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy-Carver, K J; Sampson, H A; Picker, L J; Leung, D Y

    1995-01-01

    The extravasation of T cells at sites of inflammation is critically dependent on the activity of homing receptors (HR) involved in endothelial cell recognition and binding. Two such HR (the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen [CLA] and L-selectin) have been shown to be selectively involved in T cell migration to skin and peripheral lymph nodes, respectively. This study was designed to assess the relationship between the organ specificity of an allergic reaction to food and the expression of HR on T cells activated in vitro by the relevant food allergen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from seven milk allergic children with a history of eczema when exposed to milk. All patients had a positive prick skin test and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to milk. 10 children with either allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis or milk-induced enterocolitis and 8 nonatopic adults served as controls. Five-parameter flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies was used for detection of the specific HR on freshly isolated T cells versus T cell blasts induced by a 6-d incubation with casein, as compared with Candida albicans. After in vitro stimulation with casein, but not C. albicans, patients with milk allergy and atopic dermatitis had a significantly greater percentage of CLA+ T cells (P < 0.01) than controls with milk-induced enterocolitis, allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis, or nonatopic healthy controls. In contrast, the percentage of L-selectin-expressing T cells did not differ significantly between these groups. These data suggest that after casein stimulation allergic patients with milk-induced skin disease have an expanded population of CLA+ T cells, as compared with nonatopics or allergic patients without skin involvement. We postulate that heterogeneity in the regulation of HR expression on antigen-specific T cells may play a role in determining sites of involvement in tissue-directed allergic responses. Images PMID:7532192

  6. Milk-induced eczema is associated with the expansion of T cells expressing cutaneous lymphocyte antigen.

    PubMed

    Abernathy-Carver, K J; Sampson, H A; Picker, L J; Leung, D Y

    1995-02-01

    The extravasation of T cells at sites of inflammation is critically dependent on the activity of homing receptors (HR) involved in endothelial cell recognition and binding. Two such HR (the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen [CLA] and L-selectin) have been shown to be selectively involved in T cell migration to skin and peripheral lymph nodes, respectively. This study was designed to assess the relationship between the organ specificity of an allergic reaction to food and the expression of HR on T cells activated in vitro by the relevant food allergen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from seven milk allergic children with a history of eczema when exposed to milk. All patients had a positive prick skin test and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to milk. 10 children with either allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis or milk-induced enterocolitis and 8 nonatopic adults served as controls. Five-parameter flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies was used for detection of the specific HR on freshly isolated T cells versus T cell blasts induced by a 6-d incubation with casein, as compared with Candida albicans. After in vitro stimulation with casein, but not C. albicans, patients with milk allergy and atopic dermatitis had a significantly greater percentage of CLA+ T cells (P < 0.01) than controls with milk-induced enterocolitis, allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis, or nonatopic healthy controls. In contrast, the percentage of L-selectin-expressing T cells did not differ significantly between these groups. These data suggest that after casein stimulation allergic patients with milk-induced skin disease have an expanded population of CLA+ T cells, as compared with nonatopics or allergic patients without skin involvement. We postulate that heterogeneity in the regulation of HR expression on antigen-specific T cells may play a role in determining sites of involvement in tissue-directed allergic responses.

  7. TREatment of ATopic eczema (TREAT) Registry Taskforce: An international Delphi exercise to identify a core set of domains and domain items for national atopic eczema photo- and systemic therapy registries.

    PubMed

    Gerbens, L A A; Apfelbacher, C J; Irvine, A D; Barbarot, S; de Booij, R J; Boyce, A E; Deleuran, M; Eichenfield, L F; Hof, M H; Middelkamp-Hup, M A; Roberts, A; Schmitt, J; Vestergaard, C; Wall, D; Weidinger, S; Williamson, P R; Flohr, C; Spuls, P I

    2018-05-15

    Evidence of immunomodulatory therapies to guide clinical management for atopic eczema (AE) is scarce, despite frequent and often off-label use. Patient registries provide valuable evidence for the effects of treatments under real world conditions which can inform treatment guidelines, give the opportunity for health economic evaluation and the evaluation of quality of care, as well as pharmacogenetic and -dynamic research which cannot be adequately addressed in clinical trials. The TREatment of ATopic eczema (TREAT) Registry Taskforce aims to seek international consensus on a core set of domains and items ('what to measure') for AE research registries, using a Delphi approach. Participants from six stakeholder groups were included: doctors, nurses, non-clinical researchers, patients, industry and regulatory body representatives. The eDelphi comprised 3 sequential online rounds, requesting participants to rate the importance of each proposed domain item. Participants could add domain items to the proposed list in round 1. A final consensus meeting was held to ratify the core set. 479 participants from 36 countries accessed the eDelphi platform, of whom 86%, 79% and 74% completed rounds 1, 2, and 3 respectively. At the face-to-face consensus meeting attended by 42 participants the final core set was established containing 19 domains with 69 domain items (49 baseline and 20 follow-up items). This core set of domains and items to be captured by national AE systemic therapy registries will standardise data collection and thereby allow direct comparability across registries and facilitate data pooling between countries. Ultimately, it will provide greater insight into the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of photo- and systemic immunomodulatory therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Supporting self-care for families of children with eczema with a Web-based intervention plus health care professional support: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Santer, Miriam; Muller, Ingrid; Yardley, Lucy; Burgess, Hana; Selinger, Hannah; Stuart, Beth L; Little, Paul

    2014-03-04

    Childhood eczema, or childhood atopic dermatitis, causes significant distress to children and their families through sleep disturbance and itch. The main cause of treatment failure is nonuse of prescribed treatments. The objective of this study was to develop and test a Web-based intervention to support families of children with eczema, and to explore whether support from a health care professional (HCP) is necessary to engage participants with the intervention. We followed the PRECEDE-PROCEED model: regular emollient use was the target behavior we were seeking to promote and we identified potential techniques to influence this. LifeGuide software was used to write the intervention website. Carers of children with eczema were invited through primary care mail-out and randomized to 3 groups: (1) website only, (2) website plus HCP support, or (3) usual care. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) scores were measured online by carer report at baseline and at 12 weeks. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 HCPs (primarily practice nurses) and 26 participants to explore their experiences of taking part in the study. A total of 143 carers were recruited through 31 practices. We found a decrease of ≥2 in follow-up compared with baseline POEM score in 23 of 42 (55%) participants in the website only group, 16 of 49 (33%) in the usual care group, and 18 of 47 (38%) in the website plus HCP group. Website use data showed that 75 of 93 (81%) participants allocated to the website groups completed the core modules, but less than half used other key components (videos: 35%; regular text reminders: 39%). There were no consistent differences in website use between the website only or the website plus HCP groups. Qualitative feedback showed that most HCPs had initial concerns about providing support for eczema self-care because this was not a condition that they felt expert in. However, HCPs reported productive consultations and that they found it helpful to use the

  9. Supporting Self-Care for Families of Children With Eczema With a Web-Based Intervention Plus Health Care Professional Support: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Ingrid; Yardley, Lucy; Burgess, Hana; Selinger, Hannah; Stuart, Beth L; Little, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood eczema, or childhood atopic dermatitis, causes significant distress to children and their families through sleep disturbance and itch. The main cause of treatment failure is nonuse of prescribed treatments. Objective The objective of this study was to develop and test a Web-based intervention to support families of children with eczema, and to explore whether support from a health care professional (HCP) is necessary to engage participants with the intervention. Methods We followed the PRECEDE-PROCEED model: regular emollient use was the target behavior we were seeking to promote and we identified potential techniques to influence this. LifeGuide software was used to write the intervention website. Carers of children with eczema were invited through primary care mail-out and randomized to 3 groups: (1) website only, (2) website plus HCP support, or (3) usual care. Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) scores were measured online by carer report at baseline and at 12 weeks. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 HCPs (primarily practice nurses) and 26 participants to explore their experiences of taking part in the study. Results A total of 143 carers were recruited through 31 practices. We found a decrease of ≥2 in follow-up compared with baseline POEM score in 23 of 42 (55%) participants in the website only group, 16 of 49 (33%) in the usual care group, and 18 of 47 (38%) in the website plus HCP group. Website use data showed that 75 of 93 (81%) participants allocated to the website groups completed the core modules, but less than half used other key components (videos: 35%; regular text reminders: 39%). There were no consistent differences in website use between the website only or the website plus HCP groups. Qualitative feedback showed that most HCPs had initial concerns about providing support for eczema self-care because this was not a condition that they felt expert in. However, HCPs reported productive consultations and that

  10. Ambient Air Pollution, Meteorological Factors and Outpatient Visits for Eczema in Shanghai, China: A Time-Series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Song, Weimin; Tan, Jianguo; Xu, Feng; Xu, Jinhua

    2016-11-08

    Environmental irritants are important risk factors for skin diseases, but little is known about the influence of environmental factors on eczema incidence. In this time-series study, our objective was to examine the associations of environmental factors with outpatient visits for eczema. Daily outpatient visits between 2007 and 2011 (1826 days) were collected from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. We used an overdispersed generalized additive model to investigate the short-term association between environmental factors and outpatient visits for eczema. Daily outpatient visits for eczema were significantly associated with air pollution and meteorological factors. For example, a 10 μg/m³ increase of 7-day (lag 06) average concentrations of PM 10 (particulate matter no greater than 10 microns), SO₂, NO₂ was associated with 0.81% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.39%, 1.22%), 2.22% (95% CI: 1.27%, 3.16%) and 2.31% (95% CI: 1.17%, 3.45%) increase in outpatient visits for eczema, respectively. A 10 °C elevation of temperature on lag 0 day were associated with 8.44% (95% CI: 4.66%, 12.22%) increase in eczema visits, whereas 10 unit decrease of 7-day average relative humidity were associated with 10.86% (95% CI: 8.83%, 12.89%) increase in eczema visits. This study provided clear evidence of ambient air pollution, high temperature and low relative humidity on increasing the incidence of eczema in Shanghai, China.

  11. Professional photosensitive eczema of fishermen by contact with bryozoans: disabling occupational dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Clin, Benedicte; Stosse-Guevel, Catherine; Marquignon, Marie-France; Verneuil, Laurence; Letourneux, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Eczema associated with bryozoans is a form of occupational dermatosis caused by a living animal, involving contact eczema, occasionally associated with photosensitivity and concerning fishermen on a quasi-elective basis. This affection can prove to be extremely disabling, frequently generating disastrous social consequences, since the eviction of the responsible allergen is very often synonymous to occupational reclassification, a measure which fishermen, highly attached to their profession, have great difficulty in accepting. Based on the description of three cases of photosensitive eczema associated with contact with the bryozoan, Alcyonidium gelatinosum, identified in fishermen from the English Channel coastline, we describe the characteristics and the specificities of this occupational dermatosis, then approach the issue of its prevention, which, unfortunately, remains limited.

  12. Effect of maternal dietary exclusion on breast fed infants with eczema: two controlled studies.

    PubMed Central

    Cant, A J; Bailes, J A; Marsden, R A; Hewitt, D

    1986-01-01

    Thirty seven breast fed infants with eczema were studied to see whether changes in their mothers' diets affected their skin condition. Nineteen mothers and babies took part in a double blind crossover trial of exclusion of egg and cows' milk, and 18 took part in open exclusion of 11 foods followed by double blind challenge to those mothers whose infants seemed to respond. Babies were examined at the beginning and end of each dietary period, and the extent and severity of the rash were given a numerical score. The eczema improved in six infants when their mothers avoided egg and cows' milk and worsened again when these were reintroduced. Two infants suffered gastrointestinal reactions after maternal ingestion of egg and cows' milk, one developing colitis. Maternal dietary exclusion seems to benefit some breast fed babies with eczema. PMID:3089466

  13. The prevalence of positive reactions in the atopy patch test with aeroallergens and food allergens in subjects with atopic eczema: a European multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Darsow, U; Laifaoui, J; Kerschenlohr, K; Wollenberg, A; Przybilla, B; Wüthrich, B; Borelli, S; Giusti, F; Seidenari, S; Drzimalla, K; Simon, D; Disch, R; Borelli, S; Devillers, A C A; Oranje, A P; De Raeve, L; Hachem, J-P; Dangoisse, C; Blondeel, A; Song, M; Breuer, K; Wulf, A; Werfel, T; Roul, S; Taieb, A; Bolhaar, S; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C; Brönnimann, M; Braathen, L R; Didierlaurent, A; André, C; Ring, J

    2004-12-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was proposed to evaluate IgE-mediated sensitizations in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The prevalence and agreement with clinical history and specific IgE (sIgE) of positive APT reactions was investigated in six European countries using a standardized method. A total of 314 patients with AE in remission were tested in 12 study centers on clinically uninvolved, non-abraded back skin with 200 index of reactivity (IR)/g of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat dander, grass, and birch pollen allergen extracts with defined major allergen contents in petrolatum. Extracts of egg white, celery and wheat flour with defined protein content were also patch tested. APT values were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h according to the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) guidelines. In addition, skin-prick test (SPT) and sIgE and a detailed history on allergen-induced eczema flares were obtained. Previous eczema flares, after contact with specific allergens, were reported in 1% (celery) to 34% (D. pteronyssinus) of patients. The frequency of clear-cut positive APT reactions ranged from 39% with D. pteronyssinus to 9% with celery. All ETFAD intensities occured after 48 and 72 h. Positive SPT (16-57%) and elevated sIgE (19-59%) results were more frequent. Clear-cut positive APT with all SPT and sIgE testing negative was seen in 7% of the patients, whereas a positive APT without SPT or sIgE for the respective allergen was seen in 17% of the patients. APT, SPT and sIgE results showed significant agreement with history for grass pollen and egg white (two-sided Pr > /Z/ < or = 0.01). In addition, SPT and sIgE showed significant agreement with history for the other aeroallergens. With regard to clinical history, the APT had a higher specificity (64-91% depending on the allergen) than SPT (50-85%) or sIgE (52-85%). Positive APT were associated with longer duration of eczema flares and showed regional differences. In 10 non

  14. Human Atopic Dermatitis Complicated by Eczema Herpeticum is Associated with Abnormalities in Gamma Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Donald YM; Gao, Pei-Song; Grigoryev, Dmitry N; Rafaels, Nicholas M; Streib, Joanne E; Howell, Michael D; Taylor, Patricia A; Boguniewicz, Mark; Canniff, Jennifer; Armstrong, Brian; Zaccaro, Daniel J; Schneider, Lynda C; Hata, Tissa R; Hanifin, Jon M; Beck, Lisa A; Weinberg, Adriana; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2011-01-01

    Background The basis for increased susceptibility of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients to develop disseminated viral skin infections such as eczema herpeticum (ADEH+) is poorly understood. Objective We sought to determine whether atopic dermatitis subjects prone to disseminated viral skin infections have defects in their interferon responses. Methods GeneChip profiling was used to identify differences in gene expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with a history of ADEH+ as compared to ADEH− and non-atopic controls. Key differences in protein expression were verified by ELISPOT and/or ELISA. Clinical relevance was further demonstrated by a mouse model of disseminated viral skin infection and genetic association analysis for genetic variants in IFNG and IFNGR1 and ADEH among 435 cases and controls. Results We demonstrate by global gene expression analysis selective transcriptomic changes within the interferon (IFN) superfamily of PBMCs from ADEH+ subjects reflecting low IFNγ and IFNγ receptor gene expression. IFNγ protein production was also significantly lower in ADEH+ (N=24) compared to ADEH− (N=20) and non-atopic (NA; N=20) controls. IFNγ receptor knockout (KO) mice developed disseminated viral skin infection after epicutaneous challenge with vaccinia virus (VV). Genetic variants in IFNG and IFNGR1 SNPs were significantly associated with ADEH (112 cases, 166 controls) and IFNγ production: a 2-SNP (A–G) IFNGR1 haplotype (rs10457655 and rs7749390) showed the strongest association with a reduced risk of ADEH+ ((13.2% ADEH+ vs 25.5% ADEH−, P = 0.00057). Conclusions ADEH+ patients have reduced IFNγ production, and IFNG and IFNGR1 SNPs are significantly associated with ADEH+ and may contribute to an impaired immune response to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Clinical Implications Atopic dermatitis subjects prone to disseminated viral skin infections have defects in their interferon responses. Capsule summary Using genomic

  15. Immune-modulatory genomic properties differentiate gut microbiota of infants with and without eczema

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seungdae; Yap, Gaik Chin; Hong, Pei-Ying; Huang, Chiung-Hui; Aw, Marion M.; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Lee, Bee Wah

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important role in human immunological processes, potentially affecting allergic diseases such as eczema. The diversity and structure of gut microbiota in infants with eczema have been previously documented. This study aims to evaluate by comparative metagenomics differences in genetic content in gut microbiota of infants with eczema and their matched controls. Stools were collected at the age of one month old from twelve infants from an at risk birth cohort in a case control manner. Clinical follow up for atopic outcomes were carried out at the age of 12 and 24 months. Microbial genomic DNA were extracted from stool samples and used for shotgun sequencing. Comparative metagenomic analysis showed that immune-regulatory TCAAGCTTGA motifs were significantly enriched in the six healthy controls (C) communities compared to the six eczema subjects (E), with many encoded by Bifidobacterium (38% of the total motifs in the C communities). Draft genomes of five Bifidobacterium species populations (B. longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. dentium, and B. pseudocatenulatum) were recovered from metagenomic datasets. The B. longum BFN-121-2 genome encoded more TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per one million genome sequence) than other Bifidobacterium genomes. Additionally, the communities in the stool of controls (C) were also significantly enriched in functions associated with tetrapyrrole biosynthesis compared to those of eczema (E). Our results show distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiota in infants associated with eczema and provide new insights into potential role of gut microbiota in affecting human immune homeostasis. PMID:29049378

  16. Comparative Analysis of Fecal Microbiota in Infants with and without Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Lee, Bee Wah; Aw, Marion; Shek, Lynette Pei Chi; Yap, Gaik Chin; Chua, Kaw Yan; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic form of childhood disorder that is gaining in prevalence in affluent societies. Previous studies hypothesized that the development of eczema is correlated with changes in microbial profile and composition of early life endemic microbiota, but contradictory conclusions were obtained, possibly due to the lack of minimization of apparent non-health related confounders (e.g., age, antibiotic consumption, diet and mode of delivery). In this study, we recruited seven caesarean-delivered and total formula-fed infants, and comparatively examined the early-life endemic microbiota in these infants with and without eczema. Using 16S pyrosequencing, infants' fecal microbiota were observed to comprise Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the four main phyla, and the presence and absence of specific populations within these four phyla are primarily mediated by ageing. Quantitative analysis of bacterial targets on a larger sample size (n = 36 at 1, 3, and 12 months of age) revealed that the abundances of Bifidobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae were different among caesarean-delivered infants with and without eczema, and the bacterial targets may be potential biomarkers that can correlate to the health status of these infants. Our overall findings suggest that the minimization of possible confounders is essential prior to comparative evaluation and correlation of fecal microbiota to health status, and that stool samples collected from caesarean-delivered infants at less than 1 year of age may represent a good cohort to study for potential biomarkers that can distinguish infants with eczema from those without. These findings would greatly facilitate future efforts in understanding the possible pathogenesis behind certain bacterial targets, and may lead to a timely intervention that reduces the occurrence of early life eczema and possibly allergic disorders in later life. PMID:20376357

  17. LUCAS(™)2 in Danish Search and Rescue Helicopters.

    PubMed

    Winther, Kasper; Bleeg, René Christian

    2016-01-01

    Prehospital resuscitation is often challenging. Giving uninterrupted and effective compressions is relatively impossible during transportation. In 2012, The Royal Danish Air Force received a donation of 8 mechanical chest compression devices (LUCAS(™)2; Physio-Control/Jolife AB, Lund, Sweden) to be used onboard the Danish search and rescue (SAR) helicopters. The scope of this investigation was to establish whether or not mechanical chest compression devices should be considered a necessity onboard the Danish SAR helicopters. Data were compiled from SAR medical journals. From the data collected, observations were made as to when LUCAS(™)2 was used and what diagnosis the SAR physician made. One thousand ninety missions were registered in the 24-month research period, and LUCAS(™)2 was used in 25 missions. Cardiac emergencies amounted for 25% of the missions. The Danish SAR helicopters retrieved 33 drowned/hypothermic patients during the research period, and the LUCAS(™)2 was used in 11 of the patients requiring resuscitation. The LUCAS(™)2 was frequently used during other emergencies like sudden cardiac arrest. Cardiac emergencies were the predominant type of mission. LUCAS(™)2 is now considered mandatory on Danish SAR helicopters. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of, and work-related risk factors for, hand eczema in a Norwegian general population (The HUNT Study).

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Hilde K; Svanes, Cecilie; Lygre, Stein H L; Hollund, Bjørg-Eli; Langhammer, Arnulf; Bertelsen, Randi J

    2017-10-01

    Chemical exposures at work and at home may cause hand eczema. However, this has been scarcely described for Norway. To investigate the prevalence of, and occupational risk factors for, hand eczema in Norway. Among 50 805 respondents (aged ≥20 years) to the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), 5757 persons reported ever having hand eczema, and 4206 answered a hand eczema questionnaire. The lifetime prevalences of hand eczema were 8.4% in men and 13.8% in women (p < 0.001), with onset at age ≤10 years in 24% (men) and 20% (women), and onset at age ≥30 years in 37% (men) and 25% (women) (p < 0.001). Work-related hand eczema affected 4.8% of the population, and was most frequently associated with health/social work (29%) and occupational cleaning (20%) in women, and with farming (26%) and industrial occupations (27%) in men. Cleaning detergents (75%) and other chemicals (36%) were the most common exacerbating factors. The prevalence of hand eczema was 11.3%, and that of work-related hand eczema was 4.8%. Hand eczema was more common in women than in men, but with a later onset in men. Cleaning detergents were the most common aggravating factors. A large proportion of the Nord-Trøndelag population is employed in farming, providing the possibility to identify farming as an important risk factor for hand eczema. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Expression of the filaggrin gene in umbilical cord blood predicts eczema risk in infancy: A birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ziyab, A H; Ewart, S; Lockett, G A; Zhang, H; Arshad, H; Holloway, J W; Karmaus, W

    2017-09-01

    Filaggrin gene (FLG) expression, particularly in the skin, has been linked to the development of the skin barrier and is associated with eczema risk. However, knowledge as to whether FLG expression in umbilical cord blood (UCB) is associated with eczema development and prediction is lacking. This study sought to assess whether FLG expression in UCB associates with and predicts the development of eczema in infancy. Infants enrolled in a birth cohort study (n=94) were assessed for eczema at ages 3, 6, and 12 months. Five probes measuring FLG transcripts expression in UCB were available from genomewide gene expression profiling. FLG genetic variants R501X, 2282del4, and S3247X were genotyped. Associations were assessed using Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Area under the curve (AUC), describing the discriminatory/predictive performance of fitted models, was estimated from logistic regression. Increased level of FLG expression measured by probe A_24_P51322 was associated with reduced risk of eczema during the first year of life (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.38-0.95). In contrast, increased level of FLG antisense transcripts measured by probe A_21_P0014075 was associated with increased risk of eczema (RR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.10-3.72). In prediction models including FLG expression, FLG genetic variants, and sex, discrimination between children who will and will not develop eczema at 3 months of age was high (AUC: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84-0.98). This study demonstrated, for the first time, that FLG expression in UCB is associated with eczema development in infancy. Moreover, our analysis provided prediction models that were capable of discriminating, to a great extent, between those who will and will not develop eczema in infancy. Therefore, early identification of infants at increased risk of developing eczema is possible and such high-risk newborns may benefit from early stratification and intervention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prenatal Omega-3 Supplementation and Eczema Risk among Offspring at Age 36 Months.

    PubMed

    Berman, D; Clinton, C; Limb, R; Somers, E C; Romero, V; Mozurkewich, E

    2016-01-01

    Long-term follow-up was completed in 84 mother-infant pairs of 118 women who completed a randomized controlled trial of prenatal supplementation with EPA- or DHA-rich fish oil or soy oil placebo. The goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation protects offspring against development of early childhood allergies. Assessment of childhood allergic/atopic disease among offspring at age 36 months was performed by maternal interview using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) questions for childhood digestive allergies, wheezing, eczema or skin allergy, and respiratory allergy. Multiple logistic regressions examined the association between prenatal supplementation and childhood outcomes, adjusted for covariates. Eczema was reported in 26/84 (31%) of offspring at age 36 months, and was significantly more prevalent in the omega-3 supplementation groups vs. placebo: EPA 13/31 (41.9%); DHA 10/26 (38.5%); placebo 3/27 (11.1%), p=0.019. Compared to placebo, EPA and DHA were associated with ≥5 times risk of offspring eczema [odds ratios (ORs): EPA 5.8 (95% CI 1.4-23.3); DHA 5.0 (95% CI 1.2-21.0)]. After adjusting for other potential risk factors (race, birth weight, vaginal/Cesarean delivery, and maternal eczema) the magnitudes of association for omega-3 supplementation increased: EPA OR 8.1 (95% CI 1.4-45.6); DHA OR 9.6 (95% CI 1.6-58.5). Maternal eczema was also significantly associated with offspring eczema in the adjusted model: OR 10.8 (95% CI 2.1-54.3). Contrary to our hypothesis, acids supplementation compared to soy oil was associated with a substantial increase in risk of childhood eczema. This association was not observed on childhood respiratory or digestive outcomes. It is unclear if these findings were driven by unfavorable effects of omega-3s, or whether there may have been unanticipated protective effects of the soy-based placebo with regards to eczema.

  1. Infant feeding patterns and eczema in children in the first 6 years of life.

    PubMed

    Soto-Ramírez, N; Kar, S; Zhang, H; Karmaus, W

    2017-10-01

    Modes of infant feeding such as direct and indirect breastfeeding, and formula feeding, and their combinations may play a role in child health. The aim was to investigate which feeding patterns in the first 6 months pose risks of eczema/skin allergy in children up to 6 years compared to direct breastfeeding for at least 3 months. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II in the United States and its 6-year follow-up provided data on feeding modes in infancy and doctor's diagnosed eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life (1387 infants), based on parental reports. Different feeding patterns were identified. Log-linear models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) of feeding patterns for doctor's diagnosed eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life, adjusting for confounders. Compared to "direct breastfeeding for at least 3 months" (DBF3m), the combination of "direct feeding at the breast (DBF), pumping and feeding breast milk (BM), and formula (FF) in the first months" (DBF/BM/FF) showed a statistically significant higher risk of eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life (PR = 1.46), adjusting for confounders. DBF combined with BM for the first 3 months followed by mixed feeding also had an increased risk (PR = 1.26), although not statistically significant. Formula feeding introduced since birth had no effect on eczema. Among the confounders, paternal eczema and race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs White) were associated with a higher risk of eczema/skin allergy. Mixed infant feeding may carry a higher risk of eczema/skin allergy compared to direct feeding at the breast. The recent epidemic of pumping and feeding in the United States and the use of mixed infant feeding modes requires additional studies to provide appropriate and renewed assessments of the risks of feeding modes for the future development of allergies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prenatal Omega-3 Supplementation and Eczema Risk among Offspring at Age 36 Months

    PubMed Central

    Berman, D; Clinton, C; Limb, R; Somers, EC; Romero, V; Mozurkewich, E

    2017-01-01

    Background Long-term follow-up was completed in 84 mother-infant pairs of 118 women who completed a randomized controlled trial of prenatal supplementation with EPA- or DHA-rich fish oil or soy oil placebo. The goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation protects offspring against development of early childhood allergies. Methods and Findings Assessment of childhood allergic/atopic disease among offspring at age 36 months was performed by maternal interview using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) questions for childhood digestive allergies, wheezing, eczema or skin allergy, and respiratory allergy. Multiple logistic regressions examined the association between prenatal supplementation and childhood outcomes, adjusted for covariates. Eczema was reported in 26/84 (31%) of offspring at age 36 months, and was significantly more prevalent in the omega-3 supplementation groups vs. placebo: EPA 13/31 (41.9%); DHA 10/26 (38.5%); placebo 3/27 (11.1%), p=0.019. Compared to placebo, EPA and DHA were associated with ≥5 times risk of offspring eczema [odds ratios (ORs): EPA 5.8 (95% CI 1.4–23.3); DHA 5.0 (95% CI 1.2–21.0)]. After adjusting for other potential risk factors (race, birth weight, vaginal/Cesarean delivery, and maternal eczema) the magnitudes of association for omega-3 supplementation increased: EPA OR 8.1 (95% CI 1.4–45.6); DHA OR 9.6 (95% CI 1.6–58.5). Maternal eczema was also significantly associated with offspring eczema in the adjusted model: OR 10.8 (95% CI 2.1–54.3) Conclusion Contrary to our hypothesis, acids supplementation compared to soy oil was associated with a substantial increase in risk of childhood eczema. This association was not observed on childhood respiratory or digestive outcomes. It is unclear if these findings were driven by unfavorable effects of omega-3s, or whether there may have been unanticipated protective effects of the soy-based placebo with regards to eczema. PMID

  3. 'When it goes back to my normal I suppose': a qualitative study using online focus groups to explore perceptions of 'control' among people with eczema and parents of children with eczema in the UK.

    PubMed

    Howells, Laura M; Chalmers, Joanne R; Cowdell, Fiona; Ratib, Sonia; Santer, Miriam; Thomas, Kim S

    2017-11-15

    To inform the development of a core outcome set for eczema by engaging with people with eczema and parents of children with eczema to understand their experiences and understanding of the concept 'eczema control'. 37 participants took part in a total of six semi-structured online focus groups held in a typed chatroom with 5-7 participants per group. Three groups involved adults with eczema and three groups involved parents of children with eczema. Framework analysis was used for data analysis. A community-based sample was recruited from across the UK via social media and email. 19 adults aged 17-61 years (15/19 female, 16/19 white) and 18 parents of children with eczema aged 9 months-17 years (9/18 female, 18/19 white). Four main themes were identified:(1) 'Commonalities and differences in the experiences of control': a reduction in symptoms such as itch and sleep loss characterised eczema control, but what level was acceptable differed across participants;(2) 'Eczema control goes beyond the skin': psychological factors, social factors, the constant scratching and the impact on everyday activities are a variety of ways an individual can be impacted;(3) 'Stepping up and down of treatment': participants' stepped-up treatment in response to loss of control, but several factors complicated this behaviour. Control needed to be maintained after stepped-up treatment ended to be acceptable; and (4) 'How to measure control': self-report was generally preferred to allow frequent measurements and to capture unobservable features. Although most thought their eczema needed to be measured frequently, many also felt that this was not always realistic or desirable. 'Eczema control' is a complex experience for people with eczema and parents of children with the condition. These experiences could have important implications on how long-term control should be measured in eczema clinical trials and clinical practice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  4. ‘When it goes back to my normal I suppose’: a qualitative study using online focus groups to explore perceptions of ‘control’ among people with eczema and parents of children with eczema in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Joanne R; Cowdell, Fiona; Ratib, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Objective To inform the development of a core outcome set for eczema by engaging with people with eczema and parents of children with eczema to understand their experiences and understanding of the concept ‘eczema control’. Design 37 participants took part in a total of six semi-structured online focus groups held in a typed chatroom with 5–7 participants per group. Three groups involved adults with eczema and three groups involved parents of children with eczema. Framework analysis was used for data analysis. Setting A community-based sample was recruited from across the UK via social media and email. Participants 19 adults aged 17–61 years (15/19 female, 16/19 white) and 18 parents of children with eczema aged 9 months–17 years (9/18 female, 18/19 white). Results Four main themes were identified:(1) ‘Commonalities and differences in the experiences of control’: a reduction in symptoms such as itch and sleep loss characterised eczema control, but what level was acceptable differed across participants;(2) ‘Eczema control goes beyond the skin’: psychological factors, social factors, the constant scratching and the impact on everyday activities are a variety of ways an individual can be impacted;(3) ‘Stepping up and down of treatment’: participants’ stepped-up treatment in response to loss of control, but several factors complicated this behaviour. Control needed to be maintained after stepped-up treatment ended to be acceptable; and (4) ‘How to measure control’: self-report was generally preferred to allow frequent measurements and to capture unobservable features. Although most thought their eczema needed to be measured frequently, many also felt that this was not always realistic or desirable. Conclusions ‘Eczema control’ is a complex experience for people with eczema and parents of children with the condition. These experiences could have important implications on how long-term control should be measured in eczema clinical trials

  5. Temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device in the treatment of children with severe atopic eczema: Open-label, proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Gore, C; Gore, R B; Fontanella, S; Haider, S; Custovic, A

    2018-05-01

    Children with severe, persistent atopic eczema (AE) have limited treatment options, often requiring systemic immunosuppression. To evaluate the effect of the temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) treatment in children/adolescents with severe AE. We recruited 15 children aged 2-16 years with long-standing, severe AE and sensitization to ≥1 perennial inhalant allergen. Run-in period of 6-10 weeks (3 visits) was followed by 12-month treatment with overnight TLA (Airsonett ® , Sweden). The primary outcome was eczema severity (SCORAD-Index and Investigator Global Assessment-IGA). Secondary outcomes included child/family dermatology quality of life and family impact questionnaires (CDQLI, FDQLI, DFI), patient-oriented eczema measure (POEM), medication requirements and healthcare contacts. The study is registered as ISRCTN65865773. There was a significant reduction in AE severity ascertained by SCORAD and IGA during the 12-month intervention period (P < .001). SCORAD was reduced from a median of 34.9 [interquartile range 28.75-45.15] at Baseline to 17.2 [12.95-32.3] at the final visit, and IGA improved significantly from 4 [3-4] to 2 [1-3]. We observed a significant improvement in FDQLI (16.0 [12.25-19.0] to 12 [8-18], P = .023) and DFI (P = .011), but not CDQLI or POEM. Compared to 6-month period prior to enrolment, there was a significant reduction at six months after the start of the intervention in potent topical corticosteroids (P = .033). The exploratory cluster analysis revealed two strongly divergent patterns of response, with 9 patients classified as responders, and 6 as non-responders. Addition of TLA device to standard pharmacological treatment may be an effective add-on to the management of difficult-to-control AE. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Clinical severity correlates with impaired barrier in filaggrin-related eczema.

    PubMed

    Nemoto-Hasebe, Ikue; Akiyama, Masashi; Nomura, Toshifumi; Sandilands, Aileen; McLean, W H Irwin; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Mutations in the gene-encoding filaggrin (FLG), a key molecule involved in skin barrier function, have been shown to be a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis (AD; eczema). To elucidate the pathomechanisms underlying filaggrin-related AD, we investigated stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as parameters of barrier function in AD patients harboring FLG mutations compared to AD patients without any FLG mutation. In filaggrin-related AD, SC hydration was both significantly reduced (P<0.01-0.05) and thicker (P<0.01-0.05) than that in healthy controls. TEWL was demonstrably increased in non-filaggrin AD compared to healthy controls (P<0.01-0.05). The objective score of atopic dermatitis (OSCORAD), a disease clinical severity index, significantly correlated with TEWL (r=0.81, P<0.005), SC hydration (r=-0.65, P<0.05), and SC thickness (r=0.59, P<0.05) in filaggrin-related AD. On the contrary, there was no correlation between these parameters and the OSCORAD in non-filaggrin AD. Furthermore, a significant correlation was obtained between the OSCORAD and specific IgE for hous